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1

Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject to complex handling and timing restrictions. The objective of the problem is cost minimization, which translates nearly directly into the minimization of CO2 emissions and pollution. Additionally, it is important that all cost elements, including the ones that are only loosely coupled with activity choices, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings is important in helping shipping firms move towards their goal of greater eco-efficiency.

Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

2

STRATEGICALLY REPOSITIONING RUSSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Positioning is a very important marketing concept. Its importance was strongly emphasized and implemented in the case of companies, but is somehow neglected when it comes to states. A country acquires a position in the mind of a person very much like any other product does, which is very important especially when that person exerts an executive role. Nowadays Russia has a poor image or no image at all, both internationally and in Romania. In order to regain an important position in the Balkans region, Russia must set aside any political agenda and reposition itself as a business partner on equal terms. The first goal of this article is to clarify Russias position in the minds of future Romanian executives. The second goal is to outline a recommended course of actions for Russias repositioning.

Brandabur Raluca Ecaterina

2011-07-01

3

Aging Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Family > The Aging Spine PREVIOUS | NEXT > The Aging Spine The aging process causes changes to the spine, which may ... Others are caused by the natural process of aging which can be superimposed on a pre-existing ...

4

Disc repositioning: does it really work?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although limited, there is evidence to support the assumption that temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articular disc repositioning indeed works; to date, there is no evidence that TMJ articular disc repositioning does not work. Despite the controversy among professionals in private practice and academia, TMJ articular disc repositioning is a procedure based on (still limited) evidence; the opposition is based solely on clinical preference and influenced by the ability to perform it or not. PMID:25483446

Gonçalves, João Roberto; Cassano, Daniel Serra; Rezende, Luciano; Wolford, Larry M

2015-02-01

5

Transfemoral Repositioning of Malpositioned Central Venous Catheters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine the efficacy of the transfemoral vein approach to repositioning malpositioned central venous catheters. Methods: During a 41/2-year period, malpositioned central venous catheters were repositioned 91 times in 83 patients via the transfemoral vein approach. All repositioning was initially attempted with a Grollman catheter or other pigtail catheter and a tip-deflecting wire. If these techniques failed or the venous anatomy was unfavorable, gooseneck or long loop snares were used. Results: During 48 repositionings, rotating a pigtail-type catheter alone was used successfully in 39 (81%). In 6 of 9 failures, the addition of a tip-deflecting wire also failed. A Grollman catheter and tip-deflecting wire were used initially in 39 repositionings (6 failures; 85% success). Successful repositioning required a snare in 8 (4 as the primary repositioning technique) and a long-loop technique in 5. All repositionings were ultimately successful and there were no complications. Conclusion: Central venous catheters can be repositioned consistently by the transfemoral route. Pigtail catheters or tip-deflecting wires alone are successful in over 80% of cases

6

Repositioning of Covered Stents: The Grip Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: Retrieval and repositioning of a stent deployed beyond its intended target region may be a difficult technical challenge. Materials and Methods: A balloon-mounted snare technique, a variant of the coaxial loop snare technique, is described. Results: The technique is described for the repositioning of a covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent and a covered biliary stent. Conclusion: The balloon-mounted snare technique is a useful technique for retrieval of migrated stents.

7

DNA bending potentials for loop-mediated nucleosome repositioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nucleosome repositioning is a fundamental process in gene function. DNA elasticity is a key element of loop-mediated nucleosome repositioning. Two analytical models for DNA elasticity have been proposed: the linear sub-elastic chain (SEC), which allows DNA kinking, and the worm-like chain (WLC), with a harmonic bending potential. In vitro studies have shown that nucleosomes reposition in a discontiguous manner on a segment of DNA and this has also been found in ground-state calculations with the WLC analytical model. Here we study using Monte Carlo simulation the dynamics of DNA loop-mediated nucleosome repositioning at physiological temperatures using the SEC and WLC potentials. At thermal energies both models predict nearest-neighbor repositioning of nucleosomes on DNA, in contrast to the repositioning in jumps observed in experiments. This suggests a crucial role of DNA sequence in nucleosome repositioning.

Langowski, Jorg [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg

2012-01-01

8

Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a function of their duration; for example, sailing slowly between two ports is cheaper than sailing quickly. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We show how the LSFRP can be solved sub-optimally using the planner POPF and optimally with a mixed-integer program (MIP) and a novel method called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). We evaluate the performance of each of these techniques on a dataset of real-world instances from our industrial collaborator, and show that automated planning scales to the size of problems faced by industry.

Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

2012-01-01

9

Postoperative spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 15-30 % of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are associated with complications that require further diagnostic work-up. The choice of imaging modality for postoperative complications depends on the extent, pattern and temporal evolution of the postoperative neurological signs and symptoms as well as on the preoperative clinical status, the surgical procedure itself and the underlying pathology. The interpretation of imaging findings, in particular the distinction between postoperative complications and normally expected nonspecific postoperative imaging alterations can be challenging and requires the integration of clinical neurological information and the results of laboratory tests. The combination of different imaging techniques might help in cases of equivocal imaging results. (orig.)

10

[Postoperative spine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 15-30?% of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are associated with complications that require further diagnostic work-up. The choice of imaging modality for postoperative complications depends on the extent, pattern and temporal evolution of the postoperative neurological signs and symptoms as well as on the preoperative clinical status, the surgical procedure itself and the underlying pathology. The interpretation of imaging findings, in particular the distinction between postoperative complications and normally expected nonspecific postoperative imaging alterations can be challenging and requires the integration of clinical neurological information and the results of laboratory tests. The combination of different imaging techniques might help in cases of equivocal imaging results. PMID:25398572

Schlaeger, R; Lieb, J M; Shariat, K; Ahlhelm, F J

2014-11-01

11

Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping lines and ports, and provides algorithms and mathematical models for use by shipping lines and port authorities for decision support. One of these problems is the repositioning of container ships in a liner shipping network in order to adjust the network to seasonal shifts in demand or changes in the world economy. We provide the rst problem description and mathematical model of repositioning and dene the liner shipping eet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity ow over paths dened by the activities chosen. We rst model the problem without cargo ows with a variety of well-known optimization techniques, as well as using a novel method called linear temporal optimization planning that combines linear programming with partial-order planning in a branch-and-bound framework. We then model the LSFRP with cargo ows, using several dierent mathematical models as well as two heuristic approaches. We evaluate our techniques on a real-world dataset that includes a scenario from our industrial collaborator. We show that our approaches scale to the size of problems faced by industry, and are also able to improve the prot on the reference scenario by over US$14 million. This dissertation also addresses the topic of inter-terminal transportation (ITT), which involves minimizing the delay experienced by containers being transported between terminals in a port under varying infrastructure congurations and material handling equipment properties. Minimizing the delay of ITT is an important problem in the strategic planning of new ports and port expansions, and one that has not yet been addressed in an optimization based approach. We provide the rst mathematical model of ITT and show how the model can be used to provide critical information to port authorities on two real ports, the port of Hamburg, Germany, and the Maasvlakte area of the port of Rotterdam, Netherlands. Finally, this thesis gives a polynomial time algorithm for an open problem from the container stowage literature, the capacitated k-shift problem with a xed number of stacks and stack heights, providing an answer to a 13 year old theoretical question in the container stowage domain.

Tierney, Kevin

2013-01-01

12

Effects of Over-the-Counter Jaw-Repositioning Mouth Guards on Dynamic Balance, Flexibility, Agility, Strength, and Power in College-Aged Male Athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Golem, DL and Arent, SM. Effects of over-the-counter jaw-repositioning mouth guards on dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, strength, and power in college-aged male athletes. J Strength Cond Res 29(2): 500-512, 2015-Improvements in muscular power and anaerobic performance have resulted from the use of jaw-repositioning mouth guards designed with advanced dental techniques. The high cost of such techniques has dissuaded the widespread use. Recently, more affordable, over-the-counter (OTC) jaw-repositioning mouth guards have become available. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on muscular power and strength performance in college-aged male athletes. It was hypothesized that similar to previous observations with advanced dentistry-designed mouth guards, OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards would impart positive effects on muscular power but not have any effect on muscular strength. Secondary objectives of this study included the examination of the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on other variables related to athletic performance. Male collegiate athletes (N = 20) participated in 4 separate testing sessions that consisted of assessment of muscular power, dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, and muscular strength. The 4 conditions, 1 per testing session, were assigned in a randomized order and consisted of a no-mouth guard control (CON), a placebo mouth guard, a self-adapted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (SA), and a custom-fitted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (CF). No significant differences were observed between conditions in muscular power (p = 0.78), dynamic balance (p = 0.99), agility (p = 0.22), or muscular strength (p = 0.47). The CF had significantly lower hip flexion than the CON (p = 0.014) and had significantly greater lumbar spine lateral flexion compared with the SA condition (p = 0.054). However, these flexibility differences lack practical relevance as the effect sizes remain very small (ES = -0.27 and -0.14, respectively). In conclusion, the jaw-repositioning technique used in the design of these OTC mouth guards did not affect performance. It is important to note that negative effects were not observed indicating that mouth guard use did not impede performance. PMID:25187241

Golem, Devon L; Arent, Shawn M

2015-02-01

13

Shopping mall repositioning : a case study of New Town Plaza  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hong Kong is an international metropolis and “Shopping Paradise”. Therefore, shopping in Hong Kong becomes one of the popular and important customary activities for the people. To compete with the keen and rapid change of market competition and shoppers’ living style and prevent old and deteriorated mall image, it is important for mall owner and operator to upkeep mall’s competitiveness by refurbishment work and repositioning exercises. To examine the repositioning strategies of Shopp...

Lai, Wai-kwan; ???

2013-01-01

14

Changing chromatin fiber conformation by nucleosome repositioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromatin conformation is dynamic and heterogeneous with respect to nucleosome positions, which can be changed by chromatin remodeling complexes in the cell. These molecular machines hydrolyze ATP to translocate or evict nucleosomes, and establish loci with regularly and more irregularly spaced nucleosomes as well as nucleosome-depleted regions. The impact of nucleosome repositioning on the three-dimensional chromatin structure is only poorly understood. Here, we address this issue by using a coarse-grained computer model of arrays of 101 nucleosomes considering several chromatin fiber models with and without linker histones, respectively. We investigated the folding of the chain in dependence of the position of the central nucleosome by changing the length of the adjacent linker DNA in basepair steps. We found in our simulations that these translocations had a strong effect on the shape and properties of chromatin fibers: i), Fiber curvature and flexibility at the center were largely increased and long-range contacts between distant nucleosomes on the chain were promoted. ii), The highest destabilization of the fiber conformation occurred for a nucleosome shifted by two basepairs from regular spacing, whereas effects of linker DNA changes of ?10 bp in phase with the helical twist of DNA were minimal. iii), A fiber conformation can stabilize a regular spacing of nucleosomes inasmuch as favorable stacking interactions between nucleosomes are facilitated. This can oppose nucleosome translocations and increase the energetic costs for chromatin remodeling. Our computational modeling framework makes it possible to describe the conformational heterogeneity of chromatin in terms of nucleosome positions, and thus advances theoretical models toward a better understanding of how genome compaction and access are regulated within the cell. PMID:25418099

Müller, Oliver; Kepper, Nick; Schöpflin, Robert; Ettig, Ramona; Rippe, Karsten; Wedemann, Gero

2014-11-01

15

The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model of the LSFRP with cargo flows based on a carefully constructed graph and evaluate it on real world data from our industrial collaborator.

Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

2012-01-01

16

Management of intrusive luxation with immediate surgical repositioning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusive luxation is one of the most severe forms of traumatic injuries in which the affected tooth is forced to displace deeper into the alveolus. As a consequence of this type of injury, maximum damage occurs to the pulp and all the supporting structures. This report presents a case of severe intrusive luxation of mature maxillary central and lateral incisor in a 40-year-old male. The intruded tooth was immediately repositioned (surgical extrusion and splinted within hours following injury. Antibiotic therapy was initiated at the time of repositioning and maintained for 5 days. Pulp removal and calcium hydroxide treatment of the root canal was carried out after repositioning. Splint was removed 2 months later. Definitive root canal treatment with Gutta percha was accomplished at a later appointment. Clinical and radiographic examination 6, 12 and 24 months after the surgical extrusion revealed satisfactory progressive apical and periodontal healing.

Mazumdar Dibyendu

2009-01-01

17

Method for gantry angle repositioning on rotational teletherapy equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repositioning errors for given angles have been found to be as large as +/-0.5 degrees. Errors of this magnitude are undesirable and unnecessary. To overcome this difficulty, a small laser was mounted to the counterweight of our accelerator with its light beam projected at 90 degrees to the axis of the x-ray beam. The light beam is used as a lever arm to indicate large distances (0.125 in.) for small changes in gantry angle (0.1 degrees). Gantry angles can easily be respositioned within 0.1 degrees. Routine use of the laser beam indicator has reduced the time taken to reposition the gantry. PMID:1186635

Connor, W G; Boone, M L; Mayer, E G

1975-01-01

18

A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a function of their duration; for example, sailing slowly between two ports is cheaper than sailing quickly. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We model the LSFRP using PDDL and solve it using the planner.

Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda

2012-01-01

19

Osteochondromas of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteochondromas are common developmental benign bone lesions, which rarely involve the spine. In a narrow space, such as the spinal canal, they may potentially lead to serious complications. Moreover, because this condition is fairly rare in the spine, it may be confused with other entities. The objective of this review is to describe the typical imaging findings of this rare, but occasionally significant condition of the spine. PMID:25282617

Sinelnikov, A; Kale, H

2014-12-01

20

Computational and experimental advances in drug repositioning for accelerated therapeutic stratification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug repositioning is an important component of therapeutic stratification in the precision medicine paradigm. Molecular profiling and more sophisticated analysis of longitudinal clinical data are refining definitions of human diseases, creating needs and opportunities to re-target or reposition approved drugs for alternative indications. Drug repositioning studies have demonstrated success in complex diseases requiring improved therapeutic interventions as well as orphan diseases without any known treatments. An increasing collection of available computational and experimental methods that leverage molecular and clinical data enable diverse drug repositioning strategies. Integration of translational bioinformatics resources, statistical methods, chemoinformatics tools and experimental techniques (including medicinal chemistry techniques) can enable the rapid application of drug repositioning on an increasingly broad scale. Efficient tools are now available for systematic drug-repositioning methods using large repositories of compounds with biological activities. Medicinal chemists along with other translational researchers can play a key role in various aspects of drug repositioning. In this review article, we briefly summarize the history of drug repositioning, explain concepts behind drug repositioning methods, discuss recent computational and experimental advances and highlight available open access resources for effective drug repositioning investigations. We also discuss recent approaches in utilizing electronic health record for outcome assessment of drug repositioning and future avenues of drug repositioning in the light of targeting disease comorbidities, underserved patient communities, individualized medicine and socioeconomic impact. PMID:25579574

Shameer, Khader; Readhead, Ben; Dudley, Joel T

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The ‘addicted’ spine.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Medium Spiny Neurons of the Nucleus Accumbens show a reduced number of dendritic spines and a decrease in TH-positive terminals upon withdrawal from opiates, cannabinoids and alcohol. The reduction is localized ‘strictly’ to second order dendritic branches where, dopamine-containing terminals impinging upon spines, make synaptic contacts. In addition, long-thin spines seems preferentially affected raising the possibility that cellular learning of these neurons may be selectively hampered. These findings suggest that dendritic spines are affected by drugs widely abused by humans and provide yet another example of drug-induced aberrant neural plasticity with marked reflections on the physiology of synapses, system structural organization, and neuronal circuitry remodeling.

Marco Diana

2014-10-01

22

Cervical Spine Axial Rotation Goniometer Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To evaluate the cervical spine rotation movement is quiet harder than other joints. Configuration and arrangement of current goniometers and devices is not always practic in clinics and some methods are quiet expensive. The cervical axial rotation goniometer designed by the authors is consists of five pieces (head apparatus, chair, goniometric platform, eye pads and camera. With this goniometer design a detailed evaluation of cervical spine range of motion can be obtained. Besides, measurement of "joint position sense" which is recently has rising interest in researches can be made practically with this goniometer.

Emin Ula? Erdem

2012-06-01

23

Solving The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm of the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph and evaluate them on real world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare our approach's performance against an actual repositioning scenario, one of many undertaken by our industrial collaborator in 2011, in which our simulated annealing algorithm is able to double the profit earned in our industrial collaborator's solution to $15.5 million dollars using only few minutes of CPU time, showing that our algorithm could be used in a decision support system to solve the LSFRP.

Tierney, Kevin; Áskelsdóttir, Björg

2013-01-01

24

Multiplanner spine computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The computed tomography is useful in evaluation of bony structures and adjacent soft tissues of the spine. Recently, the multiplanar spine CT scan is highly superior than usual axial scan, because of easily demonstrable longitudinal dimension, level of spine and spinal canal. We evaluated 62 cases of spine CT, whom complains of spinal symptoms, from July, 1982 to January, 1983. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 45 male and 17 female, ages were from 15 years to 76 years, and sites were 15 cervical spine, 7 thoracic spine, 42 lumbar spine and 21 sacral spine. 2. Sixty two cases of the CT diagnosis were reviewed and shows 19 cases of herniated intervertebral disc, 7 cases of spine fracture, 5 cases of degenerative disease, 4 cases of metastatic cancer, 2 cases of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, 1 case of cord injury and 24 cases of normal. 3. The CT findings of herniated intervertebral disc were protruding disc, obliteration of anterior epidural fat, with or without indentation of dural sac and calcification within posterior disc margin. In cases of trauma, the multiplanar spine CT scan detects more specific extension of the fracture sites, and it is able to demonstrate relationship between fracture fragment and spinal cord, therefore operability can be decided. In case of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, it is easy to demonstrate linear high density along posterior margin of vertebral bodies on sagittal reconstruction scan. 4. The computed tomography is diagnostic in detection of spinal disease. However, multiplanar spine CT is more diagnostic than axial computed tomography such as detecting the longitudinal dimension and demonstration of spinal canal.

Chung, H. K.; Jeon, H. J.; Hong, K. C.; Chung, K. B.; Suh, W. H. [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1983-06-15

25

The ageing spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contain 15 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of age on the appearance of magnetic resonance images of the spine; Potential for image analysis in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the aging spine; Potential of x-ray diffraction computed tomography for discriminating between normal and osteoporotic bone; and Spinal fusion in the elderly

26

Influence of beryllium block repositioning on poison level and reactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The poisoning of beryllium matrix in the Maria reactor by Li6 and He3 has been analysed for a model case comprising a core fragment containing one row of beryllium blocks. The purpose was to check the idea of reducing the beryllium block poisoning by its cyclic repositioning between the core center and the core periphery. A three dimensional distribution of the isotope has been obtained. calculations have been carried out by the REBUS-3 code with microscopic cross sections taken from a library created by the WIMS-ANL code. The first period of reactor operation, 1975-1985, has been simulated. Afterwards the blocks were repositioned and burnup of the core fragment was simulated to evaluate the influence of beryllium blocks shuffling on the accumulated poison and reactivity. (author)

27

Spine and sport.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spine, in athletes is a relatively frequent origin of problems. Chronic spine problems are much more common compared to acute injuries. Chronic injuries to the spine most often occur in low-contact sports like gymnastics and are most commonly the result of overuse. Acute injuries are more common in high-speed and full contact sports and are traumatic in origin. Injuries to the spinal cord can be devastating but are fortunately very uncommon. Although imaging of the spine appears to be straightforward, any radiologist will acknowledge that the optimal imaging strategy is often unclear due to several reasons. For the cervical spine much has improved since the NEXUS and CCR studies appeared in which clear rules were defined when to image the C-spine in acute trauma situations. For the thoracic and lumbar spines such rules are not defined. Although conventional imaging has long been the primary imaging modality of choice there is ample evidence that this should be abandoned in favor of multidetector CT for the C-spine. This is reflected in the ACR criteria in which conventional imaging of tile C-spine in trauma is rated as the least appropriate imaging method. However, this is not true in children and adolescents although a strict age criterion is not defined. It is also not true for injuries to the thoracic and lumbar spine in which conventional imaging still plays a large role as primary imaging modality followed by evaluation by CT in trauma situations. The role for MRI in acute situations is increasing especially with the increasing use of the TLICS system to classify injuries of the thoracic and lumbar spine in which the evaluation of the integrity of the posterior ligamentous structures is included. For the evaluation of chronic complaints, the roles of CT and MRI are basically reversed in which MRI will become the prime imaging modality of choice after conventional imaging after which CT can be reserved for a selected patient group. The merit of the different imaging modalities will be discussed together with a spectrum of acute and chronic injuries often encountered in the spine in athletes. PMID:24896742

de Jonge, Milko C; Kramer, Josef

2014-07-01

28

siRNA Genome Screening Approaches to Therapeutic Drug Repositioning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bridging high-throughput screening (HTS) with RNA interference (RNAi) has allowed for rapid discovery of the molecular basis of many diseases, and identification of potential pathways for developing safe and effective treatments. These features have identified new host gene targets for existing drugs paving the pathway for therapeutic drug repositioning. Using RNAi to discover and help validate new drug targets has also provided a means to filter and prioritize promising therapeutics. This re...

Tripp, Ralph A.; Mark Tompkins, S.; Olivia Perwitasari; Abhijeet Bakre

2013-01-01

29

Precision of maxillary repositioning during orthognathic surgery: a prospective study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of surgical splints and an external reference point to reposition the maxilla during orthognathic surgery. Before surgery, a radiological marker was inserted inside the orthodontic bracket of the first right maxillary molar. A surgical splint was utilized to reposition the maxilla in the sagittal and coronal planes after the osteotomy. The vertical position was established by measuring the distance between a Kirschner wire inserted at bony nasion and the orthodontic wire. Preoperative and postoperative cephalometric radiographs were obtained and manually traced. The radiological marker and the tip of the right maxillary incisor were used as specific landmarks. Their displacement on the pre- and postoperative radiographs was measured. The actual surgical movement of the maxilla was compared to the initial surgical planning. 23 patients met the inclusion criteria to participate in the study. The mean difference between the planned and executed movements of the maxilla was 0.1mm (p=0.71). The difference was not statistically significant for any given movements of the maxilla. The use of surgical splints made from model surgery combined with an external reference point at bony nasion is accurate methods for repositioning the maxilla during orthognathic surgery. PMID:23200425

Bouchard, Carl; Landry, Pierre-Éric

2013-05-01

30

Spine problems in adolescent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adolescent’s idiopathic scoliosis, Scheuermann kyphosis, spondylolysis and spondylolistesis are the most common spine problems of adolescence which needs orthopaedic treatment and follow-up. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 65-7

Önder

2011-03-01

31

North American Spine Society  

Science.gov (United States)

... 12/15/2014 NASS Comments on Draft AHRQ Technology Assessment on Pain Management Injection Therapie... > See all... Resources ETHICS ... NORTH AMERICAN SPINE SOCIETY BURR RIDGE, IL 7075 Veterans Blvd. Burr Ridge, ...

32

Laparoscopic lumbar spine surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of transperitoneal endoscopic approaches to the distal segments of the lumbar spine has recently been described. This has been the catalyst for the development of other minimally invasive anterior ¶approaches to the spine. This review looks at the published results so ¶far, and highlights the principles, techniques and complications. The limitations of laparoscopic approaches have meant that surgeons are moving on to endoscopic extraperitoneal and mini-open approaches, but important...

O’dowd, J. K.

2000-01-01

33

Effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue.  

Science.gov (United States)

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults with no orthopaedic or neurological problems participated in this study. [Methods] The repositioning error of the knee joint was measured using a digital goniometer when the subjects extended their dominant-side knee to a random target angle (30°, 45°, or 60°) with their eyes closed, before and after a quadriceps muscle fatigue protocol, and after application of kinesiology tape. [Results] We found that repositioning errors of the dominant-side knee joint increased after quadriceps fatigue compared with no-fatigue conditions. However, kinesiology taping of the quadriceps muscle and patella after quadriceps fatigue significantly decreased repositioning errors of the knee joint. [Conclusion] These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue increases the repositioning error of the knee joint, whereas application of kinesiology tape decreases fatigue-induced joint repositioning error. PMID:25013297

Han, Jin Tae; Lee, Jung-Hoon

2014-06-01

34

Recent Advances in Drug Repositioning for the Discovery of New Anticancer Drugs  

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Drug repositioning (also referred to as drug repurposing), the process of finding new uses of existing drugs, has been gaining popularity in recent years. The availability of several established clinical drug libraries and rapid advances in disease biology, genomics and bioinformatics has accelerated the pace of both activity-based and in silico drug repositioning. Drug repositioning has attracted particular attention from the communities engaged in anticancer drug discovery due to the combin...

Shim, Joong Sup; Liu, Jun O.

2014-01-01

35

Function of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the considerable effort which has been invested in attempts to understand the mechanism of human spines, substantial controversy remains, particularly in connection with assumptions which have to be made by those engaged in biological modelling. The hypothesis presented here is that the living joint has stress sensors driving a feedback mechanism, an arrangement which could react to imposed loads by modifying muscular action in such a way as to minimize stress at the joints and therefore the risk of injury. A theory of this kind gives an image of the spine not in terms of a spatial picture, as would a CAT scan, but in terms of stresses, forces and moments acting at the intervertebral joints. Calculations show that the erectores spinae alone cannot support more than about 50 kg; there must be some other mechanism to explain man's ability substantially to exceed that load. It is suggested that the interaction between the erectores spinae and the abdominals are of fundamental importance in the function of the spine; how they are co-ordinated during the lifting of weights is examined in detail. The theory resulting from this hypothesis is used to relate spinal injury and an injured subject's posture and behaviour. A mathematical formulation permits an objective evaluation of the spine, and a procedure for determining an automatic diagnosis of lumbar spine disabilities is proposed. PMID:3724126

Gracovetsky, S

1986-07-01

36

Ultrastructure of Dendritic Spines: Correlation Between Synaptic and Spine Morphologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendritic spines are critical elements of cortical circuits, since they establish most excitatory synapses. Recent studies have reported correlations between morphological and functional parameters of spines. Specifically, the spine head volume is correlated with the area of the postsynaptic density (PSD), the number of postsynaptic receptors and the ready-releasable pool of transmitter, whereas the length of the spine neck is proportional to the degree of biochemical and electrical isolation...

JavierDeFelipe; RafaelYuste

2007-01-01

37

The spine problem: finding a function for dendritic spines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Why do neurons have dendritic spines? This question— the heart of what Yuste calls “the spine problem”— presupposes that why-questions of this sort have scientific answers: that empirical findings can favor or count against claims about why neurons have spines. Here we show how such questions can receive empirical answers. We construe such why-questions as questions about how spines make a difference to the behavior of some mechanism that we take to be significant. Why-questions are d...

Sarah Malanowski

2014-01-01

38

Cervical spine chordoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chordomas are neoplasms that arise from notochord embryonic remnants, been the sacrococcygeal spine the main site of involvement; the cervical spine site is uncommon and it account for less than 10% of chordomas. Because of their slow growth, the diagnosis is delayed until they reach a large size, despite which they are locally aggressive tumours due to their relation to critical neurovascular structures and present a high rate of local recurrence. Radical surgery is the elective treatment and proton radiotherapy is used when residual tumour tissue and recurrences.Because of the uncommonness of this pathology, we report a case of a patient with cervical chordoma.

Díez-González L

2012-03-01

39

Spine Involvement in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rheumatoid arthritis affecting the cervical spine has been well described. In contrast with the neck, thoracic and lumbar spine involvement has not been widely investigated. In this paper, pathophysiology, clinical findings and radiological imaging methods of spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis was reviewed with the current reports. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008; 54 Suppl 1: 15-9

S?endur, O?mer Faruk; Turan, Yasemin

2008-01-01

40

Spine Involvement in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis affecting the cervical spine has been well described. In contrast with the neck, thoracic and lumbar spine involvement has not been widely investigated. In this paper, pathophysiology, clinical findings and radiological imaging methods of spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis was reviewed with the current reports. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008; 54 Suppl 1: 15-9

Ömer Faruk ?ENDUR

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Ventilator associated pneumonia and endotracheal tube repositioning: an underrated risk factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspiration of secretions toward lower airways potentially occurs during endotracheal tube (ETT) repositioning in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit and may be a risk factor for developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This case-control study confirms that repositioning of the ETT is an independent risk factor for VAP. PMID:25465265

McGovern Murphy, F; Raymond, M; Menard, P-A; Bejar-Ardiles, K-R; Carignan, A; Lesur, O

2014-12-01

42

MR imaging of the total spine with surface coils: Improved screening technique for evaluation of metastatic disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface coils enhance the detection of MR signal, improving resolution of small anatomic structures. In assessment of the spine, the surface coils are used primarily for evaluation of disease that is limited in extent. The authors recommend the use of a support plate, which permits examination of the entire spine without repositioning of the patient within the gantry. The device accommodates a license-plate or circular-type surface coil. The spine is examined using T1-weighted sequences in sagittal plane. The clinically symptomatic region is examined in both coronal and sagittal projections. The examination using surface coils can be completed within 50 to 60 minutes. Findings correlate well with nuclear bone scan. Additional information is provided by MR imaging in the form of configuration of vertebra, alignment, and compromise of the spinal canal

43

THE POSSIBILITIES FOR REPOSITIONING OF THE OPATIJA RIVIERA'S TOURISM OFFER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The competition on the tourist market is getting more harsh, which imposes the need for continuous co-operation of academic and economic community with the objective to get to know the latest wishes and aspirations of increasingly demanding tourists, and improvement of the tourism offer in accordance with their preferences. Maximum efforts must be invested in achieving recognisability and competitive advantages on the international tourist market. The purpose of the paper was to point out the importance of Opatija Riviera as a tourist destination in function of contributing the development of a Croatian tourist product. The goal of the paper was to give the presentation of the importance of researching the satisfaction with the offer of a tourist destination. It is necessary to reposition the current position of the Opatija Riviera on the tourist market and to, through adequate promotion of the tourist destination, increase the tourist turnover.

Ljerka Cerovic

2014-06-01

44

Infections of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnosis of infectious disease of the spine in an early stage ist difficult. Conventional X-ray examinations, often used as a basic screening study, will show the characteristic narrowing of the intervertebral disc space and the osteolytic and sclerotic changes in the adjointing vertebra only after two to eight weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a sensitivity equivalent to bone scintigraphy and, due to its superior delineation of anatomic details, MRI has become the method of choice not only for the assessment of location, extent, and associated lesions in infectious bone disease, but also in the diagnosis of intradural infections including myelitis. MRI examination in the assessment of a successful therapy or osteomyelitis of the spine aims for the detection of regression of bone marrow edema, reappearance of fatty marrow, and less pronounced contrast enhancement. Computed tomography (CT) is mainly used for image-guided biopsy to obtain specimen for microbiologic culture or for the placement of a percutaneous drainage. (orig.)

45

Interventional spine procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of some spinal diseases are percutaneous treatments, proposed before classic surgery. By using imaging guidance, one can significantly increase accuracy and decrease complication rates. This review report physiopathology and discusses indications, methods, complications and results of performing these techniques on the spine, including different level (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacroiliac) and different kind of treatments (nerve block, disc treatment and bone treatment). Finally the present article also reviews current literature on the controversial issues involved

46

Cervical spine: degenerative conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Degenerative cervical spine disorders will affect up to two-thirds of the population in their lifetime. While often benign and episodic in nature, cervical disorders may become debilitating resulting in severe pain and possibly neurologic sequelae. Non-operative treatment continues to play an important role in treating these patients, with medications, therapy and interventional pain injections playing increasing roles in treatment. Surgical treatment including anterior and posterior decompre...

Todd, Andrew G.

2011-01-01

47

Interventional spine procedures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of some spinal diseases are percutaneous treatments, proposed before classic surgery. By using imaging guidance, one can significantly increase accuracy and decrease complication rates. This review report physiopathology and discusses indications, methods, complications and results of performing these techniques on the spine, including different level (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacroiliac) and different kind of treatments (nerve block, disc treatment and bone treatment). Finally the present article also reviews current literature on the controversial issues involved.

Kelekis, A.D. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: akelekis@cc.uoa.gr; Somon, T. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Yilmaz, H. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Bize, P. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Brountzos, E.N. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece); Lovblad, K. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Ruefenacht, D. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Martin, J.B. [Clinique Generale Beaulieu 12 chemin Beau Soleil 1206 Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jbmartin@beaulieu.ch

2005-09-01

48

Cervical Spine In Psoriasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clinical study and X-ray of the cervical spine from patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis were compared with similar films from a control population. Evidences suggest that neck is involved in psoriasis similar to those described for spondylitis. Apophyseal narrowing is 60% compared to 20% in control, apophyseal sclerosis is 40% compared to 15% in control, and an apophyseal calcification of anterior ligaments is 25% compared to 10% in control.

Banerjee Kalyan; Banerjee Raghubir; Biswas T

1995-01-01

49

Electrical Advantages of Dendritic Spines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many neurons receive excitatory glutamatergic input almost exclusively onto dendritic spines. In the absence of spines, the amplitudes and kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) at the site of synaptic input are highly variable and depend on dendritic location. We hypothesized that dendritic spines standardize the local geometry at the site of synaptic input, thereby reducing location-dependent variability of local EPSP properties. We tested this hypothesis using computational...

Gulledge, Allan T.; Carnevale, Nicholas T.; Stuart, Greg J.

2012-01-01

50

Preoperative erythropoietin in spine surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spine surgery may be associated with profuse intraoperative bleeding that often requires blood transfusions. In recent years several techniques have been developed to avoid allogenic transfusions and their potential complications to surgical patients. In this study we review and analyse the role of preoperative recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) administration in spine surgery as a blood conservation strategy. Between 1998 and 2002, a total of 250 patients scheduled for spine surgery w...

Colomina, Maria J.; Bago?, Juan; Pellise?, Ferran; Godet, Carmen; Villanueva, Carlos

2004-01-01

51

Lipid dynamics at dendritic spines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dynamic changes in the structure and composition of the membrane protrusions forming dendritic spines underlie memory and learning processes. In recent years a great effort has been made to characterize in detail the protein machinery that controls spine plasticity. However, we know much less about the involvement of lipids, despite being major membrane components and structure determinants. Moreover, protein complexes that regulate spine plasticity depend on specific interactions with membra...

Carlos Gerardo Dotti

2014-01-01

52

Repositioning reference new methods and new services for a new age  

CERN Document Server

Repositioning Reference reimagines reference services in libraries and information organizations and the role of reference librarians, taking into account rapid developments in technology and information-specific services in non-library sectors.

Rozaklis, Lillian

2014-01-01

53

Surgical results of anterior decompression for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the thoracic spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment procedure of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the thoracic spine (OPLL/TS), which spontaneously results in severe progressive thoracic myelopathy, has not been standardized yet and presently requires anterior decompression by open surgery via ventral approach, of which results obtained in authors' department are described herein. Patients are 20 cases with OPLL/TS (8 M/12 F, av. age 56 y) and are followed up for 6 mo-14 y (av. 6 y 4 mo). Results are evaluated by surgical matters, imaging findings, complication and efficacy. Images after operation in all patients present the finding of fusion of transplanted bone to stabilize spines. The actual CT, MRI and X-ray images of typical 2 cases before and after operation are presented to exhibit decompressed spine re-positioned normally by surgery. Despite some tasks of approaching and spine numbers to be operable, effective improvement is found to be as high as 60% in average and authors' procedure is concluded to be useful. (R.T.)

54

Novel modeling of cancer cell signaling pathways enables systematic drug repositioning for distinct breast cancer metastases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new type of signaling network element, called cancer signaling bridges (CSB), has been shown to have the potential for systematic and fast-tracked drug repositioning. On the basis of CSBs, we developed a computational model to derive specific downstream signaling pathways that reveal previously unknown target–disease connections and new mechanisms for specific cancer subtypes. The model enables us to reposition drugs based on available patient gene expression data. We applied this model t...

Zhao, Hong; Jin, Guangxu; Cui, Kemi; Ren, Ding; Liu, Timothy; Chen, Peikai; Wong, Solomon; Li, Fuhai; Fan, Yubo; Rodriguez, Angel; Chang, Jenny; Wong, Stephen Tc

2013-01-01

55

Frequent manual repositioning and incidence of pressure ulcers among bedbound elderly hip fracture patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Frequent manual repositioning is an established part of pressure ulcer (PU) prevention, but there is little evidence for its effectiveness. This study examined the association between repositioning and PU incidence among bedbound elderly hip fracture patients, using data from a 2004–2007 cohort study in nine Maryland and Pennsylvania hospitals. Eligible patients (n=269) were age?65 years, underwent hip fracture surgery, and were bedbound at index study visits (during the first five days o...

Rich, Shayna E.; Margolis, David; Shardell, Michelle; Hawkes, William G.; Miller, Ram R.; Amr, Sania; Baumgarten, Mona

2010-01-01

56

Long-term endothelial cell loss after traumatic dislocation and repositioning of Artisan phakic IOL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term endothelial cell loss after traumatic dislocation and repositioning of an Artisan phakic intraocular lens (PIOL). METHODS: Traumatic PIOL dislocation occurred in the patient's left eye 4 months after uneventful implantation for unilateral congenital myopia. Using the Konan semi-automated analysis method, endothelial cell density was measured preoperatively, before Artisan repositioning, and 1, 2, and 4 years after primary implantation. RESULTS: Endothelial cell ...

Grignolo, Federico; Sanctis, Ugo

2008-01-01

57

Patient repositioning and pressure ulcer risk—Monitoring interface pressures of at-risk patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Repositioning patients regularly to prevent pressure ulcers and reduce interface pressures is the standard of care, yet prior work has found that standard repositioning does not relieve all areas of at-risk tissue in nondisabled subjects. To determine whether this holds true for high-risk patients, we assessed the effectiveness of routine repositioning in relieving at-risk tissue of the perisacral area using interface pressure mapping. Bedridden patients at risk for pressure ulcer formation (n = 23, Braden score 95% of the observation period. Thirteen participants were observed in three distinct positions (supine, turned left, turned right, and all had specific skin areas (166 +/– 184 cm2 that exceeded pressure thresholds for >95% of the observation period. At-risk patients have skin areas that are likely always at risk throughout their hospital stay despite repositioning. Healthcare providers are unaware of the actual tissue-relieving effectiveness (or lack thereof of their repositioning interventions, which may partially explain why pressure ulcer mitigation strategies are not always successful. Relieving at-risk tissue is a necessary part of pressure ulcer prevention, but the repositioning practice itself needs improvement.

Matthew J. Peterson, PhD

2013-07-01

58

Stochastic description of single nucleosome repositioning by ACF remodelers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromatin remodeling plays a crucial role in the activation or repression of transcription of eukaryotic genes. The chromatin remodeler ACF acts as a dimeric, processive motor to evenly space nucleosomes, favoring repression of gene transcription. Single-molecule experiments have established that ACF moves the nucleosome more efficiently towards the longer flanking DNA than towards the shorter flanking DNA, thereby centering an initially ill-positioned nucleosome on DNA substrates. In this paper we present a one-motor model with nucleosomal repositioning rates dependent on the DNA flanking length. The corresponding master equation is solved analytically with experimentally relevant parameter values. The velocity profile and the effective diffusion constant for nucleosome sliding, computed from the probability distributions, are in accordance with available experimental data. In order to address the observed kinetic pauses in experimental Förster Resonance Energy Transfer profiles, we extend the master equation to account for transitions between explicit motor states, i.e., adenosine triphosphate (ATP) loading and ATP hydrolysis in both ACF motors. The results of this extended two-motor model are compared to the previous effective one-motor model and allow insights into the role of the synchronization of the two motors acting on the nucleosome. PMID:23005140

Vandecan, Yves; Blossey, Ralf

2012-06-01

59

Spine injuries in dancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Care of a dancer calls for a unique balance between athlete and artist. The physician must familiarize himself or herself with dance terminology, common moves, correct technique, and dancer's mentality. The goal is to work intimately with the dancer to care for the injury and, if possible, continue to participate in portions of dance class to limit anxiety and increase compliance to treatment. The spine is the second most injured area of the body in dancers, and many issues stem from poor technique and muscle imbalance. This often leads to hyperlordosis, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, lumbar facet sprain, discogenic back pain, and muscle spasm and piriformis syndrome. This article reviews these causes of low back pain with a focus on dance-related presentation and treatment issues. PMID:21228650

Gottschlich, Laura M; Young, Craig C

2011-01-01

60

Cervical spine: degenerative conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degenerative cervical spine disorders will affect up to two-thirds of the population in their lifetime. While often benign and episodic in nature, cervical disorders may become debilitating resulting in severe pain and possibly neurologic sequelae. Non-operative treatment continues to play an important role in treating these patients, with medications, therapy and interventional pain injections playing increasing roles in treatment. Surgical treatment including anterior and posterior decompression and fusion have been effective treatments of many cervical disorders, but may lead to significant problems including adjacent level disease. Laminotomy/foraminotomy and total disc arthroplasty may avoid some of these problems while providing similar clinical results. Ongoing clinical trials and studies are helping to define the role of these new technologies in treatment of patients with degenerative cervical disorders, although their greater benefit has yet to be proven. PMID:22021015

Todd, Andrew G

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Rigid spine syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 16-year-old male with typical features of rigid spine syndrome orginally reported by Dubowitz in 1970, was studied by x-ray computed tomography (CT), histochemistry and electron-microscopy. A CT scan of the muscles showed characteristic findings of remarkable hypodensities of the cervical multifidus, semispinalis cervicis and capitis, multifidus of the back, erector spinae, long heads of biceps femoris and soleus muscles. Histochemical studies of the left rectus femoris muscle revealed increased variation in fiber diameters with type I fiber atrophy, partial necrosis and fatty degeneration, infiltration of phagocytes and no ragged red fiber. An electron microscopic examination disclosed increased vacuoles and lipid bodies, dilatation of sarcoplasmic reticula, deformed mitochondria and cytoplasmic bodies associated with derangement of myofibrils. The feature of Z band streaming strongly suggested that the cytoplasmic body originated from Z band degeneration. A review of the histopathological findings of the past literatures was also made. (author)

62

Detection and repositioning of tight fighting annulus spacers in CANDU® fuel channels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The latest generation of CANDU® reactors has been constructed with tight-fitting annulus spacers to maintain the annular gap between the inner pressure tubes and the outer calandria tubes. These spacers cannot be detected and repositioned with the existing Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) process, which is designed to work with loose-fitting annulus spacers. There is currently no established technology to detect and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has been performing research and development to locate and move tight-fitting annulus spacers using Modal Detection and Repositioning (MODAR) technology since 2005 and is currently working in collaboration with Candu Energy and Bruce Power on a production system to be deployed for an In-reactor demonstration in the next year. The MODAR technology uses controlled vibrations on a short, isolated length of pressure tube to locate and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. MODAR technology will allow the utilities to demonstrate fuel channel integrity to the regulator and obtain approval for additional years of reactor operation. This paper briefly describes the technology and provides an overview of the tool testing and development. (author)

Hersak, G.; Kittmer, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Goszczynski, J. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kazimer, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

2014-06-15

63

Typhoid spine - A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case of Salmonella typhi isolated from L4-L5 spine is reported here. The causative organism was not suspected preoperatively. The patient responded favourably to surgical drainage and appropriate antibiotic therapy.

Rajesh P

2004-01-01

64

Pulmonary complications after spine surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spine surgery is one of the fastest growing branches of orthopedic surgery. Patients often present with a relatively high acuity and, depending on surgical approach, morbidity and mortality can be comparatively high. Among the most prevalent and most frequently fatality-bound perioperative complications are those affecting the pulmonary system; evidence of clinical or subclinical lung injury triggered by spine surgical procedures is emerging. Increasing burden of comorbidity among the patient...

Ottokar Stundner; Fadi Taher; Abhijit Pawar; Memtsoudis, Stavros G.

2012-01-01

65

Long-Term Efficacy of Repositioning Maneuvers in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of 12 patients with a diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV treated by the repositioning maneuver during a 24-month follow-up period after the initial discharge a longitudinal clinical study was performed in which a questionnaire for the assessment of discomfort caused by dizziness was applied at the first visit, at the last visit after treatment and 2 years after the initial discharge. Repositioning treatment was again offered to patients who suffered relapses. In 10 cases (83.34% there was no recurrence of symptoms and 2 patients (16.66% presented symptoms exactly 2 years after the original discharge showing that treatment of BPPV by repositioning manuevers is effective in the long term, but new studies in larger populations are needed to determine the pattern of the rates of recurrence of BPPV.

Julio Cesar Moriguti

2011-05-01

66

Radiology illustrated. Spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

2014-04-01

67

Postoperative spine; Postoperative Wirbelsaeule  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 15-30 % of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are associated with complications that require further diagnostic work-up. The choice of imaging modality for postoperative complications depends on the extent, pattern and temporal evolution of the postoperative neurological signs and symptoms as well as on the preoperative clinical status, the surgical procedure itself and the underlying pathology. The interpretation of imaging findings, in particular the distinction between postoperative complications and normally expected nonspecific postoperative imaging alterations can be challenging and requires the integration of clinical neurological information and the results of laboratory tests. The combination of different imaging techniques might help in cases of equivocal imaging results. (orig.) [German] Etwa 15-30 % der operativen Eingriffe im Bereich der lumbalen Wirbelsaeule verlaufen nicht komplikationsfrei und erfordern weiterfuehrende Abklaerungen. Die Auswahl des bildgebenden Verfahrens im Rahmen postoperativer Komplikationen haengt dabei wesentlich von der zeitlichen Entwicklung, dem Ausmass und Verteilungsmuster der neuaufgetretenen klinisch-neurologischen bzw. orthopaedischen Symptome sowie von den Ausfaellen vor dem Eingriff, der zugrundeliegenden Pathologie und der Lokalisation und Art des Eingriffs ab. Die Interpretation der bildgebenden Befunde, insbesondere die Abgrenzung postoperativer Komplikationen von natuerlicherweise zu erwartenden postoperativen Veraenderungen kann dabei eine Herausforderung darstellen. Bei unklaren Befunden kann ergaenzend zur eingehend klinisch-neurologischen und laborchemischen Bestandsaufnahme auch der kombinierte Einsatz mehrerer bildgebender Modalitaeten diagnostisch weiterhelfen. (orig.)

Schlaeger, R. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Basel (Switzerland); Lieb, J.M. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Basel (Switzerland); Shariat, K. [Neurochirurgie Koeln-Merheim, Koeln (Germany); Ahlhelm, F.J. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland)

2014-11-15

68

The postoperative spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is one of the most perplexing medical and medicoeconomic problems facing our health system today. In many studies reoperation rates tend to be between 10 and 20%, but as many as 20-45% 3 of patients may have persistent back or radicular pain following what was to have been definitive therapy. The causes for the FBSS are very complex. The Workmen's Compensation system and medicolegal trends toward very high settlements of litigation for injury have provided serious incentive for patients to remain symptomatic. It is difficult to analyze any statistical survey of symptomatic back patients without serious bias from this group of patients. Others suggest that patients with severe psychological problems, drug abuse, and alcoholism are inappropriately selected as surgical candidates. They believe that careful psychological evaluation of patients minimizes FBSS. Even if all extrinsic factors could be eliminated, the problem of failed back surgery would still be a major one. This chapter is based on a review of 300 postoperative lumbar spine multiplanar CT scans performed over a 15-month period. All patients had a complete set of axial images, with sagittal and coronal reformations photographed twice: optimized once for bone definition and once for soft-tissue contrast resolution

69

Development of the young spine questionnaire  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases -- a conceptualisation, development and testing phase. The conceptualisation phase followed the Wilson and Cleary model and included questions regarding spinal prevalence estimates, pain frequency and intensity, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. Items from existing questionnaires and the "Revised Faces Pain Scale" (rFPS) were included during the development phase. The testing phase consisted of a mixed quantitative and qualitative iterative method carried out in two pilot tests using 4th grade children and focusing on assessment of spinal area location and item validity. Results The testing phase resulted in omission of the pain drawings and the questions and answer categories were simplified in several questions. Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings among target respondents. These preliminary results suggest that the YSQ is feasible, has content validity and is a well understood questionnaire to be used in studies of children aged 9 to 11 years.

Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

2013-01-01

70

Stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary inferior repositioning: review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inferior repositioning of the maxilla to correct vertical maxillary deficiency has been one of the more unstable orthognathic procedures performed. This kind of maxillary movement is the logical correction of short face syndrome due to maxillary vertical deficiency, but in spite of the esthetic improvement that it produces, a great tendency to relapse was observed. Unfortunately, the procedure is relatively rare, and this is reflected in the small sample of the studies. The literature concerning the stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary inferior repositioning was reviewed to analyze and discuss the stability of the surgical techniques proposed. PMID:11307199

Costa, F; Robiony, M; Politi, M

2000-01-01

71

Canal switch after canalith repositioning procedure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canal switch is a complication following canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Instead of being returned to the utricle, the loose otoconia migrate into the superior or horizontal semicircular canal. Patients remain symptomatic, and treatment can be ineffective unless the switch is recognized and additional repositioning maneuvers directed toward the appropriate semicircular canal are performed. This report provides the first videographic documentation of canal switch involving conversion of unilateral posterior semicircular canal BPPV to geotropic horizontal canalithiasis. PMID:22549695

Lin, Giant C; Basura, Gregory J; Wong, Hiu Tung; Heidenreich, Katherine D

2012-09-01

72

Fractionated stereotactic irradiation by Cyberknife of choroid melanomas: repositioning validation, closed eyelids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife is an option in the treatment of eyes tumors. The advantages of the Cyberknife in the choroid melanomas are in its infra-millimetric precision, to the automated repositioning on the skull bones and to the conformity brought by the stereotaxy. The objective of this study was to validate the quality of repositioning and the immobility of the eyes with closed eyelids. Conclusion: the reproducibility of the eye positioning with closed eyelids seems enough to consider the conservative treatment of choroid melanomas by fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife without implementation of fiducials nor retrobulbar anaesthesia. (N.C.)

73

Modified temporomandibular joint disc repositioning with miniscrew anchor: part I-surgical technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anterior disc displacement is one of the most common conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint. In the authors' previous publications, they reported on the basic technical elements of disc repositioning surgery. However, the present article presents some critical modifications that have allowed the safe and successful performance of this procedure during the past 3 years. PMID:25236820

He, Dongmei; Yang, Chi; Zhang, Shanyong; Wilson, Julian J

2015-01-01

74

Disc-repositioning surgery of the temporomandibular joint using bioresorbable screws.  

Science.gov (United States)

For successful disc-repositioning surgery, following arthrotomy and disc recovery by the release of attachments, the disc must be fixed and stabilized in the correct relationship with the condyle and fossa. This report describes a new surgical technique for fixing the disc to the condyle using two resorbable screws. PMID:16962741

Sembronio, S; Robiony, M; Politi, M

2006-12-01

75

Novel modeling of cancer cell signaling pathways enables systematic drug repositioning for distinct breast cancer metastases.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new type of signaling network element, called cancer signaling bridges (CSB), has been shown to have the potential for systematic and fast-tracked drug repositioning. On the basis of CSBs, we developed a computational model to derive specific downstream signaling pathways that reveal previously unknown target-disease connections and new mechanisms for specific cancer subtypes. The model enables us to reposition drugs based on available patient gene expression data. We applied this model to repurpose known or shelved drugs for brain, lung, and bone metastases of breast cancer with the hypothesis that cancer subtypes have their own specific signaling mechanisms. To test the hypothesis, we addressed specific CSBs for each metastasis that satisfy (i) CSB proteins are activated by the maximal number of enriched signaling pathways specific to a given metastasis, and (ii) CSB proteins are involved in the most differential expressed coding genes specific to each breast cancer metastasis. The identified signaling networks for the three types of breast cancer metastases contain 31, 15, and 18 proteins and are used to reposition 15, 9, and 2 drug candidates for the brain, lung, and bone metastases. We conducted both in vitro and in vivo preclinical experiments as well as analysis on patient tumor specimens to evaluate the targets and repositioned drugs. Of special note, we found that the Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, sunitinib and dasatinib, prohibit brain metastases derived from breast cancer, addressing one particularly challenging aspect of this disease. PMID:24097821

Zhao, Hong; Jin, Guangxu; Cui, Kemi; Ren, Ding; Liu, Timothy; Chen, Peikai; Wong, Solomon; Li, Fuhai; Fan, Yubo; Rodriguez, Angel; Chang, Jenny; Wong, Stephen T C

2013-10-15

76

Repositioning Guidance and Counselling and Curriculum Innovation in Higher Education in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on repositioning guidance and counseling and curriculum innovation in higher education in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. The study covered four Federal universities in the South-West Geopolitical zone of Nigeria, namely University of Ibadan in Oyo State; Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife…

Onyilofor, Florence N. C.

2013-01-01

77

Spine neck plasticity regulates compartmentalization of synapses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic spines have been proposed to transform synaptic signals through chemical and electrical compartmentalization. However, the quantitative contribution of spine morphology to synapse compartmentalization and its dynamic regulation are still poorly understood. We used time-lapse super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) imaging in combination with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) measurements, two-photon glutamate uncaging, electrophysiology and simulations to investigate the dynamic link between nanoscale anatomy and compartmentalization in live spines of CA1 neurons in mouse brain slices. We report a diversity of spine morphologies that argues against common categorization schemes and establish a close link between compartmentalization and spine morphology, wherein spine neck width is the most critical morphological parameter. We demonstrate that spine necks are plastic structures that become wider and shorter after long-term potentiation. These morphological changes are predicted to lead to a substantial drop in spine head excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) while preserving overall biochemical compartmentalization. PMID:24657968

Tønnesen, Jan; Katona, Gergely; Rózsa, Balázs; Nägerl, U Valentin

2014-05-01

78

Degenerative disorders of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Patients with back pain and degenerative disorders of the spine have a significant impact on health care costs. Some authors estimate that up to 80% of all adults experience back pain at some point in their lives. Disk herniation represents one of the most frequent causes. Nevertheless, other degenerative diseases have to be considered. In this paper, pathology and imaging of degenerative spine diseases will be discussed, starting from pathophysiology of normal age-related changes of the intervertebral disk and vertebral body. (orig.)

79

Novel electromagnetic technique for repositioning of coolant tube spacers in CANDU nuclear reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel electromagnetic technique to reposition the coolant tube spacers in the fuel channels of CANDU nuclear reactors was successfully developed in the fall of 1983 at Ontario Hydro Research Division. The need to reposition dislocated spacers in noncommissioned reactors was discovered subsequent to the rupture of a pressure tube in one reactor at the Pickering Nuclear Generator Station in Ontario. A contributing factor to the failure of the tube was the fact that the annular spacers (garter springs), used to maintain the coaxial configuration between the pressure tube and its surrounding calandria tube, had been displaced longitudinally for a number of years. Subsequent to this finding, it was discovered that a number of garter springs in noncommissioned nuclear reactors were displaced due to vibration induced by various sources during the construction stage. Since the garter springs are not directly accessible by mechanical means, extensive dismantling of the fuel channels would have been necessary to reposition the springs in their designated locations. This paper describes a novel method to reposition the garter springs without dismantling the fuel channels. The method consists of exerting a force on the springs in the direction of the required displacement by applying a large electromagnetic impulse (generated by a 200-kJ capacitor bank) to a drive coil inserted into the pressure tube opposite the spacer. The repositioning of displaced garter springs in five new reactors in Ontario has been carried out successfully in 1984. The saving in reactor repair cost, interest charges, and replacement energy cost was on the order of hundreds of millions of dollars. Equally large benefits and savings will be realized if the need to use this technique in commissioned reactors arises. Also, the related development of strong compact coils and low-resistance pulse power cable have significant implications and advantages in various other applications related to the pulse power industry, in general, and to electromagnetic metal forming and fusion technologies, specifically.

Dableh, Joseph H.

1986-06-01

80

Cervical spine in Treacher Collins syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital syndrome with characteristic craniofacial malformations, which are well described in the literature. However, the presence of cervical spine dysmorphology in this syndrome has been minimally described. This study reviews cervical spine radiographs of 40 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. In this sample, 7 of 40 patients displayed cervical spine anomalies, with 3 of these patients displaying multiple cervical spine anomalies. The patterns of spinal anomalies were variable, suggesting that the underlying genetic mutation has variable expressivity in cervical spine development as it does elsewhere in the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:22627438

Pun, Amy Hoi-Ying; Clark, Bruce Eric; David, David John; Anderson, Peter John

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Thoracic spine sports-related injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although sports-related injuries to the thoracic spine are relatively uncommon, they are among the most feared due to the potential for catastrophic neurologic injury. The increased biomechanical support of the thoracic spine makes injuries in this region particularly rare compared with the cervical and lumbar spine. As a result, thoracic spine injuries can be missed easily, difficult to diagnose, and problematic to treat. Recognition of mechanism and awareness of injury patterns help physicians determine a diagnosis and create an index of suspicion for unstable thoracic spine injuries. Aggressive full-contact sports receive the most attention for spinal injury; however several sports with repetitive loading of the spine can cause severe injuries, including rowing, gymnastics, and golf. The goal of this article was to provide an overview of the unique anatomic and biomechanical features of the thoracic spine and to discuss some of the more common thoracic injuries that can affect athletes. PMID:25574880

Menzer, Heather; Gill, G Keith; Paterson, Andrew

2015-01-01

82

DrugMap Central: an on-line query and visualization tool to facilitate drug repositioning studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Summary: Systematic studies of drug repositioning require the integration of multi-level drug data, including basic chemical information (such as SMILES), drug targets, target-related signaling pathways, clinical trial information and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approval information, to predict new potential indications of existing drugs. Currently available databases, however, lack query support for multi-level drug information and thus are not designed to support drug repositioning s...

Fu, Changhe; Jin, Guangxu; Gao, Junfeng; Zhu, Rui; Ballesteros-villagrana, Efren; Wong, Stephen T. C.

2013-01-01

83

Serial repositioning of a Guenther tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filter in a pediatric patient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report an 11-year-old boy who required inferior vena cava (IVC) filtration for a prolonged period of time. A retrievable IVC filter was placed and repositioned three times, providing a total of 60 days of IVC filtration. The filter was removed when his risk of pulmonary embolus had decreased substantially. This is a relatively uncommon practice in the pediatric population. The technique is presented, and the available literature is reviewed. (orig.)

84

Canalith repositioning for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a randomized, controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the efficacy of the canalith repositioning maneuver by comparing it with no treatment in a population of patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). In this randomized, controlled, 6-month efficacy trial, outcomes were measured subjectively by patients' reports of symptom status and objectively by Hallpike testing. During the first month of the study, the treated group experienced significantly better outcomes than did the control group, but this trend was not sustained at 3 and 6 months. PMID:11011494

Asawavichianginda, S; Isipradit, P; Snidvongs, K; Supiyaphun, P

2000-09-01

85

Repositioning of the anthelmintic drug mebendazole for the treatment for colon cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, we screened a compound library containing 1,600 clinically used compounds with the aim to identify compounds, which potentially could be repositioned for colon cancer therapy. Two established colon cancer cell lines were tested using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). For compound comparison connectivity map (CMAP) analysis, NCI 60 data mining and protein kinase binding measurements were performed. Sixty-eight compounds were defined as hits with act...

Nygren, Peter; Frykna?s, Ma?rten; Anagel, Bengt; Larsson, Rolf

2013-01-01

86

Variables Affecting Canalith Repositioning Maneuver (CRM) Trend for Treating Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The purpose of this study was to identify variables affecting outcome in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) treated with canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM). Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 58 patients (14 males, 44 females, mean age 48.12+13.22) referred to the Vertigo Rehabilitation Clinic of the Rehabilitation School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from 2002 to 2004. All patients were treated with CRM. According to the treat...

Entezari, E.; Sedaei, M.; Naraghi, M.; Hajiabolhassan, F.; Adel Ghahraman, M.; Haddadi Avval, M.; Kamali, P.

2006-01-01

87

Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

88

Primary tumors of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal tumors consist of a large spectrum of various histologic entities. Multiple spinal lesions frequently represent known metastatic disease or lymphoproliferative disease. In solitary lesions primary neoplasms of the spine should be considered. Primary spinal tumors may arise from the spinal cord, the surrounding leptomeninges, or the extradural soft tissues and bony structures. A wide variety of benign neoplasms can involve the spine including enostosis, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, and osteochondroma. Common malignant primary neoplasms are chordoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and osteosarcoma. Although plain radiographs may be useful to characterize some spinal lesions, magnetic resonance imaging is indispensable to determine the extension and the relationship with the spinal canal and nerve roots, and thus determine the plan of management. In this article we review the characteristic imaging features of extradural spinal lesions. PMID:24896744

Orguc, Sebnem; Arkun, Remide

2014-07-01

89

MRI of the postoperative spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid technical development of magnetic resonance imaging has thrust it into the role of the premier imaging modality of CNS evaluation. A particularly difficult area of spinal imaging from both a clinical and radiologic standpoint is the postoperative lumbar spine patient. The areas which will be covered in this issue include some of the most common abnormalities encountered, as well as some of the most difficult to diagnosis including: scar versus recurrent disc herniation, arachnoiditis, bony stenosis, and postoperative fluid collections. (author)

90

A Node Flow Model for the Inflexible Visitation Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We introduce a novel, node flow based mathematical model for the fixed-time version of a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). We call this version of the problem the Inflexible Visitation LSFRP (IVLSFRP). During repositioning, ves- sels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Shipping lines wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. We intro- duce two versions of a node flow based model that exploit the fixed activity times of the IVLSFRP’s graph to handle cargo demands on the nodes of the graph, in- stead of the arcs, significantly reducing the number of variables. Using this model in CPLEX, we are able to solve 12 previously unsolved IVLSFRP instances to optimality. Additionally, we improve the solution time on every instance in the IVLSFRP dataset, sometimes by several orders of magnitude.

Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

2013-01-01

91

Temporomandibular joint disc repositioning using bone anchors: an immediate post surgical evaluation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Open joint procedures using bone anchors have shown clinical and radiograph good success, but post surgical disc position has not been documented with MRI imaging. We have designed a modified technique of using two bone anchors and 2 sutures to reposition the articular discs. This MRI study evaluates the post surgical success of this technique to reposition and stabilize the TMJ articular discs. Methods Consecutive 81 patients with unilateral TMJ internal derangement (ID (81 TMJs were treated between December 1, 2003, and December 1, 2006, at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth Peoples Hospital, Shanghai, Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. All patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging before and one to seven days post surgery to determine disc position using the modified bone anchor technique. Results Postoperative MRIs (one to seven days confirm that 77 of 81 joints were identified as excellent results and one joint was considered good for an overall effective rate of 96.3% (78 of 81 joints. Only 3.7% (3 of 81 of the joints were designated as poor results requiring a second open surgery. Conclusions This procedure has provided successful repositioning of the articular discs in unilateral TMJ ID at one to seven days post surgery.

Haddad Majd S

2010-11-01

92

Location of the mucogingival junction 18 years after apically repositioned flap surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The apically repositioned flap procedure, by definition, implies that the mucogingival junction (MGJ) is shifted into an apical location. That this actually would be the case has never been shown in long-term studies. The 13 subjects in the present study had during the years 1964-1965 received treatment of moderately advanced periodontal disease (probing pocket depths less than or equal to 5 mm) in the lower jaw. An apically repositioned flap (ARF) procedure was applied in the left or right half of the mandible and a gingivectomy (GE) was performed in the contralateral side. Starting in December 1981, the patients were recalled for clinical and radiographic determination of long-term results. The width of the band of keratinized gingiva was measured clinically and the distance from the MGJ to the lower border of the mandible (LBM) was measured from orthopantomograms. Slightly less keratinized gingiva was observed on the sides where GE had been used. There was no statistically significant difference in the orthopantomographic distance from the MGJ to the LBM between ARF and GE operations. The results indicate that the apically repositioned flap procedure does not result in a permanent apical shift of the MGJ. PMID:1732309

Ainamo, A; Bergenholtz, A; Hugoson, A; Ainamo, J

1992-01-01

93

Complications associated with inferior alveolar nerve repositioning for dental implant placement: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) repositioning has been used widely in recent years as an alternative approach for dental implant placement in the atrophic posterior mandible. The aim of this study was to answer the question: What are the complications associated with IAN repositioning? A systematic literature review performed in accordance with the PRISMA statement, using the PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases, identified a total of 116 articles related to this technique. Of those articles, 24 were included in the final review. Lateralization was the chosen technique in seven studies, transposition in 15 studies, and two studies reported both techniques. The longest follow-up period was 49.1 months and the shortest 6 months. Of the patients who underwent lateralization, 95.9% initially showed a neurosensory disturbance, and the condition remained at the end of the study for 3.4% of those patients. With regard to the patients who underwent transposition, neurosensory alterations were observed in 58.9% of patients initially, and the condition remained for 22.1% of those affected at the end of the study. Only one study found no neurosensory disturbance at any time. More data consolidation is necessary to determine scientifically if, which, and when the IAN repositioning technique can be recommended. PMID:25128261

Vetromilla, B M; Moura, L B; Sonego, C L; Torriani, M A; Chagas, O L

2014-11-01

94

Cervical spine motion: radiographic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

95

Postsynaptic signaling during plasticity of dendritic spines  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic spines, small bulbous postsynaptic compartments emanating from neuronal dendrites, have been thought to serve as basic units of memory storage. Despite their small size (~0.1 femtoliter), thousands of species of proteins exist in the spine, including receptors, channels, scaffolding proteins and signaling enzymes. Biochemical signaling mediated by these molecules leads to morphological and functional plasticity of dendritic spines, and ultimately learning and memory in the brain. Here, we review new insights into the mechanisms underlying spine plasticity brought about by recent advances in imaging techniques to monitor molecular events in single dendritic spines. The activity of each protein displays a specific spatiotemporal pattern, coordinating downstream events at different microdomains to change the function and morphology of dendritic spines. PMID:22222350

Murakoshi, Hideji; Yasuda, Ryohei

2012-01-01

96

Unintentional conversion of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo caused by repositioning procedures for canalithiasis: transitional BPPV.  

Science.gov (United States)

BPPV when diagnosed before any repositioning procedure is called primary BPPV. Primary BPPV canalithiasis treatment with repositioning procedures sometimes results in unintentional conversion of BPPV form: transitional BPPV. Objectives were to find transitional BPPV forms, how they influence relative rate of canal involvement and how to be treated. This study is a retrospective case review performed at an ambulatory, tertiary referral center. Participants were 189 consecutive BPPV patients. Main outcome measures were detection of transitional BPPV, outcome of repositioning procedures for transitional canalithiasis BPPV and spontaneous recovery for transitional cupulolithiasis BPPV. Canal distribution of primary BPPV was: posterior canal (Pc): 85.7% (162/189), horizontal canal (Hc): 11.6% (22/189), anterior canal (Ac): 2.6% (5/189); taken together with transitional BPPV it was: Pc: 71.3% (164/230), Hc: 26.5% (61/230), Ac: 2.2% (5/230). Transitional BPPV forms were: Hc canalithiasis 58% (24/41), Hc cupulolithiasis 37% (15/41) and common crux reentry 5% (2/41). Treated with barbecue maneuver transitional Hc canalithiasis cases either resolved in 58% (14/24) or transitioned further to transitional Hc cupulolithiasis in 42% (10/24). In follow-up of transitional Hc cupulolithiasis we confirmed spontaneous recovery in 14/15 cases in less than 2 days. The most frequent transitional BPPV form was Hc canalithiasis so it raises importance of barbecue maneuver treatment. Second most frequent was transitional Hc cupulolithiasis which very quickly spontaneously recovers and does not require any intervention. The rarest found transitional BPPV form was common crux reentry which is treated by Canalith repositioning procedure. Transitional BPPV taken together with primary BPPV may decrease relative rate of Pc BPPV, considerably increase relative rate of Hc BPPV and negligibly influence relative rate of Ac BPPV. Transitional BPPV forms can be produced by repositioning maneuvers (transitional Hc cupulolithiasis) or by the subsequent controlling positional test (transitional Hc canalithiasis and common crux reentry); underlying mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23605245

Babic, Borivoj B; Jesic, Snezana D; Milovanovic, Jovica D; Arsovic, Nenad A

2014-05-01

97

Fine structure of synapses on dendritic spines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Camillo Golgi’s “Reazione Nera” led to the discovery of dendritic spines, small appendages originating from dendritic shafts. With the advent of electron microscopy (EM) they were identified as sites of synaptic contact. Later it was found that changes in synaptic strength were associated with changes in the shape of dendritic spines. While live-cell imaging was advantageous in monitoring the time course of such changes in spine structure, EM is still the best method for the simultaneou...

Michael Frotscher; Daniel Studer; Sigrun Nestel

2014-01-01

98

Charcot Spine and Parkinson’s Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Charcot spine is rare condition whose association with Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been reported yet. The authors reported the cases of two patients with PD who developed Charcot spine. Both patients presented with a history of back pain and bilateral radicular leg pain. They had complete clinical and radiological assessment. Lumbar spine was involved in both patients. Clinical features and response to treatment were described. In the first case, circumferential fusion and stabilization ...

Philippe Loriaut; Sylvie Rozenberg; Patrick Boyer; Benjamin Dallaudière; Frederic Khiami; Elhadi Sariali; Hugues Pascal-Moussellard

2014-01-01

99

The international spine registry SPINE TANGO: status quo and first results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With an official life time of over 5 years, Spine Tango can meanwhile be considered the first international spine registry. In this paper we present an overview of frequency statistics of Spine Tango for demonstrating the genesis of questionnaire development and the constantly increasing activity in the registry. Results from two exemplar studies serve for showing concepts of data analysis applied to a spine registry. Between 2002 and 2006, about 6,000 datasets were submitted by 25 centres. ...

Melloh, Markus; Staub, Lukas; Aghayev, Emin; Zweig, Thomas; Barz, Thomas; Theis, Jean-claude; Chavanne, Albert; Grob, Dieter; Aebi, Max; Roeder, Christoph

2008-01-01

100

Intramedullary and intradural disease of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tumors studies of spine by nuclear magnetic resonance and computerized tomography are presented, including primary tumors, intramedullary neoplasms, extramedullary intradural mass lesions and extradural tumors. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Rigid spine syndrome: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe a patient who had difficulty in walking since toddling stage and presented proximal upper and lower member weakness which have evolved to a progressive limitation of neck and trunk flexure, compatible with rigid spine syndrome. The serum muscle enzymes were somewhat elevated and the electromyography showed a myopatic change. The muscle biopsy demonstrated an active and chronic myopathy. The DNA analysis through PCR did not display any abnormality for dystrophin gene. The dystrophin by immnofluorescence was present in all fibers, but some interruptions were found in the plasma membrane giving it the appearance of a rosary. The test for merosin was normal.

ZÉTOLA VIVIANE H. FLUMIGNAN

1998-01-01

102

Gorham`s disease of the spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Massive osteolysis is a rare condition and is very uncommon in the spine. The MRI appearance of Gorham`s disease of the spine has not previously been reported. We present here a case of this condition with imaging details. (orig.)

Livesley, P.J. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Webb, P.J. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Mitchell, N. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Ramani, P. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

1996-05-01

103

Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

1997-01-01

104

Lateral extracavitary approach to spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This paper describes the lateral extracavitary approach to the lumbar spine using the three­quarter prone position. Owing to unsatisfied results of the posterior approaches to spine in patients with the ventral compressive lesions, many ventral approaches as well as lateral extracavitary approach have been developed. Case Outline. A patient with tumor (chordoma of L3 vertebral body was operated on by means of ventral compression of cauda equina; the tumor had paraspinal propagation. Lateral extracavitary approach was used with a patient in three­quarter prone position, and corpectomy with the anterior stabilisation was performed followed by posterior transpedicular stabilisation through the same approach. Complete tumor removal and excellent neurological improvement were achieved. Conclusion. This approach provides safe ventral decompression of the spinal cord; it also enables the anterior and posterior instrumental stabilisation through the same incision and in the same position during the intervention. The three­quarter prone position allows excellent view of the dural sac.

Iveti? Dražen

2013-01-01

105

Cytoplasmic organization in cerebellar dendritic spines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three sets of filamentous structures were found to be associated with synaptic junctions in slices of cerebellar tissue prepared by rapid-freezing and freeze-etch techniques. The electron-dense fuzz subjacent to postsynaptic membranes corresponds to a web of 4-6-nm-diam filaments that were clearly visualized in rapid-frozen, freeze-etched preparations. Purkinje cell dendritic spines are filled with a meshwork of 5-7-nm filaments that were found to contact the spine membrane everywhere except at the synaptic junction, and extend through the neck of the spine into the parent dendrite. In addition, 8-10-nm microfilaments, possibly actin, were seen to be associated with the postsynaptic web and to extend into the body and neck of the spine. The arrangements and attachments of the filamentous elements in the Purkinje cell dendritic spine may account for its shape. PMID:6684661

Landis, D M; Reese, T S

1983-10-01

106

Correlation of clinical predictions and surgical results in maxillary superior repositioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a prospective study to evaluate the accuracy of clinical predictions related to surgical results in subjects who underwent maxillary superior repositioning without anterior-posterior movement. Surgeons' predictions according to clinical (tooth show at rest and at the maximum smile) and cephalometric evaluation were documented for the amount of maxillary superior repositioning. Overcorrection or undercorrection was documented for every subject 1 year after the operations. Receiver operating characteristic curve test was used to find a cutoff point in prediction errors and to determine positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value. Forty subjects (14 males and 26 females) were studied. Results showed a significant difference between changes in the tooth show at rest and at the maximum smile line before and after surgery. Analysis of the data demonstrated no correlation between the predictive data and the surgical results. The incidence of undercorrection (25%) was more common than overcorrection (7.5%). The cutoff point for errors in predictions was 5 mm for tooth show at rest and 15 mm at the maximum smile. When the amount of the presurgical tooth show at rest was more than 5 mm, 50.5% of clinical predictions did not match the clinical results (PPV), and 75% of clinical predictions showed the same results when the tooth show was less than 5 mm (negative predictive value). When the amount of presurgical tooth shown in the maximum smile line was more than 15 mm, 75% of clinical predictions did not match with clinical results (PPV), and 25% of the predictions had the same results because the tooth show at the maximum smile was lower than 15 mm. Clinical predictions according to the tooth show at rest and at the maximum smile have a poor correlation with clinical results in maxillary superior repositioning for vertical maxillary excess. The risk of errors in predictions increased when the amount of superior repositioning of the maxilla increased. Generally, surgeons have a tendency to undercorrect rather than overcorrect, although clinical prediction is an original guideline for surgeons, and it may be associated with variable clinical results. PMID:24769611

Tabrizi, Reza; Zamiri, Barbad; Kazemi, Hamidreza

2014-05-01

107

New customized patient repositioning system for use in three dimensional (3D) treatment planning and radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose/Objective: To develop a safe and easy method for customized patient repositioning and immobilization prior to 3-D treatment planning and during precise radiotherapy. Materials and methods: The new material consists of impression material, and covering material to fix and hold the impression. The impression material is composed of numerous effervescent polystyrene beads (3.1 mm in diameter) coated by polymerizing substance, urethane prepolymer. When being wet, the material beads adhere to each other due to polymelization, and it is hardened in 5 to 10 minutes. Within one hour the mold is sufficiently dry to be used for treatment planning utilizing computed tomography(CT). The physical characteristics of the material, the subjective comfort of the patient, the reduction in time required for repositioning in the treatment of the head and neck tumors, and the reduction in patient movement in the treatment of the breast cancers were investigated. Results: During the hardening stage, the maximum temperature of the material was 33 deg. C. Non-toxic CO2 gas was produced and evaporated from the covering fabric. The mold, with a density of 0.095, was strong enough to endure compression, flexure, and scratching. In the healthy volunteers, no sensitivity to the skin was observed after 12 hours' attachment to the skin. The CT number of the material was less than minus 800, and no build-up effect was demonstrated in megavoltage photon therapy. Various molds were oltage photon therapy. Various molds were made and used as neck rest adjunctive to thermoplastic face mask, whole body cast, and arm rest (Figure). A questionnaire survey administered to 59 patients with brain, head and neck tumors, and to 18 patients with breast cancers, revealed that subjective comfort was markedly improved (90.9%) of improved (9.1%) by virtue of the new material. In the treatment of head and neck tumors, the mean time and SD for repositioning were 61.1 ± 13.6 seconds with the ready-made neck-rest and 49.4 ± 8.4 seconds with the individualized neck-rest. For 90 breast irradiations in 15 patients, the mean and standard deviations of displacement were 6.5 mm and 2.0 mm without the arm-rest, and 0.7 mm and 0.5 mm with the use of the arm-rest of new material (p< 0.0001). Conclusion: The new customized patient repositioning system is safer, easier, and more comfortable both for the patient and medical staffs than previous methods are, and it is suitable for precise 3-D treatment planning and radiotherapy

108

Late Acceptance Hill Climbing for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Late Acceptance Hill Climbing (LAHC) has been shown to be an effective local search method for sev- eral types of optimization problems, such as on certain types of scheduling problems as well as the traveling salesman problem. We apply LAHC to a central prob- lem in the liner shipping industry, the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP in- volves the movement of vessels between routes in a liner shipping network subject to complex costs and timing restrictions. We show that despite LAHC’s promising performance on other problems, it is unable to achieve the performance of simulated annealing on the LSFRP.

Tierney, Kevin

109

Physics characteristics of a CANDU-600 with repositional adjuster rods fuelled with MOX or natural uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Repositioning the adjuster rods in 4 axial banks in future CANDU-600 reactors would permit the flexibility of grading the inner and outer banks to achieve optimal flattening of the axial power distribution for any particular fuel. With the 4 banks identical, acceptable axial power profiles can be achieved for both MOX and natural uranium fuels. Future work is to be directed at assessing the impact of lower zone controller and shutoff rod worth in the configuration of reactivity devices considered here, and if necessary, in identifying means of increasing their worth

110

Solving a static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems using iterated tabu search  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we study the static bike repositioning problem where the problem consists of selecting a subset of stations to visit, sequencing them, and determining the pick-up/drop-off quantities (associated with each of the visited stations) under the various operational constraints. The objective is to minimize the total penalties incurred at all the stations. We present an iterated tabu search heuristic to solve the described problem. Experimental results show that this simple heuristic can generate high quality solutions using small computing times.

Ho, Sin C.; Szeto, W. Y.

2014-01-01

111

Repositioning of surgically placed peritoneovenous shunt catheter by forming "in situ" loop snare: case report and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a technique that allows repositioning of malfunctioning peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) catheters. We report a 67-year-old female with refractory ascites, who presented with malfunctioning PVS. The catheter tip was outside the superior vena cava (SVC), possibly in a small mediastinal vein, which makes its tip inaccessible to regular snares and retrieval devices. We used "in situ" loop snare technique to reposition the tip of the catheter into the inferior vena cava (IVC). In situ loop snare technique can be used to reposition malfunctioning PVS catheters caused by a kink or by malposition of its tip. The technique avoids surgical or interventional replacement of these catheters. This technique can be also used for retrieval of foreign body fragments that have no free ends and, therefore, cannot be captured by a snare or other retrieval devices. PMID:22156151

Abdel Aal, Ahmed Kamel; Soni, Jayesh; Saddekni, Souheil; Hamed, Maysoon F; Dubay, Derek A

2012-01-01

112

Network-based drug ranking and repositioning with respect to DrugBank therapeutic categories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug repositioning is a challenging computational problem involving the integration of heterogeneous sources of biomolecular data and the design of label ranking algorithms able to exploit the overall topology of the underlying pharmacological network. In this context, we propose a novel semisupervised drug ranking problem: prioritizing drugs in integrated biochemical networks according to specific DrugBank therapeutic categories. Algorithms for drug repositioning usually perform the inference step into an inhomogeneous similarity space induced by the relationships existing between drugs and a second type of entity (e.g., disease, target, ligand set), thus making unfeasible a drug ranking within a homogeneous pharmacological space. To deal with this problem, we designed a general framework based on bipartite network projections by which homogeneous pharmacological networks can be constructed and integrated from heterogeneous and complementary sources of chemical, biomolecular and clinical information. Moreover, we present a novel algorithmic scheme based on kernelized score functions that adopts both local and global learning strategies to effectively rank drugs in the integrated pharmacological space using different network combination methods. Detailed experiments with more than 80 DrugBank therapeutic categories involving about 1,300 FDA-approved drugs show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:24407295

Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

2013-01-01

113

Network-based Drug Ranking and Repositioning with respect to DrugBank Therapeutic Categories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug repositioning is a challenging computational problem involving the integration of heterogeneous sources of biomolecular data and the design of label ranking algorithms able to exploit the overall topology of the underlying pharmacological network. In this context we propose a novel semi-supervised drug ranking problem: prioritizing drugs in integrated bio-chemical networks according to specific DrugBank therapeutic categories. Algorithms for drug repositioning usually perform the inference step into an inhomogeneous similarity space induced by the relationships existing between drugs and a second type of entity (e.g. disease, target, ligand set), thus making unfeasible a drug ranking within a homogeneous pharmacological space. To deal with this problem, we designed a general framework based on bipartite network projections by which homogeneous pharmacological networks can be constructed and integrated from heterogeneous and complementary sources of chemical, biomolecular and clinical information. Moreover, we present a novel algorithmic scheme based on kernelized score functions that adopts both local and global learning strategies to effectively rank drugs in the integrated pharmacological space using different network combination methods. Detailed experiments with more than $80$ DrugBank therapeutic categories involving about 1300 FDA approved drugs show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:23689923

Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

2013-05-16

114

Fokker-Planck description of single nucleosome repositioning by dimeric chromatin remodelers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent experiments have demonstrated that the ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodeling factor (ACF) is a dimeric, processive motor complex which can move a nucleosome more efficiently towards longer flanking DNA than towards shorter flanking DNA strands, thereby centering an initially ill-positioned nucleosome on DNA substrates. We give a Fokker-Planck description for the repositioning process driven by transitions between internal chemical states of the remodelers. In the chemical states of ATP hydrolysis during which the repositioning takes place a power stroke is considered. The slope of the effective driving potential is directly related to ATP hydrolysis and leads to the unidirectional motion of the nucleosome-remodeler complex along the DNA strand. The Einstein force relation allows us to deduce the ATP-concentration dependence of the diffusion constant of the nucleosome-remodeler complex. We have employed our model to study the efficiency of positioning of nucleosomes as a function of the ATP sampling rate between the two motors which shows that the synchronization between the motors is crucial for the remodeling mechanism to work. PMID:23944511

Vandecan, Yves; Blossey, Ralf

2013-07-01

115

The aging spine in sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Masters athletes may experience low back pain from multiple sources. Masters athletes with discogenic back pain should avoid or modify sports with combined rotational and compressive forces; individuals with facet-mediated pain should avoid or modify sports with excessive extension and rotation. 2. Optimization of flexibility, strength, endurance, and core control is critical. Sports specific training, realistic goal setting, and counseling are of maximal importance. 3. Overall, the health benefits of continued sports and athletic participation outweigh the potential risks of spinal degeneration in middle-aged athletes. There is little correlation between radiographic appearance of the spine and symptoms; therefore, symptoms should serve as the primary guide when determining activity modifications. Overall, masters athletes should be encouraged to remain active and fit to enhance their quality of life and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22657996

Borg-Stein, Joanne; Elson, Lauren; Brand, Erik

2012-07-01

116

Postoperative syndrome after spine surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Postoperative syndrome after spine surgery, i.e., symptoms or syndromes caused by complications or procedure-related consequences, is gaining more and more importance. Due to great improvements concerning imaging and operative techniques (microsurgery, instrumentation) the total number of spinal surgeries as well as their related complications are increasing. Procedure-related postoperative complications including neurological deficit syndromes can occur acutely or at a later date. Concerning imaging techniques for postoperative evaluation after spinal surgery there are several modalities available. Their indications depend on complex factors including initial pathology the surgery was performed for, kind of surgical technique (surgical approach, instrumentation), anatomy of the patient as well as the time between onset of symptoms and surgery. In cases of ambiguous findings, the combination of different imaging techniques can be instrumental. (orig.)

117

Interventional spine procedures in athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Back pain is common in athletes and a source of missed time from practice and competition. Pain generators include muscle (strain), ligament (myofascial sprain and strain), intervertebral disc (herniation and degeneration), nerve (radiculopathy), joint (facet and sacroiliac (SI) joint), and bones (pars interarticularis defect). The goal of treatment of an athlete with back pain is to relieve symptoms and facilitate safe but rapid return to play with no change in performance. Initial conservative treatment includes relative rest, anti-inflammatory medications, and physical therapy. The use of interventional spine procedures in athletes with back pain has gained popularity as a nonoperative treatment option. Although there is lack of high-quality evidence of these procedures specifically in athletes, this article will discuss the utility of selective nerve root blocks, epidural steroid injections, intradiscal injections, pars interarticularis injection, facet joint interventions (intraarticular injection, medial branch block, and radiofrequency neurotomy), and SI joint interventions (intraarticular injection and radiofrequency neurotomy). PMID:23147023

Petron, David J; Prideaux, Cara C; Likness, Lincoln

2012-01-01

118

Design and development of compact, durable electromagnetic pulse power coils for repositioning of coolant tube spacers in CANDU nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the fall of 1983, a novel electromagnetic technique to reposition the coolant tube spacers (garter springs) in the fuel channels of CANDU nuclear reactors was successfully developed at Ontario Hydro Research Division. This paper describes the design, development and performance of the compact solenoidal coils used to reposition the garter springs. The coils are capable of withstanding oscillatory current pulses having a first peak of 200 kA and can survive several thousand pulses at current levels exceeding 140 kA. The operating criteria and measures introduced to achieve long coil life with a reasonably high repetition rate for discharging the capacitor bank are also discussed

119

Computed tomography of the postoperative lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the postoperative patient ordinary radiographs of the spine generally add very little information, revealing the usual postoperative bone changes and often postoperative narrowing of the intervertebral space. Myelography may sometimes be informative, showing evidence of focal arachnoiditis or a focal defect at the surgical site. However, the latter finding is difficult to interpret. As experience with high-resolution CT scanning of the lumbar spine has been increasing, it is becoming apparent that this noninvasive and easily performed study can give considerably more information about the postoperative spine than any of the other current imaging methods. About 750 patients with previous lumbar laminectomies had CT scanning within a 28 month period

120

Advanced techniques in cervical spine surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many disorders of the cervical spine can be effectively treated through a posterior approach. Generally, posterior decompressions such as a laminectomies, laminoplasties, and/or foraminotomies result in fewer postoperative complications compared with anterior approaches for multilevel surgery. Complications can include dysphagia, dysphonia, and pseudarthrosis. Fusion is indicated in spinal conditions that involve cervical instability, subluxation, or severe sagittal imbalance. During the past decade, techniques have been developed for instrumentation of the upper and subaxial cervical spine. Several recent studies have led to a better understanding of the cervical spine anatomy, which has helped limit complications and facilitate surgical procedures. PMID:22301252

Hsu, Wellington K

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Gonadal dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different ways to minimize the gonadal dose in lumbar spine radiography have been studied. Two hundred and fifty lumbar spine radiographs were reviewed to assess the clinical need for lateral L5/S1 projection. Modern film/screen combinations and gonadal shielding of externally scattered radiation play a major role in the reduction of the genetic dose. The number of exposures should be minimized. Our results show that two projections, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral, appear to be sufficient in routine radiography of the lumbar spine. (orig.)

122

Minimally invasive approaches to the cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minimally invasive approaches and operative techniques are becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of cervical spine disorders. Minimally invasive spine surgery attempts to decrease iatrogenic muscle injury, decrease pain, and speed postoperative recovery with the use of smaller incisions and specialized instruments. This article explains in detail minimally invasive approaches to the posterior spine, the techniques for posterior cervical foraminotomy and arthrodesis via lateral mass screw placement, and anterior cervical foraminotomy. Complications are also discussed. Additionally, illustrated cases are presented detailing the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques. PMID:22082636

Celestre, Paul C; Pazmiño, Pablo R; Mikhael, Mark M; Wolf, Christopher F; Feldman, Lacey A; Lauryssen, Carl; Wang, Jeffrey C

2012-01-01

123

The rigid spine syndrome in two sisters.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two half-sisters aged 14 and 18 years are described with a rigid spine syndrome as the cardinal clinical feature of an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder. Ten years previously, a diagnosis of multicore disease had been made from the clinical signs and muscle biopsy findings. Long term follow-up revealed a non-specific muscular dystrophy with axial predominance and a rigid spine in the younger girl; the older sister presented at the age of 18 with a rigid spine as the only myopathic sig...

Vanneste, J. A.; Augustijn, P. B.; Stam, F. C.

1988-01-01

124

Complication management with minimally invasive spine procedures.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Spine surgery as we know it has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades. More patients are undergoing minimally invasive procedures. Surgeons are becoming more comfortable with these procedures, and changes in technology have led to several new approaches and products to make surgery safer for patients and improve patient outcomes. As more patients undergo minimally invasive spine surgery, more long-term outcome and complications data have been collected. The authors describe the common complications associated with these minimally invasive surgical procedures and delineate management options for the spine surgeon.

Hussain, Namath S

2012-02-01

125

Computed tomography of the postoperative lumbar spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the postoperative patient ordinary radiographs of the spine generally add very little information, revealing the usual postoperative bone changes and often postoperative narrowing of the intervertebral space. Myelography may sometimes be informative, showing evidence of focal arachnoiditis or a focal defect at the surgical site. However, the latter finding is difficult to interpret. As experience with high-resolution CT scanning of the lumbar spine has been increasing, it is becoming apparent that this noninvasive and easily performed study can give considerably more information about the postoperative spine than any of the other current imaging methods. About 750 patients with previous lumbar laminectomies had CT scanning within a 28 month period.

Teplick, J.G.; Haskin, M.E.

1983-11-01

126

Transoral crossbow injury to the cervical spine: an unusual case of penetrating cervical spine injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexity of missile injuries to the cervical spine has increased as the technology that causes these injuries has become more sophisticated. Management requires adaptation of conventional neurosurgical approaches to the cervical spine in an effort to limit neurological deficit and establish stability. We report an unusual case of a 19-year-old man who suffered transoral penetration of the cervical spine by an arrow released by a crossbow at close range. PMID:2067619

Salvino, C K; Origitano, T C; Dries, D J; Shea, J F; Springhorn, M; Miller, C J

1991-06-01

127

A method for articulating and displaying the human spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

An inexpensive and effective method for articulating a dry human spine is described. By constructing a Styrofoam spine tray, analysts can now accurately position and align each vertebra in correct anatomical order, allow for gaps because of missing vertebrae, and lay out the spine for documentation and photography. The spine tray provides analysts with a quick, easy, and professional quality method for aligning and orienting the human spine in the field and laboratory. PMID:19732275

Mann, Robert W

2009-11-01

128

Flexible Robotic Spine Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A flexible robotic spine actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA) can achieve both bending motion and impact absorption, which will allow robots to realize a variety of postures. In this paper, the robotic spine is designed and simplified into a multi-segment dynamic model based on several verified assumptions. The SMA wire is modelled using the Seelecke-Muller-Acenbach theory. An iterative algorithm is developed to address the external forces distributed along the spine and compute the spine’s...

Shiquan Wang; Qiuguo Zhu; Rong Xiong; Jian Chu

2014-01-01

129

Dendritic spine dynamics leading to spine elimination after repeated inductions of LTD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Memory is fixed solidly by repetition. However, the cellular mechanism underlying this repetition-dependent memory consolidation/reconsolidation remains unclear. In our previous study using stable slice cultures of the rodent hippocampus, we found long-lasting synaptic enhancement/suppression coupled with synapse formation/elimination after repeated inductions of chemical LTP/LTD, respectively. We proposed these phenomena as useful model systems for analyzing repetition-dependent memory consolidation. Recently, we analyzed the dynamics of dendritic spines during development of the enhancement, and found that the spines increased in number following characteristic stochastic processes. The current study investigates spine dynamics during the development of the suppression. We found that the rate of spine retraction increased immediately leaving that of spine generation unaltered. Spine elimination occurred independent of the pre-existing spine density on the dendritic segment. In terms of elimination, mushroom-type spines were not necessarily more stable than stubby-type and thin-type spines. PMID:25573377

Hasegawa, Sho; Sakuragi, Shigeo; Tominaga-Yoshino, Keiko; Ogura, Akihiko

2015-01-01

130

THE SPINE OF THE COSMIC WEB  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between the watershed basins to trace the critical points in the density field and the separatrices defined by them. The separatrices are classified into walls and the spine, the network of filaments and nodes in the matter distribution. Testing the method with a heuristic Voronoi model yields outstanding results. Following the discussion of the test results, we apply the SpineWeb method to a set of cosmological N-body simulations. The latter illustrates the potential for studying the structure and dynamics of the Cosmic Web.

131

Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

132

Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

Cabot, Jonathan [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Mosel, Leigh; Kong, Andrew; Hayward, Mike [Flinders Medical Centre, Department of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park, South Australia (Australia)

2005-12-01

133

Vertigo in patients with cervical spine dysfunction.  

Science.gov (United States)

To our knowledge, quantitative studies on the significance of disorders of the upper cervical spine as a cause of vertigo or impaired hearing do not exist. We examined the cervical spines of 67 patients who presented with symptoms of dizziness. Prior to the orthopaedic examination, causes of vertigo relating to the field of ENT and neurology had been ruled out. Fifty patients of the above-mentioned group were studied. They followed the outlined treatment protocol with physical therapy and were available for 3 months of follow-up. Thirty-one patients, hereinafter referred to as group A, were diagnosed with dysfunctions of the upper cervical spine. Nineteen patients, hereinafter referred to as group B, did not show signs of dysfunction. Cervical spine dysfunctions were documented as published by Bischoff. In group A dysfunctions were found at level C1 in 14 cases, at level C2 in 6 cases and at level C3 in 4 cases. In seven cases more than one upper cervical spine motion segment was affected. Dysfunctions were treated and resolved with mobilising and manipulative techniques of manual medicine. Regardless of cervical spine findings seen at the initial visit, group A and B patients received intensive outpatient physical therapy. At the final 3-month follow-up, 24 patients of group A (77.4%) reported an improvement of their chief symptom and 5 patients were completely free of vertigo. Improvement of vertigo was recorded in 5 group B patients (26.3%); however, nobody in group B was free of symptoms. We concluded that a functional examination of motion segments of the upper cervical spine is important in diagnosing and treating vertigo, because a non-resolved dysfunction of the upper cervical spine was a common cause of long-lasting dizziness in our population. PMID:9548360

Galm, R; Rittmeister, M; Schmitt, E

1998-01-01

134

The Spine of the Cosmic Web  

CERN Document Server

We present a new concept, the Spine of the Cosmic Web, for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its filaments and walls. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the method invokes the local properties of the regions adjacent to the critical points, which define its separatrices. Our method allows their classification into walls and the spine of filaments and clusters. Tests on a heuristic Voronoi model yielded outstanding results.

Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; van de Weygaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S

2008-01-01

135

Complexity of the thoracic spine pedicle anatomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transpedicular screw fixation provides rigid stabilization of the thoracolumbar spine. For accurate insertion of screws into the pedicles and to avoid pedicle cortex perforations, more precise knowledge of the anatomy of the pedicles is necessary. This study was designed to visualize graphically the surface anatomy and internal architecture of the pedicles of the thoracic spine. Fifteen vertebrae distributed equally among the upper, middle, and lower thoracic regions were used. For the purpos...

Panjabi, M. M.; O Holleran, J. D.; Crisco, J. J.; Kothe, R.

1997-01-01

136

Fine structure of synapses on dendritic spines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Camillo Golgi’s “Reazione Nera” led to the discovery of dendritic spines, small appendages originating from dendritic shafts. With the advent of electron microscopy (EM they were identified as sites of synaptic contact. Later it was found that changes in synaptic strength were associated with changes in the shape of dendritic spines. While live-cell imaging was advantageous in monitoring the time course of such changes in spine structure, EM is still the best method for the simultaneous visualization of all cellular components, including actual synaptic contacts, at high resolution. Immunogold labeling for EM reveals the precise localization of molecules in relation to synaptic structures. Previous EM studies of spines and synapses were performed in tissue subjected to aldehyde fixation and dehydration in ethanol, which is associated with protein denaturation and tissue shrinkage. It has remained an issue to what extent fine structural details are preserved when subjecting the tissue to these procedures. In the present review, we report recent studies on the fine structure of spines and synapses using high-pressure freezing (HPF, which avoids protein denaturation by aldehydes and results in an excellent preservation of ultrastructural detail. In these studies, HPF was used to monitor subtle fine-structural changes in spine shape associated with chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP at identified hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Changes in spine shape result from reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report that cLTP was associated with decreased immunogold labeling for phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing protein. Phosphorylation of cofilin renders it unable to depolymerize F-actin, which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. Decreased levels of p-cofilin, in turn, suggest increased actin turnover, possibly underlying the changes in spine shape associated with cLTP. The findings reviewed here establish HPF as an appropriate m

Michael Frotscher

2014-09-01

137

Spinal brace in tuberculosis of spine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES To present our experience in the management of 22 patients with thoracolumbar spine tuberculosis (TB) using a chemotherapy regimen and locally custom-made spinal brace. METHODS Twenty-two patients with thoracolumbar spine TB had been treated conservatively by chemotherapy and locally custom-made spinal brace and followed for 36-48 months from June 1996 to June 2000 in the Department of Orthopedics and Trauma, Algamhoria Teach...

Alwali, Abdulnasser A.

2002-01-01

138

Blunt Traumatic Cervical Spine Fractures in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Blunt traumatic cervical spine fractures (TCSF) are serious injuries which may be associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. We describe the epidemiology of blunt traumatic cervical spine fracture in Iran over a definable time period. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the data including the distribution of TCSF, demographics, mechanisms, abbreviated injury scale (AIS), spinal cord associated injuries and final outcome of patients...

Soheil Saadat; Aliashraf Eghbali; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

2011-01-01

139

Striatal spine plasticity in Parkinson's Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Striatal dopamine (DA) denervation results in a significant loss of dendritic spines on medium spiny projection neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated parkinsonian monkeys, spines contacted either by cortical or thalamic glutamatergic terminals are severely affected on both direct and indirect striatofugal neurons. In rodents, indirect pathway neurons appear to be more sensitive, at least in early stages of acute dopamine denervat...

RosaMVillalba; YolandSmith

2010-01-01

140

Airway management for cervical spine injury.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT In this review, important factors related to initial management, diagnosis, airway, and anesthetic management of patients with cervical spine injury (CSI) are discussed. Early diagnostic and clinical evaluation is important in excluding CSI. In-line stabilization reduces movement of the cervical spine. Tracheal intubation under fiberscopic control, offers safety, and comfort to the patient. However, in cases of severe deterioration of vital functions, intub...

Siddiqui, Ahsan K.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Head repositioning errors in normal student volunteers: a possible tool to assess the neck's neuromuscular system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A challenge for practitioners using spinal manipulation is identifying when an intervention is required. It has been recognized that joint pain can interfere with the ability to position body parts accurately and that the recent history of muscle contraction can play a part in that interference. In this study, we tested whether repositioning errors could be induced in a normal population by contraction or shortening of the neck muscles. Methods In the experimental protocol, volunteers free of neck problems first found a comfortable neutral head posture with eyes closed. They deconditioned their cervical muscles by moving their heads 5 times in either flexion/extension or lateral flexion and then attempted to return to the same starting position. Two conditioning sequences were interspersed within the task: hold the head in an extended or laterally flexed position for 10 seconds; or hold a 70% maximum voluntary contraction in the same position for 10 seconds. A computer-interfaced electrogoniometer was used to measure head position while a force transducer coupled to an auditory alarm signaled the force of isometric contraction. The difference between the initial and final head orientation was calculated in 3 orthogonal planes. Analysis of variance (1-way ANOVA with a blocking factor (participants was used to detect differences in proprioceptive error among the conditioning sequences while controlling for variation between participants. Results Forty-eight chiropractic students participated: 36 males and 12 females, aged 28.2 ± 4.8 yrs. During the neck extension test, actively contracting the posterior neck muscles evoked an undershoot of the target position by 2.1° (p Conclusion The results suggest that the recent history of cervical paraspinal muscle contraction can influence head repositioning in flexion/extension. To our knowledge this is the first time that muscle mechanical history has been shown to influence proprioceptive accuracy in the necks of humans. This finding may be used to elucidate the mechanism behind repositioning errors seen in people with neck pain and could guide development of a clinical test for involvement of paraspinal muscles in cervical pain and dysfunction.

Gudavalli M Ram

2006-03-01

142

Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

143

Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

2001-01-01

144

Spine-related disability following combat injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spine-related disability for military personnel injured in combat is not known. The goal of this study was to characterize spine-related disability in a cohort of soldiers wounded in recent military operations. The authors reviewed the U.S. Army Physical Evaluation Board database medical discharge records of 450 wounded soldiers for long-term disability causing a medical discharge from active duty service. Fourteen percent of the cohort had at least one spine-related disability resulting in medical discharge from the military. For the 54 unfitting conditions attributed to back pain, 33% had no precipitating injury. Eighteen soldiers had a spinal cord injury, 10 of which were complete. The average percent disability for back pain was 11%, and the average disability for a spinal cord injury was 77%. Twenty-one percent of the soldiers with spine-related disability also had disability attributed to psychological conditions. Spine-related disability is common after combat injury, though not all spine disability is directly related to an actual injury. Spinal cord injury with persistent neurological dysfunction results in higher permanent disability. PMID:25153811

Rivera, Jessica C; Anderson, Edward R; Jenne, Joel W; Topp, Raymond F

2014-01-01

145

Automatic Thresholding for Frame-Repositioning Using External Tracking in PET Brain Imaging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Motion correction (MC) in positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging become of higher importance with increasing scanner resolution. Several motion correction methods have been suggested and so far the Polaris Vicra tracking system has been the preferred one for motion registration. We present an automated algorithm for dividing PET acquisitions into subframes based on the registered head motion to correct for intra-frame motion with the frame repositioning MC method. The method is tested on real patient data (five 11C-SB studies and five 11C-PIB studies) and compared with an image based registration method (AIR). Quantitative evaluation was done using a correlation measure. The study shows that MC improves the correlation of the PET images and that AIR performed slightly better than the Polaris Vicra. We found significant intra-frame motion of 1-5 mm in 9 frames but the correlation was not significantly improved using intra-frame MC.

Olesen, Oline Vinter; Keller, Sune

2010-01-01

146

Computed tomography of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until the advent of Computed Tomography (CT), axial studies of the spine were limited in the main to gross bony anatomy and to conventional transaxial tomography (TAT). Others studied the upper cervical cord in transverse section during gas myelography and encephalography. The potential role of CT in the evaluation of spinal anatomy and disease was recognized, however, at an early stage in the development of the general purpose CT scanner. CT is not organ specific and therefore provides a uniformly thin (1.5-13 mm) axial section displaying detailed spinal topographical anatomy against a background of paravertebral muscles, vascular structures and body cavity organs. The relationships of the apophyseal joints to the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina are particularly well displayed. The study of neural tissue and pathology within the spinal canal is facilitated by the use of a non-ionic water-soluble contrast medium (viz. metrizamide) in the subarachnoid spaces. The high sensitivity of CT to very small changes in X-ray attenuation permits studies to be continued over several hours. The digital derivation of the sequential CT transaxial sections enables not only interrogation of data and quantitative studies to be made but also makes possible computer-generated reconstructions in other planes

147

Further Tests of Subpixel Event Repositioning for Chandra/ACIS Imaging Data  

Science.gov (United States)

We are investigating the effectiveness of subpixel event repositioning (SER) techniques for Chandra X-ray CCD imaging observations. SER techniques are based on the premise that the sizes of charge clouds generated by photons incident on the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) are quite small compared to an ACIS pixel, such that the landing positions for split events should be near the pixel boundaries instead of the pixel centers. Therefore SER algorithms designed to reposition split event landing positions, if suitably constrained by ACIS CCD models, should improve the spatial resolution of Chandra/ACIS observations. However, the resolution improvement may be different for frontside-illuminated (FI) and backside-illuminated (BI) CCDs. Using BI/FI archival Chandra/ACIS data obtained for Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and ACIS CCD models to determine the detailed relationship between landing positions and split event geometries, we evaluated a modified SER algorithm based on that proposed by Tsunemi et al. (2001, ApJ, 554, 496). By applying this SER technique to ONC point like sources, we establish the degree of image improvement achieved by SER for both BI and FI devices as a function of off-axis angle, split event percentage, and total source counts. We also apply the SER technique to various extended sources, and present the resulting improvements in image quality. J.H.K. and J.L. acknowledge support for this research provided by NASA/CXO grants GO0--1067X and G02--3009X to RIT. N.S.S and H.L.M acknowledge support from Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) contract SVI-61010 for the Chandra X-Ray Center (CXC).

Li, J.; Kastner, J. H.; Schulz, N. S.; Marshall, H. L.; Prigozhin, G. Y.

2002-12-01

148

Rational drug repositioning guided by an integrated pharmacological network of protein, disease and drug  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of drug discovery and development is time-consuming and costly, and the probability of success is low. Therefore, there is rising interest in repositioning existing drugs for new medical indications. When successful, this process reduces the risk of failure and costs associated with de novo drug development. However, in many cases, new indications of existing drugs have been found serendipitously. Thus there is a clear need for establishment of rational methods for drug repositioning. Results In this study, we have established a database we call “PharmDB” which integrates data associated with disease indications, drug development, and associated proteins, and known interactions extracted from various established databases. To explore linkages of known drugs to diseases of interest from within PharmDB, we designed the Shared Neighborhood Scoring (SNS algorithm. And to facilitate exploration of tripartite (Drug-Protein-Disease network, we developed a graphical data visualization software program called phExplorer, which allows us to browse PharmDB data in an interactive and dynamic manner. We validated this knowledge-based tool kit, by identifying a potential application of a hypertension drug, benzthiazide (TBZT, to induce lung cancer cell death. Conclusions By combining PharmDB, an integrated tripartite database, with Shared Neighborhood Scoring (SNS algorithm, we developed a knowledge platform to rationally identify new indications for known FDA approved drugs, which can be customized to specific projects using manual curation. The data in PharmDB is open access and can be easily explored with phExplorer and accessed via BioMart web service (http://www.i-pharm.org/, http://biomart.i-pharm.org/.

Lee Hee

2012-07-01

149

Spine neck plasticity controls postsynaptic calcium signals through electrical compartmentalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic spines have been proposed to function as electrical compartments for the active processing of local synaptic signals. However, estimates of the resistance between the spine head and the parent dendrite suggest that compartmentalization is not tight enough to electrically decouple the synapse. Here we show in acute hippocampal slices that spine compartmentalization is initially very weak, but increases dramatically upon postsynaptic depolarization. Using NMDA receptors as voltage sensors, we provide evidence that spine necks not only regulate diffusional coupling between spines and dendrites, but also control local depolarization of the spine head. In spines with high-resistance necks, presynaptic activity alone was sufficient to trigger calcium influx through NMDA receptors and R-type calcium channels. We conclude that calcium influx into spines, a key trigger for synaptic plasticity, is dynamically regulated by spine neck plasticity through a process of electrical compartmentalization. PMID:19074019

Grunditz, Asa; Holbro, Niklaus; Tian, Lei; Zuo, Yi; Oertner, Thomas G

2008-12-10

150

Effect of Laminectomy on Stability of Lumbar Spine Effect of Laminectomy on Stability of Lumbar Spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims at the presentation of the lumbar spine finite element model used in a study of segmental kinematics including the tissue loading. Lumbar spine FE-model consisting of the three lumbar vertebras, two disc (including annulus and nucleus and vast variety of ligaments. The primary model objective is its verification by experimental test data obtained from cadaver spine segments. A confirmed model was used for a study of various range of laminectomy effect. On this model we simulate a various loading states witch can spine segment arrive at under physiologic conditions (compression, flexion, extension and lateral bending. FE-model could predict the laminectomy impact on the operation approach. The paper aims at the presentation of the lumbar spine finite element model used in a study of segmental kinematics including the tissue loading. Lumbar spine FE-model consisting of the three lumbar vertebras, two disc (including annulus and nucleus and vast variety of ligaments. The primary model objective is its verification by experimental test data obtained from cadaver spine segments. A confirmed model was used for a study of various range of laminectomy effect. On this model we simulate a various loading states witch can spine segment arrive at under physiologic conditions (compression, flexion, extension and lateral bending. FE-model could predict the laminectomy impact on the operation approach.

Petr Tichy

2009-12-01

151

Anterior approach to the thoracic spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

An anterior approach affords the spine surgeon excellent visualization and access to the anterior thoracic spine, the vertebral bodies, intervertebral disks, spinal canal, and nerve roots. This approach is currently used in the surgical treatment of thoracic disk disease, vertebral osteomyelitis or discitis, fractures and tumors of the vertebral bodies, allowing for proper decompression of neural elements and spine stabilization. Over a 10-year period in a single institution, a total of 142 patients with a mean age of 49.6 years underwent anterior thoracic exposure of the spine. The indication for surgery was trauma fracture in 20 patients, malignancy in 35, degenerative disease in 29 and correction of scoliosis in 58. Surgical approaches were determined based on the location and length of spinal involvement, including cervico-thoracic approach (15) thoracotomic approach (85) video-assisted thoracoscopy (10) and thoracolumbar exposure (32). Mean operative time was 334 min (range from 256 to 410 min). There was no perioperative mortality. Thirty-one patients (21.8%) developed postoperative complications. The anterior approach to the thoracic spine is safe and effective and even the presence of complications can be appropriately managed. An adequate preoperative evaluation stratifying the risk and instituting measures to reduce it, accurate surgical planning and careful surgical technique are key to yielding a good outcome and to reduce the risk of complications. PMID:21303868

De Giacomo, Tiziano; Francioni, Federico; Diso, Daniele; Tarantino, Roberto; Anile, Marco; Venuta, Federico; Coloni, Giorgio Furio

2011-05-01

152

Management of thoracolumbar spine trauma: An overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common injuries that can result in significant disability, deformity and neurological deficit. Controversies exist regarding the appropriate radiological investigations, the indications for surgical management and the timing, approach and type of surgery. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, biomechanical principles, radiological and clinical evaluation, classification and management principles. Literature review of all relevant articles published in PubMed covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with or without neurologic deficit was performed. The search terms used were thoracolumbar, thoracic, lumbar, fracture, trauma and management. All relevant articles and abstracts covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with and without neurologic deficit were reviewed. Biomechanically the thoracolumbar spine is predisposed to a higher incidence of spinal injuries. Computed tomography provides adequate bony detail for assessing spinal stability while magnetic resonance imaging shows injuries to soft tissues (posterior ligamentous complex [PLC]) and neurological structures. Different classification systems exist and the most recent is the AO spine knowledge forum classification of thoracolumbar trauma. Treatment includes both nonoperative and operative methods and selected based on the degree of bony injury, neurological involvement, presence of associated injuries and the integrity of the PLC. Significant advances in imaging have helped in the better understanding of thoracolumbar fractures, including information on canal morphology and injury to soft tissue structures. The ideal classification that is simple, comprehensive and guides management is still elusive. Involvement of three columns, progressive neurological deficit, significant kyphosis and canal compromise with neurological deficit are accepted indications for surgical stabilization through anterior, posterior or combined approaches.

Rajasekaran, S; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad

2015-01-01

153

Activity-dependent dynamic microtubule invasion of dendritic spines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic spines are the primary sites of contact with presynaptic axons on excitatory hippocampal and cortical neurons. During development and plasticity spines undergo marked changes in structure that directly affect the functional communication between neurons. Elucidating the cytoskeletal events that induce these structural changes is fundamental to understanding synaptic biology. Actin plays a central role in the spine cytoskeleton, however the role of microtubules in spine function has been studied little. Although microtubules have a prominent role in transporting material throughout the dendrite that is destined for spines, they are not thought to directly influence spine structure or function. Using total internal reflectance fluorescent microscopy we discovered that microtubules rapidly invade dendritic protrusions of mature CNS neurons (up to 63 d in vitro), occasionally being associated with marked changes in spine morphology in the form of transient spine head protrusions (tSHPs). Two microtubules can occupy a spine simultaneously and microtubule targeting can occur from both the proximal and distal dendrite. A small percentage of spines are targeted at a time and all targeting events are transient, averaging only a few minutes. Nevertheless, over time many spines on a dendrite are targeted by microtubules. Importantly, we show that increasing neuronal activity enhances both the number of spines invaded by microtubules and the duration of these invasions. This study provides new insight into the dynamics of the neuronal cytoskeleton in mature CNS neurons and suggests that microtubules play an important, direct role in spine morphology and function. PMID:19052200

Hu, Xindao; Viesselmann, Chris; Nam, Sookin; Merriam, Elliott; Dent, Erik W

2008-12-01

154

Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT--Experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To implement and evaluate clinic-ready adaptive imaging protocols for online patient repositioning (motion tracking) during prostate IMRT using treatment beam imaging supplemented by minimal, as-needed use of on-board kV. Methods: The authors examine the two-step decision-making strategy: (1) Use cine-MV imaging and online-updated characterization of prostate motion to detect target motion that is potentially beyond a predefined threshold and (2) use paired MV-kV 3D localization to determine overthreshold displacement and, if needed, reposition the patient. Two levels of clinical implementation were evaluated: (1) Field-by-field based motion correction for present-day linacs and (2) instantaneous repositioning for new-generation linacs with capabilities of simultaneous MV-kV imaging and remote automatic couch control during treatment delivery. Experiments were performed on a Varian Trilogy linac in clinical mode using a 4D motion phantom programed with prostate motion trajectories taken from patient data. Dosimetric impact was examined using a 2D ion chamber array. Simulations were done for 536 trajectories from 17 patients. Results: Despite the loss of marker detection efficiency caused by the MLC leaves sometimes obscuring the field at the marker's projected position on the MV imager, the field-by-field correction halved (from 23% to 10%) the mean percentage of time that target displacement exceeded a 3 mm threshold, as compared to no intervention. This was, as compared to no intervention. This was achieved at minimal cost in additional imaging (average of one MV-kV pair per two to three treatment fractions) and with a very small number of repositionings (once every four to five fractions). Also with low kV usage (?2/fraction), the instantaneous repositioning approach reduced overthreshold time by more than 75% (23% to 5%) even with severe MLC blockage as often encountered in current IMRT and could reduce the overthreshold time tenfold (to <2%) if the MLC blockage problem were relieved. The information acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. Conclusions: This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques.

155

Impact of lumbar spine posture on thoracic spine motion and muscle activation patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex motion during standing is typical in daily living and requires movement of both the thoracic and lumbar spine; however, the effects of lumbar spine posture on thoracic spine motion patterns remain unclear. Thirteen males moved to six positions involving different lumbar (neutral and flexed) and thoracic (flexed and twisted) posture combinations. The thoracic spine was partitioned into three segments and the range of motion from each posture was calculated. Electromyographical data were collected from eight muscles bilaterally. Results showed that with a flexed lumbar spine, the lower-thoracic region had 14.83 ° and 15.6 1 ° more flexion than the upper- and mid-thoracic regions, respectively. A flexed lumbar spine significantly reduced the mid-thoracic axial twist angle by 5.21 ° compared to maximum twist in the mid-thoracic region. Functional differences emerged across muscles, as low back musculature was greatest in maintaining flexed lumbar postures, while thoracic erector spinae and abdominals showed bilateral differences with greater activations to the ipsilateral side. Combined postures have been previously identified as potential injury modulators and bilateral muscle patterns can have an effect on loading pathways. Overall, changes in thoracic motion were modified by lumbar spine posture, highlighting the importance of considering a multi-segmented approach when analyzing trunk motion. PMID:25026559

Nairn, Brian C; Drake, Janessa D M

2014-10-01

156

Embryonic development of fin spines in Callorhinchus milii (Holocephali); implications for chondrichthyan fin spine evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fin spines are commonly known from fossil gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) and are usually associated with paired and unpaired fins. They are less common among extant gnathostomes, being restricted to the median fins of certain chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish), including chimaerids (elephant sharks) and neoselachians (sharks, skates, and rays). Fin spine growth is of great interest and relevance but few studies have considered their evolution and development. We investigated the development of the fin spine of the chimaerid Callorhinchus milii using stained histological sections from a series of larval, hatchling, and adult individuals. The lamellar trunk dentine of the Callorhinchus spine first condenses within the mesenchyme, rather than at the contact surface between mesenchyme and epithelium, in a manner more comparable to dermal bone formation than to normal odontode development. Trabecular dentine forms a small component of the spine under the keel; it is covered externally with a thin layer of lamellar trunk dentine, which is difficult to distinguish in sectioned adult spines. We suggest that the distinctive characteristics of the trunk dentine may reflect an origin through co-option of developmental processes involved in dermal bone formation. Comparison with extant Squalus and a range of fossil chondrichthyans shows that Callorhinchus is more representative than Squalus of generalized chondrichthyan fin-spine architecture, highlighting its value as a developmental model organism. PMID:25378057

Jerve, Anna; Johanson, Zerina; Ahlberg, Per; Boisvert, Catherine

2014-01-01

157

[Ventral approach to the cervical spine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Since they were introduced in 1950, ventral approaches for surgical operations on the cervical spine have become widely used. The most frequently used is the anteromedian approach, passing along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus muscle and then between the upper gastrointestinal tract and the vascular bundle to give access to the spine. This approach allows access to practically every segment of the cervical spine. The significance of the transoral approach is stressed in the literature, and we ourselves are also convinced of its importance. In this paper, however, the combined anteroposterior procedures and the cervicothoracic methods used for the transitional zone are also described. Complications affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract, the vessels or the nerves are always possible, and to reduce their likelihood to a minimum it is essential to make a detailed study of the complicated anatomy of the neck region. PMID:3574942

Louis, R

1987-02-01

158

Correlation between cervical spine and temporomandibular disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroanatomical interconnections and neurophysiological relationships between the orofacial area and the cervical spine have been documented earlier. The present single-blind study was aimed at screening possible correlations between clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and cervical spine disorders. Thirty-one consecutive patients with symptoms of TMD and 30 controls underwent a standardised clinical examination of the masticatory system, evaluating range of motion of the mandible, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function and pain of the TMJ and masticatory muscles. Afterwards subjects were referred for clinical examination of the cervical spine, evaluating segmental limitations, tender points upon palpation of the muscles, hyperalgesia and hypermobility. The results indicated that segmental limitations (especially at the C0-C3 levels) and tender points (especially in the m. sternocleidomastoideus and m. trapezius) are significantly more present in patients than in controls. Hyperalgesia was present only in the patient group (12-16%). PMID:15490776

De Laat, A; Meuleman, H; Stevens, A; Verbeke, G

1998-06-01

159

Multiple myeloma presenting as cervical spine compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a malignant monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells usually showing bone involvement with predilection of the spine. The cervical spine is the least common site of disease involvement. We report the case of 72-year-old man presenting with progressively increased cervical pain, associated with sciatica and disturb walking. In the neurological exam, there was a quadripyramidal syndrome, and superficial sensory disturbance. The X- ray examination of the cervical spine showed lytic lesions of C2. A tumoral process was found by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI compressing the spinal cord at the level of C4 with osteolysis of the posterior arch. An open surgery was performed. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma of kappa subtype. Immunoelectrophoresis revealed the presence of immunoglobulin G kappa. The patient was diagnosed as having MM with cervical vertebra involvement and he has started chemo­therapy.

Tahia Boudawara

2011-01-01

160

Functional oblique views of the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of the paper deals with measurements of 152 radiographs. It was found that the conventional views of the lumbar spine in two planes can demonstrate only 49.1% of the articular joints. Oblique views in two planes increase the accuracy to 88.7%. In view of the relatively high accuracy of the oblique views, these were used as the basis for a new functional method for examining the intervertebral joints. For this examination, oblique views of the lumbar spine are taken in the lordotic and kyphotic positions. The position of the patient during the examination is described in detail. In the second part of the paper, the results of measurements of 80 functional examinations are evaluated. Average values for the mobility of individual elements of the lumbar spine have been derived. Finally, the practical value of the new technique is demonstrated. Its special place for subluxations and spondylolyses is stressed. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
161

Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the thoracic spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a proliferative lesion of the synovial membranes. Knees, hips, and other large weight-bearing joints are most commonly affected. PVNS rarely presents in the spine, in particular the thoracic segments. We present a patient with PVNS in the thoracic spine and describe its clinical presentation, radiographic findings, pathologic features, and treatment as well as providing the first comprehensive meta-analysis and review of the literature on this topic, to our knowledge. A total of 28 publications reporting 56 patients were found. The lumbar and cervical spine were most frequently involved (40% and 36% of patients, respectively) with infrequent involvement of the thoracic spine (24% of patients). PVNS affects a wide range of ages, but has a particular predilection for the thoracic spine in younger patients. The mean age in the thoracic group was 22.8 years and was significantly lower than the cervical and lumbar groups (42.4 and 48.6 years, respectively; p=0.0001). PVNS should be included in the differential diagnosis of osteodestructive lesions of the spine, especially because of its potential for local recurrence. The goal of treatment should be complete surgical excision. Although the pathogenesis is not clear, mechanical strain may play an important role, especially in cervical and lumbar PVNS. The association of thoracic lesions and younger age suggests that other factors, such as neoplasia, derangement of lipid metabolism, perturbations of humoral and cellular immunity, and other undefined patient factors, play a role in the development of thoracic PVNS. PMID:24938389

Roguski, Marie; Safain, Mina G; Zerris, Vasilios A; Kryzanski, James T; Thomas, Christine B; Magge, Subu N; Riesenburger, Ron I

2014-10-01

162

Comparison of two repositioning devices used during radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Reproducible patient positioning is fundamental to the success of fractionated radiation therapy in all patients. In patients with a radio curable disease and a long life expectancy, such as those with Hodgkin's disease, accurate repositioning is crucial to maximize the likelihood of cure and to minimize incidental irradiation of non-target normal tissues. In the late 1980s, we replaced an upper torso positioning cradle with an extended near-total body cradle which also includes the lower torso and thighs. This study was performed to assess the impact of the extended cradle on the reproducibility of patient repositioning during irradiation of Hodgkin's disease. Methods and Materials: Patients treated from 1990-1992 were positioned in the short cradle while those treated from 1992 - 1995 were positioned in the extended cradle. All treatments were delivered via anterior and posterior fields. Treatment areas above and below the diaphragm were considered separately. All fields were simulated and beam-shaping blocks designed on anterior and posterior radiographs. Discrepancies in isocenter placement between the simulation radiographs and subsequent port films were noted by a radiation oncologist and requests for isocenter shifts were indicated. The number, magnitude, and direction of any physician-requested isocenter shifts on port films were retrospectively reviewed. For the purpose of scoring the frequency of isocenter misplacements, when a shift was noted on twisplacements, when a shift was noted on two port films taken during the same treatment session (i.e., a left shift on both an anterior and a posterior port film), it was scored as only one event. A two-tailed chi-square test was used to compare the differences in requested shifts in the two patient groups. Results: The study population consisted of 57 patients (32 short and 25 extended cradle). A total of 815 port films representing 459 isocenter placements were analyzed (288 above and 170 below the diaphragm). When all port films above the diaphragm (mostly mantle fields) are considered, isocenter shifts were requested in 15.6% ((24(154))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 6.7% ((9(134))) of isocenter placements with the extended cradle (p = 0.035). When all port films below the diaphragm (mostly paraaortic/spleen and pelvic fields) are considered, isocenter shifts were requested in 30.1% ((28(93))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 16.7% ((13(78))) of isocenter placements with the extended cradle (p = 0.106). When both treatment sites are combined, isocenter shifts were requested in 21.1% ((52(247))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 10.4% ((22(212))) of isocenter placements when the extended cradle was used (p 0.008). Conclusions: The extended cradle provides superior repositioning of patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. Differences observed in setup accuracy in this study underscore the importance of aggressive immobilization of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Increased accuracy of daily setup provides an opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio both by increased likelihood of tumor control and decreased risk of normal tissue complications

163

Comparison of two repositioning devices used during radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Patients irradiated for Hodgkin's disease are fixed in an immobilization cradle to improve repositioning. In the early 1990s, we changed our cradle system from a 'short' upper torso cradle to an extended near-total body cradle that also includes the lower torso and thighs. In this study, we assess the impact of the extended cradle on the reproducibility of patient repositioning during irradiation of Hodgkin's disease. Methods and Materials: A total of 782 port films of 56 patients treated immediately before and after the change-over were studied to assess positioning reproducibility. Patients treated prior to 1993 were positioned in the short cradle, while those treated 1993 and later were positioned in the extended cradle. All treatment were delivered via anterior and posterior fields and treatment areas above and below the diaphragm were considered separately and together. All treatment fields were simulated and the field shape was designed on anterior and posterior radiographs. Discrepancies in field placement between the simulation radiographs and subsequent port films were noted by a radiation oncologist and requests for position adjustment (both translational and rotational shifts) were noted. The number, magnitude, and direction of any physician-requested position adjustment on port films were retrospectively reviewed. For the purpose of scoring the frequency of field misplacements, when an adjustment was noted on two port films taken during the same t on two port films taken during the same treatment session (i.e., a left shift on both an anterior and a posterior port film), it was scored as only one event. A two-tailed chi-square test was used to compare the differences in requested shifts in the two patient groups. Results: The study population consisted of 56 patients (31 short and 25 extended cradle) representing 92 treatment sites. A total of 782 port films representing 450 treatment setups were analyzed (292 above and 158 below the diaphragm). When all port films above the diaphragm (mostly mantle fields) are considered, position adjustments were requested in 13.4% 921 out of 157) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 5.9% (8 out of 135) of treatment setups with the extended cradle (p = 0.054). When all port films below the diaphragm (mostly paraaortic/spleen and pelvic fields) are considered, position adjustments were requested in 33.8% (27 out of 80) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 16.7% (13 out of 78) of treatment setups with the extended cradle (p = 0.056). A reduction in the frequency of both translational and rotational adjustments were seen. When both treatment sites are combined, position adjustments were requested in 20.3% (48 out of 237) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 9.9% (21 out of 213) of treatment setups when the extended cradle was used (p = 0.0086). Conclusions: The extended cradle provides superior repositioning of patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. Differences observed in setup accuracy in this study underscore the importance of aggressive immobilization of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Increased accuracy of daily setup may provide an opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio both by increased likelihood of tumor control and decreased risk of normal tissue complications

164

Cervical spine injuries in rugby players.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine patients with serious cervical spine injuries that occurred while they were playing rugby were seen in a British Columbia acute spinal cord injury unit during the period 1975-82. All the injuries had occurred during the "scrum" or the "tackle". Two of the patients were rendered permanently quadriplegic, and one patient died. There is a need for a central registry that would record all cervical spine injuries in rugby players as well as for changes in the rules of the game. PMID:6697282

Sovio, O M; Van Peteghem, P K; Schweigel, J F

1984-03-15

165

Cytoplasmic organization in cerebellar dendritic spines  

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Three sets of filamentous structures were found to be associated with synaptic junctions in slices of cerebellar tissue prepared by rapid- freezing and freeze-etch techniques. The electron-dense fuzz subjacent to postsynaptic membranes corresponds to a web of 4-6-nm-diam filaments that were clearly visualized in rapid-frozen, freeze-etched preparations. Purkinje cell dendritic spines are filled with a meshwork of 5-7-nm filaments that were found to contact the spine membrane everywhere except...

1983-01-01

166

Primary leptomeningeal lymphoma of the lumbar spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes primary leptomeningeal lymphoma (PLML) of the spine in a 58-year-old female. LML is rare, especially in the immunocompetent, and it is almost always secondary in origin. To our knowledge, there have been very few cases of PLML of the lumbar spine reported in the literature and even fewer reports using recent MR imaging (MRI) technology to aid with diagnosis. MRI is useful in differentiating CNS lesions and may be helpful in the diagnosis of this extremely rare primary lymphoma. PLML is briefly reviewed. PMID:14585565

Carlson, Christian L; Hartman, Robert; Ly, Justin Q; Beall, Douglas P

2003-01-01

167

Sagittal parameters of the spine: biomechanical approach  

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According to the anatomical segmentation, spine curves are the sacral kyphosis (sacrum), lumbar lordosis (L1 to L5), thoracic kyphosis (T1 to T12) and cervical lordosis (C1 to C7). From the morphological point of view the vertebrae of a curve are not identical: from cranial to caudal and vice versa there is a progressive anatomical modification. Both curves of the thoraco-lumbar spine may be divided at the Inflexion Point where lordosis turns into kyphosis. A geometrical construct of each cur...

Roussouly, Pierre; Pinheiro-franco, Joa?o Luiz

2011-01-01

168

[Osteoid osteoma of the cervical spine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoid osteoma of the cervical spine is a rare benign tumour. A case of a 26 year-old female with osteoid osteoma in C2 is presented. She had a six year history of pain in the neck region. She suffered from limited neck movement, accentuation of pain during the night, but distinctive salicylate pain relief. Scintigraphic bone scan and CT scan, rather than MRI-scan are the most useful for localisation of the tumour in the spine and are essential for optimal planning before surgery is performed. PMID:10835973

Jalel, O A; Wulff, C; Varmarken, J E

2000-04-24

169

Cervical spine fractures and dislocations in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospectivce analysis of pediatric admissions over 10 years revealed 29 patients with cervical spine injuries. Eleven patients were below 12 years of age, and 10 of these had injuries involving C1, C2 or the occipitoatlantal articulation. Eighteen patients were between 12 and 16 years of age with injuries distributed throughout the cervical spine similar to injuries in the adult population. Our results suggest that teenagers with suspected cervical injuries are best evaluated by an adult radiographic series including trauma oblique views. In younger patients, careful evaluation of occipitoatlantoaxial alignment and the prevertebral soft tissues is required for diagnosis and selection of additional imaging evaluation. (orig.)

170

Synergy of the human spine in neutral postures  

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The neutral position of the spine is the posture most commonly sustained throughout daily activities. Previous investigations of the spine focused mainly on maximal exertions in various symmetric and asymmetric postures. This report proposes a new synergetic approach for analysis of the spine in neutral postures and evaluates its performance. The model consists of passive components, the osteoligamentous spine, and active components, the spinal muscles. The muscle architecture includes 60 mus...

Kiefer, A.; Shirazi-adl, A.; Parnianpour, M.

1998-01-01

171

The Relationship between Recurrent Spine Surgery and Employment Status  

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Background: What is the quantitative relationship between repeated surgical intervention and unemployment in the spine surgery population? And, does the literature pay sufficient attention to this important aspect of spine surgery outcome? Methods: This was a retrospective review of 905 patients of working age undergoing one of three types of spine surgery. The index surgery at the time of the study was either on the cervical or lumbar spine. We retrospectively collected data on patients’ e...

Mohammad Sami Walid; Nadezhda Zaytseva; Moataz Abbara; Azhar Abdullah

2011-01-01

172

N-Cadherin, Spine Dynamics, and Synaptic Function  

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Dendritic spines are one half (the postsynaptic half) of most excitatory synapses. Ever since the direct observation over a decade ago that spines can continually change size and shape, spine dynamics has been of great research interest, especially as a mechanism for structural synaptic plasticity. In concert with this ongoing spine dynamics, the stability of the synapse is also needed to allow continued, reliable synaptic communication. Various cell-adhesion molecules help to structurally st...

ShreeshPMysore

2008-01-01

173

Dynamic microtubules regulate dendritic spine morphology and synaptic plasticity  

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Dendritic spines are the major sites of excitatory synaptic input, and their morphological changes have been linked to learning and memory processes. Here, we report that growing microtubule plus ends decorated by the microtubule tip-tracking protein EB3 enter spines and can modulate spine morphology. We describe p140Cap/SNIP, a regulator of Src tyrosine kinase, as an EB3 interacting partner that is predominantly localized to spines and enriched in the postsynaptic density. Inhibition of micr...

Defilippi, Paola; Camera, Paola; Di Stefano, Paola

2009-01-01

174

A prospective study of spine fractures diagnosed by total spine computed tomography in high energy trauma patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since it is known to be impossible to identify spinal fractures in high-energy trauma patients the primary trauma evaluation, we have been performing total spine computed tomography (CT) in high-energy trauma cases. We investigated the spinal fractures that it was possible to detect by total spine CT in 179 cases and evaluated the usefulness of total spine CT prospectively. There were 54 (30.2%) spinal fractures among the 179 cases. Six (37.5%) of the 16 cervical spine fractures that were not detected on plain X-ray films were identified by total spine CT. Six (14.0%) of 43 thoracolumbar spine fractures were considered difficult to diagnose based on the clinical findings if total spine CT had not been performed. We therefore concluded that total spine CT is very useful and should be performed during the primary trauma evaluation in high-energy trauma cases. (author)

175

Differential effects of NMDA receptor antagonism on spine density.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors demonstrate that different NMDAR antagonists (ketamine and MK-801) have varying effects on spine density depending on dose, drug regimen, and brain region. While acute ketamine treatment increases cortical spine density in mice, subchronic exposure to either drug reduces spine density in both the cortex and striatum. PMID:25220437

Ruddy, Rebecca M; Chen, Yuxiao; Milenkovic, Marija; Ramsey, Amy J

2015-01-01

176

DRAR-CPI: a server for identifying drug repositioning potential and adverse drug reactions via the chemical–protein interactome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Identifying new indications for existing drugs (drug repositioning) is an efficient way of maximizing their potential. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is one of the leading causes of death among hospitalized patients. As both new indications and ADRs are caused by unexpected chemical–protein interactions on off-targets, it is reasonable to predict these interactions by mining the chemical–protein interactome (CPI). Making such predictions has recently been facilitated by a web server named DR...

Luo, Heng; Chen, Jian; Shi, Leming; Mikailov, Mike; Zhu, Huang; Wang, Kejian; He, Lin; Yang, Lun

2011-01-01

177

Computer codes used in the repositioning of garter springs in the fuel channels of the Embalse nuclear generation station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each of the 380 fuel channels (FC) of the Embalse Nuclear Generation Station (CNE) has 4 garter springs (GS) located between the pressure tube (PT) and the Calandria tube (CT) and distributed along the channel, aiming to avoid the contact PT/CT. Generally, the GS shifts from their design positions, and their actual positions have to be verified within each FC. If necessary, they have to be relocated to avoid PT/CT contact during the service life of the reactor. The localization and repositioning of the GS is performed with the SLARette (Spacer Location And Repositioning tooling) tool, and the decision to carry it out and where, is taken with a Computer Code developed in CNEA named MACACO (MAteriales CAnal COmbustible). This code permits to predict the evolution of the in service deformation of each Fuel Channel, and calculates the necessary operation time till an eventual PT/CT contact. This work presents results obtained with version 98 of the code MACACO and the criteria used in the repositioning of the GS. (author)

178

Technical note: Electrocardiogram electrode repositioning for 320-row coronary CT angiography in patients with regular and recurrent premature ventricular contractions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arrhythmias can compromise image quality and increase radiation exposure during coronary CT angiography (CTA). However, premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) can occur in a predictable recurrent and regular pattern (ie, bigeminy, trigeminy, quadrigeminy) with post-PVC compensatory pauses. Electrocardiographic (ECG) electrode repositioning can achieve relative amplification of the R waves of PVCs compared with R waves of sinus beats. This technical note describes how simple ECG electrode repositioning, combined with an absolute-delay strategy, facilitated selective R waves of PVC ECG triggering of image acquisition in 6 patients with PVC bigeminy or quadrigeminy at the time of 320-row coronary CTA. All 6 studies were single heartbeat acquisition scans with excellent image quality and a median effective radiation dose of 2.9 mSv (interquartile range, 2.1-3.8 mSv). Standard ECG electrode positions used for 2 patients with PVC bigeminy undergoing coronary CTA were associated with an acquisition over 2 heartbeats and effective radiation doses of 6.8 and 10.3 mSv, respectively. In conclusion, ECG electrode repositioning combined with an absolute-delay strategy for regularly recurring PVCs, such as ventricular bigeminy, facilitates high image quality and lower radiation dose during coronary CTA. This simple and straightforward technique can be considered for all patients with regular and recurrent PVCs undergoing coronary CTA. PMID:24582039

Kondo, Takeshi; Matsutani, Hideyuki; Groarke, John; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Rybicki, Frank J; Kumamaru, Kanako K

2014-01-01

179

Computational repositioning and preclinical validation of pentamidine for renal cell cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although early stages of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are curable, survival outcome for metastatic ccRCC remains poor. We previously established a highly accurate signature of differentially expressed genes that distinguish ccRCC from normal kidney. The purpose of this study was to apply a new individualized bioinformatics analysis (IBA) strategy to these transcriptome data in conjunction with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of the Connectivity Map (C-MAP) database to identify and reposition FDA-approved drugs for anticancer therapy. Here, we demonstrate that one of the drugs predicted to revert the RCC gene signature toward normal kidney, pentamidine, is effective against RCC cells in culture and in a RCC xenograft model. ccRCC-specific gene expression signatures of individual patients were used to query the C-MAP software. Eight drugs with negative correlation and P-value pentamidine, slows tumor growth in the 786-O human ccRCC xenograft mouse model. Our findings suggest that pentamidine might be a new therapeutic agent to be combined with current standard-of-care regimens for patients with metastatic ccRCC and support our notion that IBA combined with C-MAP analysis enables repurposing of FDA-approved drugs for potential anti-RCC therapy. PMID:24785412

Zerbini, Luiz Fernando; Bhasin, Manoj K; de Vasconcellos, Jaira F; Paccez, Juliano D; Gu, Xuesong; Kung, Andrew L; Libermann, Towia A

2014-07-01

180

A MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE REPOSITIONING: RESULTS IN 11 PATIENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most often in the posterior of the mandible of patients who need implants, the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN is too high to insert the implants, and the surgeons have to reposition IAN. In conventional techniques (to make the windows in the buccal aspect of the mandible removal of the corticocancellous bone may cause weakness of the mandible. Here we present a new technique in which the bone is removed to a lesser extent and the IAN is best protected by the curet. This new technique is called the guard technique. As a primary report, evaluation of 11 patients (who were treated by this technique is reported. There were few complications and IAN function was preserved in all patients. The mean time which the patients had temporary anesthesia was 7.3 days and the mean time that complete function of the nerve was returned was 3.3 months. Meanwhile the surgeon should also make an effort to make surgery and osteotomy far from the IAN. Most of the surgeons always avoid involving the IAN in a mandibular surgery; therefore, sometimes, they have to replace the IAN. Primary results of the new technique are promising.

H. Mahmood-Hashemi

2006-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

The Effectiveness of a Modified Type of the Mandibular Repositioning Device on the Elimination of Snoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Snoring is the most common sleep disorder which in itself may only be viewed as an obnoxious disturbance in human society; however it must be considered a potential indicator of significant medical problems such as: hypertension,obstructive sleep apnea, cerebrovascular infarction and ischemic heart disease.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified type of Mandibular Repositioning Device (MRD splint on the treatment of snoring.Materials and Methods: This before and after interventional study was carried out on 15 patients (4 females and 11 males who suffered from snoring. All subjects had no upper airway obstruction. Maxillary and mandibular splints were made by clear heatcuredacrylic resin. A special screw connected to the anterior portion of the maxillary splint and an orthodontic wire No 1 positioned on the lower splint. The devices were tried in the mouth and relined with a softliner. This appliance was designed to protrude the mandible by use of a screw system. Snoring grades were detemined before, and 3weeks after treatment with the MRD. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test.Results: A significant difference was observed between the snoring severity, before and after using the splints (P = 0.001.Conclusion: The present study showed this modified type of splint can be effective in decreasing or eliminating snoring. The effectiveness of the splint in the treatment of snoring could be related to its role of widening the upper airway.

B. Ebadian

2005-09-01

182

Lower leg neuromuscular changes following fibular reposition taping in individuals with chronic ankle instability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soleus and peroneus longus arthrogenic muscle inhibition has been reported in patients with chronic ankle instability. Fibular reposition taping (FRT) has been shown to improve outcomes however, the influence of FRT on neuromuscular function is unknown. The purpose was to determine the effects of FRT on soleus and peroneus longus h-reflex amplitude in patients with chronic ankle instability. This was a randomized, single blind, sham-controlled crossover laboratory experiment. Twelve young adults with chronic ankle instability (age: 21.5 ± 1.6, height: 173.8 ± 10.4, mass: 72.8 ± 16.3) participated in two testing sessions. We measured peak h-reflex and M-wave of the soleus and peroneus longus and v-wave of the soleus only. Measurements were recorded before and after the application of FRT or a sham tape intervention. Sessions were separated by a week and counterbalanced, h-reflex and v-wave were normalized to M-wave at each time point. Significant increase in h/M ratio was observed in the soleus following FRT compared to baseline, but not after the sham intervention. No difference in peroneus longus h/M ratio or soleus v/M ratio was observed in any session. FRT may be an effective modality for increasing soleus h-reflex for patients with chronic ankle instability. PMID:23302515

Chou, Esther; Kim, Kyung-Min; Baker, Andrew G; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

2013-08-01

183

Drug Repositioning and Pharmacophore Identification in the Discovery of Hookworm MIF Inhibitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a 'proof-of-concept' for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

Y Cho; J Vermeire; J Merkel; L Leng; X Du; R Bucala; M Cappello; E Lolis

2011-12-31

184

Whole-body MRI using a sliding table and repositioning surface coil approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To introduce and assess a new way of performing whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a non-integrated surface coil approach as available on most clinical MRI systems worldwide. Ten consecutive asymptomatic subjects prospectively underwent whole-body MRI for health screening. Whole-body MRI included T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted sequences, and was performed using a non-integrated surface coil to image four different stations without patient repositioning. The four separately acquired stations were merged, creating seamless coronal whole-body T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations were qualitatively assessed. The average time (±SD) taken to change the surface coil from one station to the next station was 53.8 (±7.1) s. The average total extra examination time ± SD was 2 min 41.4 s (±15.3 s). Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations of T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI were overall graded as ''good'' to ''excellent''. This study shows that a time-efficient and high-quality whole-body MRI examination can easily be performed by using a non-integrated sliding surface coil approach. (orig.)

185

Whole-body MRI using a sliding table and repositioning surface coil approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To introduce and assess a new way of performing whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a non-integrated surface coil approach as available on most clinical MRI systems worldwide. Ten consecutive asymptomatic subjects prospectively underwent whole-body MRI for health screening. Whole-body MRI included T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted sequences, and was performed using a non-integrated surface coil to image four different stations without patient repositioning. The four separately acquired stations were merged, creating seamless coronal whole-body T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations were qualitatively assessed. The average time ({+-}SD) taken to change the surface coil from one station to the next station was 53.8 ({+-}7.1) s. The average total extra examination time {+-} SD was 2 min 41.4 s ({+-}15.3 s). Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations of T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI were overall graded as ''good'' to ''excellent''. This study shows that a time-efficient and high-quality whole-body MRI examination can easily be performed by using a non-integrated sliding surface coil approach. (orig.)

Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas; Luijten, Peter [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kibune, Satoshi [Koga Hospital 21, Department of Radiology, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Ochiai, Reiji [Fukuoka Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, Tetsuro [Philips Healthcare Japan, Shinagawa (Japan); Niwa, Tetsu [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Van Cauteren, Marc [Philips Healthcare, Asia Pacific, Shinagawa (Japan)

2010-06-15

186

Variables Affecting Canalith Repositioning Maneuver (CRM Trend for Treating Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to identify variables affecting outcome in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV treated with canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM. Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 58 patients (14 males, 44 females, mean age 48.12+13.22 referred to the Vertigo Rehabilitation Clinic of the Rehabilitation School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from 2002 to 2004. All patients were treated with CRM. According to the treatment efficacy the patients were allocated in three groups: completely treated, partially treated, and not treated. The effect of factors including age, sex, etiology, duration of BPPV, unilateral or bilateral disease, number of maneuvers, and number of sessions on outcome in patients was evaluated. Results: Forty-nine patients (84.5% were completely cured. Age, sex, etiology, and duration did not significantly affect the treatment outcome. Unilateral BPPV can be treated significantly better than bilateral BPPV. Forty-seven patients who were completely treated needed 1 session and thirty-seven of them required 2 maneuvers. Conclusion: CRM is significantly effective for BPPV treatment. Treating unilateral BPPV is expected to be easier. As most of the patients will be cured by 1 or 2 maneuvers or in 1 session, patients who required more sessions or more maneuvers may not be completely treated.

E. Entezari

2006-07-01

187

Repositioning the use of the Bible towards a mission-oriented theological education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english It is an undeniable fact that mission remains the cardinal essence of the Church. However, in Africa and in Nigeria, the Church seems to have lost focus regarding the main reason for its existence, namely mission. One of the factors responsible for this may be the form of theological education in vo [...] gue. In view of this anomaly, this paper reflects on how the study of the Bible, which serves as the primary basis for theological education in some institutions, can be repositioned to enhance a mission-oriented theological education. The importance of proper interpretation of the Bible in enhancing missions can be premised on the fact that a sound biblical hermeneutics is prerequisite to the formulation of an effective and functional theology of missions. If our theology of mission is faulty, the practice cannot be anything but flawed. In view of this, the paper explores ways in which the Bible can be meaningfully studied in order to promote a mission-oriented theological education.

Adekunle O., Dada.

188

Posture and re-positioning considerations of a complete torso topographic analysis system for assessing scoliosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of posture and re-positioning (sway and breathing) on the accuracy of a torso imaging system for assessing scoliosis was evaluated. The system comprised of a rotating positioning platform and one or two laser digitizers. It required four partial-scans taken at 90 ° intervals over 10 seconds to generate two complete torso scans. Its accuracy was previously determined to be 1.1+/-0.9mm. Ten evenly spaced cross-sections obtained from forty scans of five volunteers in four postures (free-standing, holding side supports, holding front supports and with their hands on their shoulders) were used to assess the variability due to posture. Twenty cross-sections from twenty scans of two volunteers holding side supports were used to assess the variability due to positioning. The variability due to posture was less than 4mm at each cross-section for all volunteers. Variability due to sway ranged from 0-3.5mm while that due to breathing ranged from 0-3mm for both volunteers. Holding side supports was the best posture. Taking the four shots within 10 seconds was optimal. As major torso features that are indicative of scoliosis are larger than 4mm in size, the system could be used in obtaining complete torso images used in assessing and managing scoliosis.

Ajemba, Peter O.; Durdle, Nelson G.; Hill, Doug L.; Raso, V. J.

2006-02-01

189

An Energy Efficient Simultaneous-Node Repositioning Algorithm for Mobile Sensor Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, wireless sensor network (WSN) applications have seen an increase in interest. In search and rescue, battlefield reconnaissance, and some other such applications, so that a survey of the area of interest can be made collectively, a set of mobile nodes is deployed. Keeping the network nodes connected is vital for WSNs to be effective. The provision of connectivity can be made at the time of startup and can be maintained by carefully coordinating the nodes when they move. However, if a node suddenly fails, the network could be partitioned to cause communication problems. Recently, several methods that use the relocation of nodes for connectivity restoration have been proposed. However, these methods have the tendency to not consider the potential coverage loss in some locations. This paper addresses the concerns of both connectivity and coverage in an integrated way so that this gap can be filled. A novel algorithm for simultaneous-node repositioning is introduced. In this approach, each neighbour of the failed node, one by one, moves in for a certain amount of time to take the place of the failed node, after which it returns to its original location in the network. The effectiveness of this algorithm has been verified by the simulation results. PMID:25152924

Hasbullah, Halabi; Nazir, Babar; Khan, Imran Ali

2014-01-01

190

Evaluation of temporomandibular joint disc-repositioning surgery with Mitek mini anchors  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate outcome of Mitek mini anchors (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) in TMJ discopexy and assess patient satisfaction based on MRI findings. Patients and Methods: 7 patients suffered from significant pain and dysfunction diagnosed on MRI findings as anterior disc displacement without reduction selected for this study. Anchor stability, assessment of positional changes and roofing were evaluated by postop MRI and OPTGs. Satisfaction was assessed with VAS. Preop and postop maximum interincisal opening measurements were compared. Results: There was significant difference between preop and posto P values of MIO and VAS. All 7 patients noted complete absence of pain at the postop 1-year follow-up. Only 1 patient had postop clicking but showed remarkable improvement of jaw functions (MIO). The articular disk was observed at its normal position in 6 patients except one patient whom MRI confirmed postop partial roofing. OPTGs reveal neither radiologic changes around the mini anchors in the condylar head nor any positional shifts. Conclusion: Disc repositioning with Mitek mini anchors represent improvement in post-op VAS scores and clinical findings (MIO) based on comparison preop and postop MRI scans and panoramic films. However, our study group consists of limited number of patients, further studies with more number of cases are required to evaluate the outcomes PMID:24665174

Göçmen, Gökhan; Varol, Altan; Karatas, Berfin; Basa, Selcuk

2013-01-01

191

Tubular foreign body or stent: safe retrieval or repositioning using the coaxial snare technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the utility and advantages of the coaxial snare technique in the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies. Using the coaxial snare technique, we attempted to retrieve tubular foreign bodies present in seven patients. The bodies were either stents which were malpositioned or had migrated from their correct position in the vascular system (n=2), a fragmented venous introducer sheath (n=1), fragmented drainage catheters in the biliary tree (n=2), or fractured external drainage catheters in the urinary tract (n=2). After passing a guidewire and/or a dilator through the lumina of these foreign bodies, we introduced a loop snare over the guidewire or dilator, thus capturing and retrieving them. In all cases, it was possible to retrieve or reposition the various items, using a minimum-sized introducer sheath or a tract. No folding was involved. In no case were surgical procedures required, and no complications were encountered. The coaxial snare technique, an application of the loop snare technique, is a useful and safe method for the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies, and one which involves minimal injury to the patient

192

Tubular foreign body or stent: safe retrieval or repositioning using the coaxial snare technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the utility and advantages of the coaxial snare technique in the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies. Using the coaxial snare technique, we attempted to retrieve tubular foreign bodies present in seven patients. The bodies were either stents which were malpositioned or had migrated from their correct position in the vascular system (n=2), a fragmented venous introducer sheath (n=1), fragmented drainage catheters in the biliary tree (n=2), or fractured external drainage catheters in the urinary tract (n=2). After passing a guidewire and/or a dilator through the lumina of these foreign bodies, we introduced a loop snare over the guidewire or dilator, thus capturing and retrieving them. In all cases, it was possible to retrieve or reposition the various items, using a minimum-sized introducer sheath or a tract. No folding was involved. In no case were surgical procedures required, and no complications were encountered. The coaxial snare technique, an application of the loop snare technique, is a useful and safe method for the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies, and one which involves minimal injury to the patient.

Seong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Yong Joo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Hyun Beom; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-01-01

193

Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

Hidetoshi Nojiri

2009-10-01

194

Lumbar spine curvature during office chair sitting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prolonged sitting is generally accepted as a high risk factor in low back pain and it is frequently suggested that a lordotic posture of the lumbar spine should be maintained during sitting. We asked whether the sagittal curvature of the lumbar spine during sitting is affected by the seat tilt, backrest and the direction of the synchronised mechanism of the back and seat tilt (synchro tilt). Two office chairs were tested by multibody analysis interfacing a human model with a chair model. Results indicate that a synchronised mechanism of an office chair representing a posterior tilt of the seat while the backrest is reclined maintains an evenly distributed lumbar lordosis. The segmental angles are between 3.1 and 3.6 degrees at the lumbar vertebrae 1/2-4/5 (L1/2-L4/5). These lumbar spine segmental angles are not sensitive to the backrest height. In contrast, a synchro tilt concept with a reduction of the seat's posterior tilt while the backrest is reclined causes a strong reduction of the lumbar lordosis in backrest recline with a maximum reduction from 11.7 to 2.8 degrees in L4/5. As a consequence of these results, a synchro tilt concept with a posterior tilt of the seat while the backrest is reclined is preferable from the lumbar spine kinematics point of view. PMID:11259935

Lengsfeld, M; Frank, A; van Deursen, D L; Griss, P

2000-11-01

195

Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine  

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We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

Hidetoshi Nojiri; Yoshio Sakuma; Soichi Uta

2009-01-01

196

Striatal spine plasticity in Parkinson's Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Striatal dopamine (DA denervation results in a significant loss of dendritic spines on medium spiny projection neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys, spines contacted either by cortical or thalamic glutamatergic terminals are severely affected on both direct and indirect striatofugal neurons. In rodents, indirect pathway neurons appear to be more sensitive, at least in early stages of acute dopamine denervation. The remaining corticostriatal and thalamostriatal axo-spinous synapses undergo complex ultrastructural remodeling consistent with increased synaptic activity in the DA-denervated primate striatum, which may explain the pathophysiological overactivity of the corticostriatal system reported in various animal models of parkinsonism. The calcium-mediated regulation of the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 was recognized as a possible underlying mechanism for striatal spine plasticity. Future studies to determine how alterations in striatal spine plasticity contribute to the symptomatology of parkinsonism are warranted.

RosaMVillalba

2010-12-01

197

Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine  

Science.gov (United States)

Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

2015-01-01

198

Gluteal abscess: A manifestation of Pott's spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 3-year-old girl presented with features suggestive of compression of cauda equina. In addition, she had soft, fluctuant gluteal swelling, which on aspiration yielded pus, positive for acid-fast bacilli on staining and culture. She showed significant clinicoradiological improvement following aspiration of pus and antitubercular treatment. Rare manifestations of cold abscess in the spine are discussed.

Kumar R

2003-01-01

199

Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

200

Does applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduce cervical spine radiography rates in alert patients with blunt trauma to the neck? A retrospective analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A cautious outlook towards neck injuries has been the norm to avoid missing cervical spine injuries. Consequently there has been an increased use of cervical spine radiography. The Canadian Cervical Spine rule was proposed to reduce unnecessary use of cervical spine radiography in alert and stable patients. Our aim was to see whether applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduced the need for cervical spine radiography without missing significant cervical spine injuries. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted in 2 hospitals. 114 alert and stable patients who had cervical spine radiographs for suspected neck injuries were included in the study. Data on patient demographics, high risk & low risk factors as per the Canadian Cervical Spine rule and cervical spine radiography results were collected and analysed. Results 28 patients were included in the high risk category according to the Canadian Cervical Spine rule. 86 patients fell into the low risk category. If the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied, there would have been a significant reduction in cervical spine radiographs as 86/114 patients (75.4% would not have needed cervical spine radiograph. 2/114 patients who had significant cervical spine injuries would have been identified when the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied. Conclusion Applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule for neck injuries in alert and stable patients would have reduced the use of cervical spine radiographs without missing out significant cervical spine injuries. This relates to reduction in radiation exposure to patients and health care costs.

Yesupalan Rajam

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Synapses and dendritic spines as pathogenic targets in Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synapses are sites of cell-cell contacts that transmit electrical or chemical signals in the brain. Dendritic spines are protrusions on dendritic shaft where excitatory synapses are located. Synapses and dendritic spines are dynamic structures whose plasticity is thought to underlie learning and memory. No wonder neurobiologists are intensively studying mechanisms governing the structural and functional plasticity of synapses and dendritic spines in an effort to understand and eventually treat neurological disorders manifesting learning and memory deficits. One of the best-studied brain disorders that prominently feature synaptic and dendritic spine pathology is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have revealed molecular mechanisms underlying the synapse and spine pathology in AD, including a role for mislocalized tau in the postsynaptic compartment. Synaptic and dendritic spine pathology is also observed in other neurodegenerative disease. It is possible that some common pathogenic mechanisms may underlie the synaptic and dendritic spine pathology in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22474602

Yu, Wendou; Lu, Bingwei

2012-01-01

202

MRI of the spine in endemic fluorosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate role of MRI in the diagnosis of the spinal lesions in endemic fluorosis. Methods: MRI of the spine in 81 patients with endemic fluorosis, including the cervical spine in 57 patients, thoracic spine in 10, and lumbar spine in 14, were analyzed and compared with X-ray plain films. Results: Fat-containing marrow in the vertebral bodies with endemic fluorosis was decreased and unevenly distributed. Signal intensity of the vertebral bodies was homogeneously or inhomogeneously decreased on T1- and T2- weighted images. The mean values of signal intensity of the cervical vertebral bodies from 3rd to 7th were lower in 32 patients with fluorosis than those in 100 patients of the control group on T1-weighted image (P1-weighted images, the signal intensity similar to yellow bone marrow within OPLL in 63 patients and within OYL in 36 patients was observed in 32 patients (50%) and in 31 patients (86%), respectively. Of the 81 patients, herniation of the intervertebral disk was found in 68 patients (84%), degeneration of und in 68 patients (84%), degeneration of the intervertebral disk was observed in 57 patients (70%), and spinal canal narrowing was found in 75 patients (93%), in which compression of the spinal cord was showed in 63 patients (78%) and pathologic changes within the cord were noted in 28 patients (35%). In 57 patients with fluorosis, MR showed compression of the cervical spinal cord in 48 patients (84.21%), the anterioposterior diameter of the cervical spinal canal on X-ray plain film was either 9 mm or less at any level of the vertebra (indicating the compression of the cervical spinal cord) in 41(71.92%) patients (P=0.115). In 57 patients with fluorosis and 100 patients of control group, intervertebral herniation was observed in 51 patients (89.47%) and 62 patients (62%), respectively (P<0.001), and intervertebral degeneration was noted in 37 patients (64.91%) and 37 patients (37%), respectively (P=0.001). Conclusion: The spine of endemic fluorosis with MR examination may interpret homogeneous or inhomogeneous low signal from the increasing activity of osteoblasts, content and distribution of the calcium fluoride and fat-containing bone marrow within the vertebral body. MR is superior to X-ray plain film in showing the compression and pathologic changes of the spine cord, intervertebral herniation, and intervertebral degeneration. (authors)

203

Nucleosome repositioning links DNA (de)methylation and differential CTCF binding during stem cell development.  

Science.gov (United States)

During differentiation of embryonic stem cells, chromatin reorganizes to establish cell type-specific expression programs. Here, we have dissected the linkages between DNA methylation (5mC), hydroxymethylation (5hmC), nucleosome repositioning, and binding of the transcription factor CTCF during this process. By integrating MNase-seq and ChIP-seq experiments in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and their differentiated counterparts with biophysical modeling, we found that the interplay between these factors depends on their genomic context. The mostly unmethylated CpG islands have reduced nucleosome occupancy and are enriched in cell type-independent binding sites for CTCF. The few remaining methylated CpG dinucleotides are preferentially associated with nucleosomes. In contrast, outside of CpG islands most CpGs are methylated, and the average methylation density oscillates so that it is highest in the linker region between nucleosomes. Outside CpG islands, binding of TET1, an enzyme that converts 5mC to 5hmC, is associated with labile, MNase-sensitive nucleosomes. Such nucleosomes are poised for eviction in ESCs and become stably bound in differentiated cells where the TET1 and 5hmC levels go down. This process regulates a class of CTCF binding sites outside CpG islands that are occupied by CTCF in ESCs but lose the protein during differentiation. We rationalize this cell type-dependent targeting of CTCF with a quantitative biophysical model of competitive binding with the histone octamer, depending on the TET1, 5hmC, and 5mC state. PMID:24812327

Teif, Vladimir B; Beshnova, Daria A; Vainshtein, Yevhen; Marth, Caroline; Mallm, Jan-Philipp; Höfer, Thomas; Rippe, Karsten

2014-08-01

204

Whole-body MRI using a sliding table and repositioning surface coil approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To introduce and assess a new way of performing whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a non-integrated surface coil approach as available on most clinical MRI systems worldwide. Methods Ten consecutive asymptomatic subjects prospectively underwent whole-body MRI for health screening. Whole-body MRI included T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted sequences, and was performed using a non-integrated surface coil to image four different stations without patient repositioning. The four separately acquired stations were merged, creating seamless coronal whole-body T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations were qualitatively assessed. Results The average time (±SD) taken to change the surface coil from one station to the next station was 53.8 (±7.1) s. The average total extra examination time ± SD was 2 min 41.4 s (±15.3 s). Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations of T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI were overall graded as “good” to “excellent”. Conclusion This study shows that a time-efficient and high-quality whole-body MRI examination can easily be performed by using a non-integrated sliding surface coil approach. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00330-009-1674-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19997846

Kwee, Thomas; Kibune, Satoshi; Ochiai, Reiji; Sakamoto, Tetsuro; Niwa, Tetsu; Van Cauteren, Marc; Luijten, Peter

2009-01-01

205

Cervical spine injury. Diagnosis, prognosis and management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cervical spine injuries are a common occurrence in multi-trauma patients and should be taken into account when planning further clinical management. This review describes in detail upper and lower cervical spine injuries and introduces the sub-axial injury classification (SLIC) that is based on three components: injury morphology, integrity of the discoligamentous complex and the neurologic status of the patient. If the total SLIC score is <3, non-surgical treatment is recommended. If the total is ?5, operative treatment is indicated as such a score is associated with instability and probably neurologic deficits. The precise diagnosis of the radiologist, which would include the SLIC classification, should facilitate clinical decision-making about further management. (orig.)

206

Computed tomography of the head and spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The textbook presents comprehensive information on all aspects of CT applied for diagnostic imaging of the head and spine. The clearly arranged material reflects the knowledge and practical experience of a specialist in CT-based diagnostic evaluation of the head and spine. 847 images of the usual RRR quality have been selected to visualize the complete range of cases and aspects, and are a source of learning and reference for interpretation of findings and differential diagnosis. Accompanying examination protocols and strategies support the procedure for optimization of diagnostic strategies. In addition, the detailed information about the normal anatomy and CT findings are helpful guides in differentiating between normal and pathologic appearances. The book is a reliable vademecum for radiologists, neurologists, or neurosurgeons. (orig./CB)

207

Endoplasmic reticulum Calcium stores in dendritic spines  

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Full Text Available Despite decades of research, the role of calcium stores in dendritic spines structure, function and plasticity is still debated. The reasons for this may have to do with the multitude of overlapping calcium handling machineries in the neuron, including stores, voltage and ligand gated channels, pumps and transporters. Also, different cells in the brain are endowed with calcium stores that are activated by different receptor types, and their differential compartmentalization in dendrites, spines and presynaptic terminals complicates their analysis. In the present review we address several key issues, including the role of calcium stores in synaptic plasticity, their role during development, in stress and in neurodegenerative diseases. Apparently, there is increasing evidence for a crucial role of calcium stores, especially of the ryanodine species, in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival.

Menahem Segal

2014-07-01

208

[Less invasive surgery for cervical spine].  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the currently most important subjects in the field of surgical treatment is the development of less invasiveness techniques, which includes those involving small openings with minimal skin incision, less pain, better preservation of function, less restriction of postoperative activities of daily livings (ADLs), early return to social activities, and so on. In surgery of the cervical spine, less pain and less restriction of postoperative ADLs seem to be more important for less invasive surgery than the size of openings or skin incisions because they are already small enough. This paper introduces less invasive methods for the cervical spine, such as the transvertebral key-hole foraminotomy for surgery via the anterior cervical approach and the spinous process-splitting expansive laminoplasty for surgery via the posterior cervical approach. The best method should be selected depending on the needs of each patient. PMID:19526830

Takayasu, Masakazu

2009-06-01

209

Upright positional MRI of the lumbar spine  

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Supine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used in the assessment of low back pain and radiculopathy. However, imaging findings often correlate poorly with clinical findings. This is partly related to the positional dependence of spinal stenosis, which reflects dynamic changes in soft-tissue structures (ligaments, disc, dural sac, epidural fat, and nerve roots). Upright MRI in the flexed, extended, rotated, standing, and bending positions, allows patients to reproduce the positions that bring about their symptoms and may uncover MRI findings that were not visible with routine supine imaging. Assessment of the degree of spinal stability in the degenerate and postoperative lumbar spine is also possible. The aim of this review was to present the current literature concerning both the normal and symptomatic spine as imaged using upright MRI and to illustrate the above findings using clinical examples.

Alyas, F.; Connell, D. [London Upright MRI Centre, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [London Upright MRI Centre, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)], E-mail: asif.saifuddin@rnoh.nhs.uk

2008-09-15

210

Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Title Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire Authors & Affiliations Henrik Hein Lauridsen1, Lise Hestbæk1,2 1. Research Unit for Clinical Biomechanics, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Clinical Locomotion Network, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark 2. Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Clinical Locomotion Network, Forskerparken 10A, 5230 Odense M, Denmark Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Therefore preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific instruments to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for children aged 9-12 years which could fill this gap in the literature. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases – the conceptualisation, development and testing phase. We used the conceptual model of Wilson and Cleary (1995) and divided the YSQ into two parts: part one included spinal prevalence estimates (including pictures of spinal area) and part two questions regarding pain, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. During the developing phase we used an iterative process to carefully rephrase existing items used in prior questionnaires such as the Standardised Nordic Questionnaire. To measure pain the “Revised Faces Pain Scale” (rFPS) was included. The testing phase consisted of an iterative method assessing respondent understanding during two pilot tests. In the first pilot test 52 4th grade children filled in the draft version of the YSQ. This was followed by a semi-structured interview two days later designed to obtain the same information ascontained in the YSQ, however, using different semantics and open-ended questions. The revised questionnaire was tested and reviewed a second time at the end of the first pilot test. The second pilot test included 23 children from the 4th grade. It followed similar procedures as the first pilot test but focused mainly on revised versions of the drawings demarcating the spinal areas. Results Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). Correlations between the rFPS and the interview NRS score ranged between 0.71 (cervical spine) and 0.84 (thoracic spine). Agreement between the questionnaire drawings and the interviews of the upper and lower boundaries of the spinal areas were 91.8% for the cervical spine and 67.4% (lumbar spine) and 63.3% (thoracic spine). This resulted in alterations to the drawings. Lastly, as some questions in the second part of the YSQ had a high prevalence of non-responses, it was decided to change question semantics and response options. Conclusion The Young Spine Questionnaire is a novel self-report measure of spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for understanding of content among target respondents, and the results showed acceptable agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings. On the basis of these preliminary results we conclude that the YSQ is a feasible and valid instrument to be used in cross-sectional cohort studies of children aged 9 to 12 years.

Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

211

Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

212

Retropharyngeal cold abscess without Pott's spine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Retropharyngeal abscesses are infections deep in the neck space that can pose an immediate life-threatening emergency, with potential for airway compromise and other catastrophic complications. In adults these abscesses can develop as a result of vertebral pyogenic osteomyelitis, tube Reculosis of t [...] he spine, or external injuries caused by endoscopes or foreign bodies (e.g. fish bones). Tuberculosis of the retropharyngeal space is one of the rare forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent the serious complications of the disease. We present a case of tuberculous retropharyngeal abscess in an adult woman without tuberculosis of the cervical spine who was managed surgically by aspirating the retropharyngeal abscess transorally, together with antituberculosis treatment.

J, Singh; H, Velankar; D, Shinde; N, Chordia; S, Budhwani.

2012-11-01

213

Stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary spine metastasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A clear consensus has not been established regarding the best treatment for solitary bone metastasis. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients with a controlled primary malignancy who had only solitary spine metastasis without metastasis to the extraspinal bone or viscera and underwent treatment between April 2007 and December 2012 with stereotactic body radiosurgery using CyberKnife, with a total dose of 24 Gy in three to four fractions. During that time, there were only four cases. This was effective in each case, and all the four patients had no local failure and remained alive at a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 64 to 80 months). Although our experience is limited, this study suggests that stereotactic body radiotherapy could be a feasible, safe, effective, and noninvasive alternative treatment for solitary spine metastasis in patients who are medically inoperable or unsuitable for surgery.

214

Stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary spine metastasis  

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A clear consensus has not been established regarding the best treatment for solitary bone metastasis. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients with a controlled primary malignancy who had only solitary spine metastasis without metastasis to the extraspinal bone or viscera and underwent treatment between April 2007 and December 2012 with stereotactic body radiosurgery using CyberKnife, with a total dose of 24 Gy in three to four fractions. During that time, there were only four cases. This was effective in each case, and all the four patients had no local failure and remained alive at a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 64 to 80 months). Although our experience is limited, this study suggests that stereotactic body radiotherapy could be a feasible, safe, effective, and noninvasive alternative treatment for solitary spine metastasis in patients who are medically inoperable or unsuitable for surgery.

Lee, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sun Medical Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Mison [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Jo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Eulji Universtiy School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-15

215

Biomechanical Comparison Of Intact Lumbar Lamp Spine And Endoscopic Discectomized Lamp Spine  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Purpose of current study was biomechanical comparison of changes wrought on motion segments after minimally invasive percutan endoscopic discectomized and intact spine. Materials and Methods: We prepared ten fresh-frozen lamb spines were used for this study. The spine of each specimen was dissected between L4-L5. The biomechanical tests for both intact spine and discectomized spine were performed by using axial compression testing machine (AG-I 10 kN, Shimadzu, Japanese. The axial compression was applied to all specimens with the loading speed of 5 mm/min. 8400 N/mm moment was applied to each specimen to achieve flexion and extension motions, right and left bending by a specially designed fixture. Results: In axial compression and flexion tests, the specimens were more stable according to displacement values. The displacement values of sectioned specimens were closer to intact specimens. Only displacement values of left-bending anteroposterior test for both situations were significant (0.05 ;#8805; P. Conclusion: PTED hasn't biomechanical and cilinical disadvantages. Endoscopic discectomy hadn't any disadvantages in stability. Only anterior-posterior displacement values of left bending test were statistically significant. We consider that cause of these results were due to the fact that all specimens had percutan transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED from left side.

Ahmet Karakasli

2012-06-01

216

Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson ?2 test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

217

Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies  

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Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson {chi}{sup 2} test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Dosda, Rosa; Molla, Enrique [Department of Radiology, Quiron Clinic, Avd. Blasco Ibanez, 14, 46010 Valencia (Spain)

2002-11-01

218

Spine fractures caused by horse riding  

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Study Design: Retrospective study and review of literature. Objectives: Study of demographic data concerning spinal fractures caused by horse riding, classification of fractures according to the AO and Load Sharing classifications, evaluation of mid-term radiological results and long-term functional results. Methods: A review of medical reports and radiological examinations of patients presented to our hospital with horse riding-related spine fractures over a 13-year period; long-term functio...

Siebenga, Jan; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Elzinga, Matthijs J.; Bakker, Fred C.; Haarman, Henk J. T. M.; Patka, Peter

2006-01-01

219

Intra- and Interday Reliability of Spine Rasterstereography  

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To determine intra- and interday reliability of spine rasterstereographic system Formetric 4D with and without reflective markers. Twenty-six healthy volunteers (M group) had two markers placed in correspondence of vertebra prominens and intergluteal cleft, and 24 volunteers (NM group) were assessed without markers. All participants were analyzed two times in the same day and one time on a separate day. Trunk length, kyphotic angle, lordotic angle, pelvic inclination, kyphotic and lordotic ap...

Carlo Baldari; Maria Chiara Gallotta; Alessandro Tito; Reis, Victor M.; Laura Guidetti; Valerio Bonavolontà

2013-01-01

220

Posterior approach to the degenerative cervical spine  

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Laminoplasty has been gradually accepted as a treatment for choice for cervical compression myelopathy. The historical perspective of laminoplasty is described. The aims of laminoplasty are to expand the spinal canal, to secure spinal stability, to preserve the protective function of the spine, and to preserve spinal mobility. Laminoplasty is indicated in myelopathic patients with a developmentally narrow spinal canal or multiple-level involvement combined with a relatively narrow canal. Seve...

Yonenobu, Kazuo; Oda, Takenori

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Osteoarthritis of the spine: the facet joints  

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Osteoarthritis (OA) of the spine involves the facet joints, which are located in the posterior aspect of the vertebral column and, in humans, are the only true synovial joints between adjacent spinal levels. Facet joint osteoarthritis (FJ OA) is widely prevalent in older adults, and is thought to be a common cause of back and neck pain. The prevalence of facet-mediated pain in clinical populations increases with increasing age, suggesting that FJ OA might have a particularly important role in...

Gellhorn, Alfred C.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Suri, Pradeep

2012-01-01

222

Pigmented villonodular synovitis in lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) very rarely develops in the lumbar spine. We have found no more than 14 cases in the literature, only three of which were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We present a case of PVNS is a lumbar facet joint. The results of imaging studies (including CT myelography and MRI) are described and discussed, and a review of the literature is provided. (Author) 9 refs

223

Rigid spine syndrome with respiratory failure.  

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The pathogenesis and therapy of respiratory failure in the rigid spine syndrome are discussed in two cases who improved with respiratory assistance. In both cases, the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide were reversed in arterial blood gas analysis and %VC was less than 30%. Remission from respiratory failure has been obtained by the use of a ventilator during the night. The cause of the respiratory failure in both cases was severe restrictive respiratory dysfunction due to extreme...

Morita, H.; Kondo, K.; Hoshino, K.; Maruyama, K.; Yanagisawa, N.

1990-01-01

224

Tapia Syndrome after Cervical Spine Surgery  

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Tapia syndrome is a rare entity characterized by unilateral paralysis of the tongue and vocal cord caused by Xth and XIIth cranial nerve lesions. However, there has been no report of Tapia syndrome immediately following spine surgery. A 47-year-old man underwent posterior decompressive laminectomy for cervical stenosis. The surgery took about 117 minutes and it was uneventful. Postoperatively he developed hoarseness of voice during speech, with deviation of tongue protrusion. On laryngoscopic...

Kang, Jung Hoon; Kim, Dong Min; Kim, Seok Won

2013-01-01

225

Arachnoiditis ossificans of the thoracic spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare disorder characterized by the development of calcifications of the arachnoid membrane of the thoracic and lumbar spines. It is an extremely rare cause of spinal canal stenosis and consequent neurological compromise, and its origins and optimal management remain unclear. We review of the literature that illustrates the challenges of diagnosis and treatment of arachnoiditis ossificans. A patient with arachnoiditis ossificans is discussed to illustrate the presentation, treatment, and prognosis of the disease. PMID:24291474

Bagley, Jacob H; Owens, T Ryan; Grunch, Betsy H; Moreno, Jessica R; Bagley, Carlos A

2014-03-01

226

Surgery for blastomycosis of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blastomycosis is a rare fungal infection that primarily produces acute lung infections but may disseminate to multiple sites, including the spine. Once vertebral involvement occurs, an untreated infection may result in vertebral body destruction and paraspinal and epidural abscess formation followed by neurologic injury and loss of structural integrity of the spine. We report the case of a 30-year-old man who had pulmonary blastomycosis (treated with oral itraconazole for 6 months) and presented with a 2-month history of mild thoracolumbar back pain and numbness and tingling in the lower extremities, but no neurologic deficits. Imaging revealed a destructive lesion of T11 with an extensive paravertebral and retropleural abscess tracking a spinal level above and below with extension into the spinal canal. The patient underwent incision and drainage, culture procurement and corpectomy of T11 with autogenous rib graft in a titanium cage, and, 1 week later, posterior fusion and instrumentation. Cultures were positive for Blastomycosis dermatitidis. Oral itraconazole was continued. Blastomycosis that disseminates to the spine may cause serious neurologic and structural complications. In most cases, long-term use of antifungal medication eradicates the infection. Should medical treatment fail, however, surgery is a useful option. PMID:25379755

Dimar, John R; Puno, Rolando M; Nowacki, Michael R; Carreon, Leah Y

2014-11-01

227

Giant cell tumor of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six patients with giant cell tumor of the spine had surgery between 1981 and 1995. Three lesions were located in the scrum, two lesions were in the thoracic spine, and one lesion was in the lumbar spine. Preoperatively, all patients had local pain and neurologic symptoms. Two patients had cement implanted after curettage or intralesional excision of the sacral tumor; one patient had a local relapse. After the second curettage and cement implantation, the tumor was controlled. One patient with a sacral lesion had marginal excision and spondylodesis; no relapse developed. Two patients with thoracic lesions had planned marginal excision and spondylodesis; the margins finally became intralesional, but no relapse developed. One patient with a lumbar lesion had incomplete removal of the tumor and received postoperative irradiation. At the final followup (median, 69 months), five of six patients were disease-free and one patient died of disease progression. Two of the five surviving patients had pain after standing or neurologic problems. Although some contamination occurred, planning a marginal excision of the lesion seems beneficial for vertebral lesions above the sacrum. Total sacrectomy of a sacral lesion seems to be too invasive when cement implantation can control the lesion. PMID:12151896

Ozaki, Toshifumi; Liljenqvist, Ulf; Halm, Henry; Hillmann, Axel; Gosheger, Georg; Winkelmann, Winfried

2002-08-01

228

Imaging guideline 1: blunt cervical spine trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical question: when do patients with blunt cervical spine trauma need imaging and which imaging modality should be used first? Purpose and scope: to assist clinicians in determining (i) the requirement for imaging in patients with acute blunt neck trauma and (ii) whether computed tomography or plain radiography is the more appropriate first test in those patients who need imaging. The details of guideline development are described fully in reference. The risk of clinically significant cervical spine injury being present if all five National X-radiography Utilization Study Group (NEXUS) criteria are negative is less than 0.1% and it is appropriate that these patients be managed without imaging. In contrast, patients with head injury requiring CT scanning are at substantially increased risk of cervical spine injury. Hanson et al. have determined that it may be a cost-effective procedure to image this group of patients initially with helical CT instead of plain radiographs if a high-energy mechanism of trauma was involved. Coronal and sagittal reformatted images should be viewed with axial images in order to maximize detection of fracture and dislocation, especially if plain radiographs are omitted as the first step. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

229

Sports-related injuries of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.)

230

Findings in osteosarcoma of the dorsal spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 60-year-old male had a left pneumonectomy four-and-a-half-years ago to remove a carcinoma of the lung; the surgery was followed by radiation therapy. In September 1997, he complained of back pain. When the back pain was investigated, a malignant tumor was found in the upper dorsal spine. Tumor decompression was performed in November 1997. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of radiation bone sarcoma and he was treated with postoperative chemotherapy. In April 1998, the patient had another surgery in which three ribs were removed from the upper left chest wall posteriorly and most of the tumor was removed from the left side of the spine. A second surgery was planned to remove tumor from the right side of the spine. An 18FDG study was requested to determine the extent of the tumor prior to the second operation. It is concluded that adding attenuation correction to the ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) gamma-camera, markedly improved the quality of the 18FDG images and the accuracy of the anatomical distribution of uptake

231

GABAA receptor membrane trafficking regulates spine maturity  

Science.gov (United States)

GABAA receptors (GABAARs), the principal sites of synaptic inhibition in the brain, are dynamic entities on the neuronal cell surface, but the role their membrane trafficking plays in shaping neuronal activity remains obscure. Here, we examined this by using mutant receptor ?3 subunits (?3S408/9A), which have reduced binding to the clathrin adaptor protein-2, a critical regulator of GABAAR endocytosis. Neurons expressing ?3S408/9A subunits exhibited increases in the number and size of inhibitory synapses, together with enhanced inhibitory synaptic transmission due to reduced GABAAR endocytosis. Furthermore, neurons expressing ?3S408/9A subunits had deficits in the number of mature spines and reduced accumulation of postsynaptic density protein-95 at excitatory synapses. This deficit in spine maturity was reversed by pharmacological blockade of GABAARs. Therefore, regulating the efficacy of synaptic inhibition by modulating GABAAR membrane trafficking may play a critical role in regulating spine maturity with significant implications for synaptic plasticity together with behavior. PMID:19617557

Jacob, Tija C.; Wan, Qin; Vithlani, Mansi; Saliba, Richard S.; Succol, Francesca; Pangalos, Menelas N.; Moss, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

232

Normal CT anatomy of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To analyse the anatomo-radiological correlation of the spine and spinal cord, 22 formalized, frozen anatomical specimens corresponding to different regions of the spinal column (8 cervical, 5 dorsal, and 9 lumbar) were studied by CT scans on axial, sagittal and coronal planes and by contact radiography after they were cut into anatomical slices in order to clarify the normal CT anatomy of the spinal column. The results obtained from CT patient scans, performed exclusively on the axial plane, were compared with those obtained from the anatomical specimens (both CT and contrast radiography). High resolution CT programs were used, enabling us to obtain better individualization of the normal structures contained in the spinal column. Direct sagittal and coronal sections were performed on the specimens in order to get further anatomo-radiological information. Enhanced CT studies of the specimens were also available because of the air already present in the subarachnoid spaces. Excellent visualization was obtained of bone structures, soft tissue and the spinal cord. High CT resolution of the spine appeares to be an excellent neuroradiological procedure to study the spine and spinal cord. A metrizamide CT scan is, however, necessary when a normal unenhanced CT scan is insufficient for diagnosis and when the spinal cord is not clearly visible, as often happens at the cervical level. Clinical findings are certainly very useful to ascertain the exact CT level and to limit the rtain the exact CT level and to limit the radiation exposure. (orig.)

233

Magnetic resonance imaging-guided spine injections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided spine injections describe techniques for selective spine injection procedures, in which MR imaging is used to visualize spinal targets and needle placement, monitor the injected drugs, and detect spread to potentially confounding nearby structures. The introduction of clinical high-field wide-bore MR imaging systems has increased the practicability and availability of MR-guided spine injections. The use of 1.5-T field strength, modern coils, and parallel imaging technology increases the MR signal, which can be utilized for faster temporal image acquisition, higher image resolution, better image contrast, or combinations thereof. Magnetic resonance imaging guidance provides excellent osseous and soft-tissue detail of spinal structures and is well suited to avoid radiation exposure. In this article, we discuss the technical background of interventional MR imaging, review the literature, and illustrate interventional MR imaging techniques of commonly performed spinal injection procedures, including sacroiliac joint injections, lumbar facet joint injections, selective spinal nerve root infiltration, and percutaneous drug delivery to the lumbar sympathetic nerves. PMID:23514922

Fritz, Jan; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Carrino, John A

2011-08-01

234

PEEK rod systems for the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional materials for the spine such as titanium and stainless steel have produced satisfying long-term fusion rates, mainly due to their strength and stiffness. However, although fixation with titanium rods leads to high fusion rates, increased stiffness of titanium constructs may also contribute to stress shielding and adjacent segment degeneration. Dynamic and flexible materials such as the Dynesys system allow better stress distribution to all of the spinal columns, but increase the rate of complications including screw loosening, infection, back and leg pain, and endplate vertebral fracture. Semi-rigid instrumentation systems using rods made from synthetic polymers such as the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) have been recently introduced as an alternative biomaterial for the spine. PEEK is a fully biocompatible and inert semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer with minimal toxicity; it has a modulus of elasticity between that of cortical and cancellous bone, and significantly lower than titanium. However, there are very few clinical studies with small sample size and short-term follow-up using PEEK rod-pedicle screw spinal instrumentation systems. Additionally, their results are conflicting. To enhance the literature, this review discusses the effect of this medical for the spine and summarizes the results of the most important related series. PMID:24487665

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Vottis, Christos; Triantafyllopoulos, George; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Pneumaticos, Spyros G

2014-07-01

235

ApoE4 delays dendritic spine formation during neuron development and accelerates loss of mature spines in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ?4 allele of the gene that encodes apolipoprotein E (APOE4 is the greatest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD, while APOE2 reduces AD risk, compared to APOE3. The mechanism(s underlying the effects of APOE on AD pathology remains unclear. In vivo, dendritic spine density is lower in APOE4-targeted replacement (APOE-TR mice compared with APOE2- and APOE3-TR mice. To investigate whether this apoE4-induced decrease in spine density results from alterations in the formation or the loss of dendritic spines, the effects of neuron age and apoE isoform on the total number and subclasses of spines were examined in long-term wild-type neurons co-cultured with glia from APOE2-, APOE3- and APOE4-TR mice. Dendritic spine density and maturation were evaluated by immunocytochemistry via the presence of drebrin (an actin-binding protein with GluN1 (NMDA receptor subunit and GluA2 (AMPA receptor subunit clusters. ApoE isoform effects were analyzed via a method previously established that identifies phases of spine formation (day-in-vitro, DIV10–18, maintenance (DIV18–21 and loss (DIV21–26. In the formation phase, apoE4 delayed total spine formation. During the maintenance phase, the density of GluN1+GluA2 spines did not change with apoE2, while the density of these spines decreased with apoE4 compared to apoE3, primarily due to the loss of GluA2 in spines. During the loss phase, total spine density was lower in neurons with apoE4 compared to apoE3. Thus, apoE4 delays total spine formation and may induce early synaptic dysfunction via impaired regulation of GluA2 in spines.

Evelyn Nwabuisi?Heath

2014-01-01

236

Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereoobservation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality oive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc. (J.P.N.)

237

Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereo observation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc.

Yoshinaga, Haruhiko (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

1984-05-01

238

Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements

239

Nerve Retraction During Inferior Alveolar Nerve Repositioning Procedure: A New Simple Method and Review of the Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Nerve Repositioning surgery is one of the treatments chosen for the patients with edentulous posterior atrophic mandible. Like any other treatments, this therapy has its advantages and disadvantages, indications and contraindications. The most important complication of this procedure is neurosensory disturbance. This problem may occur at different stages of the treatment. One of the common times that nerve damage happens , is when the nerve is located outside the canal and the drilling and inserting of the implant are performed. Accordingly, this report describes a simple and feasible method to retract and protect nerves outside the canal during the treatment of nerve transposition. It will reduce the risk of nerve damage. PMID:24344674

Hassani, Ali; Saadat, Sarang; Moshiri, Roya; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh; Hassani, Amin

2013-12-17

240

CRP induces the repositioning of MalT at the Escherichia coli malKp promoter primarily through DNA bending.  

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Activation of transcription initiation at the Escherichia coli malKp promoter requires the repositioning of MalT, the primary activator, from a set of non-productive sites to a set of productive sites, which is staggered by 3 bp. Occupation of the latter relies on the formation of a higher order structure involving distal MalT sites and the binding of CRP (cAMP receptor protein) to three sites located in the intervening region. We show here that one can successfully replace all of the CRP sit...

Richet, E.; Søgaard-andersen, L.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Efficacy and safety of instrumentation in caries spine  

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Background: Spinal instrumentation may be used in tuberculosis of spine for prevention or correction of deformity. Methods: Thirty eight patients of caries spine underwent surgery with spinal instrumentation in the last 3 years. Out of these patients, 30 cases have completed a minimum follow-up of 9 months (Range 9 to 39 months, mean 12.8 months). The regional distribution was 1 in the craniocervical junction, 7 in the subaxial cervical spine, 3 in the cervicothoracic junctio...

Basu Saumyajit; Chatterjee Sandip; Bhattacharyya M

2006-01-01

242

Incidental durotomy in lumbar spine surgery: incidence and management  

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There is increasing awareness of the need to inform patients of common complications that occur during surgical procedures. During lumbar spine surgery, incidental tear of the dural sac and subsequent cerebrospinal fluid leak is possibly the most frequently occurring complication. There is no consensus in the literature about the rate of dural tears in spine surgery. We have undertaken this study to evaluate the incidence of dural tears among spine surgeons in the United Kingdom for commonly ...

Tafazal, Suhayl I.; Sell, Philip J.

2005-01-01

243

Accelerators, Brakes, and Gears of Actin Dynamics in Dendritic Spines  

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Dendritic spines are actin-rich structures that accommodate the postsynaptic sites of most excitatory synapses in the brain. Although dendritic spines form and mature as synaptic connections develop, they remain plastic even in the adult brain, where they can rapidly grow, change, or collapse in response to normal physiological changes in synaptic activity that underlie learning and memory. Pathological stimuli can adversely affect dendritic spine shape and number, and this is seen in neurode...

Pontrello, Crystal G.; Ethell, Iryna M.

2009-01-01

244

Maladaptive dendritic spine remodeling contributes to diabetic neuropathic pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic neuropathic pain imposes a huge burden on individuals and society, and represents a major public health problem. Despite aggressive efforts, diabetic neuropathic pain is generally refractory to available clinical treatments. A structure-function link between maladaptive dendritic spine plasticity and pain has been demonstrated previously in CNS and PNS injury models of neuropathic pain. Here, we reasoned that if dendritic spine remodeling contributes to diabetic neuropathic pain, then (1) the presence of malformed spines should coincide with the development of pain, and (2) disrupting maladaptive spine structure should reduce chronic pain. To determine whether dendritic spine remodeling contributes to neuropathic pain in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, we analyzed dendritic spine morphology and electrophysiological and behavioral signs of neuropathic pain. Our results show changes in dendritic spine shape, distribution, and shape on wide-dynamic-range (WDR) neurons within lamina IV-V of the dorsal horn in diabetes. These diabetes-induced changes were accompanied by WDR neuron hyperexcitability and decreased pain thresholds at 4 weeks. Treatment with NSC23766 (N(6)-[2-[[4-(diethylamino)-1-methylbutyl]amino]-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl]-2-methyl-4,6-quinolinediamine trihydrochloride), a Rac1-specific inhibitor known to interfere with spine plasticity, decreased the presence of malformed spines in diabetes, attenuated neuronal hyperresponsiveness to peripheral stimuli, reduced spontaneous firing activity from WDR neurons, and improved nociceptive mechanical pain thresholds. At 1 week after STZ injection, animals with hyperglycemia with no evidence of pain had few or no changes in spine morphology. These results demonstrate that diabetes-induced maladaptive dendritic spine remodeling has a mechanistic role in neuropathic pain. Molecular pathways that control spine morphogenesis and plasticity may be promising future targets for treatment. PMID:22593049

Tan, Andrew M; Samad, Omar A; Fischer, Tanya Z; Zhao, Peng; Persson, Anna-Karin; Waxman, Stephen G

2012-05-16

245

A compartmental model for activity-dependent dendritic spine branching.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic spines are small, mushroom-like protrusions from the arbor of a neuron in the central nervous system. Interdependent changes in the morphology, biochemistry, and activity of spines have been associated with learning and memory. Moreover, post-mortem cortices from patients with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease exhibit biochemical and physical alterations within their dendritic arbors and a reduction in the number of dendritic spines. For over a decade, experimentalists have observed perforations in postsynaptic densities on dendritic spines after induction of long-term potentiation, a sustained enhancement of response to a brief electrical or chemical stimulus, associated with learning and memory. In more recent work, some suggest that activity-dependent intraspine calcium may regulate the surface area of the spine head, and reorganization of postsynaptic densities on the surface. In this paper, we develop a model of a dendritic spine with the ability to partition its transmission and receptor zones, as well as the entire spine head. Simulations are initially performed with fixed parameters for morphology to study electrical properties and identify parameters that increase efficacy of the synaptic connection. Equations are then introduced to incorporate calcium as a second messenger in regulating continuous changes in morphology. In the model, activity affects compartmental calcium, which regulates spine head morphology. Conversely, spine head morphology affects the level of local activity, whether the spines are modeled with passive membrane properties, or excitable membrane using Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics. Results indicate that merely separating the postsynaptic receptors on the surface of the spine may add to the diversity of circuitry, but does not change the efficacy of the synapse. However, when the surface area of the spine is a dynamic variable, efficacy of the synapse may vary continuously over time. PMID:19172359

Verzi, D W; Noris, O Y

2009-07-01

246

Synapses and Dendritic Spines as Pathogenic Targets in Alzheimer's Disease  

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Synapses are sites of cell-cell contacts that transmit electrical or chemical signals in the brain. Dendritic spines are protrusions on dendritic shaft where excitatory synapses are located. Synapses and dendritic spines are dynamic structures whose plasticity is thought to underlie learning and memory. No wonder neurobiologists are intensively studying mechanisms governing the structural and functional plasticity of synapses and dendritic spines in an effort to understand and eventually trea...

Wendou Yu; Bingwei Lu

2012-01-01

247

Spatiotemporal dynamics of dendritic spines in the living brain  

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Dendritic spines are ubiquitous postsynaptic sites of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, and thus may serve as structural indicators of functional synapses. Recent works have suggested that neuronal coding of memories may be associated with rapid alterations in spine formation and elimination. Technological advances have enabled researchers to study spine dynamics in vivo during development as well as under various physiological and pathological conditions. We believe that bett...

Yi Zuo; Ju Lu

2014-01-01

248

Effects of N-Cadherin Disruption on Spine Morphological Dynamics  

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Structural changes at synapses are thought to be a key mechanism for the encoding of memories in the brain. Recent studies have shown that changes in the dynamic behavior of dendritic spines accompany bidirectional changes in synaptic plasticity, and that the disruption of structural constraints at synapses may play a mechanistic role in spine plasticity. While the prolonged disruption of N-cadherin, a key synaptic adhesion molecule, has been shown to alter spine morphology, little is known a...

ShreeshPMysore; Chin-YinTai; ErinMSchuman

2007-01-01

249

Paravertebral muscles in disease of the cervical spine.  

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OBJECTIVES: Cervical spine disorders are common in the older population. The paravertebral muscles are essential to the support and stabilisation of the cervical spine but have been little studied. The aim was to determine whether pathological changes develop in these muscles in patients with severe cervical spine disease, which, if present, might contribute to the pathogenesis and symptomatology of their disorder. METHODS: Open biopsies of superficial and deep paravertebral muscles were obta...

Wharton, S. B.; Chan, K. K.; Pickard, J. D.; Anderson, J. R.

1996-01-01

250

Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm{sup 2} in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm{sup 2} and 0.765g/cm{sup 2}. Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures.

Juhng, Seon Kwan [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-salem (United States)

2001-04-01

251

Reduced pressure for fewer pressure ulcers: can real-time feedback of interface pressure optimise repositioning in bed?  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to (i) describe registered nurses' and assistant nurses' repositioning skills with regard to their existing attitudes to and theoretical knowledge of pressure ulcer (PU) prevention, and (ii) evaluate if the continuous bedside pressure mapping (CBPM) system provides staff with a pedagogic tool to optimise repositioning. A quantitative study was performed using a descriptive, comparative design. Registered nurses (n?=?19) and assistant nurses (n?=?33) worked in pairs, and were instructed to place two volunteers (aged over 70 years) in the best pressure-reducing position (lateral and supine), first without viewing the CBPM monitor and then again after feedback. In total, 240 positionings were conducted. The results show that for the same person with the same available pressure-reducing equipment, the peak pressure varied considerably between nursing pairs. Reducing pressure in the lateral position appeared to be the most challenging. Peak pressures were significantly reduced, based on visual feedback from the CBPM monitor. The number of preventive interventions also increased, as well as patients' comfort. For the nurses as a group, the knowledge score was 59·7% and the attitude score was 88·8%. Real-time visual feedback of pressure points appears to provide another dimension to complement decision making with respect to PU prevention. PMID:25224508

Gunningberg, Lena; Carli, Cheryl

2014-09-16

252

Repositioning of Barcelona’s Image in the Light of a Redefinition of the Urban Tourism Planning Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Barcelona’s city tourism model over the last fifteen years has chalked up many successes in terms of soaring tourist numbers, overnight stays, cruise liner passengers, hotel beds and visits to priced sights. Growth in city breaks has soared to the point where Barcelona has become one of Europe’s most visited cities. But this growth has come at a heavy price: mass tourism, concentration in certain neighbourhoods, competition for space between tourists and residents, lack of adequate inter-modal transport. All of these problems threaten Barcelona’s competitive position. The paper reviews the city’s competitiveness, comparing Barcelona to ten other European cities. Starting out from a qualitative analysis of internal players and a Delphi Study with external players, we find thecity’s tourism model needs correcting. We also identify the vectors and most important factors for achieving this repositioning. The vectors reinforce the competitiveness concerning the model’s sustainability, integrated management and governance, and client orientation. The proposed strategic repositioning will allow Barcelona to continue competing with Europe’s main cities.

Josep-Francesc Valls

2013-01-01

253

A cost-outcome analysis of Image-Guided Patient Repositioning in the radiation treatment of cancer of the prostate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: With Image-Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) rapidly gaining acceptance in the clinic it is timely to commence an assessment of its potential outcome benefit versus costs. Materials and methods: Using Activity-Based Costing we have calculated the incremental cost of adding Image-Guided Patient Repositioning (IGPR), a significant component of IGRT, to both Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3DCRT) for prostate cancer. The dosimetric outcome benefit resulting from the implementation of IGPR is estimated from a publication describing the improvement in set-up accuracy using each of four correction protocols. In our study outcome is quantified using a metric based on the Equivalent Uniform Dose. Our discussion is limited to image-guided corrective translations of the patient and does not specifically address margin reduction, rotations, organ deformation or major equipment failure modes, all of which are significant additional justifications for implementing an IGRT program. Results: Image guidance used solely for translational patient repositioning for prostate cancer adds costs with relatively little improvement in dosimetric quality. Full exploitation of the potential of IGRT, particularly through margin reduction, can be expected to result in a reduction in the cost-outcome ratios reported here. Conclusions: IMRT benefits more than 3DCRT from IGPR with the Weekly Shrinking Action Level PR with the Weekly Shrinking Action Level approach yielding the lowest cost-outcome ratio.

254

Conserved substitution patterns around nucleosome footprints in eukaryotes and Archaea derive from frequent nucleosome repositioning through evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nucleosomes, the basic repeat units of eukaryotic chromatin, have been suggested to influence the evolution of eukaryotic genomes, both by altering the propensity of DNA to mutate and by selection acting to maintain or exclude nucleosomes in particular locations. Contrary to the popular idea that nucleosomes are unique to eukaryotes, histone proteins have also been discovered in some archaeal genomes. Archaeal nucleosomes, however, are quite unlike their eukaryotic counterparts in many respects, including their assembly into tetramers (rather than octamers) from histone proteins that lack N- and C-terminal tails. Here, we show that despite these fundamental differences the association between nucleosome footprints and sequence evolution is strikingly conserved between humans and the model archaeon Haloferax volcanii. In light of this finding we examine whether selection or mutation can explain concordant substitution patterns in the two kingdoms. Unexpectedly, we find that neither the mutation nor the selection model are sufficient to explain the observed association between nucleosomes and sequence divergence. Instead, we demonstrate that nucleosome-associated substitution patterns are more consistent with a third model where sequence divergence results in frequent repositioning of nucleosomes during evolution. Indeed, we show that nucleosome repositioning is both necessary and largely sufficient to explain the association between current nucleosome positions and biased substitution patterns. This finding highlights the importance of considering the direction of causality between genetic and epigenetic change. PMID:24278010

Warnecke, Tobias; Becker, Erin A; Facciotti, Marc T; Nislow, Corey; Lehner, Ben

2013-01-01

255

Thoracolumbar spine fractures in frontal impact crashes.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is currently no injury assessment for thoracic or lumbar spine fractures in the motor vehicle crash standards throughout the world. Compression-related thoracolumbar fractures are occurring in frontal impacts and yet the mechanism of injury is poorly understood. The objective of this investigation was to characterize these injuries using real world crash data from the US-DOT-NHTSA NASS-CDS and CIREN databases. Thoracic and lumbar AIS vertebral body fracture codes were searched for in the two databases. The NASS database was used to characterize population trends as a function of crash year and vehicle model year. The CIREN database was used to examine a case series in more detail. From the NASS database there were 2000-4000 occupants in frontal impacts with thoracic and lumbar vertebral body fractures per crash year. There was an increasing trend in incidence rate of thoracolumbar fractures in frontal impact crashes as a function of vehicle model year from 1986 to 2008; this was not the case for other crash types. From the CIREN database, the thoracolumbar spine was most commonly fractured at either the T12 or L1 level. Major, burst type fractures occurred predominantly at T12, L1 or L5; wedge fractures were most common at L1. Most CIREN occupants were belted; there were slightly more females involved; they were almost all in bucket seats; impact location occurred approximately half the time on the road and half off the road. The type of object struck also seemed to have some influence on fractured spine level, suggesting that the crash deceleration pulse may be influential in the type of compression vector that migrates up the spinal column. Future biomechanical studies are required to define mechanistically how these fractures are influenced by these many factors. PMID:23169137

Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Maiman, Dennis J; Scarboro, Mark; Rudd, Rodney W

2012-01-01

256

Augmented reality visualization for thoracoscopic spine surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

We are developing an augmented reality (AR) image guidance system in which information derived from medical images is overlaid onto a video view of the patient. The centerpiece of the system is a head-mounted display custom fitted with two miniature color video cameras that capture the stereo view of the scene. Medical graphics is overlaid onto the video view and appears firmly anchored in the scene, without perceivable time lag or jitter. We have been testing the system for different clinical applications. In this paper we discuss minimally invasive thoracoscopic spine surgery as a promising new orthopedic application. In the standard approach, the thoracoscope - a rigid endoscope - provides visual feedback for the minimally invasive procedure of removing a damaged disc and fusing the two neighboring vertebrae. The navigation challenges are twofold. From a global perspective, the correct vertebrae on the spine have to be located with the inserted instruments. From a local perspective, the actual spine procedure has to be performed precisely. Visual feedback from the thoracoscope provides only limited support for both of these tasks. In the augmented reality approach, we give the surgeon additional anatomical context for the navigation. Before the surgery, we derive a model of the patient's anatomy from a CT scan, and during surgery we track the location of the surgical instruments in relation to patient and model. With this information, we can help the surgeon in both the global and local navigation, providing a global map and 3D information beyond the local 2D view of the thoracoscope. Augmented reality visualization is a particularly intuitive method of displaying this information to the surgeon. To adapt our augmented reality system to this application, we had to add an external optical tracking system, which works now in combination with our head-mounted tracking camera. The surgeon's feedback to the initial phantom experiments is very positive.

Sauer, Frank; Vogt, Sebastian; Khamene, Ali; Heining, Sandro; Euler, Ekkehard; Schneberger, Marc; Zuerl, Konrad; Mutschler, Wolf

2006-03-01

257

Percutaneous spine injection: considerations for improving treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To discuss the causes of treatment failure in percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radiculopathy by analyzing patients who have experienced negative treatment effect on their first visit and a positive treatment effect on their second visit. The authors reviewed the cases of 24 patients who visited the pain intervention outpatient department in our hospital due to back pain or radiculopathy. All patients reviewed experienced a negative treatment effect following their first spine injection, but a positive treatment effect following the second injection. The dates of the cases range from June 2003 to May 2004. Two radiologists analyzed the possible causes of the negative treatment effect following the first injection therapies by considering clinical aspects as well as reviewing radiological images. The most common condition was the presence of the change in the level of the second selective nerve root block (n=13). In seven cases, the methods for administering the injections were changed to facet block (n=2), midline epidural block (n=1), selective nerve root block (n=3) and caudal epidural block (n=1). In four cases, there were no changes in the methods for administering the injections nor were there any changes in the level of the selective nerve root block between first and second visit. In those cases, after reviewing spot radiographs performed during injection, we attributed the causes of failure of injection therapy to an inappropriate distributionn therapy to an inappropriate distribution of drugs. We can improve the effect of percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radioculopathy by determining the exact level of perineural root block, trying alternative methods, and insuring a good distribution of the injected drugs

258

Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

259

Diffuse demineralization of the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On plain radiographs, diffuse infiltration of the spine in multiple myeloma may present as diffuse demineralization. Differentiation from osteoporotic changes is then difficult. 15 patients with multiple myeloma and 15 patients with osteoporosis were prospectively examined by MRI using plain and contrast enhanced gradient echo techniques. Examinations were evaluated for lesions and diagnosis was made by two independent observers. Contrast enhancement was visible in lesions detected in myeloma patients and in compression fractures. Fractures could be diffentiated from malignant lesions by the fact that there was no multiplicity of enhancing lesions. Contrast enhanced opposed phase gradient echo sequences seem suited for the detection of vertebral envolvement in myeloma. (orig.)

260

Aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cases of twenty-two patients with an aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine above the sacrum were analyzed with regard to sex, age, site, symptoms, and radiographic findings. Four patients had extension of the lesion to the adjacent vertebra or rib, and twelve patients had neurological deficits. The primary treatment was either radiotherapy or surgery alone, or surgery and radiotherapy combined. No recurrences were found in patients who were treated with surgery alone or with surgery and radiotherapy, while three of the six patients who were treated with radiotherapy had a local recurrence, two of which were fatal. The patients with neurological deficits recovered after healing of the cyst. PMID:3980496

Capanna, R; Albisinni, U; Picci, P; Calderoni, P; Campanacci, M; Springfield, D S

1985-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Koh, Yoon-Woo [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Kim, Hee-Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jung-Mi [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea)

2008-04-15

262

Emergency neurological life support: traumatic spine injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic spine injuries (TSIs) carry significantly high risks of morbidity, mortality, and exorbitant health care costs from associated medical needs following injury. For these reasons, TSI was chosen as an ENLS protocol. This article offers a comprehensive review on the management of spinal column injuries using the best available evidence. Though the review focuses primarily on cervical spinal column injuries, thoracolumbar injuries are briefly discussed as well. The initial emergency department clinical evaluation of possible spinal fractures and cord injuries, along with the definitive early management of confirmed injuries, are also covered. PMID:22965323

Stein, Deborah M; Roddy, Vincent; Marx, John; Smith, Wade S; Weingart, Scott D

2012-09-01

263

MR of the postoperative lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, 40 patients who had undergone disc surgery were examined by high resolution CT and MR for possible recurrence of the disc prolapse and the results are compared. It appears that high resolution spinal MR, using its various tissue parameters provides no new insights into possible recurrence of a disc prolapse. As in the case with CT, the investigator must also evaluate other morphological and clinical factors. In spite of this, MR can be useful in the investigation of abnormal spines. (orig.)

264

Incidence of venous thromboembolism after spine surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has varied among studies of patients undergoing elective spine surgery. This may be because of differences in prophylaxis for VTE and differences in methods of observation. Furthermore, some studies have reported symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary thromboembolism (PE), whereas others have included asymptomatic DVT or PE, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic PE in patients undergoing elective spine surgery and to evaluate therapeutic methods for these conditions. The subjects were 1975 patients who underwent spine surgery in our hospital from 1990 to 2011. Patients treated from January 1990 to November 1996 (n=541, Group A) did not receive prophylaxis whereas those treated from January 2000 to February 2011 (n=1,434, Group B) used a foot pump during and after surgery and subsequently wore elastic stockings. All subjects in Group A began ambulation ?2 weeks after surgery whereas those in Group B began to walk earlier-within 3 days for patients who underwent decompression and within 1 week for those treated with fusion. From June 2010 to February 2011, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed 1 week after surgery for 100 patients to evaluate the presence of DVT and PE. Since March 2004, D-dimer was measured 1 week after surgery and patients with a level ?10 ?g/mL were followed up. The incidence g/mL were followed up. The incidence of symptomatic PE was significantly higher in Group A than in Group B (8/541, 1.5% vs. 3/1,434, 0.2%). In 3 patients in Group B, PE developed within 1 week postoperatively and D-dimer values at onset were ?10 ?g/mL. In the 100 cases examined by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), asymptomatic PE and VTE were detected in 18 and 19%, respectively. The D-dimer level 1 week after surgery was ?10 ?g/mL in 105 of 841 patients; however, none of these patients had clinically symptomatic VTE for at least 3 months postoperatively. Mechanical prophylaxis and early ambulation may be effective in reducing the incidence of symptomatic PE after spine surgery. Asymptomatic PE developed in 18% of patients who received mechanical prophylaxis, but the incidence of symptomatic PE was only 0.2%. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are required for patients who develop symptomatic PE. (author)

265

Novalis radiosurgery for metastatic spine tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is logical to anticipate that the field of spinal radiosurgery will evolve in a fashion similar to that seen for intracranial radiosurgery. Given the frequency of various pathologic entities that affect the spine, including those that have proven to be largely intractable to surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy (eg, sarcomas), and the serious clinical, economic and quality-of-life consequences of paraplegia, radiosurgery offers new hope as an adjuvant or primary therapy. The meticulous application of well-designed investigations of relevant clinical outcomes will be critical to the appropriate and effective use of this technology. PMID:15450885

Rock, Jack P; Ryu, Samuel; Yin, Fang-Fang

2004-10-01

266

Enlarged approach to the anterior cervical spine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this report a new enlarged approach to the anterior cervical spine is presented. A 66-year-old female, having a large C3-C4-C5 chordoma, recurrent after surgery and following radiotherapy, underwent a surgical resection. The approach allows a wide retraction of the nasopharynx, oropharynx and larynx from the midline, only sacrificing the superior laryngeal nerve on one side. Its continuity can be re-established later by adopting the stent in tube technique. The approach we used presents al...

Sartoris, Alberto; Crosetti, Erika; Succo, Giovanni

2001-01-01

267

CT of osteomyelitis of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in 17 adults with osteomyelitis of the spine. The dominant features were paravertebral soft-tissue swelling, abscess formation, and bone erosion. In two patients there were no findings indicative of osteomyelitis on conventional radiographs, but CT revealed paravertebral abscesses and bone lysis, helping to establish the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, chiefly because of its ability to detect early erosion of spongy vertabral bone, disk involvement, paravertebral soft-tissue swelling or abscess, and extension of the pathology into the spinal canal. Furthermore, CT facilitated closed-needle biopsy, helping to establish the pathologic diagnosis

268

Automated 4D analysis of dendritic spine morphology: applications to stimulus-induced spine remodeling and pharmacological rescue in a disease model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Uncovering the mechanisms that regulate dendritic spine morphology has been limited, in part, by the lack of efficient and unbiased methods for analyzing spines. Here, we describe an automated 3D spine morphometry method and its application to spine remodeling in live neurons and spine abnormalities in a disease model. We anticipate that this approach will advance studies of synapse structure and function in brain development, plasticity, and disease.

Swanger Sharon A

2011-10-01

269

Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the spine: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a synovial lesion of joints or tendon sheaths, characterized by villous and nodular overgrowth of the synovial membrane. It commonly occurs in synovial joints of the appendicular skeleton, particularly those of the knee and hip, but rarely affecting those of the spine. We report a case of PVNS of the lumbar spine mimicking epidural mass

270

Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the spine: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a synovial lesion of joints or tendon sheaths, characterized by villous and nodular overgrowth of the synovial membrane. It commonly occurs in synovial joints of the appendicular skeleton, particularly those of the knee and hip, but rarely affecting those of the spine. We report a case of PVNS of the lumbar spine mimicking epidural mass.

Seong, Su Ok; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Yi, Jeong Geun [Cheongju St. Mary' s Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

2000-10-01

271

Rheumatoid arthritis. Radiological changes in the cervical spine.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Cervical spine changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are common, in particular subluxation in the upper cervical spine. Our study showed somewhat lesser prevalence of these changes. These were clinically correlated with disease duration, female sex, and rheumatoid factor, but were not statistically significant.

Ahmed A. Al-Boukai

2003-04-01

272

Comparison of online IGRT techniques for prostate IMRT treatment: Adaptive vs repositioning correction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study compares three online image guidance techniques (IGRT) for prostate IMRT treatment: bony-anatomy matching, soft-tissue matching, and online replanning. Six prostate IMRT patients were studied. Five daily CBCT scans from the first week were acquired for each patient to provide representative ''snapshots'' of anatomical variations during the course of treatment. Initial IMRT plans were designed for each patient with seven coplanar 15 MV beams on a Eclipse treatment planning system. Two plans were created, one with a PTV margin of 10 mm and another with a 5 mm PTV margin. Based on these plans, the delivered dose distributions to each CBCT anatomy was evaluated to compare bony-anatomy matching, soft-tissue matching, and online replanning. Matching based on bony anatomy was evaluated using the 10 mm PTV margin (''bone10''). Soft-tissue matching was evaluated using both the 10 mm (''soft10'') and 5 mm (''soft5'') PTV margins. Online reoptimization was evaluated using the 5 mm PTV margin (''adapt''). The replanning process utilized the original dose distribution as the basis and linear goal programming techniques for reoptimization. The reoptimized plans were finished in less than 2 min for all cases. Using each IGRT technique, the delivered dose distribution was evaluated on all 30 CBCT scans (6 patientsx5CBCT/patient). The mean minimum dose (in percentage of prescription dose) to the CTV over five treatment fractions were in the ranges of 99%-100%(SD=0.1%-0.8%),e in the ranges of 99%-100%(SD=0.1%-0.8%), 65%-98%(SD=0.4%-19.5%), 87%-99%(SD=0.7%-23.3%), and 95%-99%(SD=0.4%-10.4%) for the adapt, bone10, soft5, and soft10 techniques, respectively. Compared to patient position correction techniques, the online reoptimization technique also showed improvement in OAR sparing when organ motion/deformations were large. For bladder, the adapt technique had the best (minimum) D90, D50, and D30 values for 24, 17, and 15 fractions out of 30 total fractions, while it also had the best D90, D50, and D30 values for the rectum for 25, 16, and 19 fractions, respectively. For cases where the adapt plans did not score the best for OAR sparing, the gains of the OAR sparing in the repositioning-based plans were accompanied by an underdosage in the target volume. To further evaluate the fast online replanning technique, a gold-standard plan (''new'' plan) was generated for each CBCT anatomy on the Eclipse treatment planning system. The OAR sparing from the online replanning technique was compared to the new plan. The differences in D90, D50, and D30 of the OARs between the adapt and the new plans were less than 5% in 3 patients and were between 5% and 10% for the remaining three. In summary, all IGRT techniques could be sufficient to correct simple geometrical variations. However, when a high degree of deformation or differential organ position displacement occurs, the online reoptimization technique is feasible with less than 2 min optimization time and provides improvements in both CTV coverage and OAR sparing over the position correction techniques. For these cases, the reoptimization technique can be a highly valuable online IGRT tool to correct daily treatment uncertainties, especially when hypofractionation scheme is applied and daily correction, rather than averaging over many fractions, is required to match the original plan.

273

Radiological manifestations of tuberculosis of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical roentgenographic features of tuberculosis of the spine such as narrowing of the intervertebral disc, collapse of the vertebral bodies, with or without the shadow of a cold abscess, present a specific picture of the actural pathological process. However, the diagnosis of tuberculosis is not confirmed unless proven by biopsy, or the findings of the tubercle bacilius. 120 cases of proven spinal tuberculosis, at Kwangju Christian Hospital during the period from January 1973 through August 1980, were studied and analysed. The results were as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female was 1 : 1.1. The age preference was under 30 years old. 2. The most frequent site of involvement was the lumber spine (44.1%) and next the thoracic (39.2%). 3. The incidence of lytic type was 50.8%, mixed type 36.7%, and scierotic type 12.5%. 4. Associated pulmonary tuberculous lesions were observed in 94 patients (78.3%). 5. The central type, with wedging or collapse of the vertebral body, was more common in the younger age group and the intervertebral articular type in older patients. 6. The incidense of typical radiologic findings were: Collapse of vertebral body (90%), cold abscess (78.3%) and narrowing of intervertebral space (70%). 7. Associated kyphosis was observed in 37 cases (30.8%). Among these 37 cases the range of angulation was between 21 to 40 degrees in 40%

274

Primary osseous hemangiopericytoma in the thoracic spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare tumor of the central nervous system, most commonly found in the cranial cavity. HPCs in the spine are rare, and very few of them are primary osseous HPC. The aims of this study were to describe a rare case of primary osseous HPC in the thoracic spine and review the literature. A 54-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of back pain. Aneuro logical examination revealed no motor or sensory deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a tumor originating from the bone structure of the T10 vertebra with paravertebral extension, and chest CT revealed pulmonary metastases. A laminectomy, face-totomy,and subtotal resection of the tumor was performed with posterior pedicle screw system fixation followed by radiotherapy. The post-operative course was uneventful. His back pain was resolved completely after surgery. The patient survived with tumor during the 18-month follow-up period. Histopathology and immunohistologic findings were consistent with HPC. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for vimentin and CD34, partially positive for S-100, but negative for EMA, desmin, CD117, and CD1a. A literature review identified eight such cases reported between 1942 and 2013. As a conclusion, clinical manifestations of primary osseous spinal HPCs are different from intraspinal meningeal HPCs. Although showing certain variability, histopathology and immunohistochemical examinations are essential to establish the diagnosis. Surgical resection and radiotherapy are the treatment of choice. *These authors contributed equally to this work. PMID:24887400

Ren, Ke; Zhou, Xing; Wu, SuJia; Sun, Xiaoliang

2014-01-01

275

Osteoarthritis of the spine: the facet joints.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the spine involves the facet joints, which are located in the posterior aspect of the vertebral column and, in humans, are the only true synovial joints between adjacent spinal levels. Facet joint osteoarthritis (FJ OA) is widely prevalent in older adults, and is thought to be a common cause of back and neck pain. The prevalence of facet-mediated pain in clinical populations increases with increasing age, suggesting that FJ OA might have a particularly important role in older adults with spinal pain. Nevertheless, to date FJ OA has received far less study than other important OA phenotypes such as knee OA, and other features of spine pathoanatomy such as degenerative disc disease. This Review presents the current state of knowledge of FJ OA, including relevant anatomy, biomechanics, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations. We present the view that the modern concept of FJ OA is consonant with the concept of OA as a failure of the whole joint, and not simply of facet joint cartilage. PMID:23147891

Gellhorn, Alfred C; Katz, Jeffrey N; Suri, Pradeep

2013-04-01

276

MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine

277

Working channel endoscope in lumbar spine surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is a well established modality in the treatment of patients with herniated lumbar discs. Since the time of its inception towards the end of 20th century, this technique has undergone significant modifications. With better understanding of the patho-anatomy and development of instrumentation the indications for PELD are on the rise. In the modern era of knowledge exchange there have been considerable variations among different endoscopic surgeons about classical indications and the implications of a particular technique pertaining to those indications. During last 15 years of experience in practicing endoscopic surgery, Choi has published many articles, regarding the techniques of PELD, across many scientific journals. In our practice there has been considerable shift from central debulking to discectomy to selective fragmentectomy. With further advancements the span of this technique is definitely on the rise. Here, we wish to share all the published data along with my current practice trends in more precise manner to help newer endoscopic spine surgeons understand the implications and limitations of a working channel endoscope in lumbar spine pathologies. PMID:24819484

Choi, G; Lee, S H; Deshpande, K; Choi, H

2014-06-01

278

The lumbar spine in backward bending.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadaveric lumbar motion segments were loaded to simulate backward bending (extension) movements of the lumbar spine. The motion segments' resistance was measured initially, and after the spinous processes and apophyseal joints had been cut through in turn. Compression tests were then performed on the discs while they were wedged in full extension. The results showed that extension is resisted mainly by the disc and spinous processes, and that, in hyperextension, damage usually occurs first in the spinous processes (or the soft tissue squashed between them). However, if the spinous processes are particularly widely spaced, then the apophyseal joints can become damaged first. The protection offered the disc by the neural arch is greater in young people, and after the disc height has been reduced by creep loading. The disc can be damaged in hyperextension if the spine is subjected to high compressive forces at the same time. A sudden application of compressive force can cause an anterior disc prolapse, while a cyclic (fatigue) compressive force can increase the posterior bulging of the lamellas in the posterior annulus. PMID:3206295

Adams, M A; Dolan, P; Hutton, W C

1988-09-01

279

Dynesys fixation for lumbar spine degeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamic fixation system Dynesys is utilized in the last 10 years for treatment of degenerative segmental disease of the lumbar spine. Dynesys is a semi-rigid fixation system that allows minimal lengthening and shortening between two segmental pedicle screws as opposed to a rigid metal bar. Thus, the system is regarded to maintain stability and near physiological motion patterns of the lumbar spine. The theoretical advantage of this system is to stabilize the treated segment and to prevent adjacent segment degeneration. The goal of this prospective trial was to evaluate clinical, radiographic, and computed tomography (CT) scan outcomes in 54 consecutive cases. Postoperative complications are discussed in detail. Forty cases were recruited with a mean follow-up of 16 months (range, 12 to 37). Postoperative pain scores (Hannover Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire and VAS for back and leg pain) improved in 29 cases (73%) and was best when dynamic fusion was combined with nerve root decompression. Outcome data were not superior to conventional rigid fusion systems and had a considerable number of complications requiring revision surgery in 27.5% of cases. PMID:17906883

Bothmann, Matthias; Kast, Erich; Boldt, Gerald Jens; Oberle, Joachim

2008-04-01

280

Dysphagia associated with cervical spine and postural disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Difficulties with swallowing may be both persistent and life threatening for the majority of those who experience it irrespective of age, gender, and race. The purpose of this review is to define oropharyngeal dysphagia and describe its relationship to cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances due to either congenital or acquired disorders. The etiology and diagnosis of dysphagia are analyzed, focusing on cervical spine pathology associated with dysphagia as severe cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances largely have been held accountable for deglutition disorders. Scoliosis, kyphosis–lordosis, and osteophytes are the primary focus of this review in an attempt to elucidate the link between cervical spine disorders and dysphagia. It is important for physicians to be knowledgeable about what triggers oropharyngeal dysphagia in cases of cervical spine and postural disorders. Moreover, the optimum treatment for dysphagia, including the use of therapeutic maneuvers during deglutition, neck exercises, and surgical treatment, is discussed. PMID:23959456

Papadopoulou, Soultana; Exarchakos, Georgios; Beris, Alexander; Ploumis, Avraam

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Neurofibromin is the major ras inactivator in dendritic spines.  

Science.gov (United States)

In dendritic spines, Ras plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity but its regulation mechanism is not fully understood. Here, using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer/fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-based Ras imaging technique in combination with 2-photon glutamate uncaging, we show that neurofibromin, in which loss-of-function mutations cause Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1), contributes to the majority (?90%) of Ras inactivation in dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. Loss of neurofibromin causes sustained Ras activation in spines, which leads to impairment of spine structural plasticity and loss of spines in an activity-dependent manner. Therefore, deregulation of postsynaptic Ras signaling may explain, at least in part, learning disabilities associated with NF1. PMID:24431436

Oliveira, Ana F; Yasuda, Ryohei

2014-01-15

282

Cervical Spine Involvement: A Rare Manifestation of Reiter's Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spine involvement is less common in Reiter's syndrome than in other seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Also, cervical spine involvement rarely occurs in Reiter's syndrome and other spondyloarthropathies. This paper reports a rare case of Reiter's syndrome in which there was cervical spine involvement that presented clinically as an atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation. Reiter's Syndrome (RS) is one of the most common types of seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSAs) that presents clinically with a triad of symptoms, i.e., conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis. This case highlighted the importance of radiographs of the lateral cervical spine and dynamic cervical imaging for all patients who have Reiter's syndrome with cervical spine symptoms to ensure that this dangerous abnormality is not overlooked. PMID:25360183

Rastegar, Khodakaram; Ghalaenovi, Hossein; Babashahi, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Jafari, Mohammad; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Fattahi, Arash

2014-01-01

283

Remote Sensing  

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Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

2012-01-01

284

Effect of spine motion on mobility in quadruped running  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of current running quadruped robots have similar construction: a stiff body and four compliant legs. Many researches have indicated that the stiff body without spine motion is a main factor in limitation of robots' mobility. Therefore, investigating spine motion is very important to build robots with better mobility. A planar quadruped robot is designed based on cheetahs' morphology. There is a spinal driving joint in the body of the robot. When the spinal driving joint acts, the robot has spine motion; otherwise, the robot has not spine motion. Six group prototype experiments with the robot are carried out to study the effect of spine motion on mobility. In each group, there are two comparative experiments: the spinal driving joint acts in one experiment but does not in the other experiment. The results of the prototype experiments indicate that the average speeds of the robot with spine motion are 8.7%-15.9% larger than those of the robot without spine motion. Furthermore, a simplified sagittal plane model of quadruped mammals is introduced. The simplified model also has a spinal driving joint. Using a similar process as the prototype experiments, six group simulation experiments with the simplified model are conducted. The results of the simulation experiments show that the maximum rear leg horizontal thrusts of the simplified mode with spine motion are 68.2%-71.3% larger than those of the simplified mode without spine motion. Hence, it is found that spine motion can increase the average running speed and the intrinsic reason of speed increase is the improvement of the maximum rear leg horizontal thrust.

Chen, Dongliang; Liu, Qi; Dong, Litao; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Qun

2014-11-01

285

Epigenetic regulation of neuronal dendrite and dendritic spine development  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendrites and the dendritic spines of neurons play key roles in the connectivity of the brain and have been recognized as the locus of long-term synaptic plasticity, which is correlated with learning and memory. The development of dendrites and spines in the mammalian central nervous system is a complex process that requires specific molecular events over a period of time. It has been shown that specific molecules are needed not only at the spine's point of contact, but also at a distance, providing signals that initiate a cascade of events leading to synapse formation. The specific molecules that act to signal neuronal differentiation, dendritic morphology, and synaptogenesis are tightly regulated by genetic and epigenetic programs. It has been shown that the dendritic spine structure and distribution are altered in many diseases, including many forms of mental retardation (MR), and can also be potentiated by neuronal activities and an enriched environment. Because dendritic spine pathologies are found in many types of MR, it has been proposed that an inability to form normal spines leads to the cognitive and motor deficits that are characteristic of MR. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and the noncoding RNA-mediated process, have profound regulatory roles in mammalian gene expression. The study of epigenetics focuses on cellular effects that result in a heritable pattern of gene expression without changes to genomic encoding. Despite extensive efforts to understand the molecular regulation of dendrite and spine development, epigenetic mechanisms have only recently been considered. In this review, we will focus on epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the development and maturation of dendrites and spines. We will discuss how epigenetic alterations could result in spine abnormalities that lead to MR, such as is seen in fragile X and Rett syndromes. We will also discuss both general methodology and recent technological advances in the study of neuronal dendrites and spines.

Smrt, Richard D.

2015-01-01

286

The Relationship between Recurrent Spine Surgery and Employment Status  

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Full Text Available Background: What is the quantitative relationship between repeated surgical intervention and unemployment in the spine surgery population? And, does the literature pay sufficient attention to this important aspect of spine surgery outcome? Methods: This was a retrospective review of 905 patients of working age undergoing one of three types of spine surgery. The index surgery at the time of the study was either on the cervical or lumbar spine. We retrospectively collected data on patients’ employment status and history of prior spine surgery. In this study, history of prior spine surgery was coded using two nominal (categorical variables: The number of previous spine surgeries (0, 1, 2, ?3 and the variability of location of previous spine surgeries (cervical, lumbar. We also looked into scientific publications related to spine surgery and probed “employment” and “reoperation” awareness in randomized controlled trials (RCTs. In addition, we queried some common factors that are known to play an important role in exacerbating the unemployment problem, such as opioid (abuse and depression. Results: The unemployment rate was 19.4% among males and 34.8% among females. Unemployment rate correlated with the number of previous spine surgery (r = 0.077, p = 0.020, opioid use (r = 0.080, p = 0.017 and being on antidepressants (r = 0.119, p = 0.000. The unemployment rate was sta-tistically different (?2 = 10.656, p = 0.014 among patients with different numbers of previous spine surgeries: 25.6% of de novo patients versus 28.1% of patients with one previous spine surgery, 32.7% of patients with two previous spine surgeries and 48.7% of patients with three or more previous spine surgeries. Females had significantly higher unemployment rate if they had three or more previous spine surgeries in their past (31.4%, 34.4%, 46.2% versus 83.3%, ?2 = 21.841, p = 0.000. Unemployment rate was as high as 90% in female patients with ?3 surgeries on different regions of the spine and receiving antidepressants. Among randomized controlled trials addressing spine surgery in humans and published in English, 10.4% of reported studies mentioned opioids in their text, 4.1% (23/566 mentioned reoperation, 1.4% (8/566 mentioned employment, and none mentioned antidepressants. Conclusion: Females’ employment status is more sensitive to repeated surgical intervention, regardless of the part of the spine being targeted, reaching close to ten times the general population’s unemployment rate (83.3% versus 8%. On the other hand, a small percentage of randomized controlled trials pertaining to spine surgery deals with employment issues and reoperation rate in their outcome analysis.

Mohammad Sami Walid

2011-12-01

287

Maniobra de reposición canalítica para el tratamiento del vértigo postural paroxístico benigno Canalith reposition procedure for the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

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Full Text Available Background: Paroxysmal positional vertigo is a frequent and handicapping disease. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of physical therapies using particle reposition procedures in the treatment of paroxysmal positional vertigo. Patients and methods: Fifty nine patients (13 male with paroxysmal positional vertigo were studied. Clinical data was gathered, the affected channel was identified. In the same session, the corresponding canalith reposition procedure was performed (Epley maneuver for posterior channel and Lempert maneuver for lateral channel and the immediate response was recorded. Results: Twenty seven percent of patients had recurring episodes of vertigo and 60% had more than two weeks of evolution. In 49% of patients, vertigo was considered idiopathic and in 92%, the posterior channel was affected. One patient had a combined lesion of posterior and lateral channels and two patients had isolated lateral channel lesions. Seventy percent of patients recovered after two sessions of canalith reposition procedure. Conclusions: Canalith reposition maneuvers were highly effective for the treatment of paroxysmal positional vertigo. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 619-26.

Viviana Valenzuela P

2000-06-01

288

Comparison of semilunar coronally repositioned flap with gingival massaging using an Ayurvedic product (irimedadi taila) in the treatment of class-I gingival recession: A clinical study  

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AIM: To study the comparison in terms of root coverage the effect of gingival massaging using an ayurvedic product and semilunar coronally repositioned flap (SCRF) to assess the treatment outcomes in the management of Miller’s class?I?gingival recessions over a-6 mo period.

Mishra, Amit Kumar; Kumathalli, Kanteshwari; Sridhar, Raja; Maru, Rahul; Mangal, Brijesh; Kedia, Sameer; Shrihatti, Ravi

2014-01-01

289

Aesthetic management of gingival recession by root biomodification with carbon dioxide laser and subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique  

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Localised gingival recessions continue to represent an important aesthetic condition requiring treatment in periodontics. Various techniques have been tried to treat exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics with high percentage of success and minimal discomfort. Root biomodification is done to improve the predictability of these procedures. This clinical report describes periodontal plastic procedure involving subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique a...

Rastogi, Pavitra Kumar; Lal, Nand; Garg, Nimit; Anand, Vishal; Singhal, Rameshwari

2012-01-01

290

Repositioning and Leaving In Situ the Central Venous Catheter During Percutaneous Treatment of Associated Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: A Report of Eight Cases  

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Purpose: To describe a combined procedure of repositioning and leaving in situ a central venous catheter followed by immediate percutaneous treatment of associated superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). Methods: Eight patients are presented who have central venous catheter-associated SVCS (n = 6 Hickman catheters, n = 2 Port-a-cath) caused by central vein stenosis (n = 4) or concomitant thrombosis (n = 4). With the use of a vascular snare introduced via the transcubital or transjugular approach, the tip of the central venous catheter could be engaged, and repositioned after deployment of a stent in the innominate or superior vena cava. Results: In all patients it was technically feasible to reposition the central venous catheter and treat the SVCS at the same time. In one patient flipping of the Hickman catheter in its original position provoked dislocation of the released Palmaz stent, which could be positioned in the right common iliac vein. Conclusion: Repositioning of a central venous catheter just before and after stent deployment in SVCS is technically feasible and a better alternative than preprocedural removal of the vascular access

291

Musculoskeletal support of lumbar spine stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a biomechanical model and experimental data the self-stabilising behaviour of antagonistic trunk muscles was analyzed. The biomechanical model is constituted of a pair of antagonistic Hill-type muscles, their geometric arrangement with respect to the spine, and the instantaneous centre of rotation in frontal plane. Using Ljapunov's theory, the stability of certain motion and loading situations was analyzed. Applying a sensitivity analysis, the influence of different muscle properties and the geometric arrangement on stability was investigated. The simulations revealed that the stability of spinal movements depended primarily on the geometrical arrangement of muscles and the position of the centre of rotation of the spine, the latter was affected in turn by the activities of the profound muscles. To stabilize the situations simulated oblique muscle arrangements were necessary. In order to define an instantaneous centre of rotation in the lower region of the spine negative attachment angles (medio-lateral decline) of muscles were necessary, corresponding to the real anatomy of obliquus externus muscles. More cranially located instantaneous centres of rotation required positive attachment angles for stability, corresponding to obliquus internus or multifidus muscles. Furthermore, the fibre-type distribution of muscles influenced the stability of the system, i.e. a high percentage of fast-twitch-fibres supported the stabilisation. Conclusions drawn from the simulations were supported by experimental data. Sudden loads and quick-release perturbations with two different amplitudes were applied to the upper body of ten male subjects. In comparison to sudden load situations preactivation of muscles due to an external load, i.e. quick-release perturbation, led to significantly less dependency of the amplitude of deflection on the amplitude of the perturbation. This observation relates to the self-stabilising properties of the musculoskeletal system. In conclusion, training seems to be advantageous if directed towards not only enhancing the endurance capacity of the muscles, but also increasing the cross-sectional area of oblique fast-twitch-fibres. Training should also improve the co-ordination of deep and superficial trunk muscles. These findings may influence physiotherapy and training programs for low back pain patients. PMID:16239098

Wagner, H; Anders, Ch; Puta, Ch; Petrovitch, A; Mörl, F; Schilling, N; Witte, H; Blickhan, R

2005-12-01

292

Manobras de reposicionamento no tratamento da vertigem paroxística posicional benigna Treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with repositioning manevers  

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Full Text Available Introdução: Vertigem paroxística posicional benigna (VPPB é uma das mais freqüentes patologias do sistema vestibular. Caracteriza-se clinicamente pela presença de episódios recorrentes de tonturas rotatórias, tipicamente desencadeados por determinados movimentos cefálicos, realizados pelo paciente. A confirmação diagnóstica é obtida exclusivamente pela manobra de Dix-Hallpike. Nessa manobra, observa-se sistematicamente o desencadeamento de nistagmo. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Material e método: No total, sete pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de VPPB são submetidos a tratamento pela manobra de reposicionamento de Epley. Resultado: Desses sete pacientes avaliados, cinco apresentaram ótima recuperação; dois, com resultado bom; e um, com mau resultado; para este último caso, outras formas de tratamento são apresentadas. Conclusão: O exame otoneurológico, realizado em todos os pacientes, demonstrou ser de interessante valor prognóstico quanto ao resultado do tratamento proposto. A manobra de reposicionamento de Epley demonstrou ser um método de tratamento da VPPB simples, e eficaz na grande maioria dos pacientes aqui relatados.Introduction: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV is among the most common vestibular disorders. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo induced by changes in head position. The condition is readly diagnosed by performing the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. Nystagmus is always present by this way. Study design: Prospective results clinical not randomized. Material and method: A total of seven patients diagnosed with BPPV received the repositioning maneuver of Epley. Five out of seven patients had excellent recovery, two patients had good results and one had a bad result. For this last one different treatments are discussed. Conclusion: We performed otoneurological examination in all patients; this test seems to be an intersting prognosis method for seeking the results of treatment. The repositioning maneuver of Epley is an excellent treatment for BPPV. Most of the patients of our series were successfuly treated by this method.

Roberto A. Maia

2001-09-01

293

MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis  

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The objective was to study characteristic MRI findings in cervical spine fractures complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Technical issues related to MRI are also addressed. A review of 6,774 consecutive cervical spine multidetector CT (MDCT) scans obtained during 6.2 years revealed 33 ankylosed spines studied for suspected acute cervical spine injury complicating AS. Of these, 20 patients also underwent MRI. On MRI, of these 20 patients, 19 had a total of 29 cervical and upper thoracic spine fractures. Of 20 transverse fractures traversing both anterior and posterior columns, 7 were transdiskal and exhibited less bone marrow edema than did those traversing vertebral bodies. One Jefferson's, 1 atlas posterior arch (Jefferson's on MDCT), 2 odontoid process, and 5 non-contiguous spinous process fractures were detectable. MRI showed 2 fractures that were undetected by MDCT, and conversely, MDCT detected 6 fractures not seen on MRI; 16 patients had spinal cord findings ranging from impingement and contusion to complete transection. Magnetic resonance imaging can visualize unstable fractures of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. Paravertebral hemorrhages and any ligamentous injuries should alert radiologists to seek transverse fractures. Multiple fractures are common and often complicated by spinal cord injuries. Diagnostic images can be obtained with a flexible multipurpose coil if the use of standard spine array coil is impossible due to a rigid collar or excessive kyphosis. (orig.)

Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland)

2008-09-15

294

MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to study characteristic MRI findings in cervical spine fractures complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Technical issues related to MRI are also addressed. A review of 6,774 consecutive cervical spine multidetector CT (MDCT) scans obtained during 6.2 years revealed 33 ankylosed spines studied for suspected acute cervical spine injury complicating AS. Of these, 20 patients also underwent MRI. On MRI, of these 20 patients, 19 had a total of 29 cervical and upper thoracic spine fractures. Of 20 transverse fractures traversing both anterior and posterior columns, 7 were transdiskal and exhibited less bone marrow edema than did those traversing vertebral bodies. One Jefferson's, 1 atlas posterior arch (Jefferson's on MDCT), 2 odontoid process, and 5 non-contiguous spinous process fractures were detectable. MRI showed 2 fractures that were undetected by MDCT, and conversely, MDCT detected 6 fractures not seen on MRI; 16 patients had spinal cord findings ranging from impingement and contusion to complete transection. Magnetic resonance imaging can visualize unstable fractures of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. Paravertebral hemorrhages and any ligamentous injuries should alert radiologists to seek transverse fractures. Multiple fractures are common and often complicated by spinal cord injuries. Diagnostic images can be obtained with a flexible multipurpose coil if the use of standard spine array coil is impossible due to a rigid collar or excessivpossible due to a rigid collar or excessive kyphosis. (orig.)

295

Dynamic neutralisation of the lumbar spine confirmed on a new lumbar spine simulator in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new dynamic neutralisation system for lumbar spine segments has been developed and tested on four cadaveric lumbar spines. Segments L4/5 (3 cases) and L3/4 (1 case) were tested on a new lumbar spine simulator which allowed the simultaneous application of bending moments, compressive and shear loads. The average applied loads were 18.3 Nm flexion moment, 2296 N compressive and 458 N anterior shear load for flexion, and 12.5 Nm extension moment, 667 N compressive and 74 N posterior shear load for extension. The relative motion of the upper vertebra in respect to the lower vertebra was measured with the three-dimensional FASTRAK system, using an advanced computer software. The endplate centres as well as the centre of the screw heads were taken as reference points, identified by orthogonally taken radiographs. The dynamic neutralisation system described reduces bending angles and horizontal translations, but it expands vertical translations. The bulging of the posterior annulus is also reduced. PMID:10392504

Freudiger, S; Dubois, G; Lorrain, M

1999-01-01

296

Glucose Sensing  

CERN Document Server

Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

Geddes, Chris D

2006-01-01

297

Adjacent segment disease following cervical spine surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical spine surgery is broadly divided into fusion and nonfusion procedures. Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a common procedure, although adjacent segment disease following the surgery is an ongoing clinical concern. Adjacent segment cervical disease occurs in approximately 3% of patients per year, with an expected incidence of 25% within the first 10 years following fusion. Nonfusion procedures such as anterior diskectomy and posterior foraminotomy do not decrease the rate of adjacent segment disease compared with ACDF. Recently, enthusiasm has developed for artificial disk replacement as a motion-sparing alternative to fusion. To date, however, multiple clinical trials and subsequent follow-up studies have failed to demonstrate significant reduction of adjacent segment disease when artificial disk replacement is performed instead of fusion. PMID:23281466

Cho, Samuel K; Riew, K Daniel

2013-01-01

298

Congenital anomalies of the spine: radiologic findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Congenital anomalies of the spine are frequent and variable. Some are restricted to skeletal structures, while others involve combine neural tube defects or are associated with other multi-systemic disorders. Structural spinal anomalies can be classified according to their location: 1) the vertebral body, 2) the articular process, 3) the lamina with spinous process, 4) the pars interarticularis, 5) the facet joint, 6) the pedicle, or 7) other. Because of similarities between these congenital anomalies and (a) secondary changes involving infection or joint disease and (b) deformities resulting from trauma and uncertain tumorous conditions, significant confusion can occur during diagnosis. Moreover, since the anomalies often give rise to both functional impairment and cosmetic problem, appropriate treatment relies crucially on accurate diagnosis. The authors illustrate the pathogenesis and radiologic findings of the relatively common spinal anomalies confined to skeletal structures

299

[Assessment of whiplash and cervical spine injury].  

Science.gov (United States)

Formulating an expert opinion on whiplash injuries requires that consideration be given to biomechanical, orthopedic, neurological, psychiatric and medicolegal aspects. The greatest difficulties are encountered in cases of mild whiplash where patients complain of constant pain without any physical correlative. Diverse assessments and principles for approving a claim are reflected in the fact that the prevalence of chronic spine pain after whiplash injuries (late whiplash syndrome) varies between 16% and 71% in different countries, and the proportion of whiplash injuries involved in petitions for compensation differs greatly across Europe (UK 75%, Germany 47%, Finland 8.5% and France 3% of all personal injuries).Important biomechanical, orthopedic, neurological, psychiatric and medicolegal aspects of expert testimony on whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are delineated. PMID:22105883

Marx, P

2011-12-01

300

Giant cells reparative granuloma of the spine  

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The giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG), was first described by Jaffe in 1953, which found it to be clinically and histopathologically different from the giant cell tumor. The GCRG accounts for 1.0 % of the osseous tumoral lesions, is more frequently found in females (68%) and in patients less than 30 years old (74%). It was believed that it only affected the jaw; it has been reported compromising other locations including the spine (7 cases). We report a case affecting the vertebral bodies of C2-C3 in a 10 years old, female patient, who was studied by plain film and MRI. The histological diagnosis was established at surgery, this report is the first one described in a cervical location and the second studied by MRI

 
 
 
 
301

PTEN knockdown alters dendritic spine/protrusion morphology, not density.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) are implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders including autism. Previous studies report that PTEN knockdown in neurons in vivo leads to increased spine density and synaptic activity. To better characterize synaptic changes in neurons lacking PTEN, we examined the effects of shRNA knockdown of PTEN in basolateral amygdala neurons on synaptic spine density and morphology by using fluorescent dye confocal imaging. Contrary to previous studies in the dentate gyrus, we find that knockdown of PTEN in basolateral amygdala leads to a significant decrease in total spine density in distal dendrites. Curiously, this decreased spine density is associated with increased miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency and amplitude, suggesting an increase in number and function of mature spines. These seemingly contradictory findings were reconciled by spine morphology analysis demonstrating increased mushroom spine density and size with correspondingly decreased thin protrusion density at more distal segments. The same analysis of PTEN conditional deletion in the dentate gyrus demonstrated that loss of PTEN does not significantly alter total density of dendritic protrusions in the dentate gyrus, but does decrease thin protrusion density and increases density of more mature mushroom spines. These findings suggest that, contrary to previous reports, PTEN knockdown may not induce de novo spinogenesis, but instead may increase synaptic activity by inducing morphological and functional maturation of spines. Furthermore, behavioral analysis of basolateral amygdala PTEN knockdown suggests that these changes limited only to the basolateral amygdala complex may not be sufficient to induce increased anxiety-related behaviors. PMID:24264880

Haws, Michael E; Jaramillo, Thomas C; Espinosa, Felipe; Widman, Allie J; Stuber, Garret D; Sparta, Dennis R; Tye, Kay M; Russo, Scott J; Parada, Luis F; Stavarache, Mihaela; Kaplitt, Michael; Bonci, Antonello; Powell, Craig M

2014-04-01

302

Dual-photon densitometry of lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of measuring gamma radiation absorption (single-photon radiation, i.e., with a single radiation energy) was first applied to assess the contents of mineral substances in peripheral bones. The earlier and more marked lesions of the spine caused by osteoporosis led to the development of dual-photon densitometry, i.e., the differential assessment of absorption of gamma radiation with two energies. This allows to eliminate the contribution of soft tissues to radiation absorption (the source of radiation being gadolinium 153Gd). Equipment required for the procedure is more complex and most costly, the procedure itself more time consuming and technically more demanding. Various factors, most often changes of the spine with foci of increased density make it difficult or impossible to evaluate and use the results of this method in one third of patients with skeletal disorders (most frequently osteoporosis), including 50% of patients in the 60+ age group. Short-term reproducibility of the measurement is satisfactory: variation coefficients of repeat measurements in g.cm-1 and in g.cm-2 are less than 2%. The examinations of 183 controls (83 men, 100 women) indicated a drop in mineral content in L2 to L4 with age: in women from 25 to 30 years to old age with slight acceleration in the menopause, in men there was a decline only after the age of 60. In younger age groups the scatter of normal values was greater in men than in women. The ues was greater in men than in women. The bone density in g, in g.cm-1 as well as in g.cm-2 rises significantly from L2< L3< L4. Outside of the limited applicability of the method the experiences made are on the whole favorable. From the clinical point of view the most important aspect is the assessment of pathological findings. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs., 19 refs

303

Magnetic Resonance staging of spine metastases  

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The diagnosis of spine metastases is a problem of great interest which leaves many questions unanswered. In this field MR imaging plays a fundamental role, as the only technique able to directly demonstrate the changes in bone marrow tissue, bound to tumoral activity. The introduction of gradient-echo (GE) sequences has helped reduce examination time. Moreover, with the accurate choice of pulse-sequence parameters (TR, TE, flip angle) additional information is acquired which is not yielded by conventional spinecho (SE) sequences. This study was aimed at evaluating MR sensitivity in the different stages of bone metastatic evolution. The comparative adequacy was evaluated of combined bone scintigraphy and conventional radiology versus MR imaging in 62 patients with vertebral metastases. Time interval between bone scan and/ or radiological study and MR examination ranged from 10 days to 8 months. SE and GE T1-weighted images, and SE and GE T2-weighted images on the sagittal plane were employed, and axial images; coronal images were rarely acquired. Metastases were demonstrated by MR imaging at 122 vertebral levels, versus 88 true positives of combined scintigraphy and conventional radiology. Scintigraphic false-positives were observed at 15 vertebral levels, versus 9 with radiography. GE sequences were superior to SE ones in detecting vertebral morphologic lesions and bone marrow involvement thanks to their improved resolution and sensitivity. Moreover, GE sequences demod sensitivity. Moreover, GE sequences demonstrated tumoral bone marrow spread and persistent tumoral activity in the follow-up of spine metastases. Results obtained point to GE sequences as those of choice because of their higher resolution and sensitivity, which also allow response to treatment to be evaluated

304

The Relationship of SmokingOpioidAntidepressant Use and History of Spine Surgery  

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Full Text Available Introduction: In a recent paper, smoking was shown to be an independent predictor of longterm continued opioid use in spine patients (Krebs et al. 2010. In this paper, we study the interaction of smoking with opioid and antidepressant use and the relationship with prior spine surgery and future spine surgery. Methods: Data on smoking, opioid and antidepressant use were retrospectively collected from 758 spine surgery inpatients [lumbar microdiskectomy (LMD, anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF and lumbar decompression and fusion (LDF]. Interaction with history of previous spine surgery and return for additional spine surgery was studied. Followup ranged from one to four years. Results: Significant correlation was detected between smoking and opioid use and between opioid and antidepressant use. History of previous spine surgery correlated with antidepressant use and return for additional spine surgery. Additional spine surgery correlated with opioid use and history of previous spine surgery. Smoking LMD patients on both opioids and antidepressants and smoking ACDF patients on antidepressants who have a history of prior spine surgery were more likely to return for additional spine surgery. However, in the LDF group, smoking patients on antidepressants without previous spine surgery were more likely to come for another spine surgery. Conclusion: Smokingantidepressantopioid use could be predictive of return for additional spine surgery during the followup years especially if a history of prior spine surgery was reported. Further research is needed on the implications of such an association.

Walid Mohammad

2010-08-01

305

Primary Ewings sarcoma of the spine: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary malignant sarcomas of the spine are extremely rare. Because of biological heterogeneity, these tumors have variable sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy. Adequate local control through complete tumor removal is an important therapeutic goal. However, aggressive resection of tumors in the spinal column must be coupled with restoration of spinal column stability and minimization of neural deficits. The balance of these factors makes treatment of primary sarcomas of the spine challenging, and dictates an individual approach to treatment. We report on a 18 years old man with primary Ewing's sarcoma of the nonsacral spine. The clinical picture and imaging characteristics were analyzed as well as the management modalities and outcome. PMID:17119813

Dini, Leandro I; Mendonça, Rodrigo; Gallo, Pasquale

2006-09-01

306

Reconstitution of lost cervical spine function: management strategies  

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The cervical spine (CS) is the most vulnerable part of the whole spine because it has least protection. This is due to its high mobility (few bone, but largely muscle and joint support) which is associated with a high injury risk. The anatomical characteristics are based on evolutionary biological reasons, i.e. humans had to be able to freely controlling the surrounding space with their eyes and to have permanent postural control by an upright position of the head. The cervical spine, its jo...

Ernst, Arne; Niedeggen, Andreas

2005-01-01

307

Primary Ewing?s sarcoma of the spine: case report  

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Full Text Available Primary malignant sarcomas of the spine are extremely rare. Because of biological heterogeneity, these tumors have variable sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy. Adequate local control through complete tumor removal is an important therapeutic goal. However, aggressive resection of tumors in the spinal column must be coupled with restoration of spinal column stability and minimization of neural deficits. The balance of these factors makes treatment of primary sarcomas of the spine challenging, and dictates an individual approach to treatment. We report on a 18 years old man with primary Ewing's sarcoma of the nonsacral spine. The clinical picture and imaging characteristics were analyzed as well as the management modalities and outcome.

Dini Leandro I.

2006-01-01

308

Vascular abnormalities of the spine: an imaging review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this educational article is to present a variety of vascular abnormalities of the spine to aid in recognition and accurate diagnosis. The lesions differ in clinical presentation, prognosis, and treatment. This has implications for patient care including treatment options. We provide an example-based illustrated glossary to help the reader identify varying types of vascular spine lesions. Collected cross-sectional and angiographic imaging of the spine from our tertiary care institution provides a clear patient-based representation. PMID:20307788

Boo, SoHyun; Hartel, James; Hogg, Jeffery P

2010-01-01

309

Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Utilizing Cone-Beam CT Image-Guidance With a Robotic Couch: Intrafraction Motion Analysis Accounting for all Six Degrees of Freedom  

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Purpose: To evaluate the residual setup error and intrafraction motion following kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance, for immobilized spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients, with positioning corrected for in all six degrees of freedom. Methods and Materials: Analysis is based on 42 consecutive patients (48 thoracic and/or lumbar metastases) treated with a total of 106 fractions and 307 image registrations. Following initial setup, a CBCT was acquired for patient alignment and a pretreatment CBCT taken to verify shifts and determine the residual setup error, followed by a midtreatment and posttreatment CBCT image. For 13 single-fraction SBRT patients, two midtreatment CBCT images were obtained. Initially, a 1.5-mm and 1 Degree-Sign tolerance was used to reposition the patient following couch shifts which was subsequently reduced to 1 mm and 1 Degree-Sign degree after the first 10 patients. Results: Small positioning errors after the initial CBCT setup were observed, with 90% occurring within 1 mm and 97% within 1 Degree-Sign . In analyzing the impact of the time interval for verification imaging (10 {+-} 3 min) and subsequent image acquisitions (17 {+-} 4 min), the residual setup error was not significantly different (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.04) in the average three-dimensional intrafraction positional deviations favoring a more strict tolerance in translation (1 mm vs. 1.5 mm) was observed. The absolute intrafraction motion averaged over all patients and all directions along x, y, and z axis ({+-} SD) were 0.7 {+-} 0.5 mm and 0.5 {+-} 0.4 mm for the 1.5 mm and 1 mm tolerance, respectively. Based on a 1-mm and 1 Degree-Sign correction threshold, the target was localized to within 1.2 mm and 0.9 Degree-Sign with 95% confidence. Conclusion: Near-rigid body immobilization, intrafraction CBCT imaging approximately every 15-20 min, and strict repositioning thresholds in six degrees of freedom yields minimal intrafraction motion allowing for safe spine SBRT delivery.

Hyde, Derek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); British Columbia Cancer Agency, The Sindi Hawkins Cancer Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna (Canada); Lochray, Fiona; Korol, Renee; Davidson, Melanie; Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: Arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

2012-03-01

310

Cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine in a 5-year-old girl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fractures of the tibial spine usually occur in children aged 8 to 14 years. Usually, radiographs will demonstrate a tibial spine fracture, with the degree of displacement. Tibial spine fractures in younger children have not been reported in the previously published literature. We report a tibial spine fracture that occurred in 5-year-old girl. The cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine was not revealed by radiographs because it was limited to the cartilaginous portion of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

311

Ghrelin promotes reorganization of dendritic spines in cultured rat hippocampal slices  

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Recent evidence suggests ghrelin may up-regulate the number of spine synapses. However, it is not completely understood whether an increased number of synapses are expressed on existing spines or accommodated in newly generated spines. We examined if ghrelin might have promoted the generation of new dendritic spines. Localization of polymerized actin (F-actin), highly expressed in dendritic spines, was assayed using phalloidin, a mushroom toxin that has a high affinity to F-actin. Alexa 488-c...

Berrout, Liza; Isokawa, Masako

2012-01-01

312

Cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine in a 5-year-old girl  

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Fractures of the tibial spine usually occur in children aged 8 to 14 years. Usually, radiographs will demonstrate a tibial spine fracture, with the degree of displacement. Tibial spine fractures in younger children have not been reported in the previously published literature. We report a tibial spine fracture that occurred in 5-year-old girl. The cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine was not revealed by radiographs because it was limited to the cartilaginous portion of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

Kim, Jung Ryul; Song, Ji Hun; Lee, Ju Hong [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jeonju (Korea); Lee, Sang Yong [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Jeonju (Korea); Yoo, Wan Hee [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Rheumatology, Jeonju (Korea)

2008-04-15

313

Extracellular matrix control of dendritic spine and synapse structure and plasticity in adulthood  

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Dendritic spines are the receptive contacts at most excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. Spines are dynamic in the developing brain, changing shape as they mature as well as appearing and disappearing as they make and break connections. Spines become much more stable in adulthood, and spine structure must be actively maintained to support established circuit function. At the same time, adult spines must retain some plasticity so their structure can be modified by activity and ex...

Koleske, Anthony J.; Levy, Aaron D.

2014-01-01

314

Fusion following lateral mass reconstruction in the cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECT Recently, aggressive surgical techniques and a push toward en bloc resections of certain tumors have resulted in a need for creative spinal column reconstruction. Iatrogenic instability following these resections requires a thoughtful approach to adequately transfer load-bearing forces from the skull and upper cervical spine to the subaxial spine. METHODS The authors present a series of 7 cases in which lateral mass reconstruction with a cage or fibular strut graft was used to provide load-bearing support, including 1 case of bilateral cage placement. RESULTS The authors discuss the surgical nuances of en bloc resection of high cervical tumors and explain their technique for lateral mass cage placement. Additionally, they provide their rationale for the use of these constructs throughout the craniocervical junction and subaxial spine. CONCLUSIONS Lateral mass reconstruction provides a potential alternative or adjuvant method of restoring the load-bearing capabilities of the cervical spine. PMID:25431961

Clarke, Michelle J; Zadnik, Patricia L; Groves, Mari L; Sciubba, Daniel M; Witham, Timothy F; Bydon, Ali; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul

2015-02-01

315

Anterior cervical spine fusion: struts, plugs, and plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone grafting in the cervical spine is an expanding and rapidly changing area. Its success depends on the presence of bone formation, bone incorporation, and ongoing adaptive remodeling to mechanical loads. The evaluation of anterior cervical spine grafts requires a basic understanding of bone graft physiology, its clinical applications, and its postoperative appearances. The roles of routine radiography, polydirectional tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment and follow-up of the postoperatively grafted cervical spine will be discussed. The main focus on this paper is to review current surgical procedures utilized for stabilizing the cervica spine as well as to discuss the radiologist's role in the imaging of this region. (orig.)

316

Asymmetric deformation structure of lava spine in Unzen Volcano, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Lava spine is commonly generated by effusive eruption of crystal-rich, dacitic-andesitic magmas. Especially, deformation rock on surface of lava spine has been related with processes of magma ascent, outgassing, and generation of volcanic earthquake (e.g., Cashman et al. 2008). To reveal the relationships and generation process of the spine, it is needed to understand a spatial distribution of the deformation rock. Here we show the spatial distribution of the deformation rock of lava spine in the Unzen volcano, Japan, to discuss the generation process of the spine. The lava spine in Unzen volcano is elongated in the E-W direction, showing a crest like shape with 150 long, 40 m wide and 50 m high. The lava spine is divided into following four parts: 1) Massive dacite part: Dense dacite with 30 m of maximum thickness, showing slickenside on the southern face; 2) Sheared dacite part: Flow band developed dacite with 1.0 m of maximum thickness; 3) Tuffisite part: Network of red colored vein develops in dacite with 0.5 m of maximum thickness; 4) Breccia part: Dacitic breccia with 10 m of maximum thickness. The Breccia part dominates in the northern part of the spine, and flops over Massive dacite part accross the Sheared dacite and Tuffisite parts. The slickenside on southern face of massive dacite demonstrates contact of solids. The slickenside breaks both of phenocryst and groundmass, demonstrating that the slickenside is formed after significant crystallization at the shallow conduit or on the ground surface. The lineation of the slickenside shows E-W direction with almost horizontal rake angle, which is consistent with the movement of the spine to an east before emplacement. Development of sub-vertical striation due to extrusion was observed on northern face of the spine (Hayashi, 1994). Therefore, we suggest that the spine just at extrusion consisted of Massive dacite, Sheared dacite, Tuffisite, Breccia, and Striation parts in the northern half of the spine. Such a variation of rock type is analogous to tectonic fault zone, suggesting that brittle failure of rigid magma due to contact with the conduit wall. Also similar variation is observed in the spine of Mt. St. Helens (Kendrick et al., 2012), which implies the existence of fault zone and brittle failure of magma are common features in the lava spine. The lava spine in Unzen volcano exhibits asymmetric deformation structure about direction of north and south. There is positive correlation between width and length in tectonic fault (Wells and Coppersmith, 1994). Therefore, development of fault zone (Sheared dacite, Tuffisite, and Breccia parts) in northern half may indicate that brittle failure starts at the deeper conduit for the northern half than the southern half of the spine. The asymmetry of magma ascent process is possible to result in asymmetries of outgassing path and location of volcanic earthquake in the conduit.

Miwa, T.; Okumura, S.; Matsushima, T.; Shimizu, H.

2013-12-01

317

Return to play after cervical spine injury in sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) resulting from sports now represent 8.9% of the total causes of SCI. Regardless of cause, there are bound to be return-to-play decisions to be made for athletes. Since catastrophic cervical spine injuries are among the most devastating injuries in all of sports, returning from a cervical spine injury is one of the most difficult decisions in sports medicine. Axial loading is the primary mechanism for catastrophic cervical spine injuries. Axial loading occurs as a result of intentional or unintentional head-down contact and spearing. Most would agree that the athlete returning to a contact or collision sport after a cervical spine injury must be asymptomatic, have full strength, and have full active range of motion; however, each situation is unique. The following review discusses the pathophysiology of these conditions and suggests guidelines for return to contact sports after traumatic cervical SCI. PMID:23314078

Cantu, Robert C; Li, Yan Michael; Abdulhamid, Mohamed; Chin, Lawrence S

2013-01-01

318

Estimating Load on the Spine Using Spinal Shrinkage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Changes in body height have been used as a measure of spine compression during loading. However, a gap exists in the literature as to the actual relationship that exists between spinal shrinkage and spine load as a result of load carrying or lifting. This study proposed a mathematical model for the relationship between spinal shrinkage and spinal load. The model was validated using some load carriers in a major market in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The spinal shrinkages obtained from the study did not differ significantly from those calculated using the proposed model, thus suggesting that the model may be valid. The model established a relationship between load on the spine, spinal shrinkage, spine length and chest area.

Salami O. ISMAILA

2010-12-01

319

Translaminar screw fixation in the lumbar spine: technique, indications, results  

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Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar spine represents a simple and effective technique for short segment fusion in the degenerative spine. Clinical experience with 173 patients who underwent translaminar screw fixation revealed a fusion rate of 94%. The indications for translaminar screw fixation as a primary fixation procedure are: segmental dysfunction, lumbar spinal stenosis with painful degenerative changes, segmental revision surgery after discectomies, and painful disc-related synd...

Grob, D.; Humke, T.

1998-01-01

320

Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development  

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Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same ma...

Federico Canavese; Alain Dimeglio

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Endoscopic surgery on the thoracolumbar junction of the spine  

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The thoracolumbar junction is the section of the truncal spine most often affected by injuries. Acute instability with structural damage to the anterior load-bearing spinal column and post-traumatic deformity represents the most frequent indications for surgery. In the past few years, endoscopic techniques for these indications have partially superseded the open procedures, which are associated with high access morbidity. The particular position of this section of the spine, which lies in the...

Beisse, Rudolf

2009-01-01

322

Pott's Spine: Diagnostic Imaging Modalities and Technology Advancements  

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Spinal tuberculosis (TB) or Pott's spine is the commonest extrapulmonary manifestation of TB. It spreads through hematogenous route. Clinically, it presents with constitutional symptoms, back pain, tenderness, paraplegia or paraparesis, and kyphotic or scoliotic deformities. Pott's spine accounts for 2% of all cases of TB, 15% of extrapulmonary, and 50% of skeletal TB. The paradiscal, central, anterior subligamentous, and neural arch are the common vertebral lesions. Thoracic vertebrae are co...

Ansari, Sajid; Amanullah, Md Farid; Ahmad, Kaleem; Rauniyar, Raj Kumar

2013-01-01

323

The Technological Development of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery  

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Minimally invasive spine surgery has its roots in the mid-twentieth century with a few surgeons and a few techniques, but it has now developed into a large field of progressive spinal surgery. A wide range of techniques are now called “minimally invasive,” and case reports are submitted constantly with new “minimally invasive” approaches to spinal pathology. As minimally invasive spine surgery has become more mainstream over the past ten years, in this paper we discuss its history and...

Snyder, Laura A.; Toole, John O.; Eichholz, Kurt M.; Perez-cruet, Mick J.; Richard Fessler

2014-01-01

324

Tophaceous Gout of the Spine Causing Neural Compression  

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Gout is a common metabolic disease in which monosodium urate crystals called tophi develop. Spinal involvement in gout resulting in neural compression is unusual. We describe a case of a 64-year-old man with a history of gouty arthritis of the knee. The patient presented with thoracic myelopathy and radiculopathy. Imaging of the spine revealed an extradural mass lesion with bony erosion of the thoracic spine. A decompressive operation was performed, and a chalky white material was found. Hist...

Yoon, Jong-won; Park, Kyung-bum; Park, Hyun; Kang, Dong-ho; Lee, Chul-hee; Hwang, Soo-hyun; Jung, Jin-myung; Han, Jong-woo; Park, In Sung

2013-01-01

325

[Design and clinical application of an adjustable spine prone frame].  

Science.gov (United States)

The design principle and application of an adjustable spine prone frame are introduced. Adjustable spine prone frame is used in posterior lumbar surgery, during operation, X-ray can shoot fast and internal fixation implants can fix accurately, the vacant abdominal ensure normal respiratory and circulatory function, and the lumbar curvature can adjust conveniently. It meets the surgical position and care requirements, can prevent the complications effectively. PMID:24015614

Zhao, Jun; Wu, Jinqiu; Deng, Qiang; Pei, Shengtai; Xie, Xingwen; Yang, Bo

2013-05-01

326

Spine Expansion and Stabilization Associated with Long-term Potentiation  

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Stable expression of long-term synaptic plasticity is critical for the developmental refinement of neural circuits and for some forms of learning and memory. Although structural remodeling of dendritic spines is associated with the stable expression of long term potentiation (LTP), the relationship between structural and physiological plasticity remains unclear. To define whether these two processes are related or distinct, we simultaneously monitored EPSPs and dendritic spines, using combine...

Yang, Yunlei; Wang, Xiao-bin; Frerking, Matthew; Zhou, Qiang

2008-01-01

327

Dysphagia Due to Anterior Cervical Spine Osteophyte: A Case Report  

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Introduction: Degenerative changes of the cervical spine are more common in elderly, but anterior cervical osteophytes that cause problems in swallowing are rare. The most common cause of this problem is DISH disease (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis). Trauma is also suggested as a potential cause in osteophyte formation. Case Report: We report a rare case of anterior cervical osteophyte with problems in swallowing that was caused by cervical spine trauma in a car accident 4 years ago...

Hossein Mashhadinezhad; Reza Bagheri; Mohammad Faraji Rad; Ali Mashhadinezhad

2010-01-01

328

7T Human Spine Imaging Arrays With Adjustable Inductive Decoupling  

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Ultrahigh-field human spine RF transceiver coil arrays face daunting technical challenges in achieving large imaging coverage with sufficient B1 penetration and sensitivity, and in attaining robust decoupling among coil elements. In this paper, human spine coil arrays for ultrahigh field were built and studied. Transceiver arrays with loop-shaped microstrip transmission line were designed, fabricated, and tested for 7-tesla (7T)MRI. With the proposed adjustable inductive decoupling technique,...

Wu, Bing; Wang, Chunsheng; Krug, Roland; Kelley, Douglas A.; Xu, Duan; Pang, Yong; Banerjee, Suchandrima; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Zhang, Xiaoliang

2009-01-01

329

The spine of an SQG almost-sharp front  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study solutions of the surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) equation which are locally constant outside a thin neighbourhood of a curve that evolves with time. To such an SQG solution we associate a distinguished curve (the 'spine'). If the above thin neighbourhood has thickness ?, then we prove that the spine satisfies its own evolution equation (equal to the sharp-front equation) modulo errors O(?2|log?|)

330

Rheumatoid arthritis. Radiological changes in the cervical spine.  

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OBJECTIVES To describe the radiographic cervical spine changes in rheumatoid arthritis patients. METHODS Forty-nine patients (37 females and 12 males) diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between June 1998 and June 2000, were studied for their radiographic cervical spine changes. Their mean age at disease onset was 41.4 +/- 13.4 years (range of 18-73) and mean duration ...

Al-boukai, Ahmed A.; Al-arfaj, Abdurhman S.

2003-01-01

331

Synovial osteochondromatosis of the cervical spine: A case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare, benign condition characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules within the synovium. It rarely occurs at cervical spine, and only six cases have been previously reported in the English literature. We describe another case of synovial osteochondromatosis in the cervical spine in a 77-year-old man who presented with compressive myelopathy. Here we briefly review the literature and discuss the differential diagnosis based on CT and MR findings.

332

Pediatric cervical spine trauma imaging: a practical approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cervical spine trauma in children is rare and the diagnosis can be challenging due to anatomical and biomechanical differences as compared to adults. A variety of algorithms have been used in adults to accurately diagnose injuries, but have not been fully studied in pediatric patients. In this article we review suggested imaging protocols and the general characteristics, types of injuries, and measurements used to diagnose cervical spine injuries in children. (orig.)

333

Estimating Load on the Spine Using Spinal Shrinkage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changes in body height have been used as a measure of spine compression during loading. However, a gap exists in the literature as to the actual relationship that exists between spinal shrinkage and spine load as a result of load carrying or lifting. This study proposed a mathematical model for the relationship between spinal shrinkage and spinal load. The model was validated using some load carriers in a major market in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The spinal shrinkages obtained from the stud...

Ismaila, Salami O.; Charles-owaba, Oliver E.; Alamu, Oguntola J.; Akanbi, Olusegun G.

2010-01-01

334

History of spine surgery in older obese patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Goal: To study the interaction of obesity and age in patients with multiple spine surgeries. Methods: Data on the body mass index (BMI of 956 patients were collected and classified into four groups: non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2, obese-class I (BMI ?30 kg/m2, obese-class II (BMI ?35 kg/m2 and obese-class III (BMI ?40 kg/m2. Patients' age was categorized into the following age groups: ?40, 41–65 and ?66. T-test and Chi-square test were applied using SPSS v16. Results: In lumbar patients aged ?66 years with previous spine surgery, the average number of previous spine surgeries significantly increased with increasing obesity from 1.4 in nonobese patients to 1.7, 2.5 and 3.5 in obese class I, II and III patients.In lumbar decompression and fusion patients aged ?66 years with previous spine surgery, the average number of previous spine surgeries signifi-cantly increased with increasing obesity from 1.7 in nonobese patients to 1.6, 2.0 and 3.5 in obese class I, II and III patients. A similar trend was noted in lumbar microdiskectomy patients aged ?66 years but it was statistically nonsignificant due probably to small numbers. Conclusion: Obesity is associated with an increased number of previous spine surgeries in patients over 65 years of age undergoing lumbar surgery.

Zaytseva, Nadezhda

2011-01-01

335

Spine fractures in falling accidents: analysis of multidetector CT findings  

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The purpose of the present study was to assess incidence, fracture type, and location of spine fractures due to falls. All emergency room CT requests during a time period of 26 months were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who had fallen or jumped and were initially examined with multidetector CT (MDCT) were included. The MDCT studies were evaluated by two radiologists for trauma location, fracture type, and multiple level involvement. A total of 237 patients (184 males, 53 female, age range 16-86 years, mean age 42 years) met the inclusion criteria. A total of 203 vertebral fractures were seen in 127 patients. Burst fracture (n=78) was the most frequent type of trauma, usually located in the thoracolumbar junction (50%). Also, compression fracture (n=52) was most common in the thoracolumbar junction (39%). Posterior column fracture (n=52) was most frequently detected in the cervical spine (40%). Multiple-level spine fractures were seen in 41 (32%) of the injured patients, of which 12 (29%) had fractures at noncontinuous levels. With increasing height the overall incidence of fractures increased, and burst fractures and multiple level spine fractures became more frequent. Age had no effect on fracture type or location. Spine fractures due to falls are common. Burst fracture is the most common fracture type and most frequently seen in the thoracolumbar junction. Multiple-level fractures were seen in 32% of the cases, of which 29% were seen at noncontinuous levels. Serious spine fractures are seen in all falling height and age groups. (orig.)

Bensch, Frank V.; Kiuru, Martti J.; Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Department of Radiology, Toeoeloe Trauma Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Topeliuksenkatu 5, 00029, Helsinki (Finland)

2004-04-01

336

Sequestration of CaMKII in dendritic spines in silico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is sequestered in dendritic spines within seconds upon synaptic stimulation. The program Smoldyn was used to develop scenarios of single molecule CaMKII diffusion and binding in virtual dendritic spines. We first validated simulation of diffusion as a function of spine morphology. Additional cellular structures were then incorporated to simulate binding of CaMKII to the post-synaptic density (PSD); binding to cytoskeleton; or their self-aggregation. The distributions of GFP tagged native and mutant constructs in dissociated hippocampal neurons were measured to guide quantitative analysis. Intra-spine viscosity was estimated from fluorescence recovery after photo-bleach (FRAP) of red fluorescent protein. Intra-spine mobility of the GFP-CaMKII? constructs was measured, with hundred-millisecond or better time resolution, from FRAP of distal spine tips in conjunction with fluorescence loss (FLIP) from proximal regions. Different FRAP \\ FLIP profiles were predicted from our Scenarios and provided a means to differentiate binding to the PSDs from self-aggregation. The predictions were validated by experiments. Simulated fits of the Scenarios provided estimates of binding and rate constants. We utilized these values to assess the role of self-aggregation during the initial response of native CaMKII holoenzymes to stimulation. The computations revealed that self-aggregation could provide a concentration-dependent switch to amplify CaMKII sequestration and regulate its activity depending on its occupancy of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:21491127

Khan, Shahid; Zou, Yixiao; Amjad, Asma; Gardezi, Ailia; Smith, Carolyn L; Winters, Christine; Reese, Thomas S

2011-11-01

337

Rheumatoid arthritis: Radiological changes in the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to describe the radiographic cervical spine changes in rheumatoid arthritis patients.Forty-nine patients (37 females and 12 males ) diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between June 1998 and December 2000, were studied for their radiographic cervical spine changes . Their mean age at disease onset was 41.4+ 13.4 years (range of 18-73)and mean duration of disease was 9.1+-6.28 years (range of 2-34). Their demographic data including rheumatoid factor status was obtained. Standard conventional radiographs cervical spine were obtained to study the cervical spine changes. Cervical radiographic changes were found in 34 patients (27 females and 7 males) 10 had subluxation (7 with atlanto-axial subluxation,2 with sub-axial subluxation,and one with lateral subluxation ). No vertical impaction was seen. Erosion of odontoid process was seen in one patient .All were rheumatoid seropositive Cervical spine changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are common, in particular subluxation in the upper cervical spine. Our study showed somewhat lesser prevalence of these changes. These were clinically correlated with disease duration, female sex, and rheumatoid factor, but were not clinically significant. (author)

338

Villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the spine  

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To describe the imaging features of spinal pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pathologically proven spinal PVNS. Patient demographics and clinical presentation were reviewed. Radiologic studies were evaluated by consensus of two musculoskeletal radiologists for spinal location, spinal segments affected, lesion center, detection of facet origin and intrinsic characteristics on radiography (n =11), myelography (n =7), CT (n =6) and MR imaging (n =6). Women (64%) were more commonly affected than men (36%) with an average age of 28 years. Clinical symptoms were pain (45%), neurologic (9%) or both (36%). Lesions most frequently affected the cervical spine (53%) followed by the thoracic (27%) and lumbar regions (20%). The majority of lesions (93%) were centered in the posterior elements with frequent involvement of the pedicle (67%), neural foramina (73%), lamina (67%) and facets (93%). No lesions showed calcification. Determination of a facet origin by imaging was dependent on imaging modality and lesion size. A facet origin could be determined in 45% of cases by radiography vs 67% of patients by CT (n=6) and MR (n=6). Large lesions (greater than 3 cm in at least one dimension) obscured the facet origin in all cases with CT and/or MR imaging (44%,n=4). Small lesions (less than 3 cm in any dimension) demonstrated an obvious facet origin in all cases by CT and/or MR imaging (56%,n=5). Low-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen in all cases on T2-weighted MR images resulting from hemosiderin deposition with ''blooming effect'' in one case with gradient echo MR images. PVNS of the spine is rare. Large lesions obscure the facet origin and simulate an aggressive intraosseous neoplasm. Patient age, a solitary noncystic lesion centered in the posterior elements, lack of mineralization and low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR pulse sequences may suggest the diagnosis in these cases. Small lesions demonstrate a facet origin on CT or MR imaging. This limits differential considerations to synovial-based lesions and additional features of a solitary focus, lack of underlying disease or systemic arthropathy, no calcification as well as low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR images should allow spinal PVNS to be suggested as the likely diagnosis. (orig.)

Motamedi, Kambiz [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Radiologic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology), 200 UCLA Medical Plaza, Suite 165-59, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Murphey, Mark D. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Radiologic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States); University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fetsch, John F.; Furlong, Mary A. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Soft Tissue Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Vinh, Tinhoa N.; Sweet, Donald E. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Laskin, William B. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgical Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States)

2005-04-01

339

Villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the imaging features of spinal pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pathologically proven spinal PVNS. Patient demographics and clinical presentation were reviewed. Radiologic studies were evaluated by consensus of two musculoskeletal radiologists for spinal location, spinal segments affected, lesion center, detection of facet origin and intrinsic characteristics on radiography (n =11), myelography (n =7), CT (n =6) and MR imaging (n =6). Women (64%) were more commonly affected than men (36%) with an average age of 28 years. Clinical symptoms were pain (45%), neurologic (9%) or both (36%). Lesions most frequently affected the cervical spine (53%) followed by the thoracic (27%) and lumbar regions (20%). The majority of lesions (93%) were centered in the posterior elements with frequent involvement of the pedicle (67%), neural foramina (73%), lamina (67%) and facets (93%). No lesions showed calcification. Determination of a facet origin by imaging was dependent on imaging modality and lesion size. A facet origin could be determined in 45% of cases by radiography vs 67% of patients by CT (n=6) and MR (n=6). Large lesions (greater than 3 cm in at least one dimension) obscured the facet origin in all cases with CT and/or MR imaging (44%,n=4). Small lesions (less than 3 cm in any dimension) demonstrated an obvious facet origin in all cases by CT and/or MR imaging (56%,n=5). Low-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen in all cases on T2-weighted MR images resulting from hemosiderin deposition with ''blooming effect'' in one case with gradient echo MR images. PVNS of the spine is rare. Large lesions obscure the facet origin and simulate an aggressive intraosseous neoplasm. Patient age, a solitary noncystic lesion centered in the posterior elements, lack of mineralization and low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR pulse sequences may suggest the diagnosis in these cases. Small lesions demonstrate a facet origin on CT or MR imaging. This limits differential considerations to synovial-based lesions and additional features of a solitary focus, lack of underlying disease or systemic arthropathy, no calcification as well as low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR images should allow spinal PVNS to be suggested as the likely diagnosis. (orig.)

340

Rosiglitazone increases dendritic spine density and rescues spine loss caused by apolipoprotein E4 in primary cortical neurons  

Science.gov (United States)

Convergent evidence has revealed an association between insulin resistance and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist, rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer and mitochondrial activator, improves cognition in patients with early or mild-to-moderate AD. Apolipoprotein (apo) E4, a major genetic risk factor for AD, exerts neuropathological effects through multiple pathways, including impairment of dendritic spine structure and mitochondrial function. Here we show that rosiglitazone significantly increased dendritic spine density in a dose-dependent manner in cultured primary cortical rat neurons. This effect was abolished by the PPAR-?-specific antagonist, GW9662, suggesting that rosiglitazone exerts this effect by activating the PPAR-? pathway. Furthermore, the C-terminal-truncated fragment of apoE4 significantly decreased dendritic spine density. Rosiglitazone rescued this detrimental effect. Thus, rosiglitazone might improve cognition in AD patients by increasing dendritic spine density. PMID:18212130

Brodbeck, Jens; Balestra, Maureen E.; Saunders, Ann M.; Roses, Allen D.; Mahley, Robert W.; Huang, Yadong

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A Systematic Review of the Current Role of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in the Management of Metastatic Spine Disease  

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Although increasingly aggressive decompression and resection methods have resulted in improved outcomes for patients with metastatic spine disease, these aggressive surgeries are not feasible for patients with numerous comorbid conditions. Such patients stand to benefit from management via minimally invasive spine surgery (MIS), given its association with decreased perioperative morbidity. We performed a systematic review of literature with the goal of evaluating the clinical efficacy and saf...

Molina, Camilo A.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Sciubba, Daniel M.

2011-01-01

342

Spine evaluation in children with anorectal malformations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The value of radiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting skeletal and intraspinal pathology was assessed in infants with anorectal malformations, and the need for spinal MRI examination in this group of patients was evaluated. Twenty-one infants were examined with radiography, ultrasound and MRI of the lower spine. The detection of skeletal and intraspinal abnormalities was compared for the three imaging modalities. Fifteen patients were normal in all three examinations. Radiography showed bony skeletal abnormalities in six children, although sometimes very subtle. By ultrasound both bony and cartilaginous malformations were detected in all six patients and by MRI in five patients. Five of the six children with skeletal abnormalities had intraspinal pathology, detected in all cases by ultrasound and MRI. However, the abnormalities were more clearly demonstrated by MRI than by ultrasound. Spinal radiographs must be examined carefully for abnormalities, because they can indicate the presence or absence of intraspinal pathology. Normal radiographic and sonographic appearance of spinal anatomy in children with anorectal malformation makes MRI superfluous, but if radiographs or ultrasound are abnormal, MRI should be used to accurately depict possible intraspinal pathology. (orig.)

343

Repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective is to present the surgical experience in the repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine. Background: Spodylolysis is an important cause of low back pain in young adults and is responsible for high grade of incapacity. Classically, patients with surgical indications with Spondylolysis have been treated with vertebral arthrodesis arthrodesis, with the following functional lost of the intervened segment and biomechanical overload of the upper contiguous segment. There are not previous reports about repairing of lysis in national literature and international references in this technique are scarce. Materials and methods: Eight patients within 2002-2004 were operated, a direct repairing of the lyses by in situ, fusion and interfragmental osteosynthesis with AO 3.5 mm titanium cortical screws with autogenous bone grafts was achieved. The casuistic was analyzed depending on clinical presentation, consolidation, mobility and vitality of the disc in imaginology studies. Results: During the follow-up a firm fusion in all cases, mobility and vitality preservation of the L5-S1 intervertebral disc was detected. There was neither infection nor neurological deficit. Recommendations: Repairing of spondylolysis in lumbar column, in young symptomatic patients without or with mild lystesis (grade I) and without associated disc damage, is a safe surgical technique

344

Instrumentation of the paediatric cervical spine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Paediatric cervical fusion surgery is challenging. Traditional techniques such as external stabilisation, onlay fusions and wiring techniques resulted in unsatisfactory outcomes due to inferior biomechanical stability. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of paediatric patients [...] who underwent instrumented cervical fusion surgery under 16 years of age. Fusion rates, blood loss, levels fused, theatre time, technique and complications were assessed. RESULTS: An average of 2.5 levels was fused, with an estimated blood loss of 428 ml and surgical duration of 159 min. Anterior procedures had an average of one level fused with blood loss of 117 ml and surgical duration of 98 min. Posterior procedures had an average number of 1.9 levels fused, blood loss of 306 ml and surgical time of 131 min. Combined procedures had an average of 5.5 levels fused, blood loss 810 ml and surgical duration of 241 min. Four surgery-related complications were encountered. These consisted of dural leaks and wound sepsis which were all treated effectively. All patients achieved radiological fusion. CONCLUSION: The use of modern segmental spinal instrumentation in the paediatric cervical spine is a viable option. Although the study sample was small we are able to demonstrate that no major surgical complications were encountered due to the use of adult cervical spinal instrumentation techniques in the paediatric group.

RN, Dunn; AH, Botha.

2014-01-01

345

Exploring the pharmacogenomics knowledge base (PharmGKB) for repositioning breast cancer drugs by leveraging Web ontology language (OWL) and cheminformatics approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational drug repositioning leverages computational technology and high volume of biomedical data to identify new indications for existing drugs. Since it does not require costly experiments that have a high risk of failure, it has attracted increasing interest from diverse fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, and informatics areas. In this study, we used pharmacogenomics data generated from pharmacogenomics studies, applied informatics and Semantic Web technologies to address the drug repositioning problem. Specifically, we explored PharmGKB to identify pharmacogenomics related associations as pharmacogenomics profiles for US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved breast cancer drugs. We then converted and represented these profiles in Semantic Web notations, which support automated semantic inference. We successfully evaluated the performance and efficacy of the breast cancer drug pharmacogenomics profiles by case studies. Our results demonstrate that combination of pharmacogenomics data and Semantic Web technology/Cheminformatics approaches yields better performance of new indication and possible adverse effects prediction for breast cancer drugs. PMID:24297544

Zhu, Qian; Tao, Cui; Shen, Feichen; Chute, Christopher G

2014-01-01

346

Using the cervical range of motion (CROM) device to assess head repositioning accuracy in individuals with cervical radiculopathy in comparison to neck- healthy individuals  

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This study had two purposes: to compare head repositioning accuracy (HRA) using the cervical range of motion (CROM) device between individuals with cervical radiculopathy caused by disc disease (CDD; n = 71) and neck- healthy individuals (n = 173); and to evaluate the test–retest reliability of the CROM device in individuals with CDD, and criterion validity between the CROM device and a laser in neck-healthy individuals, with quantification of measurement errors. Parameters of reliabili...

Wibault, Johanna; Vaillant, Jacques; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Dedering, A?sa; Peolsson, Anneli

2013-01-01

347

Frameless linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases: analysis of patient repositioning using a mask fixation system and clinical outcomes  

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Abstract Purpose To assess the accuracy of patient repositioning and clinical outcomes of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases using a stereotactic mask fixation system. Patients and Methods One hundred two patients treated consecutively with frameless SRS as primary treatment at University of Rome Sapienza Sant'Andrea Hospital between October 2008 and April 2010 and followed prospectively were involved in the study. A commercial stereo...

Minniti Giuseppe; Scaringi Claudia; Clarke Enrico; Valeriani Maurizio; Osti Mattia; Enrici Riccardo

2011-01-01

348

Occipital spine of Orthacanthus (Xenacanthidae, Elasmobranchii): structure and growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The morphology of 16 occipital spines of the xenacanthid Orthacanthus from Upper Carboniferous deposits of Robinson (Kansas, USA), Nýran (Czech Republic) and Puertollano (Spain) is described. The nonreplaced spines reveal the growth pattern of the shark. Moreover, the relationship between growth and paleoenvironmental conditions can be used to determine paleoecological conditions. Both external and internal morphology indicate that the spine was superficially inserted in the skin. During growth, the spine moved from a deep position in the dermis, in which trabecular dentine is formed, to a more superficial location in which centrifugally growing lamellar dentine was formed. Centripetally growing lamellar dentine was deposited more slowly than the centrifugally growing dentine; it obliterated the pulp cavity. The denticles are independent dermal elements formed by a dermal papilla and secondarily attached by dentine to the spine proper. The number of denticles per annual cycle and the density of denticulation vary with the growth rate. Moreover, the ratio of length of denticulated region to total length of the spine changes throughout ontogeny. In consequence, those features cannot be used for systematic purposes without a careful analysis of the variability. Centrifugally growing lamellar dentine in spines from Robinson shows a regular alternation of layers, suggesting tidal conditions in the environment in which the sharks lived. Monthly and seasonal cycles also occur. Tidal (lunar) cyclicity is also observed in the denticles: size and distance between denticles increase and decrease gradually, forming waves that are considered seasonal and yearly cycles. The observed regularity could be related to the variation in calcium phosphate deposition following the cyclical changes in water temperature produced in the tidal zone. Monthly and seasonal cycles are the result of the interaction of the solar and tidal (lunar) cycles. The cyclical pattern of growth is used to determine the age and growth rates. Orthacanthus was a fast-growing shark like the Recent sharks Isurus, Mustelus, and Negaprion. PMID:10493780

Soler-Gijón, R

1999-10-01

349

Comparison of Three Prehospital Cervical Spine Protocols for Missed Injuries  

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Full Text Available Introduction: We wanted to compare 3 existing emergency medical services (EMS immobilization protocols: the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS, mechanism-based; the Domeier protocol (parallels the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study [NEXUS] criteria; and the Hankins’ criteria (immobilization for patients 65 years, those with altered consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, distracting injury, or midline or paraspinal tenderness.To determine the proportion of patients who would require cervical immobilization per protocol and the number of missed cervical spine injuries, had each protocol been followed with 100% compliance. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients ?18 years transported by EMS post-traumatic mechanism to an inner city emergency department. Demographic and clinical/historical data obtained by physicians were recorded prior to radiologic imaging. Medical record review ascertained cervical spine injuries. Both physicians and EMS were blinded to the objective of the study. Results: Of 498 participants, 58% were male and mean age was 48 years. The following participants would have required cervical spine immobilization based on the respective protocol: PHTLS, 95.4% (95% CI: 93.1-96.9%; Domeier, 68.7% (95% CI: 64.5-72.6%; Hankins, 81.5% (95% CI: 77.9-84.7%. There were 18 cervical spine injuries: 12 vertebral fractures, 2 subluxations/dislocations and 4 spinal cord injuries. Compliance with each of the 3 protocols would have led to appropriate cervical spine immobilization of all injured patients. In practice, 2 injuries were missed when the PHTLS criteria were mis-applied. Conclusion: Although physician-determined presence of cervical spine immobilization criteria cannot be generalized to the findings obtained by EMS personnel, our findings suggest that the mechanism-based PHTLS criteria may result in unnecessary cervical spine immobilization without apparent benefit to injured patients. PHTLS criteria may also be more difficult to implement due to the subjective interpretation of the severity of the mechanism, leading to non-compliance and missed injury.

Rick Hong

2014-07-01

350

MRI features of hydatid disease of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the typical MRI findings and to evaluate the value of MRI in the diagnosis of hydatid disease of the spine. Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 16 patients with hydatidosis of the spine evaluated with MRI. All patients had surgery with histological diagnosis. MR myelography (MRM) was done in 4 eases, contrast-enhanced scan in 2 cases and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in 1 case. X-ray was performed in 8 cases and CT in 5 cases. Results: All 16 cases were diagnosed as hydatid disease with multicysts. Hydatid disease involved thoracic spine in 5 cases, lumbar spine in 4 cases, sacrum in 3 eases, lumbosacral spine in 2 cases and a combination of thoracic, lumbar spine and sacrum in 2 cases. MR imaging showed bone destruction with wedge shaped compression of single or multiple vertebra. The lesions were round in contour with different sizes and involved the bony spinal canal, appendix of vertebra and neighboring soft tissues. Cystic lesions with multiple daughter cysts demonstrated long T1 and long T2 abnormal signal intensity on MR imaging. On T2-weighted images, a hypointense rim was seen. Cystic lesions were better seen on T2 SPIR and MRM. Mild contrast enhancement of these lesions were seen. A single case showed iso-perfusion on PWI. Conclusions: MRI can demonstrate hydatid cysts in vertebra, spinal canal, paravertebral and neighboring soft tissue. MRI is a valuable tool in the diagnosis anMRI is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment planning of hydatid disease of the spine. (authors)

351

Helical tomotherapy for spine oligometastases from gastrointestinal malignancies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated the treatment effectiveness and proper radiation dose of helical tomotherapy (HT) in spine oligometastases from gastrointestinal cancers. From 2006 to 2010, 20 gastrointestinal cancer patients were treated with HT for spine oligometastases (31 spine lesions). The gross tumor volume (GTV) was the tumor evident from magnetic resonance imaging images fused with simulation computed tomography images. Clinical target volume (CTV) encompassed involved vertebral bodies or dorsal elements. We assumed that the planning target volume was equal to the CTV. We assessed local control rate after HT for 31 spine metastases. Pain response was scored by using a numeric pain intensity scale (NPIS, from 0 to 10). Spine metastatic lesions were treated with median dose of 40 Gy (range, 24 to 51 Gy) and median 5 Gy per fraction (range, 2.5 to 8 Gy) to GTV with median 8 fractions (range, 3 to 20 fraction). Median biologically equivalent dose (BED, ?/? = 10 Gy) was 52 Gy10 (range, 37.5 to 76.8 Gy10) to GTV. Six month local control rate for spine metastasis was 90.3%. Overall infield failure rate was 15% and outfield failure rate was 75%. Most patients showed pain relief after HT (93.8%). Median local recurrence free survival was 3 months. BED over 57 Gy10 and oligometastases were identified as prognostic factors associated with improved local progression free survival (p = 0.012, p = 0.041). HT was capable of delivering higher BED to metastatic lesions in close proximiD to metastatic lesions in close proximity of the spinal cord. Spine metastases from gastrointestinal tumors were sensitive to high dose radiation, and BED (?/? = 10 Gy) higher than 57 Gy10 could improve local control.

352

Effects of external trunk loads on lumbar spine stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stability of the lumbar spine is an important factor in determining spinal response to sudden loading. Using two different methods, this study evaluated how various trunk load magnitudes and directions affect lumbar spine stability. The first method was a quick release procedure in which effective trunk stiffness and stability were calculated from trunk kinematic response to a resisted-force release. The second method combined trunk muscle EMG data with a biomechanical model to calculate lumbar spine stability. Twelve subjects were tested in trunk flexion, extension, and lateral bending under nine permutations of vertical and horizontal trunk loading. The vertical load values were set at 0, 20, and 40% of the subject's body weight (BW). The horizontal loads were 0, 10, and 20% of BW. Effective spine stability as obtained from quick release experimentation increased significantly (ploading. It ranged from 785 (S.D.=580) Nm/rad under no-load conditions to 2200 (S.D.=1015) Nm/rad when the maximum horizontal and vertical loads were applied to the trunk simultaneously. Stability of the lumbar spine achieved prior to force release and estimated from the biomechanical model explained approximately 50% of variance in the effective spine stability obtained from quick release trials in extension and lateral bending (0.53trunk load magnitude to the extent that this load brought about an increase in trunk muscle activation. Indirectly, our data suggest that muscle reflex response to sudden loading can augment the lumbar spine stability level achieved immediately prior to the sudden loading event. PMID:10940396

Cholewicki, J; Simons, A P; Radebold, A

2000-11-01

353

Vitrectomía pars plana y reimplante de lente intraocular en surco / Pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular lens repositioning in the sulcus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentó un caso de lente intraocular luxado a vítreo en paciente con conteo bajo de células endoteliales e intolerancia a lentes de contacto. Se practicó vitrectomía pars plana con reimplante de lente en surco ciliar con el objetivo de demostrar la fiabilidad de la técnica para casos que present [...] en condiciones adecuadas y situaciones especiales. Se revisó la bibliografía para conocer las tendencias actuales con respecto al manejo de esta patología. El paciente alcanzó una agudeza visual de 20/30. El lente permaneció estable en el surco 3 meses después de practicada la vitrectomía. El manejo de esta entidad debe ser personalizado. La técnica utilizada debe ser siempre la primera opción de tratamiento y parece ser segura en casos cuidadosamente escogidos. Abstract in english A case of dislocated intraocular lens moved to the vitreous cavity in a patient with low endothelial cell count and contact lens intolerance was reported. A pars plana vitrectomy with lens repositioning was performed to demonstrate the safety of this technique for some special cases under adequate c [...] onditions. The literature was reviewed to learn about the current management of this pathology. Finally, patient's best visual acuity was 20/30. The stability of the lens was confirmed three month l after the vitrectomy. Management of this disorder should be customized. This technique should be considered as the first option of treatment and seems to be safe in selected cases.

Alejandro, Guerra García; Luis, Curbelo Cunill; Frank, Eguía Martínez; María del Carmen, Rivas Canino.

354

Different therapeutic mechanisms of rigid and semi-rigid mandibular repositioning devices in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

To clarify the mechanisms of rigid and semi-rigid mandibular repositioning devices (MRDs) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), seven and 13 patients received rigid and semi-rigid MRDs, respectively. Each patient underwent polysomnographic and computed tomographic examinations at the initial consultation and after symptom improvement. Three-dimensional models of the upper airway (hard palate level to epiglottic base) were reconstructed by image processing software (Mimics version 14.2) to measure airway morphology. The mean age and body mass index were 58.1 years and 24.8 kg/m(2), respectively, in the rigid MRD group and 57.9 years and 23.2 kg/m(2), respectively, in the semi-rigid MRD group. The apnea-hypopnea index significantly improved (P cross-sectional areas measured at the epiglottic tip (from 2.0 to 2.6 cm(2)) and hard palate (from 2.6 to 3.3 cm(2)) levels also increased in the respective groups (P cross-sectional area measured at the uvular tip level, and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the airway were not significantly different. In conclusion, both types of MRDs improve respiratory status, but they affect different parts of the airway. PMID:24969766

Suga, Hokuto; Mishima, Katsuaki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Asuka; Matsumura, Mayumi; Mano, Takamitsu; Yamasaki, Youichi; Ueyama, Yoshiya

2014-12-01

355

Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixteen patients including 13 cases with disk herniation and 3 cases with spondylosis of lumbar spine were examined on a resistive MRI system operating at 0.1 T. All lesions were studied with both multiple spin echo (MSE) and low flip angle gradient echo (LF) techniques to evaluate which technique is more effective in detecting the disk degeneration and the indentation on subarachnoid space. MSE images were obtained with repetition time (TR) of 1100-1500 ms or cardiac gating, an echo time (TE) of 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 ms symmetrical 6 echoes, and total acquisition time of more than 281 sec. LF images were obtained with TR of 500, 250, and 100 ms, TE of 18 ms, a flip angle of 30 degree, and total acquisition time of 128 sec. Eleven lesions of spinal disk degeneration and 12 of indentation on subarachnoid space were detected with LF. On the other hand, 26 lesions of spinal disk degeneration and 38 of indentation on subarachnoid space were detected with MSE. Although the parameters of LF employed in this study were relatively effective to emphasize T2*-based contrast, the ability of LF in detection of spinal disk degeneration and indentation on subarachnoid space is less than that of MSE. Signal contrast to noise ratios for normal disk and degenerative disk, epidural-fat and disk herniated material, CSF and disk herniated material, and epidural-fat and CSF were less than 4 with LF, but more than 4 with MSE. This difference of contrast to noise ratio bes difference of contrast to noise ratio between MSE and LF was one of the main causes of the difference of the detection rate of spinal disk degeneration and indentation on subarachnoid space. (author)

356

Intra- and interday reliability of spine rasterstereography.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine intra- and interday reliability of spine rasterstereographic system Formetric 4D with and without reflective markers. Twenty-six healthy volunteers (M group) had two markers placed in correspondence of vertebra prominens and intergluteal cleft, and 24 volunteers (NM group) were assessed without markers. All participants were analyzed two times in the same day and one time on a separate day. Trunk length, kyphotic angle, lordotic angle, pelvic inclination, kyphotic and lordotic apex, right and left lateral deviation, flèche cervicale and lombaire, trunk imbalance, pelvic tilt, inflection point, rotation correction, right and left surface rotation, pelvic torsion, and trunk torsion were measured. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach Alpha (C ? ) were calculated. In M group, for intra-, interday, and overall evaluations, the higher reliability coefficients were 0.971, 0.963, and 0.958 (ICC) and 0.987, 0.983, and 0.985 (C ? ) for trunk length, kyphotic angle, and lordotic apex, respectively; while in NM group, they were 0.978, 0.982, and 0.972 and 0.989, 0.991, and 0.991 for trunk length. In M group, the lower values were 0.598, 0.515, and 0.534 (ICC) and 0.742, 0.682, and 0.784 (C ? ) for trunk and pelvic torsion and in NM group 0.561, 0.537, and 0.461 and 0.731, 0.695, and 0.729 for left lateral deviation. The reliability of most parameters was excellent. PMID:23819119

Guidetti, Laura; Bonavolontà, Valerio; Tito, Alessandro; Reis, Victor M; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo

2013-01-01

357

Gota axial / Gout in the spine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A gota axial pode afetar todos os segmentos da coluna vertebral. Ela se manifesta como dor nas costas, dor associada com sintomas neurológicos, e como comprometimento neurológico sem dor em 17,9%, 75,8% e 4,2% dos casos, respectivamente. Essas manifestações foram a primeira apresentação da gota em m [...] uitos pacientes. Embora radiografias, bem como tomografia computadorizada e especialmente ressonância magnética, possam ser muito sugestivos, análises histopatológicas, citológicas e pesquisa de cristais são o padrão ouro de diagnóstico. Na maioria dos casos que envolveram manifestações neurológicas, o paciente foi submetido à cirurgia, levando a resultados satisfatórios. Há, no entanto, alguns relatos de recuperação total após o tratamento clínico habitual para gota, o que sugere que esse tratamento pode ser a opção inicial para os indivíduos com histórico de gota e sinais radiológicos de envolvimento axial. Abstract in english Axial gout can affect all segments of the spine. It is manifested as back pain, as pain associated with neurological symptoms, and as neurological impairment without pain in 17.9%, 75.8% and 4.2% of cases, respectively. These manifestations were the first presentation of gout in many patients. Altho [...] ugh x-rays as well as computed tomography and especially magnetic resonance scans can be very suggestive, histopathological, cytological and crystal analyses are the diagnostic gold standard. In most cases involving neurological manifestations, the patient underwent surgery, leading to satisfactory results. There are, however, some reports of full recovery following the usual clinical treatment for gout, suggesting that such treatment may be the initial option for those subjects with a history of gout and radiological findings of axial involvement

Eduardo Massato, Hasegawa; Filipe Martins de, Mello; Cláudia, Goldenstein-Schainberg; Ricardo, Fuller.

2013-06-01

358

Diagnostic value of high resolutional computed tomography of spine  

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Non-enhanced high resolution computed tomography provide clear visualization of soft tissue in the canal and bony details of spine, particularly of the lumbar spine. We observed 70 cases of spine CT using GE CT/T 8800 scanner during the period from Dec. 1982 to Sep. 1983 at Jeonbug National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 55 males and 15 females : age was from 17 years to 67 years; sites were 11 cervical spine, 5 thoracic spine and 54 lumbosacral spine. 2. CT diagnosis showed 44 cases of lumbar disc herniation, 7 cases of degenerative disease, 3 cases of spine fracture and each 1 cases of cord tumor, metastatic tumor, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, epidural abscess, spine tbc., meningocele with diastematomyelia. 3. Sites of herniated nucleus pulposus were 34 cases (59.6%) between L4-5 interspace and 20 cases (35.1%) between L5-S1 interspace. 13 cases (29.5%) of lumbar disc herniation disclosed multiple lesions. Location of herniation were central type in 28 cases(49.1%), right-central type in 12 cases(21.2%), left-central type in 11 cases (19.2%) and far lateral type in 6 cases(10.5%). 4. CT findings of herniated nucleus pulposus were as follows : focal protrusion of posterior disc margin and obliteration of anterior epidural fat in all cases, dural sac indentation in 26 cases(45.6%), soft tissue mass in epidural fat in 21 cases(36.8%), displacement or compression of nerve root sheath in 12 cases(21%). 5. Multiplanar reformatted images and Blink mode provide more effective evaluation about definite level and longitudinal dimension of lesion, such as obscure disc herniation, spine fracture, cord tumor and epidural abscess. 6. Non-enhanced and enhanced high resolutional computed tomography were effectively useful in demonstrating compression or displacement of spinal cord and nerve root, examing congenital anomaly such as meningocele and primary or metastatic spinal lesions.

Yang, S. M.; Im, S. K.; Sohn, M. H.; Lim, K. Y.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, K. C. [Jeonbug National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1984-03-15

359

[SRAP fragments linked to spines of Carthamus tinctorius].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) technique was used to identify SRAP fragment linked to Carthamus tinctorius L. spines of outer involucral bract (OIB) , experimental evidence for molecular marker assistant breeding of Carthamus tinctorius L. has been provided. Based on the strategy of bulk segregate analysis (BSA), two gene pools were separately constructed according to the extreme trait of OIB with many long spines and no spines from Carthamus tinctorius L. Forty-five pairs of SRAP primers were selected and screened from two parents and two gene pools, and one SRAP marker M3E3 was found to be linked to the spines in segregating F2 population confirmation. M3E3 SRAP band was excised, cloned and sequenced. In 20 spininess individuals, this marker was present in 16 spininess individuals and absent in 4 individuals. This band was absent in the 15 spineless F, segregating individuals, which accounted for 11.4% recombination. The M3E3 extract length was 349bp, of which the base components of A + T accounted for 41. 08%. One SRAP marker M3E3 linked to the spines in Carthamus tinctorius L. will be of good use for breeding spineless cultivars at the molecular level in the future. PMID:17882967

Guo, Qing-hua; Guo, Mei-li

2007-07-01

360

Cervical spine trauma: Radiologic manifestations and imaging algorithms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cervical spine trauma is very critical injury that is incurred most frequently in automobile accidents, mining incidents, and war. Injuries of the cervical spine produce neurologic damage in approximately 40% of cases, whereas injuries of the thoracolumbar junction produce neurologic damage in 4% and injuries of the thoracic spine do so in 10%. Radiology has a fundamental role in the recognition and follow-up of patients. Radiologists should be quite familiar with the imaging algorithms and various radiologic manifestations of cervical spine injuries. In this paper, techniques of examining severely injured patients as well as those with slight or questionable injuries are demonstrated. Indications and limitations of various diagnostic procedures (plain film radiography, tomography, CT, and MR imaging) are discussed. A systematic plan for the study of the cervical spine with an emphasis on joints, bones, ligaments and soft tissues (JO-B-LI-ST) is introduced. Mechanisms of injury and the stability or instability of the injuries are presented. Plain radiography as well as other imaging modalities are used to demonstrate the most important forms of injuries at various levels. Follow-up of some of the treated cases is shown. The late complications of spinal cord damage in closed injuries and open wounds (urinary stones, myositis, ossificans, contractures, fractures, disuse atrophy, and bone infections) are presented at the end

 
 
 
 
361

Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale, which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS, can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars, neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia, Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth.

Federico Canavese

2013-01-01

362

Neddylation inhibition impairs spine development, destabilizes synapses and deteriorates cognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neddylation is a ubiquitylation-like pathway that controls cell cycle and proliferation by covalently conjugating Nedd8 to specific targets. However, its role in neurons, nonreplicating postmitotic cells, remains unexplored. Here we report that Nedd8 conjugation increased during postnatal brain development and is active in mature synapses, where many proteins are neddylated. We show that neddylation controls spine development during neuronal maturation and spine stability in mature neurons. We found that neddylated PSD-95 was present in spines and that neddylation on Lys202 of PSD-95 is required for the proactive role of the scaffolding protein in spine maturation and synaptic transmission. Finally, we developed Nae1(CamKII?-CreERT2) mice, in which neddylation is conditionally ablated in adult excitatory forebrain neurons. These mice showed synaptic loss, impaired neurotransmission and severe cognitive deficits. In summary, our results establish neddylation as an active post-translational modification in the synapse regulating the maturation, stability and function of dendritic spines. PMID:25581363

Vogl, Annette M; Brockmann, Marisa M; Giusti, Sebastian A; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Vercelli, Claudia A; Bauder, Corinna A; Richter, Julia S; Roselli, Francesco; Hafner, Anne-Sophie; Dedic, Nina; Wotjak, Carsten T; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela M; Choquet, Daniel; Turck, Christoph W; Stein, Valentin; Deussing, Jan M; Refojo, Damian

2015-02-01

363

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the ovine lumbar spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the ovine spine is a useful research model for intervertebral disc pathology and vertebral surgery, there is little peer-reviewed information regarding the MRI anatomy of the ovine spine. To describe the lumbar spine MRI anatomy, 10 lumbar segments of cadaver ewes were imaged by 1.5-Tesla MR. Sagittal and transverse sequences were performed in T1 and T2 weighting (T1W, T2W), and the images were compared to gross anatomic sagittal and transverse sections performed through frozen spines. MRI was able to define most anatomic structures of the ovine spine in a similar way as can be imaged in humans. In both T1W and T2W, the signals of ovine IVDs were similar to those observed in humans. Salient anatomic features were identified: (1) a 2- to 3-mm linear zone of hypersignal was noticed on both extremities of the vertebral body parallel to the vertebral plates in sagittal planes; (2) the tendon of the crura of the diaphragm appeared as a hypointense circular structure between hypaxial muscles and the aorta and caudal vena cava; (3) dorsal and ventral longitudinal ligaments and ligamentum flavum were poorly imaged; (4) no ilio-lumbar ligament was present; (5) the spinal cord ended between S1-S2 level, and the peripheral white matter and central grey matter were easily distinguished on T1W and T2W images. This study provides useful reference images to researchers working with ovine models. PMID:23668479

Nisolle, J F; Wang, X Q; Squélart, M; Hontoir, F; Kirschvink, N; Clegg, P; Vandeweerd, J M

2014-06-01

364

Functional diagnostics of the cervical spine by using computer tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

35 healthy adults and 137 patients after cervical spine injury were examined by functional CT. The range of axial rotation at the level occiput/atlas, atlas/axis and the segment below were measured in all subjects. A rotation occiput/atlas of more than 70, and C1/C2 more than 540 could refer to segmental hypermobility, a rotation at the segment C1/C2 less than 290 to hypomobility. According to the postulated normal values based upon a 98% confidence level, out of 137 patients examined after cervical spine injury and with therapy-resistant neck pain, 45 showed signs of segmental hypermobility of the upper cervical spine, 17 showed hyper- or hypomobility at different levels, 10 patients presented segmental hypomobility at C1/C2 level alone. In all patients, according to the clinical assessment, functional pathology was suspected in the upper cervical spine. Surgical correction of rotatory instability should be considered as a possible therapeutic procedure after successful diagnostic stabilisation of the cervical spine by minerva cast. (orig.)

365

Improvement of cervical spine radiography in the supine position  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been difficult to obtain accurate radiographic images of the oblique cervical spine in the supine position. We developed a new technique that combined the sliding top bucky table and a radiographic supporting device. Our technique improved the reproducibility of images because the geometry was always the same. Further, no special technique is required. The radiographic magnification factor of the supine position was approximately 13% larger than that of the standing position, but image quality and clinical evaluation were almost the same. In conclusion, our new technique for oblique projection of cervical spine radiography in the supine position does not require co-workers to hold the patient. In addition, this technique provided cervical spine radiography with reduced discomfort for the patient. (author)

366

MRI of the neonatal and paediatric spine and spinal canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today several modalities for imaging the spine, the spinal canal and the spinal cord are available. Since children represent one of the most vulnerable patient groups, care has to be taken and imaging assessment should start always with less invasive procedures. Thus, in neonates and infants ultrasound should be used as first line imaging procedure due to their unique features of more cartilaginous parts of the yet non-ossified bones. Beyond this age group Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents the modality of choice for radiological assessment of the spine, the spinal canal and the spinal cord. The purpose of this review is to present MRI and common MRI findings of typical diseases in children-ranging from congenital to acquired conditions. In addition, general imaging details will be given as well as a brief embryological description of the spine and spinal canal

367

Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy after anterior cervical spine fixation.  

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After spinal cord injury, quadriplegic patients generally require tracheostomy for ventilatory support and airway clearance. Early tracheostomy has several advantages over translaryngeal intubation, but in patients who undergo anterior surgical fixation of the spine, it is often delayed until after recovery of the surgical wound. We report the case of a quadriplegic patient who underwent a successful percutaneous dilational tracheostomy with the Ciaglia technique after surgical fixation of the spine. The percutaneous dilational technique minimizes the injury to the adjacent structures of the neck and the risk of stomal infection. Therefore, it should be considered the technique of choice when an early tracheostomy is indicated for quadriplegic patients who have undergone anterior surgical fixation of the cervical spine. PMID:8884626

Mazzon, D; Di Stefano, E; Dametto, G; Nizzetto, M; Cippolotti, G; Bosco, E; Conti, C; Giuliani, G

1996-10-01

368

Improved MR imaging of the cervical spine, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparative study of incidence of disk protrusion was performed on the basis of MR imaging in a state of flexion versus extension. The results showed that the incidnece of disk protrusion at each disk level was generally higher on the extension images than on the flexion images at the corresponding levels. The degree of difference in the incidence of the disk protrusion on flexion and extension was the greatest at the mid-cervical level spine. Based on the results with respect to features of the cervical spine in extension and flexion, it appears that the difference in incidence of disk protrusion is probably caused by movement in response to bending of the cervical spine. These results may provide information concerning the dynamic of cervical disks and may partly explain cases in which patients have symptoms of cervical myelopathy and/or radiculopathy but have no disk protrusion on images in the neutral position. (author)

369

Analytical and experimental investigations of human spine flexure.  

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The authors report on experiments to measure the resistance of fresh human spines to flexion in the upper lumbar and lower thoracic regions and evaluate results by using a combination of strength of materials theory and effects of shear and comparing with data reported by other authors. The test results indicate that the thoraco-lumbar spine behaves approximately as a linear elastic beam, without relaxation effects. The authors formulate a simple continuum dynamic model of the spine simulating aircraft ejection and solve the resulting boundary value problem to illustrate the importance of the flexural mode. A constant cross-section, the selected model is a sinusoidally curved elastic beam with an end mass subjected to a Heaviside axial acceleration at the other end. The paper presents transient response results for the spinal model axial and bending displacements and axial force.-

Moffatt, C. A.; Advani, S. H.; Lin, C.-J.

1971-01-01

370

Spine concerns in the Special Olympian with Down syndrome.  

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As with any child participating in sports, the safety of The Special Olympian participating in athletics is paramount. The preparticipation medical clearance is necessary to ensure these athletes' safety. In response to evidence that 15% of all individuals with Down syndrome have atlanto-occipital and/or atlanto-axial instability or subluxation, the Special Olympics Inc have additionally mandated preparticipation spine clearance for all individuals with Down syndrome. Spine clearance for the Special Olympian is challenging for the healthcare provider. In addition, controversy has arisen surrounding The Special Olympics Inc policy statement. The purposes of this article are to provide healthcare providers with a review of atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial instability and subluxation, review spine clearance guidelines, discuss the details and controversy surrounding The Special Olympics Inc mandate, and provide recommendations on how to improve screening and ensure safety of the participants based on the current medical literature. PMID:18277263

Tassone, James Channing; Duey-Holtz, Allison

2008-03-01

371

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime

372

Improved method for sectioning pectoral spines of catfish for age determination  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified low-speed saw provided fast and precise sectioning of catfish pectoral spines for use in aging studies. In one hour, 10-15 spines can be sectioned, the sections mounted, and the annuli counted.

Blouin, Marc A.; Hall, Glenda R.

1990-01-01

373

Recurrent spine surgery patients in hospital administrative database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital patient databases are typically used by administrative staff to estimate loss-profit ratios and to help with the allocation of hospital resources. These databases can also be very useful in following rehospitalization. This paper studies the recurrence of spine surgery patients in our hospital population based on administrative data analysis. Methods: Hospital data on 4,958 spine surgery patients operated between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. After sorting the cohort per ascending discharge date, the patient official name, consisting of first, middle and last names, was used as the variable determining duplicate cases in the SPSS statistical program, designating the first case in each group as primary. Yearly recurrence rate and change in procedure distribution were studied. In addition, hospital charges and length of stay were compared using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of 4,958 spine surgery patients 364 (7.3% were categorized as duplicate cases by SPSS. The number of primary cases from which duplicate cases emerged was 327 meaning that some patients had more than two spine surgeries. Among primary patients (N=327 the percentage of excision of intervertebral disk procedures was 33.3% and decreased to 15.1% in recurrent admissions of the same patients (N=364. This decrease was compensated by an increase in lumbar fusion procedures. On the other hand, the rate of cervical fusion remained the same. The difference in hospital charges between primary and duplicate patients was $2,234 for diskectomy, $6,319 for anterior cervical fusion, $8,942 for lumbar fusion – lateral technique, and $12,525 for lumbar fusion – posterior technique. Recurrent patients also stayed longer in hospital, up to 0.9 day in lumbar fusion – posterior technique patients. Conclusion: Spine surgery is associated with an increasing possibility of additional spine surgery with rising invasiveness and cost.

M. Sami Walid

2012-02-01

374

Clinical implications of alignment of upper and lower cervical spine  

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Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The alignment of upper and lower cervical spine is presumed to be closely interrelated and the knowledge of this is mandatory when performing occipito-cervical and upper cervical fusions. The aim of this study was to establish standard values for upper and lower cervical spine alignment in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Five hundred eighteen asymptomatic volunteers (261 males and 257 females between 12 and 80 years of age underwent lateral radiography with their neck in the neutral position. Angles for occipital to 2nd cervical (Oc-C2, 1st to 2nd cervical (C1-C2 and sagittal alignment of 2nd to 7th cervical vertebrae (C2-C7 were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using a statistical package SPSS 10 for windows and the students ?t? test. Results: The mean Oc-C2, C1-C2 and C2--C7 angles were 14.66 + 9.5°, 25.6 + 7.9° and 16.8 + 12.7° in male, while same angles in female were 15.59 + 8.26°, 26.9 + 6.8° and 9.11 + 10.4° respectively. Weak statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the measured angles of the upper (Oc-C2 and C1-C2 and lower (C2-C7 cervical spines, which means if the lordosis of the occiput and upper cervical spine increases (if the Oc-C2 angle increases, the alignment of lower cervical spine becomes kyphotic and vice versa. This negative correlation was stronger between the Oc-C2 and C2-C7 angles than between the C1-C2 and C2-C7 angles. Conclusions: Relationship between alignment of the upper and the lower cervical spine should be taken into consideration when performing cervical fusion.

Sherekar S

2006-01-01

375

Injuries of the spine sustained during rugby.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1984 JR Silver reported on 63 patients who had sustained serious injuries of their cervical spine as a result of games of rugby between the years 1952 and 1982. In this paper his results have been brought up to date. A further 19 players who were treated personally are reported, sustaining their injuries between 1983 and 1987. The mechanism of injury was still blows to the head or the head being driven into the ground. Seven injuries occurred in the scrums all were front row forwards. One was injured when the players charged, two players were inexperienced and the other cases all followed a collapse of the scrum after which the second rows continued to push. Five players were injured while tackling, six players were injured in a ruck and maul situation--in each case they were pushed to the ground while stooping to pick up the ball, other players piled on top of them (one player broke from the scrum and he endeavoured to retrieve a low ball and then fell striking his head). Further research was carried out by circularising all the spinal units in the United Kingdom to obtain the overall figures. It has been found that there has been a reduction in the number of injuries from ten in 1983 to five in 1986/7, presumably from a change in the laws. In order to determine whether a further change in the laws was necessary or whether the existing laws were adequate, research was carried out by video recording several games of rugby and analysing the games later in slow motion and determining how injuries occurred. Most of the injuries in these small number of games occurred in the ruck and maul situation. It was concluded that the majority of such injuries were not due to bad luck but were caused by irresponsible actions. The laws were still being broken and not being enforced. The existing laws were adequate since there has been a reduction in the number of injuries overall, particularly at first class and schoolboy levels, but were not enforced at junior levels-they were the main source of injury. PMID:3387737

Silver, J R; Gill, S

1988-05-01

376

Computertomographic examinations of the canine lumbosacral spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this study were: 1) documentation of cross-sectional anatomy of the lumbosacral area, 2) to obtain and describe abnormalities and finally 3)to develop a CT technique for the diagnosis of a L7/S1 spondylolisthesis. In a 3 year retrospective study 61 large breed dogs with history of suspected cauda equina-syndrome were examined using flexion-extension radiography and flexion-extension computed tomography. 25 out of 60 dogs were German shepherd dogs, 3 shepherd-cross, 7 mongrels, 4 Rottweilers and 22 other breeds. 27 dogs of the flexion/extension group were also morphometrically examined. CT studies regarding morphology of the lumbosacral joint showed differences between flexed and extended position: The intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed position, the intervertebral disc, segmental spinal nerves and contrast enhanced blood vessels were more easily to evaluate. In flexion the lumbosacral foramen was 'open' in all cases, while it was 'closed' in most of the extension slices. The cranial articular processes of the sacrum appeared earlier in extension, they seemed to 'slip' beneath the caudal articular processes of the last lumbar vertebra, the articular surfaces got incongruent, and therefore the intervertebral foramina were narrowed. The most common pathologic findings were disk protrusion (28 dogs) and spondylosis (24 dogs). Rare diagnoses were neoplasia (1 case), transitional vertebra (1 case), shortened L7 (2 cases) and osteochondrosis dissecad L7 (2 cases) and osteochondrosis dissecans of the L7 or sacral endplate (5 cases). Morphometrical examinations showed that the intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed positions, not only in length (craniocaudal dimension) but also in their dorsoventral diameter. There was no difference in the dorsoventral diameter of the spinal canal between flexion and extension CT. This study showed that computed tomography is superior to common ways of imaging of the lumbosacral spine like radiography or myelography. It was possible to identify pathologic changes as morphologic and morphometric differences between flexed and extended positions. A technique for diagnosis of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis could not be obtained. (author)

377

Bandwidth filtering of CT scans of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In CT scans of the upper and lower spine, large noise variations are often observed. The oblong profile of the body itself produces nonuniformity in the noise texture. This paper reports on a bandwidth filtering technique developed that can be used to compensate for these nonuniformities during the image reconstruction process. A method of dynamically varying the bandwidth for each view in projection reconstruction is described. By using an efficient table interpolation technique; this function can be performed as part of a standard image reconstruction. The bandwidth variation can be prescribed to compensate for the noise variations seen in upper and lower spine scans

378

Supine Craniospinal Irradiation Setup with Two Spine Fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Craniospinal irradiation is an integral part of treatment for a number of cancers. Typically, patients are positioned prone, which allows visualization of field matches. However, a supine position allows better airway access for patients requiring anesthesia, and is more comfortable for patients. One potential difficulty with supine positioning occurs when the patient is tall and requires matching 2 spine fields. We describe a technique to match the spine fields using light fields on the bottom of the treatment table, and verified the approach on a phantom. The accuracy of the technique is demonstrated for the first 4 patients, with the majority of field gaps and overlaps below our clinical tolerance of 2 mm.

379

Lumbar spine visualisation based on kinematic analysis from videofluoroscopic imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low back pain is a significant problem and its cost is enormous to society. However, diagnosis of the underlying causes remains problematic despite extensive study. Reasons for this arise from the deep-rooted situation of the spine and also from its structural complexity. Clinicians have to mentally convert 2-D image information into a 3-D form to gain a better understanding of structural integrity. Therefore, visualisation and animation may be helpful for understanding, diagnosis and for guiding therapy. Some low back pain originates from mechanical disorders, and study of the spine kinematics may provide an insight into the source of the problem. Digital videofluoroscopy was used in this study to provide 2-D image sequences of the spine in motion, but the images often suffer due to noise, exacerbated by the very low radiation dosage. Thus determining vertebrae position within the image sequence presents a considerable challenge. This paper describes a combination of spine kinematic measurements with a solid model of the human lumbar spine for visualisation of spine motion. Since determination of the spine kinematics provides the foundation and vertebral extraction is at the core, this is discussed in detail. Edge detection is a key feature of segmentation and it is shown that phase congruency performs better than most established methods with the rather low-grade image sequences from fluoroscopy. The Hough transform is then applied to determine the positions of vertebrae in each frame of a motion sequence. In the Hough transform, Fourier descriptors are used to represent the vertebral shapes. The results show that the Hough transform is a very promising technique for vertebral extraction from videofluoroscopic images. A dynamic visualisation package has been developed in order to view the moving lumbar spine from any angle and viewpoint. Wire frame models of the vertebrae were built by using CT images from the Visible Human Project and these models are scaled to match the fluoroscopic image data. For animation, the spinal kinematic data from the motion study is incorporated. PMID:12589715

Zheng, Y; Nixon, M S; Allen, R

2003-04-01

380

Biometric X-ray-function diagnosis of the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subject of this study was the investigation of functional disorders of the cervical spine and their possible causal relation with the symptoms and signs of pathological cervical images. In order to approach this investigation with objectively measurable time criteria, functional X-ray diagnostics results to be the appropriate method. From the results obtained in individual and statistical group examinations as well as in examinations of the longitudinal section the conclusion is drawn that a functional disorder of the cervical spine may provoke a cervical syndrome. (APR)

 
 
 
 
381

CT examination of the spine and the spinal canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analogous to its other fields of application, CT of the spine and the spinal canal has also already achieved a permanent place among the diagnostic methods. Numerically, CT studies of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine for our patient population with a total of 460 examinations are in the ratio 2:1:4.5. The essential advantages are improved differential diagnosis for many processes, the exact breakdown of the degree of extraspinal and intraspinal involvement in the change, the increasing limitation of myelography and last but not least the possibility of reducing cost. (orig.)

382

Interobserver discrepancies in distance measurements from lumbar spine CT scans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lumbar spine computed tomographic (CT) scans of 10 patients were examined independently at two levels by five experienced radiologists. At each level the minimum midline sagittal diameter was measured, and at each intervertebral space the left foramen was measured for its minimum diameter. Statistically significant differences were found between the measurements of different observers, differences that in a number of cases could have led to disagreement over whether or not stenosis was present. There were reasonably strong correlations between different observers' readings of midline sagittal diameters but generally not of foraminal diameters. Reasons for discrepancies between observers in spine CT measurements are reviewed briefly

383

Variation of endplate thickness in the cervical spine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the study was to investigate possible variation of thickness of the cervical spine endplate with respect to endplate orientation (superior or inferior endplate) and level distribution (C4–C7). Six human cervical spine segments C4–C7 were used to create six specimen of C4, C5, C6, and C7, respectively. The bony endplates of each vertebra were cleaned carefully from disc tissue without damaging the endplates. Six endplates with severe degenerative changes were excluded from t...

Pitzen, T.; Schmitz, B.; Georg, T.; Barbier, D.; Beuter, T.; Steudel, W. I.; Reith, W.

2004-01-01

384

The Relationship of SmokingOpioidAntidepressant Use and History of Spine Surgery  

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Introduction: In a recent paper, smoking was shown to be an independent predictor of longterm continued opioid use in spine patients (Krebs et al. 2010). In this paper, we study the interaction of smoking with opioid and antidepressant use and the relationship with prior spine surgery and future spine surgery. Methods: Data on smoking, opioid and antidepressant use were retrospectively collected from 758 spine surgery inpatients [lumbar microdiskectomy (LMD), anterior cervical decompression a...

Walid Mohammad; Zaytseva Nadezhda

2010-01-01

385

Loss of PSD-95 Enrichment is not a Prerequisite for Spine Retraction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changes in neuronal structure are thought to underlie long-term behavioral modifications associated with learning and memory. In particular, considerable evidence implicates the destabilization and retraction of dendritic spines along with the loss of spine synapses as an important cellular mechanism for refining brain circuits, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating spine elimination remain ill-defined. The postsynaptic density protein, PSD-95, is highly enriched in dendritic spines and has...

Woods, Georgia F.; Oh, Won Chan; Boudewyn, Lauren C.; Mikula, Sarah K.; Zito, Karen

2011-01-01

386

Decision-making in burst fractures of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The most common site of injury to the spine is the thoracolumbar junction which is the mechanical transition junction between the rigid thoracic and the more flexible lumbar spine. The lumbar spine is another site which is more prone to injury. Absence of stabilizing articulations with the ribs, lordotic posture and more sagitally oriented facet joints are the most obvious explanations. Burst fractures of the spine account for 14% of all spinal injuries. Though common, thoracolumbar an...

Heary Robert; Kumar Sanjeev

2007-01-01

387

Dendritic cable with active spines: a modeling study in the spike-diffuse-spike framework  

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The spike-diffuse-spike (SDS) model describes a passive dendritic tree with active dendritic spines. Spine-head dynamics is modelled with a simple integrate-and-fire process, whilst communication between spines is mediated by the cable equation. Here we develop a computational framework that allows the study of multiple spiking events in a network of such spines embedded in a simple one-dimensional cable. This system is shown to support saltatory waves as a result of the discrete distributi...

Timofeeva, Yulia; Lord, Gabriel; Coombes, Stephen

2005-01-01

388

Osteochondroma of the cervical spine: Report of two cases in preadolescent males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although considered to be rare in the spine, osteochondromas are in fact found there as often as other benign bone tumors. Three percent of all osteochondromas occur in the spine, while forty percent of osteoblastomas are to be found there. Yet, because osteochondromas are so much more common overall than osteoblastomas, their actual occurrences in the spine can be expected to be equal. Two cases of osteochondroma of the cervical spine, one of which was diagnosed by computed tomography, are reported. (orig.)

389

Remote Sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Collection of seven classroom activities that focus on mapping and navigation. Topics include: sensory remote sensing; maps and globes; coded signals; satellite imagery resolution; color imagery; visible and infrared imagery; sea turtle tracking; and locating the Titanic. Each activity provides list of materials needed, background information, and procedure.

390

Mandibular-Lingual Repositioning Device - MLRD: preliminary results of 8 patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome - OSAS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Os aparelhos bucais têm sido usados principalmente para o tratamento de roncos primários e síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono (SÃOS) leve-moderada. Os autores relatam resultados clínicos preliminares em 8 pacientes com síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono diagnosticada clínica e poli [...] ssonograficamente. Foram tratados com o Aparelho Reposicionador Mandíbulo-Lingual (ARML), desenvolvido por um dos autores (RCB). MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram realizados: cefalometria pré-ARML; escala de sonolência de Epworth (ESE) pré e pós-ARML e questionário que quantifica uma melhora global subjetiva (MGS) do paciente. Controles foram obtidos 4 semanas pós-ARML. RESULTADOS: A melhora global subjetiva foi de 73,75% em média e a escala de sonolência de Epwoeth variou de 13,88 (pré-ARML) para 6,63 (pósARML) apresentando significância estatística (p=0,05). Os autores discutem os prováveis fatores envolvidos na melhora da medida subjetiva de sonolência excessiva diurna. Abstract in english Dental devices have been employed in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) of mild to moderate degrees. The authors disclose the preliminary results in 8 patients with clinically diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea polisomnographically confirmed and treated with a dental [...] device (Mandibular-Lingual Repositioning Device - MLRD) developed by one of the authors (RCB). Cephalometrics was performed before usage of MLRD, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) tests were conducted before and after the MLRD and a questionnaire that subjectively qualified the Overall Subjective Improvement of the patient (OSI) was filled out. The tests were repeated 4 weeks after the application of the MLRD. The average subjective overall improvement was 73.75% and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was 13.88 (pre - MLRD) and 6.63 (post - MLRD) representing a significant statistical variation (p=0.05). The authors discuss probable factors involved in the improvement of the subjective measurements of excessive sleepiness.

Ricardo Castro, Barbosa; Flávio, Aloe; Stella, Tavares; Ademir Baptista, Silva.

1995-06-01

391

Drug-repositioning screening identified piperlongumine as a direct STAT3 inhibitor with potent activity against breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates many cardinal features of cancer including cancer cell growth, apoptosis resistance, DNA damage response, metastasis, immune escape, tumor angiogenesis, the Warburg effect and oncogene addiction and has been validated as a drug target for cancer therapy. Several strategies have been used to identify agents that target Stat3 in breast cancer but none has yet entered into clinical use. We used a high-throughput fluorescence microscopy search strategy to identify compounds in a drug-repositioning library (Prestwick library) that block ligand-induced nuclear translocation of Stat3 and identified piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from the fruit of the pepper Piper longum. PL inhibited Stat3 nuclear translocation, inhibited ligand-induced and constitutive Stat3 phosphorylation, and modulated expression of multiple Stat3-regulated genes. Surface plasmon resonance assay revealed that PL directly inhibited binding of Stat3 to its phosphotyrosyl peptide ligand. Phosphoprotein antibody array analysis revealed that PL does not modulate kinases known to activate Stat3 such as Janus kinases, Src kinase family members or receptor tyrosine kinases. PL inhibited anchorage-independent and anchorage-dependent growth of multiple breast cancer cell lines having increased pStat3 or total Stat3, and induced apoptosis. PL also inhibited mammosphere formation by tumor cells from patient-derived xenografts. PL's antitumorigenic function was causally linked to its Stat3-inhibitory effect. PL was non-toxic in mice up to a dose of 30?mg/kg/day for 14 days and caused regression of breast cancer cell line xenografts in nude mice. Thus, PL represents a promising new agent for rapid entry into the clinic for use in treating breast cancer, as well as other cancers in which Stat3 has a role.Oncogene advance online publication, 31 March 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.72. PMID:24681959

Bharadwaj, U; Eckols, T K; Kolosov, M; Kasembeli, M M; Adam, A; Torres, D; Zhang, X; Dobrolecki, L E; Wei, W; Lewis, M T; Dave, B; Chang, J C; Landis, M D; Creighton, C J; Mancini, M A; Tweardy, D J

2014-03-31

392

A novel method for dendritic spines detection based on directional morphological filter and shortest path.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic spines are tiny membranous protrusions from neuron's dendrites. They play a very important role in the nervous system. A number of mental diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and mental retardation are revealed to have close relations with spine morphologies or spine number changes. Spines have various shapes, and spine images are often not of good quality; hence it is very challenging to detect spines in neuron images. This paper presents a novel pipeline to detect dendritic spines in 2D maximum intensity projection (MIP) images and a new dendrite backbone extraction method is developed in the pipeline. The strategy for the backbone extraction approach is that it iteratively refines the extraction result based on directional morphological filtering and improved Hessian filtering until a satisfactory extraction result is obtained. A shortest path method is applied along a backbone to extract the boundary of the dendrites. Spines are then segmented from the dendrites outside the extracted boundary. Touching spines will be split using a marker-controlled watershed algorithm. We present the results of our algorithm on real images and compare our algorithm with two other spine detection methods. The results show that the proposed approach can detect dendrites and spines more accurately. Measurements and classification of spines are also made in this paper. PMID:25155696

Su, Ran; Sun, Changming; Zhang, Chao; Pham, Tuan D

2014-12-01

393

Internal fixation for stress fractures of the ankylosed spine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three cases of stress fractures affecting the rigid spine of ankylosing spondylitis are reported. Even without the typical destructive features of the Romanus lesion, symptoms may be very prolonged and disabling and the diagnosis difficult. Internal fixation produces immediate pain relief and rapid fracture union.

Marsh, C. H.

1985-01-01

394

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...mountings so that the pelvic-lumbar adapter is horizontal and...top surface of the pelvic-lumbar adapter. Apply the force...e) of this section, the abdominal force-deflection curve shall...Place the assembled thorax, lumbar spine and pelvic...

2010-10-01

395

A modified posterolateral approach to the thoracic spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a modified technique for posterolateral approach to the thoracic spine and report the use of this procedure in 21 patients. The technique is safe and effective for selected indications. The evolution of the posterolateral or costotransversectomy approach to the thoracic spine has in large part focused on enlarging the exposure to the vertebral bodies and epidural space by resecting an increasing number of ribs and removing a wider portion of those ribs resected. In this modified approach to the thoracic spine, the costovertebral articulation is preserved, and no rib resection is necessary to gain adequate exposure to the thoracic vertebral body and epidural space. We did a retrospective review of 21 patients undergoing 22 modified posterolateral approaches to the thoracic spine. Sixteen patients had biopsies of thoracic vertebral lesions through this approach; 3 underwent decompression of the thoracic spinal cord; 2 approaches were done for the removal of a herniated thoracic disc; and in one, the pedicle was removed. This modified posterolateral approach allowed adequate exposure for selected indications. One complication, a wound infection, developed after biopsy for suspected osteomyelitis. This modified posterolateral approach is well suited to provide access for biopsy of thoracic spinal lesions; for decompression of a paraspinal abscess; and for decompression of the thoracic spinal cord by anterolateral compressive lesions such as herniated thoracic disc or epidural tumor when resection of the vertebral body is not necessary; or the approach may be used for patients who are debilitated or at poor risk to undergo thoracotomy. PMID:7711372

Ahlgren, B D; Herkowitz, H N

1995-02-01

396

[Morphological differences and classifications of small spines of puffer fishes].  

Science.gov (United States)

The differences among the small spines of 6 species of puffers have been clarified by means of microscopic observation. Small spines of puffers arise from the basement, which is composed of spines protruding from the surface skin, with roots extending horizontally in all directions in the layer under the surface skin. Using the characteristic shapes of the basement, we have classified the puffer group of "Sansaifugu" (Takifugu flavidus) and "Mefugu" (T. obscurus) as Type I and the group of "Shirosabafugu" (Lagocephalus wheeleri), "Kurosabafugu" (L. gloveri), "Dokusabafugu" (L. lunaris) and "Motosabafugu" (L. spadiceus) as Type II. The number of fore and back roots, including the branches at the ends, further varies in each group. The length and width of each root were measured. As a result, similar species within the group comprising "Sansaifugu" (T. flavidus) and "Mefugu" (T. obscurus) and 4 species of the "Sabafugu" (Lagocephalus) group including "Dokusabafugu" (L. lunaris) have been clearly distinguished. We conclude that examination of the shape of the basement of small spines can be an effective identification index. PMID:17892006

Fujimoto, Yoshimichi; Uchida, Kenichi; Oyaizu, Makoto; Hamano, Yonekazu

2007-08-01

397

Instrumental design for anterior fixation of dorsal and lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is an experimental work; the main purpose is design a system for anterior fixation of thoracolumbar spine. The system includes screws, rods and transverse connectors. Mechanical tests to the system with axial and rotation charges showed elevated resistance and plasticity. The process include the development of elements for application of the system

398

Lumbar arachnoiditis as the differential diagnosis of chronic spine problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lumbar epiduro-arachnoiditis is an infectious disaese of the three mengial layers. It is often caused by surgical interventions on the spine. In this survey etiologic factors, clinical symptoms and radiological findings are compared. The radiologic classification of Delamater is described by three clinical cases. The diagnostic value of different procedures such as myelography, postmyelographic computed tomography and MR imaging is evaluated. (orig.)

399

Capabilities of ultrasound diagnosis in lumbar spine pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The capabilities of radiodiagnosis (x-ray, CT, and ultrasound) in diagnosis of degenerative disk disease (DDD) of the lumbar spine (LS) were studied. The performed study have shown that ultrasound study in DDD allows easy and more accurate calculation of the VC area at the disk level. Besides, the use of Doppler ultrasound allows revealing the cause of compression syndrome in every case

400

Complex radiodiagnosis of the lumbar spine spinal canal stenosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ultrasound study was done in 67 patients with osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine revealed by x-ray study, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Ultrasound technique is highly informative in visualizing location, direction, size of the hernia in lumbar osteochondrosis and stenosis of spinal canal

 
 
 
 
401

Injuries of the spine sustained whilst surfboard riding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surfboard riding is a popular sport worldwide. Although surfing is considered a 'safe' pastime, significant injuries do occur, particularly to the head and cervical spine. Spinal injuries most commonly occur when the surfer's head strikes the seafloor. This case series identifies the spectrum of spinal pathologies sustained whilst surfing and their imaging appearances. No similar study has previously been published. PMID:23179504

Dimmick, Simon; Brazier, Daivd; Wilson, Peter; Anderson, Suzanne E

2013-01-01

402

Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

Seidenbusch, Michael; Schneider, Karl [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology - Paediatric Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)

2014-04-15

403

Dysphagia Due to Anterior Cervical Spine Osteophyte: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Degenerative changes of the cervical spine are more common in elderly, but anterior cervical osteophytes that cause problems in swallowing are rare. The most common cause of this problem is DISH disease (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Trauma is also suggested as a potential cause in osteophyte formation. Case Report: We report a rare case of anterior cervical osteophyte with problems in swallowing that was caused by cervical spine trauma in a car accident 4 years ago, treated with a cervical collar. Dysphagia was the initial symptom of the disease. Barium swallowing showed a large cervical osteophyte at the C3-C4 level with compression effect on the esophagus. X-ray, CT scan and MRI of the cervical spine confirmed the osteophyte and its correlation with the esophagus. Endoscopic study of esophagus and stomach also ruled out other disorders. Surgical osteophytectomy was performed. Conclusion: Up to now, only two cases of post-traumatic anterior cervical osteophyte have been cited in the literature. In this report, we introduce an unusual case of dysphagia caused by cervical spine trauma.

Hossein Mashhadinezhad

2010-07-01

404

Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

405

STELLA and SPINE data transmission experiments preliminary results and conclusions  

CERN Document Server

Discusses the CERN-based proposal for a single experiment, Satellite Transmission Experiment Linking Laboratories (STELLA) and the ESA experimental programme SPINE (Space Informatics Network Experiments). Both projects are examples of experiments to explore the capability and utility of high speed data transmission by satellite, and used the European OTS. (2 refs).

Bartholome, P; Scanlan, J O

1981-01-01

406

Osteoid osteoma in the spine: CT and MR findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present an osteoid osteoma in the spine, which had atypical clinical findings and we report the commuted tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings. MR imaging demonstrated a large area with abnormal signal intensity, characterized by low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, probably due to perinidal bone marrow edema

407

Informative Sensing  

CERN Document Server

Compressed sensing is a recent set of mathematical results showing that sparse signals can be exactly reconstructed from a small number of linear measurements. Interestingly, for ideal sparse signals with no measurement noise, random measurements allow perfect reconstruction while measurements based on principal component analysis (PCA) or independent component analysis (ICA) do not. At the same time, for other signal and noise distributions, PCA and ICA can significantly outperform random projections in terms of enabling reconstruction from a small number of measurements. In this paper we ask: given the distribution of signals we wish to measure, what are the optimal set of linear projections for compressed sensing? We consider the problem of finding a small number of linear projections that are maximally informative about the signal. Formally, we use the InfoMax criterion and seek to maximize the mutual information between the signal, x, and the (possibly noisy) projection y=Wx. We show that in general the ...

Chang, Hyun Sung; Freeman, William T

2009-01-01

408

Importance of lateral spine view in DEXA bone densitometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement is a very useful technique in the assessment of risks of fracture in suspected cases of osteoporosis. The procedure is routinely carried out in antero-posterior (AP) view of the spine and the hip. But very often discordant results have been reported using the above cited views. Bone mineral concentration (BMC) obtained in the AP view of spine appears higher than that obtained in the hip views. The present study was conducted to establish the importance of lateral view of spine. The lateral view would provide better scope to draw the ROI perfectly thereby resulting in more precise measurement of BMC. In a prospective study a total of 60 consecutive patients (48F, 12M) were evaluated for bone densitometric measurements. The age of the patients ranged from 35-80 years with a mean age of 59 years. None of the patients received ooestrogen, biphosphonates or steroid therapy. Bone densities of the hip and lumbar spine were measured with a Norland XR 36 bone densitometer equipment. The Tscore, which measures the difference between patient's BMD and young-normal, was computed and age-matched Z-score were calculated. X-ray correlation was also done in most of the cases. Analyses of the values obtained over femoral neck revealed 30 cases with osteoporosis and 23 cases with osteopaenia. While on the other hand analyses of AP spine views revealed osteoporosis in 20 and osteopaenia in 30 patients. Hence, it became evident that significant numbe, it became evident that significant number of patients who were actually suffering from osteoporosis were in fact interpreted as osteopaenic (P0.05). Significant differences (P>0.05) in the values of BMC in the same vertebra measured in AP and lateral views were also observed in this study. Based on the results of this study it was concluded that the lateral view of the spine is an important factor in the accurate measurement of BMC. This view excludes the posterior element of the vertebra as well as the aorta anteriorly, where high incidence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques is present. Since AP view cannot exclude these areas from the region of interest, the BMC values obtained using this view are falsely higher than the actual value. It is therefore recommend that a lateral view of the spine should be included in the determination of BMC as a matter of routine in day to day clinical practice of bone densitometry. (author)

409

Spine Shape Predicts Vertebral Fractures in Postmenopausal Women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Early diagnosis and treatment of patients at high risk of developing fragility fractures is crucial in the management of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the shape of the spine as can be observed from lateral X-rays is indicative for the risk of future development of fragility fractures in the spine. The study included 568 elderly women of whom 455 maintained skeletal integrity during the mean observation period of 4.8 years and 113 sustained at least one vertebral fracture in the same period. At baseline, none of the women had experienced a previous osteoporotic fracture, and the two groups were not significantly different in terms of age (66.2 ± 0.2 vs. 66.1 ± 0.4), spine BMD (0.77 ± 0.004 vs. 0.76 ± 0.008), body weight (64.7 ± 0.4 vs. 64.6 ± 0.8), height (160.6 ± 0.3 vs. 161 ± 0.5), and number of years since menopause. A radiologist annotated the corner points and mid points of the vertebral end plates of each vertebra from L5 to T4 on digitized lateral radiographs taken at the baseline visit. These points together describe a combination of factors characterizing the spinal shape, including the shape and the size of individual vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks, alignment of vertebrae, and spinal curvature. The positions of the points were subsequently used as the input features to train a pattern classification system to discriminate between spines of women maintaining skeletal health and spines sustaining a fracture in the near future (regularized linear discriminant analysis). Applied to an annotated X-ray image of an unfractured spine, this classification model then provides a measure of the probability that the spine will develop a fracture. In a leave-one-out experiment, in which the classification models were constructed from a training set excluding any images of the patient under study, fracture probability measures were significantly different between the two groups at baseline (0.26 ± 0.02 vs. 0.18 ± 0.006, p < 10-6). Incident fractures could be predicted from the baseline image with 80% accuracy; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65, and the odds ratio (OR) for fracture 5.2 [95% CI 2.3, 11.6]. Significant predictive value remained after adjustment for age and spine BMD (p < 10-6, AUC=0.66, OR=2.0 [1.0, 3.9]).Measures of spine shape can predict vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women, independent of age and spine BMD. The herein presented computer based diagnostic tool could be a useful supplement to existing approaches to fracture risk assessment.

de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, P.C.

2008-01-01

410

Conversational sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

2014-05-01

411

Sclerite fusion in the problematic early Cambrian spine-like fossil Stoibostrombus from South Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New collections of the problematic spine like fossil Stoibostrombus crenulatus Conway Morris and Bengtson from the Mt. Scott Range and Wilkawillina Gorge in the central Flinders Ranges, South Australia contain fused sclerite composites. In each fused specimen the spines are merged along their lateral margins and the orientation of the spines is almost identical. These new specimens confirm that Stoibostrombus spines were dermal sclerites, arranged in lateral pairs or transverse rows. The nature of the animal secreting the spines remains elusive, but available evidence suggest that it was an ecdysozoan animal, possibly a palaeoscolecid worm.

Skovsted C B

2011-09-01

412

Outcome Assessment of the Marshall Coughing Test during Cervix Reposition Maneuver in Women with Urinary Stress Incontinence with/without Genital Prolapse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives. Outcome assessment of the Marshall coughing test (MT) during cervix reposition maneuver (CRM) in women with urinary stress incontinence (USI) with/without genital prolapse (GP). Study Design. 268 patients, divided into USIg (n = 132) with isolated USI and USIGPg (n = 136) with USI and GP stage I/II, additionally divided into USIGP(A) (n = 78) with USI and GP stage I and USIGP(B) (n = 58) with USI and GP stage II, were evaluated with pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ), MT,...

Vesna Antovska

2012-01-01

413

Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multiple myeloma of the cervical spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spinal involvement is a common presentation of multiple myeloma (MM); however, the cervical spine is the least common site of myelomatous involvement. Few studies evaluate the results of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) in the treatment of MM of the spine. The purpose of this series is to report on the use of PV in the treatment of MM of the cervical spine and to review the literature. From January 1994 to October 2007, four patients (three men and one woman; mean age, 45 years) who underwent five PV for painful MM in the cervical spine were retrospectively reviewed. The pain was estimated by the patient on a verbal analogic scale. Clinical follow-up was available for all patients (mean, 27.5 months; range, 1-96 months). The mean volume of cement injected per vertebral body was 2.3 {+-} 0.8 mL (range, 1.0-4.0 mL) with a mean vertebral filling of 55.0 {+-} 12.0% (range, 40.0-75.0%). Analgesic efficacy was achieved in all patients. One patient had a spinal instability due to a progression of spinal deformity noted on follow-up radiographs, without clinical symptoms. Cement leakage was detected in three (60%) of the five treated vertebrae. There was no clinical complication. The present series suggests that PV for MM of the cervical spine is safe and effective for pain control; nonetheless, the detrimental impact of the disease on bone quality should prompt close radiological follow-up after PV owing to the risk of spinal instability. (orig.)

Mont' Alverne, Francisco [Universite Paris VI, Department of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Sao Paulo University, Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Vallee, Jean-Noel; Guillevin, Remy; Cormier, Evelyne; Jean, Betty; Rose, Michelle; Chiras, Jacques [Universite Paris VI, Department of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Caldas, Jose Guilherme [Sao Paulo University, Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

2009-04-15

414

In Vivo Proton Beam Range Verification Using Spine MRI Changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: In proton therapy, uncertainty in the location of the distal dose edge can lead to cautious treatment plans that reduce the dosimetric advantage of protons. After radiation exposure, vertebral bone marrow undergoes fatty replacement that is visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This presents an exciting opportunity to observe radiation dose distribution in vivo. We used quantitative spine MRI changes to precisely detect the distal dose edge in proton radiation patients. Methods and Materials: We registered follow-up T1-weighted MRI images to planning computed tomography scans from 10 patients who received proton spine irradiation. A radiation dose-MRI signal intensity curve was created using the lateral beam penumbra in the sacrum. This curve was then used to measure range errors in the lumbar spine. Results: In the lateral penumbra, there was an increase in signal intensity with higher dose throughout the full range of 0-37.5 Gy (RBE). In the distal fall-off region, the beam sometimes appeared to penetrate farther than planned. The mean overshoot in 10 patients was 1.9 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.8-3.1 mm), on the order of the uncertainties inherent to our range verification method. Conclusions: We have demonstrated in vivo proton range verification using posttreatment spine MRI changes. Our analysis suggests the presence of a systematic overshoot of a few millimeters in some proton spine treatments, but the range error does not exceed the uncertaie range error does not exceed the uncertainty incorporated into the treatment planning margin. It may be possible to extend our technique to MRI sequences that show early bone marrow changes, enabling adaptive treatment modification.

415

Irradiation spine deformity in children treated for neuroblastoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective long-term follow-up review of 56 children with neuroblastoma surviving five years and longer following treatment since 1946 revealed that 57% had developed spine deformity (S.D.) following treatment with 250 kilovolt irradiation at the time of review. The average age at diagnosis was 17 months. Irradiation therapy was delivered to most children before 24 months of age. Follow-up averaged 12.9 years with a range of 5-31 years. Eighty-five per cent of the children had developed structural spine deformity at skeletal maturity and 54% of these children had scoliosis greater than 20 degrees. Sixteen per cent of irradiated children developed structural kyphosis. Non-midline opposing anterior and posterior ports were used most frequently. Mean dosage in patients who developed scoliosis of 20 degrees or more was 3588 rads (spine dosage) and 3746 rads in patients who developed kyphosis. Irradiation through opposing anterior and posterior ports was more commonly associated with the development of S.D. Sixty-six per cent of children who had more than 2000 rads developed S.D. The adolescent growth spurt was associated with an increase in the frequency and severity of spine deformity. This study indicated that moderate to severe S.D. was produced by irradiation in excess of 2000 rads administered with a 250-kilovoltage machine. This study would also suggest that children with neuroblastoma treated with orthovoltage irradiation should be followed closely by the orthion should be followed closely by the orthopaedic surgeon, the oncologist, the radiotherapist and the paediatrician until the completion of skeletal growth for the development of unsightly structural spine deformity. Early bracing and surgery may be helpful in controlling these deformities in the pre-adolescent to early adolescent years. Continued observation is necessary to determine if current irradiation techniques will minimize or eradicate the incidence and severity of these complications. (author)

416

Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability.

Izzo, Roberto, E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guarnieri, Gianluigi, E-mail: gianluigiguarnieri@hotmail.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guglielmi, Giuseppe, E-mail: g.gugliemi@unifg.it [Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

2013-01-15

417

Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand h