WorldWideScience

Sample records for spine reposition sense

  1. Comparison of cervical repositioning error between basketball and badminton players and control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Choromzadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Proprioception is a type of feedback from limbs to CNS which defines a sensory tools to contribute position sense and movement sense. Precise and controlled movements are important sections of sports and activity daily living which needs to accurate information of proprioception. High concentration of proprioceptors are reported in cervical spine, sacroiliac and ankle joint. The purpose of this study was to compare repositioning error of cervical spine on high level badminton and basketball players and healthy subjects.   Materials and Methods: Twenty female basketball players (23.40 years old, 20 female badminton players (24.81years old and 20 healthy female (24,95years old subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Cervical total range of motion (ROM and repositioning error in target angle (30% of full ROM in each movement of flexion, extension, right and left lateral flexion and rotation were measured by CROM apparatus. Results : Our results indicate that two groups of athletes has significant differences with non-athletic subjects in flexion, extension, left lateral flexion and ro tation and there were significant differences in right lateral flexion and right rotation between badminton players and non-athletic subjects (P<0.005.   Conclusion : Cervical proprioception may improve with specific sport movements. Basketball and badminton are non-contact sports that needs to eye and hand coordination, as our results showed that the cervical repositioning error was decreased in athletics related to non-athletic subjects, the mentioned sports may improve proprioception.   Key Words: Proprioception, Cervical, Repositioning error, Basketball, Badminton

  2. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject to complex handling and timing restrictions. The objective of the problem is cost minimization, which translates nearly directly into the minimization of CO2 emissions and pollution. Additionally, it is important that all cost elements, including the ones that are only loosely coupled with activity choices, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings is important in helping shipping firms move towards their goal of greater eco-efficiency.

  3. Drug repositioning in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Anne; Williams, Gareth; Ballard, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Drug repositioning offers an innovative approach to drug discovery with great potential in the field of Alzheimer's Disease and dementia therapeutics. Investigation of licensed compounds enables processing through the drug discovery pipeline in a rapid and cost-effective manner. A growing body of evidence supports the translation of priority compounds to be taken forward to clinical trials, based on established and proposed mechanisms of action. A number of drugs have already entered clinical trial following repositioning, and novel technologies have been created to enable high-throughput screening. This review discusses the novel approaches that build on transcriptional signature profiling to support repositioning in AD, and the novel candidate drugs that are emerging from this exciting new technique. PMID:25961694

  4. Drug repositioning for orphan diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Divya; Zhu, Cheng; Zhang, Minlu; Gudivada, Ranga C; Yang, Lun; Jegga, Anil G

    2011-07-01

    The need and opportunity to discover therapeutics for rare or orphan diseases are enormous. Due to limited prevalence and/or commercial potential, of the approximately 6000 orphan diseases (defined by the FDA Orphan Drug Act as development is complicated, time-consuming and expensive with extremely low success rates only adds to the low rate of therapeutics available for orphan diseases. An alternative and efficient strategy to boost the discovery of orphan disease therapeutics is to find connections between an existing drug product and orphan disease. Drug Repositioning or Drug Repurposing--finding a new indication for a drug--is one way to maximize the potential of a drug. The advantages of this approach are manifold, but rational drug repositioning for orphan diseases is not trivial and poses several formidable challenges--pharmacologically and computationally. Most of the repositioned drugs currently in the market are the result of serendipity. One reason the connection between drug candidates and their potential new applications are not identified in an earlier or more systematic fashion is that the underlying mechanism 'connecting' them is either very intricate and unknown or indirect or dispersed and buried in an ever-increasing sea of information, much of which is emerging only recently and therefore is not well organized. In this study, we will review some of these issues and the current methodologies adopted or proposed to overcome them and translate chemical and biological discoveries into safe and effective orphan disease therapeutics. PMID:21504985

  5. Transfemoral Repositioning of Malpositioned Central Venous Catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of the transfemoral vein approach to repositioning malpositioned central venous catheters. Methods: During a 41/2-year period, malpositioned central venous catheters were repositioned 91 times in 83 patients via the transfemoral vein approach. All repositioning was initially attempted with a Grollman catheter or other pigtail catheter and a tip-deflecting wire. If these techniques failed or the venous anatomy was unfavorable, gooseneck or long loop snares were used. Results: During 48 repositionings, rotating a pigtail-type catheter alone was used successfully in 39 (81%). In 6 of 9 failures, the addition of a tip-deflecting wire also failed. A Grollman catheter and tip-deflecting wire were used initially in 39 repositionings (6 failures; 85% success). Successful repositioning required a snare in 8 (4 as the primary repositioning technique) and a long-loop technique in 5. All repositionings were ultimately successful and there were no complications. Conclusion: Central venous catheters can be repositioned consistently by the transfemoral route. Pigtail catheters or tip-deflecting wires alone are successful in over 80% of cases

  6. [Postural stabilization after otolithic repositioning for posterior semicircular canal canalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, M; Giacomini, P; Sorace, F; Bruno, E

    1998-12-01

    Today the canal/cupulolithiasic pathogenesis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) appears well defined; what is less clear is the origin of the postural "instability" often associated with rotatory vertigo. This form is less marked but still resists all know treatments. The purpose of the present study was to determine the actual postural arrangement of subjects suffering from canalolithiasis (CL) of the posterior semicircular canal (PSC) both before and after the positioning maneuver. In this case a personal method of spectral frequency analysis was used in an attempt to clarify the origin of the residual "instability" following otolithic repositioning. Static posturographic testing was performed on 20 patients with CL of the PSC and another 20 normal subjects of comparable age. In the present study the repositioning maneuver leads to a reduction in latero-lateral oscillation without any anterior-posterior variation. Such stabilization covers all the frequencies if a visual input is also present while it is limited to the lower frequencies when the visual content is lacking. In fact, in the latter case the subject maintains his posture using only vestibular and proprioceptive input. On the other hand, the anterior-posterior oscillations increase in all frequency ranges and this increase remains essentially unchanged after the repositioning maneuver. The authors feel that the anterior-posterior destabilization seen in CL of the PSC may stem from a proprioceptive-macular alteration linked to otolitic detachment rather than abnormal ampullar stimulation. The persistence and residual postural alterations found could, therefore, explain the persistent sense of instability that CL patients often complain of, even after the maneuvers which have encountered such success in controlling BPPV. PMID:10388149

  7. Temporal Optimization Planning for Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

    Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state-of-the-art planning and scheduling techniques do not offer cost models that are rich enough to represent essential objectives of these problems. To this end, we introduce a novel framework called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). TOP uses partial order planning to build optimization models associated with the different possible activity scenarios and applies branch-and-bound with tight lower bounds to find optimal solutions efficiently. We show how key aspects of fleet repositioning can be modeled using TOP and demonstrate experimentally that our approach scales to the size of problems considered by our industrial collaborators.

  8. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a function of their duration; for example, sailing slowly between two ports is cheaper than sailing quickly. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We show how the LSFRP can be solved sub-optimally using the planner POPF and optimally with a mixed-integer program (MIP) and a novel method called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). We evaluate the performance of each of these techniques on a dataset of real-world instances from our industrial collaborator, and show that automated planning scales to the size of problems faced by industry.

  9. Firm entry, product repositioning and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharias, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    We show that the entry of a second firm in a horizontally differentiated market (ala Hotelling) may harm consumers as prices increase and consumer's surplus possibly decrease. We first derive the price and the consumer's surplus of a monopoly which is located at the center of the market. When a second firm enters the market the first firm repositions and the two firms locate at their equilibrium points. Although competition adds to variety and increases consumer's surplus, the post entry incr...

  10. Lumbar spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... Koh DM, Roditi G. Intravascular contrast media for radiology, CT, and MRI. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, ...

  11. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping lines and ports, and provides algorithms and mathematical models for use by shipping lines and port authorities for decision support. One of these problems is the repositioning of container ships in a liner shipping network in order to adjust the network to seasonal shifts in demand or changes in the world economy. We provide the rst problem description and mathematical model of repositioning and dene the liner shipping eet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity ow over paths dened by the activities chosen. We rst model the problem without cargo ows with a variety of well-known optimization techniques, as well as using a novel method called linear temporal optimization planning that combines linear programming with partial-order planning in a branch-and-bound framework. We then model the LSFRP with cargo ows, using several dierent mathematical models as well as two heuristic approaches. We evaluate our techniques on a real-world dataset that includes a scenario from our industrial collaborator. We show that our approaches scale to the size of problems faced by industry, and are also able to improve the prot on the reference scenario by over US$14 million. This dissertation also addresses the topic of inter-terminal transportation (ITT), which involves minimizing the delay experienced by containers being transported between terminals in a port under varying infrastructure congurations and material handling equipment properties. Minimizing the delay of ITT is an important problem in the strategic planning of new ports and port expansions, and one that has not yet been addressed in an optimization based approach. We provide the rst mathematical model of ITT and show how the model can be used to provide critical information to port authorities on two real ports, the port of Hamburg, Germany, and the Maasvlakte area of the port of Rotterdam, Netherlands. Finally, this thesis gives a polynomial time algorithm for an open problem from the container stowage literature, the capacitated k-shift problem with a xed number of stacks and stack heights, providing an answer to a 13 year old theoretical question in the container stowage domain.

  12. An innovative cosmetic technique called lip repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical report describing the successful use of the lip repositioning technique for the reduction of excessive gingival display. A female patient aged 34 years reported with a chief complaint of gummy smile and was treated with this technique performed under local anesthesia with the main objective to reduce gummy smile by limiting the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, levator anguli, orbicularis oris, and levator labii superioris. The technique is fulfilled by removing a strip of mucosa from maxillary buccal vestibule and creating a partial thickness flap between mucogingival junction and upperlip musculature, and suturing the lip mucosa with mucogingival junction, resulting in a narrow vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby reducing gingival display.

  13. Lumbosacral spine CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinal CT; CT - lumbosacral spine ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. You will need to lie on your ... creates a clearer image. In other cases, a CT of the lumbosacral spine may be done after ...

  14. Spine Conditioning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should consult his or her orthopaedic surgeon. Spine Conditioning Program Purpose of Program _________________________________________________________________ After an injury or ... Target Muscles: The muscle groups targeted in this conditioning program include: • Cervical spine (neck) • Trapezius (neck and ...

  15. Rapid, spatially accurate total-spine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed a method of performing complete-spine MR imaging in which a positioning platform is used. Linear patient position is found with a sagittal scout (<1 minute) and adjusted along the Z axis by platform motion. Spinal cord obliquity is then determined by paraxial coronal scout (<1 minute) and corrected by platform rotation in the XY plane. The spinal cord midline is determined with a transverse scout (<1 minute) and followed by definitive imaging. Rapid, calibrated multiple repositioning along the Z axis for high-resolution imaging is accomplished without additional scout imaging, returning of the transmitter or receiver, or patient movement

  16. CAMIF, an SME Repositioning Its Line as Sustainable Development Products

    OpenAIRE

    Leïla Loussaïef; Bénédicte Bourcier-Bequaert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the application of Sustainable Development (SD) in the marketing strategies of French firms, and to show how one SME, CAMIF, has repositioned its product line around SD. Although SD policies in France are now driven by rising demands from lawmakers and consumers alike, their application has not yet become a central feature of the strategies of major companies and SMEs. In this regard, the innovative repositioning of CAMIF around fair and responsible va...

  17. The ‘addicted’ spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Diana

    2014-10-01

    Medium Spiny Neurons of the Nucleus Accumbens show a reduced number of dendritic spines and a decrease in TH-positive terminals upon withdrawal from opiates, cannabinoids and alcohol. The reduction is localized ‘strictly’ to second order dendritic branches where, dopamine-containing terminals impinging upon spines, make synaptic contacts. In addition, long-thin spines seems preferentially affected raising the possibility that cellular learning of these neurons may be selectively hampered. These findings suggest that dendritic spines are affected by drugs widely abused by humans and provide yet another example of drug-induced aberrant neural plasticity with marked reflections on the physiology of synapses, system structural organization, and neuronal circuitry remodeling.

  18. Cervical Spine Axial Rotation Goniometer Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Ula? Erdem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cervical spine rotation movement is quiet harder than other joints. Configuration and arrangement of current goniometers and devices is not always practic in clinics and some methods are quiet expensive. The cervical axial rotation goniometer designed by the authors is consists of five pieces (head apparatus, chair, goniometric platform, eye pads and camera. With this goniometer design a detailed evaluation of cervical spine range of motion can be obtained. Besides, measurement of "joint position sense" which is recently has rising interest in researches can be made practically with this goniometer.

  19. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model of the LSFRP with cargo flows based on a carefully constructed graph and evaluate it on real world data from our industrial collaborator.

  20. Management of intrusive luxation with immediate surgical repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumdar Dibyendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusive luxation is one of the most severe forms of traumatic injuries in which the affected tooth is forced to displace deeper into the alveolus. As a consequence of this type of injury, maximum damage occurs to the pulp and all the supporting structures. This report presents a case of severe intrusive luxation of mature maxillary central and lateral incisor in a 40-year-old male. The intruded tooth was immediately repositioned (surgical extrusion and splinted within hours following injury. Antibiotic therapy was initiated at the time of repositioning and maintained for 5 days. Pulp removal and calcium hydroxide treatment of the root canal was carried out after repositioning. Splint was removed 2 months later. Definitive root canal treatment with Gutta percha was accomplished at a later appointment. Clinical and radiographic examination 6, 12 and 24 months after the surgical extrusion revealed satisfactory progressive apical and periodontal healing.

  1. CAMIF, an SME Repositioning Its Line as Sustainable Development Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leïla Loussaïef

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review the application of Sustainable Development (SD in the marketing strategies of French firms, and to show how one SME, CAMIF, has repositioned its product line around SD. Although SD policies in France are now driven by rising demands from lawmakers and consumers alike, their application has not yet become a central feature of the strategies of major companies and SMEs. In this regard, the innovative repositioning of CAMIF around fair and responsible value is found to be consistent with the firm’s values, and permeates its marketing mix.

  2. A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a function of their duration; for example, sailing slowly between two ports is cheaper than sailing quickly. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We model the LSFRP using PDDL and solve it using the planner.

  3. Spine-Tingling Excitement from Glutamate Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Huettner (Washington University Medical School; Department of Cell Biology and Physiology REV)

    2003-11-25

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors excite nerve cells by forming cation-selective pores in the membrane. Recent work, however, provides evidence that atypical signaling by glutamate receptors regulates the production and maintenance of dendritic spines, the short outgrowths that receive most central excitatory synapses. The control of spine formation involves the amino-terminal extracellular domain of the GluR2 subunit of AMPA (?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptors. How interactions with this domain elicit signals to downstream effectors remains to be elucidated, but ion flux through the channel may not be required. This Perspective discusses the possibility that regulation of spines by GluR2 may be one of a growing collection of cases in which ionotropic glutamate receptors can elicit biochemical changes that are conventionally attributed to metabotropic receptors. It is suggested that proteins in contact with specific glutamate receptor subunits may directly sense the conformational changes produced by agonist binding.

  4. Thoracic spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic spine pain, or thoracalgia, is one of the common reasons for seeking for medical advice. The epidemiology and semiotics of pain in the thoracic spine unlike in those in the cervical and lumbar spine have not been inadequately studied. The causes of thoracic spine pain are varied: diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal systems, injuries to the musculoskeletal structures of the cervical and thoracic portions, which require a thorough differential diagnosis. Facet, costotransverse, and costovertebral joint injuries and myofascial syndrome are the most common causes of musculoskeletal (nonspecific pain in the thoracic spine. True radicular pain is rarely encountered. Traditionally, treatment for thoracalgia includes a combination of non-drug and drug therapies. The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor meloxicam (movalis may be the drug of choice in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

  5. Computational and experimental advances in drug repositioning for accelerated therapeutic stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameer, Khader; Readhead, Ben; Dudley, Joel T

    2015-01-01

    Drug repositioning is an important component of therapeutic stratification in the precision medicine paradigm. Molecular profiling and more sophisticated analysis of longitudinal clinical data are refining definitions of human diseases, creating needs and opportunities to re-target or reposition approved drugs for alternative indications. Drug repositioning studies have demonstrated success in complex diseases requiring improved therapeutic interventions as well as orphan diseases without any known treatments. An increasing collection of available computational and experimental methods that leverage molecular and clinical data enable diverse drug repositioning strategies. Integration of translational bioinformatics resources, statistical methods, chemoinformatics tools and experimental techniques (including medicinal chemistry techniques) can enable the rapid application of drug repositioning on an increasingly broad scale. Efficient tools are now available for systematic drug-repositioning methods using large repositories of compounds with biological activities. Medicinal chemists along with other translational researchers can play a key role in various aspects of drug repositioning. In this review article, we briefly summarize the history of drug repositioning, explain concepts behind drug repositioning methods, discuss recent computational and experimental advances and highlight available open access resources for effective drug repositioning investigations. We also discuss recent approaches in utilizing electronic health record for outcome assessment of drug repositioning and future avenues of drug repositioning in the light of targeting disease comorbidities, underserved patient communities, individualized medicine and socioeconomic impact. PMID:25579574

  6. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Áskelsdóttir, Björg

    2014-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting cargo flows. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multicommodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against an actual repositioning scenario, one of many undertaken by our industrial collaborator in 2011. Our simulated annealing algorithm is able to increase the profit from $18.1 to $31.8 million using only a few minutes of CPU time. This shows that our algorithm could be used in a decision support system to solve the LSFRP.

  7. Solving The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Áskelsdóttir, Björg

    2013-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm of the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph and evaluate them on real world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare our approach's performance against an actual repositioning scenario, one of many undertaken by our industrial collaborator in 2011, in which our simulated annealing algorithm is able to double the profit earned in our industrial collaborator's solution to $15.5 million dollars using only few minutes of CPU time, showing that our algorithm could be used in a decision support system to solve the LSFRP.

  8. Spine problems in adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent’s idiopathic scoliosis, Scheuermann kyphosis, spondylolysis and spondylolistesis are the most common spine problems of adolescence which needs orthopaedic treatment and follow-up. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 65-7

  9. Protecting Your Fragile Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one of these procedures may help relieve your pain, he or she can refer you to a doctor that performs one of these procedures. Some orthopedic doctors, spine surgeons and interventional radiologists perform vertebroplasty ...

  10. Cervical spine trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Torretti Joel; Sengupta Dilip

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spine trauma is a common problem with a wide range of severity from minor ligamentous injury to frank osteo-ligamentous instability with spinal cord injury. The emergent evaluation of patients at risk relies on standardized clinical and radiographic protocols to identify injuries; elucidate associated pathology; classify injuries; and predict instability, treatment and outcomes. The unique anatomy of each region of the cervical spine demands a review of each segment individually. Thi...

  11. Lip repositioning: An alternative cosmetic treatment for gummy smile

    OpenAIRE

    Dayakar, Mudnoor Manjunath; Gupta, Sachin; Shivananda, Hiranya

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gingival display, commonly referred to as ‘gummy smile’ is a major hurdle in overall personality of an individual. Gummy smile, secondary to altered passive eruption and tooth mal-positioning, can be predictably treated with Surgery and orthodontic therapy. In patients with jaw deformities, orthognathic surgery can be performed. However, this requires hospitalization and entails significant discomfort. Lip repositioning is a simple surgical procedure to treat ‘gummy smile’. ...

  12. Epley's canalith-repositioning manoeuvre for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri, M.; Raizada, R. M.; Puttewar, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of the Epley's canalith-repositioning manoeuvre in the treatment of BPPV was assessed in this prospective study of 62 patients. Patients were selected based on symptoms of positional vertigo and positive Dix-Hallpike's positional test. Patients were divided into two groups; first group comprising 34 patients underwent Epley's manoeuvre alone where as the other group comprising 28 patients underwent Epley's manoeuvre along with mastoid oscillator. At the end of 1 month patients we...

  13. Drug Repositioning for Diabetes Based on 'Omics' Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming; Luo, Heng; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Drug repositioning has shorter developmental time, lower cost and less safety risk than traditional drug development process. The current study aims to repurpose marketed drugs and clinical candidates for new indications in diabetes treatment by mining clinical ‘omics’ data. We analyzed data from genome wide association studies (GWAS), proteomics and metabolomics studies and revealed a total of 992 proteins as potential anti-diabetic targets in human. Information on the drugs that target thes...

  14. A bidirectional drug repositioning approach for Parkinson's disease through network-based inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Hindol; Chatterjee, Paulami; Roy, Debjani

    2015-02-13

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is one of the most prevailing neurodegenerative disorders. Novel computational approaches are required to find new ways of using the existing drugs or drug repositioning, as currently there exists no cure for PD. We proposed a new bidirectional drug repositioning method that consists of Top-down and Bottom-up approaches and finally gives information about significant repositioning drug candidates. This method takes into account of the topological significance of drugs in the tripartite Indication-drug-target network (IDTN) as well the significance of their targets in the PD-specific protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). 9 non-Parkinsonian drugs have been proposed as the significant repositioning candidates for PD. In order to find out the efficiency of the repositioning candidates we introduced a parameter called the On-target ratio (OTR). The average OTR value of final repositioning candidates has been found to be higher than that of known PD specific drugs. PMID:25576361

  15. Spine surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz JN, Harris MB. Clinical practice. Lumbar spinal stenosis. N EnglJMed . 2008;358(8):818-825. Hedequist DJ. Surgical treatment of congenital scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am . 2007;38(4):497-509. Gardocki RJ, Camillo FX. Other disorders of the spine. In: ...

  16. Tuberculosis of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two surgically proven cases of turberculous psoas abscess are presented. The common findings on CT were low-density paraspinal masses and extension of the lesions which followed the typical distribution of iliopsoas muscle in both cases. The skeletal findings from the spine are also discussed. Our cases indicate the complementary use of plain radiography and CT in the investigation of tuberculous spondylitis. (orig.)

  17. Space Stations: Sponge Spool Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Diane Byerly

    2006-01-01

    In this activity, learners simulate what happens to a human spine in space by making Sponge Spool Spines (alternating sponge pieces and spools threaded on a pipe cleaner). This represents a human spine on Earth, with the discs (sponges) pressed between the spinal vertebrae (the wooden spools). Learners measure the spine length, dip it in a glass of water (simulating microgravity), and then re-measure the spine. They will find it has expanded, just like in space! This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

  18. An investigation of a video-based patient repositioning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We have investigated a video-based patient repositioning technique designed to use skin features for radiotherapy repositioning. We investigated the feasibility of the clinical application of this system by quantitative evaluation of performance characteristics of the methodology. Methods and Materials: Multiple regions of interest (ROI) were specified in the field of view of video cameras. We used a normalized correlation pattern-matching algorithm to compute the translations of each ROI pattern in a target image. These translations were compared against trial translations using a quadratic cost function for an optimization process in which the patient rotation and translational parameters were calculated. Results: A hierarchical search technique achieved high-speed (compute correlation for 128x128 ROI in 512x512 target image within 0.005 s) and subpixel spatial accuracy (as high as 0.2 pixel). By treating the observed translations as movements of points on the surfaces of a hypothetical cube, we were able to estimate accurately the actual translations and rotations of the test phantoms used in our experiments to less than 1 mm and 0.2 deg. with a standard deviation of 0.3 mm and 0.5 deg. respectively. For human volunteer cases, we estimated the translations and rotations to have an accuracy of 2 mm and 1.2 deg. Conclusion: A personal computer-based video system is suitable for routine patient setup of fractionated conformal radiotherapy. It is expected to aonformal radiotherapy. It is expected to achieve high-precision repositioning of the skin surface with high efficiency

  19. MR imaging of the total spine with surface coils: Improved screening technique for evaluation of metastatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface coils enhance the detection of MR signal, improving resolution of small anatomic structures. In assessment of the spine, the surface coils are used primarily for evaluation of disease that is limited in extent. The authors recommend the use of a support plate, which permits examination of the entire spine without repositioning of the patient within the gantry. The device accommodates a license-plate or circular-type surface coil. The spine is examined using T1-weighted sequences in sagittal plane. The clinically symptomatic region is examined in both coronal and sagittal projections. The examination using surface coils can be completed within 50 to 60 minutes. Findings correlate well with nuclear bone scan. Additional information is provided by MR imaging in the form of configuration of vertebra, alignment, and compromise of the spinal canal

  20. Comparison of lumbar repositioning error according to different lumbar angles in a flexion pattern (FP) subgroup of patients with non-specific chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyung-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the change in lumbar position sense according to lumbar angles in a flexion pattern (FP) subgroup of patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NCSLBP). [Subjects] Thirteen subjects with FP low back pain participated. [Methods] The lumbar repositioning error (RE) of subjects was measured between a neutral starting position and re-position phases at three angles, in sitting and standing upright positions. [Results] Lumbar RE was significantly greater during lumbar flexion at a 30° angle in the sitting position than in the other tasks. [Conclusion] In the flexion-related subgroup, the lumbar RE measurement may be a more sensitive evaluation method using a lumbar flexion angle of 30° while in the sitting position, compared with other angles in sitting or standing positions. PMID:25642094

  1. Repositioning of malpositioned or flipped central venous catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary misplaced or secondary flipped implanted catheters are located mostly in the right jugular vein. We demonstrate an effective method to replace fix implanted catheters such as Ports, Grochomg or Hickman catheters. Using a femoral venous approach, replacement into the superior vena cava can easily be done with a Sidewinder 1 catheter which is hooked over the misplaced central venous approach. In all our patients the method was successful. The repositioning technique described is simple, fast and has low costs. We can keep sterile conditions and do not need to solve the catheters' fixation. (orig.)

  2. Physiopathology of Spine Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Maccauro, Giulio; Spinelli, Maria Silvia; Mauro, Sigismondo; Perisano, Carlo; Graci, Calogero; Rosa, Michele Attilio

    2011-01-01

    The metastasis is the spread of cancer from one part of the body to another. Two-thirds of patients with cancer will develop bone metastasis. Breast, prostate and lung cancer are responsible for more than 80% of cases of metastatic bone disease. The spine is the most common site of bone metastasis. A spinal metastasis may cause pain, instability and neurological injuries. The diffusion through Batson venous system is the principal process of spinal metastasis, but the dissemination is possibl...

  3. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (?ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ?ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  4. Spine revisited: Principles and parlance redefined

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari M; Mehta Lopa; Natarajan M; Kothari V

    2005-01-01

    A revised appreciation of the evolution and the nature of bone in general and of vertebrae in particular, allows revisiting the human spine to usher in some new principles and more rational parlance, that embody spine?s phylogeny, ontogeny, anatomy and physiology. Such an approach accords primacy to spine?s soft-tissues, and relegates to its bones a secondary place.

  5. Numerical and experimental analysis of spine’s transpedicular stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work was a numerical and experimental analysis of spine’s transpedicular stabilizer on lumbar part of spine. The result of the analysis was determination of displacements of the stabilizers’ elements.Design/methodology/approach: To define numerical characteristic of the lumbar spine – transpedicular spine stabilizer system, the finite element method was applied. Geometrical models of lumbar part of spine and transpedicular stabilizer were discretized by SOLID95 element. The boundary conditions imitating phenomena in real system with appropriate accuracy were established. The experimental analysis was carried out for spine’s transpedicular stabilizers which were implanted on lumbar part of pig spine. The analysis was realized by means of testing machine MTS Insight with the use of videoextensometer. Numerical and experimental analysis were carried out for stabilizer made of stainless steel Cr-Ni-Mo. System was loaded by uniaxial compression with forces from 50 N to 1600 N.Findings: The result of analysis was calculation of relative displacements of the transpedicular stabilizer in a function of the applied loading; F = 700 - 1600 N for numerical model and F = 50 - 1600 N for experimental model.Research limitations/implications: The results of numerical analysis for transpedicular stabilizer obtained by finite element method were used to determine a construction features of the stabilizer, and to select mechanical properties of metallic biomaterial. The calculation of displacements for stabilizer show that the proposed type of stabilizer enables correct stabilization of spine.Practical implications: Both results of numerical and experimental analysis showed correct selection of mechanical properties of metallic biomaterial which were used to made the proposed type of transpedicular stabilizer.Originality/value: Advantageous results of analysis showed that the type of stabilizer may be used in clinical practice.

  6. Drug Repositioning for Diabetes Based on 'Omics' Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Luo, Heng; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Drug repositioning has shorter developmental time, lower cost and less safety risk than traditional drug development process. The current study aims to repurpose marketed drugs and clinical candidates for new indications in diabetes treatment by mining clinical ‘omics’ data. We analyzed data from genome wide association studies (GWAS), proteomics and metabolomics studies and revealed a total of 992 proteins as potential anti-diabetic targets in human. Information on the drugs that target these 992 proteins was retrieved from the Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) and 108 of these proteins are drug targets with drug projects information. Research and preclinical drug targets were excluded and 35 of the 108 proteins were selected as druggable proteins. Among them, five proteins were known targets for treating diabetes. Based on the pathogenesis knowledge gathered from the OMIM and PubMed databases, 12 protein targets of 58 drugs were found to have a new indication for treating diabetes. CMap (connectivity map) was used to compare the gene expression patterns of cells treated by these 58 drugs and that of cells treated by known anti-diabetic drugs or diabetes risk causing compounds. As a result, 9 drugs were found to have the potential to treat diabetes. Among the 9 drugs, 4 drugs (diflunisal, nabumetone, niflumic acid and valdecoxib) targeting COX2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase 2) were repurposed for treating type 1 diabetes, and 2 drugs (phenoxybenzamine and idazoxan) targeting ADRA2A (Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor) had a new indication for treating type 2 diabetes. These findings indicated that ‘omics’ data mining based drug repositioning is a potentially powerful tool to discover novel anti-diabetic indications from marketed drugs and clinical candidates. Furthermore, the results of our study could be related to other disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25946000

  7. Fractures of the cervical spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raphael Martus, Marcon; Alexandre Fogaca, Cristante; William Jacobsen, Teixeira; Douglas Kenji, Narasaki; Reginaldo Perilo, Oliveira; Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa de, Barros.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in pol [...] ytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative.

  8. Observation of curative effect of modified canalith reposition on 48 cases with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAN Jun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the canalith repositioning maneuver in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. Methods The modified Epley procedure, Semont maneuver and Barbecue maneuver were applied in 48 cases of BPPV. Followed for one year, the curative effects were observed. Results After treatment in modified canalith reposition, the recovery rate was 89.58% , and effective rate was 100% . Followed for one year, the recurrence rate was 6.25% . Conclusion Modified canalith reposition for BPPV has no contraindications, and no special adverse reactions. It is simple and can fastly relieve symptoms. The cost and recurrence rate are low. It is suitable for clinical application.

  9. Percutaneous transfemoral repositioning of malpositioned central venous access device: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Ashutosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of long term central venous access devices (CVAD such as chemo ports and Hickman?s catheters are associated with a definite risk of catheter tip malpositioning. As such, malpositioning runs a risk of venous thrombosis and related complications; it is imperative to reposition the catheter. Percutaneous transfemoral venous approach has been described as a minimally invasive and safe method for the repositioning. We present two cases in which the CVAD implanted in one subclavian vein got malpositioned in contra lateral subclavian vein. A percutaneous transfemoral venous approach utilizing 5 Fr angiographic catheter was successful in repositioning of the catheters in both cases.

  10. Spine injuries in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschlich, Laura M; Young, Craig C

    2011-01-01

    Care of a dancer calls for a unique balance between athlete and artist. The physician must familiarize himself or herself with dance terminology, common moves, correct technique, and dancer's mentality. The goal is to work intimately with the dancer to care for the injury and, if possible, continue to participate in portions of dance class to limit anxiety and increase compliance to treatment. The spine is the second most injured area of the body in dancers, and many issues stem from poor technique and muscle imbalance. This often leads to hyperlordosis, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, lumbar facet sprain, discogenic back pain, and muscle spasm and piriformis syndrome. This article reviews these causes of low back pain with a focus on dance-related presentation and treatment issues. PMID:21228650

  11. Repositioning reference new methods and new services for a new age

    CERN Document Server

    Rozaklis, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Repositioning Reference reimagines reference services in libraries and information organizations and the role of reference librarians, taking into account rapid developments in technology and information-specific services in non-library sectors.

  12. Development of methods for detecting and repositioning of snug-fitting annulus spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annulus spacers are used in the fuel channels of the CANDU power reactor to maintain the gap, or annulus space, between the pressure tube and surrounding calandria tube. It is important that the spacers remain close to their installed locations to prevent pressure tube to calandria tube contact and subsequent hydride blister formation. There is currently no means of in-service repositioning for snug-fitting annulus spacers. In addition, it is desirable to have a means to directly detect the location of a snug-fit spacer that does not rely on secondary effects of spacer location. AECL has been working to develop the capability to directly detect and reposition snug-fitting spacers. To date, means to detect and reposition snug-fitting spacers using vibration have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory and work is continuing towards implementing this technology for field use. This paper presents an overview of the detection and repositioning techniques. (author)

  13. 47 CFR 76.1601 - Deletion or repositioning of broadcast signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1601...written notice to any broadcast television station at least 30 days...or repositioning of a local commercial television station shall occur during...

  14. Effects of Kinesiology Taping on Repositioning Error of the Knee Joint after Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jin Tae; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults with no orthopaedic or neurological problems participated in this study. [Methods] The repositioning error of the knee joint was measured using a digital goniometer when the subjects extended their dominant-side knee to a random target angle (30°, 45°, or 60°) with their eyes closed, befo...

  15. Percutaneous transfemoral repositioning of malpositioned central venous access device: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan Ashutosh; Pathak Kamal; Ganguly Manomoy

    2010-01-01

    Placement of long term central venous access devices (CVAD) such as chemo ports and Hickman?s catheters are associated with a definite risk of catheter tip malpositioning. As such, malpositioning runs a risk of venous thrombosis and related complications; it is imperative to reposition the catheter. Percutaneous transfemoral venous approach has been described as a minimally invasive and safe method for the repositioning. We present two cases in which the CVAD implanted in one subclavia...

  16. Patient repositioning and pressure ulcer risk—Monitoring interface pressures of at-risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Peterson, PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Repositioning patients regularly to prevent pressure ulcers and reduce interface pressures is the standard of care, yet prior work has found that standard repositioning does not relieve all areas of at-risk tissue in nondisabled subjects. To determine whether this holds true for high-risk patients, we assessed the effectiveness of routine repositioning in relieving at-risk tissue of the perisacral area using interface pressure mapping. Bedridden patients at risk for pressure ulcer formation (n = 23, Braden score 95% of the observation period. Thirteen participants were observed in three distinct positions (supine, turned left, turned right, and all had specific skin areas (166 +/– 184 cm2 that exceeded pressure thresholds for >95% of the observation period. At-risk patients have skin areas that are likely always at risk throughout their hospital stay despite repositioning. Healthcare providers are unaware of the actual tissue-relieving effectiveness (or lack thereof of their repositioning interventions, which may partially explain why pressure ulcer mitigation strategies are not always successful. Relieving at-risk tissue is a necessary part of pressure ulcer prevention, but the repositioning practice itself needs improvement.

  17. Of goats and spines :a feeding experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Skarpe, Christina; Bergström, Roger; Danell, Kjell; Eriksson, Helena; Kunz, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    Spines in plants have evolved to reduce mammalian herbivory, and their main function may be to protect twigs more than photosynthetic tissue. Type and frequency of spines vary in different scales. We hypothesised that different types of spines affect animal foraging through different mechanisms. We studied feeding behaviour by twig browsing goats in relation to two types of spines of Acacia tortilis using experimental manipulation of the occurrence of spines. Feeding time, number of biting ac...

  18. Spine revisited: Principles and parlance redefined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A revised appreciation of the evolution and the nature of bone in general and of vertebrae in particular, allows revisiting the human spine to usher in some new principles and more rational parlance, that embody spine?s phylogeny, ontogeny, anatomy and physiology. Such an approach accords primacy to spine?s soft-tissues, and relegates to its bones a secondary place.

  19. Stochastic description of single nucleosome repositioning by ACF remodelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecan, Yves; Blossey, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    Chromatin remodeling plays a crucial role in the activation or repression of transcription of eukaryotic genes. The chromatin remodeler ACF acts as a dimeric, processive motor to evenly space nucleosomes, favoring repression of gene transcription. Single-molecule experiments have established that ACF moves the nucleosome more efficiently towards the longer flanking DNA than towards the shorter flanking DNA, thereby centering an initially ill-positioned nucleosome on DNA substrates. In this paper we present a one-motor model with nucleosomal repositioning rates dependent on the DNA flanking length. The corresponding master equation is solved analytically with experimentally relevant parameter values. The velocity profile and the effective diffusion constant for nucleosome sliding, computed from the probability distributions, are in accordance with available experimental data. In order to address the observed kinetic pauses in experimental Förster Resonance Energy Transfer profiles, we extend the master equation to account for transitions between explicit motor states, i.e., adenosine triphosphate (ATP) loading and ATP hydrolysis in both ACF motors. The results of this extended two-motor model are compared to the previous effective one-motor model and allow insights into the role of the synchronization of the two motors acting on the nucleosome.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as decompression of a pinched nerve or spinal fusion . monitor changes in the spine after an operation, ... in this instance. For more information on adverse reactions to gadolinium-based contrast agents, please consult the ...

  1. Postoperative spine; Postoperative Wirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaeger, R. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Basel (Switzerland); Lieb, J.M. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Basel (Switzerland); Shariat, K. [Neurochirurgie Koeln-Merheim, Koeln (Germany); Ahlhelm, F.J. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    Approximately 15-30 % of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are associated with complications that require further diagnostic work-up. The choice of imaging modality for postoperative complications depends on the extent, pattern and temporal evolution of the postoperative neurological signs and symptoms as well as on the preoperative clinical status, the surgical procedure itself and the underlying pathology. The interpretation of imaging findings, in particular the distinction between postoperative complications and normally expected nonspecific postoperative imaging alterations can be challenging and requires the integration of clinical neurological information and the results of laboratory tests. The combination of different imaging techniques might help in cases of equivocal imaging results. (orig.) [German] Etwa 15-30 % der operativen Eingriffe im Bereich der lumbalen Wirbelsaeule verlaufen nicht komplikationsfrei und erfordern weiterfuehrende Abklaerungen. Die Auswahl des bildgebenden Verfahrens im Rahmen postoperativer Komplikationen haengt dabei wesentlich von der zeitlichen Entwicklung, dem Ausmass und Verteilungsmuster der neuaufgetretenen klinisch-neurologischen bzw. orthopaedischen Symptome sowie von den Ausfaellen vor dem Eingriff, der zugrundeliegenden Pathologie und der Lokalisation und Art des Eingriffs ab. Die Interpretation der bildgebenden Befunde, insbesondere die Abgrenzung postoperativer Komplikationen von natuerlicherweise zu erwartenden postoperativen Veraenderungen kann dabei eine Herausforderung darstellen. Bei unklaren Befunden kann ergaenzend zur eingehend klinisch-neurologischen und laborchemischen Bestandsaufnahme auch der kombinierte Einsatz mehrerer bildgebender Modalitaeten diagnostisch weiterhelfen. (orig.)

  2. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  3. The postoperative spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is one of the most perplexing medical and medicoeconomic problems facing our health system today. In many studies reoperation rates tend to be between 10 and 20%, but as many as 20-45% 3 of patients may have persistent back or radicular pain following what was to have been definitive therapy. The causes for the FBSS are very complex. The Workmen's Compensation system and medicolegal trends toward very high settlements of litigation for injury have provided serious incentive for patients to remain symptomatic. It is difficult to analyze any statistical survey of symptomatic back patients without serious bias from this group of patients. Others suggest that patients with severe psychological problems, drug abuse, and alcoholism are inappropriately selected as surgical candidates. They believe that careful psychological evaluation of patients minimizes FBSS. Even if all extrinsic factors could be eliminated, the problem of failed back surgery would still be a major one. This chapter is based on a review of 300 postoperative lumbar spine multiplanar CT scans performed over a 15-month period. All patients had a complete set of axial images, with sagittal and coronal reformations photographed twice: optimized once for bone definition and once for soft-tissue contrast resolution

  4. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  5. Detection and repositioning of tight fighting annulus spacers in CANDU® fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest generation of CANDU® reactors has been constructed with tight-fitting annulus spacers to maintain the annular gap between the inner pressure tubes and the outer calandria tubes. These spacers cannot be detected and repositioned with the existing Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) process, which is designed to work with loose-fitting annulus spacers. There is currently no established technology to detect and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has been performing research and development to locate and move tight-fitting annulus spacers using Modal Detection and Repositioning (MODAR) technology since 2005 and is currently working in collaboration with Candu Energy and Bruce Power on a production system to be deployed for an In-reactor demonstration in the next year. The MODAR technology uses controlled vibrations on a short, isolated length of pressure tube to locate and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. MODAR technology will allow the utilities to demonstrate fuel channel integrity to the regulator and obtain approval for additional years of reactor operation. This paper briefly describes the technology and provides an overview of the tool testing and development. (author)

  6. Drug repositioning for gynecologic tumors: a new therapeutic strategy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Kouji; Iida, Miho; Yanokura, Megumi; Irie, Haruko; Masuda, Kenta; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    The goals of drug repositioning are to find a new pharmacological effect of a drug for which human safety and pharmacokinetics are established and to expand the therapeutic range of the drug to another disease. Such drug discovery can be performed at low cost and in the short term based on the results of previous clinical trials. New drugs for gynecologic tumors may be found by drug repositioning. For example, PPAR ligands may be effective against ovarian cancer, since PPAR activation eliminates COX-2 expression, arrests the cell cycle, and induces apoptosis. Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, is effective for endometrial cancer through inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway by activating LKB1-AMPK and reduction of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 due to AMPK activation. COX-2 inhibitors for cervical cancer may also be examples of drug repositioning. PGE2 is induced in the arachidonate cascade by COX-2. PGE2 maintains high expression of COX-2 and induces angiogenic factors including VEGF and bFGF, causing carcinogenesis. COX-2 inhibitors suppress these actions and inhibit carcinogenesis. Combination therapy using drugs found by drug repositioning and current anticancer drugs may increase efficacy and reduce adverse drug reactions. Thus, drug repositioning may become a key approach for gynecologic cancer in drug discovery. PMID:25734181

  7. PA lumbar spines: a future concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents results of a comparison of two possible lumbar spine projections used in a sample of 20 male and 20 female patients, with regard to dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography. (UK)

  8. Long-Term Efficacy of Repositioning Maneuvers in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Moriguti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of 12 patients with a diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV treated by the repositioning maneuver during a 24-month follow-up period after the initial discharge a longitudinal clinical study was performed in which a questionnaire for the assessment of discomfort caused by dizziness was applied at the first visit, at the last visit after treatment and 2 years after the initial discharge. Repositioning treatment was again offered to patients who suffered relapses. In 10 cases (83.34% there was no recurrence of symptoms and 2 patients (16.66% presented symptoms exactly 2 years after the original discharge showing that treatment of BPPV by repositioning manuevers is effective in the long term, but new studies in larger populations are needed to determine the pattern of the rates of recurrence of BPPV.

  9. Fractionated stereotactic irradiation by Cyberknife of choroid melanomas: repositioning validation, closed eyelids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife is an option in the treatment of eyes tumors. The advantages of the Cyberknife in the choroid melanomas are in its infra-millimetric precision, to the automated repositioning on the skull bones and to the conformity brought by the stereotaxy. The objective of this study was to validate the quality of repositioning and the immobility of the eyes with closed eyelids. Conclusion: the reproducibility of the eye positioning with closed eyelids seems enough to consider the conservative treatment of choroid melanomas by fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife without implementation of fiducials nor retrobulbar anaesthesia. (N.C.)

  10. Stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary inferior repositioning: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F; Robiony, M; Politi, M

    2000-01-01

    Inferior repositioning of the maxilla to correct vertical maxillary deficiency has been one of the more unstable orthognathic procedures performed. This kind of maxillary movement is the logical correction of short face syndrome due to maxillary vertical deficiency, but in spite of the esthetic improvement that it produces, a great tendency to relapse was observed. Unfortunately, the procedure is relatively rare, and this is reflected in the small sample of the studies. The literature concerning the stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in maxillary inferior repositioning was reviewed to analyze and discuss the stability of the surgical techniques proposed. PMID:11307199

  11. Magnetic resonance of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 12 chapters. Three chapters discuss principles of cerebrospinal fluid flow, spinal imaging techniques, and the physical basis and anatomic correlates of signal intensity in the spine. There are chapters on normal anatomy, congenital anomalies, trauma, tumors, infection, demyelinating disease, degenerative disease, vascular conditions, and syringomyelia

  12. The optimum dimensions of radiative spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, A.; Zohoor, H.

    Radiative pin fins (spines) are important in conjunction with heat rejection systems for space applications. In the design of radiators for space applications, spines possessing minimum mass are of great interest. In this study a conducting-radiating spine with an arbitrary profile is considered. The profile is assumed to be a function of the temperature in the spines by introducing a free parameter. With this choice of profile, the nonlinear heat transfer equation for the conducting-radiating spine can be integrated analytically. Using this method, a nonlinear integral equation for the temperature of the spine is obtained. This equation can be conveniently solved numerically to find the optimum dimensions of the spine.

  13. Thoracic spine sports-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, Heather; Gill, G Keith; Paterson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although sports-related injuries to the thoracic spine are relatively uncommon, they are among the most feared due to the potential for catastrophic neurologic injury. The increased biomechanical support of the thoracic spine makes injuries in this region particularly rare compared with the cervical and lumbar spine. As a result, thoracic spine injuries can be missed easily, difficult to diagnose, and problematic to treat. Recognition of mechanism and awareness of injury patterns help physicians determine a diagnosis and create an index of suspicion for unstable thoracic spine injuries. Aggressive full-contact sports receive the most attention for spinal injury; however several sports with repetitive loading of the spine can cause severe injuries, including rowing, gymnastics, and golf. The goal of this article was to provide an overview of the unique anatomic and biomechanical features of the thoracic spine and to discuss some of the more common thoracic injuries that can affect athletes. PMID:25574880

  14. Three dimensional assessment of repositioning accuracy of fractionated intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to achieve set-up accuracy of stereotactic radiotherapy. A non-invasive fixation mask device is used for stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in our hospital. Especially, fractionated stereotactic irradiation is useful due to less damage on normal tissues, for which the positioning accuracy of the removable non-invasive fixation device is important. We used our original 3-D examination of set-up, and examined the repositioning accuracy of a removable non-invasive fixation device on the coordinates of CT for treatment planning. The subjects were 25 patients who had undergone head SRT. The removable non-invasive fixation mask device used was for the BrainLAB system. The repositioning accuracy of the fixation device was examined using differences in the distance on the X, Y, and Z coordinates in each three points between the treatment planning and repositioning times determined by comparing the relative coordinates. Evaluation was performed using the relative coordinates of the standard and test points. In the 25 patients, an accuracy of the difference in the distance between the treatment planning and repositioning procedures within 2 mm was obtained in 79.1% of the patients using the fixation device. Our original 3-D examination of a set-up accuracy for non-invasive stereotactic irradiation was considered useful for routine treatment with high accuracy. (author)

  15. Prediction of drug gene associations via ontological profile similarity with application to drug repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissa, Maria; Tsatsaronis, George; Schroeder, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The amount of biomedical literature has been increasing rapidly during the last decade. Text mining techniques can harness this large-scale data, shed light onto complex drug mechanisms, and extract relation information that can support computational polypharmacology. In this work, we introduce a fully corpus-based and unsupervised method which utilizes the MEDLINE indexed titles and abstracts to infer drug gene associations and assist drug repositioning. The method measures the Pointwise Mutual Information (PMI) between biomedical terms derived from the Gene Ontology and the Medical Subject Headings. Based on the PMI scores, drug and gene profiles are generated and candidate drug gene associations are inferred when computing the relatedness of their profiles. Results show that an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of up to 0.88 can be achieved. The method can successfully identify direct drug gene associations with high precision and prioritize them. Validation shows that the statistically derived profiles from literature perform as good as manually curated profiles. In addition, we examine the potential application of our approach towards drug repositioning. For all FDA approved drugs repositioned over the last 5 years, we generate profiles from publications before 2009 and show that new indications rank high in the profiles. In summary, literature mined profiles can accurately predict drug gene associations and provide insights onto potential repositioning cases. PMID:25498216

  16. Jurisprudence. Repositioning of cables and pipes. Who decides and who pays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground cables and pipes sometimes need to be repositioned to make room for buildings. Can any exploiter of pipes be obliged to do this. And if this is the case, who should pay for it? Every year these questions are causing new disputes.

  17. Delayed Herniation of Coil Loop and Spontaneous Reposition in a Superior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Ki Bum; Park, Ji Kang; Kwon, O-ki; Park, Jung Cheol

    2011-01-01

    Herniation of coil loops into the parent artery is one of the complications of endovascular embolization with detachable coils. In this clinical setting, we cannot predict the consequence of the herniated coil loop. We report an unusual case of a superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysm with delayed coil herniation into the basilar artery and spontaneous reposition into the SCA.

  18. Repositioning Your EMBA Program and Reinventing Your Brand: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to illustrate how Fordham University, the Jesuit University of New York, repositioned its Executive MBA Program and reinvented its brand, over a ten year period. More specifically, this research will analyze the current state of the Executive MBA market and will discuss the best practices and frameworks implemented…

  19. Program management for spring location and repositioning (SLAR) operations at Pickering NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 a major project was planned for Units 5 and 6 of Pickering NGS (Nuclear Generating Station). The project involved remotely locating and repositioning the four spacer (garter) springs separating each pressure tube from the surrounding calandria tube. This paper describes the requirements for SLAR, and the work being undertaken at Pickering NGS to implement the project

  20. Helmet versus active repositioning for plagiocephaly: a three-dimensional analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipira, Angelo B; Gordon, Shayna

    2010-01-01

    Orthotic helmets and active repositioning are the most common treatments for deformational plagiocephaly (DP). Existing evidence is not sufficient to objectively inform decisions between these options. A three-dimensional (3D), whole-head asymmetry analysis was used to rigorously compare outcomes of these 2 treatment methods.

  1. Repositioning Guidance and Counselling and Curriculum Innovation in Higher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyilofor, Florence N. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on repositioning guidance and counseling and curriculum innovation in higher education in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. The study covered four Federal universities in the South-West Geopolitical zone of Nigeria, namely University of Ibadan in Oyo State; Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife…

  2. Disc-repositioning surgery of the temporomandibular joint using bioresorbable screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembronio, S; Robiony, M; Politi, M

    2006-12-01

    For successful disc-repositioning surgery, following arthrotomy and disc recovery by the release of attachments, the disc must be fixed and stabilized in the correct relationship with the condyle and fossa. This report describes a new surgical technique for fixing the disc to the condyle using two resorbable screws. PMID:16962741

  3. Novel electromagnetic technique for repositioning of coolant tube spacers in CANDU nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel electromagnetic technique to reposition the coolant tube spacers in the fuel channels of CANDU nuclear reactors was successfully developed in the fall of 1983 at Ontario Hydro Research Division. The need to reposition dislocated spacers in noncommissioned reactors was discovered subsequent to the rupture of a pressure tube in one reactor at the Pickering Nuclear Generator Station in Ontario. A contributing factor to the failure of the tube was the fact that the annular spacers (garter springs), used to maintain the coaxial configuration between the pressure tube and its surrounding calandria tube, had been displaced longitudinally for a number of years. Subsequent to this finding, it was discovered that a number of garter springs in noncommissioned nuclear reactors were displaced due to vibration induced by various sources during the construction stage. Since the garter springs are not directly accessible by mechanical means, extensive dismantling of the fuel channels would have been necessary to reposition the springs in their designated locations. This paper describes a novel method to reposition the garter springs without dismantling the fuel channels. The method consists of exerting a force on the springs in the direction of the required displacement by applying a large electromagnetic impulse (generated by a 200-kJ capacitor bank) to a drive coil inserted into the pressure tube opposite the spacer. The repositioning of displaced garter springs in five newng of displaced garter springs in five new reactors in Ontario has been carried out successfully in 1984. The saving in reactor repair cost, interest charges, and replacement energy cost was on the order of hundreds of millions of dollars. Equally large benefits and savings will be realized if the need to use this technique in commissioned reactors arises

  4. Chondrosarcoma Apoplexy in Thoracic Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Min Su; Jung, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a very uncommon malignant primary bone tumor, especially, it occurs extremely rare in the spine. A 52-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with sudden paraplegia. Twelve hours prior to a paraplegic event, he visited an outpatient clinic with discomfort and tenderness around the medial border of the right scapular, and his neurologic status was absolutely intact. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lobulated soft tissue mass from T3 to T5, which extended to the epi...

  5. Vascular disease of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyon, Charles N; Hart, David J

    2015-05-01

    Vascular insults to the spinal cord are substantially less common than their corresponding events in the brain; it has been estimated, for example, that spinal cord infarcts make up ?1% of ischemic events in the central nervous system. Although the public health burden of spinal cord injury remains severe, the majority of this burden stems from traumatic rather than vascular events. Still, vascular injuries in the spine are common enough and their consequences devastating enough that a familiarity with the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the more common etiologies is essential to any practitioner of the clinical neurosciences. In this educational review, we will briefly outline the normal development and anatomy of the spinal vasculature, then focus on specific mechanisms of vascular injury to the spine. In particular, we will examine spontaneous and iatrogenic ischemic insults and their associated clinical syndromes, and then review vascular neoplasms and malformations of the spine with attention to the various management strategies that currently exist for these complex lesions. Finally, we will briefly address the future areas for exploration, including investigative avenues for neuroprotection, as well as the possible influence of atherosclerotic disease on spinal degenerative disease and low back pain. PMID:25970833

  6. Cervical spine motion: radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

  7. Targeting the new generation woman: voice-over as a tool in gender repositioning traditionally male dominant product

    OpenAIRE

    Staunton, Ciara

    1995-01-01

    This exploratory research study examines the power of the voice-over as a tool in gender re-positioning of a traditionally male dominant product and the response of the female market to such re-positioning. The increasing consumption by females of masculine products has led marketers to question how they can target such products at the female market, without losing the existing male customers. A potentially appropriate method of doing so is through subtle gender re-positioning by altering the...

  8. Neurophysiological identification of position-induced neurologic injury during anterior cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel M; Sestokas, Anthony K; Hilibrand, Alan S; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Bose, Bikash; Li, Mark; Albert, Todd J

    2006-12-01

    This study was a retrospective review of 3,806 patients who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery with multi-modality neurophysiological monitoring consisting of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials and spontaneous electromyography between 1999-2003. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to evaluate the role of transcranial electric motor evoked potential tceMEP and ulnar nerve somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring for identifying impending position-related stretch brachial plexopathy, peripheral nerve entrapment/compression or spinal cord compression and (2) to estimate the point-prevalence of impending neurologic injury secondary to surgical positioning effects. Sixty-nine of 3,806 patients (1.8% showed intraoperative evidence of impending neurologic injury secondary to positioning, prompting interventional repositioning of the patient. The brachial plexus was the site of evolving injury in 65% of these 69 cases. Impending brachial plexopathy was most commonly noted immediately following shoulder taping and the application of counter-traction. Brachial plexus stretch upon neck extension for optimal surgical access and visualization was second in frequency-of-occurrence. Evolving traction injury to the ulnar nerve attributed to tightly-wrapped or malpositioned arms was observed in 16% of alerted cases, whereas evolving spinal cord injury following neck extension accounted for an additional 19%. This study highlights the role of tceMEP and ulnar nerve SSEP monitoring for detecting emerging peripheral nerve injury secondary to positioning in preparation for and during anterior cervical spine surgery. PMID:16960753

  9. Role of image-guided patient repositioning and online planning in localized prostate cancer IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the expected benefit of image-guided online replanning over image-guided repositioning of localized prostate cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Materials and methods: On 10 to 11 CT scans of each of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients, the prostate, bladder and rectum are manually segmented. Using a 3-mm PTV margin expansion from the CTV, an IMRT plan is made on the first CT scan of each patient. Online repositioning is simulated by recalculating the IMRT plan from the initial CT scan on the subsequent CT scans of each patient. For online replanning, IMRT is replanned twice on all CT scans, using 0-mm and 3-mm margins. The doses from subsequent CT images of each patient are then deformed to the initial CT anatomy using a mesh-based thin-plate B-spline deformation method and are accumulated for DVH and isodose review. Results: Paired t-tests show that online replanning with 3-mm margins significantly increases the prostate volume receiving the prescribed dose over replanning with 0-mm margins (p-value 0.004); gives marginally better target coverage than repositioning with 3-mm margins(p-value 0.06-0.343), and reduces variations in target coverage over repositioning. Fractional volumes of rectum and bladder receiving 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, and 95% (V75, V80, V85, V90, and V95) of the prescription dose are evaluated. V90 and V95 values for the rectum are 1.6% and 0.7 % for 3-mm margin replanning and 1% and 0.4 % for 0-mm margin replanng and 1% and 0.4 % for 0-mm margin replanning, with p-values of 0.010-0.011. No significant differences between repositioning and replanning with 3-mm margins are found for both the rectum and the bladder. Conclusions: Image-guided replanning using 3-mm margins reduces target coverage variations, and maintains comparable rectum and bladder sparing to patient repositioning in localized prostate cancer IMRT. Marginal reductions in doses to rectum and bladder are possible when planning margins are eliminated in the online replanning scenario. However, further reduction in treatment planning margins is not recommended.

  10. Performance evaluation of eddy current transducers and associated instrumentation of integrated garter spring repositioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To extend the life of coolant channels of operating Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) of an early generation, repositioning of dislocated Garter Spring (GS) spacers is necessary. For this purpose a remotely operated system named INtegrated Garter spring REpositioning System (INGRES) has been developed. As a part of this system, eddy current transducers namely Garter Spring Detection Probe (GSDP) and Concentricity Detection Probe (CDP) along with respective signal processor units have been designed and developed. These devices detect GS spacers and eccentricity between Pressure Tube (PT) and Calandria Tube (CT) of the channel respectively. During a recent campaign of INGRES at Madras Atomic Power Station unit-2 (MAPS-2), these transducer systems have fulfilled intended design and operational objectives besides providing additional information regarding channel. These aspects are discussed. (author). 6 figs

  11. Repositioning accuracy: Comparison of a noninvasive head holder with thermoplastic mask for fractionated radiotherapy and a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare accuracy, clinical feasibility, and subjective patient impression between a noninvasive head holder (Vogele Bale Hohner [VBH]; Wellhoefer Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) developed at the University of Innsbruck and the thermoplastic mask fixation system for use in fractionated external radiotherapy. We present a case report of an actual patient fixated in the VBH head holder during radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: The VBH head holder consists of an individualized vacuum dental cast connected to a head plate via two hydraulic arms allowing noninvasive, reproducible head fixation of even uncooperative patients. Accuracy was tested and compared with that of the thermoplastic mask using the Phillips EasyGuide navigation system on five volunteers. Specific external registration points served as landmarks and their positions were compared after each repositioning. System and operator inaccuracy were also taken into account. The times taken for production and repositioning of the respective fixation devices were compared, and subjective impressions were noted. Results: Mean VBH head holder repositioning accuracy was 1.02 mm while that of the thermoplastic mask was 3.05 mm. 69% of mask repositionings showed a deviation > 2 mm and 41% > 3 mm (as opposed to 8% and 1% respectively for the VBH head holder) Those points located farthest away from the respective plane of fixation showed the largest deviations. Both production and repositioning timess. Both production and repositioning times were similar between the systems; depending upon the patient, the VBH head holder was generally better tolerated than the mask system. Conclusion: Due to its significantly better repositioning accuracy compared to that of the thermoplastic mask, the VBH head holder is especially suited for external radiation requiring precise repositioning due to critical tissues in immediate surrounding of the area to be irradiated

  12. DrugMap Central: an on-line query and visualization tool to facilitate drug repositioning studies

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Changhe; Jin, Guangxu; Gao, Junfeng; Zhu, Rui; Ballesteros-Villagrana, Efren; Wong, Stephen T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Systematic studies of drug repositioning require the integration of multi-level drug data, including basic chemical information (such as SMILES), drug targets, target-related signaling pathways, clinical trial information and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approval information, to predict new potential indications of existing drugs. Currently available databases, however, lack query support for multi-level drug information and thus are not designed to support drug repositioning s...

  13. Using Composite Resin Inclined Plane for the Repositioning of a Laterally Luxated Primary Incisor: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arikan, Volkan; Sari, Saziye

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the repositioning of a laterally luxated primary central incisor with occlusal interference, using a composite inclined plane. The patient was a 4-year-old girl who applied to our clinic three days after the injury. Because of the time delay between injury and presentation, it was not possible to reposition the tooth with pressure. Following a root-canal treatment, an inclined plane was prepared on the lower primary incisors, using composite resin. The tooth was rep...

  14. Serial repositioning of a Guenther tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filter in a pediatric patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, Ehsan A.; Rosen, J. Choi; Torres, Carlos; Valenti, David A. [McGill University Health Center, Department of Radiology, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    We report an 11-year-old boy who required inferior vena cava (IVC) filtration for a prolonged period of time. A retrievable IVC filter was placed and repositioned three times, providing a total of 60 days of IVC filtration. The filter was removed when his risk of pulmonary embolus had decreased substantially. This is a relatively uncommon practice in the pediatric population. The technique is presented, and the available literature is reviewed. (orig.)

  15. Helmet Versus Active Repositioning for Plagiocephaly: A Three-Dimensional Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipira, A.B.; Gordon, S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthotic helmets and active repositioning are the most common treatments for deformational plagiocephaly (DP). Existing evidence is not sufficient to objectively inform decisions between these options. A three-dimensional (3D), whole-head asymmetry analysis was used to rigorously compare outcomes of these 2 treatment methods. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Whole-head 3D surface scans of 70 infants with DP were captured before and after treatment by using stereophotogrammetric imaging technology. Helmeted (n = 35) and nonhelmeted/actively repositioned (n = 35) infants were matched for severity of initial deformity. Surfaces were spatially registered to a symmetric template, which was deformed to achieve detailed right-to-left point correspondence for every point on the head surface. A ratio-metric asymmetry value was calculated for each point relative to its contralateral counterpart. Maximum and mean asymmetry values were determined. Change in mean and maximum asymmetry with treatment was the basis for group comparison. RESULTS: The helmeted group had a larger reduction than the repositioned group in both maximum (4.0% vs 2.5%; P = .02) and mean asymmetry (0.9% vs 0.5%; P = .02). The greatest difference was localized to the occipital region. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-head 3D asymmetry analysis is capable of rigorously quantifying the relative efficacy of the 2 common treatments of DP. Orthotic helmets provide statistically superior improvement in head symmetry compared with active repositioning immediately after therapy. Additional studies are needed to (1) establish the clinical significance of these quantitative differences in outcome, (2) define what constitutes pathologic head asymmetry, and (3) determine whether superiority of orthotic treatment lasts as the child matures. Pediatrics 2010;126:e936-e945

  16. Use of Tongue Blade to Reposition Palatally Luxated Tooth due to Trauma: A Novel Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Akhilesh; Hegde, Amitha M.

    2012-01-01

    Luxational injuries to the permanent anterior teeth in children are a cause of concern. Palatal luxation of maxillary left central incisor with bleeding of gingival sulcus and fracture of maxillary right central incisor involving enamel and dentine in a 9-year- old girl is presented. The dental occlusion was deranged due to the luxation. Management consisted of repositioning of the luxated tooth using tongue blade under local anesthesia and composite build up of the fractured incisor. Tooth w...

  17. Repositioning of the anthelmintic drug mebendazole for the treatment for colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Peter; Fryknäs, Mårten; Anagel, Bengt; Larsson, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we screened a compound library containing 1,600 clinically used compounds with the aim to identify compounds, which potentially could be repositioned for colon cancer therapy. Two established colon cancer cell lines were tested using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). For compound comparison connectivity map (CMAP) analysis, NCI 60 data mining and protein kinase binding measurements were performed. Sixty-eight compounds were defined as hits with act...

  18. The Comparison of Cervical Repositioning Errors According to Smartphone Addiction Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeonhyeong; Seo, Kyochul

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades of adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of smartphone addiction was conducted of 200 adults. Based on the survey results, 30 subjects were chosen to participate in this study, and they were divided into three groups of 10; a Normal Group, a Moderate Addiction Group, and a Severe Addiction Group. After attaching a C-ROM, we measured the cervic...

  19. Treating temporomandibular disorders with permanent mandibular repositioning: is it medically necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Charles S; Obrez, Ales

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the authors review the rationale and history of mandibular repositioning procedures in relation to temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) as these procedures have evolved over time. A large body of clinical research evidence shows that most TMDs can and should be managed with conservative treatment protocols that do not include any mandibular repositioning procedures. Although this provides a strong clinical argument for avoiding such procedures, very few reports have discussed the biologic reasons for either accepting or rejecting them. This scientific information could provide a basis for determining whether mandibular repositioning procedures can be defended as being medically necessary. This position paper introduces the biologic concept of homeostasis as it applies to this topic. The continuing adaptability of teeth, muscles, and temporomandibular joints throughout life is described in terms of homeostasis, which leads to the conclusion that each person's current temporomandibular joint position is biologically "correct." Therefore, that position does not need to be changed as part of a TMD treatment protocol. This means that irreversible TMD treatment procedures, such as equilibration, orthodontics, full-mouth reconstruction, and orthognathic surgery, cannot be defended as being medically necessary. PMID:25864818

  20. A Node Flow Model for the Inflexible Visitation Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel, node flow based mathematical model for the fixed-time version of a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). We call this version of the problem the Inflexible Visitation LSFRP (IVLSFRP). During repositioning, ves- sels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Shipping lines wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. We intro- duce two versions of a node flow based model that exploit the fixed activity times of the IVLSFRP’s graph to handle cargo demands on the nodes of the graph, in- stead of the arcs, significantly reducing the number of variables. Using this model in CPLEX, we are able to solve 12 previously unsolved IVLSFRP instances to optimality. Additionally, we improve the solution time on every instance in the IVLSFRP dataset, sometimes by several orders of magnitude.

  1. The Comparison of Cervical Repositioning Errors According to Smartphone Addiction Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeonHyeong; Seo, KyoChul

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades of adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of smartphone addiction was conducted of 200 adults. Based on the survey results, 30 subjects were chosen to participate in this study, and they were divided into three groups of 10; a Normal Group, a Moderate Addiction Group, and a Severe Addiction Group. After attaching a C-ROM, we measured the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, right lateral flexion and left lateral flexion. [Results] Significant differences in the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, and right and left lateral flexion were found among the Normal Group, Moderate Addiction Group, and Severe Addiction Group. In particular, the Severe Addiction Group showed the largest errors. [Conclusion] The result indicates that as smartphone addiction becomes more severe, a person is more likely to show impaired proprioception, as well as impaired ability to recognize the right posture. Thus, musculoskeletal problems due to smartphone addiction should be resolved through social cognition and intervention, and physical therapeutic education and intervention to educate people about correct postures. PMID:24764641

  2. Temporomandibular joint disc repositioning using bone anchors: an immediate post surgical evaluation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Majd S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Open joint procedures using bone anchors have shown clinical and radiograph good success, but post surgical disc position has not been documented with MRI imaging. We have designed a modified technique of using two bone anchors and 2 sutures to reposition the articular discs. This MRI study evaluates the post surgical success of this technique to reposition and stabilize the TMJ articular discs. Methods Consecutive 81 patients with unilateral TMJ internal derangement (ID (81 TMJs were treated between December 1, 2003, and December 1, 2006, at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth Peoples Hospital, Shanghai, Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. All patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging before and one to seven days post surgery to determine disc position using the modified bone anchor technique. Results Postoperative MRIs (one to seven days confirm that 77 of 81 joints were identified as excellent results and one joint was considered good for an overall effective rate of 96.3% (78 of 81 joints. Only 3.7% (3 of 81 of the joints were designated as poor results requiring a second open surgery. Conclusions This procedure has provided successful repositioning of the articular discs in unilateral TMJ ID at one to seven days post surgery.

  3. Repositioning chairs in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo : implications and clinical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Niels; Hansen, SØren

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the clinical value of repositioning chairs in management of refractory benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and to study how different BPPV subtypes respond to treatment. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 consecutive cases with refractory vertigo referred to our clinic within a 10-month period. The BPPV patients were managed with classical manual manoeuvres, the Epley Omniax(®) rotator (EO) or the TRV chair (TRV). In addition, a comprehensive review of the literature was performed. BPPV was identified in 95 cases. The number of needed treatments for posterior canalolithiasis versus posterior cupulolithiasis, horizontal cupulolithiasis and multi-canal affection was significant (p < 0.01). Thirty-seven (38 %) patients required only one repositioning manoeuvre and the overall symptom relief was 91.7-100 % after 3 treatments. Eleven patients (12 %) experienced relapse within the ½-year follow-up period. Horizontal cupulolithiasis and multi-canal affection constituted the most resilient cases. The literature search identified 9 repositioning chair studies. The EO and the TRV are highly valuable assets in diagnosis and management of BPPV of particularly complex and refractory cases. However, further validation is anticipated through controlled clinical trials.

  4. The comparison of cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonhyeong; Seo, Kyochul

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades of adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of smartphone addiction was conducted of 200 adults. Based on the survey results, 30 subjects were chosen to participate in this study, and they were divided into three groups of 10; a Normal Group, a Moderate Addiction Group, and a Severe Addiction Group. After attaching a C-ROM, we measured the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, right lateral flexion and left lateral flexion. [Results] Significant differences in the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, and right and left lateral flexion were found among the Normal Group, Moderate Addiction Group, and Severe Addiction Group. In particular, the Severe Addiction Group showed the largest errors. [Conclusion] The result indicates that as smartphone addiction becomes more severe, a person is more likely to show impaired proprioception, as well as impaired ability to recognize the right posture. Thus, musculoskeletal problems due to smartphone addiction should be resolved through social cognition and intervention, and physical therapeutic education and intervention to educate people about correct postures. PMID:24764641

  5. Ankylosed spines are prone to fracture.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, T.; Forster, B.; Dvorak, M.

    1995-01-01

    Fracture of an ankylosed spine is often overlooked. Because the force that damages an ankylosed spine is frequently slight, patients do not realize they are injured. Doctors can miss the fracture for the same reason and because patients already have a history of back pain. Plain radiographs sometimes fail to demonstrate the fracture site.

  6. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andrew Michael

    2015-01-01

    The failure of neuropathic pain to abate even years after trauma suggests that adverse changes to synaptic function must exist in a chronic pathological state in nociceptive pathways. The chronicity of neuropathic pain therefore underscores the importance of understanding the contribution of dendritic spines--micron-sized postsynaptic structures that represent modifiable sites of synaptic contact. Historically, dendritic spines have been of great interest to the learning and memory field. More recent evidence points to the exciting implication that abnormal dendritic spine structure following disease or injury may represent a "molecular memory" for maintaining chronic pain. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in dorsal horn neurons contributes to nociceptive hyperexcitability associated with neuropathic pain, as demonstrated in multiple pain models, i.e., spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve injury, diabetic neuropathy, and thermal burn injury. Because of the relationship between dendritic spine structure and neuronal function, a thorough investigation of dendritic spine behavior in the spinal cord is a unique opportunity to better understand the mechanisms of sensory dysfunction after injury or disease. At a conceptual level, a spinal memory mechanism that engages dendritic spine remodeling would also contribute to a broad range of intractable neurological conditions. Molecules involved in regulating dendritic spine plasticity may offer novel targets for the development of effective and durable therapies for neurological disease. PMID:25744680

  7. Anatomy and radiology of the sellar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five anatomical and radiological observations of a spine protruding into the pituitary fossa are reported. This osseous spine, about 4 mm long, arises in the midline from the inferior part of the anterior aspect of the dorsum sellae and extends upward and forward. The possible origins of this malformation are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Primary osteogenic sarcoma of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary osteogenic sarcoma of the spine is a rare tumor making up 0.85% to 2.0% of all osteogenic sarcomas. The majority (29/41) of previously reported cases have occurred in vertebrae affected by Paget disease or radiation exposure. Two cases of osteogenic sarcoma of the spine, one lumbar, the other thoracic, with no known predisposing factors are presented. (orig.)

  9. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion. (orig.)

  10. Chondrosarcoma apoplexy in thoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Min Su; Jung, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a very uncommon malignant primary bone tumor, especially, it occurs extremely rare in the spine. A 52-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with sudden paraplegia. Twelve hours prior to a paraplegic event, he visited an outpatient clinic with discomfort and tenderness around the medial border of the right scapular, and his neurologic status was absolutely intact. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lobulated soft tissue mass from T3 to T5, which extended to the epidural space. Computed tomography scans showed soft tissue mass on the spinal posterior arch and osteolytic change of the adjacent bony structures. Emergent surgery was performed and the lesion was removed. Dark reddish blood and gel-like material were encountered around the dura and posterior arch during the operation. Multiple pulmonary nodules were found on a chest CT scan and a biopsy of one of them had been proven to be a metastasis of chondrosarcoma. The histologic examination showed dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. The patient's neurologic deficit was improved slowly from ASIA A to ASIA D. Chondrosarcoma in the spine is extremely rare, even more with acute hemorrhage and sudden expansion into the epidural space. We named it chondrosarcoma apoplexy. We should consider the possibility of a hemorrhagic event when the patient's neurologic deficit worsens suddenly with spinal bone tumor. PMID:23441034

  11. Mining drug-disease relationships as a complement to medical genetics-based drug repositioning: Where a recommendation system meets genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Gu, Q; Wei, J; Cao, Z; Liu, Q

    2015-05-01

    A novel recommendation-based drug repositioning strategy is presented to simultaneously determine novel drug indications and side effects in one integrated framework. This strategy provides a complementary method to medical genetics-based drug repositioning, which reduces the occurrence of false positives in medical genetics-based drug repositioning, resulting in a ranked list of new candidate indications and/or side effects with different confidence levels. Several new drug indications and side effects are reported with high prediction confidences. PMID:25670647

  12. The aging spine in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Elson, Lauren; Brand, Erik

    2012-07-01

    1. Masters athletes may experience low back pain from multiple sources. Masters athletes with discogenic back pain should avoid or modify sports with combined rotational and compressive forces; individuals with facet-mediated pain should avoid or modify sports with excessive extension and rotation. 2. Optimization of flexibility, strength, endurance, and core control is critical. Sports specific training, realistic goal setting, and counseling are of maximal importance. 3. Overall, the health benefits of continued sports and athletic participation outweigh the potential risks of spinal degeneration in middle-aged athletes. There is little correlation between radiographic appearance of the spine and symptoms; therefore, symptoms should serve as the primary guide when determining activity modifications. Overall, masters athletes should be encouraged to remain active and fit to enhance their quality of life and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22657996

  13. Postoperative syndrome after spine surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postoperative syndrome after spine surgery, i.e., symptoms or syndromes caused by complications or procedure-related consequences, is gaining more and more importance. Due to great improvements concerning imaging and operative techniques (microsurgery, instrumentation) the total number of spinal surgeries as well as their related complications are increasing. Procedure-related postoperative complications including neurological deficit syndromes can occur acutely or at a later date. Concerning imaging techniques for postoperative evaluation after spinal surgery there are several modalities available. Their indications depend on complex factors including initial pathology the surgery was performed for, kind of surgical technique (surgical approach, instrumentation), anatomy of the patient as well as the time between onset of symptoms and surgery. In cases of ambiguous findings, the combination of different imaging techniques can be instrumental. (orig.)

  14. Gonadal dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different ways to minimize the gonadal dose in lumbar spine radiography have been studied. Two hundred and fifty lumbar spine radiographs were reviewed to assess the clinical need for lateral L5/S1 projection. Modern film/screen combinations and gonadal shielding of externally scattered radiation play a major role in the reduction of the genetic dose. The number of exposures should be minimized. Our results show that two projections, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral, appear to be sufficient in routine radiography of the lumbar spine. (orig.)

  15. Complication management with minimally invasive spine procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hussain, Namath S

    2012-02-01

    Spine surgery as we know it has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades. More patients are undergoing minimally invasive procedures. Surgeons are becoming more comfortable with these procedures, and changes in technology have led to several new approaches and products to make surgery safer for patients and improve patient outcomes. As more patients undergo minimally invasive spine surgery, more long-term outcome and complications data have been collected. The authors describe the common complications associated with these minimally invasive surgical procedures and delineate management options for the spine surgeon.

  16. Sampling issues in quantitative analysis of dendritic spines morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Ruszczycki B?a?ej; Szepesi Zsuzsanna; Wilczynski Grzegorz M; Bijata Monika; Kalita Katarzyna; Kaczmarek Leszek; Wlodarczyk Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Quantitative analysis of changes in dendritic spine morphology has become an interesting issue in contemporary neuroscience. However, the diversity in dendritic spine population might seriously influence the result of measurements in which their morphology is studied. The detection of differences in spine morphology between control and test group is often compromised by the number of dendritic spines taken for analysis. In order to estimate the impact of dendritic spine di...

  17. A method for articulating and displaying the human spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert W

    2009-11-01

    An inexpensive and effective method for articulating a dry human spine is described. By constructing a Styrofoam spine tray, analysts can now accurately position and align each vertebra in correct anatomical order, allow for gaps because of missing vertebrae, and lay out the spine for documentation and photography. The spine tray provides analysts with a quick, easy, and professional quality method for aligning and orienting the human spine in the field and laboratory. PMID:19732275

  18. Dendritic spine dynamics leading to spine elimination after repeated inductions of LTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sho; Sakuragi, Shigeo; Tominaga-Yoshino, Keiko; Ogura, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Memory is fixed solidly by repetition. However, the cellular mechanism underlying this repetition-dependent memory consolidation/reconsolidation remains unclear. In our previous study using stable slice cultures of the rodent hippocampus, we found long-lasting synaptic enhancement/suppression coupled with synapse formation/elimination after repeated inductions of chemical LTP/LTD, respectively. We proposed these phenomena as useful model systems for analyzing repetition-dependent memory consolidation. Recently, we analyzed the dynamics of dendritic spines during development of the enhancement, and found that the spines increased in number following characteristic stochastic processes. The current study investigates spine dynamics during the development of the suppression. We found that the rate of spine retraction increased immediately leaving that of spine generation unaltered. Spine elimination occurred independent of the pre-existing spine density on the dendritic segment. In terms of elimination, mushroom-type spines were not necessarily more stable than stubby-type and thin-type spines. PMID:25573377

  19. Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see your physician before starting any exercises. The Importance of Exercise for the Neck Spine experts agree ... certain exercises or common activities such as driving, reading or using a computer for a prolonged period ...

  20. MR image appearance of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares MR images of the pediatric spine with anatomic sections. Five cadaver spines---including those of three full-term infants, a 3 mo old, and a 10 y old---were imaged with a 1.5-T MR imager and then sectioned with a cryomicrotome in the sagittal plane. The characteristics of the infant spine in anatomic sections are incomplete ossification of the vertebral bodies and relatively little collagen in the intervertebral disks. By 10 y of age, the ossification of the vertebral bodies and neural arch are nearly complete. The relationship and appearance of the ossification centers, hyaline cartilage, nucleus pulposus, basivertebral veins, and the anatomic structures in the neural foramen in the pediatric spines can be differentiated on T1-weighted for T2-weighted images

  1. Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sideways (lateral) bending, and usually does not a? ect stability. Fracture-dislocation. This is an unstable injury ... spine surgery is needed. Flexion Fracture Pattern Nonsurgical treatment. Most ? exion injuries (compression fractures, burst fractures) ...

  2. Treatment of excessive gingival display using a modified lip repositioning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Noé Vital; Campos, Thiago Veiga de Souza; Rodrigues, Jefferson Guilherme; Martins, Thiago Modolo Azevedo; Silva, Cléverson O

    2013-01-01

    Excessive gingival display during smiling ("gummy smile") is an esthetic issue that affects a considerable part of the population. The hyperactivity of the elevator muscle of the upper lip is one of the main causes of a gummy smile, and several techniques have been proposed for its treatment. The aim of this report is to describe a modification of the lip repositioning technique to achieve stable and significant outcomes through a more conservative procedure. Two patients complaining about a gummy smile were treated with the proposed technique and presented, after a 6-month follow-up, significant improvement in the amount of gingival exposure and esthetic satisfaction. PMID:23593624

  3. Solving a static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems using iterated tabu search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Szeto, W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the static bike repositioning problem where the problem consists of selecting a subset of stations to visit, sequencing them, and determining the pick-up/drop-off quantities (associated with each of the visited stations) under the various operational constraints. The objective is to minimize the total penalties incurred at all the stations. We present an iterated tabu search heuristic to solve the described problem. Experimental results show that this simple heuristic can generate high quality solutions using small computing times.

  4. Perioperative visual loss after spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Nickels, Travis J.; Manlapaz, Mariel R.; Farag, Ehab

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative visual loss (POVL) is an uncommon, but devastating complication that remains primarily associated with spine and cardiac surgery. The incidence and mechanisms of visual loss after surgery remain difficult to determine. According to the American Society of Anesthesiologists Postoperative Visual Loss Registry, the most common causes of POVL in spine procedures are the two different forms of ischemic optic neuropathy: anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and posterior ischemic optic ...

  5. Posteroanterior versus anteroposterior lumbar spine radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The posteroanterior view of the lumbar spine has important features including radiation protection and image quality; these have been studied by various investigators. Investigators have shown that sensitive tissues receive less radiation dosage in the posteroanterior view of the spine for scoliosis screening and intracranial tomography without altering the image quality. This paper emphasizes the importance of the radiation safety aspect of the posteroanterior view and shows the improvement in shape distortion in the lumbar vertebrae

  6. Posteroanterior versus anteroposterior lumbar spine radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, M.M.; Shu, G.J. (Cleveland Chiropractic College, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The posteroanterior view of the lumbar spine has important features including radiation protection and image quality; these have been studied by various investigators. Investigators have shown that sensitive tissues receive less radiation dosage in the posteroanterior view of the spine for scoliosis screening and intracranial tomography without altering the image quality. This paper emphasizes the importance of the radiation safety aspect of the posteroanterior view and shows the improvement in shape distortion in the lumbar vertebrae.

  7. Computed tomography of the sellar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the CT scan findings in a case of sellar spine. This osseous spine which arises on the midline of the anterior aspect of the dorsum sellae and is directed toward the center of the sella turcica has already been described on specimens and on plain films but never on CT scans. The CT scan findings confirm the normal appearance of the surrounding structures. (orig.)

  8. Spinal brace in tuberculosis of spine.

    OpenAIRE

    Alwali, Abdulnasser A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To present our experience in the management of 22 patients with thoracolumbar spine tuberculosis (TB) using a chemotherapy regimen and locally custom-made spinal brace. METHODS Twenty-two patients with thoracolumbar spine TB had been treated conservatively by chemotherapy and locally custom-made spinal brace and followed for 36-48 months from June 1996 to June 2000 in the Department of Orthopedics and Trauma, Algamhoria Teaching Hospital, Aden, Republic of Yemen. In 14 cas...

  9. Pathophysiology and Biomechanics of the Aging Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Papadakis, Michael; Sapkas, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Elias C.; Katonis, Pavlos

    2011-01-01

    Aging of the spine is characterized by two parallel but independent processes: the reduction of bone mineral density and the development of degenerative changes. The combination of degeneration and bone mass reduction contribute, to a different degree, to the development of a variety of lesions. This results in a number of painful and often debilitating disorders. The present review constitutes a synopsis of the pathophysiological processes that take place in the aging spine as we...

  10. Blunt Traumatic Cervical Spine Fractures in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Saadat; Aliashraf Eghbali; Alexander R. Vaccaro; Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Blunt traumatic cervical spine fractures (TCSF) are serious injuries which may be associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. We describe the epidemiology of blunt traumatic cervical spine fracture in Iran over a definable time period. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the data including the distribution of TCSF, demographics, mechanisms, abbreviated injury scale (AIS), spinal cord associated injuries and final outcome of patients...

  11. Effect of Different Levels of Localized Muscle Fatigue on Knee Position Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Gear, William S.

    2011-01-01

    There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS) prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was ...

  12. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ...Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER...Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY...

  13. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  14. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  15. Orbit determination and prediction of GEO satellite of BeiDou during repositioning maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fen; Yang, XuHai; Li, ZhiGang; Sun, BaoQi; Kong, Yao; Chen, Liang; Feng, Chugang

    2014-11-01

    In order to establish a continuous GEO satellite orbit during repositioning maneuvers, a suitable maneuver force model has been established associated with an optimal orbit determination method and strategy. A continuous increasing acceleration is established by constructing a constant force that is equivalent to the pulse force, with the mass of the satellite decreasing throughout maneuver. This acceleration can be added to other accelerations, such as solar radiation, to obtain the continuous acceleration of the satellite. The orbit determination method and strategy are illuminated, with subsequent assessment of the orbit being determined and predicted accordingly. The orbit of the GEO satellite during repositioning maneuver can be determined and predicted by using C-Band pseudo-range observations of the BeiDou GEO satellite with COSPAR ID 2010-001A in 2011 and 2012. The results indicate that observations before maneuver do affect orbit determination and prediction, and should therefore be selected appropriately. A more precise orbit and prediction can be obtained compared to common short arc methods when observations starting 1 day prior the maneuver and 2 h after the maneuver are adopted in POD (Precise Orbit Determination). The achieved URE (User Range Error) under non-consideration of satellite clock errors is better than 2 m within the first 2 h after maneuver, and less than 3 m for further 2 h of orbit prediction.

  16. Can stimulating massage improve joint repositioning error in patients with knee osteoarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Hans; Henriksen, Marius

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of massage applied to the thigh muscles on joint repositioning error (JRE) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA).We hypothesized that stimulating massage of the muscles around an osteoarthritic knee joint, could improve the neuromuscular function and thereby optimize the positive and minimize the negative performance factors in relation to an exercise program. METHODS: In a cross-over design, 19 patients with knee osteoarthritis, mean age of 73.1 years (SD: 9.4; range 56 to 88 years), recruited from the local department of rheumatology, were randomly allocated to either receive massage and a week later, act as controls or vice versa. The applied massage consisted of stimulating massage of the quadriceps femoris, sartorious, gracilus, and hamstrings muscles for 10 min on the affected leg. Participants had their JRE measured before and immediately after the 10 min massage and control sessions. Data were analyzed by using paired t-test. RESULTS: No significant change in JRE was observed (95% CI: -0.62 degrees to 0.85 degrees, p = 0.738). CONCLUSION: Massage has no effect on the immediate joint repositioning error in patients with knee osteoarthritis, ie, if an improved JRE is important for improving the performance factors when exercising, stimulating massage may not be recommendable to use.

  17. Design and development of compact, durable electromagnetic pulse power coils for repositioning of coolant tube spacers in CANDU nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 1983, a novel electromagnetic technique to reposition the coolant tube spacers (garter springs) in the fuel channels of CANDU nuclear reactors was successfully developed at Ontario Hydro Research Division. This paper describes the design, development and performance of the compact solenoidal coils used to reposition the garter springs. The coils are capable of withstanding oscillatory current pulses having a first peak of 200 kA and can survive several thousand pulses at current levels exceeding 140 kA. The operating criteria and measures introduced to achieve long coil life with a reasonably high repetition rate for discharging the capacitor bank are also discussed

  18. Confined prostate cancer treated by conformational irradiation with intensity modulation with or without echography repositioning: is the dose received equivalent to the prescribed dose?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results suggest it would be possible to dispense a homogenous dose in agreement with the ICRU recommendations, nearer than the forward looking dose when the daily echographic repositioning is applied. This repositioning does not influence significantly the dosimetry for the risk organs. These results will validated in a bigger population. (N.C.)

  19. Effect of Laminectomy on Stability of Lumbar Spine Effect of Laminectomy on Stability of Lumbar Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Tichy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at the presentation of the lumbar spine finite element model used in a study of segmental kinematics including the tissue loading. Lumbar spine FE-model consisting of the three lumbar vertebras, two disc (including annulus and nucleus and vast variety of ligaments. The primary model objective is its verification by experimental test data obtained from cadaver spine segments. A confirmed model was used for a study of various range of laminectomy effect. On this model we simulate a various loading states witch can spine segment arrive at under physiologic conditions (compression, flexion, extension and lateral bending. FE-model could predict the laminectomy impact on the operation approach. The paper aims at the presentation of the lumbar spine finite element model used in a study of segmental kinematics including the tissue loading. Lumbar spine FE-model consisting of the three lumbar vertebras, two disc (including annulus and nucleus and vast variety of ligaments. The primary model objective is its verification by experimental test data obtained from cadaver spine segments. A confirmed model was used for a study of various range of laminectomy effect. On this model we simulate a various loading states witch can spine segment arrive at under physiologic conditions (compression, flexion, extension and lateral bending. FE-model could predict the laminectomy impact on the operation approach.

  20. Development and validation of a strategic repositioning model for defense and aerospace contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, John A.

    Strategic repositioning refers to the organized efforts of defense contractors to "reposition" a technology that they have developed for a defense sector customer into a civilian or commercial market. The strategic repositioning model developed here is a structural model: it seeks to isolate the factors that influence choice of strategy, which in turn influences the organization's performance. The model draws from the prior experience of contractors (through interviews and surveys) and companies in other sectors (through a review of the relevant published research). (1) Over all, the model accounted for 55% of the variance in financial performance of the sample and 35% for the underlying population. (2) Key success factors include a rigorous planning process, a target market in the growth (vs. incubation) stage, a priority on market leadership as well as financial return, the ability to operate in an ambiguous business environment, and a relatively short time horizon but strong corporate support. (3) The greatest challenges that a contractor is likely to encounter are understanding his new customers' buying practices, strong competition, and adapting his technology to their needs and price expectations. (4) To address these issues contractors often involve partners in their entry strategy, but partnerships of equals tend to be more difficult to bring off than direct entry strategies. (5) The two major target market categories--government and commercial--present different challenges. Commercial customers are more likely to resist doing business with the contractor, while contractors entering government and other noncommercial markets are more likely to encounter price resistance, low technical sophistication among customers, and difficulties reaching their customer base. (6) Despite these differences across markets, performance is not influenced by the target market category, nor by the type of product or service or the contractor's functional orientation (marketing, technology, or operations). (7) The absence of a difference in performance may be partly due to natural selection. Noncommercial markets tend to attract contractors with more deliberative, consultative, and process-oriented corporate cultures, while commercial markets tend to attract contractors with results-oriented, opportunistic cultures.

  1. On the Shoulders of Giants? Global Science, Resource Asymmetries, and Repositioning of Research Universities in China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksiyenko, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    Chinese and Russian universities are increasingly drawn into center-periphery repositioning, as they compete for symbolic, financial, and intellectual resources locally and globally. However, their strategies on national and institutional linkages differ with regards to the individual scientist's powers in knowledge production. As global…

  2. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations—occurrence and inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, CR; Gjøen, HM; Larsen, B; Egeland, ES

    2015-01-01

    Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are few, despite the large interest in the species’ behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females’ spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained. PMID:25861558

  3. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations-occurrence and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, C R; Nordeide, J T; Gjøen, H M; Larsen, B; Egeland, E S

    2015-01-01

    Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are few, despite the large interest in the species' behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females' spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained. PMID:25861558

  4. Image quality in conventional lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional radiography contributes for the majority of examinations in radiology departments. Based on the European Commission Quality Criteria we evaluated the effects on image quality when applying the new post-processing tool Diamond View (Siemens AG Medical Solutions, Germany) to conventional lumbar spine radiographs. 100 digital image pairs in two directions in two planes of lumbar spine radiographs were prospectively evaluated by two radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed with a p-value < .05 considered as significant. Images were evaluated on basis of the modified imaging Quality Criteria by the Commission of the European Communities, rated on a five-point scale. Statistical analysis showed an overall tendency for improved image quality of Diamond View (DV) for all criteria. Significant differences could be found in most of the criteria. Additional phantom analyses supported the advantage of DV. In conclusion DV improves image quality in conventional lumbar spine radiographs.

  5. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the thoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguski, Marie; Safain, Mina G; Zerris, Vasilios A; Kryzanski, James T; Thomas, Christine B; Magge, Subu N; Riesenburger, Ron I

    2014-10-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a proliferative lesion of the synovial membranes. Knees, hips, and other large weight-bearing joints are most commonly affected. PVNS rarely presents in the spine, in particular the thoracic segments. We present a patient with PVNS in the thoracic spine and describe its clinical presentation, radiographic findings, pathologic features, and treatment as well as providing the first comprehensive meta-analysis and review of the literature on this topic, to our knowledge. A total of 28 publications reporting 56 patients were found. The lumbar and cervical spine were most frequently involved (40% and 36% of patients, respectively) with infrequent involvement of the thoracic spine (24% of patients). PVNS affects a wide range of ages, but has a particular predilection for the thoracic spine in younger patients. The mean age in the thoracic group was 22.8 years and was significantly lower than the cervical and lumbar groups (42.4 and 48.6 years, respectively; p=0.0001). PVNS should be included in the differential diagnosis of osteodestructive lesions of the spine, especially because of its potential for local recurrence. The goal of treatment should be complete surgical excision. Although the pathogenesis is not clear, mechanical strain may play an important role, especially in cervical and lumbar PVNS. The association of thoracic lesions and younger age suggests that other factors, such as neoplasia, derangement of lipid metabolism, perturbations of humoral and cellular immunity, and other undefined patient factors, play a role in the development of thoracic PVNS. PMID:24938389

  6. Differential involvement of the dorsal and lumbar spine in osteoporosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhambhani, M.; Crisp, A. J.; Compston, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of normal bone density values in the lumbar spine is often assumed to exclude osteoporosis. Eleven cases are reported in which normal lumbar spine bone density and radiology were associated with one or more dorsal spine fractures; the diagnosis was postmenopausal osteoporosis in eight patients and corticosteroid induced osteoporosis in three. These findings suggest that spinal osteoporosis may sometimes be a focal disorder and emphasise the need for dorsal spine radiology in addi...

  7. Thromboembolic Complications Following Spine Surgery Assessed with Spiral CT Scans: DVT/PE Following Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, HAN JO; Walcott-Sapp, Sarah; Adler, Ronald S.; Pavlov, Helene; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Westrich, Geoffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Spine surgery is associated with a significant risk of postoperative pulmonary embolism (PE) and/or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The goal of this study was to determine which symptoms and risk factors were associated with spiral CT scans positive for PE and/or DVT in the postoperative spine surgery patient. We conducted a retrospective review of all spine patients who underwent a postoperative CT to rule out PE during the period of March 2004–February 2006. The type of surgical procedure, risk...

  8. Cervical spine fractures and dislocations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospectivce analysis of pediatric admissions over 10 years revealed 29 patients with cervical spine injuries. Eleven patients were below 12 years of age, and 10 of these had injuries involving C1, C2 or the occipitoatlantal articulation. Eighteen patients were between 12 and 16 years of age with injuries distributed throughout the cervical spine similar to injuries in the adult population. Our results suggest that teenagers with suspected cervical injuries are best evaluated by an adult radiographic series including trauma oblique views. In younger patients, careful evaluation of occipitoatlantoaxial alignment and the prevertebral soft tissues is required for diagnosis and selection of additional imaging evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Stereotactic radiosurgery for brain and spine metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Patrick J; See, Andrew W; Dally, Michael J; Bittar, Richard G

    2014-05-01

    Metastases to the brain and spine are common and difficult to treat. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a non-invasive treatment option for some individuals, and may obviate the need for open surgery and/or whole brain radiotherapy. Over the past decade there has been an increased number of patients undergoing SRS for the treatment of metastatic disease, and multiple published studies show favourable results in terms of local disease control. We review the available literature pertaining to the application of SRS for the treatment of brain and spine metastases, together with its limitations and outcomes. PMID:24373817

  10. Guidelines for use of lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In deciding whether to obtain lumbosacral spine films, the emergency physician must not ask whether a diagnosis can be established, but whether obtaining films will affect management. Low back pain is a considerable problem for society with cost in billions of dollars. Gonadal radiation from lumbosacral radiographs is significant, and thus ordering films should be minimized. Plain radiographs are rarely indicated in otherwise healthy patients 20 to 50 years old with mechanical or root pain on initial presentation. In other patients alternative diagnostic methodologies such as computed tomography may be superior, with less radiation risk. Specific recommendations for emergency radiographic evaluation of the lumbosacral spine are offered.68 references

  11. Measurement of bone mineral content in trabecular bone of the 3rd lumbar vertebra by computed tomography with phantom for spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to measure non-invasively bone mineral content in trabecular bone of the 3rd lumbar spine, CT densitometry simultaneously scanned with reference phantom (K2HPO4 as standard) was done, and parameters in scanning were determined. Slice thickness was 10 mm. ROI was taken as large as possible, avoiding regions of cortex and basivertebral vein entrance. Standards in a phantom were arranged as in 0, 200, 150, 100 and 250 mg/cm3 of K2HPO4 solution. The reproducibility was good in short-term repeated measurements, while slightly poor in long-term intervals. The bone mineral content in normal males tended to decrease with aging. It was shown that this method was convenient and reproducible, as re-positioned accurately, in evaluating bone mass. (author)

  12. A simple reproducible and time saving method of semi-automatic dendrite spine density estimation compared to manual spine counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowski, Dariusz; Bjarkam, C R

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of spine number and spine density by manual counting under the assumption that all dendrite protrusions equal spines are often used in studies on neuroplasticity occurring during health, brain diseases, and different experimental paradigms. Manual spine counting is, however, time consuming and biased by inter-observer variation. We present accordingly a quick, reproducible and simple non-stereological semi-automatic spine density estimation method based on the irregularity of the dendrite surface. Using the freeware ImageJ program, microphotographs of Golgi impregnated hippocampal dendrites derived from a previously performed study on the impact of chronic restrained stress were binarized, skeletonized, and the skeleton endings assumed to represent spine positions were counted and the spine densities calculated. The results based on 754 dendrite fragments were compared to manual spine counting of the same dendrite fragments using the Bland-Altman method. The results from both methods were correlated (r=0.79, p

  13. A prospective study of spine fractures diagnosed by total spine computed tomography in high energy trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since it is known to be impossible to identify spinal fractures in high-energy trauma patients the primary trauma evaluation, we have been performing total spine computed tomography (CT) in high-energy trauma cases. We investigated the spinal fractures that it was possible to detect by total spine CT in 179 cases and evaluated the usefulness of total spine CT prospectively. There were 54 (30.2%) spinal fractures among the 179 cases. Six (37.5%) of the 16 cervical spine fractures that were not detected on plain X-ray films were identified by total spine CT. Six (14.0%) of 43 thoracolumbar spine fractures were considered difficult to diagnose based on the clinical findings if total spine CT had not been performed. We therefore concluded that total spine CT is very useful and should be performed during the primary trauma evaluation in high-energy trauma cases. (author)

  14. A feeling of being (in)visible : The illness trajectory experienced by patients having spine fusion surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene

    Abstract PhD Day 2015 The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long and uncoordinated trajectories. The patients describe a feeling of being mistrusted and thrown around in the system. It is the aim of this study to examine how spine fusion patients experience their illness trajectory and hospitalisation. Methods The study is based on qualitative interviews, and the data analysis is inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur’s phenomenological hermeneutic theory of interpretation. Data were collected through observations and semi-structured interviews at an Elective Surgery Centre in a Danish regional hospital. Results The results show that experiences related to prolonged contact with the healthcare system and healthcare professionals are often dismissed as irrelevant.It is also evident that spine fusion patients are denied the opportunity to verbalise what it feels like to, for example, be ”a person in constant pain” or someone who ”holds back” to avoid being an inconvenience. These feelings are internalised as a sense of doubt and powerlessness, resulting in spine fusion patients experiencing that they are ”disappearing” as a person; losing their identity. Conclusion To conclude, the biomedical perspective obscures spine fusion patients’ horizon of meaning, which is existentially rooted in the areas of the lifeworld. This can lead to psychological and social problems, which in turn can result in a compromised sense of identity and a reduced feeling of social belonging.

  15. Anterior approaches to the upper thoracic spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upper thoracic spine region is difficult to access from an anterior approach because of the surrounding bones (ribs, sternum and scapulae) and organs (heart, lung and great vessels). The outcomes of 37 consecutive cases with lesions in the upper thoracic spine region (T1-4) were reviewed to study surgical approaches to the upper thoracic spine. We used anterior approaches in 13 cases. A full sternotomy was performed in 6 cases (5 cases ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), 1 case herniated disc), a high thoracotomy was performed in 6 cases (3 cases herniated disc, 2 cases spinal cord tumor, 1 case TB spine), and a partial resection of a unilateral sternoclavicular joint was performed in 1 case. A sternotomy is thought to be useful for OPLL in the T1-3 region, whereas a high thoracotomy is recommended for unilateral anterior lesions and lesions extending below the T3/4 level. Reconstructive CT sagittal images can supply useful anatomical informations for selecting a surgical approach. (author)

  16. X-Ray parameters of lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otabek Ablyazov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of anatomic spinal structures, especially its relation-ship to the functions performed, is necessary to form a correct diagnosis. The anatomical structure of the vertebrae varies de-pending on the level of the spinal segment. Normal anatomical parameters, derived from bone structures of the spine, are roughly determined by X-ray method.This paper presents the results of the survey radiography of the lumbar spine in a straight line and lateral projections in 30 individ-uals without pathology spine, aged 21-60 years with frequently observed lumbar spinal stenosis stenosis. Applying X-ray method there were studied shape, height, and the contours of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disc in the front (interpedicular and sagittal planes; there were measured dimensions of the lumbar canal and foramen holes in the same planes. Using X-ray method can fully identify the bone parameters of vertebral column. How-ever, the informativity of the method depends on knowledge of radiologist about topographic anatomical features of spine.

  17. Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Nojiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

  18. Intradural hemangiopericytoma of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemangiopericytoma is a rare tumor that can affect the lumbar spine; the intradural location is very infrequent. We report a 54-years-old man with lumbociatic pain during a period of several month, with a diagnosis of lumbar intradural hemangiopericytoma. This case report describes the results obtained by RMI and pathology. (author)

  19. Computer simulation of lumbar spine function.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sumec, J.; Sokol, M.; Jíra, Josef

    AnaheimCalgaryZurich : ACTA Press, 2003 - (Hamza, M.), s. 109-113 ISBN 0-88986-359-8. [IASTED International Conference on Biomechanics BioMECH 2003. Rhodos (GR), 30.06.2003-02.07.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : Spine * Intervertebral Disc * FEM Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics

  20. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  1. Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT—Experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Qian, Jianguo; Hancock, Steven L.; Xing, Lei; Luxton, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate clinic-ready adaptive imaging protocols for online patient repositioning (motion tracking) during prostate IMRT using treatment beam imaging supplemented by minimal, as-needed use of on-board kV. Methods: The authors examine the two-step decision-making strategy: (1) Use cine-MV imaging and online-updated characterization of prostate motion to detect target motion that is potentially beyond a predefined threshold and (2) use paired MV-kV 3D localization to determine overthreshold displacement and, if needed, reposition the patient. Two levels of clinical implementation were evaluated: (1) Field-by-field based motion correction for present-day linacs and (2) instantaneous repositioning for new-generation linacs with capabilities of simultaneous MV-kV imaging and remote automatic couch control during treatment delivery. Experiments were performed on a Varian Trilogy linac in clinical mode using a 4D motion phantom programed with prostate motion trajectories taken from patient data. Dosimetric impact was examined using a 2D ion chamber array. Simulations were done for 536 trajectories from 17 patients. Results: Despite the loss of marker detection efficiency caused by the MLC leaves sometimes obscuring the field at the marker’s projected position on the MV imager, the field-by-field correction halved (from 23% to 10%) the mean percentage of time that target displacement exceeded a 3 mm threshold, as compared to no intervention. This was achieved at minimal cost in additional imaging (average of one MV-kV pair per two to three treatment fractions) and with a very small number of repositionings (once every four to five fractions). Also with low kV usage (?2?fraction), the instantaneous repositioning approach reduced overthreshold time by more than 75% (23% to 5%) even with severe MLC blockage as often encountered in current IMRT and could reduce the overthreshold time tenfold (to <2%) if the MLC blockage problem were relieved. The information acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. Conclusions: This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques. PMID:21089763

  2. Comparison of two repositioning devices used during radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patients irradiated for Hodgkin's disease are fixed in an immobilization cradle to improve repositioning. In the early 1990s, we changed our cradle system from a 'short' upper torso cradle to an extended near-total body cradle that also includes the lower torso and thighs. In this study, we assess the impact of the extended cradle on the reproducibility of patient repositioning during irradiation of Hodgkin's disease. Methods and Materials: A total of 782 port films of 56 patients treated immediately before and after the change-over were studied to assess positioning reproducibility. Patients treated prior to 1993 were positioned in the short cradle, while those treated 1993 and later were positioned in the extended cradle. All treatment were delivered via anterior and posterior fields and treatment areas above and below the diaphragm were considered separately and together. All treatment fields were simulated and the field shape was designed on anterior and posterior radiographs. Discrepancies in field placement between the simulation radiographs and subsequent port films were noted by a radiation oncologist and requests for position adjustment (both translational and rotational shifts) were noted. The number, magnitude, and direction of any physician-requested position adjustment on port films were retrospectively reviewed. For the purpose of scoring the frequency of field misplacements, when an adjustment was noted on two port films taken during the same t on two port films taken during the same treatment session (i.e., a left shift on both an anterior and a posterior port film), it was scored as only one event. A two-tailed chi-square test was used to compare the differences in requested shifts in the two patient groups. Results: The study population consisted of 56 patients (31 short and 25 extended cradle) representing 92 treatment sites. A total of 782 port films representing 450 treatment setups were analyzed (292 above and 158 below the diaphragm). When all port films above the diaphragm (mostly mantle fields) are considered, position adjustments were requested in 13.4% 921 out of 157) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 5.9% (8 out of 135) of treatment setups with the extended cradle (p = 0.054). When all port films below the diaphragm (mostly paraaortic/spleen and pelvic fields) are considered, position adjustments were requested in 33.8% (27 out of 80) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 16.7% (13 out of 78) of treatment setups with the extended cradle (p = 0.056). A reduction in the frequency of both translational and rotational adjustments were seen. When both treatment sites are combined, position adjustments were requested in 20.3% (48 out of 237) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 9.9% (21 out of 213) of treatment setups when the extended cradle was used (p = 0.0086). Conclusions: The extended cradle provides superior repositioning of patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. Differences observed in setup accuracy in this study underscore the importance of aggressive immobilization of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Increased accuracy of daily setup may provide an opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio both by increased likelihood of tumor control and decreased risk of normal tissue complications

  3. Comparison of two repositioning devices used during radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Reproducible patient positioning is fundamental to the success of fractionated radiation therapy in all patients. In patients with a radio curable disease and a long life expectancy, such as those with Hodgkin's disease, accurate repositioning is crucial to maximize the likelihood of cure and to minimize incidental irradiation of non-target normal tissues. In the late 1980s, we replaced an upper torso positioning cradle with an extended near-total body cradle which also includes the lower torso and thighs. This study was performed to assess the impact of the extended cradle on the reproducibility of patient repositioning during irradiation of Hodgkin's disease. Methods and Materials: Patients treated from 1990-1992 were positioned in the short cradle while those treated from 1992 - 1995 were positioned in the extended cradle. All treatments were delivered via anterior and posterior fields. Treatment areas above and below the diaphragm were considered separately. All fields were simulated and beam-shaping blocks designed on anterior and posterior radiographs. Discrepancies in isocenter placement between the simulation radiographs and subsequent port films were noted by a radiation oncologist and requests for isocenter shifts were indicated. The number, magnitude, and direction of any physician-requested isocenter shifts on port films were retrospectively reviewed. For the purpose of scoring the frequency of isocenter misplacements, when a shift was noted on twisplacements, when a shift was noted on two port films taken during the same treatment session (i.e., a left shift on both an anterior and a posterior port film), it was scored as only one event. A two-tailed chi-square test was used to compare the differences in requested shifts in the two patient groups. Results: The study population consisted of 57 patients (32 short and 25 extended cradle). A total of 815 port films representing 459 isocenter placements were analyzed (288 above and 170 below the diaphragm). When all port films above the diaphragm (mostly mantle fields) are considered, isocenter shifts were requested in 15.6% ((24(154))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 6.7% ((9(134))) of isocenter placements with the extended cradle (p = 0.035). When all port films below the diaphragm (mostly paraaortic/spleen and pelvic fields) are considered, isocenter shifts were requested in 30.1% ((28(93))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 16.7% ((13(78))) of isocenter placements with the extended cradle (p = 0.106). When both treatment sites are combined, isocenter shifts were requested in 21.1% ((52(247))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 10.4% ((22(212))) of isocenter placements when the extended cradle was used (p 0.008). Conclusions: The extended cradle provides superior repositioning of patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. Differences observed in setup accuracy in this study underscore the importance of aggressive immobilization of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Increased accuracy of daily setup provides an opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio both by increased likelihood of tumor control and decreased risk of normal tissue complications

  4. Repositioning the patient: patient organizations, consumerism, and autonomy in Britain during the 1960s and 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how and why the patient came to be repositioned as a political actor within British health care during the 1960s and 1970s. Focusing on the role played by patient organizations, it is suggested that the repositioning of the patient needs to be seen in the light of growing demands for greater patient autonomy and the application of consumerist principles to health. Examining the activities of two patient groups-the National Association for the Welfare of Children in Hospital (NAWCH) and the Patients Association (PA)-indicates that while such groups undoubtedly placed more emphasis on individual autonomy, collective concerns did not entirely fall away. The voices of patients, as well as the patient, continued to matter within British health care. PMID:23811711

  5. Sampling issues in quantitative analysis of dendritic spines morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszczycki B?a?ej

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative analysis of changes in dendritic spine morphology has become an interesting issue in contemporary neuroscience. However, the diversity in dendritic spine population might seriously influence the result of measurements in which their morphology is studied. The detection of differences in spine morphology between control and test group is often compromised by the number of dendritic spines taken for analysis. In order to estimate the impact of dendritic spine diversity we performed Monte Carlo simulations examining various experimental setups and statistical approaches. The confocal images of dendritic spines from hippocampal dissociated cultures have been used to create a set of variables exploited as the simulation resources. Results The tabulated results of simulations given in this article, provide the number of dendritic spines required for the detection of hidden morphological differences between control and test groups in terms of spine head-width, length and area. It turns out that this is the head-width among these three variables, where the changes are most easily detected. Simulation of changes occurring in a subpopulation of spines reveal the strong dependence of detectability on the statistical approach applied. The analysis based on comparison of percentage of spines in subclasses is less sensitive than the direct comparison of relevant variables describing spines morphology. Conclusions We evaluated the sampling aspect and effect of systematic morphological variation on detecting the differences in spine morphology. The results provided here may serve as a guideline in selecting the number of samples to be studied in a planned experiment. Our simulations might be a step towards the development of a standardized method of quantitative comparison of dendritic spines morphology, in which different sources of errors are considered.

  6. Target and peripheral dose from radiation sector motions accompanying couch repositioning of patient coordinates with the Gamma Knife® Perfexion™

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GammaPlan™ treatment planning system (TPS) does not fully account for shutter dose when multiple shots are required to deliver a patient’s treatment. The unaccounted exposures to the target site and its periphery are measured in this study. The collected data are compared to a similar effect from the Gamma Knife® model 4C. A stereotactic head frame was attached to a Leksell® 16 cm diameter spherical phantom; using a fiducial-box, CT images of the phantom were acquired and registered in the TPS. Measurements give the relationship of measured dose to the number of repositions with the patient positioning system (PPS) and to the collimator size. An absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the 50% isodose line was prescribed to the target site and all measurements were acquired with an ionization chamber. Measured dose increases with frequency of repositioning and with collimator size. As the radiation sectors transition between the beam on and beam off states, the target receives more shutter dose than the periphery. Shutter doses of 3.53±0.04 and 1.59±0.04 cGy/reposition to the target site are observed for the 16 and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The target periphery receives additional dose that varies depending on its position relative to the target. The radiation sector motions for the Gamma Knife® Perfexion™ result in an additional dose due to the shutter effect. The magnitude ured for the model 4C

  7. Predictors of success in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with mandibular repositioning appliance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Fernanda; Lubianca, José Faibes Lubianca; Rösing, Cassiano; Dias, Caroline; Closs, Luciane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects up to 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of adult women. It is associated with obesity. Objective?The objective of this article is to review the literature to determine which factors best correlate with treatment success in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treated with a mandibular repositioning appliance. Data Synthesis?A search was performed of the PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scielo, and Web of Science databases of articles published from January 1988 to January 2012. Two review authors independently collected data and assessed trial quality. Sixty-nine articles were selected from PubMed and 1 from Cochrane library. Of these, 42 were excluded based on the title and abstract, and 27 were retrieved for complete reading. A total of 13 articles and 1 systematic review were considered eligible for further review and inclusion in this study: 6 studies evaluated anthropomorphic and physiologic factors, 3 articles addressed cephalometric and anatomic factors, and 4 studies evaluated variables related to mandibular repositioning appliance design and activation. All the studies evaluated had low to moderate methodologic quality and were not able to support evidence on prediction of treatment success. Conclusion?Based on this systematic review on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treatment, it remains unclear which predictive factors can be used with confidence to select patients suitable for treatment with a mandibular repositioning appliance. PMID:25992156

  8. Can sodium/hydrogen exchange inhibitors be repositioned for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? An in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V; Zhang-James, Yanli

    2013-10-01

    Medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are only partially effective. Ideally, new treatment targets would derive from a known pathophysiology. Such data are not available for ADHD. We combine evidence for new etiologic pathways with bioinformatics data to assess the possibility that existing drugs might be repositioning for treating ADHD. We use this approach to determine if prior data implicating the sodium/hydrogen exchanger 9 gene (SLC9A9) in ADHD implicate sodium/hydrogen exchange (NHE) inhibitors as potential treatments. We assessed the potential for repositioning by assessing the similarity of drug-protein binding profiles between NHE inhibitors and drugs known to treat ADHD using the Drug Repositioning and Adverse Reaction via Chemical-Protein Interactome server. NHE9 shows a high degree of amino acid similarity between NHE inhibitor sensitive NHEs in the region of the NHE inhibitor recognition site defined for NHE1. We found high correlations in drug-protein binding profiles among most ADHD drugs. The drug-protein binding profiles of some NHE inhibitors were highly correlated with ADHD drugs whereas the profiles for a control set of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were not. Further experimental work should evaluate if NHE inhibitors are suitable for treating ADHD. PMID:24132903

  9. Predictors of Success in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance: A Systematic Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda, Saffer; José Faibes Lubianca, Lubianca; Cassiano, Rösing; Caroline, Dias; Luciane, Closs.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects up to 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of adult women. It is associated with obesity. Objective The objective of this article is to review the literature to determine which factors best correlate with treatment success in patients with obstructive s [...] leep apnea syndrome treated with a mandibular repositioning appliance. Data Synthesis A search was performed of the PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scielo, and Web of Science databases of articles published from January 1988 to January 2012. Two review authors independently collected data and assessed trial quality. Sixty-nine articles were selected from PubMed and 1 from Cochrane library. Of these, 42 were excluded based on the title and abstract, and 27 were retrieved for complete reading. A total of 13 articles and 1 systematic review were considered eligible for further review and inclusion in this study: 6 studies evaluated anthropomorphic and physiologic factors, 3 articles addressed cephalometric and anatomic factors, and 4 studies evaluated variables related to mandibular repositioning appliance design and activation. All the studies evaluated had low to moderate methodologic quality and were not able to support evidence on prediction of treatment success. Conclusion Based on this systematic review on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treatment, it remains unclear which predictive factors can be used with confidence to select patients suitable for treatment with a mandibular repositioning appliance.

  10. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary spine metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clear consensus has not been established regarding the best treatment for solitary bone metastasis. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients with a controlled primary malignancy who had only solitary spine metastasis without metastasis to the extraspinal bone or viscera and underwent treatment between April 2007 and December 2012 with stereotactic body radiosurgery using CyberKnife, with a total dose of 24 Gy in three to four fractions. During that time, there were only four cases. This was effective in each case, and all the four patients had no local failure and remained alive at a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 64 to 80 months). Although our experience is limited, this study suggests that stereotactic body radiotherapy could be a feasible, safe, effective, and noninvasive alternative treatment for solitary spine metastasis in patients who are medically inoperable or unsuitable for surgery.

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum Calcium stores in dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menahem Segal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, the role of calcium stores in dendritic spines structure, function and plasticity is still debated. The reasons for this may have to do with the multitude of overlapping calcium handling machineries in the neuron, including stores, voltage and ligand gated channels, pumps and transporters. Also, different cells in the brain are endowed with calcium stores that are activated by different receptor types, and their differential compartmentalization in dendrites, spines and presynaptic terminals complicates their analysis. In the present review we address several key issues, including the role of calcium stores in synaptic plasticity, their role during development, in stress and in neurodegenerative diseases. Apparently, there is increasing evidence for a crucial role of calcium stores, especially of the ryanodine species, in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival.

  12. Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    Title Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire Authors & Affiliations Henrik Hein Lauridsen1, Lise Hestbæk1,2 1. Research Unit for Clinical Biomechanics, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Clinical Locomotion Network, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark 2. Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Clinical Locomotion Network, Forskerparken 10A, 5230 Odense M, Denmark Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Therefore preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific instruments to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for children aged 9-12 years which could fill this gap in the literature. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases – the conceptualisation, development and testing phase. We used the conceptual model of Wilson and Cleary (1995) and divided the YSQ into two parts: part one included spinal prevalence estimates (including pictures of spinal area) and part two questions regarding pain, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. During the developing phase we used an iterative process to carefully rephrase existing items used in prior questionnaires such as the Standardised Nordic Questionnaire. To measure pain the “Revised Faces Pain Scale” (rFPS) was included. The testing phase consisted of an iterative method assessing respondent understanding during two pilot tests. In the first pilot test 52 4th grade children filled in the draft version of the YSQ. This was followed by a semi-structured interview two days later designed to obtain the same information ascontained in the YSQ, however, using different semantics and open-ended questions. The revised questionnaire was tested and reviewed a second time at the end of the first pilot test. The second pilot test included 23 children from the 4th grade. It followed similar procedures as the first pilot test but focused mainly on revised versions of the drawings demarcating the spinal areas. Results Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). Correlations between the rFPS and the interview NRS score ranged between 0.71 (cervical spine) and 0.84 (thoracic spine). Agreement between the questionnaire drawings and the interviews of the upper and lower boundaries of the spinal areas were 91.8% for the cervical spine and 67.4% (lumbar spine) and 63.3% (thoracic spine). This resulted in alterations to the drawings. Lastly, as some questions in the second part of the YSQ had a high prevalence of non-responses, it was decided to change question semantics and response options. Conclusion The Young Spine Questionnaire is a novel self-report measure of spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for understanding of content among target respondents, and the results showed acceptable agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings. On the basis of these preliminary results we conclude that the YSQ is a feasible and valid instrument to be used in cross-sectional cohort studies of children aged 9 to 12 years.

  13. Retropharyngeal cold abscess without Pott's spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Singh; H, Velankar; D, Shinde; N, Chordia; S, Budhwani.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Retropharyngeal abscesses are infections deep in the neck space that can pose an immediate life-threatening emergency, with potential for airway compromise and other catastrophic complications. In adults these abscesses can develop as a result of vertebral pyogenic osteomyelitis, tube Reculosis of t [...] he spine, or external injuries caused by endoscopes or foreign bodies (e.g. fish bones). Tuberculosis of the retropharyngeal space is one of the rare forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent the serious complications of the disease. We present a case of tuberculous retropharyngeal abscess in an adult woman without tuberculosis of the cervical spine who was managed surgically by aspirating the retropharyngeal abscess transorally, together with antituberculosis treatment.

  14. Computed tomography of the head and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The textbook presents comprehensive information on all aspects of CT applied for diagnostic imaging of the head and spine. The clearly arranged material reflects the knowledge and practical experience of a specialist in CT-based diagnostic evaluation of the head and spine. 847 images of the usual RRR quality have been selected to visualize the complete range of cases and aspects, and are a source of learning and reference for interpretation of findings and differential diagnosis. Accompanying examination protocols and strategies support the procedure for optimization of diagnostic strategies. In addition, the detailed information about the normal anatomy and CT findings are helpful guides in differentiating between normal and pathologic appearances. The book is a reliable vademecum for radiologists, neurologists, or neurosurgeons. (orig./CB)

  15. Upright positional MRI of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used in the assessment of low back pain and radiculopathy. However, imaging findings often correlate poorly with clinical findings. This is partly related to the positional dependence of spinal stenosis, which reflects dynamic changes in soft-tissue structures (ligaments, disc, dural sac, epidural fat, and nerve roots). Upright MRI in the flexed, extended, rotated, standing, and bending positions, allows patients to reproduce the positions that bring about their symptoms and may uncover MRI findings that were not visible with routine supine imaging. Assessment of the degree of spinal stability in the degenerate and postoperative lumbar spine is also possible. The aim of this review was to present the current literature concerning both the normal and symptomatic spine as imaged using upright MRI and to illustrate the above findings using clinical examples

  16. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  17. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary spine metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sun Medical Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Mison [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Jo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Eulji Universtiy School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A clear consensus has not been established regarding the best treatment for solitary bone metastasis. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients with a controlled primary malignancy who had only solitary spine metastasis without metastasis to the extraspinal bone or viscera and underwent treatment between April 2007 and December 2012 with stereotactic body radiosurgery using CyberKnife, with a total dose of 24 Gy in three to four fractions. During that time, there were only four cases. This was effective in each case, and all the four patients had no local failure and remained alive at a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 64 to 80 months). Although our experience is limited, this study suggests that stereotactic body radiotherapy could be a feasible, safe, effective, and noninvasive alternative treatment for solitary spine metastasis in patients who are medically inoperable or unsuitable for surgery.

  18. Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson ?2 test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

  19. Reubicación del ombligo al realizar un colgajo TRAM / Umbillical repositioning in TRAM flap

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Fuente del Campo; T., Raveh; C.B., Gordon.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Describimos un método simple para reubicar el ombligo en los casos de plicatura abdominal unilateral consecutiva a la rotación de un colgajo TRAM. El ombligo se desplaza a lo largo de una incisión hecha en la aponeurosis anterior del músculo recto abdominal contralateral. Este procedimiento no debil [...] ita la musculatura abdominal contralateral, mantiene el ombligo estable, sin estenosis, y evita la formación de cicatrices hipertróficas a su alrededor. Tras este procedimiento los pacientes conservan una resistencia abdominal normal, pudiendo realizar esfuerzo y ejercicio sin manifestar áreas de debilidad. Abstract in english A new method of umbilical repositioning by incising the anterior rectus sheath and rectus abdominis muscle is reported for cases of unilateral abdominal wall plication during the TRAM flap operation. This method does not weaken the contralateral abdominal muscles, keeps the umbilicus stable and nons [...] tenotic, and it avoids hypertrophic scars. With this technique, patients have normal abdominal strength, performing abdominal strain and general exercise without areas of weakness in the abdominal wall.

  20. Variables Affecting Canalith Repositioning Maneuver (CRM Trend for Treating Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Entezari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to identify variables affecting outcome in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV treated with canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM. Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 58 patients (14 males, 44 females, mean age 48.12+13.22 referred to the Vertigo Rehabilitation Clinic of the Rehabilitation School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from 2002 to 2004. All patients were treated with CRM. According to the treatment efficacy the patients were allocated in three groups: completely treated, partially treated, and not treated. The effect of factors including age, sex, etiology, duration of BPPV, unilateral or bilateral disease, number of maneuvers, and number of sessions on outcome in patients was evaluated. Results: Forty-nine patients (84.5% were completely cured. Age, sex, etiology, and duration did not significantly affect the treatment outcome. Unilateral BPPV can be treated significantly better than bilateral BPPV. Forty-seven patients who were completely treated needed 1 session and thirty-seven of them required 2 maneuvers. Conclusion: CRM is significantly effective for BPPV treatment. Treating unilateral BPPV is expected to be easier. As most of the patients will be cured by 1 or 2 maneuvers or in 1 session, patients who required more sessions or more maneuvers may not be completely treated.

  1. Repositioning the use of the Bible towards a mission-oriented theological education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle O. Dada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is an undeniable fact that mission remains the cardinal essence of the Church. However, in Africa and in Nigeria, the Church seems to have lost focus regarding the main reason for its existence, namely mission. One of the factors responsible for this may be the form of theological education in vogue. In view of this anomaly, this paper reflects on how the study of the Bible, which serves as the primary basis for theological education in some institutions, can be repositioned to enhance a mission-oriented theological education. The importance of proper interpretation of the Bible in enhancing missions can be premised on the fact that a sound biblical hermeneutics is prerequisite to the formulation of an effective and functional theology of missions. If our theology of mission is faulty, the practice cannot be anything but flawed. In view of this, the paper explores ways in which the Bible can be meaningfully studied in order to promote a mission-oriented theological education.

  2. Repositioning the use of the Bible towards a mission-oriented theological education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adekunle O., Dada.

    Full Text Available It is an undeniable fact that mission remains the cardinal essence of the Church. However, in Africa and in Nigeria, the Church seems to have lost focus regarding the main reason for its existence, namely mission. One of the factors responsible for this may be the form of theological education in vo [...] gue. In view of this anomaly, this paper reflects on how the study of the Bible, which serves as the primary basis for theological education in some institutions, can be repositioned to enhance a mission-oriented theological education. The importance of proper interpretation of the Bible in enhancing missions can be premised on the fact that a sound biblical hermeneutics is prerequisite to the formulation of an effective and functional theology of missions. If our theology of mission is faulty, the practice cannot be anything but flawed. In view of this, the paper explores ways in which the Bible can be meaningfully studied in order to promote a mission-oriented theological education.

  3. Drug Repositioning and Pharmacophore Identification in the Discovery of Hookworm MIF Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Cho; J Vermeire; J Merkel; L Leng; X Du; R Bucala; M Cappello; E Lolis

    2011-12-31

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a 'proof-of-concept' for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

  4. Posture and re-positioning considerations of a complete torso topographic analysis system for assessing scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajemba, Peter O.; Durdle, Nelson G.; Hill, Doug L.; Raso, V. J.

    2006-02-01

    The influence of posture and re-positioning (sway and breathing) on the accuracy of a torso imaging system for assessing scoliosis was evaluated. The system comprised of a rotating positioning platform and one or two laser digitizers. It required four partial-scans taken at 90 ° intervals over 10 seconds to generate two complete torso scans. Its accuracy was previously determined to be 1.1+/-0.9mm. Ten evenly spaced cross-sections obtained from forty scans of five volunteers in four postures (free-standing, holding side supports, holding front supports and with their hands on their shoulders) were used to assess the variability due to posture. Twenty cross-sections from twenty scans of two volunteers holding side supports were used to assess the variability due to positioning. The variability due to posture was less than 4mm at each cross-section for all volunteers. Variability due to sway ranged from 0-3.5mm while that due to breathing ranged from 0-3mm for both volunteers. Holding side supports was the best posture. Taking the four shots within 10 seconds was optimal. As major torso features that are indicative of scoliosis are larger than 4mm in size, the system could be used in obtaining complete torso images used in assessing and managing scoliosis.

  5. From periphery to the centre: Towards repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to public health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of communities in health care has gained prominence in the last few years. Churches as community structures have been identified as instrumental in health-care delivery. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that churches provide important health services, particularly in countries where there are poorly-developed health sectors, the role of churches in health care is poorly understood and often overlooked. This article discusses some causes of this lacuna and makes suggestions for repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to health care. Firstly, the article provides a context by reviewing literature on the church and health care. Secondly, it clarifies the nature of interventions and the competencies of churches. Thirdly, it discusses the operational meaning of church and churches for assessing health-care contributions. Fourthly, it explores the health-care models that are discerned in church and health-care literature. Fifthly, it discusses the contribution of churches within a multidisciplinary health team. Sixthly, it proposes an appropriate motivation that should drive churches to be involved in health care and the ecclesiological design that underpins such health care interventions.

  6. From periphery to the centre: towards repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to public health care

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vhumani, Magezi.

    Full Text Available The role of communities in health care has gained prominence in the last few years. Churches as community structures have been identified as instrumental in health-care delivery. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that churches provide important health services, particularly in countries where there a [...] re poorly-developed health sectors, the role of churches in health care is poorly understood and often overlooked. This article discusses some causes of this lacuna and makes suggestions for repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to health care. Firstly, the article provides a context by reviewing literature on the church and health care. Secondly, it clarifies the nature of interventions and the competencies of churches. Thirdly, it discusses the operational meaning of church and churches for assessing health-care contributions. Fourthly, it explores the health-care models that are discerned in church and health-care literature. Fifthly, it discusses the contribution of churches within a multidisciplinary health team. Sixthly, it proposes an appropriate motivation that should drive churches to be involved in health care and the ecclesiological design that underpins such health care interventions.

  7. An Energy Efficient Simultaneous-Node Repositioning Algorithm for Mobile Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbullah, Halabi; Nazir, Babar; Khan, Imran Ali

    2014-01-01

    Recently, wireless sensor network (WSN) applications have seen an increase in interest. In search and rescue, battlefield reconnaissance, and some other such applications, so that a survey of the area of interest can be made collectively, a set of mobile nodes is deployed. Keeping the network nodes connected is vital for WSNs to be effective. The provision of connectivity can be made at the time of startup and can be maintained by carefully coordinating the nodes when they move. However, if a node suddenly fails, the network could be partitioned to cause communication problems. Recently, several methods that use the relocation of nodes for connectivity restoration have been proposed. However, these methods have the tendency to not consider the potential coverage loss in some locations. This paper addresses the concerns of both connectivity and coverage in an integrated way so that this gap can be filled. A novel algorithm for simultaneous-node repositioning is introduced. In this approach, each neighbour of the failed node, one by one, moves in for a certain amount of time to take the place of the failed node, after which it returns to its original location in the network. The effectiveness of this algorithm has been verified by the simulation results. PMID:25152924

  8. Whole-body MRI using a sliding table and repositioning surface coil approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To introduce and assess a new way of performing whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a non-integrated surface coil approach as available on most clinical MRI systems worldwide. Ten consecutive asymptomatic subjects prospectively underwent whole-body MRI for health screening. Whole-body MRI included T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted sequences, and was performed using a non-integrated surface coil to image four different stations without patient repositioning. The four separately acquired stations were merged, creating seamless coronal whole-body T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations were qualitatively assessed. The average time (±SD) taken to change the surface coil from one station to the next station was 53.8 (±7.1) s. The average total extra examination time ± SD was 2 min 41.4 s (±15.3 s). Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations of T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI were overall graded as ''good'' to ''excellent''. This study shows that a time-efficient and high-quality whole-body MRI examination can easily be performed by using a non-integrated sliding surface coil approach. (orig.)

  9. Short term outcome of anterior lamellar reposition in treating trachomatous trichiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rania A; Abdelbaky, Sameh H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the outcome of anterior lamellar reposition (ALR) in treating trachomatous trichiasis. Methods. Patients with trachomatous trichiasis or entropion with short tarsus were treated by ALR between February 2009 and November 2013. This included splitting of the lid margin behind the aberrant lash line to separate the lid lamellae. The anterior lamella was recessed and fixated using 4/0 silk sutures. The extra lashes and their routes were excised. Sutures were removed by the 3rd week and patients completed 6 months of follow-up. Recurrence of ?5 lashes was treated by electrolysis. Results. The study included 752 eyelids (445 patients; 58.4% females, 41.6% males), mean age 53.2 ± 6.9?y. 179 (25.1%) lids had entropion while 287 (64.5%) patients had corneal affection. By the third week, 2.66% lid had trichiasis while 30.8% had no rubbing lashes. By the 6th month, 14.9% of lids showed recurrence while 66.1% were completely cured (CI = 0.63-0.69) and 19% had partial success (CI = 0.16-0.21). Abnormal lid appearance persisted in 2.66% and 12.9% required another surgery. Conclusion. ALR is a good option for treating trachomatous trichiasis especially without cicatricial entropion. Excision of dysplastic lashes is thought to augment the surgical outcome. PMID:25918642

  10. Cheaper faster drug development validated by the repositioning of drugs against neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kevin; Bilsland, Elizabeth; Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Young, Michael; Soldatova, Larisa N; De Grave, Kurt; Ramon, Jan; de Clare, Michaela; Sirawaraporn, Worachart; Oliver, Stephen G; King, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent need to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. This will enable the development of treatments for diseases currently neglected for economic reasons, such as tropical and orphan diseases, and generally increase the supply of new drugs. Here, we report the Robot Scientist 'Eve' designed to make drug discovery more economical. A Robot Scientist is a laboratory automation system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to discover scientific knowledge through cycles of experimentation. Eve integrates and automates library-screening, hit-confirmation, and lead generation through cycles of quantitative structure activity relationship learning and testing. Using econometric modelling we demonstrate that the use of AI to select compounds economically outperforms standard drug screening. For further efficiency Eve uses a standardized form of assay to compute Boolean functions of compound properties. These assays can be quickly and cheaply engineered using synthetic biology, enabling more targets to be assayed for a given budget. Eve has repositioned several drugs against specific targets in parasites that cause tropical diseases. One validated discovery is that the anti-cancer compound TNP-470 is a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase from the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium vivax. PMID:25652463

  11. Missed cervical spine injury following barflying.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, M.; Thomas, A.; Jackowski, A.

    1996-01-01

    The case is reported of a young woman who suffered a wedge fracture of C7 due to axial loading with a flexed spine, in an injury caused by barfly jumping. The fracture was unstable and required surgical stabilisation. In this case the seriousness of the injury was not realised at first because neck radiographs were not taken at her initial assessment in accident and emergency.

  12. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary spine metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sunyoung; Chun, Mison; Lee, Mijo

    2013-01-01

    A clear consensus has not been established regarding the best treatment for solitary bone metastasis. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients with a controlled primary malignancy who had only solitary spine metastasis without metastasis to the extraspinal bone or viscera and underwent treatment between April 2007 and December 2012 with stereotactic body radiosurgery using CyberKnife, with a total dose of 24 Gy in three to four fractions. During that time, there were only four cases....

  13. Supratentorial Intraparenchymal Haemorrhages during Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Chan, Johnny Ping Hon

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial haemorrhages are rare but potentially life-threatening complications of spine surgery. Most reported cases involved subdural or cerebellar haemorrhages; supratentorial parenchymal bleeding is very uncommon. We report a 28-year-old woman who underwent resection of a thoracic Ewing's sarcoma, and developed fatal haemorrhages around her cerebral metastases during surgery. The clinical presentations, possible pathogenesis and potential preventive measures are discussed. Patients with...

  14. Radiation-induced sarcoma in spine

    OpenAIRE

    Kam, Lok Sang; Anthony, Marina Portia; Shek, H.

    2013-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is a part of treatment in cancers, it can also induce malignancy as a late complication. The presence of radiation-induced sarcomas in bone, although not very common, is acknowledged. The onset of radiation-induced sarcoma in the spine however, is not well recognized. We present here a case of radiation-induced fibrosarcoma in the T1 lamina and spinous process in a patient with a history of breast cancer treated with radiotherapy 30 years prior.

  15. Pigmented villonodular synovitis in lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) very rarely develops in the lumbar spine. We have found no more than 14 cases in the literature, only three of which were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We present a case of PVNS is a lumbar facet joint. The results of imaging studies (including CT myelography and MRI) are described and discussed, and a review of the literature is provided. (Author) 9 refs

  16. Perioperative visual loss after spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Travis J; Manlapaz, Mariel R; Farag, Ehab

    2014-04-18

    Perioperative visual loss (POVL) is an uncommon, but devastating complication that remains primarily associated with spine and cardiac surgery. The incidence and mechanisms of visual loss after surgery remain difficult to determine. According to the American Society of Anesthesiologists Postoperative Visual Loss Registry, the most common causes of POVL in spine procedures are the two different forms of ischemic optic neuropathy: anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, accounting for 89% of the cases. Retinal ischemia, cortical blindness, and posterior reversible encephalopathy are also observed, but in a small minority of cases. A recent multicenter case control study has identified risk factors associated with ischemic optic neuropathy for patients undergoing prone spinal fusion surgery. These include obesity, male sex, Wilson frame use, longer anesthetic duration, greater estimated blood loss, and decreased percent colloid administration. These risk factors are thought to contribute to the elevation of venous pressure and interstitial edema, resulting in damage to the optic nerve by compression of the vessels that feed the optic nerve, venous infarction or direct mechanical compression. This review will expand on these findings as well as the recently updated American Society of Anesthesiologists practice advisory on POVL. There are no effective treatment options for POVL and the diagnosis is often irreversible, so efforts must focus on prevention and risk factor modification. The role of crystalloids versus colloids and the use of ?-2 agonists to decrease intraocular pressure during prone spine surgery will also be discussed as a potential preventative strategy. PMID:24829872

  17. Sports-related injuries of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.)

  18. Normal CT anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyse the anatomo-radiological correlation of the spine and spinal cord, 22 formalized, frozen anatomical specimens corresponding to different regions of the spinal column (8 cervical, 5 dorsal, and 9 lumbar) were studied by CT scans on axial, sagittal and coronal planes and by contact radiography after they were cut into anatomical slices in order to clarify the normal CT anatomy of the spinal column. The results obtained from CT patient scans, performed exclusively on the axial plane, were compared with those obtained from the anatomical specimens (both CT and contrast radiography). High resolution CT programs were used, enabling us to obtain better individualization of the normal structures contained in the spinal column. Direct sagittal and coronal sections were performed on the specimens in order to get further anatomo-radiological information. Enhanced CT studies of the specimens were also available because of the air already present in the subarachnoid spaces. Excellent visualization was obtained of bone structures, soft tissue and the spinal cord. High CT resolution of the spine appeares to be an excellent neuroradiological procedure to study the spine and spinal cord. A metrizamide CT scan is, however, necessary when a normal unenhanced CT scan is insufficient for diagnosis and when the spinal cord is not clearly visible, as often happens at the cervical level. Clinical findings are certainly very useful to ascertain the exact CT level and to limit the rtain the exact CT level and to limit the radiation exposure. (orig.)

  19. Cervical Spine Involvement: A Rare Manifestation of Reiter's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rastegar, Khodakaram; Ghalaenovi, Hossein; Babashahi, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Jafari, Mohammad; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Fattahi, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Spine involvement is less common in Reiter's syndrome than in other seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Also, cervical spine involvement rarely occurs in Reiter's syndrome and other spondyloarthropathies. This paper reports a rare case of Reiter's syndrome in which there was cervical spine involvement that presented clinically as an atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation. Reiter's Syndrome (RS) is one of the most common types of seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSAs) that presents clinically w...

  20. Incidental durotomy in lumbar spine surgery: incidence and management

    OpenAIRE

    Tafazal, Suhayl I.; Sell, Philip J.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the need to inform patients of common complications that occur during surgical procedures. During lumbar spine surgery, incidental tear of the dural sac and subsequent cerebrospinal fluid leak is possibly the most frequently occurring complication. There is no consensus in the literature about the rate of dural tears in spine surgery. We have undertaken this study to evaluate the incidence of dural tears among spine surgeons in the United Kingdom for commonly ...

  1. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dendritic Spines in the Living Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zuo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are ubiquitous postsynaptic sites of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, and thus may serve as structural indicators of functional synapses. Recent works have suggested that neuronal coding of memories may be associated with rapid alterations in spine formation and elimination. Technological advances have enabled researchers to study spine dynamics in vivo during development as well as under various physiological and pathological conditions. We believe that better understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of spine dynamics will help elucidate the principles of experience-dependent circuit modification and information processing in the living brain.

  2. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-salem (United States)

    2001-04-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm{sup 2} in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm{sup 2} and 0.765g/cm{sup 2}. Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures.

  3. Discovery of drug mode of action and drug repositioning from transcriptional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Francesco; Bosotti, Roberta; Scacheri, Emanuela; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Mithbaokar, Pratibha; Ferriero, Rosa; Murino, Loredana; Tagliaferri, Roberto; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Isacchi, Antonella; di Bernardo, Diego

    2010-08-17

    A bottleneck in drug discovery is the identification of the molecular targets of a compound (mode of action, MoA) and of its off-target effects. Previous approaches to elucidate drug MoA include analysis of chemical structures, transcriptional responses following treatment, and text mining. Methods based on transcriptional responses require the least amount of information and can be quickly applied to new compounds. Available methods are inefficient and are not able to support network pharmacology. We developed an automatic and robust approach that exploits similarity in gene expression profiles following drug treatment, across multiple cell lines and dosages, to predict similarities in drug effect and MoA. We constructed a "drug network" of 1,302 nodes (drugs) and 41,047 edges (indicating similarities between pair of drugs). We applied network theory, partitioning drugs into groups of densely interconnected nodes (i.e., communities). These communities are significantly enriched for compounds with similar MoA, or acting on the same pathway, and can be used to identify the compound-targeted biological pathways. New compounds can be integrated into the network to predict their therapeutic and off-target effects. Using this network, we correctly predicted the MoA for nine anticancer compounds, and we were able to discover an unreported effect for a well-known drug. We verified an unexpected similarity between cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitors and Topoisomerase inhibitors. We discovered that Fasudil (a Rho-kinase inhibitor) might be "repositioned" as an enhancer of cellular autophagy, potentially applicable to several neurodegenerative disorders. Our approach was implemented in a tool (Mode of Action by NeTwoRk Analysis, MANTRA, http://mantra.tigem.it). PMID:20679242

  4. Percutaneous spine injection: considerations for improving treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To discuss the causes of treatment failure in percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radiculopathy by analyzing patients who have experienced negative treatment effect on their first visit and a positive treatment effect on their second visit. The authors reviewed the cases of 24 patients who visited the pain intervention outpatient department in our hospital due to back pain or radiculopathy. All patients reviewed experienced a negative treatment effect following their first spine injection, but a positive treatment effect following the second injection. The dates of the cases range from June 2003 to May 2004. Two radiologists analyzed the possible causes of the negative treatment effect following the first injection therapies by considering clinical aspects as well as reviewing radiological images. The most common condition was the presence of the change in the level of the second selective nerve root block (n=13). In seven cases, the methods for administering the injections were changed to facet block (n=2), midline epidural block (n=1), selective nerve root block (n=3) and caudal epidural block (n=1). In four cases, there were no changes in the methods for administering the injections nor were there any changes in the level of the selective nerve root block between first and second visit. In those cases, after reviewing spot radiographs performed during injection, we attributed the causes of failure of injection therapy to an inappropriate distributionn therapy to an inappropriate distribution of drugs. We can improve the effect of percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radioculopathy by determining the exact level of perineural root block, trying alternative methods, and insuring a good distribution of the injected drugs

  5. Finite element analysis in spine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, M J; Julian, S; Mohsen, A M

    2002-01-01

    Finite element analysis is a widely accepted tool used in many industries and research activities. It allows new designs to be thoroughly 'tested' before a prototype is even manufactured, components and systems which cannot readily be experimented upon to be examined, and 'diagnostic' investigations to be undertaken. Finite element models are already making an important contribution to our understanding of the spine and its components. Models are being used to reveal the biomechanical function of the spine and its behaviour when healthy, diseased or damaged. They are also providing support in the design and application of spinal instrumentation. The spine is a very complex structure, and many of the models are simplified and idealized because of the complexity and uncertainty in the geometry, material properties and boundary conditions of these problems. This type of modelling simplification is not peculiar to spinal modelling problems. Indeed, the idealization is often a strength when there is such uncertainty and variation between one individual and another, allowing cause-effect relationships to be isolated and fully explored, and the inherent variability of experimental tests to be eliminated. This paper reviews the development of finite element analysis in spinal modelling. It shows how modelling provides a wealth of information on our physiological performance, reduces our dependence on animal and cadaveric experiments and is an invaluable complement to clinical studies. It also leads to the conclusion that, as computing power and software capabilities increase, it is quite conceivable that in the future it will be possible to generate patient-specific models that could be used for patient assessment and even pre- and inter-operative planning. PMID:12365787

  6. Blunt Traumatic Cervical Spine Fractures in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Saadat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blunt traumatic cervical spine fractures (TCSF are serious injuries which may be associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. We describe the epidemiology of blunt traumatic cervical spine fracture in Iran over a definable time period. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the data including the distribution of TCSF, demographics, mechanisms, abbreviated injury scale (AIS, spinal cord associated injuries and final outcome of patients, was extracted from the Iranian national trauma registry database in target hospitals in eight major cities of Iran from 1999 to 2004. The Chi square test was used to compare mortality and one-way ANOVA was used to compare ISS amongst the categories of TCSF. Results: TCSF was identified in 120 cases, of these 70.8% were male. Their mean age was 36.6 ± 17.2 years. The overall incidence of TCSF among all trauma patients was 0.7% (95%CI: 0.61% - 0.88%. The TCSF incidence among all spine fractured patients was 19.38% (95%CI: 16.34% - 22.72%. The most common mechanism of TCSF was a motor vehicle collision (66.7%. The overall percentage of in-hospital death for TCSF was 12.6%. There were no statistically significant difference in death and injury severity scores (ISS among TCSF categories (p > 0.05. Spinal cord and root injuries occurred in 34.9% and 2.4% of TCSF, respectively. Conclusions: Preventive strategies need to be developed in order to reduce the number and severity of TCSF in the general Iranian population.

  7. Cervical spine injuries resulting from water sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, R P; Nickel, V L

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective review of 152 cases of cervical spine injury suffered in water sport-related accidents is presented. Water sport accidents were the second most common cause of traumatic quadriplegia among patients treated on the Spinal Injury Service at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital. The mechanics of injury in 80% of the cases involved flexion and/or axial loading forces. A fracture of the body of C5 was seen in two thirds of the cases. The ratio of complete to incomplete cord lesions was approximately 1:1, with anterior cord syndrome being the most commonly observed. Various risk factors are identified. PMID:7466458

  8. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  9. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Koh, Yoon-Woo [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Kim, Hee-Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jung-Mi [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements

  11. Finite element analysis of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jung-Pin; Zhong, Zheng-Cheng; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Yu, Chung-hung; Chang, Ting-Kuo; Wei, Shun-Hwa

    2006-01-01

    Spondylolysis is a fracture of the bone lamina in the pars interarticularis and has a high risk of developing spondylolisthesis, as well as traction on the spinal cord and nerve root, leading to spinal disorders or low back pain when the lumbar spine is subjected to high external forces. Previous studies mostly investigated the mechanical changes of the endplate in spondylolysis. However, little attention has been focused on the entire structural changes that occur in spondylolysis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical changes in posterior ligaments, disc, endplate, and pars interarticularis between the intact lumbar spine and spondylolysis. A total of three finite element models, namely the intact L2-L4 lumbar spine, lumbar spine with unilateral pars defect and with bilateral pars defect were established using a software ANSYS 6.0. A loading of 10 N.m in flexion, extension, left torsion, right torsion, left lateral bending, and right lateral bending respectively were imposed on the superior surface of the L2 body. The bottom of the L4 vertebral body was completely constrained. The finite element models estimated that the lumbar spine with a unilateral pars defect was able to maintain spinal stability as the intact lumbar spine, but the contralateral pars experienced greater stress. For the lumbar spine with a bilateral pars defect, the rotation angle, the vertebral body displacement, the disc stress, and the endplate stress, was increased more when compared to the intact lumbar spine under extension or torsion. PMID:17075165

  12. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the spine: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Su Ok; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Yi, Jeong Geun [Cheongju St. Mary' s Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a synovial lesion of joints or tendon sheaths, characterized by villous and nodular overgrowth of the synovial membrane. It commonly occurs in synovial joints of the appendicular skeleton, particularly those of the knee and hip, but rarely affecting those of the spine. We report a case of PVNS of the lumbar spine mimicking epidural mass.

  13. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the spine: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a synovial lesion of joints or tendon sheaths, characterized by villous and nodular overgrowth of the synovial membrane. It commonly occurs in synovial joints of the appendicular skeleton, particularly those of the knee and hip, but rarely affecting those of the spine. We report a case of PVNS of the lumbar spine mimicking epidural mass

  14. Self-repositioning of an embolized patent ductus arteriosus device-a nightmare turned into sweet dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Venkateshwaran; Kavassery Mahadevan, Krishnamoorthy; Sivasubramonian, Sivasankaran

    2015-05-01

    A 7-month-old boy was admitted for the device closure of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with moderate pulmonary hypertension. The PDA measured 4.2 mm with adequate ampulla. It was closed with an 8-6 mm Heart R device from pulmonary artery (PA) end. Post extubation, the device embolized to proximal descending thoracic aorta just distal to PDA ampulla. While attempting to snare from the venous side, the device self-repositioned to PDA. It was stable thereafter and patient was discharged after 2 days. We report a complication, which got self-corrected. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25381681

  15. Children's experiences of the repositioning of their psychological birth order in a reconstituted family / Lizelle van Jaarsveld.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Jaarsveld, Lizelle

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore and describe children’s experiences of the repositioning of their psychological birth order in a reconstituted family. The aim of this study is also to contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon to aid the parents of these children as well as professionals working with such families. The systems theory was used as the meta-theory of this study. Gestalt field theory formed the connection between the systems theory and Adlerian theory, to po...

  16. Strategic positioning and repositioning of oil companies in the upstream business: understanding the historical evolution of firms' strategic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second article of a series whose objective is to use the analytical framework proposed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, to study the global oil competition game and the competitive advantages of oil companies. The paper focuses on the historical changes in the positioning and behavior of various actors in the upstream oil industry. The authors start by describing the main oil actors and their initial strategic positioning before 1973. Then, the changes and the firm's strategic repositioning during the oil crisis in the 1970's and 1980's are analyzed. (author)

  17. Cervical Spine Involvement: A Rare Manifestation of Reiter's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Khodakaram; Ghalaenovi, Hossein; Babashahi, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Jafari, Mohammad; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Fattahi, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Spine involvement is less common in Reiter's syndrome than in other seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Also, cervical spine involvement rarely occurs in Reiter's syndrome and other spondyloarthropathies. This paper reports a rare case of Reiter's syndrome in which there was cervical spine involvement that presented clinically as an atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation. Reiter's Syndrome (RS) is one of the most common types of seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSAs) that presents clinically with a triad of symptoms, i.e., conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis. This case highlighted the importance of radiographs of the lateral cervical spine and dynamic cervical imaging for all patients who have Reiter's syndrome with cervical spine symptoms to ensure that this dangerous abnormality is not overlooked. PMID:25360183

  18. Cervical Spine Involvement: A Rare Manifestation of Reiter's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Khodakaram; Ghalaenovi, Hossein; Babashahi, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Jafari, Mohammad; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Fattahi, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Spine involvement is less common in Reiter's syndrome than in other seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Also, cervical spine involvement rarely occurs in Reiter's syndrome and other spondyloarthropathies. This paper reports a rare case of Reiter's syndrome in which there was cervical spine involvement that presented clinically as an atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation. Reiter's Syndrome (RS) is one of the most common types of seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSAs) that presents clinically with a triad of symptoms, i.e., conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis. This case highlighted the importance of radiographs of the lateral cervical spine and dynamic cervical imaging for all patients who have Reiter's syndrome with cervical spine symptoms to ensure that this dangerous abnormality is not overlooked. PMID:25360183

  19. Traumatic extradural hematoma of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Mercado, R

    1989-03-01

    An example of a traumatic extradural hematoma of the cervical spine that occurred in a 32-year-old man who suffered from chronic ankylosing spondylitis is reported. Progressive sensory and motor deficit ensued some 3 hours after the patient fell from a standing position. The patient landed on his back, striking his head on the floor. After being helped up, he was able to walk unassisted to a nearby chair, where he sat down until his left lower extremity--and shortly afterwards, the right one--became numb and weak. On admission, the patient was found to have tetraparesis that was more pronounced in the lower extremities and associated with incomplete sensation to pinprick at level T7-T10. He also had painless distention of the urinary bladder. After a few hours, the weakness in his limbs increased and his sensory level rose to C5 bilaterally. A horizontal diastatic fracture across the vertebral body of C7 was discovered on plain x-ray films of the spine, and an extradural hematoma extending dorsally from C5 to T1 was revealed by emergency magnetic resonance imaging. After an emergency decompressive cervical laminectomy and removal of the clot, the patient rapidly regained complete neurological function, except with regard to both the urinary bladder and the rectum, which remained abnormal for almost 7 weeks after the operation. PMID:2927616

  20. Performance feedback in a spine biopsy simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Cleary, Kevin R.

    1998-06-01

    A surgical simulator for needle biopsy of the spine is being developed in the Radiology Department at Georgetown University Medical Center to assist in learning the procedure as well as to maximize accuracy and efficiency. Spine biopsies are often done under computed tomography (CT) guidance and while this technique is effective, it can be time consuming since the biopsy needle must be advanced slowly and its position checked several times to ensure vital organs are not damaged. Quantifying performance during simulation will allow accurate feedback tot eh surgeon as well as the design engineers. Quantifying performance during simulation will allow accurate feedback to the surgeon as well as the design engineers. Performance measures are also important to determine transfer of simulator training skills to actual surgical skills. The simulation protocol is in advanced development, and the steps include selecting the best CT slice for viewing the lesion, choosing the skin entry point, and advancing the needle to the biopsy location. Our methods for developing the system include the following: 1) A task analysis, which produces a detailed list of tasks needed to complete a goal, their order, and time to completion, 2) A function allocation assessment, which identifies critical task components with the goal of relieving the human workload by a reallocation of system functions, and 3) A simulator evaluation through subjective ratings and objective human performance measures.

  1. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine

  2. Effect of spine motion on mobility in quadruped running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongliang; Liu, Qi; Dong, Litao; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Qun

    2014-11-01

    Most of current running quadruped robots have similar construction: a stiff body and four compliant legs. Many researches have indicated that the stiff body without spine motion is a main factor in limitation of robots' mobility. Therefore, investigating spine motion is very important to build robots with better mobility. A planar quadruped robot is designed based on cheetahs' morphology. There is a spinal driving joint in the body of the robot. When the spinal driving joint acts, the robot has spine motion; otherwise, the robot has not spine motion. Six group prototype experiments with the robot are carried out to study the effect of spine motion on mobility. In each group, there are two comparative experiments: the spinal driving joint acts in one experiment but does not in the other experiment. The results of the prototype experiments indicate that the average speeds of the robot with spine motion are 8.7%-15.9% larger than those of the robot without spine motion. Furthermore, a simplified sagittal plane model of quadruped mammals is introduced. The simplified model also has a spinal driving joint. Using a similar process as the prototype experiments, six group simulation experiments with the simplified model are conducted. The results of the simulation experiments show that the maximum rear leg horizontal thrusts of the simplified mode with spine motion are 68.2%-71.3% larger than those of the simplified mode without spine motion. Hence, it is found that spine motion can increase the average running speed and the intrinsic reason of speed increase is the improvement of the maximum rear leg horizontal thrust.

  3. The Relationship between Recurrent Spine Surgery and Employment Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sami Walid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: What is the quantitative relationship between repeated surgical intervention and unemployment in the spine surgery population? And, does the literature pay sufficient attention to this important aspect of spine surgery outcome? Methods: This was a retrospective review of 905 patients of working age undergoing one of three types of spine surgery. The index surgery at the time of the study was either on the cervical or lumbar spine. We retrospectively collected data on patients’ employment status and history of prior spine surgery. In this study, history of prior spine surgery was coded using two nominal (categorical variables: The number of previous spine surgeries (0, 1, 2, ?3 and the variability of location of previous spine surgeries (cervical, lumbar. We also looked into scientific publications related to spine surgery and probed “employment” and “reoperation” awareness in randomized controlled trials (RCTs. In addition, we queried some common factors that are known to play an important role in exacerbating the unemployment problem, such as opioid (abuse and depression. Results: The unemployment rate was 19.4% among males and 34.8% among females. Unemployment rate correlated with the number of previous spine surgery (r = 0.077, p = 0.020, opioid use (r = 0.080, p = 0.017 and being on antidepressants (r = 0.119, p = 0.000. The unemployment rate was sta-tistically different (?2 = 10.656, p = 0.014 among patients with different numbers of previous spine surgeries: 25.6% of de novo patients versus 28.1% of patients with one previous spine surgery, 32.7% of patients with two previous spine surgeries and 48.7% of patients with three or more previous spine surgeries. Females had significantly higher unemployment rate if they had three or more previous spine surgeries in their past (31.4%, 34.4%, 46.2% versus 83.3%, ?2 = 21.841, p = 0.000. Unemployment rate was as high as 90% in female patients with ?3 surgeries on different regions of the spine and receiving antidepressants. Among randomized controlled trials addressing spine surgery in humans and published in English, 10.4% of reported studies mentioned opioids in their text, 4.1% (23/566 mentioned reoperation, 1.4% (8/566 mentioned employment, and none mentioned antidepressants. Conclusion: Females’ employment status is more sensitive to repeated surgical intervention, regardless of the part of the spine being targeted, reaching close to ten times the general population’s unemployment rate (83.3% versus 8%. On the other hand, a small percentage of randomized controlled trials pertaining to spine surgery deals with employment issues and reoperation rate in their outcome analysis.

  4. Repositioning of Barcelona’s Image in the Light of a Redefinition of the Urban Tourism Planning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-Francesc Valls

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barcelona’s city tourism model over the last fifteen years has chalked up many successes in terms of soaring tourist numbers, overnight stays, cruise liner passengers, hotel beds and visits to priced sights. Growth in city breaks has soared to the point where Barcelona has become one of Europe’s most visited cities. But this growth has come at a heavy price: mass tourism, concentration in certain neighbourhoods, competition for space between tourists and residents, lack of adequate inter-modal transport. All of these problems threaten Barcelona’s competitive position. The paper reviews the city’s competitiveness, comparing Barcelona to ten other European cities. Starting out from a qualitative analysis of internal players and a Delphi Study with external players, we find thecity’s tourism model needs correcting. We also identify the vectors and most important factors for achieving this repositioning. The vectors reinforce the competitiveness concerning the model’s sustainability, integrated management and governance, and client orientation. The proposed strategic repositioning will allow Barcelona to continue competing with Europe’s main cities.

  5. N-cadherin, spine dynamics, and synaptic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShreeshPMysore

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are one half (the postsynaptic half of most excitatory synapses. Ever since the direct observation over a decade ago that spines can continually change size and shape, spine dynamics has been of great research interest, especially as a mechanism for structural synaptic plasticity. In concert with this ongoing spine dynamics, the stability of the synapse is also needed to allow continued, reliable synaptic communication. Various cell-adhesion molecules help to structurally stabilize a synapse and its proteins. Here, we review the effects of disrupting N-cadherin, a prominent trans-synaptic adhesion molecule, on spine dynamics, as reported in Mysore et al., (2007. We highlight the novel method adopted therein to reliably detect even subtle changes in fast and slow spine dynamics. We summarize the structural, functional, and molecular consequences of acute N-cadherin disruption, and tie them in, in a working model, with longer-term effects on spines and synapses reported in the literature.

  6. MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-09-15

    The objective was to study characteristic MRI findings in cervical spine fractures complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Technical issues related to MRI are also addressed. A review of 6,774 consecutive cervical spine multidetector CT (MDCT) scans obtained during 6.2 years revealed 33 ankylosed spines studied for suspected acute cervical spine injury complicating AS. Of these, 20 patients also underwent MRI. On MRI, of these 20 patients, 19 had a total of 29 cervical and upper thoracic spine fractures. Of 20 transverse fractures traversing both anterior and posterior columns, 7 were transdiskal and exhibited less bone marrow edema than did those traversing vertebral bodies. One Jefferson's, 1 atlas posterior arch (Jefferson's on MDCT), 2 odontoid process, and 5 non-contiguous spinous process fractures were detectable. MRI showed 2 fractures that were undetected by MDCT, and conversely, MDCT detected 6 fractures not seen on MRI; 16 patients had spinal cord findings ranging from impingement and contusion to complete transection. Magnetic resonance imaging can visualize unstable fractures of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. Paravertebral hemorrhages and any ligamentous injuries should alert radiologists to seek transverse fractures. Multiple fractures are common and often complicated by spinal cord injuries. Diagnostic images can be obtained with a flexible multipurpose coil if the use of standard spine array coil is impossible due to a rigid collar or excessive kyphosis. (orig.)

  7. Giant cells reparative granuloma of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG), was first described by Jaffe in 1953, which found it to be clinically and histopathologically different from the giant cell tumor. The GCRG accounts for 1.0 % of the osseous tumoral lesions, is more frequently found in females (68%) and in patients less than 30 years old (74%). It was believed that it only affected the jaw; it has been reported compromising other locations including the spine (7 cases). We report a case affecting the vertebral bodies of C2-C3 in a 10 years old, female patient, who was studied by plain film and MRI. The histological diagnosis was established at surgery, this report is the first one described in a cervical location and the second studied by MRI

  8. Spondylitis of thoracic spine: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotijevi? Sla?an

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Spondylitis is a rare bone and joint infection. It is a disease with long clinical history. Often, it is difficult to recognise symptoms at a proper time, and, due to the complex clinical outcome of spondylitis, a clinician may think about other problems in the body. Case Outline A case report of a 59-year-old male patient with thoracic spine spondylitis is presented, formerly treated as pulmonary thromboembolism with pericarditis. Only after neurological disorder such as paraplegia and orthopaedic consultative examination, real diagnosis was established. After that, the patient was hospitalized and operated on. Conclusion A therapeutic approach to spondylitis is based on surgery, antibiotic drugs and symptomatic therapy. Due to the frequent occurrence of neurologic disorders, therapy could be prolonged and uncertain. .

  9. Magnetic Resonance staging of spine metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of spine metastases is a problem of great interest which leaves many questions unanswered. In this field MR imaging plays a fundamental role, as the only technique able to directly demonstrate the changes in bone marrow tissue, bound to tumoral activity. The introduction of gradient-echo (GE) sequences has helped reduce examination time. Moreover, with the accurate choice of pulse-sequence parameters (TR, TE, flip angle) additional information is acquired which is not yielded by conventional spinecho (SE) sequences. This study was aimed at evaluating MR sensitivity in the different stages of bone metastatic evolution. The comparative adequacy was evaluated of combined bone scintigraphy and conventional radiology versus MR imaging in 62 patients with vertebral metastases. Time interval between bone scan and/ or radiological study and MR examination ranged from 10 days to 8 months. SE and GE T1-weighted images, and SE and GE T2-weighted images on the sagittal plane were employed, and axial images; coronal images were rarely acquired. Metastases were demonstrated by MR imaging at 122 vertebral levels, versus 88 true positives of combined scintigraphy and conventional radiology. Scintigraphic false-positives were observed at 15 vertebral levels, versus 9 with radiography. GE sequences were superior to SE ones in detecting vertebral morphologic lesions and bone marrow involvement thanks to their improved resolution and sensitivity. Moreover, GE sequences demod sensitivity. Moreover, GE sequences demonstrated tumoral bone marrow spread and persistent tumoral activity in the follow-up of spine metastases. Results obtained point to GE sequences as those of choice because of their higher resolution and sensitivity, which also allow response to treatment to be evaluated

  10. Cooperative aquatic sensing using the telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, John M.; Podnar, Gregg W.; Stancliff, Stephen; Low, Kian Hsiang; Elfes, Alberto; Higinbotham, John; Hosler, Jeffrey; Moisan, Tiffany; Moisan, John

    2009-09-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth's climate and ecology. Typical ocean sensing is done with satellites or in situ buoys and research ships which are slow to reposition. Cloud cover inhibits study of localized transient phenomena such as Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB). A fleet of extended-deployment surface autonomous vehicles will enable in situ study of characteristics of HAB, coastal pollutants, and related phenomena. We have developed a multiplatform telesupervision architecture that supports adaptive reconfiguration based on environmental sensor inputs. Our system allows the autonomous repositioning of smart sensors for HAB study by networking a fleet of NOAA OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sensor Integration System) surface autonomous vehicles. In situ measurements intelligently modify the search for areas of high concentration. Inference Grid and complementary information-theoretic techniques support sensor fusion and analysis. Telesupervision supports sliding autonomy from high-level mission tasking, through vehicle and data monitoring, to teleoperation when direct human interaction is appropriate. This paper reports on experimental results from multi-platform tests conducted in the Chesapeake Bay and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania waters using OASIS platforms, autonomous kayaks, and multiple simulated platforms to conduct cooperative sensing of chlorophyll-a and water quality.

  11. Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Utilizing Cone-Beam CT Image-Guidance With a Robotic Couch: Intrafraction Motion Analysis Accounting for all Six Degrees of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual setup error and intrafraction motion following kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance, for immobilized spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients, with positioning corrected for in all six degrees of freedom. Methods and Materials: Analysis is based on 42 consecutive patients (48 thoracic and/or lumbar metastases) treated with a total of 106 fractions and 307 image registrations. Following initial setup, a CBCT was acquired for patient alignment and a pretreatment CBCT taken to verify shifts and determine the residual setup error, followed by a midtreatment and posttreatment CBCT image. For 13 single-fraction SBRT patients, two midtreatment CBCT images were obtained. Initially, a 1.5-mm and 1° tolerance was used to reposition the patient following couch shifts which was subsequently reduced to 1 mm and 1° degree after the first 10 patients. Results: Small positioning errors after the initial CBCT setup were observed, with 90% occurring within 1 mm and 97% within 1°. In analyzing the impact of the time interval for verification imaging (10 ± 3 min) and subsequent image acquisitions (17 ± 4 min), the residual setup error was not significantly different (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.04) in the average three-dimensional intrafraction positional deviations favoring a more strict tolerance in translation (1 mm vs. 1.5 mm) was observed. The absolute intrafraction motion averaged over all patients and all n averaged over all patients and all directions along x, y, and z axis (± SD) were 0.7 ± 0.5 mm and 0.5 ± 0.4 mm for the 1.5 mm and 1 mm tolerance, respectively. Based on a 1-mm and 1° correction threshold, the target was localized to within 1.2 mm and 0.9° with 95% confidence. Conclusion: Near-rigid body immobilization, intrafraction CBCT imaging approximately every 15–20 min, and strict repositioning thresholds in six degrees of freedom yields minimal intrafraction motion allowing for safe spine SBRT delivery.

  12. Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Utilizing Cone-Beam CT Image-Guidance With a Robotic Couch: Intrafraction Motion Analysis Accounting for all Six Degrees of Freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Derek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); British Columbia Cancer Agency, The Sindi Hawkins Cancer Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna (Canada); Lochray, Fiona; Korol, Renee; Davidson, Melanie; Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: Arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual setup error and intrafraction motion following kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance, for immobilized spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients, with positioning corrected for in all six degrees of freedom. Methods and Materials: Analysis is based on 42 consecutive patients (48 thoracic and/or lumbar metastases) treated with a total of 106 fractions and 307 image registrations. Following initial setup, a CBCT was acquired for patient alignment and a pretreatment CBCT taken to verify shifts and determine the residual setup error, followed by a midtreatment and posttreatment CBCT image. For 13 single-fraction SBRT patients, two midtreatment CBCT images were obtained. Initially, a 1.5-mm and 1 Degree-Sign tolerance was used to reposition the patient following couch shifts which was subsequently reduced to 1 mm and 1 Degree-Sign degree after the first 10 patients. Results: Small positioning errors after the initial CBCT setup were observed, with 90% occurring within 1 mm and 97% within 1 Degree-Sign . In analyzing the impact of the time interval for verification imaging (10 {+-} 3 min) and subsequent image acquisitions (17 {+-} 4 min), the residual setup error was not significantly different (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.04) in the average three-dimensional intrafraction positional deviations favoring a more strict tolerance in translation (1 mm vs. 1.5 mm) was observed. The absolute intrafraction motion averaged over all patients and all directions along x, y, and z axis ({+-} SD) were 0.7 {+-} 0.5 mm and 0.5 {+-} 0.4 mm for the 1.5 mm and 1 mm tolerance, respectively. Based on a 1-mm and 1 Degree-Sign correction threshold, the target was localized to within 1.2 mm and 0.9 Degree-Sign with 95% confidence. Conclusion: Near-rigid body immobilization, intrafraction CBCT imaging approximately every 15-20 min, and strict repositioning thresholds in six degrees of freedom yields minimal intrafraction motion allowing for safe spine SBRT delivery.

  13. Benefits of an Active Spine Supported Bounding Locomotion With a Small Compliant Quadruped Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Khoramshahi, Mahdi; Sprowitz, Alexander; Tuleu, Alexandre; Ahmadabadi, M. N.; Ijspeert, Auke

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of the control of an active spine versus a fixed spine, on a quadruped robot run- ning in bound gait. Active spine supported actuation led to faster locomotion, with less foot sliding on the ground, and a higher stability to go straight forward. However, we did no observe an improvement of cost of transport of the spine-actuated, faster robot system compared to the rigid spine.

  14. Mef2 promotes spine elimination in absence of ?-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yang; Singh, Dipika; Arikkath, Jyothi

    2013-03-01

    ?-Catenin is a component of the cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex and its loss has been implicated in the mental retardation associated with the Cri du chat syndrome. We have previously demonstrated that loss of ?-catenin in a murine model during development results in excessive spine and synaptic density and function. In order to examine the role of potential molecules that might cooperate with ?-catenin to regulate spine density, we focused on Mef2. Our data demonstrate that while loss of ?-catenin does not alter the expression levels of endogenous Mef2, expression of Mef2 in neurons that are knocked down for ?-catenin promotes spine elimination. These results establish a molecular mechanism by which excessive spines in the absence of ?-catenin may be eliminated and may point toward pharmacological therapy for the Cri du chat syndrome. PMID:23328440

  15. [Structural characteristics of certain Rodents spines (Rodentia: Myomorpha, Hystricomorpha)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, O F; Kuznetsov, G V

    2001-01-01

    The architectonics of spines and hair was studied in Neacomys spinosus, Arvicanthis somalicus, Leopoldamys sabanus, L. edwardsi, Maxomys moi, M. surifer, Niviventer fulvescens, N. confucianus, N. cremoriventer, Acomys cahirinus, A. somalica, Hystrix indica, H. cristata, Atherurus macrourus, Erethizon dorsatum, Proechimys steerei, and Lonchotrix emiliae. The presence of a dorsal longitudinal furrow covered by a modified cuticle is a common structural feature of spines in all studied species except E. dorsatum, H. indica, and the frontal surface of the mosaic (scales located side by side) and terrace cuticle (steps between scales) varies in different species from smooth to rib-folded. A terminology has been proposed to describe the main structures of spine and hair. The adaptive significance of the spine architectonics in rodents is discussed. PMID:11525125

  16. Estimating Load on the Spine Using Spinal Shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami O. ISMAILA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body height have been used as a measure of spine compression during loading. However, a gap exists in the literature as to the actual relationship that exists between spinal shrinkage and spine load as a result of load carrying or lifting. This study proposed a mathematical model for the relationship between spinal shrinkage and spinal load. The model was validated using some load carriers in a major market in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The spinal shrinkages obtained from the study did not differ significantly from those calculated using the proposed model, thus suggesting that the model may be valid. The model established a relationship between load on the spine, spinal shrinkage, spine length and chest area.

  17. Return to play after cervical spine injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Robert C; Li, Yan Michael; Abdulhamid, Mohamed; Chin, Lawrence S

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) resulting from sports now represent 8.9% of the total causes of SCI. Regardless of cause, there are bound to be return-to-play decisions to be made for athletes. Since catastrophic cervical spine injuries are among the most devastating injuries in all of sports, returning from a cervical spine injury is one of the most difficult decisions in sports medicine. Axial loading is the primary mechanism for catastrophic cervical spine injuries. Axial loading occurs as a result of intentional or unintentional head-down contact and spearing. Most would agree that the athlete returning to a contact or collision sport after a cervical spine injury must be asymptomatic, have full strength, and have full active range of motion; however, each situation is unique. The following review discusses the pathophysiology of these conditions and suggests guidelines for return to contact sports after traumatic cervical SCI. PMID:23314078

  18. Repositioning and Leaving In Situ the Central Venous Catheter During Percutaneous Treatment of Associated Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: A Report of Eight Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe a combined procedure of repositioning and leaving in situ a central venous catheter followed by immediate percutaneous treatment of associated superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). Methods: Eight patients are presented who have central venous catheter-associated SVCS (n = 6 Hickman catheters, n = 2 Port-a-cath) caused by central vein stenosis (n = 4) or concomitant thrombosis (n = 4). With the use of a vascular snare introduced via the transcubital or transjugular approach, the tip of the central venous catheter could be engaged, and repositioned after deployment of a stent in the innominate or superior vena cava. Results: In all patients it was technically feasible to reposition the central venous catheter and treat the SVCS at the same time. In one patient flipping of the Hickman catheter in its original position provoked dislocation of the released Palmaz stent, which could be positioned in the right common iliac vein. Conclusion: Repositioning of a central venous catheter just before and after stent deployment in SVCS is technically feasible and a better alternative than preprocedural removal of the vascular access

  19. Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmitGefen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patient repositioning when the skin is moist e.g. due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitatively describe the effects of repositioning on the pathomechanics of moisture-related tissue damage. We designed a finite element model to analyze skin stresses under a weight-bearing bony prominence while this region of interest slides frictionally over the support surface, as occurs during repositioning. Our results show, expectedly, that maximal effective stresses in the skin increase as the moisture-contents-related COF between the skin and the mattress rises. Interestingly however, the rise in stresses for a wet interface became more prominent when the skin tissue was stiffer - which represented aging or diabetes. This finding demonstrates how the aged/diabetic skin is more fragile than a young-adult skin when repositioning in a moist environment. The modeling used herein can now be extended to test effects of different moisturizers, creams, lubricants or possibly other interventions at the skin-support interface for testing their potential in protecting the skin from superficial pressure ulcers in a standard, objective and quantitative manner.

  20. Maniobra de reposición canalítica para el tratamiento del vértigo postural paroxístico benigno Canalith reposition procedure for the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Valenzuela P

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paroxysmal positional vertigo is a frequent and handicapping disease. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of physical therapies using particle reposition procedures in the treatment of paroxysmal positional vertigo. Patients and methods: Fifty nine patients (13 male with paroxysmal positional vertigo were studied. Clinical data was gathered, the affected channel was identified. In the same session, the corresponding canalith reposition procedure was performed (Epley maneuver for posterior channel and Lempert maneuver for lateral channel and the immediate response was recorded. Results: Twenty seven percent of patients had recurring episodes of vertigo and 60% had more than two weeks of evolution. In 49% of patients, vertigo was considered idiopathic and in 92%, the posterior channel was affected. One patient had a combined lesion of posterior and lateral channels and two patients had isolated lateral channel lesions. Seventy percent of patients recovered after two sessions of canalith reposition procedure. Conclusions: Canalith reposition maneuvers were highly effective for the treatment of paroxysmal positional vertigo. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 619-26.

  1. Synovial osteochondromatosis of the cervical spine: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Choong Guen; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Guen Young; Yeom, Jin S.; Choe, Ghee Young; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare, benign condition characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules within the synovium. It rarely occurs at cervical spine, and only six cases have been previously reported in the English literature. We describe another case of synovial osteochondromatosis in the cervical spine in a 77-year-old man who presented with compressive myelopathy. Here we briefly review the literature and discuss the differential diagnosis based on CT and MR findings.

  2. Synovial osteochondromatosis of the cervical spine: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare, benign condition characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules within the synovium. It rarely occurs at cervical spine, and only six cases have been previously reported in the English literature. We describe another case of synovial osteochondromatosis in the cervical spine in a 77-year-old man who presented with compressive myelopathy. Here we briefly review the literature and discuss the differential diagnosis based on CT and MR findings.

  3. Pott's Spine: Diagnostic Imaging Modalities and Technology Advancements

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Sajid; Amanullah, Md Farid; Ahmad, Kaleem; Rauniyar, Raj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Spinal tuberculosis (TB) or Pott's spine is the commonest extrapulmonary manifestation of TB. It spreads through hematogenous route. Clinically, it presents with constitutional symptoms, back pain, tenderness, paraplegia or paraparesis, and kyphotic or scoliotic deformities. Pott's spine accounts for 2% of all cases of TB, 15% of extrapulmonary, and 50% of skeletal TB. The paradiscal, central, anterior subligamentous, and neural arch are the common vertebral lesions. Thoracic vertebrae are co...

  4. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis: Radiological changes in the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to describe the radiographic cervical spine changes in rheumatoid arthritis patients.Forty-nine patients (37 females and 12 males ) diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between June 1998 and December 2000, were studied for their radiographic cervical spine changes . Their mean age at disease onset was 41.4+ 13.4 years (range of 18-73)and mean duration of disease was 9.1+-6.28 years (range of 2-34). Their demographic data including rheumatoid factor status was obtained. Standard conventional radiographs cervical spine were obtained to study the cervical spine changes. Cervical radiographic changes were found in 34 patients (27 females and 7 males) 10 had subluxation (7 with atlanto-axial subluxation,2 with sub-axial subluxation,and one with lateral subluxation ). No vertical impaction was seen. Erosion of odontoid process was seen in one patient .All were rheumatoid seropositive Cervical spine changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are common, in particular subluxation in the upper cervical spine. Our study showed somewhat lesser prevalence of these changes. These were clinically correlated with disease duration, female sex, and rheumatoid factor, but were not clinically significant. (author)

  6. Becoming independent through au pair migration : Self-making and social re-positioning among young Filipinas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, growing numbers of young Filipinas have entered Denmark on the au pair scheme. While its official aim is to broaden the cultural horizons of youth, researchers generally view Filipina au pairing as a form of labor migration using au pairs as inexpensive domestic workers. This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognized as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence in terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad to re-position themselves vis-à-vis family and friends at home.

  7. Becoming independent through au pair migration. : Self-making and social re-positioning among young Filipinas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, growing numbers of young Filipinas have entered Denmark on the au pair scheme. While its official aim is to broaden the cultural horizons of youth, researchers generally view Filipina au pairing as a form of labor migration using au pairs as inexpensive domestic workers. This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognized as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence in terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad to re-position themselves vis-à-vis family and friends at home.

  8. Villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the imaging features of spinal pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pathologically proven spinal PVNS. Patient demographics and clinical presentation were reviewed. Radiologic studies were evaluated by consensus of two musculoskeletal radiologists for spinal location, spinal segments affected, lesion center, detection of facet origin and intrinsic characteristics on radiography (n =11), myelography (n =7), CT (n =6) and MR imaging (n =6). Women (64%) were more commonly affected than men (36%) with an average age of 28 years. Clinical symptoms were pain (45%), neurologic (9%) or both (36%). Lesions most frequently affected the cervical spine (53%) followed by the thoracic (27%) and lumbar regions (20%). The majority of lesions (93%) were centered in the posterior elements with frequent involvement of the pedicle (67%), neural foramina (73%), lamina (67%) and facets (93%). No lesions showed calcification. Determination of a facet origin by imaging was dependent on imaging modality and lesion size. A facet origin could be determined in 45% of cases by radiography vs 67% of patients by CT (n=6) and MR (n=6). Large lesions (greater than 3 cm in at least one dimension) obscured the facet origin in all cases with CT and/or MR imaging (44%,n=4). Small lesions (less than 3 cm in any dimension) demonstrated an obvious facet origin in all cases by CT and/or MR imaging (56%,n=5). Low-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen in all cases on T2-weighted MR images resulting from hemosiderin deposition with ''blooming effect'' in one case with gradient echo MR images. PVNS of the spine is rare. Large lesions obscure the facet origin and simulate an aggressive intraosseous neoplasm. Patient age, a solitary noncystic lesion centered in the posterior elements, lack of mineralization and low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR pulse sequences may suggest the diagnosis in these cases. Small lesions demonstrate a facet origin on CT or MR imaging. This limits differential considerations to synovial-based lesions and additional features of a solitary focus, lack of underlying disease or systemic arthropathy, no calcification as well as low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR images should allow spinal PVNS to be suggested as the likely diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Manobras de reposicionamento no tratamento da vertigem paroxística posicional benigna Treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with repositioning manevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Maia

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Vertigem paroxística posicional benigna (VPPB é uma das mais freqüentes patologias do sistema vestibular. Caracteriza-se clinicamente pela presença de episódios recorrentes de tonturas rotatórias, tipicamente desencadeados por determinados movimentos cefálicos, realizados pelo paciente. A confirmação diagnóstica é obtida exclusivamente pela manobra de Dix-Hallpike. Nessa manobra, observa-se sistematicamente o desencadeamento de nistagmo. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Material e método: No total, sete pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de VPPB são submetidos a tratamento pela manobra de reposicionamento de Epley. Resultado: Desses sete pacientes avaliados, cinco apresentaram ótima recuperação; dois, com resultado bom; e um, com mau resultado; para este último caso, outras formas de tratamento são apresentadas. Conclusão: O exame otoneurológico, realizado em todos os pacientes, demonstrou ser de interessante valor prognóstico quanto ao resultado do tratamento proposto. A manobra de reposicionamento de Epley demonstrou ser um método de tratamento da VPPB simples, e eficaz na grande maioria dos pacientes aqui relatados.Introduction: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV is among the most common vestibular disorders. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo induced by changes in head position. The condition is readly diagnosed by performing the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. Nystagmus is always present by this way. Study design: Prospective results clinical not randomized. Material and method: A total of seven patients diagnosed with BPPV received the repositioning maneuver of Epley. Five out of seven patients had excellent recovery, two patients had good results and one had a bad result. For this last one different treatments are discussed. Conclusion: We performed otoneurological examination in all patients; this test seems to be an intersting prognosis method for seeking the results of treatment. The repositioning maneuver of Epley is an excellent treatment for BPPV. Most of the patients of our series were successfuly treated by this method.

  10. Manobras de reposicionamento no tratamento da vertigem paroxística posicional benigna / Treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with repositioning manevers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto A., Maia; Flávia L., Diniz; Agnaldo, Carlesse.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Vertigem paroxística posicional benigna (VPPB) é uma das mais freqüentes patologias do sistema vestibular. Caracteriza-se clinicamente pela presença de episódios recorrentes de tonturas rotatórias, tipicamente desencadeados por determinados movimentos cefálicos, realizados pelo paciente. [...] A confirmação diagnóstica é obtida exclusivamente pela manobra de Dix-Hallpike. Nessa manobra, observa-se sistematicamente o desencadeamento de nistagmo. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Material e método: No total, sete pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de VPPB são submetidos a tratamento pela manobra de reposicionamento de Epley. Resultado: Desses sete pacientes avaliados, cinco apresentaram ótima recuperação; dois, com resultado bom; e um, com mau resultado; para este último caso, outras formas de tratamento são apresentadas. Conclusão: O exame otoneurológico, realizado em todos os pacientes, demonstrou ser de interessante valor prognóstico quanto ao resultado do tratamento proposto. A manobra de reposicionamento de Epley demonstrou ser um método de tratamento da VPPB simples, e eficaz na grande maioria dos pacientes aqui relatados. Abstract in english Introduction: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is among the most common vestibular disorders. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo induced by changes in head position. The condition is readly diagnosed by performing the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. Nystagmus is always present by [...] this way. Study design: Prospective results clinical not randomized. Material and method: A total of seven patients diagnosed with BPPV received the repositioning maneuver of Epley. Five out of seven patients had excellent recovery, two patients had good results and one had a bad result. For this last one different treatments are discussed. Conclusion: We performed otoneurological examination in all patients; this test seems to be an intersting prognosis method for seeking the results of treatment. The repositioning maneuver of Epley is an excellent treatment for BPPV. Most of the patients of our series were successfuly treated by this method.

  11. Instrumentation of the paediatric cervical spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RN, Dunn; AH, Botha.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paediatric cervical fusion surgery is challenging. Traditional techniques such as external stabilisation, onlay fusions and wiring techniques resulted in unsatisfactory outcomes due to inferior biomechanical stability. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of paediatric patients [...] who underwent instrumented cervical fusion surgery under 16 years of age. Fusion rates, blood loss, levels fused, theatre time, technique and complications were assessed. RESULTS: An average of 2.5 levels was fused, with an estimated blood loss of 428 ml and surgical duration of 159 min. Anterior procedures had an average of one level fused with blood loss of 117 ml and surgical duration of 98 min. Posterior procedures had an average number of 1.9 levels fused, blood loss of 306 ml and surgical time of 131 min. Combined procedures had an average of 5.5 levels fused, blood loss 810 ml and surgical duration of 241 min. Four surgery-related complications were encountered. These consisted of dural leaks and wound sepsis which were all treated effectively. All patients achieved radiological fusion. CONCLUSION: The use of modern segmental spinal instrumentation in the paediatric cervical spine is a viable option. Although the study sample was small we are able to demonstrate that no major surgical complications were encountered due to the use of adult cervical spinal instrumentation techniques in the paediatric group.

  12. Repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to present the surgical experience in the repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine. Background: Spodylolysis is an important cause of low back pain in young adults and is responsible for high grade of incapacity. Classically, patients with surgical indications with Spondylolysis have been treated with vertebral arthrodesis arthrodesis, with the following functional lost of the intervened segment and biomechanical overload of the upper contiguous segment. There are not previous reports about repairing of lysis in national literature and international references in this technique are scarce. Materials and methods: Eight patients within 2002-2004 were operated, a direct repairing of the lyses by in situ, fusion and interfragmental osteosynthesis with AO 3.5 mm titanium cortical screws with autogenous bone grafts was achieved. The casuistic was analyzed depending on clinical presentation, consolidation, mobility and vitality of the disc in imaginology studies. Results: During the follow-up a firm fusion in all cases, mobility and vitality preservation of the L5-S1 intervertebral disc was detected. There was neither infection nor neurological deficit. Recommendations: Repairing of spondylolysis in lumbar column, in young symptomatic patients without or with mild lystesis (grade I) and without associated disc damage, is a safe surgical technique

  13. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  14. Result of Proficiency Test and Comparison of Accuracy Using a European Spine Phantom among the Three Bone Densitometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ae Ja; Choi, Jee-Hye; Kang, Hyun; Park, Ki Jeong; Kim, Ha Young; Kim, Seo Hwa; Kim, Deog-Yoon; Park, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is known to standard equipment for bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. Different results of BMD measurement using a number of different types of devices are difficult to use clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate discrepancy and standardizations of DXA devices from three manufactures using a European Spine Phantom (ESP). Methods We calculated the accuracy and precision of 36 DXA devices from three manufacturers (10 Hologic, 16 Lunar, and 10 Osteosys) using a ESP (semi-anthropomorphic). The ESP was measured 5 times on each equipment without repositioning. Accuracy was assessed by comparing BMD (g/cm2) values measured on each device with the actual value of the phantom. Precision was assessed by the coefficient of variation (CVsd). Results Lunar devices were, on average, 22%, 8.3%, and 5% overestimation for low (L1) BMD values, medium (L2), and high (L3) BMD values. Hologic devices were, on average, 6% overestimation for L1 BMD, and 5% and 6.2% underestimation for L2 and L3 BMD values. Osteosys devices was, on average, 12.7% (0.063 g/cm2), 6.3% (0.062 g/cm2), and 5% (0.075 g/cm2) underestimation for L1, L2, and L3, respectively. The mean CVsd for L1-L3 BMD were 0.01%, 0.78%, and 2.46% for Lunar, Hologic, and Osteosys devices respectively. Conclusions The BMD comparison in this study demonstrates that BMD result of three different devices are significant different between three devices. Differences of BMD between three devices are necessary to BMD standardization. PMID:26082913

  15. Gota axial / Gout in the spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Massato, Hasegawa; Filipe Martins de, Mello; Cláudia, Goldenstein-Schainberg; Ricardo, Fuller.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A gota axial pode afetar todos os segmentos da coluna vertebral. Ela se manifesta como dor nas costas, dor associada com sintomas neurológicos, e como comprometimento neurológico sem dor em 17,9%, 75,8% e 4,2% dos casos, respectivamente. Essas manifestações foram a primeira apresentação da gota em m [...] uitos pacientes. Embora radiografias, bem como tomografia computadorizada e especialmente ressonância magnética, possam ser muito sugestivos, análises histopatológicas, citológicas e pesquisa de cristais são o padrão ouro de diagnóstico. Na maioria dos casos que envolveram manifestações neurológicas, o paciente foi submetido à cirurgia, levando a resultados satisfatórios. Há, no entanto, alguns relatos de recuperação total após o tratamento clínico habitual para gota, o que sugere que esse tratamento pode ser a opção inicial para os indivíduos com histórico de gota e sinais radiológicos de envolvimento axial. Abstract in english Axial gout can affect all segments of the spine. It is manifested as back pain, as pain associated with neurological symptoms, and as neurological impairment without pain in 17.9%, 75.8% and 4.2% of cases, respectively. These manifestations were the first presentation of gout in many patients. Altho [...] ugh x-rays as well as computed tomography and especially magnetic resonance scans can be very suggestive, histopathological, cytological and crystal analyses are the diagnostic gold standard. In most cases involving neurological manifestations, the patient underwent surgery, leading to satisfactory results. There are, however, some reports of full recovery following the usual clinical treatment for gout, suggesting that such treatment may be the initial option for those subjects with a history of gout and radiological findings of axial involvement

  16. Insufficient pain management after spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A prospective observational quality assurance study was performed at Glostrup Hospital, Denmark, to describe patients undergoing spine surgery with regard to perioperative analgesic management, post-operative pain, opioid consumption and side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients eligible for the study were identified consecutively from the operation chart. The following data were registered: post-operative visual analogue (VAS) pain score at rest and during mobilisation, opioid consumption for the first 24 h, other analgesics administered and side effects. RESULTS: A total of 87 patients were included. For instrumented lumbar fusion patients (n = 24), the VAS pain scores at 1, 4 and 24 h after surgery were (median (interquartile range)) 5 (0-7), 2.5 (0-8) and 5.5 (0-9) at rest and 5 (0-8), 3 (0-9) and 7 (3-9) during mobilisation, respectively. The other surgical subgroups generally experienced VAS ? 3. For instrumented lumbar fusion, the total 0-24 h consumption of intravenous morphine equivalents was 39.1 (27.5-62.7) mg. Only eight of 87 patients received the entire scheduled standard post-operative pain treatment. Adverse events were rare. CONCLUSION: Most patients experienced acceptable pain levels, but instrumented lumbar fusion leads to moderate to severe pain levels and a relatively high opioid consumption. The scheduled standard pain management protocols were sparsely followed. Challenges exist in post-operative pain management as observed in previous surveys, especially for instrumented lumbar fusion surgery. Future work should focus on optimising treatment plans. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

  17. Scoring system for prediction of metastatic spine tumor prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Uei, Hiroshi; Oshima, Masashi; Ajiro, Yasumitsu

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the prognosis before treatment for metastatic spine tumor is extremely important in therapy selection. Therefore, we review some prognostic scoring systems and their outcomes. Articles with combinations of two keywords among “metastatic spine tumor” and “prognosis”, “score”, “scoring system”, “predicting”, or “life expectancy” were searched for in PubMed. As a result, 236 articles were extracted. Those referring to representative scoring systems about predicting the survival of patients with metastatic spine tumors were used. The significance and limits of these scoring systems, and the future perspectives were described. Tokuhashi score, Tomita score, Baur score, Linden score, Rades score, and Katagiri score were introduced. They are all scoring systems prepared by combining factors that affect prognosis. The primary site of cancer and visceral metastasis were common factors in all of these scoring systems. Other factors selected to influence the prognosis varied. They were useful to roughly predict the survival period, such as, “more than one year or not” or “more than six months or not”. In particular, they were utilized for decision-making about operative indications and avoidance of excessive medical treatment. Because the function depended on the survival period in the patients with metastatic spine tumor, it was also utilized in assessing functional prognosis. However, no scoring system had more than 90% consistency between the predicted and actual survival periods. Future perspectives should adopt more oncological viewpoints with adjustment of the process of treatment for metastatic spine tumor. PMID:25035829

  18. Development of a Physiological Model for the Human Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitnitsky, Michael; Thangam, Siva

    2011-11-01

    The intervertebral disc in a human spine is a complex structure consisting of three distinct parts: the nucleus pulposus, the annulus fibrosus, and the cartilaginous end-plates. The Nucleus Pulposus is centrally located within the disc surrounded by annulus fibrosus. It consists of a loose network of fibers and cells in a proteoglycan gel, which merges indistinctly at its outer margin with the annulus fibrosus. A viscoelastic constitutive model is proposed for the nucleus pulposus of the human spine to facilitate the development of a flexible intervetebral device designed for application in the thoraco-lumbar region of the human spine during surgery. A novel experimental set up was designed to establish application limits of the design concept for different approaches in spinal surgery. Both static and fatigue mechanical tests based on the ASTM standards provided a basis for the comparison with some existing clinically successful spinal implants designed for similar applications. Also, these mechanical tests and in-vitro comparison with normal spine provided the application limits of this design in surgery to maintain physiologic functional performance at the affected spinal level. The model is used to investigate the effect of the various design parameters on the biomechanical environment of the spine segment.

  19. 5 senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Anderson

    2010-04-15

    The students will learn how their senses work and what they use for each sense. This will help to cover the content standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Parents I appreciate all the help you are giving to your child for them to complete this assignment. All the tasks which I will be having the children do will need to go right into the white sack I sent home with them. Also sorry about the commercials with the videos, I couldn't find a way to show them without those begin included. We all have 5 senses . These senses are taste, touch, sight, smell, and hearing . In order to better understand our environment we need to understand how to use our senses to explore it. I will have you go through a series of videos, definitions, and other resources ...

  20. MANAGEMENT OF DISPLACED TIBIAL SPINE FRACTURE - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Anterior tibial spine fracture is relatively a rare injury in orthopedic practice. Undisplaced and minimally displaced (type 1&2 fractu res can be treated by closed reduction and long leg cast. To avoid persistent post injury i nstability and secondary degenerative changes displaced tibial spine fractures (type3 need to be managed surgically. In this study, all displaced tibial spine fractures (type3 are treated w ith open reduction and internal fixation with stainless steel wires except in one case which is fixed with non absorbable suture. During follow up very good result are obtained in respect to satisfactory reduction, healing of fractures, and range of motion and stability of knee.

  1. MR manifestations of vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of a vertebral artery injury occurring from major cervical spine trauma. Conventional MR findings of 63 patients and 63 control subjects were compared to detect a possible change in the vertebral arteries resulted from trauma. Plain films, CT and clinical records were also reviewed to correlate the degree of cervical spine injury with vascular change. Nine cases of absent flow signals in vessel lumen were observed in eight patients and one was observed in the control group. Patients more frequently demonstrated other abnormalities such as intraluminal linear signals (n=3) or focal luminal narrowing (n=9) but there was no statistical significance. There was a close relationship between degree of cord damage and occlusion of the vertebral artery. Conventional MR imaging is useful in the detection of vertebral artery occlusion resulting from cervical spine trauma

  2. Epithelioid sarcoma of the spine: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hyun Yoo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare malignant soft tissue neoplasm commonly involving extremities of young adults and rarely occurring in the trunk area. It re-sembles a chronic inflammatory process and mimics benign reactive granuloma or other benign diseases. Despite its indolence and slow growth, the prognosis is poor with high recurrence and early lymph node spreading and hematogeneous distant metastasis. Involvement of the spine is extremely rare and diffi-cult to diagnose correctly in clinical presentation and pathology. We describe our experience a case of epi-thelioid sarcoma involving lumbar spine. A pre-ope- rative spine MRI showed a large solid and necrotic paraspinal mass which extended into the spinal canal with cord compression, and bone destruction. Final correct diagnosis was confirmed by immunohisto-chemical studies. When young adults present with a spinal lesion that has unusual large necrotic soft tissue mass, immunohistochemical studies are recommended for promptly determining the possibility of spinal epithelioid sarcoma.

  3. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime

  4. Recurrent spine surgery patients in hospital administrative database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sami Walid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital patient databases are typically used by administrative staff to estimate loss-profit ratios and to help with the allocation of hospital resources. These databases can also be very useful in following rehospitalization. This paper studies the recurrence of spine surgery patients in our hospital population based on administrative data analysis. Methods: Hospital data on 4,958 spine surgery patients operated between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. After sorting the cohort per ascending discharge date, the patient official name, consisting of first, middle and last names, was used as the variable determining duplicate cases in the SPSS statistical program, designating the first case in each group as primary. Yearly recurrence rate and change in procedure distribution were studied. In addition, hospital charges and length of stay were compared using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of 4,958 spine surgery patients 364 (7.3% were categorized as duplicate cases by SPSS. The number of primary cases from which duplicate cases emerged was 327 meaning that some patients had more than two spine surgeries. Among primary patients (N=327 the percentage of excision of intervertebral disk procedures was 33.3% and decreased to 15.1% in recurrent admissions of the same patients (N=364. This decrease was compensated by an increase in lumbar fusion procedures. On the other hand, the rate of cervical fusion remained the same. The difference in hospital charges between primary and duplicate patients was $2,234 for diskectomy, $6,319 for anterior cervical fusion, $8,942 for lumbar fusion – lateral technique, and $12,525 for lumbar fusion – posterior technique. Recurrent patients also stayed longer in hospital, up to 0.9 day in lumbar fusion – posterior technique patients. Conclusion: Spine surgery is associated with an increasing possibility of additional spine surgery with rising invasiveness and cost.

  5. ?-Catenin Regulates Spine and Synapse Morphogenesis and Function in Hippocampal Neurons during Development

    OpenAIRE

    Arikkath, Jyothi; Peng, I-feng; Ng, Yu Gie; Israely, Inbal; Liu, Xin; Ullian, Erik M.; Reichardt, Louis F.

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance of spine and synapse number during development is critical for neuronal circuit formation and function. Here we show that ?-catenin, a component of the cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex, regulates spine and synapse morphogenesis during development. Genetic ablation or acute knockdown of ?-catenin leads to increases in spine and synapse density, accompanied by a decrease in tetrodotoxin induced spine plasticity. Our results indicate that ?-catenin may mediate conversion...

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 disrupts dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons through NMDA receptor activation

    OpenAIRE

    Bilousova, Tina V.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Ethell, Douglas W.; Ethell, Iryna M.

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic spines are protrusions from the dendritic shaft that host most excitatory synapses in the brain. Although they first emerge during neuronal maturation, dendritic spines remain plastic through adulthood, and recent advances in the molecular mechanisms governing spine morphology have shown them to be exquisitely sensitive to changes in the micro-environment. Among the many factors affecting spine morphology are components and regulators of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Modification ...

  7. Loss of PSD-95 Enrichment is not a Prerequisite for Spine Retraction

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Georgia F.; Oh, Won Chan; Boudewyn, Lauren C.; Mikula, Sarah K.; Zito, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Changes in neuronal structure are thought to underlie long-term behavioral modifications associated with learning and memory. In particular, considerable evidence implicates the destabilization and retraction of dendritic spines along with the loss of spine synapses as an important cellular mechanism for refining brain circuits, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating spine elimination remain ill-defined. The postsynaptic density protein, PSD-95, is highly enriched in dendritic spines and has...

  8. Computertomographic examinations of the canine lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) documentation of cross-sectional anatomy of the lumbosacral area, 2) to obtain and describe abnormalities and finally 3)to develop a CT technique for the diagnosis of a L7/S1 spondylolisthesis. In a 3 year retrospective study 61 large breed dogs with history of suspected cauda equina-syndrome were examined using flexion-extension radiography and flexion-extension computed tomography. 25 out of 60 dogs were German shepherd dogs, 3 shepherd-cross, 7 mongrels, 4 Rottweilers and 22 other breeds. 27 dogs of the flexion/extension group were also morphometrically examined. CT studies regarding morphology of the lumbosacral joint showed differences between flexed and extended position: The intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed position, the intervertebral disc, segmental spinal nerves and contrast enhanced blood vessels were more easily to evaluate. In flexion the lumbosacral foramen was 'open' in all cases, while it was 'closed' in most of the extension slices. The cranial articular processes of the sacrum appeared earlier in extension, they seemed to 'slip' beneath the caudal articular processes of the last lumbar vertebra, the articular surfaces got incongruent, and therefore the intervertebral foramina were narrowed. The most common pathologic findings were disk protrusion (28 dogs) and spondylosis (24 dogs). Rare diagnoses were neoplasia (1 case), transitional vertebra (1 case), shortened L7 (2 cases) and osteochondrosis dissecad L7 (2 cases) and osteochondrosis dissecans of the L7 or sacral endplate (5 cases). Morphometrical examinations showed that the intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed positions, not only in length (craniocaudal dimension) but also in their dorsoventral diameter. There was no difference in the dorsoventral diameter of the spinal canal between flexion and extension CT. This study showed that computed tomography is superior to common ways of imaging of the lumbosacral spine like radiography or myelography. It was possible to identify pathologic changes as morphologic and morphometric differences between flexed and extended positions. A technique for diagnosis of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis could not be obtained. (author)

  9. Stability following fracture-dislocations of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Sel, J M; Cibeira, J B; Espagnol, R O; del Sel, G M; del Sel, H J

    1975-11-01

    After having dealt with over 150 cases of fracture-dislocations of the cervical spine, the authors conclude that conservative orthopaedic treatment leads to the best results. The lesions are classified in upper and lower cervical spine. The latter has been divided into two subgroups according to the presence or abscense of neurological involvement. The importance of skull traction and of a well-moulded minerva plaster jacket is stressed. An adjustable leather collar is a useful alternative for immobilisation and exercises, favouring spontaneous fusion. In neither group, should surgical fusion be considered a routine procedure. PMID:1208118

  10. Biometric X-ray-function diagnosis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subject of this study was the investigation of functional disorders of the cervical spine and their possible causal relation with the symptoms and signs of pathological cervical images. In order to approach this investigation with objectively measurable time criteria, functional X-ray diagnostics results to be the appropriate method. From the results obtained in individual and statistical group examinations as well as in examinations of the longitudinal section the conclusion is drawn that a functional disorder of the cervical spine may provoke a cervical syndrome. (APR)

  11. Risk factors and visual results in cases of LASIK flap repositioning due to folds or dislocation: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Guerra, Alfredo R; Rey, Juan J; Camacho, Paul A

    2014-02-01

    The presence of a corneal flap is a hallmark of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), which offers advantages in terms of speed of visual recovery; however, it also carries the risk of postoperative flap displacement. We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive eyes on which LASIK was performed by one single surgeon at an ophthalmological institute in Colombia between May 2005 and January 2011, looking for eyes that required flap repositioning. Demographic data, preoperative refraction, hinge position, and visual outcomes following flap repositioning were evaluated. A literature review on the subject was also conducted. We found 37 eyes on which flap repositioning was performed-12 eyes (32.4 %) with subluxation and 25 eyes (67.6 %) with folds; 21 eyes (56.8 %) had a temporal hinge and 16 eyes (43.2 %) had a superior hinge. With regard to the total number of eyes on which LASIK was performed (2,595), the overall incidence was 1.4 %. Sixteen out of 2,093 eyes (0.8 %) with a superior hinge and 21 out of 502 eyes (4.2 %) with a temporal hinge had flap-related postoperative complications (p < 0.00). A final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between 20/20 and 20/25 was found in 75.7 % and a final BCVA between 20/30 and 20/40 was found in 21.6 %. Only one eye had less than 20/40 (previous amblyopia). From the eight eyes with a BCVA between 20/30 and 20/40, three had residual microstriae and one had corneal haze. Six eyes (16.2 %) lost two or more lines of BCVA. Flap subluxation or folds requiring flap repositioning were significantly more frequent when a temporal hinge was used. PMID:23605593

  12. Sagittal Lumbar Spine Position During Standing, Walking, and Running at Various Gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, David; Colston, Marisa A.; Whittle, Michael W; Pharo, Elizabeth C; Marcellin-Little, Denis J

    2007-01-01

    Context: Motion in the lumbar spine during certain physical activities may exceed tissue homeostasis, leading to low back pain. Previous authors have assessed sagittal motion of the lumbar spine during walking; however, limited attention has been focused on changes in spine position with walking or running on different surface gradients.

  13. A novel method for dendritic spines detection based on directional morphological filter and shortest path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ran; Sun, Changming; Zhang, Chao; Pham, Tuan D

    2014-12-01

    Dendritic spines are tiny membranous protrusions from neuron's dendrites. They play a very important role in the nervous system. A number of mental diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and mental retardation are revealed to have close relations with spine morphologies or spine number changes. Spines have various shapes, and spine images are often not of good quality; hence it is very challenging to detect spines in neuron images. This paper presents a novel pipeline to detect dendritic spines in 2D maximum intensity projection (MIP) images and a new dendrite backbone extraction method is developed in the pipeline. The strategy for the backbone extraction approach is that it iteratively refines the extraction result based on directional morphological filtering and improved Hessian filtering until a satisfactory extraction result is obtained. A shortest path method is applied along a backbone to extract the boundary of the dendrites. Spines are then segmented from the dendrites outside the extracted boundary. Touching spines will be split using a marker-controlled watershed algorithm. We present the results of our algorithm on real images and compare our algorithm with two other spine detection methods. The results show that the proposed approach can detect dendrites and spines more accurately. Measurements and classification of spines are also made in this paper. PMID:25155696

  14. Randomized crossover trial of two treatments for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome: continuous positive airway pressure and mandibular repositioning splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engleman, Heather M; McDonald, James P; Graham, David; Lello, Glenn E; Kingshott, Ruth N; Coleman, Emma L; Mackay, Thomas W; Douglas, Neil J

    2002-09-15

    Mandibular repositioning splints (MRSs) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are used to treat the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). There are some data suggesting that patients with milder symptoms prefer MRS, but there are few comparative data on outcomes. Therefore, we performed a randomized crossover trial of 8 weeks of CPAP and 8 weeks of MRS treatment in consecutive new outpatients diagnosed with SAHS (apnea/hypopnea index [AHI] >or= 5/hour, and >or= 2 symptoms including sleepiness). Assessments at the end of both limbs comprised home sleep study, subjective ratings of treatment value, sleepiness, symptoms, and well-being, and objective tests of sleepiness and cognition. Forty-eight of 51 recruited patients completed the trial (12 women; age [mean +/- SD], 46 +/- 9 years; Epworth 14 +/- 4; median AHI, 22/hour; interquartile ratio [IQR], 11-43/hour). Significant (p favoring CPAP, including AHI (15 +/- 16 and 8 +/- 6/hour, respectively), effectiveness rating, symptoms, Epworth (12 +/- 5 and 8 +/- 5, respectively), functional outcomes of sleepiness questionnaire, short-form 36 health survey mental component, and health transition scores. Objective sleepiness, cognitive performance, and preference for treatments were not different. In patients experiencing a mild form of the syndrome (AHI < 15, n = 18), symptoms, treatment efficacy and satisfaction, and subjective sleepiness were also better with CPAP than with MRS (effect sizes, 0.7-1.1 SDs). These results do not support these MRS devices as first-line treatment for sleepy patients with SAHS. PMID:12231497

  15. Vitrectomía pars plana y reimplante de lente intraocular en surco Pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular lens repositioning in the sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guerra García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentó un caso de lente intraocular luxado a vítreo en paciente con conteo bajo de células endoteliales e intolerancia a lentes de contacto. Se practicó vitrectomía pars plana con reimplante de lente en surco ciliar con el objetivo de demostrar la fiabilidad de la técnica para casos que presenten condiciones adecuadas y situaciones especiales. Se revisó la bibliografía para conocer las tendencias actuales con respecto al manejo de esta patología. El paciente alcanzó una agudeza visual de 20/30. El lente permaneció estable en el surco 3 meses después de practicada la vitrectomía. El manejo de esta entidad debe ser personalizado. La técnica utilizada debe ser siempre la primera opción de tratamiento y parece ser segura en casos cuidadosamente escogidos.A case of dislocated intraocular lens moved to the vitreous cavity in a patient with low endothelial cell count and contact lens intolerance was reported. A pars plana vitrectomy with lens repositioning was performed to demonstrate the safety of this technique for some special cases under adequate conditions. The literature was reviewed to learn about the current management of this pathology. Finally, patient's best visual acuity was 20/30. The stability of the lens was confirmed three month l after the vitrectomy. Management of this disorder should be customized. This technique should be considered as the first option of treatment and seems to be safe in selected cases.

  16. Vitrectomía pars plana y reimplante de lente intraocular en surco / Pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular lens repositioning in the sulcus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Guerra García; Luis, Curbelo Cunill; Frank, Eguía Martínez; María del Carmen, Rivas Canino.

    Full Text Available Se presentó un caso de lente intraocular luxado a vítreo en paciente con conteo bajo de células endoteliales e intolerancia a lentes de contacto. Se practicó vitrectomía pars plana con reimplante de lente en surco ciliar con el objetivo de demostrar la fiabilidad de la técnica para casos que present [...] en condiciones adecuadas y situaciones especiales. Se revisó la bibliografía para conocer las tendencias actuales con respecto al manejo de esta patología. El paciente alcanzó una agudeza visual de 20/30. El lente permaneció estable en el surco 3 meses después de practicada la vitrectomía. El manejo de esta entidad debe ser personalizado. La técnica utilizada debe ser siempre la primera opción de tratamiento y parece ser segura en casos cuidadosamente escogidos. Abstract in english A case of dislocated intraocular lens moved to the vitreous cavity in a patient with low endothelial cell count and contact lens intolerance was reported. A pars plana vitrectomy with lens repositioning was performed to demonstrate the safety of this technique for some special cases under adequate c [...] onditions. The literature was reviewed to learn about the current management of this pathology. Finally, patient's best visual acuity was 20/30. The stability of the lens was confirmed three month l after the vitrectomy. Management of this disorder should be customized. This technique should be considered as the first option of treatment and seems to be safe in selected cases.

  17. Student apathy for classroom learning and need of repositioning in present andragogy in Indian dental schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dable Rajani A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the world of technology, when today's student is approaching the on-line /distance learning in the open universities and doing on-line self-assessment, the classroom learning is vanishing slowly. Globally, teachers are taking efforts to improve the pedagogy by implementing effective methods to retain the classroom teaching and student attendance. The present study aims at shedding some light on the need of changing the adult education strategies (andragogy, which can effectively improve the student attendance for lectures. Methods It is an observational study, and the conceptual framework of it is based on beliefs, opinions and personal experiences of the respondents. Triangulation method is used for collecting the data. The data is achieved from three groups of concerned population who could provide valid results to support the study. It is collected by interviewing 10 senior faculty members who are/were the 'education experts' in the universities, while the main concerned groups of present educational stream, i.e. 'institution-teachers' and the 'students', were given questionnaires. 570 teacher respondents and 200 student respondents are the main participants of this study. Results As per data, it has been observed that senior faculty (90% and students (93.25% feel need of student motivation more than the institutional teachers (52.44%. P-values were obtained using Chi-Square test for testing the significance of difference between agreement and disagreement for a specific question. Conclusions In India, Universities have already sensed the need of 'teacher development programmes'. But teachers in dental colleges, demand more efforts to be taken by universities and managements in this regard and expect better educational policies to give them accessibility to prove themselves.

  18. Conversational Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it possible to represent information fusion and situational awareness as a conversational process among actors - human and machine agents - at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of security, policing and emergency response, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natur...

  19. Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

  20. Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, Michael; Schneider, Karl [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology - Paediatric Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

  1. Capabilities of ultrasound diagnosis in lumbar spine pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capabilities of radiodiagnosis (x-ray, CT, and ultrasound) in diagnosis of degenerative disk disease (DDD) of the lumbar spine (LS) were studied. The performed study have shown that ultrasound study in DDD allows easy and more accurate calculation of the VC area at the disk level. Besides, the use of Doppler ultrasound allows revealing the cause of compression syndrome in every case

  2. Reconstitution of lost cervical spine function: management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst, Arne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The cervical spine (CS is the most vulnerable part of the whole spine because it has least protection. This is due to its high mobility (few bone, but largely muscle and joint support which is associated with a high injury risk. The anatomical characteristics are based on evolutionary biological reasons, i.e. humans had to be able to freely controlling the surrounding space with their eyes and to have permanent postural control by an upright position of the head. The cervical spine, its joint and the surrounding muscles are highly interconnected (e.g. direct neuronal projections into the brain stem, connections to the TMJ, Head's zones with projections to the skin surface. Moreover, the spinal pain memory store can lead to a variets of multi-facette clinical pictures. In addition to reversible disorders of the cervical spine, posttraumatic disorders play a major role. The therapy options available include physiotherapy, drug therapy and surgical measures. However, a multidisciplinary approach is most favourable.

  3. Computer aided measurement of biomechanical characteristics of cadaverous lumbar spines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barton?k, L.; Keprt, Ji?í; Charamza, J.; Hrabálek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 3 (2004), s. 504-510. ISSN 1644-3608 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : lumbar spine * force gauges * specle interferometry * fast Fourier transform PACS Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.375, year: 2004

  4. Development and evaluation of a spine biopsy simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathan, C; Cleary, K; Greco, R

    1998-01-01

    A spine biopsy simulator is being developed to 1) train surgeons on the current method for CT-directed needle biopsy and 2) provide a testbed for developing new image-guided and robot-assist methodologies. A task analysis and function allocation assessment provide the needed information for the first stage of the simulator development and evaluation. PMID:10180577

  5. Complex radiodiagnosis of the lumbar spine spinal canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound study was done in 67 patients with osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine revealed by x-ray study, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Ultrasound technique is highly informative in visualizing location, direction, size of the hernia in lumbar osteochondrosis and stenosis of spinal canal

  6. Cervical spine fractures and rear car seat restraints.

    OpenAIRE

    Conry, B. G.; Hall, C. M.

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of potentially fatal cervical spine fractures in children who were inadequately restrained by malfunctioning car seat restraints are presented. Adequate parental maintenance of seat restraints and their readjustment when children change from wearing lightweight to thick, heavy clothing are imperative.

  7. Lumbar arachnoiditis as the differential diagnosis of chronic spine problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbar epiduro-arachnoiditis is an infectious disaese of the three mengial layers. It is often caused by surgical interventions on the spine. In this survey etiologic factors, clinical symptoms and radiological findings are compared. The radiologic classification of Delamater is described by three clinical cases. The diagnostic value of different procedures such as myelography, postmyelographic computed tomography and MR imaging is evaluated. (orig.)

  8. Instrumental design for anterior fixation of dorsal and lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an experimental work; the main purpose is design a system for anterior fixation of thoracolumbar spine. The system includes screws, rods and transverse connectors. Mechanical tests to the system with axial and rotation charges showed elevated resistance and plasticity. The process include the development of elements for application of the system

  9. Iophendylate (pantopaque) and MR imaging of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, A K; Halthore, S N; Wani, S

    1987-01-01

    Residual iophendylate in the spinal subarachnoid space may closely resemble certain spinal canal tumors on MR imaging of the spine. A knowledge of the appearance on MR imaging scans of iophendylate is essential to differentiate it from spinal tumors. PMID:3665458

  10. Positional device for cinematographic MR of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel positioning device is explained and the experience obtained so far with its application in cinematic MRI of the cervical spine, allowing an extended range of movement from 60 degrees ante- to 40 degrees retroflexion. The tests were done with volounteers. (orig./MG)

  11. Evaluation of spine boards for X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Spine boards are frequently used in preclinical emergency care. Different models were examined with regard to their feasibility for plain film radiography and computed tomography (CT). Methods: Five current spine board models were measured for their dimensions and weight. Transmission of radiation [?Gyls] and dose area product [cGy x cm2] were determined with a patient equivalent aluminium phantom. Image artifacts, image quality and resolution of anatomic details were evaluated with an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom. Results: With only 6.3 kg new models show a 28% reduction in weight, three spine boards generate lateral artifacts due to a narrow width of 41 - 42 cm. Radiation transmission of all boards was similar, however dose area products differed by up to 59%. Image quality was impaired in 4 out 5 boards because of image artifacts, CT scanning was not impaired with all boards. Conclusion: Only one board (Ferno Millenia trademark) showed sufficient properties for plain film radiography and CT. There is no suitable spine board for preclinical and clinical applications as well as for trauma radiology, further improvements of current designs are essential. (orig.)

  12. Giant cell tumor of the lumbar spine with intraperitoneal growth: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Bendix, C; Cornelius, J F; Bostelmann, R; Gierga, K; Steiger, H J

    2013-07-01

    Giant cell tumors of the spine are uncommon. Usually they are benign and solitary, but locally very aggressive. Most of them occur at the sacral spine. There are only 26 reported cases in the literature involving this type of tumor in the lumbar spine, in particular exhibiting an intraperitoneal growth. We present the case of a woman with a primary tumor of the lumbar spine (giant cell tumor) with intraperitoneal growth, the outcome as well as a review of the literature. Furthermore, after reviewing all spinal cases in the literature above the sacral spine, we carefully suggest a management algorithm. PMID:23615800

  13. Spine Shape Predicts Vertebral Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of patients at high risk of developing fragility fractures is crucial in the management of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the shape of the spine as can be observed from lateral X-rays is indicative for the risk of future development of fragility fractures in the spine. The study included 568 elderly women of whom 455 maintained skeletal integrity during the mean observation period of 4.8 years and 113 sustained at least one vertebral fracture in the same period. At baseline, none of the women had experienced a previous osteoporotic fracture, and the two groups were not significantly different in terms of age (66.2 ± 0.2 vs. 66.1 ± 0.4), spine BMD (0.77 ± 0.004 vs. 0.76 ± 0.008), body weight (64.7 ± 0.4 vs. 64.6 ± 0.8), height (160.6 ± 0.3 vs. 161 ± 0.5), and number of years since menopause. A radiologist annotated the corner points and mid points of the vertebral end plates of each vertebra from L5 to T4 on digitized lateral radiographs taken at the baseline visit. These points together describe a combination of factors characterizing the spinal shape, including the shape and the size of individual vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks, alignment of vertebrae, and spinal curvature. The positions of the points were subsequently used as the input features to train a pattern classification system to discriminate between spines of women maintaining skeletal health and spines sustaining a fracture in the near future (regularized linear discriminant analysis). Applied to an annotated X-ray image of an unfractured spine, this classification model then provides a measure of the probability that the spine will develop a fracture. In a leave-one-out experiment, in which the classification models were constructed from a training set excluding any images of the patient under study, fracture probability measures were significantly different between the two groups at baseline (0.26 ± 0.02 vs. 0.18 ± 0.006, p < 10-6). Incident fractures could be predicted from the baseline image with 80% accuracy; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65, and the odds ratio (OR) for fracture 5.2 [95% CI 2.3, 11.6]. Significant predictive value remained after adjustment for age and spine BMD (p < 10-6, AUC=0.66, OR=2.0 [1.0, 3.9]).Measures of spine shape can predict vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women, independent of age and spine BMD. The herein presented computer based diagnostic tool could be a useful supplement to existing approaches to fracture risk assessment.

  14. Creating A Sustainable Model of Spine Care in Underserved Communities : The World Spine Care (WSC) Charity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The world lacks sustainable models of care to manage spinal disorders in poor and underserved communities. The purpose of this article is to: (1) review the rationale and importance of developing a sustainable evidence-based model of care at low cost for people with spinal disorders in underserved and poor communities, and (2) describe the process and challenges of establishing such a program in these communities. Given that burden of disease studies rank spinal disorders among the leading causes of disability and the finding that low-income countries have much need but few resources for delivering adequate care, World Spine Care (WSC) was established to "improve lives in underserved communities through sustainable, integrated, evidence-based, spinal care." WSC is comprised of volunteers and institutions from 6 continents and several countries, and incorporates a Board of Directors, an executive committee, a clinical team and a research committee. WSC opened its first clinic in 2012 in Botswana, and now has aclinic in the Dominican Republic and a memorandum of understanding to open a clinic in Tanzania. Clinical programs, research projects, and education-based capacity-building initiatives are adapted to and integrated within each community in collaboration with local decision makers, existing health care workers and traditional healers. Cornerstones of WSC's emphasis on long-term sustainability are (1) education of community partners, governments and local health professionals, and (2) facilitation of opportunities for training graduate students in a variety of health-related fields. World Spine Care has (a) recognized the enormous need to establish clinical programs aimed at easing the suffering and disability associated with spinal disorders in resource-poor communities, (b) shown widespread support for an organization devoted to reducing the global burden of disease caused by spinal disorders, and (c) shown that establishing successful evidence-based, culturally appropriate programs in cooperation with localgovernments and communities are possible. Challenges remain, but with sound leadership, research and a model of care, there is an opportunity to help reduce the burden of the leading cause of disability in the world.

  15. Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability

  16. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multiple myeloma of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mont' Alverne, Francisco [Universite Paris VI, Department of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Sao Paulo University, Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Vallee, Jean-Noel; Guillevin, Remy; Cormier, Evelyne; Jean, Betty; Rose, Michelle; Chiras, Jacques [Universite Paris VI, Department of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Caldas, Jose Guilherme [Sao Paulo University, Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    Spinal involvement is a common presentation of multiple myeloma (MM); however, the cervical spine is the least common site of myelomatous involvement. Few studies evaluate the results of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) in the treatment of MM of the spine. The purpose of this series is to report on the use of PV in the treatment of MM of the cervical spine and to review the literature. From January 1994 to October 2007, four patients (three men and one woman; mean age, 45 years) who underwent five PV for painful MM in the cervical spine were retrospectively reviewed. The pain was estimated by the patient on a verbal analogic scale. Clinical follow-up was available for all patients (mean, 27.5 months; range, 1-96 months). The mean volume of cement injected per vertebral body was 2.3 {+-} 0.8 mL (range, 1.0-4.0 mL) with a mean vertebral filling of 55.0 {+-} 12.0% (range, 40.0-75.0%). Analgesic efficacy was achieved in all patients. One patient had a spinal instability due to a progression of spinal deformity noted on follow-up radiographs, without clinical symptoms. Cement leakage was detected in three (60%) of the five treated vertebrae. There was no clinical complication. The present series suggests that PV for MM of the cervical spine is safe and effective for pain control; nonetheless, the detrimental impact of the disease on bone quality should prompt close radiological follow-up after PV owing to the risk of spinal instability. (orig.)

  17. Delta-catenin regulates spine and synapse morphogenesis and function in hippocampal neurons during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikkath, Jyothi; Peng, I-Feng; Ng, Yu Gie; Israely, Inbal; Liu, Xin; Ullian, Erik M; Reichardt, Louis F

    2009-04-29

    The maintenance of spine and synapse number during development is critical for neuronal circuit formation and function. Here we show that delta-catenin, a component of the cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex, regulates spine and synapse morphogenesis during development. Genetic ablation or acute knockdown of delta-catenin leads to increases in spine and synapse density, accompanied by a decrease in tetrodotoxin induced spine plasticity. Our results indicate that delta-catenin may mediate conversion of activity-dependent signals to morphological spine plasticity. The functional role of delta-catenin in regulating spine density does not require binding to cadherins, but does require interactions with PDZ domain-containing proteins. We propose that the perturbations in spine and synaptic structure and function observed after depletion of delta-catenin during development may contribute to functional alterations in neural circuitry, the cognitive deficits observed in mutant mice, and the mental retardation pathology of Cri-du-chat syndrome. PMID:19403811

  18. Test validity and intra-rater reliability in the measurement of scapular position sense in asymptomatic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huei-Ru; Shih, Yi-Fen

    2015-06-01

    It is suggested that scapular joint position sense (JPS) contributes to scapular stability. However, there is a lack of studies describing the measurement method for three-dimensional (3D) scapular JPS. The purposes of this study were to investigate the measurement repeatability and validity of the scapular JPS, and examine the effect of arm dominance on the scapular JPS in asymptomatic young adults. Ten subjects participated in this study. The scapular JPS was measured as scapular reposition errors during scapular elevation, depression, protraction, and retraction. Both the 3D scapular kinematics and clinical scale rule measurement were recorded during the test. The results showed that the measurement of scapular reposition errors resulted in moderate to excellent within-day intra-rater reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient ICC(3,2) between 0.60 and 0.99 for 3D scapular rotations, between 0.56 and 0.96 for 3D scapular displacement, and between 0.73 and 0.98 for the clinical scale ruler measurement. Scapular reposition errors measured using a 3D electromagnetic tracking device and using a scale ruler had a significant relationship (r=0.74-0.98). There was no significant difference in scapular reposition errors between the dominant and non-dominant shoulders. Our findings indicated that both the 3D tracking device and scale ruler resulted in a reliable measurement of scapular JPS and the clinical measurement method could be used to provide valid data for scapular JPS evaluation. In addition, arm dominance did not influence the scapular JPS in asymptomatic young adults. PMID:25735192

  19. Pentoxifylline Reverses Chronic Experimental Chagasic Cardiomyopathy in Association with Repositioning of Abnormal CD8+ T-Cell Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Isabela Resende; Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Moreira, Otacilio Cruz; Ramos, Isalira Peroba; Gibaldi, Daniel; Britto, Constança; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC), the main clinical sign of Chagas disease, is associated with systemic CD8+ T-cell abnormalities and CD8-enriched myocarditis occurring in an inflammatory milieu. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has immunoregulatory and cardioprotective properties. Here, we tested PTX effects on CD8+ T-cell abnormalities and cardiac alterations using a model of experimental Chagas’ heart disease. Methodology/Principal Findings C57BL/6 mice chronically infected by the Colombian Trypanosoma cruzi strain and presenting signs of CCC were treated with PTX. The downmodulation of T-cell receptors on CD8+ cells induced by T. cruzi infection was rescued by PTX therapy. Also, PTX reduced the frequency of CD8+ T-cells expressing activation and migration markers in the spleen and the activation of blood vessel endothelial cells and the intensity of inflammation in the heart tissue. Although preserved interferon-gamma production systemically and in the cardiac tissue, PTX therapy reduced the number of perforin+ cells invading this tissue. PTX did not alter parasite load, but hampered the progression of heart injury, improving connexin 43 expression and decreasing fibronectin overdeposition. Further, PTX reversed electrical abnormalities as bradycardia and prolonged PR, QTc and QRS intervals in chronically infected mice. Moreover, PTX therapy improved heart remodeling since reduced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and restored the decreased LV ejection fraction. Conclusions/Significance PTX therapy ameliorates critical aspects of CCC and repositioned CD8+ T-cell response towards homeostasis, reinforcing that immunological abnormalities are crucially linked, as cause or effect, to CCC. Therefore, PTX emerges as a candidate to treat the non-beneficial immune deregulation associated with chronic Chagas' heart disease and to improve prognosis. PMID:25789471

  20. Mandibular-Lingual Repositioning Device - MLRD: preliminary results of 8 patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome - OSAS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Castro, Barbosa; Flávio, Aloe; Stella, Tavares; Ademir Baptista, Silva.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os aparelhos bucais têm sido usados principalmente para o tratamento de roncos primários e síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono (SÃOS) leve-moderada. Os autores relatam resultados clínicos preliminares em 8 pacientes com síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono diagnosticada clínica e poli [...] ssonograficamente. Foram tratados com o Aparelho Reposicionador Mandíbulo-Lingual (ARML), desenvolvido por um dos autores (RCB). MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram realizados: cefalometria pré-ARML; escala de sonolência de Epworth (ESE) pré e pós-ARML e questionário que quantifica uma melhora global subjetiva (MGS) do paciente. Controles foram obtidos 4 semanas pós-ARML. RESULTADOS: A melhora global subjetiva foi de 73,75% em média e a escala de sonolência de Epwoeth variou de 13,88 (pré-ARML) para 6,63 (pósARML) apresentando significância estatística (p=0,05). Os autores discutem os prováveis fatores envolvidos na melhora da medida subjetiva de sonolência excessiva diurna. Abstract in english Dental devices have been employed in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) of mild to moderate degrees. The authors disclose the preliminary results in 8 patients with clinically diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea polisomnographically confirmed and treated with a dental [...] device (Mandibular-Lingual Repositioning Device - MLRD) developed by one of the authors (RCB). Cephalometrics was performed before usage of MLRD, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) tests were conducted before and after the MLRD and a questionnaire that subjectively qualified the Overall Subjective Improvement of the patient (OSI) was filled out. The tests were repeated 4 weeks after the application of the MLRD. The average subjective overall improvement was 73.75% and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was 13.88 (pre - MLRD) and 6.63 (post - MLRD) representing a significant statistical variation (p=0.05). The authors discuss probable factors involved in the improvement of the subjective measurements of excessive sleepiness.

  1. Drug-repositioning screening identified piperlongumine as a direct STAT3 inhibitor with potent activity against breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, U; Eckols, T K; Kolosov, M; Kasembeli, M M; Adam, A; Torres, D; Zhang, X; Dobrolecki, L E; Wei, W; Lewis, M T; Dave, B; Chang, J C; Landis, M D; Creighton, C J; Mancini, M A; Tweardy, D J

    2015-03-12

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates many cardinal features of cancer including cancer cell growth, apoptosis resistance, DNA damage response, metastasis, immune escape, tumor angiogenesis, the Warburg effect and oncogene addiction and has been validated as a drug target for cancer therapy. Several strategies have been used to identify agents that target Stat3 in breast cancer but none has yet entered into clinical use. We used a high-throughput fluorescence microscopy search strategy to identify compounds in a drug-repositioning library (Prestwick library) that block ligand-induced nuclear translocation of Stat3 and identified piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from the fruit of the pepper Piper longum. PL inhibited Stat3 nuclear translocation, inhibited ligand-induced and constitutive Stat3 phosphorylation, and modulated expression of multiple Stat3-regulated genes. Surface plasmon resonance assay revealed that PL directly inhibited binding of Stat3 to its phosphotyrosyl peptide ligand. Phosphoprotein antibody array analysis revealed that PL does not modulate kinases known to activate Stat3 such as Janus kinases, Src kinase family members or receptor tyrosine kinases. PL inhibited anchorage-independent and anchorage-dependent growth of multiple breast cancer cell lines having increased pStat3 or total Stat3, and induced apoptosis. PL also inhibited mammosphere formation by tumor cells from patient-derived xenografts. PL's antitumorigenic function was causally linked to its Stat3-inhibitory effect. PL was non-toxic in mice up to a dose of 30?mg/kg/day for 14 days and caused regression of breast cancer cell line xenografts in nude mice. Thus, PL represents a promising new agent for rapid entry into the clinic for use in treating breast cancer, as well as other cancers in which Stat3 has a role. PMID:24681959

  2. Pathologic thoracic spine fracture in presence of Parkinson’s disease and diffuse ankylosis: successful management of a challenging condition

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki Yasuchika; Nakajima Arata; Sakakibara Ryuji; Ohtori Seiji; Takahashi Kazuhisa; Nakagawa Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with Parkinson’s disease have higher risk of complications and revision surgery following spine surgery. Spinal fracture in an ankylosed spine is also difficult to treat. We recently treated a case of thoracic spine fracture in a patient with Parkinson’s disease complicating a severely ankylosed spine. There is no report describing surgical treatment of spine fracture in such a difficult condition, thus, we firstly report the case and discuss the reasons for a...

  3. Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of seven classroom activities that focus on mapping and navigation. Topics include: sensory remote sensing; maps and globes; coded signals; satellite imagery resolution; color imagery; visible and infrared imagery; sea turtle tracking; and locating the Titanic. Each activity provides list of materials needed, background information, and procedure.

  4. Sensing retroviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Liberatore, Rachel A.; Bieniasz, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Sensing pathogens is an essential first step in the initiation of a host response to infection, Using mouse models, Kane et al.(2011) demonstrate that Toll-like receptor 7 is required for the generation of an antibody response to infection by retroviruses.

  5. Pervasive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2000-11-01

    The coordinated exploitation of modern communication, micro- sensor and computer technologies makes it possible to give global reach to our senses. Web-cameras for vision, web- microphones for hearing and web-'noses' for smelling, plus the abilities to sense many factors we cannot ordinarily perceive, are either available or will be soon. Applications include (1) determination of weather and environmental conditions on dense grids or over large areas, (2) monitoring of energy usage in buildings, (3) sensing the condition of hardware in electrical power distribution and information systems, (4) improving process control and other manufacturing, (5) development of intelligent terrestrial, marine, aeronautical and space transportation systems, (6) managing the continuum of routine security monitoring, diverse crises and military actions, and (7) medicine, notably the monitoring of the physiology and living conditions of individuals. Some of the emerging capabilities, such as the ability to measure remotely the conditions inside of people in real time, raise interesting social concerns centered on privacy issues. Methods for sensor data fusion and designs for human-computer interfaces are both crucial for the full realization of the potential of pervasive sensing. Computer-generated virtual reality, augmented with real-time sensor data, should be an effective means for presenting information from distributed sensors.

  6. The use of radiological guidelines to achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To determine if the use of request guidelines can achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee joints performed for general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: GPs referring to three community hospitals and a district general hospital were circulated with referral guidelines for radiography of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee, and all requests for these three examinations were checked. Requests that did not fit the guidelines were returned to the GP with an explanatory letter and a further copy of the guidelines. Where applicable, a large-joint replacement algorithm was also enclosed. If the GP maintained the opinion that the examination was indicated, she or he had the option of supplying further justifying information in writing or speaking to a consultant radiologist. RESULTS: Overall the number of radiographic examinations fell by 68% in the first year, achieving a 79% reduction in the second year. For knees, lumbar spine and cervical spine radiographs the total reductions were 77%, 78% and 86%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of referral guidelines, reinforced by request checking and clinical management algorithms, can produce a dramatic and sustained reduction in the number of radiographs of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

  7. Beyond the spine: a new clinical research priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David; Cancelliere, Carol; Poulsen, Erik; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Kilsgaard, Jørgen; Blanchette, Marc-André; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Over the past two decades, clinical research within the chiropractic profession has focused on the spine and spinal conditions, specifically neck and low back pain. However, there is now a small group of chiropractors with clinical research training that are shifting their focus away from traditional research pursuits towards new and innovative areas. Specifically, these researchers are now delving into areas such as brain injury, work disability prevention, undifferentiated chest pain, hip osteoarthritis, and prevention of pain in children and adolescents to name a few. In this paper, we highlight recent research in these new areas and discuss how clinical research efforts in musculoskeletal areas beyond the spine can benefit patient care and the future of the chiropractic profession. PMID:25729080

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of canine degenerative lumbar spine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenerative lumbar spine diseases, i.e., sacrolumbar stenosis, intervertebral disk degeneration and protrusion and spondylosis deformans of the canine lumbar spine were studied in eleven canine patients and three healthy controls using radiography and 0.02 T and 0.04 T low field magnetic resonance imaging. The T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained in sagittal and transverse planes. The loss of hydration of nucleus pulposus, taken as a sign of degeneration in the intervertebral disks, could be evaluated in both T1 and T2 weighted images. As a noninvasive method magnetic resonance imaging gave more exact information about the condition of intervertebral disks than did radiography. Sacrolumbar stenosis and compression of the spinal cord or cauda equina and surrounding tissue could be evaluated without contrast medium

  9. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description of the anatomy and pathoanatomical status of the osteo-cartilagenous structures, including the facet joints from where a major portion of chronic whiplash patients experience their pain symptoms.

  10. Mass Flows in a Prominence Spine as Observed in EUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gilbert, H. R.; Karpen, J. T.

    2014-07-01

    We analyze a quiescent prominence observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) with a focus on mass and energy flux in the spine, measured using Lyman continuum absorption. This is the first time this type of analysis has been applied with an emphasis on individual features and fluxes in a quiescent prominence. The prominence, observed on 2010 September 28, is detectable in most AIA wavebands in absorption and/or emission. Flows along the spine exhibit horizontal bands 5''-10'' wide and kinetic energy fluxes on the order of a few times 105 erg s-1cm-2, consistent with quiet sun coronal heating estimates. For a discrete moving feature we estimate a mass of a few times 1011 g. We discuss the implications of our derived properties for a model of prominence dynamics, the thermal non-equilibrium model.

  11. Magnetic resonance tomography for trauma of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty patients who had suffered spinal trauma were examined by magnetic resonance tomography. Fifteen patients with first degree trauma in Erdmann's classification showed no abnormality. Magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical spine appears to be a suitable method for investigating patients with whiplash injuries. It is indicated following severe flexion injuries with subluxations and neurological symptoms, since it is the only method that can demonstrate the spinal cord directly and completely and show the extent of cord compression. For patients with thoracic trauma and rapidly developing neurological symptoms, magnetic resonance tomography is ideal for showing post-traumatic syringomyelia. Magnetic resonance tomography following whiplash injuries is recommended if plain films of the cervical spine show any abnormalities, as well as for the investigation of acute or sub-acute neurological abnormalities. The various findings are discussed. (orig.)

  12. 3-dimensional reconstructions of computer tomograms of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, 50 patients were examined by a Siemens 'Somatom Plus'; continuous 2 mm sections between the third lumbar and first sacral vertebra were obtained. All these imaging procedures were suitable for the diagnosis of osteochondrosis and chondrosis. Spondylosis was diagnosed more frequently on 3-D CT. Spondyloarthrosis, with narrowing of the invertebral foramina and root canals is shown particularly well by 3-D CT, since the entire extent of these structures can be seen. 3-D surface reconstruction of the lumbar spine is useful in the diagnosis of lumbar spondyloarthrosis with narrowing of the root canals and of the spinal canal. This method of axial CT is superior to conventional radiography of the lumbar spine in the usual two planes. (orig./GDG)

  13. Indexing of image content in spine x rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents work toward indexing the image content in a collection of 17,000 cervical spine and lumbar spine images, for purposes of public dissemination by such system as the Web-based Medical Information System. These images were collected as part of a national health survey and to date no radiological or quantitative content has been derived from the images, except for our work, described in this paper. Practical considerations, primarily of labor cost, make the job of deriving radiological interpretations or quantitative anatomical measures by manual methods very difficult. For this reason, the acquisition of content information by automated means, or even by semi-automated means, which require human interaction, but significantly reduce the required labor, are very important. This field is not in an advanced state of development, and the results we present are necessarily work in progress.

  14. Beyond the spine : a new clinical research priority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, clinical research within the chiropractic profession has focused on the spine and spinal conditions, specifically neck and low back pain. However, there is now a small group of chiropractors with clinical research training that are shifting their focus away from traditional research pursuits towards new and innovative areas. Specifically, these researchers are now delving into areas such as brain injury, work disability prevention, undifferentiated chest pain, hip osteoarthritis, and prevention of pain in children and adolescents to name a few. In this paper, we highlight recent research in these new areas and discuss how clinical research efforts in musculoskeletal areas beyond the spine can benefit patient care and the future of the chiropractic profession.

  15. Dural ectasia and conventional radiography in the Marfan lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine how well conventional radiographic findings can predict the presence of dural ectasia in Marfan patients.Design and patients. Twelve Marfan patients without dural ectasia and 21 Marfan patients with dural ectasia were included in the study. Five radiographic measurements were made of the lumbosacral spine: interpediculate distance, scalloping value, sagittal canal diameter, vertebral body width, and transverse process width.Results. The following measurements were significantly larger in patients with dural ectasia: interpediculate distances at L3-L4 levels (P38.0 mm, sagittal diameter at S1 >18.0 mm, or scalloping value at L5 >5.5 mm.Conclusion. Dural ectasia in Marfan syndrome is commonly associated with several osseous changes that are observable on conventional radiographs of the lumbosacral spine. Conventional radiography can detect dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome with a very high specificity (91.7%) but a low sensitivity (57.1%). (orig.)

  16. Diseases of the spine, spinal cord, and extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the following topics: acupuncture needle in the spinal canal of the neck; thoracic tuberculous spondylitis: cold abscess; comminuted fracture of the fifth cervical vertebra; lumbar spondylolysis; lumbar spondylosis; ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament; disk herniation of the cervical spine: narrowing of the root tunnel; ankylosing spondylitis: narrowing of the root tunnel; ossification of the ligamentum flavum; narrow spinal canal syndrome; syringomyelia; epidural neurinoma of the cervical spine; neurofibromatosis; spinal arteriovenous malformation; atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord; osteomyelitis tuberculosa of the rib; osteomyelitis tuberculosa of the left femur; chronic osteomyelitis of the left humerus; malignant giant cell tumor of the left femur; rheumatoid arthritis of the left hip joint; arthrosis deformans of the left hip joint; and enchondroma of the left index finger: Proximal Phalanx

  17. Huge Retroperitoneal Germinoma Presenting with Pathological Fracture of the Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ching Tzaan; Chin-Yew Lin; Shu-Hang Ng; Jen-Seng Huang

    2002-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumors are extremely rare neoplasms. The most commonpresenting features are abdominal pain and palpable abdominal masses. Pathologicalfractures of the spine presenting as bilateral lower leg weakness are exceptionally rare. Wedescribe a 16-year-old girl who developed progressive paraplegia after a minor fallinginjury. Radiological study demonstrated a huge retroperitoneal tumor with invasion of theT12 vertebral body and spinal canal. A posterior surgical appr...

  18. Epidemiologia do traumatismo da coluna vertebral Epidemiology of spine injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação epidemiológica retrospectiva de 100 casos de traumatismo da coluna vertebral. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de dados colhidos por levantamento de prontuário, segundo protocolo de decodificação local. RESULTADOS: Predomínio etário de 20 a 40 anos em 64% dos casos; sexo masculino em 86%; segmento toracolombar mais comumente atingido 64% e 36% para o segmento cervical; principais causas foram às quedas em 40%, seguidas de acidentes automobilísticos em 25% e quedas da laje 23%. A prevalência dos ferimentos por arma de fogo foi de 7%, mergulho em águas rasas 3% e agressões 2%. Houve análise complementar com cruzamentos entre idade, sexo, causa e segmento da coluna vertebral acometido, observando que o segmento cervical teve grande predomínio nas mulheres em relação aos homens em 85,7% X 14,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O traumatismo da coluna vertebral ocorreu predominantemente em homens entre 20 e 40 anos e o segmento cervical foi o mais acometido nas mulheres em relação aos homens na proporção de 6:1.BACKGROUND: Retrospective epidemiological analysis of 100 patients with trauma spine injury. METHOD: Data were collected through a local spine injury protocol, performing a transversal model. RESULTS: Major incidence varied from 20 to 40 years old (64% cases; 86% were male; thoracolumbar segment was the most injured segment (64% whereas cervical segment counted for 36%. Simple falls were the most important cause, followed by car crash accident (25% and complex falls (23%. Fire arm injuries counted for 7%, shallow dives for 3% and aggressions for 2%. Additional analysis between age, sex, cause, and spine segment was made. We found a greater incidence of cervical injury in females when in comparison to males (85.7% versus 14.3%. CONCLUSION: Spine injuries, prevailed in males between 20 and 40 years old, and the cervical segment was prevalent in women in a 6:1 proportion.

  19. Epidemiologia do traumatismo da coluna vertebral / Epidemiology of spine injuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Ferraz de, Campos; André Tosta, Ribeiro; Sérgio, Listik; Clemente Augusto de Brito, Pereira; Jozias de, Andrade Sobrinho; Abrão, Rapoport.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação epidemiológica retrospectiva de 100 casos de traumatismo da coluna vertebral. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de dados colhidos por levantamento de prontuário, segundo protocolo de decodificação local. RESULTADOS: Predomínio etário de 20 a 40 anos em 64% dos casos; sexo masculino em 8 [...] 6%; segmento toracolombar mais comumente atingido 64% e 36% para o segmento cervical; principais causas foram às quedas em 40%, seguidas de acidentes automobilísticos em 25% e quedas da laje 23%. A prevalência dos ferimentos por arma de fogo foi de 7%, mergulho em águas rasas 3% e agressões 2%. Houve análise complementar com cruzamentos entre idade, sexo, causa e segmento da coluna vertebral acometido, observando que o segmento cervical teve grande predomínio nas mulheres em relação aos homens em 85,7% X 14,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O traumatismo da coluna vertebral ocorreu predominantemente em homens entre 20 e 40 anos e o segmento cervical foi o mais acometido nas mulheres em relação aos homens na proporção de 6:1. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Retrospective epidemiological analysis of 100 patients with trauma spine injury. METHOD: Data were collected through a local spine injury protocol, performing a transversal model. RESULTS: Major incidence varied from 20 to 40 years old (64% cases); 86% were male; thoracolumbar segment wa [...] s the most injured segment (64%) whereas cervical segment counted for 36%. Simple falls were the most important cause, followed by car crash accident (25%) and complex falls (23%). Fire arm injuries counted for 7%, shallow dives for 3% and aggressions for 2%. Additional analysis between age, sex, cause, and spine segment was made. We found a greater incidence of cervical injury in females when in comparison to males (85.7% versus 14.3%). CONCLUSION: Spine injuries, prevailed in males between 20 and 40 years old, and the cervical segment was prevalent in women in a 6:1 proportion.

  20. Cervical spine surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an appraisal.

    OpenAIRE

    McRorie, E R; McLoughlin, P.; Russell, T; Beggs, I; Nuki, G; Hurst, N P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the outcome of surgery undertaken to stabilise the neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis performed over a five year period, to compare the results with those of previous reports, and to identify factors that may predict surgical outcome. METHODS: Outcome was assessed at time of discharge from hospital after surgery by review of patients' notes, and at follow up by patient interview, clinical examination, anonymous questionnaire, and cervical spine radiograph. The Ra...

  1. Pott's Spine: Diagnostic Imaging Modalities and Technology Advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sajid; Amanullah, Md Farid; Ahmad, Kaleem; Rauniyar, Raj Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Spinal tuberculosis (TB) or Pott's spine is the commonest extrapulmonary manifestation of TB. It spreads through hematogenous route. Clinically, it presents with constitutional symptoms, back pain, tenderness, paraplegia or paraparesis, and kyphotic or scoliotic deformities. Pott's spine accounts for 2% of all cases of TB, 15% of extrapulmonary, and 50% of skeletal TB. The paradiscal, central, anterior subligamentous, and neural arch are the common vertebral lesions. Thoracic vertebrae are commonly affected followed by lumbar and cervical vertebrae. Plain radiographs are usually the initial investigation in spinal TB. For a radiolucent lesion to be apparent on a plain radiograph there should be 30% of bone mineral loss. Computed tomographic scanning provides much better bony detail of irregular lytic lesions, sclerosis, disc collapse, and disruption of bone circumference than plain radiograph. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best diagnostic modality for Pott's spine and is more sensitive than other modalities. MRI frequently demonstrates disc collapse/destruction, cold abscess, vertebral wedging/collapse, marrow edema, and spinal deformities. Ultrasound and computed tomographic guided needle aspiration or biopsy is the technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Recently, the coexistence of human immunodeficiency virus infections and TB has been increased globally. In recent years, diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient values in combination with MRI are used to some extent in the diagnosis of spinal TB. We have reviewed related literature through internet. The terms searched on Google scholar and PubMed are TB, extrapulmonary TB, skeletal TB, spinal TB, Pott's spine, Pott's paraplegia, MRI, and computed tomography (CT). PMID:24020048

  2. Scheuermann’s Disease –Apprentice’s Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Keshkar S; Equebal A; Kumar R.; Nj, Singh

    2007-01-01

    An uncommon case of Scheuermann’s Disease (apprentice’s spine) is being reported for two simple reasons (1) to show that it is a self limiting disease which needs only proper observation, extension exercises & extension spinal brace, (2) it becomes a diagnostic riddle when osteolytic lesion is seen in epiphyseal plates of adjacent vertebral bodies in an adolescent. Hence it stressed the need to publish this condition not only for its rarity but also for its diagnostic puzzle to differenti...

  3. Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the spine : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the spine in a 52-year-old female with back pain. Antero-posterior and lateral roentgenograms showed narrowing of the intervertebral disc space of T12-L1 with irregular vertebral endplates. MRI showed spondylodiscitis at T12-L1. Although tuberculous spondylitis is far more prevalent than fungal spondylitis, it is difficult to differentiate one from the other radiographically

  4. Epithelioid sarcoma of the spine: a case report and review

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Hyun Yoo

    2011-01-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare malignant soft tissue neoplasm commonly involving extremities of young adults and rarely occurring in the trunk area. It re-sembles a chronic inflammatory process and mimics benign reactive granuloma or other benign diseases. Despite its indolence and slow growth, the prognosis is poor with high recurrence and early lymph node spreading and hematogeneous distant metastasis. Involvement of the spine is extremely rare and diffi-cult to diagnose correctly in clinica...

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of diagnostic imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma were examined. Twenty-one patients with stage II-III multiple myeloma (male=12, female=9, mean age=64) underwent MRI of the spine. Other diagnostic imaging modalities used in these patients included, CT bone scintigraphy, and radiography. All images of the spine were assessed and compared with the MRI images. The type of progression was evaluated based on the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki. T1-weighted images of all 21 patients showed low signals in vertebral bodies, including 14 cases with a focal low signal intensity and 7 cases with diffuse low signal intensity. On the T2-weighted images, 15 of the 21 cases (71%) showed equivalent signals, while T2*-weighted images obtained by the field-echo method yielded high signals in 10 out of 11 cases. It was difficult to differentiate between senile osteoporosis and multiple myeloma by MRI, but CT images clearly distinguished between them. The results suggested that fat-suppressive T1-contrast images and T2*-weighted images are useful in detecting lesions, especially focal low signal intensity lesions. Patients with the multiple-lesion-tumor type of disease were more likely to develop paralysis more than those with the diffuse myeloproliferative type. Thus, the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki was useful in considering radiotherapy for the treatment of patients at risk of paralysis. Bone scintigraphy revt risk of paralysis. Bone scintigraphy revealed accumulation only in spinal lesions caused by compression fractures, while CT appeared to be useful in localizing the diffuse myeloproliferative type of lesions. The problems associated with diagnosis by MRI are differentiation of multiple myeloma from senile osteoporosis and metastatic bone tumors of the spine. There are few specific findings in multiple myeloma. (K.H.)

  6. Hybrid construct for two levels disc disease in lumbar spine

    OpenAIRE

    Aunoble, Stephane; Meyrat, Robert; Al Sawad, Yasser; Tournier, C.; Leijssen, Philip; Le Huec, Jean-charles

    2009-01-01

    Prospective study. To study the validity of Hybrid construction (Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion) ALIF at one level and total disc arthroplasty (TDA) at adjacent, for two levels disc disease in lumbar spine as surgical strategy. With growing evidence that fusion constructs in the treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) may alter sagittal balance and contribute to undesirable complications in the long-term, total disc arthroplasty (TDA) slowly becomes an accepted treatment option for a s...

  7. Sagittal spine movements of small therian mammals during asymmetrical gaits.

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Nadja; Hackert, Re?mi

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian locomotion is characterized by the use of asymmetrical gaits associated with extensive flexions and extensions of the body axis. Although the impact of sagittal spine movements on locomotion is well known, little information is available on the kinematics of spinal motion. Intervertebral joint movements were studied in two metatherian and three eutherian species during the gallop and halfbound using high-speed cineradiography. Fast-Fourier transformation was used to filter out high ...

  8. Mini-open anterior spine surgery for anterior lumbar diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ruey-Mo; Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Lai, Kuo-An

    2008-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgeries including endoscopic surgery and mini-open surgery are current trend of spine surgery, and its main advantages are shorter recovery time and cosmetic benefits, etc. However, mini-open surgery is easier and less technique demanding than endoscopic surgery. Besides, anterior spinal fusion is better than posterior spinal fusion while considering the physiological loading, back muscle function, etc. Therefore, we aimed to introduce the modified “mini-open anterior s...

  9. Implanted central venous catheter-related acute superior vena cava syndrome: management by metallic stent and endovascular repositioning of the catheter tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a case of a 49-year-old woman with stage-IIIB lung adenocarcinoma who experienced an acute superior vena cava syndrome related to an implanted central venous catheter without associated venous thrombosis. The catheter was surgically implanted for chemotherapy. Superior vena cava syndrome appeared after the procedure and was due to insertion of the catheter through a subclinical stenosis of the superior vena cava. Complete resolution of the patient's symptoms was obtained using stent placement and endovascular repositioning of the catheter tip. (orig.)

  10. Biphasic synovial sarcoma in the cervical spine: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foreman Stephen M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Synovial sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of soft tissue that typically arising near large joints of the upper and lower extremities in young adult males. Only 3% of these neoplasms have been found to arise in the head and neck region. To our knowledge, there are limited reports in the literature of this neoplasm in the cervical spine. A case of biphasic synovial sarcoma of the cervical spine is reviewed. A 29 year-old male presented with pain on the left side of the cervical spine. Physical examination revealed a global loss of cervical motion and large, palpable mass in the left paravertebral area. The long-delayed Magnetic Resonance (MR scan revealed a soft tissue mass measuring 8.3 centimeters (cm × 5.7 cm that was surgically removed. A malignant biphasic synovial sarcoma was diagnosed on pathologic examination. The clinical and imaging findings of an atypically located synovial sarcoma are reviewed. This case report emphasizes the consequences of a limited differential diagnosis, prolonged treatment and the failure to perform timely diagnostic imaging in the presence of a paraspinal mass.

  11. Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

  12. Multidetector Computed Tomography of Cervical Spine Fractures in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) cervical spine findings in trauma patients with advanced ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Using PACS, 2282 cervical spine MDCT examinations requested by emergency room physicians were found during a period of 3 years. Of these patients, 18 (16 M, aged 41-87, mean 57 years) had advanced AS. Primary imaging included radiography in 12 and MRI in 11 patients. Results: MDCT detected one facet joint subluxation and 31 fractures in 17 patients: 14 transverse fractures, 8 spinous process fractures, 2 Jefferson's fractures, 1 type I and 2 type II odontoid process fractures, and 1 each: atlanto-occipital joint fracture and C2 laminar fracture plus isolated transverse process and facet joint fractures. Radiographs detected 48% and MRI 60% of the fractures. MRI detected all transverse and odontoid fractures, demonstrating spinal cord abnormalities in 72%. Conclusion: MDCT is superior to plain radiographs or MRI, showing significantly more injuries and yielding more information on fracture morphology. MRI is valuable, however, in evaluating the spinal cord and soft-tissue injuries. Fractures in advanced AS often show an abnormal orientation and are frequently associated with spinal cord injuries. In these patients, for any suspected cervical spine injuries, MDCT is therefore the imaging modality of choice

  13. Left handedness and spine deformities in early adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between laterality and spine deformities in early adolescence, with special reference to sex differences. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and clinical examinations of body posture were carried out on a sample of 2546 schoolchildren, aged from 11 to 14 years, in seven elementary schools in the centre of Belgrade. Possible confounding factors (age, sex, body weight and body height) were controlled for. The overall prevalence of spine deformities (scoliosis and/or thoracic hyperkyphosis) in the investigated population was 11.8%, out of which there were 7.8% adolescents with scoliosis, 4.0% with thoracic hyperkyphosis, and 0.3% with both spine deformities. The prevalence of scoliosis was 2.7 times higher in girls compared to boys (11.7% vs. 4.3%) while the prevalence of thoracic hyperkyphosis was 1,6 higher among boys (5.0% vs. 3.2%). We found 7.6% of the schoolchildren examined to be left-handed. Left handedness was significantly related to scoliosis in girls (crude OR=1.60 and 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.54). Multivariate analysis showed that significant independent factors for scoliosis were female sex (p < 0.001), age (p=0.01) and left handedness (p=0.02). We did not find any appreciable relation between left handedness and thoracic hyperkyphosis in both sexes

  14. Response of the ligamentous lumbar spine to cyclic bending loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, V K; Voo, L M; Weinstein, J N; Liu, Y K; Okuma, T; Njus, G O

    1988-03-01

    The effect of a "pure" cyclic flexion bending moment on the three-dimensional load-displacement behavior of fresh ligamentous lumbar spine was investigated. The load-displacement behavior, for 11 L1-sacrum specimens, pre- and post-cyclic fatigue bending tests were quantified using a Selspot II system. A special fixture was designed to mount the specimen within the MTS system to administer "pure" cyclic flexion bending, under displacement control, for 5 hours. The testing was accomplished in a 100% humidity chamber at 0.5 Hz. The maximum cyclic bending moment, based on the literature dealing with loads experienced by the spine during activities involving lifting, was set at 3.0 Nm. An increase in motion of the order of 10% in the extension loading mode was observed. The increase in motion in other loading modes was not significant. In the extension loading mode, the increase in the anteroposterior displacement (retrodisplacement) in general was higher than the corresponding rotation component. The results suggest that the bending moment of low magnitude, usually experienced by the spine during activities of daily living, alone may not trigger the mechanical failure processes in the disc. The presence of high axial compressive loads on the disc seems to be the main contributing factor in this process. The presence of bending moments and axial twist along with axial compressive load may accelerate the unstable processes leading to low back pain. PMID:3388115

  15. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbaral practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  16. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring with Hoffmann reflex during thoracic spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Tummala, Sudhakar

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was examine the role of Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) monitoring in identifying intraoperative spinal cord injury and predicting postoperative neurological outcome in patients undergoing thoracic spine surgery. Despite the physiologic basis for the use of H-reflex to monitor spinal motor pathways, there are only a few reports highlighting its application as an intraoperative neuromonitoring tool. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of 19 consecutive patients who underwent thoracic spine surgery for metastatic thoracic spinal tumors between 2011 and 2013 at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. H-waves and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) were simultaneously monitored in our series consisting of four female and 15 male patients aged 10-71years. In 10 of 19 patients, bilateral H-waves and SSEP were stable throughout the monitoring. Five of 19 patients had a neurological deficits. Stable intraoperative H-waves are suggestive of preserved postoperative neurologic outcomes. Intraoperative H-reflex monitoring could be a reasonable alternative especially when motor evoked potentials are unattainable. Given its greater sensitivity to spinal cord ischemia, relatively low cost and ease of acquisition, H-reflex monitoring could be a useful adjunct in during thoracic spine surgeries. PMID:25769258

  17. Local postsynaptic voltage-gated sodium channel activation in dendritic spines of olfactory bulb granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywalez, Wolfgang G; Patirniche, Dinu; Rupprecht, Vanessa; Stemmler, Martin; Herz, Andreas V M; Pálfi, Dénes; Rózsa, Balázs; Egger, Veronica

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal dendritic spines have been speculated to function as independent computational units, yet evidence for active electrical computation in spines is scarce. Here we show that strictly local voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) activation can occur during excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the spines of olfactory bulb granule cells, which we mimic and detect via combined two-photon uncaging of glutamate and calcium imaging in conjunction with whole-cell recordings. We find that local Nav activation boosts calcium entry into spines through high-voltage-activated calcium channels and accelerates postsynaptic somatic depolarization, without affecting NMDA receptor-mediated signaling. Hence, Nav-mediated boosting promotes rapid output from the reciprocal granule cell spine onto the lateral mitral cell dendrite and thus can speed up recurrent inhibition. This striking example of electrical compartmentalization both adds to the understanding of olfactory network processing and broadens the general view of spine function. PMID:25619656

  18. Informative Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hyun Sung; Weiss, Yair; Freeman, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Compressed sensing is a recent set of mathematical results showing that sparse signals can be exactly reconstructed from a small number of linear measurements. Interestingly, for ideal sparse signals with no measurement noise, random measurements allow perfect reconstruction while measurements based on principal component analysis (PCA) or independent component analysis (ICA) do not. At the same time, for other signal and noise distributions, PCA and ICA can significantly ou...

  19. Biomechanical experimental data curation : an example for main lumbar spine ligaments characterization for a MBS spine model

    OpenAIRE

    Louren??o, Carina Patr??cia Ara??jo; Claro, Jos?? Carlos Pimenta

    2015-01-01

    This work overviews an extensive analysis in the context of mechanical characterization of human biomaterials, carried out over a broad set of published experimental data. Focused on main lumbar spine ligaments, several test procedures are exhaustively analyzed, in order to identify possible causes for divergences that have been found in some results. Moreover, guidelines are proposed for da-ta filtering and selection. The main objective of the task was to retrieve trustworthy inputs to a hyb...

  20. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  1. A new instrument for recording the spine contourograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Hein

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The lysosomal enzymes activities in the athletes urine were designated and presented in this work: N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, ß-glucuronidase (GSR, arylsulfatase A (ASA. The brush border enzymes activities: leucyloaminopeptidase (LAP, alanine aminopeptidase (AAP, ?-glutamyltransferaze (GGT, the trypsin inhibitor activity (UTI and the total protein and creatinine concentrations were determined as well. Values of examined parameters are presented after its conversion to mmol creatinine units. Nine athletes subjected to physical effort in the frame of the training unit with the speed endurance accent were taken under the examination. The urine was taken before, immediately after and 24 h after effort. 9-fold increase of the protein/creatinine index was observed in the postexercise urine. In the urine taken after next 24h this index decreased to over 2-fold higher value than it presented itself before effort. Almost 3-fold increase of the NAG activity and 4-fold decrease of the ASA activity were noticed in the after effort urine. The brush border enzymes values were higher for over 2-3-fold in the postexercise urine but after next 24h they went down below values observed before effort. The correlation between NAG and brush border enzymes was observes at the level of r=0.7. All changes of examined parameters point at the passing glomerular-tubular troubles of nephrons. It may also be suggested that various forms of changes in the lysosomal enzymes activity are connected with their functions in organism and not with the degree of the renal cells structure damage. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the acceptability of a new instrument for recording the contourograph of spine curvature. The instrument based on distance measurements from the points of the spine curvature to the vertical line by the infrared optical sensor. The acceptability of measurements was assessed. The agreement of the test-retest measurements recorded using the designed instrument was analysed by the limits of agreement techniques. The validation of the lumbarsacrum angle calculated on the spine contourograph was evaluated against the measurements of the inclinometer. The amount of disagreement between test-retest values of the measured points on the spine contourograph calculated using the limits of agreement technique statistics ranged from 4.9% to 6.2%. The results of this study allowed to suggest that the designed instrument was a sensitive tool in assessing a different impact on the spine curvature.

  2. Cortical Regulation of Dopamine Depletion-Induced Dendritic Spine Loss in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Neely, M. Diana; Schmidt, Dennis E.; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2007-01-01

    The proximate cause of Parkinson’s Disease is striatal dopamine depletion. Although no overt toxicity to striatal neurons has been reported in Parkinson’s Disease, one of the consequences of striatal dopamine loss is a decrease in the number of dendritic spines on striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Dendrites of these neurons receive cortical glutamatergic inputs onto the dendritic spine head and dopaminergic inputs from the substantia nigra onto the spine neck. This synaptic arrangemen...

  3. Analysis of spine loads in dentistry—impact of an altered sitting position of the dentist

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Rüther; Thomas Eger; Max Wunderlich; Dieter Leyk; Andreas Meyer-Falcke

    2010-01-01

    Neck and low back pain causes highest disability rates in industrialized countries. Apart from blue-collar occupations dentists and dental care personnel are also strongly affected by work related back pain. However, due to missing analysing systems spine exposure could not be adequately estimated for sitting and non load bearing tasks. Therefore, a new biomechanical measurement system was developed to analyze spine and trunk kinematics. To explore the potential kinematics impact on the spine...

  4. Determinants of the first decade of bone loss after menopause at spine, hip and radius.

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, J.; Walton, J; Russell, LJ; Lunt, M; Wolman, R; Abraham, R.; Justice, J; Nicholls, A.; Wardley-Smith, B; Green, JR; MITCHELL, A

    1999-01-01

    This study documented bone loss at three different sites in the early postmenopausal period, and examined potential predictors. Forty-three women underwent repeated measurements of bone density at the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius for up to 14 years. Individual rates of bone loss were calculated for the spine and hip; for radial trabecular bone, rates were calculated separately for two time periods, earlier and later after menopause. In the spine and radius, initially high ra...

  5. Multimodal intraoperative monitoring (MIOM) during cervical spine surgical procedures in 246 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Eggspuehler, Andreas; Sutter, Martin A.; Grob, Dieter; Jeszenszky, Dezso?; Porchet, Franc?ois; Dvorak, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    A prospective study of 246 patients who received multimodal intraoperative monitoring during cervical spine surgery between March 2000 and December 2005. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of MIOM techniques used to monitor spinal cord and nerve root function during cervical spine surgery. It is appreciated that complication rate of cervical spine surgery is low, however, there is a significant risk of neurological injury. The combination of monitoring of ascending and descending pa...

  6. Injury Mechanisms in the Pediatric Cervical Spine During Out-of-Position Airbag Deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, Roger W.; Winkelstein, Beth A.; Van Ee, Chris A.; Myers, Barry S.

    1998-01-01

    The pediatric cervical spine differs considerably from the adult in both its geometry and its constitutive properties. Therefore, it is susceptible to a different set of injuries, some of which are particularly severe. Recent data from the NHTSA on cervical spine injuries in low speed out-of-position airbag deployments shows that the spectrum of injuries in children is different from that of the adult. Almost all of the children (98%) sustained head or cervical spine injuries, as compared to ...

  7. Internal fixation on the lower cervical spine – biomechanics and clinical practice of procedures and implants

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, Chr.; Arand, M; Nothwang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The decision to opt for a particular internal fixation procedure of a traumatized unstable lower cervical spine should be based on analysis and implementation of scientific and clinical data on the biomechanics of the intact, the unstable and the implant-fixed spine. The following recommendations for surgical stabilization of the lower cervical spine seem, therefore, to be justified. Firstly, the surgical procedure should be to bring about decompression, realignment, and stability. Secondly, ...

  8. Primary Epidural Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Lumbar Spine: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Jung; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Seung Sam; Jun, Young Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Dept. of Pediatrics, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a highly malignant tumor in children and young adults, and extremely rare in the spine. We report a case of a primary epidural peripheral PNET of the lumbar spine. The present extremely rare case of primary epidural peripheral PNET of the lumbar spine illustrates the unexpected occurrence and should be included in differential diagnoses for patients with spinal tumors.

  9. Primary Epidural Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Lumbar Spine: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a highly malignant tumor in children and young adults, and extremely rare in the spine. We report a case of a primary epidural peripheral PNET of the lumbar spine. The present extremely rare case of primary epidural peripheral PNET of the lumbar spine illustrates the unexpected occurrence and should be included in differential diagnoses for patients with spinal tumors.

  10. Clinical presentation of a traumatic cervical spine disc rupture in alpine sports: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Martinolli Luca; Kleinschmidt Mark; Ecker Timo M; Zimmermann Heinz; Exadaktylos Aristomenis K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Isolated non-skeletal injuries of the cervical spine are rare and frequently missed. Different evaluation algorithms for C-spine injuries, such as the Canadian C-spine Rule have been proposed, however with strong emphasis on excluding osseous lesions. Discoligamentary injuries may be masked by unique clinical situations presenting to the emergency physician. We report on the case of a 28-year-old patient being admitted to our emergency department after a snowboarding accident, with a...

  11. Repositioning Information Science.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibekwe-SanJuan, Fidelia; Buckland, Michael; Latham, Kiersten

    2010-01-01

    During the twentieth century there was a strong desire for information studies to become scientific, to move from librarianship, bibliography, and documentation to an information science. In 1968 the American Documentation Institute was renamed American Society for Information Science. By the twenty-first century, however, departments of (library and) information science had turned instead towards the social sciences, but have not been successful in providing a coherent explanation of the nat...

  12. Optimum dimensions of convective-radiative spines using a temperature correlated profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, A.; Zohoor, H.

    Optimization of convective-radiative spines with an arbitrary profile is discussed. The profile is assumed to be correlated to the temperature distribution in the spine. Various profiles are considered by introducing a free parameter. With this choice of profile, the nonlinear heat transfer equation is integrated analytically. The optimization problem is written in terms of an integral that can be evaluated numerically. The temperature at the tip of the spine becomes an important optimization parameter in this analysis. The method is well suited for parametric studies and design analysis of optimum spines including temperature dependence of thermophysical properties.

  13. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpectedly high both in absolute and in specific terms. The unique cellulose-arabinan composite structure of cactus spines, together with high cellulose crystallinity, may explain this finding.

  14. Pectoral spine size in Synodontis schall (Teleostei: Mochokidae from Asa Lake, Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A Araoye

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The pectoral spines of Synodontis schall (n = 813 were examined for 24 months. Mean length for the right (3.2 cm and left (3.1 cm pectoral spines were not significantly different [P 0.05];. However, the male and female pectoral spine lengths were significantly different (P < 0.05. A fractured pectoral spine in one of the specimens was shorter than the other. The fracture which could be deleterious to balancing, feeding and reproductive activities was attributed to an injury rather than to genetic or epigenetic defects.

  15. Removal of cactus spines from the skin. A comparative evaluation of several methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, T T; Jerome, M; Barry, R C; Jaeger, R; Xander, J G

    1987-12-01

    The removal of very fine cactus spines from the skin is particularly distressing for the pediatric patient. We describe two typical patients and a study in experimental animals comparing the effectiveness of several previously described methods for removal. The most effective method involved using tweezers to remove clumps of spines followed by a thin layer of glue covered with gauze, which was allowed to dry and then peeled off to remove individual spines. Attempts to use adhesive tape or a thin layer of a commercial facial mask to aid in removal of the spines produced more retention and inflammation three days after removal than no treatment. PMID:3687870

  16. Confined prostate cancer treated by conformational irradiation with intensity modulation with or without echography repositioning: is the dose received equivalent to the prescribed dose?; Cancer prostatique localise traite par irradiation conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite avec ou sans repositionnement echographique: la dose recue est-elle equivalente a la dose prescrite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, A.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Naudy, S.; Maingon, P.; Crehange, G. [Centre Georges-Francois Leclerc, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 21 - Dijon (France); Regis, A. [CHU le Bocage, Service de Radiodiagnostic, 21 - Dijon (France); Deville, C.; Bonnetain, F. [Centre Georges-Francois Leclerc, Dept. de Biostatique, 21 - Dijon (France)

    2006-11-15

    The results suggest it would be possible to dispense a homogenous dose in agreement with the ICRU recommendations, nearer than the forward looking dose when the daily echographic repositioning is applied. This repositioning does not influence significantly the dosimetry for the risk organs. These results will validated in a bigger population. (N.C.)

  17. HORIZON SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

  18. From Participatory Sensing to Mobile Crowd Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Bin; Yu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Daqing; Zhou, Xingshe

    2014-01-01

    The research on the efforts of combining human and machine intelligence has a long history. With the development of mobile sensing and mobile Internet techniques, a new sensing paradigm called Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS), which leverages the power of citizens for large-scale sensing has become popular in recent years. As an evolution of participatory sensing, MCS has two unique features: (1) it involves both implicit and explicit participation; (2) MCS collects data from two ...

  19. Differential effects of aging on dendritic spines in visual cortex and prefrontal cortex of the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M E; Ohm, D T; Dumitriu, D; Rapp, P R; Morrison, J H

    2014-08-22

    Aging decreases the density of spines and the proportion of thin spines in the non-human primate (NHP) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). In this study, we used confocal imaging of dye-loaded neurons to expand upon previous results regarding the effects of aging on spine density and morphology in the NHP dlPFC and compared these results to the effects of aging on pyramidal neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1). We confirmed that spine density, and particularly the density of thin spines, decreased with age in the dlPFC of rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, the average head diameter of non-stubby spines in the dlPFC was a better predictor than chronological age of the number of trials required to reach criterion on both the delayed response test of visuospatial working memory and the delayed nonmatching-to-sample test of recognition memory. By contrast, total spine density was lower on neurons in V1 than in dlPFC, and neither total spine density, thin spine density, nor spine size in V1 was affected by aging. Our results highlight the importance and selective vulnerability of dlPFC thin spines for optimal prefrontal-mediated cognitive function. Understanding the nature of the selective vulnerability of dlPFC thin spines as compared to the resilience of thin spines in V1 may be a promising area of research in the quest to prevent or ameliorate age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24853052

  20. Imaging fusion (SPECT/CT) in degenerative disease of spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To determine the utility of Fusion Imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of the spine and to establish the impact of the use of fusion imaging in spinal pain due to degenerative changes of the spine. Materials and methods: 44 Patients (M=21, F=23) average age of 63 years and with degenerative pathology of spine were sent to Diagnosis Imaging department in FSFB. Bone scintigraphy (SPECT), CT of spine (cervical: 30%, Lumbar 70%) and fusion imaging were performed in all of them. Bone scintigraphy was carried out in a gamma camera Siemens Diacam double head attached to ESOFT computer. The images were acquired in matrix 128 x 128, 20 seg/imag, 64 images. CT of spine was performed same day or two days after in Helycoidal Siemens somatom emotion CT. The fusion was done in a Dicom workstation in sagital, axial and coronal reconstruction. The findings were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians and 2 radiologists of the staff of FSFB in an independent way. Results: Bone scan (SPECT) and CT of 44 patients were evaluated. CT showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 27 (61.3%) patients, uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 7 (15.9%), bulging disc in 9(20.4%), spinal nucleus lesion in 7(15.9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%), spinal foraminal stenosis in 7 (15.9%), spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis in 4 (9%). Bone scan showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 29 (65.9%), uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 4 (9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%) and normal 3 (6.8%). The imaging9 (20.4%) and normal 3 (6.8%). The imaging fusion showed coincidence findings (main lesion in CT with high uptake in scintigraphy) in 34 patients (77.2%) and no coincidence in 10 (22.8%). In 15 (34.09%) patients the fusion provided additional information. The analysis of the findings of CT and SPECT showed similar results in most of the cases and the fusion didn't provide additional information but it allowed to confirm the findings but when the findings didn't match where the CT showed several findings and SPECT only one area with high uptake which allowed us to address the treatment. In all cases, CT provided exact anatomical localization. Conclusion; Fusion imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of spine allows an integration of the anatomical detail with the functional information. It improves the diagnostic accuracy: Determining sites of greater metabolic activity in patients with multiple degenerative changes and improving the spatial localization in injuries detected by scintigraphy. Image fusion by SPECT/CT could have a clinical impact (34% of our series) in that the treatment was modified. (author)

  1. Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafrullah Arifin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management. Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, sixty seven percent involve cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA impairment score is used as an initial assessment but not enough attention prognostic outcome of these patients was paid to. The objective of this study is to analyze the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and its correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical abnormalities, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury treated inNeurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung that fullfiled the inclusion criteria. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute /chronic, cervical abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion and ASIA impairment score. The FIM examination was performed in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test was done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients is 4+ 1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma and cervical abnormalities. Significant correlations were found between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score in cervical spine patients. Type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 6 months after cervical injury.

  2. Comparison of ribcage and posteroanterior thoracic spine stiffness: an investigation of the normal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, S J; Allison, G T; Althorpe, B M; McConnell, D R; Samuel, K K

    1999-08-01

    Evaluation of the movement response to posteroanterior (PA) loads applied to the spinous processes is a recognized part of the physical examination of the thoracic spine. During this clinical procedure the thoracic spine is supported by the ribcage which may contribute to the movement response. However, the contribution of ribcage stiffness to the PA stiffness of the thoracic spine has not been established. The purpose of this study was to measure the PA stiffness of the thoracic spine and compare this to the stiffness of the ribcage under anteroposterior load. Using force-displacement analysis, this study measured the PA stiffness of the thoracic spine at T4, T7 and T10 in 20 asymptomatic individuals, and compared this to the ribcage stiffness measured through sternal compression. The mean PA stiffness at T7 (10.7 N/mm) was significantly greater than at T4 (9.1 N/mm, P < 0.001), and there was a non-significant increase between T7 and T10 (11.4 N/mm, P = 0.08). The stiffness of the ribcage measured via sternal compression (7.6 N/mm) was significantly lower than the thoracic PA stiffness at all levels (P < 0.01). A significant proportion (33%) of the thoracic spine PA stiffness was accounted for by the stiffness of the ribcage (P < 0.01). In young, asymptomatic subjects, the PA stiffness of the thoracic spine is significantly greater than the stiffness of the ribcage. This suggests that the response to PA load application in the thoracic spine can be attributed to factors relating to the spine as well as the ribcage. Defining consistent patterns of PA stiffness in the thoracic spine may assist in the interpretation of clinical measurements of patients with mechanical dysfunction of the thoracic spine. PMID:10513446

  3. Plasmonic sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic sensors typically rely on detection of changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium. Here, an alternative approach is reported based on electrical surface screening and controlled dissolution of ultrasmall silver nanoparticles (NPs; R < 5 nm) that can result in a great increase in the sensitivity, as compared to traditional refractive index sensing. Here, a detection scheme based on controlled dissolution is reported. Monitoring the plasmon band, while the particles are continuously decreased in size, enables the investigation of size-related effects on the same fixed particle ensemble, thereby overcoming typical variations due to differences between samples. For small particle sizes, charge displacement/transfer processes at the particle surface can change the material properties and morphology of the NPs dramatically, resulting in, e.g., a decrease of and a blue shift in the plasmon band. This is demonstrated by using the strong nucleophiles, cyanide and cysteamine, as ligands. The “dissolution paths” in terms of peak wavelength and amplitude shifts differ significantly between different types of analytes, which are suggested as a means to obtain selectivity of the detection that cannot be obtained by traditional refractive index sensing, without the use of bioprobes. A simple modified Drude model is used to account for shifts in the plasmon band position due to electrical charging. Here, a screening parameter is introduced in the expression for the free electron density of the NPs in order to calculate a size-dependent electron density, due to electrical surface screening.

  4. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gefen, Ron [Cooper University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Candem, NJ (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Shabshin, Nogah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  5. Pathogenesis of lumbar spine disease in mucopolysaccharidosis VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lachlan J; Baldo, Guilherme; Wu, Susan; Liu, Yuli; Whyte, Michael P; Giugliani, Roberto; Elliott, Dawn M; Haskins, Mark E; Ponder, Katherine P

    2012-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is characterized by deficient ?-glucuronidase (GUSB) activity, which leads to accumulation of chondroitin, heparan and dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and multisystemic disease. MPS VII patients can develop kypho-scoliotic deformity and spinal cord compression due to disease of intervertebral disks, vertebral bodies, and associated tissues. We have previously demonstrated in MPS VII dogs that intervertebral disks degenerate, vertebral bodies have irregular surfaces, and vertebral body epiphyses have reduced calcification, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear. We hypothesized that some of these manifestations could be due to upregulation of destructive proteases, possibly via the binding of GAGs to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), as has been proposed for other tissues in MPS models. In this study, the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disk of 6-month-old MPS VII dogs had cathepsin B and K activities that were 117- and 2-fold normal, respectively, which were associated with elevations in mRNA levels for these cathepsins as well as TLR4. The epiphyses of MPS VII dogs had a marked elevation in mRNA for the cartilage-associated gene collagen II, consistent with a developmental delay in the conversion of the cartilage to bone in this region. The spine obtained at autopsy from a young man with MPS VII exhibited similar increased cartilage in the vertebral bodies adjacent to the end plates, disorganization of the intervertebral disks, and irregular vertebral end plate morphology. These data suggest that the pathogenesis of destructive changes in the spine in MPS VII may involve upregulation of cathepsins. Inhibition of destructive proteases, such as cathepsins, might reduce spine disease in patients with MPS VII or related disorders. PMID:22513347

  6. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervicalcommon endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  7. Cervical Spine Motion during Transfer and Stabilization Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Ian; Boissy, Patrick; Lebel, Karina; Boulay, John; Segal, Eli; Delaney, J Scott; Vacon, L Charlene; Steele, Russell J

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To compare paramedics' ability to minimize cervical spine motion during patient transfer onto a vacuum mattress with two stabilization techniques (head squeeze vs. trap squeeze) and two transfer methods (log roll with one assistant (LR2) vs. 3 assistants (LR4)). Methods. We used a crossover design to minimize bias. Each lead paramedic performed 10 LR2 transfers and 10 LR4 transfers. For each of the 10 LR2 and 10 LR4 transfers, the lead paramedic stabilized the cervical spine using the head squeeze technique five times and the trap squeeze technique five times. We randomized the order of the stabilization techniques and LR2/LR4 across lead paramedics to avoid a practice or fatigue effect with repeated trials. We measured relative cervical spine motion between the head and trunk using inertial measurement units placed on the forehead and sternum. Results. On average, total motion was 3.9° less with three assistants compared to one assistant (p = 0.0002), and 2.8° less with the trap squeeze compared to the head squeeze (p = 0.002). There was no interaction between the transfer method and stabilization technique. When examining specific motions in the six directions, the trap squeeze generally produced less lateral flexion and rotation motion but allowed more extension. Examining within paramedic differences, some paramedics were clearly more proficient with the trap squeeze technique and others were clearly more proficient with the head squeeze technique. Conclusion. Paramedics performing a log roll with three assistants created less motion compared to a log roll with only one assistant, and using the trap squeeze stabilization technique resulted in less motion than the head squeeze technique but the clinical relevance of the magnitude remains unclear. However, large individual differences suggest future paramedic training should incorporate both best evidence practice as well as recognition that there may be individual differences between paramedics. PMID:25076192

  8. Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine; diagnosed with magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of nine cases of synovial cysts of the lumbar spine, diagnosed with magnetic resonance is presented. The cysts were found in patients aged 24 to 73 yrs, most of which had symptoms related with this finding. Some were seen as incidental findings or unrelated to symptoms. The most typical characteristic of these lesions is that of a rounded, ovoid or bilobed image, with close anatomical relation with the facet joints or the ligamentum flavum, that presented with facet joint arthrosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis was significant and useful for diagnosis

  9. Radiologic abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiologic study of the thoraco-lumbar spine was performed in 143 (117 male and 26 female) athletes (wrestlers, gymnasts, soccer players and tennis players), aged 14 to 25 years and 30 male nonathletes, aged 19 to 25 years. Film interpretation was made after mixing the films from all groups and without knowledge of the individual's identity. Various types of radiologic abnormalities occured in both athletes and non-athletes but were more common among athletes, especially male-gymnasts and wrestlers. Abnormalities of the vertebral ring apophysis occurred exclusively in athletes. Combinations of different types of abnormalities were most common in male gymnasts and wrestlers. (orig.)

  10. Percutaneous aspiration biopsy in cervical spine lytic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the technique and the results of the percutaneous aspiration biopsy (PAB) in a series of 9 patients presenting with neck pain and different degrees of myelopathy, in whom the cervical spine X-ray demonstrated lytic lesions of unknown origin. PAB is a useful, relatively safe technique, and leads to histological diagnosis between metastatic and inflammatory processes. Furthermore, in inflammatory lesions with negative hemoculture, PAB may help in detecting the micro-organism responsible and therefore allow a better antibiotic treatment. (orig.)

  11. Multisegmental pneumatocysts of the lumbar spine mimic osteolytic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circumscribed radiolucencies within the vertebral bones can be due to a variety of changes including benign and malignant tumours or tumour-like lesions. Radiolucencies due to degenerative intraosseous pneumatocyst are very uncommon but have to be taken into the differential diagnosis in well-circumscribed lytic lesions of the vertebral bodies. We describe the first case of multisegmental pneumatocysts in the lumbar spine mimicking osteolytic lesions. On computed tomography, the air-equivalent attenuation values of the lesions and the close vicinity to the degenerated vertebral endplates with vacuum phenomenon led to the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. CT in the diagnosis of acute injuries to the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additional to conventional X-ray examinations, high-resolution CT has a great impact on the diagnostic evaluation of severe spine injuries. It allows exact judgment of the condition of vertebral arch, articular processes, joints and spinal axis and therefore a better delineation of the stability or instability of spinal fractures. Intraspinal fracture of spinal stenosis and intra or paraspinal soft tissues lessions are much more easily detected. For this reasons CT - evaluation of severe spinal traumata permits earlier, much more precise and in many cases successful therapy. (orig.)

  13. Tomographic imaging of the cervical spine of horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anatomy of the cervical spine of mature horses based on images obtained with a helical computed tomography examination performed on anatomic specimens was studied. Computed tomography was the diagnostic imaging method of choice and allowed three-dimensional reconstructions of images and other anatomical planes, such as coronal and sagittal. All images were acquired and evaluated in the filter and window to bone tissue. It was possible to demonstrate the anatomical differences and peculiarities of the normal vertebrae, particularly the occipito-atlantoaxial region, which has a higher incidence of changes to assist in the visualization of any change of the bone pattern on CT studies. (author)

  14. Fat-suppression MR imaging of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat suppression magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pediatric spine was performed in 17 patients with use of a chemical shift selective presaturation technique. Fat suppression images were acquired in addition to standard T1-weighted images obtained with either spatial presaturation or gradient moment nulling (flow compensation) alone. Fat suppression images provided improved intrathecal detail. On two of the eight abnormal images, suppression of adjacent epidural fat signal allowed diagnosis of cord tethering not appreciated on conventional MR images. Other benefits included better separation of neural structures from high-signal-intensity nonneural structures, decreased image brightness adjacent to the surface coils, and suppression of chemical shift artifacts

  15. Primary intradural mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the spine in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Hua [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Radiology, Xin Hua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Yao, Xiao-Hong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Pathology, Xin Hua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2007-11-15

    We report a primary intradural mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the spine in a 3-year-old girl. MRI revealed a markedly enhancing oval mass associated with focal areas of low signal intensity extending from T11 to L1. The lesion was located posterolateral to the right side of the spinal cord, pushing the conus medullaris and cauda equina anteriorly and to the left. The adjacent spinal cord also showed serpiginous areas of flow void. The mass was completely removed. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. The patient was free of symptoms after surgery. (orig.)

  16. A potentially missed cervical (C2) spine fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hadithy, Nawfal; Khan, Arshad; Banerjee, Ashis

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case report of a potentially missed C2 fracture whose signs and symptoms did not warrant radiograph imaging according to both the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study and Canadian C-spine Rules. The patient had a significant injury while rear-ending a stationary vehicle at 20 mph, and the correct diagnosis was only made based on approaching him with a high index of suspicion. He was successfully treated in a halo collar and made an excellent recovery.

  17. Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, 2005–2008 On This Page Key ... either the femur neck or lumbar spine among older adults in the United States population based on these ...

  18. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS) : development and validation of a new scoring method for the evaluation of fat lesions in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the localization and phenotypic diversity of fat lesions in patients with axial SpA.

  19. The sitting man. Radiography of lumbar spine and pelvis in sitting position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographs of the lumbar spine in sitting and standing positions demonstrate sliding movements of the vertebral bodies to an unexpected extent, as a sign of the instability of the lumbar spine. These observations suggest some ideas for the construction of chairs. (orig.)

  20. SpineLab: tool for three-dimensional reconstruction of neuronal cell morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Daniel; Vlachos, Andreas; Schuldt, Gerlind; Zahn, Nadine; Deller, Thomas; Wittum, Gabriel

    2012-07-01

    SpineLab is a software tool developed for reconstructing neuronal feature skeletons from three-dimensional single- or multi-photon image stacks. These images often suffer from limited resolution and a low signal-to-noise ratio, making the extraction of morphometric information difficult. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a software tool that offers the possibility to create feature skeletons in various modes--automatically as well as with manual interaction. We have named this novel tool SpineLab. In a first step, an investigator adjusts a set of parameters for automatic analysis in an interactive manner, i.e., with online visual feedback, followed by a second step, in which the neuronal feature skeleton can be modified by hand. We validate the ability of SpineLab to reconstruct the entire dendritic tree of identified GFP-expressing neurons and evaluate the accuracy of dendritic spine detection. We report that SpineLab is capable of significantly facilitating the reconstruction of dendrites and spines. Moreover, the automatic approach appears sufficient to detect spine density changes in time-lapse imaging experiments. Taken together, we conclude that SpineLab is an ideal software tool for partially automatic reconstruction of neural cell morphology.

  1. Shrinkage of dendritic spines associated with long-term depression of hippocampal synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Homma, Koichi J; Poo, Mu-ming

    2004-12-01

    Activity-induced modification of neuronal connections is essential for the development of the nervous system and may also underlie learning and memory functions of mature brain. Previous studies have shown an increase in dendritic spine density and/or enlargement of spines after the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Using two-photon time-lapse imaging of dendritic spines in acute hippocampal slices from neonatal rats, we found that the induction of long-term depression (LTD) by low-frequency stimulation is accompanied by a marked shrinkage of spines, which can be reversed by subsequent high-frequency stimulation that induces LTP. The spine shrinkage requires activation of NMDA receptors and calcineurin, similar to that for LTD. However, spine shrinkage is mediated by cofilin, but not by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which is essential for LTD, suggesting that different downstream pathways are involved in spine shrinkage and LTD. This activity-induced spine shrinkage may contribute to activity-dependent elimination of synaptic connections. PMID:15572107

  2. Dynamin-dependent Membrane Drift Recruits AMPA Receptors to Dendritic Spines*S?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskolski, Frédéric; Mayo-Martin, Belen; Jane, David; Henley, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    The surface expression and localization of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at dendritic spines are tightly controlled to regulate synaptic transmission. Here we show that de novo exocytosis of the GluR2 AMPAR subunit occurs at the dendritic shaft and that new AMPARs diffuse into spines by lateral diffusion in the membrane. However, membrane topology restricts this lateral diffusion. We therefore investigated which mechanisms recruit AMPARs to spines from the shaft and demonstrated that inhibition of dynamin GTPase activity reduced lateral diffusion of membrane-anchored green fluorescent protein and super-ecliptic pHluorin (SEP)-GluR2 into spines. In addition, the activation of synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors enhanced lateral diffusion of SEP-GluR2 and increased the number of endogenous AMPARs in spines. The NMDA-invoked effects were prevented by dynamin inhibition, suggesting that activity-dependent dynamin-mediated endocytosis within spines generates a net inward membrane drift that overrides lateral diffusion barriers to enhance membrane protein delivery into spines. These results provide a novel mechanistic explanation of how AMPARs and other membrane proteins are recruited to spines by synaptic activity. PMID:19269965

  3. Clinical practice of image-guided spine radiosurgery - results from an international research consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guckenberger Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal radiosurgery is a quickly evolving technique in the radiotherapy and neurosurgical communities. However, the methods of spine radiosurgery have not been standardized. This article describes the results of a survey about the methods of spine radiosurgery at five international institutions. Methods All institutions are members of the Elekta Spine Radiosurgery Research Consortium and have a dedicated research and clinical focus on image-guided radiosurgery. The questionnaire consisted of 75 items covering all major steps of spine radiosurgery. Results Strong agreement in the methods of spine radiosurgery was observed. In particular, similarities were observed with safety and quality assurance playing an important role in the methods of all institutions, cooperation between neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists in case selection, dedicated imaging for target- and organ-at-risk delineation, application of proper safety margins for the target volume and organs-at-risk, conformal planning and precise image-guided treatment delivery, and close clinical and radiological follow-up. In contrast, three major areas of uncertainty and disagreement were identified: 1 Indications and contra-indications for spine radiosurgery; 2 treatment dose and fractionation and 3 tolerance dose of the spinal cord. Conclusions Results of this study reflect the current practice of spine radiosurgery in large academic centers. Despite close agreement was observed in many steps of spine radiosurgery, further research in form of retrospective and especially prospective studies is required to refine the details of spinal radiosurgery in terms of safety and efficacy.

  4. Passively morphing ornithopter wings constructed using a novel compliant spine: design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornithopters or flapping wing uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAVs) have potential applications in civil and military sectors. Amongst the UAVs, ornithopters have a unique ability to fly in low Reynolds number flight regimes and also have the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft. In nature, birds achieve such performance by exploiting various wing kinematics known as gaits. The objective of this work is to improve the steady level flight performance of an ornithopter by implementing a continuous vortex gait using a novel passive compliant spine inserted in the ornithopter’s wings. This paper presents an optimal compliant spine concept for ornithopter applications. A quasi-static design optimization procedure was formulated to design the compliant spine. Finite element analysis was performed on a first generation spine and the spine was fabricated. This prototype was then tested by inserting it into an ornithopter’s wing leading edge spar. The effect of inserting the compliant spine into the wings on the electric power required, the aerodynamic loads and the wing kinematics was studied. The ornithopter with the compliant spines inserted in its wings consumed 45% less power and produced an additional 16% of its weight in mean lift compared to the same ornithopter without the compliant spine. The results indicate that this passive morphing approach is promising for improved steady level flight performance. (paper)

  5. Local dynamic stability of spine muscle activation and stiffness patterns during repetitive lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ryan B; Brown, Stephen H M

    2014-12-01

    To facilitate stable trunk kinematics, humans must generate appropriate motor patterns to effectively control muscle force and stiffness and respond to biomechanical perturbations and/or neuromuscular control errors. Thus, it is important to understand physiological variables such as muscle force and stiffness, and how these relate to the downstream production of stable spine and trunk movements. This study was designed to assess the local dynamic stability of spine muscle activation and rotational stiffness patterns using Lyapunov analyses, and relationships to the local dynamic stability of resulting spine kinematics, during repetitive lifting and lowering at varying combinations of lifting load and rate. With an increase in the load lifted at a constant rate there was a trend for decreased local dynamic stability of spine muscle activations and the muscular contributions to spine rotational stiffness; although the only significant change was for the full state space muscle activation stability (p < 0.05). With an increase in lifting rate with a constant load there was a significant decrease in the local dynamic stability of spine muscle activations and the muscular contributions to spine rotational stiffness (p ? 0.001 for all measures). These novel findings suggest that the stability of motor inputs and the muscular contributions to spine rotational stiffness can be altered by external task demands (load and lifting rate), and therefore are important variables to consider when assessing the stability of the resulting kinematics. PMID:25322265

  6. The effect of common artifacts lateral to the spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sarah L; Lopez-Ben, Robert; Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria; Fineberg, Naomi; Tubbs, R Shane; Yester, Michael V

    2008-01-01

    Artifacts such as surgical clips, gallstones, and kidney stones are often present in the soft tissue stripe lateral to vertebral bodies. Using cadaveric specimens, we placed bra wires, gallbladder clips, a large gallstone, a calcium carbonate or a calcium citrate pill lateral to L1, or a large or small calcium-containing kidney stone lateral to L3 and compared the mean bone mineral density (BMD) of individual vertebral bodies and L1-L4 with and without the soft tissue artifact. The specimens used had high BMD (L1-L4 BMD=1.049 g/cm2) and low BMD (L1-L4 BMD=0.669 g/cm2) and were scanned with a Hologic Discovery W scanner with 12.7 software in the array mode. None of the artifacts affected L1 or L3 BMD or L1-L4 BMD significantly in the high BMD spine. However, bra wires, a large calcium citrate pill lateral to L1, 3 calcium citrate pills lateral to L1, a calcium carbonate pill over L1, and 3 calcium carbonate pills lateral to L1 did affect L1-L4 BMD in low BMD torso. Gallbladder clips or gallstone did not affect L1-L4 BMD in either specimen. We conclude that artifacts lateral to the spine, particularly in a low BMD spine, can affect the interpretation of L1-L4 BMD using a Hologic Discovery W scanner with 12.7 software in array mode. PMID:18291694

  7. In Vitro Spine Testing Using a Robot-Based Testing System: Comparison of Displacement Control and “Hybrid Control”

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Kevin M.; Hartman, Robert A.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Kang, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The two leading control algorithms for in-vitro spine biomechanical testing—“load control” and “displacement control”— are limited in their lack of adaptation to changes in the load-displacement response of a spine specimen—pointing to the need for sufficiently sophisticated control algorithms that are able to govern the application of loads/motions to a spine specimen in a more realistic, adaptive manner. A robotics-based spine testing system was programmed with a novel hybrid ...

  8. Matrix Metalloproteinases Regulate the Formation of Dendritic Spine Head Protrusions during Chemically Induced Long-Term Potentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Szepesi, Zsuzsanna; Bijata, Monika; Ruszczycki, Blazej; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Wlodarczyk, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic spines are are small membranous protrusions that extend from neuronal dendrites and harbor the majority of excitatory synapses. Increasing evidence has shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of extracellularly acting and Zn2+-dependent endopeptidases, are able to rapidly modulate dendritic spine morphology. Spine head protrusions (SHPs) are filopodia-like processes that extend from the dendritic spine head, representing a form of postsynaptic structural remodeling in ...

  9. Helical CT in the primary trauma evaluation of the cervical spine: an evidence-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review provides a summary of the cost-effectiveness, clinical utility, performance, and interpretation of screening helical cervical spine CT for trauma patients. Recent evidence supports the use of helical CT as a cost-effective method for screening the cervical spine in high-risk trauma patients. Screening cervical spine CT can be performed at the time of head CT to lower the cost of the evaluation, and when all short- and long-term costs are considered, CT may actually save money when compared with traditional radiographic screening. In addition to having higher sensitivity and specificity for cervical spine injury, CT screening also allows more rapid radiological clearance of the cervical spine than radiography. Patients who are involved in high-energy trauma, who sustain head injury, or who have neurological deficits are candidates for CT screening. Screening with CT may enhance detection of other potentially important injuries of the cervical region. (orig.)

  10. Evolving standards of practice for cervical spine imaging in trauma: a retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recently published works on radiology and emergency medicine suggest an increasing role for primary CT imaging of the cervical spine (C-spine) in trauma, rather than plain X-rays. This observational retrospective study of 406 patients was undertaken to examine current practice in a metropolitan teaching hospital setting and to define factors affecting the use of primary imaging for suspected C-spine fracture. This study supports the increasing recognition of the limited accuracy and adequacy of plain films, especially among the more severely injured patients. It is suggested that intubated patients, patients with severe trauma or patients with Glasgow Coma Scale <13 have CT as a primary screening examination for suspected C-spine fracture rather than X-ray. Patients having head CT for suspected intracranial injury may also benefit from included C-spine CT. The increasing usage of primary CT will increase overall imaging costs and resource utilization

  11. On the creation of a segmentation library for digitized cervical and lumbar spine radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururajan, Arunkumar; Kamalakannan, Sridharan; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Shahriar, Muneem; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of computer-assisted indexing in one specific case, i.e., for the 17,000 digitized images of the spine acquired during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The crucial step in this process is to accurately segment the cervical and lumbar spine in the radiographic images. To that end, we have implemented a unique segmentation system that consists of a suite of spine-customized automatic and semi-automatic statistical shape segmentation algorithms. Using the aforementioned system, we have developed experiments to optimally generate a library of spine segmentations, which currently include 2000 cervical and 2000 lumbar spines. This work is expected to contribute toward the creation of a biomedical Content-Based Image Retrieval system that will allow retrieval of vertebral shapes by using query by image example or query by shape example. PMID:21377835

  12. Diffraction-enhanced imaging of the rat spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) uses monochromatic synchrotron X-rays to image tissue. This technique has been shown to produce superior bony and soft tissue characterization when compared with conventional absorption radiography. Application of this imaging modality is under investigation, and this study represents the first DEI analysis of the vertebral column. Four male Wistar rats were studied. Spine muscle blocks were imaged in 3 of the rats after thoracic laminectomy (n = 1), after lumbar laminectomy (n = 1), and in a control condition (n = 1). The fourth rat was imaged as a whole animal control. Conventional radiography and synchrotron-supported DEI at 40 keV were performed on all specimens. We compared images side by side, using a nonvalidated subjective assessment technique. DEI produced superior visualization of the vertebral anatomy, compared with conventional absorption radiography for all specimens. Greater bony and soft tissue detail was noted, with improved image contrast. In addition to imaging the anatomical structures, DEI showed the polyglactin suture material used for fascial closure in the 2 animals that underwent surgery. Artifact from air bubbles was present on DEI images but not on plain radiographs. This represents the first use of DEI, a novel imaging modality, to image the vertebral column. It provides excellent anatomic detail with superior contrast and visualization of both bone and soft tissue when compared with conventional radiographwhen compared with conventional radiography. Future applications of this investigational technique may include analysis of spinal fusion as well as degenerative and neoplastic conditions of the spine. (author)

  13. Tarlov cysts: a controversial lesion of the sacral spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucantoni, Corrado; Than, Khoi D; Wang, Anthony C; Valdivia-Valdivia, Juan M; Maher, Cormac O; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The primary aim of our study was to provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging, and histopathological features of Tarlov cysts (TCs) and to report operative and nonoperative management strategies in patients with sacral TCs. A literature review was performed to identify articles that reported surgical and nonsurgical management of TCs over the last 10 years. Tarlov cysts are often incidental lesions found in the spine and do not require surgical intervention in the great majority of cases. When TCs are symptomatic, the typical clinical presentation includes back pain, coccyx pain, low radicular pain, bowel/bladder dysfunction, leg weakness, and sexual dysfunction. Tarlov cysts may be revealed by MR and CT imaging of the lumbosacral spine and must be meticulously differentiated from other overlapping spinal pathological entities. They are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. To date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to use when indicated. The authors report and discuss various surgical strategies including posterior decompression, cyst wall resection, CT-guided needle aspiration with intralesional fibrin injection, and shunting. In operative patients, the rates of short-term and long-term improvement in clinical symptoms are not clear. Although neurological deficit frequently improves after surgical treatment of TC, pain is less likely to do so. PMID:22133181

  14. Biomechanical analysis of plate stabilization on cervical part of spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of the work was determination of biomechanical analysis of cervical spine – stabilizer system made of stainless steel (Cr-Ni-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.Design/methodology/approach: To define biomechanical characteristic of the system the finite elements method (FEM was applied. Geometric model of part of spine C5-C7 and stabilizer were discretized by SOLID95 element. Appropriate boundary conditions imitating phenomena in real system with appropriate accuracy were established.Findings: The result of biomechanical analysis was calculation of displacements and stresses in the vertebras and the stabilizer in a function of the applied loading: 50-300 N for the stabilizer made of stainless steel (Cr-Ni-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.Research limitations/implications: The result of biomechanical analysis for plate stabilizer obtained by FEM can be use to determine a construction features of the stabilizer, and to select mechanical properties of metallic biomaterial and estimation of stabilization quality. The calculation of displacements for part C5-C7 show that the proposed type of stabilizer enables correct stabilization used to clinical apply.Practical implications: The results of biomechanical analysis showed correct mechanical properties used to made the plate stabilizer.Originality/value: The obtained numerical results should be verified in “in vitro” tests.

  15. Physiologic predictors of lumbar spine bone mass in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, W W; Hockman, E M

    2000-10-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine (LS) was measured in 201 singleton infants with birth weights from 1152 to 3970 g and gestational ages from 27 to 42 wk. All infants were well and studied at a mean (+/-SD) of 2.1 (+/-1.6) days after birth. There were 75 Caucasian (46 males, 29 females) and 126 African American infants (58 males, 68 females). Scan acquisition of the first to fourth lumbar vertebrae was performed with a single beam whole body scanner (Hologic QDR 1000/W densitometer, Hologic Inc, Waltham, MA, U.S.A.) using the infant spine mode. Scan analysis was performed with software version 4.57Q and consistent region of interest. The SD of difference for duplicate LS scans is infant's length appears to be the best determinant of LS area and accounts for about 75% of the variance in LS area. Race, gender or season has little or no effect on LS bone mass. There was progressive increase in BMC and area from first to fourth lumbar vertebra but BMD was significantly higher only at the fourth lumbar vertebra. We conclude that DXA LS can be performed even in small preterm infants. Its excellent precision, low radiation exposure and rapid scan acquisition offers promise as a useful tool for widespread use in pediatrics. Our data may be used as a basis for further studies in physiologic and pathologic situations that may affect bone mineralization in infants. PMID:11004239

  16. MR distinction between multiple myeloma and metastasis involving the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To differentiate multiple myeloma from metastasis involving the spine at MR imaging. Twenty-five patients with multiple myeloma and 37 with vertebral metastasis were included in this study. MR images were retrospectively analyzed with regard to imfiltration and enhancement patterns, signa. intensity, the involvement of three consecutive vertebrae, the number of lesions within one vertebra, and paraspinal and epidural masses. Using a 1.5-T imager, we obtained sagittal and axial, unenhanced and enhanced T1-weighted images, and fast spin-echo images. For statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test was used. All cases of multiple myeloma and metastasis showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and there were no significant differences in signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and there were no significant differences in signal intensities or enhancement patterns.Infilration and enhancement patterns were classified as focal (52% in multiple myeloma vs 68% in metastasis, p>0.05), diffuse (32% vs 32%, p>0.05) or salt and pepper (16% vs 0%, p0.05), isointensity (36% vs 3%. p0.05). , and hypointensity (52% vs 65%, p>0.05). Paraspinal and epidural masses played little part. The salt and pepper infiltration pattern, the presence of more than five lesions within one vertebra, and the involvement of more than three consecutive vertebrae were useful MR findings for differentiation between multiple myeloma and metastasis involving the spine. In most cases, hjowever, it is difficult to distinguish between the two conditions

  17. Topology optimization of trabecular bone in the human spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanna, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    It is widely believed in the realm of biology that the trabecular structure of long bones self-optimizes in response to mechanical loads, in accordance with Wolff's law. Here, we examine this idea by applying techniques from topology optimization the human spine. We consider different domain geometries as well as different load cases to account for the various loading conditions and changes in shape that take place within the spine during day-to-day activities and over the years. We show that the classical approach of minimizing compliance subject to a volume constraint does not yield a sponge-like architecture but results in only vertical trabeculae. Additional constraints/objective functions have to be considered simultaneously. We show that more realistic trabecular geometries may be produced by taking into consideration the function of trabecular bone as a reservoir for minerals and bone marrow production. By maximizing the surface area of the generated voids while minimizing the total volume of the trabeculae subject to a constraint on their buckling strength, we recover the sponge-like structure. Our results shed light on the optimizing conditions for bone structure beyond Wolff's law and provide guidelines for biomimetic material design.

  18. [Symptoms. Localizations: knee, hip, hands, spine, other localizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of osteoarthritis vary widely from patient to patient, depending especially on the localization on the disease. There is a poor correlation between radiological involvement and pain. In general, symptom onset is gradual and symptoms increase slowly but progressively. The most commonly affected joints are the knees, hips, hands, and spine. The main signs and symptoms are pain, stiffness, joint deformity, and crepitus. Pain is mechanical and its causes are multifactorial; in the initial phases, pain usually manifests in self-limiting episodes but may subsequently be almost constant. The criteria of the American college of Rheumatology for the classification of osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and hands are an aid to classification and standardization but are not useful for diagnosis. Hip osteoarthritis usually produces inguinal pain in the internal and anterior sections of the muscle extending to the knee and, with progression, tends to limit mobility. Knee osteoarthritis is more frequent in women and is usually associated with hand osteoarthritis and obesity. In hand osteoarthritis, the most commonly affected joints are the distal interphalangeal joints, followed by the proximal interphalangeal joints and the trapeziometacarpal joints; the development of Heberden and Bouchard nodes is common; involvement of the trapeziometacarpal joint is called rhizarthrosis and is one of the forms of osteoarthritis that produces the greatest limitation on hand function. Osteoarthritis of the spine affects the facet joints and the vertebral bodies. Other, less frequent, localizations are the foot, elbow and shoulder, which are generally secondary forms of osteoarthritis. PMID:24467955

  19. Lumbar spine radiology: analysis of the posteroanterior projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the posteroanterior (PA) technique as a means of dose reduction has been used effectively in radiology departments for chest and abdominal examinations. The aim of this investigation was to establish if the PA lumbar spine projection offers any advantages over the traditional anteroposterior (AP) view in terms of radiation dose and image quality. The contribution of tissue displacement to any dose reduction was also evaluated. The first part of the study involved the use of an anthropological phantom where entrance surface and an internal dose were measured for both the PA and AP projections. Entrance surface doses for both projections were then measured on randomly allocated female patients. Resultant image quality was assessed using CEC quality criteria. Anterior to posterior patient diameter was also recorded. The results demonstrated that with the PA compared with the AP projection, reductions of 38.6% (p=0.016) and 38.9% (p=0.02) in patient entrance surface dose and internal phantom dose, respectively. No significant differences in image quality were noted between the two projections. Patient diameter decreased by 1.8 cm with the PA view. The authors conclude that tissue displacement is the main factor for the patient dose reduction and recommend employment of the PA procedure for routine lumbar spine examinations. (orig.)

  20. Management of thoracolumbar spine fractures with neurologic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Y P; Steib, J-P

    2015-02-01

    Thoracic and lumbar fractures represent approximately 50% of neurologic spinal trauma. They lead to paraplegia or cauda equina syndrome depending on the level injured. In the acute phase, the extension of spinal cord lesions should be limited by immediately treating secondary systemic injury factors. Quick recovery of hemodynamic stability, with mean arterial blood pressure>85 mm Hg, appears essential. There is no clinical evidence in favor of high-dose corticosteroid protocols. Their effect on neurologic recovery is unproven, whereas they lead to a higher rate of secondary septic and pulmonary complications. Incomplete deficits (ASIA B-D) require urgent surgery. There is no consensus with regard to complete paraplegia (ASIA A), but early surgery can enable neurologic recovery in some cases. The principle of surgical treatment is based on spinal cord decompression, instrumentation and fracture reduction. Early stabilization of the spine improves respiratory function and shortens the duration of mechanical ventilation and thus intensive care unit stay. Depending on the severity of associated lesions, early surgery within 48 hours is beneficial in polytrauma patients. Percutaneous instrumentation combined with mini-open posterior decompression stabilizes the spine, limiting approach-related morbidity. PMID:25577599

  1. A generic detailed rigid-body lumbar spine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Zee, Mark; Hansen, Lone

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present a musculo-skeletal model of the lumbar spine, which can be shared and lends itself to investigation in many locations by different researchers. This has the potential for greater reproducibility and subsequent improvement of its quality from the combined effort of different research groups. The model is defined in a text-based, declarative, object-oriented language in the AnyBody Modelling System software. Text-based models will facilitate sharing of the models between different research groups. The necessary data for the model has been taken from the literature. The work resulted in a detailed lumbar spine model with seven rigid segments with 18 degrees-of-freedom and 154 muscles. The model is able to produce a maximum extension moment of 238 Nm around L5/S1. Moreover, a comparison was made with in vivo intradiscal pressure measurements of the L4-5 disc available from the literature. The model is based on inverse dynamics, where the redundancy problem is solved using optimization in order to compute the individual muscle forces and joint reactions. With the presented model it is possible to investigate a range of research questions, because the model is relatively easy to share and modify due to the use of a well-defined and self-contained scripting language. Validation is though still necessary for specific cases.

  2. Radiosurgery from the brain to the spine: 20 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiosurgery evolved from brain to spine. Mechanical and computer advances in linear accelerator (LINAC) radiosurgery apply precise single/fractional stereotactic radiation to multiple pathologies. During a 10-year span the senior author used proton-beam radiosurgery in over 300 lesions, followed by gamma-knife, adapted and dedicated LINACS, including cyber-knife, in another 700 patients. The last 10 years, experience was accumulated with the Novalis in over 3.000 patients. Novalis uses a beam-shaper in a high-speed delivery LINAC. It operates using conventional circular arc, conformal static beam, dynamic conformal or intensity modulated modes. Patients treated with Novalis at the UCLA since 1997 were evaluated regarding effectiveness, complications and failure. These results were compared with previous 1997 data. Over 4,000 patients with trigeminal neuralgia/intractable pain, arteriovenous malformations/angiomas, metastases, ependymomas, gliomas, meningiomas hemangiopericytomas, schwannomas, adenomas, hemangioblastomas, and chordoma were treated. Spinal lesions were treated with frameless stereotaxis and on-line precision checks. Treatment was expeditious, comfortable and with reduced complications. Success is similar or superior to published data. Reduced treatment time of complex lesions and highly homogeneous dose compares favorably to other radiosurgery. The senior author's experience validates the novel shaped-beam approach. Long-term follow-up supports safety oach. Long-term follow-up supports safety and effectiveness and capability to treat brain and spine. (author)

  3. Imaging the spine in arthritis-a pictorial review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2011-01-01

    Spinal involvement is frequent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and seronegative spondyloarthritides (SpA), and its diagnosis is important. Thus, MRI and CT are increasingly used, although radiography is the recommended initial examination. The purpose of this review is to present the typical radiographic features of spinal changes in RA and SpA in addition to the advantages of MRI and CT, respectively. RA changes are usually located in the cervical spine and can result in serious joint instability. Subluxation is diagnosed by radiography, but supplementary MRI and/or CT is always indicated to visualise the spinal cord and canal in patients with vertical subluxation, neck pain and/or neurological symptoms. SpA may involve all parts of the spine. Ankylosing spondylitis is the most frequent form of SpA and has rather characteristic radiographic features. In early stages it is characterised by vertebral squaring and condensation of vertebral corners, in later stages by slim ossifications between vertebral bodies, vertebral fusion, arthritis/ankylosis of apophyseal joints and ligamentous ossification causing spinal stiffness. The imaging features of the other forms of SpA can vary, but voluminous paravertebral ossifications often occur in psoriatic SpA. MRI can detect signs of active inflammation as well as chronic structural changes; CT is valuable for detecting fracture.

  4. Dural ectasia and conventional radiography in the Marfan lumbosacral spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, N.U. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States); Johns Hopkins Outpatient Center, Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nallamshetty, L.; Ahn, U.M.; Buchowski, J.M.; Kebaish, K.M.; Sponseller, P.D. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States); Rose, P.S. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States); National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Garrett, E.S. [Dept. of Oncology, Division of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Objective. To determine how well conventional radiographic findings can predict the presence of dural ectasia in Marfan patients.Design and patients. Twelve Marfan patients without dural ectasia and 21 Marfan patients with dural ectasia were included in the study. Five radiographic measurements were made of the lumbosacral spine: interpediculate distance, scalloping value, sagittal canal diameter, vertebral body width, and transverse process width.Results. The following measurements were significantly larger in patients with dural ectasia: interpediculate distances at L3-L4 levels (P<0.03); scalloping values at the L1 and L5 levels (P<0.05); sagittal diameters of the vertebral canal at L5-S1 (P<0.03); transverse process to width ratios at L2 (P<0.03). Criteria were developed for diagnosis of dural ectasia in Marfan patients. These included presence of one of the following: interpediculate distance at L4 >38.0 mm, sagittal diameter at S1 >18.0 mm, or scalloping value at L5 >5.5 mm.Conclusion. Dural ectasia in Marfan syndrome is commonly associated with several osseous changes that are observable on conventional radiographs of the lumbosacral spine. Conventional radiography can detect dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome with a very high specificity (91.7%) but a low sensitivity (57.1%). (orig.)

  5. Welcome to your Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Janet M Dubinsky (University of Minnesota Neuroscience)

    2008-10-28

    Often, people use their five basic senses Â? sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell Â? without thinking about it. In this lesson, students explore the connection between these senses and the brain by exercising each sense in short experiments.

  6. Volumetric Image Guidance Using Carina vs Spine as Registration Landmarks for Conventionally Fractionated Lung Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the relative accuracy of 2 image guided radiation therapy methods using carina vs spine as landmarks and then to identify which landmark is superior relative to tumor coverage. Methods and Materials: For 98 lung patients, 2596 daily image-guidance cone-beam computed tomography scans were analyzed. Tattoos were used for initial patient alignment; then, spine and carina registrations were performed independently. A separate analysis assessed the adequacy of gross tumor volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume coverage on cone-beam computed tomography using the initial, middle, and final fractions of radiation therapy. Coverage was recorded for primary tumor (T), nodes (N), and combined target (T+N). Three scenarios were compared: tattoos alignment, spine registration, and carina registration. Results: Spine and carina registrations identified setup errors ?5 mm in 35% and 46% of fractions, respectively. The mean vector difference between spine and carina matching had a magnitude of 3.3 mm. Spine and carina improved combined target coverage, compared with tattoos, in 50% and 34% (spine) to 54% and 46% (carina) of the first and final fractions, respectively. Carina matching showed greater combined target coverage in 17% and 23% of fractions for the first and final fractions, respectively; with spine matching, this was only observed in 4% (first) and 6% (final) of fractions. Carina matching provided superior nodes coverage at the endvided superior nodes coverage at the end of radiation compared with spine matching (P=.0006), without compromising primary tumor coverage. Conclusion: Frequent patient setup errors occur in locally advanced lung cancer patients. Spine and carina registrations improved combined target coverage throughout the treatment course, but carina matching provided superior combined target coverage.

  7. Mobile Sensing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Macias; Alvaro Suarez; Jaime Lloret

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance...

  8. Performance of a Novel Repositioning Head Frame for Gamma Knife Perfexion and Image-Guided Linac-Based Intracranial Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the geometric positioning and immobilization performance of a vacuum bite-block repositioning head frame (RHF) system for Perfexion (PFX-SRT) and linac-based intracranial image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with intracranial tumors received linac-based image-guided SRT using the RHF for setup and immobilization. Three hundred thirty-three fractions of radiation were delivered in 12 patients. The accuracy of the RHF was estimated for linac-based SRT with online cone-beam CT (CBCT) and for PFX-SRT with a repositioning check tool (RCT) and offline CBCT. The RCT's ability to act as a surrogate for anatomic position was estimated through comparison to CBCT image matching. Immobilization performance was evaluated daily with pre- and postdose delivery CBCT scans and RCT measurements. Results: The correlation coefficient between RCT- and CBCT-reported displacements was 0.59, 0.75, 0.79 (Right, Superior, and Anterior, respectively). For image-guided linac-based SRT, the mean three-dimensional (3D) setup error was 0.8 mm with interpatient (?) and interfraction (?) variations of 0.1 and 0.4 mm, respectively. For PFX-SRT, the initial, uncorrected mean 3D positioning displacement in stereotactic coordinates was 2.0 mm, with ? = 1.1 mm and ? = 0.8 mm. Considering only RCT setups o in pitch. The mean 3D intrafraction motion was 0.4 ± 0.3 mm. Conclusion: The RHF provides excellent immobilization for intracranial SRT and PFX-SRT. Some small systematic uncertainties in stereotactic positioning exist and must be considered when generating PFX-SRT treatment plans. The RCT provides reasonable surrogacy for internal anatomic displacement.

  9. Number Sense Series: Developing Early Number Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni Way

    The author of this one-page article discusses early number sense and how it develops. She provides research background and suggests teaching strategies that promote early number sense, including instructions for simple games using dot cards. The article includes a list of references and a link to a follow-up article, "A Sense of 'ten' and Place Value" (cataloged separately).

  10. Robotic assisted surgeries for the treatment of spine tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaobang; Scharschmidt, Thomas J.; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgery plays an important role in the treatment of patients with metastatic or primary spine tumors. In recent years, various new techniques, such as robotic assisted spine surgery have been developed which has shown some promising results by improving the accuracy of spinal instrumentation and reducing potential complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our early experience using robotic guidance in the treatment of spinal tumors. Methods Data were collected from medical records for each surgery in which the robotic system was used to assist with biopsy, pedicle screw placement and/or vertebral augmentation in the treatment of spinal tumors. Patient's age, gender, diagnosis and surgical procedure were documented. The surgical time, estimated blood loss, peri-operative and post-operative complications were obtained. The visual analog scale (VAS) for back pain and leg pain were also recorded. Results A total of 9 consecutive patients (7 female, 2 male) were included in this study, beginning with the first case experience. The mean age of the patients was 60 years (range 47-69). All patients presented with thoracic or lumbar vertebral collapse and/or myelopathy. Robotic assisted posterior instrumentation was successfully performed in all patients. Robotic assisted vertebral augmentation was performed in 4 patients. The average number of levels instrumented was 5. The average surgery time (skin to skin) was 4 hours and 24 minutes and the mean blood loss was 319 ml. There were no complications perioperatively or through the latest follow-up. Seven of the 9 patients reported improved back pain and/or leg pain at the latest follow-up and the data were not available in two patients. Conclusions The published complication rates of spinal tumor surgeries range between 5.3% and 19%. With robotic assistance, the surgical complication rate appears improved over the historical figures. Our study shows that the robotic system was safe and performed as desired in the treatment of metastatic and primary spine tumors. These results support that further evaluation in a larger series of patients. PMID:25709885

  11. Dose conformation to the spine during palliative treatments using dynamic wedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is commonly used to alleviate pain associated with metastatic disease of the spine. Often, isodose lines are manipulated using dynamic or physical wedges to encompass the section of spine needing treatment while minimizing dose to normal tissue. We will compare 2 methods used to treat the entire thoracic spine. The first method treats the thoracic spine with a single, nonwedged posterior-anterior (PA) field. Dose is prescribed to include the entire spine. Isodose lines tightly conform to the top and bottom vertebrae, but vertebrae between these 2 received more than enough coverage. The second method uses a combination of wedges to create an isodose line that mimics the curvature of the thoracic spine. This “C”-shaped curvature is created by overlapping 2 fields with opposing dynamic wedges. Machine constraints limit the treatment length and therefore 2 isocenters are used. Each of the 2 PA fields contributes a portion of the total daily dose. This technique creates a “C”-shaped isodose line that tightly conforms to the thoracic spine, minimizing normal tissue dose. Spinal cord maximum dose is reduced, as well as mean dose to the liver, esophagus, and heart

  12. The influence of muscle forces on the stress distribution in the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, C; Rasmussen, J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies of bone stresses in the human lumbar spine have relied on simplified models when modeling the spinal musculature, even though muscle forces are likely major contributors to the stresses in the vertebral bones. Detailed musculoskeletal spine models have recently become available and show good correlation with experimental findings. A combined inverse dynamics and finite element analysis study was conducted in the lumbar spine to investigate the effects of muscle forces on a detailed musculoskeletal finite element model of the 4th lumbar vertebral body. Materials and Methodology: The muscle forces were computed with a detailed and validated inverse dynamics musculoskeletal spine model in a lifting situation, and were then applied to an orthotropic finite element model of the 4th lumbar vertebra. The results were compared with those from a simplified load case without muscles. Results: In general the von Mises stress was larger by 30 %, and even higher when looking at the von Misesstress distribution in the superio-anterior and central part of the vertebral body and in the pedicles. Conclusion: The application of spine muscles to a finite element model showed markedly larger von Mises stress responses in the central and anterior part of the vertebral body, which can be tolerated in the young and healthy spine, but it would increase the risk of compression fractures in the elderly, osteoporotic spine.

  13. Structure, composition and mechanical relations to function in sea urchin spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureaux, C; Pérez-Huerta, A; Compère, P; Zhu, W; Leloup, T; Cusack, M; Dubois, P

    2010-04-01

    Sea urchins have characteristic spines that fulfil critical functions. Several studies revealed marked spine internal heterogeneities at different structural levels despite the single-crystal character of the spines. Most of these studies did not speculate about the functional meaning of these heterogeneities. Spine heterogeneities were investigated in the sea urchin Paracentrotuslividus and their possible functional implications discussed. Spines mainly show two morphological parts: the base, made of a meshwork stereom, and the shaft, with longitudinal plain septa and a central core of meshwork stereom. Electron Backscatter Diffraction showed no difference in crystallite orientation between the two structures. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed that Mg was not uniformly distributed in the spine. Mg concentration is higher in the inner part of the septa than in the septum outer part. Furthermore, a cyclic pattern of Mg concentration in septa was observed. This is suggested to be linked to the spine ontogeny. Nano- and microindentation analyses revealed that the septa have higher stiffness and hardness than the meshwork stereom and that septum stiffness and hardness present different trends in longitudinal and transverse section. These mechanical heterogeneities may have an adaptive functional value. PMID:20064619

  14. Principal component and factor analysis to study variations in the aging lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Iliescu, D D; Sneath, R J; Hutchinson, C E; Shah, A A

    2015-03-01

    Human spine is a multifunctional structure of human body consisting of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles which all undergo a process of change with the age. A sudden change in these features either naturally or through injury can lead to some serious medical conditions which puts huge burden on health services and economy. While aging is inevitable, the effect of aging on different areas of spine is of clinical significance. This paper reports the growth and degenerative pattern of human spine using principal component analysis. Some noticeable lumbar spine features such as vertebral heights, disc heights, disc signal intensities, paraspinal muscles, subcutaneous fats, psoas muscles, and cerebrospinal fluid were used to study the variations seen on lumbar spine with the natural aging. These features were extracted from lumbar spine magnetic resonance images of 61 subjects with age ranging from 2 to 93 years. Principal component analysis is used to transform complex and multivariate feature space to a smaller meaningful representation. PCA transformation provided 2-D visualization and knowledge of variations among spinal features. Further useful information about correlation among the spinal features is acquired through factor analysis. The knowledge of age related changes in spinal features are important in understanding different spine related problems. PMID:25486654

  15. Sensor positioning and experimental constraints influence estimates of local dynamic stability during repetitive spine movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Samuel J; Graham, Ryan B

    2015-04-13

    Application of non-linear dynamics analyses to study human movement has increased recently, which necessitates an understanding of how dependent measures may be influenced by experimental design and setup. Quantifying local dynamic stability for a multi-articulated structure such as the spine presents the possibility for estimates to be influenced by positioning of kinematic sensors used to measure spine angular kinematics. Oftentimes researchers will also choose to constrain the spine?s movement by physically restraining the pelvis and/or using targets to control movement endpoints. Ten healthy participants were recruited, and asked to perform separate trials of 35 consecutive cycles of spine flexion under both constrained and unconstrained conditions. Electromagnetic sensors that measure three-dimensional angular orientations were positioned over the pelvis and the spinous processes of L3, L1, and T11. Using the pelvic sensor as a reference, each sensor location on the spine was used to obtain a different representation of the three-dimensional spine angular kinematics. Local dynamic stability of each kinematic time-series was determined by calculating the maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponent (?max). Estimates for ?max were significantly lower (i.e. dynamically more stable) for spine kinematic data obtained from the L3 sensor than those obtained from kinematic data using either the L1 or T11 sensors. Likewise, ?max was lower when the movement was constrained. These results emphasize the importance of proper placement of instrumentation for quantifying local dynamic stability of spine kinematics and are especially relevant for repeated measures designs where data are obtained from the same individual on multiple days. PMID:25680296

  16. Synovial cyst of the lumbar spine: CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this revision article is to show the images of intraspinal synovial cysts, using MR and CT. The synovial cyst is an infrequent entity that predominates in the lower lumbar spine. It shows a prevalence on the L4-L5 level, and is uncommon before the age of 30 years. The cyst communicates with the adjacent apophysial joint, and these joints are frequently altered by osteoarthritis. The simple X-ray and the myelography do not contribute to the diagnosis. The CT and MR are the most accurate methods for this anatomical alteration. The synovial cysts have similar behavior: iso-hypointense in T1 weighted and hyperintense in T2 weighted in the MR examinations and some of them show the classical calcification of their wall in the CT studies. (author)

  17. Plastic optical fibre sensor for spine bending monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study on the application of plastic optical fibre for spine bending monitoring based on an intensity modulation. The bending angle is measured as the angle between the emitting and receiving fibres is changed. The measured light attenuation is compared with a theoretical evaluation and the differences between these values are discussed. It was found that the light attenuation for the light intensity agreed well (margin of error < 15%) with the theoretical value for the range between 180° (representing no bend) and 200° and it was significantly increased for the bending angle beyond that value due to the effect of fibre gap increment which resulted in a less reliable experimental estimation.

  18. Imaging diagnosis--cervical spine chondroma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2008-01-01

    An extradural chondroma originating in the cervical spine was diagnosed in an 8-year-old, intact male Chow-Chow that presented acute cervical pain and chronic right thoracic limb lameness. Myelographic images were within normal limits. With magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, an extradural mass was identified at the level of the C4-C5 vertebrae. This mass was excised, and the histologic diagnosis was chondroma. Fifteen months after surgery, the dog was clinically normal, and no regrowth of the mass was identified on follow-up MR images. Spinal chondromas are rare tumors in the dog, but should be considered as a rule out for contrast-enhancing extradural vertebral masses. PMID:18833956

  19. Functional radiographs of the craniocervical region and cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disabilities of the articulation of the head and cervical spine can often be detected only by exact measurement of functional radiographs. From two radiographs, one in flexion and one in extension, not only can the total mobility of the head be measured, but also the mobility of the individual articulations can be evaluated by taking exact measurements of the position of each vertebra. A method for semi-automatic measuring of such pairs of radiographs is presented. Edges and structures of the bones that are clearly visible in both radiographs are digitized on a graphict tablet. Then, by computer program, each vertebra of the first radiograph is shifted and rotated until it fits best to the respective vertebra of the second radiograph. Thus, for each articulation, the mobility angle and the location of the mobility axis relative to the adjacent vertebra, can be computed. First experiences with this method are presented

  20. Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes

  1. Myofibroma of the cervical spine presenting as brachialgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin M; du Plessis, Daniel; Gnanalingham, Kanna K

    2014-12-01

    Myofibromas are rare, benign tumors of myofibroblasts. Their occurrence in adults, involving bone outside of the head and neck, is especially uncommon. The authors report the case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with left-sided brachialgia. Magnetic resonance imaging identified an expansile soft-tissue lesion of the C6-7 facet joint. En bloc resection via a left posterior midline approach was undertaken. Histopathological analysis confirmed the lesion to be a myofibroma. Brachialgia resolved following surgery and there is no evidence of recurrence at 20 months follow-up. Myofibroma is a rare cause of primary soft-tissue tumor of the spine. Surgical excision remains the mainstay of treatment. PMID:25303617

  2. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the spine. Report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, Kristian

    2012-02-03

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EH) is a rare tumor of vascular origin. The authors describe two cases of spinal EH, one involving the T-10 vertebra and the second involving the upper cervical spine. In the first case the patient underwent resection of the tumor; this case represents the longest reported follow-up period for spinal EH. In the second case, extensive involvement of C-2, C-3, and C-4 as well as encasement of both vertebral arteries precluded safe tumor resection, and posterior occipitocervical stabilization was performed. The patient subsequently died of metastatic disease. The findings in these two cases underscore the difficulty in predicting the clinical behavior of spinal EH based solely on histological and clinical features as well as the uncertainty of the roles of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in the oncological management of a spinal tumor for which clinical data are very limited.

  3. Effective dose for scoliosis patients undergoing full spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoliotic patients underwent many radiological examinations during their control and treatment periods. Nowadays, few studies have calculated effective dose which is the primary indicator of radiation risk. In this study, the PCXMC program is used to calculate the effective doses associated with scoliosis radiography. Five age groups of patients, proposed by the National Radiological Protection Board, have been chosen: <1, 1-4, 5-9, 10-15 and ?16 y (adult patients). Patient and radiographic data were collected from 99 patient examinations for both anteroposterior and lateral full spine X-ray projections. Results showed the effective dose ranged from 118 to 1596 ?Sv for the frontal projection and from 97 to 1370 ?Sv for the lateral projection, with patient age varying from 3 months to 22 y. This study presents the effective dose against patient age and demonstrates the necessity to optimise patient protection for this type of examination. (authors)

  4. Anterior surgical approaches to the sub-axial cervical spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosla V

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cervical spine surgery has come of age, as a golden route for treating anteriorly placed cervical compressions ranging from simple prolapsed disc to long segment pathologies like ossification of posterior longitudinal ligaments and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Numerous technical modifications of the procedure are described. The role of stabilisation established for several pathologies, is still debateable in surgery for cervical disc. Bone is the ideal tissue for fusion. Hydroxyapetite implants are goods, but costly for our set up. Methylmethacrylate has a limited role in elderly patients with malignancy and a short life expectancy. Anterior cervical instrumentation has mushroomed over the last decade. Acceptable as methods of immediate stabilisation, the choice of the system varies with the surgeon. The authors use simple titanium plates with locking screws for the purpose.

  5. Review Article: MRI of the postoperative lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging assessment of the lumbosacral spine following surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including the anatomy of the patient, the surgical procedure and the disease process for which it was performed, the age of the patient, the biomechanical condition of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone, intervertebral disc and musculoligamentous tissues, the time since surgery procedure and the duration and nature of the postsurgical syndrome. Depending upon these factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities may be required to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality, to assist the surgeon in deciding if repeat surgery is necessary, its nature and at which vertebral level(s) it should be directed. This review stresses the important role of MRI following lumbar discectomy, intervertebral fusion and/or instrumentation in achieving the most beneficial and timely outcome in the patient presenting with an acute, subacute or chronic failed back surgery syndrome. (orig.)

  6. Inflammatory spine disease as a cause of back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the role of inflammatory spine disease in patients with chronic back pain. The contribution of imaging modalities for the diagnostic evaluation of back pain is discussed. A systematic literature search based on the classification of seronegative spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis was performed. The results of this search and the experiences in a large collective of rheumatological patients are analyzed. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (1-2%) is comparable to that of spondyloarthropathies (1.9%). The etiology of these entities is not fully elucidated. Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used for early detection and surveillance of therapy with TNF-? antagonists. Bone marrow edema, which is only detectable with MRI, represents an early sign of inflammation. Therapy with TNF-? antagonists is based on clinical and laboratory criteria, and signs of inflammation in MRI. MRI is useful for assessment of the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory therapy. (orig.)

  7. Myelography and MRI of the cervical spine syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution comes from a hospital performing over 150 cervical disc operations every year and presents a comparative evaluation of the diagnostic tools of pre-operative MRI and cervical myelography in a total of 120 segments. The various diagnostic signs showing cervical disc herniation, obtained by myelography or MRI, are analysed and characterised in their diagnostic value. The results show that accurate evaluation of myelograms leads to sufficient agreement with the MRI results, so that myelography is a good alternative modality for examination of patients for whom performance of MRI is inadvisable. In general, however, MRI proves to be the method of choice for non-invasive diagnostic evaluation of the cervical spine syndrome. (orig./CB)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book will be of use to neuroradiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and all other clinicians who interact to discuss the results of MRI in patients with neurologic disease. It is hoped that this book will aid in this interaction by adding insight into the interpretation of scans and by promulgating a common language. Neuroradiologists and others who interpret MRI of the brain and spine will benefit from the detailed discussions concerning the basis of signal intensity derangements, whether on the fundamental level (i.e., physical or biochemical) or at the level of correlations with clinical and neuropathological findings. It is anticipated that all neuroscience personnel interested in clinical disease states and in neurological research will be able to utilize this text as a starting point and reference for proposed work utilizing MRI

  9. Anterior cervical spine fusion in treatment of cervicobrachialgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, M A

    1991-01-01

    Traumatic and degenerative changes in the spine at the level of the neck are frequent causes of pain in the neck, often associated with radiculopathy and sometimes even myelopathic symptoms. The signs and symptoms can generally be attributed to a problem of instability for which there are no specific criteria. If conservative treatment does not help, satisfying results can be achieved by a stable intercorporeal fusion using the modified Robinson technique. An EMG and a cervical myelogram must be carried out before surgical stabilization. In 154 patients followed for an average of 12 years, 75% observed resolution of the pain and paresthesias after surgical stabilization. These results correspond to those described in the literature. The best results are achieved if the signs and symptoms are experienced for no longer than 1 year and if the patient is under age 40. PMID:1927357

  10. Juxtafacet cysts of the lumbar spine: a positional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juxtafacet cysts (JFC) are related to facet joint degeneration. Supine MRI is routinely used to evaluate JFC. However, some JFC are missed and found only intraoperatively. The present study addresses positional MRI features and factors leading to variation in the size of JFC. Fifty patients in whom positional MRI had been performed were investigated retrospectively and 67 distinct intraspinal or intraneuroforaminal were JFC found. Signal intensity, size of the JFC, the presence and variance of a vertebral slip and the angular movement of affected segments were assessed in supine, neutral sitting, flexion (sitting) and extension (standing). The overall movement of the spine and the lordosis angle in different positions were measured. JFC varied in size in segments with unstable slip and increased angular movement (variation of the angle in the affected segment in function: 13.3 degrees compared to 8.7 degrees). JFC with bright signals tended to vary in size compared to JFC with intermediate or low signal intensity (all: p < 0.001). Joint effusion and displacement of effusion lead to formation and variations in the size of JFC. JFC were most prominent in extension: 6.7 mm, less prominent in supine: 5.5 mm and in neutral sitting position: 4.6 mm (all p < 0.05). The detection rate for JFC was 97% for extension, 89% for supine and 78% for neutral sitting. The detection rate of JFC improves with increasing lordosis of the spine and under weight-bearing conditions, particulaunder weight-bearing conditions, particularly when standing. Unstable slipping or increased angular movement affects the size of JFC. (orig.)

  11. Biomechanics of the spine. Part II: Spinal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early deterioration of spinal components. All bony and soft spinal components contribute to stability, so any degenerative, traumatic or destructive lesion to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Degenerative instability is considered a major cause of axial and radicular pain and is a frequent indication for surgery. Nevertheless the assessment of instability remains difficult in both clinical and imaging settings. All static imaging modalities, even conventional MR, the most accurate technique, are unreliable in assessing instability and chronic pain due to degenerative spine. Dynamic-positional MR is considered the most sophisticated imaging modality to evaluate abnormal spinal motion and instability. In spinal traumas, as multi-detector CT yields high-resolution reconstructions in every spatial plane, it will detect even the tiniest fractures revealing potentially unstable lesions, often avoid the routine use of MR. Nevertheless, MR remains the only modality that will directly and routinely assess soft tissue changes. Unfortunately the objectivity of MR in assessing the integrity of ligaments is not rigorously defined and its use in routine protocols to clear blunt spinal injuries remains controversial. There are no evidence-based guidelines currently available to assess the risk of spinal instability in the setting of neoplastic spinal disease, so predicting the risk of a pathological fracture or the timing of a collapse remains challenging even when the lesions are well-characterized by neuroimaging. Diagnostic difficulties lead to controversy in the choice of the best treatment in all forms of spinal instability

  12. Palpation of the upper thoracic spine : an observer reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Vach, Werner

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraobserver reliability (in terms of hour-to-hour and day-to-day reliability) and the interobserver reliability with 3 palpation procedures for the detection of spinal biomechanic dysfunction in the upper 8 segments of the thoracic spine. DESIGN: A repeated-measures design was used in all substudies. SETTING: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Two chiropractors examined 29 patients and 27 subjects in the interobserver part and 1 chiropractor examined 14 patients and 15 subjects in the intraobserver studies. INTERVENTION: Three types of palpation were performed: Sitting motion palpation and prone motion palpation for biomechanic dysfunction and paraspinal palpation for tenderness. Each dimension was rated as "absent" or "present" for each segment. All examinations were performed according to a standard written procedure. RESULTS: Using an "expanded" definition of agreement that accepts small inaccuracies (+/-1 segment) in the numbering of spinal segments, we found--based on the pooled data from the thoracic spine--kappa values of 0.59 to 0.77 for the hour-to-hour and the day-to-day intraobserver reliability with all 3 palpation procedures. Kappa coefficients were 0.24 and 0.22 for the interobserver reliability with prone and sitting motion palpation and 0.67 and 0.70, respectively, with paraspinal palpation for tenderness. CONCLUSION: With expanded agreement we found good hour-to-hour and day-to-day intraobserver reliability with all 3 palpation procedures and good interobserver reliability for paraspinal tenderness. The interobserver reliability was unacceptably poor with prone and sitting motion palpation.

  13. Risk factors for persistent Dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Erik C; Jobson, Meghan; Lim, Moe R

    2015-04-01

    Dysphagia is a relatively common complication of anterior cervical spine surgery. Smoking has not been definitively assessed as a risk factor for dysphagia. This study examined risk factors for dysphagia, including smoking and pain severity. The authors performed a cross-sectional cohort study of 100 patients who underwent anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). Dysphagia was assessed with the Yoo-Bazaz questionnaire. Clinical notes were reviewed for demographic information, diagnosis, preoperative pain severity, preoperative smoking status, and operative details. The dysphagia questionnaire was administered via telephone. The rate of dysphagia at an average of 2.75 years (33 months) was 26%. Rare and mild dysphagia were reported by 2% and 7% of patients, respectively. Moderate dysphagia was reported by 12% patients, and severe dysphagia was reported by 5% of patients. Smokers were more likely to report dysphagia symptoms, and their dysphagia scores were more severe than those in nonsmokers (1.17 vs 0.54; P=.02). Patients undergoing revision surgery (n=7) had dysphagia at a rate of 71% compared with 23% of patients undergoing primary surgery (Ppain, and number of levels treated did not reach statistical significance. The prevalence of persistent dysphagia at an average of 33 months after ACDF was 23% in primary cases. To the authors' knowledge, the severity of dysphagia in smokers has not been reported previously. These data confirm previous reports that dysphagia symptoms persist in a significant proportion of patients more than 1 year after anterior cervical spine surgery. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(4):e319-e323.]. PMID:25901626

  14. Juxtafacet cysts of the lumbar spine: a positional MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niggemann, Pascal [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Kuchta, Johannes [Interdisziplinaeres Wirbelsaeulenzentrum, Bonn (Germany); Hoeffer, Janine; Beyer, Hans-Konrad [Upright MRT, Cologne (Germany); Grosskurth, Dieter; Delank, Karl-Stefan [Upright MRT, Cologne (Germany); University of Cologne, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Cologne (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Juxtafacet cysts (JFC) are related to facet joint degeneration. Supine MRI is routinely used to evaluate JFC. However, some JFC are missed and found only intraoperatively. The present study addresses positional MRI features and factors leading to variation in the size of JFC. Fifty patients in whom positional MRI had been performed were investigated retrospectively and 67 distinct intraspinal or intraneuroforaminal were JFC found. Signal intensity, size of the JFC, the presence and variance of a vertebral slip and the angular movement of affected segments were assessed in supine, neutral sitting, flexion (sitting) and extension (standing). The overall movement of the spine and the lordosis angle in different positions were measured. JFC varied in size in segments with unstable slip and increased angular movement (variation of the angle in the affected segment in function: 13.3 degrees compared to 8.7 degrees). JFC with bright signals tended to vary in size compared to JFC with intermediate or low signal intensity (all: p < 0.001). Joint effusion and displacement of effusion lead to formation and variations in the size of JFC. JFC were most prominent in extension: 6.7 mm, less prominent in supine: 5.5 mm and in neutral sitting position: 4.6 mm (all p < 0.05). The detection rate for JFC was 97% for extension, 89% for supine and 78% for neutral sitting. The detection rate of JFC improves with increasing lordosis of the spine and under weight-bearing conditions, particularly when standing. Unstable slipping or increased angular movement affects the size of JFC. (orig.)

  15. MR imaging of epidural hematoma in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To bring attention to the MR imaging appearance of epidural hematoma (EDH) in the lumbar spine as a small mass often associated with disk herniation or an acute event. This paper will show our experience with this entity and describe criteria for its MR imaging appearance. Design and patients. Thirteen cases of prospectively diagnosed EDH of the lumbar spine were compared with 12 cases of prospectively diagnosed prominent epidural extrusion. Our criteria were retrospectively evaluated by the two authors for their presence or absence in each case. The chi-square test for nominal data was applied. MR imaging criteria utilized to distinguish EDH from disk herniation at our institution include: (1) signal different from disk, (2) high signal on T1-weighted images, either centrally or peripherally, (3) teardrop- or egg-shaped mass, in the sagittal plane, (4) size greater than half the vertebral body height in a craniocaudal dimension, (5) primarily retrosomatic epidural location, (6) plasticity - the mass is seen to conform closely to the contours of bone (e.g., in the lateral recess), (7) little or no disk space narrowing unless associated with disc herniation. Chi-square analysis demonstrated each criterion to significantly differentiate between EDH and extrusion. Only six of 13 EDH cases went to surgery in spite of their relatively large size. Two of six patients were diagnosed as having epidural clot consistent with hematoma at the time of surgery. The four patients wh the time of surgery. The four patients who were not diagnosed at surgery revealed only small disk herniations or fragments of disk. The occurrence of EDH is more frequent than previously suspected. Spontaneous EDH is frequently associated with disk herniation and acute events such as sneezing or coughing. Most cases of spontaneous EDH will resolve prior to surgery with only the minority becoming chronic in order to be seen at surgery as an encapsulated mass. MR imaging can reliably identify EDH and distinguish between EDH and large disk extrusions. (orig.)

  16. Relationship between spine bone mineral density and vertebral body heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuoli, G F; Diacinti, D; Acca, M; Pisani, D; Rosso, R; D'Erasmo, E; Minisola, S

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) and the vertebral body heights with advancing age and years since menopause. One hundred and sixty-three women ages 39-74 years (77 normal premenopausal, ages 39-54, and 86 normal postmenopausal, ages 46-74 years) were studied. LS-BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Vertebral heights were evaluated, using morphometry, as the sum of anterior (AHs), middle (MHs), and posterior (PHs) vertebral body heights from T4 to L5. The AHs/PHs ratio at the same level was also calculated. AHs, MHs, PHs, and AHs/PHs ratio directly correlated with LS-BMD; the correlations are AHs r = 0.80, P < 0.0001, MHs r = 0.75, P < 0.0001, PHs r = 0.76, P < 0.0001, and AHs/PHs r = 0.66, P < 0.001. Both LS-BMD and AHs are inversely correlated with age, and the regressions fit with both linear and cubic curves. The statistical significance of the correlations persists while maintaining age constant. The linear regression curve of AHs with age indicates that the spine height decrement rate is 2.12 mm/year, corresponding to 7.4 cm in 35 years. AHs decreases immediately after menopause fitting with a cubic curve model, with a decrement rate of about 3 cm in the first 5 years after menopause. We conclude that the measurement of the sum of vertebral body heights could usefully integrate LS-BMD evaluation in the clinical and epidemiological investigation of osteoporosis. PMID:9576974

  17. Pitfalls and complications in the treatment of cervical spine fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschoeke Sven K

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with ankylosing spondylitis are at significant risk for sustaining cervical spine injuries following trauma predisposed by kyphosis, stiffness and osteoporotic bone quality of the spine. The risk of sustaining neurological deficits in this patient population is higher than average. The present review article provides an outline on the specific injury patterns in the cervical spine, diagnostic algorithms and specific treatment modalities dictated by the underlying disease in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. An emphasis is placed on the risks and complication patterns in the treatment of these rare, but challenging injuries.

  18. Glial ephrin-A3 regulates hippocampal dendritic spine morphology and glutamate transport

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona, Maria A.; Murai, Keith K.; Wang, Lei; Roberts, Amanda J.; Pasquale, Elena B.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the importance of neuron-glia communication for synaptic function, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We reported that the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is in dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons of the adult hippocampus and regulates spine morphology. We now show that the ephrin-A3 ligand, which is located in the perisynaptic processes of astrocytes, is essential for maintaining EphA4 activation and normal spine morphology in vivo. Ephrin-A3...

  19. In-vivo Kinematics of the Cervical Spine in Frontal Sled Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Dehner; Sylvia Schick; Wolfram Hell; Peter Richter; Michael Kraus.; Michael Kramer

    2013-01-01

    The description of cervical spine motion and the risk to sustain a cervical spine injury in traffic accidents is mainly based on rear-end collisions. The knowledge about frontal collisions is comparable low. Therefore the objective of this exploratory study was, to describe the in-vivo cervical spine motion and acceleration during simulated frontal sled collisions and to identify sequences of motion in which the risk of injury is increased. A frontal collision with a speed change of 10.2km/h ...

  20. Chemical senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoshuk, L M; Beauchamp, G K

    1994-01-01

    In the last decade, studies using approaches from molecular biology have substantially advanced our understanding of the early events in olfaction and taste. The many odorants that we can recognize may well interact with many distinct receptor proteins. Of the four taste qualities that we recognize, studies on salty and sour suggest that these tastes involve ion channels in the membrane of receptor cells while sweets and bitters bind to receptor proteins. Some volatiles (pheromones) play special roles in reproductive behavior via the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the accessory olfactory system. Initial belief that humans lack a VNO has been questioned recently, thus raising the fascinating possibility of human pheromones. The roles that taste and smell play in the world of the newborn are very different. Acceptance of sweet and rejection of bitter appear to be hard-wired while the affect associated with odors depends much more on experience. Genetic variation may produce total losses (Kallman's syndrome produces anosmia and familial dysautonomia produces ageusia) or losses specific to certain stimuli. The best known of the specific anosmias is that for androstenone, which has no smell to some, a urinous smell to others, and a smell like sandalwood to still others. Analogous to the specific anosmias, some individuals are unable to taste PROP while others, supertasters, perceive PROP to be exceedingly bitter. Clinical studies reveal pathologies responsible for total or partial losses. The olfactory system, dependent on one cranial nerve, is more vulnerable than taste, and total anosmia is a relatively common clinical problem. Three cranial nerves carry taste and two of those nerves inhibit one another such that damage to one disinhibits the other and preserves over-all taste function. Total ageusia is very rare. Throughout these studies we see that taste and olfaction have different properties and often different functions (e.g. odor and reproduction). Yet taste and smell can also be integrated to determine what does or does not enter the body. In Adrian's words, "we are dealing with the sense organs which signal the quality of the air we breathe and that of the food and drink we propose to swallow." PMID:8135507

  1. Fatal outcome after insufficient spine fixation for pyogenic thoracic spondylodiscitis: an imperative for 360° fusion of the infected spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Ernest E

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyogenic spondylodiscitis represents a potentially life-threatening condition. Due to the low incidence, evidence-based surgical recommendations in the literature are equivocal, and the treatment modalities remain controversial. Case presentation A 59 year-old patient presented with a history of thoracic spondylodiscitis resistant to antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks, progressive severe back pain, and a new onset of bilateral lower extremity weakness. Clinically, the patient showed a deteriorating spastic paraparesis of her lower extremities. An emergent MRI revealed a kyphotic wedge compression fracture at T7/T8 with significant spinal cord compression, paravertebral and epidural abscess, and signs of myelopathy. The patient underwent surgical debridement with stabilization of the anterior column from T6–T9 using an expandable titanium cage, autologous bone graft, and an anterolateral locking plate. The patient recovered well under adjunctive antibiotic treatment. She presented again to the emergency department 6 months later, secondary to a repeat fall, with acute paraplegia of the lower extremities and radiographic evidence of failure of fixation of the anterior T-spine. She underwent antero-posterior revision fixation with hardware removal, correction of kyphotic malunion, evacuation of a recurrent epidural abscess, decompression of the spinal canal, and 360° fusion from T2–T11. Despite the successful salvage procedure, the patient deteriorated in the postoperative phase, when she developed multiple complications including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, bacterial meningitis, abdominal compartment syndrome, followed by septic shock with multiple organ failure and a lethal outcome within two weeks after revision surgery. Conclusion This catastrophic example of a lethal outcome secondary to failure of anterior column fixation for pyogenic thoracic spondylodiscitis underlines the notion that surgical strategies for the infected spine must be aimed at achieving absolute stability by a 360° fusion. This aggressive – albeit controversial – concept allows for an adequate infection control by adjunctive antibiotics and reduces the imminent risk of a secondary loss of fixation due to compromises in initial fixation techniques.

  2. Spatial distribution of Na+-K+-ATPase in dendritic spines dissected by nanoscale superresolution STED microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Na+,K+-ATPase plays an important role for ion homeostasis in virtually all mammalian cells, including neurons. Despite this, there is as yet little known about the isoform specific distribution in neurons. Results With help of superresolving stimulated emission depletion microscopy the spatial distribution of Na+,K+-ATPase in dendritic spines of cultured striatum neurons have been dissected. The found compartmentalized distribution provides a strong evidence for the confinement of neuronal Na+,K+-ATPase (?3 isoform in the postsynaptic region of the spine. Conclusions A compartmentalized distribution may have implications for the generation of local sodium gradients within the spine and for the structural and functional interaction between the sodium pump and other synaptic proteins. Superresolution microscopy has thus opened up a new perspective to elucidate the nature of the physiological function, regulation and signaling role of Na+,K+-ATPase from its topological distribution in dendritic spines.

  3. The rheumatoid cervical spine: Signs of instability on plain cervical radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cervical spine is a common focus of destruction from rheumatoid arthritis, second only to the metacarpophalangeal joints. Joint, bone and ligament damage in the cervical spine leads to subluxations which can cause cervical cord compression resulting in paralysis and even sudden death. Because many patients with significant subluxations are asymptomatic, the radiologist plays a key role in recognizing the clinically important clues to instability on plain radiographs of the cervical spine-often difficult in rheumatoid arthritis when the bony landmarks are osteoporotic or eroded. This review focuses on the signs of instability on plain radiographs of the cervical spine, using diagrams and clinical examples to illustrate methods of identifying significant subluxations in rheumatoid arthritis. Roche, C.J., Eyes, B.E. and Whitehouse, G.H. (2002)

  4. Endotracheal intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilization: a comparison of macintosh and airtraq laryngoscopes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2007-07-01

    The Airtraq laryngoscope (Prodol Ltd., Vizcaya, Spain) is a novel single-use tracheal intubation device. The authors compared ease of intubation with the Airtraq and Macintosh laryngoscopes in patients with cervical spine immobilization in a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

  5. Radiation diagnosis of sequestrated intervertebral disk hernias of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work is based on complex examination of 137 patients with sequestered intervertebral disk hernias of the lumbosacral spine with the use of an x-ray method, helical computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Three-Dimensional Mechanical Model of the Human Spine and the Versatility of its Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Milan; Velísková, Petra; Rehák, ?uboš; Žabka, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the work is oriented towards the simulation or modeling of the lumbar and thoracic human spine as a load-bearing 3D system in a computer program (ANSYS). The human spine model includes a determination of the geometry based on X-ray pictures of frontal and lateral projections. For this reason, another computer code, BMPCOORDINATES, was developed as an aid to obtain the most precise and realistic model of the spine. Various positions, deformations, scoliosis, rotation and torsion can be modelled. Once the geometry is done, external loading on different spinal segments is entered; consequently, the response could be analysed. This can contribute a lot to medical practice as a tool for diagnoses, and developing implants or other artificial instruments for fixing the spine.

  7. Pathogenic SYNGAP1 mutations impair cognitive development by disrupting the maturation of dendritic spine synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, James P.; Aceti, Massimiliano; Creson, Thomas K.; Ozkan, Emin D.; Shi, Yulin; Reish, Nicholas J.; Almonte, Antoine G.; Miller, Brooke H.; Wiltgen, Brian J.; Miller, Courtney A.; Xu, Xiangmin; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Mutations that cause Intellectual Disability (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are commonly found in genes that encode for synaptic proteins. However, it remains unclear how mutations that disrupt synapse function impact intellectual ability. In the SYNGAP1 mouse model of ID/ASD, we found that dendritic spine synapses develop prematurely during the early postnatal period. Premature spine maturation dramatically enhanced excitability in the developing hippocampus, which corresponded with...

  8. Hot Spine Loops and the Nature of a Late-Phase Solar Flare

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xudong; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Liu, Yang; Aulanier, Guillaume; Su, Yingna; Hannah, Iain G.; Hock, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    The fan-spine magnetic topology is believed to be responsible for many curious features in solar explosive events. A spine field line links distinct flux domains, but direct observation of such feature has been rare. Here we report a unique event observed by the Solar Dynamic Observatory where a set of hot coronal loops (over 10 MK) connected to a quasi-circular chromospheric ribbon at one end and a remote brightening at the other. Magnetic field extrapolation suggests these...

  9. Oblique view: an unnecessary component of the initial adult lumbar spine examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the diagnostic contribution of oblique views in 200 consecutive lumbar spine examinations done in adults. In four cases (two percent) there was a change in the radiographic interpretation when the oblique views were used for diagnosis. Considering the low diagnostic and therapeutic yield, as well as the gonadal radiation dose, the authors feel that the oblique view should not be a routine part of the initial lumbar spine examination in adults

  10. Observation and quantification of pathological lesions in the musculoskeletal structures of the cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Roshier, Amanda Louise

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the study carried out for the `Observation and Quantification of Pathological Lesions in the Musculoskeletal Structures of the Cervical Spine'. In particular, this study has focused on the identification and quantification of pathological lesions of the musculoskeletal complex of the cervical spine, resulting from a whiplash injury. Whiplash was first recognised in the early 1920's, and since this first report there has been a greater number of road users; which has...

  11. A Rare Case of Hypopharyngeal Screw Migration after Spine Stabilization with Plating

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzo, C; G. Balata; Pittore, B; G. Salis

    2013-01-01

    Anterior cervical spine fusion and stabilization with plating are well-established surgical procedures for the treatment of myelopathy, cervical spine traumas, and spinal infectious diseases. Various complications have been described in the literature, more frequently, intraoperative bleeding, peri- or postoperative hypopharyngeal, and/or esophageal ruptures with mediastinal deep infection and loosening and extrusion of the screws from the plating. Screw migration has also been observed as a ...

  12. Desmoid type fibromatosis in the facet joint of lumbar spine: Case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmoid type fibromatosis is a benign fibroblastic tumor arising from the fascia or musculoaponeurosis. It may occur in various locations, but most commonly in the shoulder girdle and neck; to our knowledge, there has been no reported case originating from a facet joint of the spine. We report CT and MR imaging findings of a desmoid type fibromatosis, involving the facet joint of the L3-4 spine with bone involvement.

  13. The validity of multimodal intraoperative monitoring (MIOM) in surgery of 109 spine and spinal cord tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Martin; Eggspuehler, Andreas; Grob, Dieter; Jeszenszky, Dezso?; Benini, Arnaldo; Porchet, Francois; Mueller, Alfred; Dvorak, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    In a prospective study of 109 patients with tumor of the spine MIOM was performed during the surgical procedure between March 2000 and December 2005. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of MIOM techniques used to monitor spinal cord and nerve root function during surgical procedure of spinal tumors. MIOM become an integrated procedure during surgical approach to intramedullar and extramedullar spine tumors. The combination of monitoring ascending and descending pathways may provide m...

  14. Harvesting and preparation of cadaveric osseoligamentous lower cervical spine (C2-C7) for biomechanical testing

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, J.; Jackowski, A.

    1998-01-01

    Cadaveric osseoligamentous lower cervical spines (C2-C7) are often used in the investigation of spinal biomechanics in vitro. Surprisingly, however, the techniques of harvesting at postmortem and preparation of cadaveric osseoligamentous lower cervical spine for biomechanical testing have not been described in detail. We describe a simple and effective method that can be readily integrated into the routine autopsy procedure. Points on the avoidance of disfiguring the cadaver and damaging the ...

  15. Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney and Spine in an Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sejun; Seo, Jae-Hee; Park, Jun Bum; Park, Sungchan

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (RTK) is a rare malignancy in infancy. Central nervous system involvement in RTK is already known. However, solitary spinal metastasis in RTK has been hardly reported. The authors report a case of metastatic RTK to spine causing paraplegia in an 8-month-old girl. Since the patient was young, the diagnosis of spine metastasis was delayed until paraplegia was seen after radical nephrectomy. Thorough neurological examination should be performed for early diagnosis of...

  16. Sequential Biomechanics of the Human Upper Thoracic Spine and Pectoral Girdle

    OpenAIRE

    Stammen, Jason A.; Herriott, Rodney; Kang, Yun-Seok; Bolte, John; Dupaix, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Thoracic spine flexibility affects head motion, which is critical to control in motor vehicle crashes given the frequency and severity of head injuries. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic response of the human upper thoracic region. An original experimental/analytical approach, Isolated Segment Manipulation (ISM), is introduced to quantify the intact upper thoracic spine-pectoral girdle (UTS-PG) dynamic response of six adult post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). A continuo...

  17. Ryanodine Receptor Activation Induces Long-Term Plasticity of Spine Calcium Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannasch, Ulrike; Rückl, Martin; Rüdiger, Sten; Schmitz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of signalling in dendritic spines is the synapse-specific transduction of short electrical signals into biochemical responses. Ca2+ is a major upstream effector in this transduction cascade, serving both as a depolarising electrical charge carrier at the membrane and an intracellular second messenger. Upon action potential firing, the majority of spines are subject to global back-propagating action potential (bAP) Ca2+ transients. These transients translate neuronal suprathreshold activation into intracellular biochemical events. Using a combination of electrophysiology, two-photon Ca2+ imaging, and modelling, we demonstrate that bAPs are electrochemically coupled to Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via ryanodine receptors (RyRs). We describe a new function mediated by spine RyRs: the activity-dependent long-term enhancement of the bAP-Ca2+ transient. Spines regulate bAP Ca2+ influx independent of each other, as bAP-Ca2+ transient enhancement is compartmentalized and independent of the dendritic Ca2+ transient. Furthermore, this functional state change depends exclusively on bAPs travelling antidromically into dendrites and spines. Induction, but not expression, of bAP-Ca2+ transient enhancement is a spine-specific function of the RyR. We demonstrate that RyRs can form specific Ca2+ signalling nanodomains within single spines. Functionally, RyR mediated Ca2+ release in these nanodomains induces a new form of Ca2+ transient plasticity that constitutes a spine specific storage mechanism of neuronal suprathreshold activity patterns. PMID:26098891

  18. Altered lumbar spine structure, biochemistry and biomechanical properties in a canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lachlan J.; Martin, John T.; Szczesny, Spencer E.; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E.; Elliott, Dawn M

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by a deficiency in ?-glucuronidase activity, leading to systemic accumulation of poorly degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAG). Along with other morbidities, MPS VII is associated with paediatric spinal deformity. The objective of this study was to examine potential associations between abnormal lumbar spine matrix structure and composition in MPS VII, and spine segment and tissue-level mechanical properties, using a...

  19. Do design variations in the artificial disc influence cervical spine biomechanics? A finite element investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Faizan, Ahmad; Goel, Vijay K.; Garfin, Steven R.; Serhan, Hassan; Biyani, Ashok; Elgafy, Hossein; Krishna, Manoj; Friesem, Tai; Bono, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    Various ball and socket-type designs of cervical artificial discs are in use or under investigation. Many artificial disc designs claim to restore the normal kinematics of the cervical spine. What differentiates one type of design from another design is currently not well understood. In this study, authors examined various clinically relevant parameters using a finite element model of C3–C7 cervical spine to study the effects of variations of ball and socket disc designs. Four variations of...

  20. BDNF-induced Increase of PSD-95 in Dendritic Spines Requires Dynamic Microtubule Invasions

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xindao; Ballo, Lauren; Pietila, Lauren; Viesselmann, Chris; Ballweg, Jason; Lumbard, Derek; Stevenson, Matt; Merriam, Elliott; Dent, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are capable of entering dendritic spines in mature hippocampal neurons through dynamic polymerization. Although these MT invasions are directly associated with neuronal activity, their function remains unknown. Here we demonstrate in mouse hippocampal neurons that MT entries into spines regulate the increase in post-synaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) after brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) treatment. Using multi-wavelength total internal reflectance fluorescence mi...

  1. PSD-95 promotes synaptogenesis and multiinnervated spine formation through nitric oxide signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Nikonenko, Irina; Boda, Bernadett; Steen, Sylvain; Knott, Graham; Welker, Egbert; Muller, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is an important regulator of synaptic structure and plasticity. However, its contribution to synapse formation and organization remains unclear. Using a combined electron microscopic, genetic, and pharmacological approach, we uncover a new mechanism through which PSD-95 regulates synaptogenesis. We find that PSD-95 overexpression affected spine morphology but also promoted the formation of multiinnervated spines (MISs) contacted by up to seven presynaptic term...

  2. Desmoid type fibromatosis in the facet joint of lumbar spine: Case report and review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Jung; Ha, Doo Hoe; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Hae Youn [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Desmoid type fibromatosis is a benign fibroblastic tumor arising from the fascia or musculoaponeurosis. It may occur in various locations, but most commonly in the shoulder girdle and neck; to our knowledge, there has been no reported case originating from a facet joint of the spine. We report CT and MR imaging findings of a desmoid type fibromatosis, involving the facet joint of the L3-4 spine with bone involvement.

  3. Desmoid Type Fibromatosis in the Facet Joint of Lumbar Spine: Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So Jung; Ha, Doo Hoe; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Haeyoun

    2013-01-01

    Desmoid type fibromatosis is a benign fibroblastic tumor arising from the fascia or musculoaponeurosis. It may occur in various locations, but most commonly in the shoulder girdle and neck; to our knowledge, there has been no reported case originating from a facet joint of the spine. We report CT and MR imaging findings of a desmoid type fibromatosis, involving the facet joint of the L3-4 spine with bone involvement.

  4. Differential Modulation of Drug-Induced Structural and Functional Plasticity of Dendritic Spines

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Eric C.; Zhang, Lei; Dummer, Benjamin W.; Cariveau, Desmond R.; Loh, Horace; Law, Ping-Yee; Liao, Dezhi

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced plasticity of excitatory synapses has been proposed to be the cellular mechanism underlying the aberrant learning associated with addiction. Exposure to various drugs of abuse causes both morphological plasticity of dendritic spines and functional plasticity of excitatory synaptic transmission. Chronic activation of ?-opioid receptors (MOR) in cultured hippocampal neurons causes two forms of synaptic plasticity: loss of dendritic spines and loss of synaptic ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-...

  5. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis on Lumbar Spine : A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Sung Woon; Lee, Min Ho; Eoh, Whan

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign proliferative joint disease with an uncertain etiology that uncommonly involves the spine. We present a case of PVNS involving the lumbar spine. A 38-year-old male developed back pain and pain in both legs caused by a mass in the L4 region of the right lamina. After gross total tumor removal, the symptoms improved. The pathological finding was synovial hyperplasia with accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages. He was diagnosed with PVNS...

  6. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS OF CERVICAL SPINE & SPINAL CORD TRAUMA IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    G.R. Bahadorkhan; Samini, F.; M R Ehsaei

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Major differences exist in the anatomy and biomechanics of the growing spine that causes failure patterns different from those in adults. Spinal injury in the pediatric patient is a main concern because timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent further neurologic damage and deformity and potentiate recovery. We conducted a retrospective clinical study of 137 cases (93 boys, 44 girls) of pediatric cervical spine injuries, managed over fifteen years, to present data from...

  7. Epidemiological Trends of Spine Trauma: An Australian Level 1 Trauma Centre Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tee, J. W.; Chan, C. H. P.; Fitzgerald, M. C. B.; Liew, S. M.; Rosenfeld, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of current epidemiology and spine trauma trends assists in public resource allocation, fine-tuning of primary prevention methods, and benchmarking purposes. Data on all patients with traumatic spine injuries admitted to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne between May 1, 2009, and January 1, 2011, were collected from the Alfred Trauma Registry, Alfred Health medical database, and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry. Epidemiological trends were analyzed as a general cohort, with...

  8. Development and Validation of a 10-Year-Old Child Ligamentous Cervical Spine Finite Element Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Liqiang; Li, Guangyao; Mao, Haojie; Marek, Stanley; Yang, King H.

    2013-01-01

    Although a number of finite element (FE) adult cervical spine models have been developed to understand the injury mechanisms of the neck in automotive related crash scenarios, there have been fewer efforts to develop a child neck model. In this study, a 10-year-old ligamentous cervical spine FE model was developed for application in the improvement of pediatric safety related to motor vehicle crashes. The model geometry was obtained from medical scans and meshed using a multi-block approach. ...

  9. Estabilidade do reposicionamento anterior da maxila através de análise cefalométrica lateral Lateral cephalometric analysis of the stability of maxillary anterior repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrygo Nunes Tavares

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo cefalométrico retrospectivo foi proposto objetivando analisar a estabilidade do reposicionamento anterior da maxila, utilizando-se a osteotomia Le Fort I. A amostra consistiu de 30 telerradiografias de dez pacientes submetidos a um avanço cirúrgico da maxila, sem segmentação desta ou associação com qualquer cirurgia na mandíbula, realizado pela Área de Cirurgia Buco-Maxilo-Facial da Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba - Unicamp. A mesma técnica de fixação interna rígida foi utilizada para todos os pacientes, e nenhum enxerto ou substituto ósseo foi usado. Três radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram realizadas para cada paciente, nos períodos pré e pós-operatórios imediatos, e com, no mínimo, seis meses após a cirurgia. Sobre estas radiografias foram feitas linhas de referência horizontal e vertical. Os pontos cefalométricos utilizados para calcular as mudanças de posição da maxila foram tanto esqueléticos, quanto dentários. A análise estatística (teste t de student pareado não demonstrou diferença estatística significante entre os intervalos pós-operatórios imediato e com no mínimo seis meses. Concluímos que o reposicionamento anterior da maxila, utilizando-se a osteotomia Le Fort I, com fixação interna rígida e sem o uso de enxertos autógenos ou qualquer substituto ósseo, é um procedimento estável.This is a retrospective cephalometric study designed to investigate the stability after anterior maxilla repositioning, by Le Fort I osteotomy. Thirty cephalometric radiographs were selected, from ten patients submitted to one-piece surgical maxillary advancement, with no concomitant mandibular surgery, performed by the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Piracicaba Dental School - Unicamp. These cases were submitted to the same internal rigid fixation technique, with no use of bone grafts or any bone substitute. Three lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained for each patient, immediately presurgery and postsurgery, and at least six months after surgery. Lines were draw upon the X-rays to serve as horizontal and vertical reference lines.The landmarks used to measure maxillary positional changes consisted of skeletal and dental features. Statistical analysis (paired t student test showed no significant differences between the immediately postsurgery and at least six months postsurgery periods. We concluded that the anterior maxillary repositioning by Le Fort I osteotomy, using rigid internal fixation, with no bone grafts or any bone substitute, is a stable procedure.

  10. Estabilidade do reposicionamento anterior da maxila através de análise cefalométrica lateral / Lateral cephalometric analysis of the stability of maxillary anterior repositioning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrygo Nunes, Tavares; Luis Augusto, Passeri.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo cefalométrico retrospectivo foi proposto objetivando analisar a estabilidade do reposicionamento anterior da maxila, utilizando-se a osteotomia Le Fort I. A amostra consistiu de 30 telerradiografias de dez pacientes submetidos a um avanço cirúrgico da maxila, sem segmentação desta ou ass [...] ociação com qualquer cirurgia na mandíbula, realizado pela Área de Cirurgia Buco-Maxilo-Facial da Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba - Unicamp. A mesma técnica de fixação interna rígida foi utilizada para todos os pacientes, e nenhum enxerto ou substituto ósseo foi usado. Três radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram realizadas para cada paciente, nos períodos pré e pós-operatórios imediatos, e com, no mínimo, seis meses após a cirurgia. Sobre estas radiografias foram feitas linhas de referência horizontal e vertical. Os pontos cefalométricos utilizados para calcular as mudanças de posição da maxila foram tanto esqueléticos, quanto dentários. A análise estatística (teste t de student pareado) não demonstrou diferença estatística significante entre os intervalos pós-operatórios imediato e com no mínimo seis meses. Concluímos que o reposicionamento anterior da maxila, utilizando-se a osteotomia Le Fort I, com fixação interna rígida e sem o uso de enxertos autógenos ou qualquer substituto ósseo, é um procedimento estável. Abstract in english This is a retrospective cephalometric study designed to investigate the stability after anterior maxilla repositioning, by Le Fort I osteotomy. Thirty cephalometric radiographs were selected, from ten patients submitted to one-piece surgical maxillary advancement, with no concomitant mandibular surg [...] ery, performed by the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Piracicaba Dental School - Unicamp. These cases were submitted to the same internal rigid fixation technique, with no use of bone grafts or any bone substitute. Three lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained for each patient, immediately presurgery and postsurgery, and at least six months after surgery. Lines were draw upon the X-rays to serve as horizontal and vertical reference lines.The landmarks used to measure maxillary positional changes consisted of skeletal and dental features. Statistical analysis (paired t student test) showed no significant differences between the immediately postsurgery and at least six months postsurgery periods. We concluded that the anterior maxillary repositioning by Le Fort I osteotomy, using rigid internal fixation, with no bone grafts or any bone substitute, is a stable procedure.

  11. Effects of detachment and repositioning of the medial pterygoid muscle on the growth of the maxilla and mandible of young rats Efeitos do descolamento e do reposicionamento do músculo pterigoideo medial no crescimento da maxila e da mandíbula em ratos jovens

    OpenAIRE

    Danielli Zamora Cruz; Lucimar Rodrigues; João Gualberto Cerqueira Luz

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of detachment and repositioning of the medial pterygoid muscle on the growth of the maxilla and mandible of young rats through cephalometry. METHODS: Thirty one-month-old Wistar rats were used, distributed into three groups: experimental, sham-operated and control. In the experimental group, unilateral detachment and repositioning of the medial pterygoid muscle was performed. The sham-operated group only underwent surgical access, and the control group did not ...

  12. Standardized X-ray reports of the spine in osteogenesis imperfecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In this study we present a standard for radiological reports in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The parameters can be used to describe X-rays of the lateral spine and give an impartial description of anatomical structures during a treatment with bisphosphonates. Material and Methods: In this retrospective analysis we included 48 patients with OI (31 female, 17 male [1.5 months - 19 years, mean age 9.0 years]). Lateral spine X-rays were analyzed by 2 radiologists before and during treatment. The parameters of the standardized report are degree of kyphoscoliosis, compression of single vertebrae, predominant type of vertebral deformities and extent of vertebral compression (score 1 - 5). Results: There was no clear trend in the change of compression of single vertebrae. Some vertebrae with ventral compression showed an upgrowth to vertebrae with harmonic compression. Other deformities showed only marginal changes. In 26 patients the kyphoscoliosis improved (mean 10 degrees), in 36 patients the thoracic vertebrae compression increased and in 30 patients the vertebral height in the lumbar spine increased. The improvement of vertebral height was 1 point in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Conclusion: We propose a standardized report of X-rays of the lateral spine in patients with OI with quantitative and semiquantitative parameters using morphological criteria. These include compression of single vertebrae, degree of kyphoscoliosis, vertebral deformities of kyphoscoliosis, vertebral deformities and the severity of vertebral compression in the thoracic and lumbar spine. (orig.)

  13. Brown tumor of the cervical spines: a case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfawareh, Mohammad Dursi; Halawani, Mohammed Mohamoud; Attia, Walid Ismail; Almusrea, Khaled Naser

    2015-02-01

    To report a rare case of axis brown tumor and to review literature of cervical spine brown tumor. Brown tumor is a rare bone lesion, incidence less than 5% in primary hyperparathyroidism. It is more common in secondary hyperparathyroidism with up to 13% of cases. Brown tumor reactive lesion forms as a result of disturbed bone remodeling due to long standing increase in parathyroid hormones. Cervical spine involvement is extremely rare, can be confused with serous spine lesions. To date, only four cases of cervical spine involvement have been reported. Three were due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Only one was reported to involve the axis and was due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. This is the first reported case of axis brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism. A case report of brown tumor is presented. A literature review was conducted by a Medline search of reported cases of brown tumor, key words: brown tumor, osteoclastoma and cervical lesions. The resulting papers were reviewed and cervical spine cases were listed then classified according to the level, cause, and management. Only four previous cases involved the cervical spine. Three were caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism and one was by primary hyperparathyroidism which involved the C6. Our case was the first case of C2 involvement of primary hyperparathyroidism and it was managed conservatively. Brown tumor, a rare spinal tumor that presents with high PTH and giant cells, requires a high level of suspicion. PMID:25705344

  14. Unusual presentation of cactus spines in the flank of an elderly man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Splinters and spines of plant matter are common foreign bodies in skin wounds of the extremities, and often present embedded in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue. Vegetative foreign bodies are highly inflammatory and, if not completely removed, can cause infection, toxic reactions, or granuloma formation. Older patients are at increased risk for infection from untreated plant foreign bodies. The most common error in plant splinter and spine management is failure to detect their presence. Case presentation Here we report a case of cactus spines in an 84-year-old Caucasian man presenting on the right flank as multiple, red papules with spiny extensions. This presentation was unusual both in location and the spinous character of the lesions, and only after punch biopsy analysis was a diagnosis of cactus matter spines made. Conclusions Our patient presented with an unusual case of cactus spines that required histopathology for identification. Skin lesions with neglected foreign bodies are a common cause of malpractice claims. If not removed, foreign bodies of the skin, particularly in elderly individuals, can result in inflammatory and infectious sequela. This report underscores the importance of thoroughly evaluating penetrating skin lesions for the presence of foreign bodies, such as splinters and spines.

  15. ²?Mg labeling of the sea urchin regenerating spine: Insights into echinoderm biomineralization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Przemys?aw; Stolarski, Jaros?aw; Dubois, Philippe; Kopp, Christophe; Meibom, Anders

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports the results of the first dynamic labeling experiment with regenerating spines of sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus using the stable isotope ²?Mg and NanoSIMS high-resolution isotopic imaging, which provide a direct information about the growth process. Growing spines were labeled twice (for 72 and 24 h, respectively) by increasing the abundance of ²?Mg in seawater. The incorporation of ²?Mg into the growing spines was subsequently imaged with the NanoSIMS ion microprobe. Stereom trabeculae initially grow as conical micro-spines, which form within less than 1 day. These micro-spines fuse together by lateral outgrowths and form a thin, open meshwork (inner stereom), which is subsequently reinforced by addition of layered thickening deposits (outer stereom). The (longitudinal) growth rate of the inner stereom is ca. 125 ?m/day. A single (ca. 1 ?m) thickening layer in the stereom trabeculae is deposited during 24h. The thickening process is contemporaneous with the formation micro-spines and involves both longitudinal trabeculae and transverse bridges to a similar degree. Furthermore, the skeleton-forming cells remain active in the previously formed open stereom for at least 10 days, and do not migrate upwards until the end of the thickening process. The experimental capability presented here provides a new way to obtain detailed information about the skeleton formation of a multitude of marine, calcite producing organisms. PMID:21803159

  16. CREB regulates spine density of lateral amygdala neurons: implications for memory allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeryaSargin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons may compete against one another for integration into a memory trace. Specifically, neurons in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala with relatively higher levels of CREB seem to be preferentially allocated to a fear memory trace, while neurons with relatively decreased CREB function seem to be excluded from a fear memory trace. CREB is a ubiquitous transcription factor that modulates many diverse cellular processes, raising the question as to which of these CREB-mediated processes underlie memory allocation. CREB is implicated in modulating dendritic spine number and morphology. As dendritic spines are intimately involved in memory formation, we investigated whether manipulations of CREB function alter spine number or morphology of neurons at the time of fear conditioning. We used viral vectors to manipulate CREB function in the lateral amygdala principal neurons in mice maintained in their homecages. At the time that fear conditioning normally occurs, we observed that neurons with high levels of CREB had more dendritic spines, while neurons with low CREB function had relatively fewer spines compared to control neurons. These results suggest that the modulation of spine density provides a potential mechanism for preferential allocation of a subset of neurons to the memory trace.

  17. Control of hippocampal dendritic spine morphology through ephrin-A3/EphA4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Keith K; Nguyen, Louis N; Irie, Fumitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pasquale, Elena B

    2003-02-01

    Communication between glial cells and neurons is emerging as a critical parameter of synaptic function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of glial cells to modify synaptic structure and physiology are poorly understood. Here we describe a repulsive interaction that regulates postsynaptic morphology through the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand ephrin-A3. EphA4 is enriched on dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus, and ephrin-A3 is localized on astrocytic processes that envelop spines. Activation of EphA4 by ephrin-A3 was found to induce spine retraction, whereas inhibiting ephrin/EphA4 interactions distorted spine shape and organization in hippocampal slices. Furthermore, spine irregularities in pyramidal neurons from EphA4 knockout mice and in slices transfected with kinase-inactive EphA4 indicated that ephrin/EphA4 signaling is critical for spine morphology. Thus, our data support a model in which transient interactions between the ephrin-A3 ligand and the EphA4 receptor regulate the structure of excitatory synaptic connections through neuroglial cross-talk. PMID:12496762

  18. MR imaging of the cervical spine with a high-order coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-order coils have been used in a cylindrical geometry to produce highly homogeneous B fields. The authors have successfully exploited this feature of high-order coils to develop surface coils at 1.5 T to image the lumbar and upper cervical spine. In their design the ends of the coil are not joined together, so there are n - 1 possible current (and B field) distributions for a coil with n straight sections or elements. To image the cervical spine, they mounted an eight-element coil on a Styrofoam form shaped to fit the back of the neck. The authors chose the field produced by the second (full wave-length) mode. In a first attempt at producing a self-canceling cervical spine coil, they have demonstrated that the coil capacitively couples with the preamplifier. This coil had better sensitivity than a single-loop cervical spine coil (supplied by the manufacturer) in imaging of both phantoms and patients. The coil also produced a highly homogeneous field in the region of the upper cervical spine. Since the coil conforms to the curvature of the neck, it is especially useful for patients with kyphosis of the spine

  19. The skills of erect full-spine radiograph with Philips DR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the image stitching methods and skills of erect full-spine P-A radiograph with Philips DR. Methods: Proper spinal projecting position and exposure factors were selected to get the radiogragh of full-spine. Three methods were used to stitch images. The image deviation was evaluated with photoshop to judge the quality of the stitching full-spine images. Results: Among ninety-eight patients, the full-spine images were stitched successfully by automatic method in 78 patients. Other stiching images were justified with manual stitching method and were good enough for diagnosis. The border of vertebral body, pedicle of vertebral arch and spinous process were revealed clearly in 96 patients. The shift of vertebral body at stitching point was within 1 mm in 83 patients, 2mm in 11 patients, 3mm in 2 patients. Conclusion: Full spine radiography with DDR can provide clinical diagnosis information with reliable images. High quality and reliable full-spine images can be got with proper spinal projecting position, appropriate image postprocess software and suitable stitching method. (authors)

  20. Airway management of patients with traumatic brain injury/C-spine injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is usually combined with cervical spine (C-spine) injury. The possibility of C-spine injury is always considered when performing endotracheal intubation in these patients. Rapid sequence intubation is recommended with adequate sedative or analgesics and a muscle relaxant to prevent an increase in intracranial pressure during intubation in TBI patients. Normocapnia and mild hyperoxemia should be maintained to prevent secondary brain injury. The manual-in-line-stabilization (MILS) technique effectively lessens C-spine movement during intubation. However, the MILS technique can reduce mouth opening and lead to a poor laryngoscopic view. The newly introduced video laryngoscope can manage these problems. The AirWay Scope® (AWS) and AirTraq laryngoscope decreased the extension movement of C-spines at the occiput-C1 and C2-C4 levels, improving intubation conditions and shortening the time to complete tracheal intubation compared with a direct laryngoscope. The Glidescope® also decreased cervical movement in the C2-C5 levels during intubation and improved vocal cord visualization, but a longer duration was required to complete intubation compared with other devices. A lightwand also reduced cervical motion across all segments. A fiberoptic bronchoscope-guided nasal intubation is the best method to reduce cervical movement, but a skilled operator is required. In conclusion, a video laryngoscope assists airway management in TBI patients with C-spine injury.

  1. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Macias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  2. Mobile sensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  3. Fluctuation-enhanced sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kish, L. B.; Schmera, G.; Kwan, Ch; Smulko, J.; Heszler, P.; Granqvist, C. -g

    2007-01-01

    We present a short survey on fluctuation-enhanced gas sensing. We compare some of its main characteristics with those of classical sensing. We address the problem of linear response, information channel capacity, missed alarms and false alarms.

  4. Unveil Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiteng

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the applicability of compressed sensing theory. We take a genuine look at both experimental results and theoretical works. We answer the following questions: 1) What can compressed sensing really do? 2) More importantly, why?

  5. Revision and appraisal of the instruments for the safety assessment of final repositories for HAW ISIBEL. AP5: Evidential concept concerning the integrity of the technical reposition barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of the project ISIBEL an evidence concept concerning the safety assessment of final repositories for high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in the host rock salt was developed. One of the contributions is covering the actual state of knowledge about the concept concerning the integrity of technical and geotechnical barriers for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste with significant heat generation. The concept is based on the assumption that the transformation of salt grit into rock salt is part of the geotechnical barrier, until this point the integrity of the technical barriers is supposed to be intact in case of an undisturbed operation. In case of disturbances the permeability of the repository is the crucial characteristic to limit the risk of radioactive release into the biosphere. With respect to the relation porosity - permeability only the case to small porosities has still to be ensured. The contribution covers the following chapters: introduction; transformation salt grit - rock salt; borehole closure; transport route closure; mine shaft closure; reposition casks

  6. Solution of a two-dimensional PWR benchmark problem modeling two cycles with refueling and fuel assembly repositioning by finite-difference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) core problem is solved to model its early operating history through two cycles involving partial refueling and fuel assembly repositioning. This problem originated with Winter, Koebke and Wagner of Kraftwerk Union, Federal Republic of Germany, who also present results for it at this meeting. They are especially concerned with the requirements to enhance nodal neutronics methods in such applications. Compared with usual reactor analysis requirements, the problem is somewhat simplified. For example, fixed two group microscopic cross sections are used without accounting for spectral changes that would normally be of concern since plutonium is involved, thus avoiding limitation to the usefulness of the problem in methods testing. Effective cross sections are used to represent control rod insertion. This problem demonstrates the need to account for spatial variation in the exposure effects within fuel assemblies to accurately model the power density distribution over the period of operation. The variations in nuclear properties are especially needed to properly account for the effects of reorientation of some of the fuel assemblies at the time of partial refueling

  7. Acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy after cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miscusi, Massimo; Currà, Antonio; Della Rocca, Carlo; Missori, Paolo; Petrozza, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome with a poor prognosis, immediately after surgery for resection of a cervical chondroma. A misdiagnosis of spinal cord shock due to an acute surgical or vascular postoperative complication was initially made in this patient. Nevertheless, there was continuous transient improvement that was followed by progressive worsening, and further investigation was necessary. The diagnosis of AMSAN, associated with acute colitis caused by Helicobacter pylori, was made based on neurophysiological examinations and colonoscopy. Interestingly, the patient also developed nephrotic syndrome, which was thought to be a further complication of the autoimmune reaction. Delayed administration of immunoglobulins (400 mg/kg/day), mesalazine (800 mg 3×/day), and meropenem (3 g/day) was used to treat the Helicobacter infection and the autoimmune reaction, leading to restoration of renal function and slight neurological improvement. The patient's general condition and neurological status improved slightly, but he remained seriously disabled (Frankel Grade C). This case demonstrates that a new onset of neurological symptoms in the early postoperative period after spine surgery could be related to causes other than iatrogenic myelopathy, and that an early diagnosis can reduce neurological sequelae, leading to a better outcome. PMID:22559275

  8. Cistos sinoviais lombares Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Ferreira Rosa

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Os cistos sinoviais localizados na coluna lombar são raros, em geral associados a alterações degenerativas das articulações facetárias, mais freqüentemente vistos na transição L4-L5. Raramente causam sintomas, que, quando ocorrem, são sobretudo lombociatalgia. O diagnóstico é feito de maneira satisfatória pela tomografia computadorizada e pela ressonância magnética e é importante para que se institua o correto tratamento dos cistos. Existem diversas formas de tratamento, desde repouso e imobilização até a injeção de corticóide no cisto sinovial guiada por tomografia computadorizada, e mesmo cirurgia nos casos refratários aos outros tipos de tratamento.Intraspinal synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are rare and commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the facet joints, particularly at level L4-L5. Symptoms are uncommon and may include low-back pain or sciatica. These cysts are accurately diagnosed by using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis is essential for the correct management of the cysts. Several treatment options are available including rest and immobilization, computed tomography guided corticosteroids injection, and surgery in patients that are nonresponsive to other treatment methods.

  9. Cistos sinoviais lombares / Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cláudia Ferreira, Rosa; Márcio Martins, Machado; Marco Antônio Junqueira, Figueiredo; Cézar José, Albertotti; Giovanni Guido, Cerri.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Os cistos sinoviais localizados na coluna lombar são raros, em geral associados a alterações degenerativas das articulações facetárias, mais freqüentemente vistos na transição L4-L5. Raramente causam sintomas, que, quando ocorrem, são sobretudo lombociatalgia. O diagnóstico é feito de maneira satisf [...] atória pela tomografia computadorizada e pela ressonância magnética e é importante para que se institua o correto tratamento dos cistos. Existem diversas formas de tratamento, desde repouso e imobilização até a injeção de corticóide no cisto sinovial guiada por tomografia computadorizada, e mesmo cirurgia nos casos refratários aos outros tipos de tratamento. Abstract in english Intraspinal synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are rare and commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the facet joints, particularly at level L4-L5. Symptoms are uncommon and may include low-back pain or sciatica. These cysts are accurately diagnosed by using computed tomography and magnetic resona [...] nce imaging. Diagnosis is essential for the correct management of the cysts. Several treatment options are available including rest and immobilization, computed tomography guided corticosteroids injection, and surgery in patients that are nonresponsive to other treatment methods.

  10. Osteomyelitis of the cervical spine presenting as a neurenteric cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein, S H; Shandling, B; Humphreys, R; Krajbich, I

    1988-08-01

    A healthy 3-week-old baby girl developed a cyanotic spell that required intubation and ventilation. During part of her initial emergency examination and treatment, a neck mass was felt, and a positive blood culture grew staphylococcus aureus. She was transferred to the ICU, and was ventilated and treated with intravenous cloxacillin. Bronchoscopy showed a paralyzed left cord. Computerized tomography (CT) scan of her neck showed a midline mediastinal mass (behind the compressed trachea and esophagus), that extended from C7 to the carina. Because of the suspicion of an abnormal C7 vertebral body, diagnosis of a neurenteric cyst was made, and a myelogram showed a complete block at the T1 level and an absent C7 vertebral body. There were no neurologic signs. Her right knee then became red and swollen, and x-rays showed a lytic area in the distal femur. This knee was explored under general anesthesia, and an osteomyelitis found and drained. Several days later, a barium swallow showed the mediastinal mass pushing the esophagus to the left, but several more cervical vertebrae were "missing," and the diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine was confirmed. The mediastinal staphylococcal abscess was then drained through the neck. Follow-up has been unremarkable over the last 4 years. PMID:3171853

  11. MR Imaging of Supraspinous Ligament Injury in the Thoracolumbar Spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to evaluate the MRI features and their diagnostic accuracy for SSL injury in the thoracolumbar spine. From December 2003 to June 2006, among 42 surgically treated patients with spinal fracture, the 35 patients who underwent MRI and who were surgically evaluated for SSL injury were included in this study. The sagittal MR images were evaluated for the presence of SSL injury and its level, location and distraction gap, the level and compression ratio of the fractured body, and the presence of ISL or yellow ligament injury and posterior osseous fracture. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI were calculated. The distraction gap of the SSL and the compression ratio of the fractured body or posterior osseous fracture were statistically analyzed. Thirty-one among the 33 patients with surgically confirmed SSL injury were diagnosed on MRI. SSL injury was mostly seen at the thoracolumbar junction and near the upper spinous process. The mean distraction gap was 4.3 mm. The level of the fractured body was most commonly in the lower vertebra of the injured SSL level and the mean compression ratio was 21.8%. Combined SSL, ISL and yellow ligament injury were mostly seen. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 93.9%, 50% and 91.4%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference of the distraction gap of the injured SSL depending on the presence of posterior osseous fracture. MRI is an accurate modality for evaluating SSL injury and the asslity for evaluating SSL injury and the associated findings

  12. Clinical relevance of multislice CT of the spine after osteosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the clinical relevance of multislice CT (MSCT) scans in postoperative checks of the spine after osteosynthesis. Material and Methods: The results of x-rays (apical lateral) in 30 patients having spinal surgery involving Xosteosynthesis (5 x metastasis, 20 x fractures, 3 x spondylolisthesis, 2 x scoliosis) were correlated to those of MSCT (140 kV, 200 mAs, collimation 4 x 1 mm, pitch 0.75; VolumeZoom, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with multiplanar reconstruction. Two radiologists independently checked the conventional X-ray and multislice CT scans for anatomical positioning, damage of osteosynthetic material, and intraspinal dislocation of bone fragments. Results: By correlating conventional spinal X-rays with MSCT, additional diagnostic information was gained. In 9 of 30 patients MSCT revealed the extraosseal location of a screw tip (X-ray, 5/30), in 8/30 patients a narrowing of the spinal canal by osteosynthetic material was detected in MSCT (X-ray, 4/30), in 2/30 patients osteal fragments were detected in the vertebral canal by MSCT (X-ray, 0/30). In MSCT and in conventional X-ray a fracture of the osteosynthesis was correctly diagnosed in 3 patients. One patient underwent corrective surgery for dislocated osteosynthetic material, which was solely diagnosed with MSCT. Conclusion: Due to the high degree of additional diagnostic information MSCT seems to be the method of choice for postoperative spinal surgery involving osteosynthesis. (orig.)y involving osteosynthesis. (orig.)

  13. Imaging findings of cryptococcal infection of the thoracic spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis with thoracic spine involvement is extremely rare, with most cases occurring in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of cryptococcosis of the thoracic vertebrae confirmed by histopathology. The immunocompetence of the patient is a most interesting feature of this case. Laboratory investigations were normal, but the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was raised. A computed tomography scan showed an eccentric lytic lesion with a clear boundary at T2–T3. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the endplates of the T2 and T3 vertebral bodies to be involved, but without significant loss of the intervertebral disk height. A prespinal and large paraspinal soft tissue component was spreading along T1–T4, and the pleura and dural sac at the level of T2–T3 had thickened abnormally. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed abnormal uptake in the lesion. The above-mentioned clinical and imaging information will help improve our understanding of this rare disease.

  14. High-resolution CT of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. High-resolution CT of a slice 1.5 mm thick is capable of demonstrating the protrusion of a cartilaginous disc on non-contrast studies. As the central disc is often associated with partial calcification, it is easily demonstrated, but this thin-section CT is indispensable for demonstrating a lateral disc. We can easily find a vacuum phenomenon of the cervical spine when the neck is hyperextended. It is important to take and to compare CTs with the patient's neck flexed and with the patient's neck extended. 2. A protruded disc is more clearly visualized by intravenous contrast agents, because the epidural plexus and granulation tissue around the disc are contrast-enhanced. Within 6 months after laminectomy, the tissue surrounding dural canal is contrast-enhanced, and it is easy to recognize the enlargement of the dural canal. It is useful that these methods can be done on outpatients. 3. As metrizamide myelo-CT can help the diagnosis of myelography, it is better for it to be done routinely after metrizamide myelography. By 1.5 mm-thick-slice CT, we can demonstrate various intraspinal structures, for example, an anterior median fissure, a posterior root, and an anterior root. It is also very useful for a postoperative check. We can conveniently use it to ascertain the relationship between the spinal cord and a vertebral body or between the nerve root and the vertebral arch. (author)

  15. Radiation dose estimation of patients undergoing lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose to organs of 100 adult patients undergoing lumbar spine (LS) radiography at a University Hospital have been assessed. Free in air kerma measurement using an ionization chamber was used for the patient dosimetry. Organ and effective dose to the patients were estimated using PCXMC (version 1.5) software. The organs that recorded significant dose due to LS radiography were lungs, stomach, liver, adrenals, kidney, pancreas, spleen, gallbladder, and the heart. It was observed that the stomach recorded the highest dose (48.2 ± 1.2 ? Gy) for LS anteroposterior (AP). The spleen also recorded the highest dose (41.2 ± 0.5 ?Gy) for LS lateral (LAT). The mean entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) of LS LAT (122.2 ?Gy) was approximately twice that of LS AP (76.3 ?Gy), but the effective dose for both examinations were approximately the same (LS LAT = 8.6 ?Sv and LS AP = 10.4 ?Sv). The overall stochastic health effect of radiation to patients due to LS radiography in the University Hospital is independent of the projection of the examination (AP or LAT). (author)

  16. Bone marrow recovery after irradiation of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Imaging of bone marrow by radio labeled antibodies against NCA-95 antigen of human granulocytes offers the possibility to visualize granulopoietic activity. After radiotherapy, a reduced uptake delineates the radiation field. Aim of our investigation was the study of strength and duration of this effect. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 80 cases of patients irradiated for different primary or metastatic malignancies including parts of the spine who received a bone marrow scan for re-staging or during follow-up. Activity uptake of vertebrae inside and outside the irradiation portal was evaluated by ROI and the ratio was taken as measure of bone marrow suppression. Results: A depression of granulopoietic bone marrow activity was seen even after a few fractions of 1.8 or 2 Gy. Depending on time since irradiation, we found a bone marrow recovery. In patients without bone metastasis, regeneration could be complete, whereas in patients treated for metastases, it was incomplete in all cases. Conclusions: For a certain time after irradiation, radioimmunoimaging delineates the irradiation portal by showing depression of granulopoiesis. Later on, it also shows bone marrow regeneration after radiotherapy. This may be helpful in reconstruction of radiation portals or in toxicity estimation during multimodal cancer therapy. (orig.)

  17. Chiropractic as spine care: a model for the profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metz R Douglas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 100 years after its inception the chiropractic profession has failed to define itself in a way that is understandable, credible and scientifically coherent. This failure has prevented the profession from establishing its cultural authority over any specific domain of health care. Objective To present a model for the chiropractic profession to establish cultural authority and increase market share of the public seeking chiropractic care. Discussion The continued failure by the chiropractic profession to remedy this state of affairs will pose a distinct threat to the future viability of the profession. Three specific characteristics of the profession are identified as impediments to the creation of a credible definition of chiropractic: Departures from accepted standards of professional ethics; reliance upon obsolete principles of chiropractic philosophy; and the promotion of chiropractors as primary care providers. A chiropractic professional identity should be based on spinal care as the defining clinical purpose of chiropractic, chiropractic as an integrated part of the healthcare mainstream, the rigorous implementation of accepted standards of professional ethics, chiropractors as portal-of-entry providers, the acceptance and promotion of evidence-based health care, and a conservative clinical approach. Conclusion This paper presents the spine care model as a means of developing chiropractic cultural authority and relevancy. The model is based on principles that would help integrate chiropractic care into the mainstream delivery system while still retaining self-identity for the profession.

  18. Computed tomographic anatomy of the canine lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lumbosacral spine (L5–S3) was examined by high resolution computed tomography (CT) in five canine cadaver specimens and one anesthetized dog using 5mm thick transverse slices at 5mm intervals. In each dog, anatomic features observed on CT images were confirmed by comparison with corresponding 5 mm thick anatomic transverse sections and section radiographs. CT anatomic features visualized in all dogs included the vertebral bodies, pedicles, laminae, articular processes, spinous processes, transverse processes, mammillary processes, basivertebral venous canals, vertebral foramina, intervertebral foramina, sacral wings, median sacral crest, intermediate sacral crests, lateral sacral crests, articular process joints, sacroiliac joints, internal vertebral venous plexus, epidural fat, thecal sac, L5–S3 nerve roots, and spinal nerves. Spinal ganglia, yellow ligaments, and portions of the intervertebral discs were visible in some dogs. The spinal cord, intrathecal nerve roots, dorsal and ventral longitudinal ligaments, spinal arteries, and radicular vessels were not distinguishable. Accessory processes were identified on the caudal L5 pedicles in most dogs, an observation that differed from descriptions in standard anatomy texts. Previously undescribed osseous grooves, termed “lateral recesses,” were identified in the caudal L7 vertebral foramen of all dogs

  19. Convexity of Morse Stratifications and Spines of 3-Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, G

    2006-01-01

    The gradient fields $v$ of nonsingular functions $f$ on compact 3-folds $X$ with boundary are used to generate their spines $K(f, v)$. We study the transformations of $K(f, v)$ that are induced by deformations of the data $(f, v)$. We link the Matveev complexity of $c(X)$ with counting the trajectories of the $v$-flow that are tangent to the boundary $\\d X$ at a pair of distinct points (call them \\emph{double-tangent} trajectories). Let $MC(X)$ be the minimum number of such trajectories, minimum being taken over all nonsingular $v$'s. We call $MC(X)$ the \\emph{Morse complexity} of $X$. Next, we prove that there are only finitely many irreducible and boundary irreducible $X$ with no essential annuli of bounded Morse complexity. In particular, there exists only finitely many hyperbolic manifolds $X$ with bounded $MC(X)$. For such $X$, their normalized hyperbolic volume gives an upper bound of $MC(X)$. Also, if an irreducible and boundary irreducible $X$ with no essential annuli admits a nonsingular gradient flo...

  20. Frequency Selective Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the problem of acquisition of interfered signals and formulate a filtering problem. A frequency-selective compressed sensing technique is proposed as a solution to this problem. Signal acquisition is critical in facilitating frequency-selective compressed sensing. The authors propose a filtering compressed sensing parameter, which allows to assess if a given acquisition process makes frequency-selective compressed sensing possible for a giv...