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Sample records for spine reposition sense

  1. Repositioning of the caudal septal dislocations with notching and suturing the cartilage to the nasal spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akduman, Davut; Haksever, Mehmet; Yanilmaz, Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    We aim to define a cartilage reshaping and repositioning technique for caudal septal dislocations, with the logic of adapting the smoother tissues to the stiffer structures. The study was designed retrospectively with the patient charts and photographic analysis. Thirty-six patients who had septal surgery in a septoplasty or an open approach septorhinoplasty operation and meet the inclusion criteria were evaluated for the study. Postoperative success of the technique was based on preoperative and postoperative photographic analysis by two independent otorhinolaryngologists. The estimators classified 33 cases as near complete, 3 cases as improved but persisting caudal septal deviation, and any cases with no change. The improvement of the degree of reconstruction was near complete about 87% in septoplasty and 95% in septorhinoplasty groups, and 92% for all patients. In this study, we present a caudal septal repositioning maneuver which achieves a stable anchorage between postero-caudal septal cartilage and nasal spine. Septal cartilage is notched and fixed to nasal spine with two simple independent sutures as lock and key model. We define this maneuver as riding spine technique. It is an anatomic re-orientation between the septum and nasal spine for caudal septal deviations and subluxations. PMID:23543300

  2. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of ? = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  3. Lip repositioning

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    Reetika Gaddale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive gingival display is a frequent finding that can occur because of various intraoral or extraoral etiologies. This report describes the use of surgical lip repositioning technique for the management of a gummy smile associated with vertical maxillary excess and hypermobility of the upper lip. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles by shortening the vestibule, thus reducing the gingival display when smiling. Healing was uneventful and follow-up examinations of 10 months revealed reduced gingival display. For patients desiring a less invasive alternative to orthognathic surgery, lip repositioning is a viable alternative.

  4. Lip repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddale, Reetika; Desai, Shrikar R; Mudda, Jayashree A; Karthikeyan, I

    2014-03-01

    Excessive gingival display is a frequent finding that can occur because of various intraoral or extraoral etiologies. This report describes the use of surgical lip repositioning technique for the management of a gummy smile associated with vertical maxillary excess and hypermobility of the upper lip. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles by shortening the vestibule, thus reducing the gingival display when smiling. Healing was uneventful and follow-up examinations of 10 months revealed reduced gingival display. For patients desiring a less invasive alternative to orthognathic surgery, lip repositioning is a viable alternative. PMID:24872640

  5. Lip repositioning

    OpenAIRE

    Gaddale, Reetika; Shrikar R. Desai; Mudda, Jayashree A.; Karthikeyan, I.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gingival display is a frequent finding that can occur because of various intraoral or extraoral etiologies. This report describes the use of surgical lip repositioning technique for the management of a gummy smile associated with vertical maxillary excess and hypermobility of the upper lip. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles by shortening the vestibule, thus reducing the gingival display when smiling. Healing was uneventful and follow-up examinations...

  6. Comparison of cervical repositioning error between basketball and badminton players and control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Choromzadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Proprioception is a type of feedback from limbs to CNS which defines a sensory tools to contribute position sense and movement sense. Precise and controlled movements are important sections of sports and activity daily living which needs to accurate information of proprioception. High concentration of proprioceptors are reported in cervical spine, sacroiliac and ankle joint. The purpose of this study was to compare repositioning error of cervical spine on high level badminton and basketball players and healthy subjects.   Materials and Methods: Twenty female basketball players (23.40 years old, 20 female badminton players (24.81years old and 20 healthy female (24,95years old subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Cervical total range of motion (ROM and repositioning error in target angle (30% of full ROM in each movement of flexion, extension, right and left lateral flexion and rotation were measured by CROM apparatus. Results : Our results indicate that two groups of athletes has significant differences with non-athletic subjects in flexion, extension, left lateral flexion and ro tation and there were significant differences in right lateral flexion and right rotation between badminton players and non-athletic subjects (P<0.005.   Conclusion : Cervical proprioception may improve with specific sport movements. Basketball and badminton are non-contact sports that needs to eye and hand coordination, as our results showed that the cervical repositioning error was decreased in athletics related to non-athletic subjects, the mentioned sports may improve proprioception.   Key Words: Proprioception, Cervical, Repositioning error, Basketball, Badminton

  7. Acute neck pain: cervical spine range of motion and position sense prior to and after joint mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Peter J; Portero, Pierre; Chiquet, Christophe; Mawston, Grant; Lavaste, Francois

    2007-11-01

    Despite the relatively high prevalence of cervical spine pain, the efficacy of treatment procedures is limited. In the current study, range of motion and proprioception was assessed prior to and after specific cervical spine mobilisation techniques. A 44-year-old male office worker presented with a history of cervical pain of 1 day duration. He had woken with pain, stiffness and a loss of range of motion. Examination findings indicated pain to be at C5-6 on the left side. Measurement of maximal three-dimensional cervical motion was undertaken using a Zebris system. A position matching task tested the individual's ability to actively reposition their head and neck. The treatment undertaken involved grade III down-slope mobilisations on the left side at C5-6 and C6-7 in supine lying. This technique was then progressed by placing the subject in an upright sitting position, and sustained natural apophyseal glides were performed at C6. Immediately following the treatment, the patient reported a considerable decrease in pain, less difficulty in movement and reduced stiffness. Motion analyses showed the most marked percentage improvements in range of motion after treatment were in flexion (55%), extension (35%), left rotation (56%), and left lateral flexion (22%). Ipsilateral lateral flexion with axial rotation was also notably improved following treatment. No change in proprioceptive ability was found following the treatment. The findings showed that the application of standardised specific mobilisation techniques led to substantial improvements in the range of motion and the restitution of normal coupled motion. PMID:17070722

  8. STRATEGICALLY REPOSITIONING RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandabur Raluca Ecaterina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Positioning is a very important marketing concept. Its importance was strongly emphasized and implemented in the case of companies, but is somehow neglected when it comes to states. A country acquires a position in the mind of a person very much like any other product does, which is very important especially when that person exerts an executive role. Nowadays Russia has a poor image or no image at all, both internationally and in Romania. In order to regain an important position in the Balkans region, Russia must set aside any political agenda and reposition itself as a business partner on equal terms. The first goal of this article is to clarify Russias position in the minds of future Romanian executives. The second goal is to outline a recommended course of actions for Russias repositioning.

  9. Centromere repositioning in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Rocchi, M.; Archidiacono, N; Schempp, W; Capozzi, O; Stanyon, R

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of chromosomes can be tracked by the comparative hybridization of large panels of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. This approach has disclosed an unprecedented phenomenon: ‘centromere repositioning', that is, the movement of the centromere along the chromosome without marker order variation. The occurrence of evolutionary new centromeres (ENCs) is relatively frequent. In macaque, for instance, 9 out of 20 autosomal centromeres are evolutionarily new; in donkey ...

  10. The Loudon Chateau repositioning appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Merle

    2014-01-01

    The LCR Appliance if fabricated and used properly, has many advantages over the Herbst and Twin Block appliances in solving tongue thrust, mandibular deficiency and repositioning with proper mandibular advancement and mandibular growth results. The regular Chateau appliance was named in 1904 after Dr. Chateau in Franc. It was originally used in Europe but was an uncomfortable removable appliance with wires used in the mandibular anterior lingual area to reposition the mandible. PMID:25745720

  11. Lumbar position sense and the risk of low back injuries in college athletes: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves N Peter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired proprioception in the lumbar spine has often been reported in people with low back pain. However, no prospective studies exist to assert the cause and effect of this association. We hypothesized that athletes with a history of low back injury (LBI would demonstrate poorer lumbar position sense (PS than athletes without a history of LBI, and that this deficit would be a risk factor for future LBI. Methods This was a prospective cohort study with 2–3 year follow-up. Lumbar spine PS in the transverse plane was evaluated in 292 athletes using three tests: 1 passive and 2 active trunk repositioning, and 3 motion perception threshold. Mean absolute (accuracy and variable (precision errors were computed. Results There were no significant differences in the repositioning errors or motion perception threshold between athletes with and without a history of LBI or between those who did and did not get injured during the follow-up. Active trunk repositioning resulted in smaller errors than passive repositioning (1.6°± 0.8° versus 2.1°± 1.0° and 1.7°± 0.8° versus 2.3°± 1.1° for the absolute and relative errors, respectively. Conclusion Poor trunk PS in transverse plane is not associated with LBI in athletes, nor does it appear that poor trunk PS predisposes athletes to LBI.

  12. Temporal Optimization Planning for Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state-of-the-art pla......Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state......-of-the-art planning and scheduling techniques do not offer cost models that are rich enough to represent essential objectives of these problems. To this end, we introduce a novel framework called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). TOP uses partial order planning to build optimization models associated with the...

  13. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin

    world economy. We provide the rst problem description and mathematical model of repositioning and dene the liner shipping eet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity ow over paths dened by the activities chosen. We rst model...... lines and ports, and provides algorithms and mathematical models for use by shipping lines and port authorities for decision support. One of these problems is the repositioning of container ships in a liner shipping network in order to adjust the network to seasonal shifts in demand or changes in the...... the problem without cargo ows with a variety of well-known optimization techniques, as well as using a novel method called linear temporal optimization planning that combines linear programming with partial-order planning in a branch-and-bound framework. We then model the LSFRP with cargo ows, using...

  14. [Incisor repositioning: a new approach in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallel, Ines; Khemiri, Mourad; Fathallah, Safa; Ben Rejeb, Salwa; Tobji, Samir; Ben Amor, Adel

    2015-12-01

    Lower incisors axis has a "key" position in different cephalometric analysis. However, several critics are directed towards the cephalometric profile and cephalometric landmarks (point, line and angle). The published norms and the cephalometric standards recommended for the optimal positioning of incisors could only be used as general clinical guidelines. Incisor repositioning to achieve optimal facial aesthetics requires taking into consideration the hard and soft tissues of the face, the profile, the muscular dynamics as well as the facial growth. In this work, we propose a new approach of incisor repositioning taking into account the variability of periodontal, functional and aesthetic factors. PMID:26655419

  15. Training Student Teachers to Reposition Infants Frequently

    OpenAIRE

    Cotnoir-Bichelman, Nicole M; Thompson, Rachel H; McKerchar, Paige M; Haremza, Jessica L

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of an intervention designed to increase the variety of positions experienced by infants in a child-care setting. Six student teachers were trained, using a multicomponent intervention, to reposition infants according to a chart. The intervention was successful in increasing the mean percentage of correct position changes made by all 6 student teachers, and performance gains by 3 student teachers persisted when supervisor feedback was briefly removed.

  16. Repositioning chairs in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Niels; Hansen, Søren; Møller, Martin Nue; Bloch, Sune Land; Klokker, Mads

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the clinical value of repositioning chairs in management of refractory benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and to study how different BPPV subtypes respond to treatment. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 consecutive cases with refractory vertigo referred to our clinic within a 10-month period. The BPPV patients were managed with classical manual manoeuvres, the Epley Omniax(®) rotator (EO) or the TRV chair (TRV). In addition, a comprehensive r...

  17. An innovative cosmetic technique called lip repositioning

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Krishna; Srivastava Amitabh; Singhal Rameshwari; Srivastava Sumedha

    2010-01-01

    A clinical report describing the successful use of the lip repositioning technique for the reduction of excessive gingival display. A female patient aged 34 years reported with a chief complaint of gummy smile and was treated with this technique performed under local anesthesia with the main objective to reduce gummy smile by limiting the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, levator anguli, orbicularis oris, and levator labii superioris). The technique is fulfilled by remo...

  18. Comparison of craniocervical region repositioning error between wrestlers, taekwondo players and non-athlete subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Yadollahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Proprioception is a component of somatosensory system. One of the most important somatosensory receptors is muscle spindles. Neck area with high density of muscle spindle, plays a significant role in providing this sense. With repeated contact sports, with high trauma on head and neck region, it is likely that proprioception will be impaired. The present study was conducted to compare proprioception between wrestlers, taekwondo players and non-athlete subjects to determine the effect of trauma on proprioception of craniocervical region.   Material and Methods: This study was a case-control study of 75 male with the age range of 18-30 years (Including: 25 professional wrestlers, 25 professional taekwondo players and 25 non-athlete subjects. Participants were selected through simple non-probability sampling. To assess proprioception of craniocervical region, angular repositioning of two positions (neutral and 50% of range of motion was evaluated by using the cervical range of motion device (CROM device. The statistical method which used in this study was one way ANOVA.   Results: Accuracy of target repositioning (50% of range of motion of extension, right and left rotation were significantly different between three groups (p<0.05. Returning to neutral position from mentioned movement was associated with a significant error (p<0.05.   Conclusion: It is assumed that proprioception of craniocervical region has been affected by trauma in wrestlers and taekwondo players, so that the accuracy of head repositioning for both neutral and target positions were reduced in wrestlers. However, taekwondo players had more errors in repositioning of target angle.   Keywords: Proprioception, Repositioning error, Craniocervical, Wrestlers, Taekwondo players

  19. Drug repositioning summit: finding new routes to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campas, Clara

    2009-03-01

    The Third Annual Drug Repositioning Summit 2008 was held at the Hyatt Harborside Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts, October 6-7, and focused on new strategies for drug repositioning. The meeting, organized by The Cambridge Healthtech Institute, brought together a panel of speakers from the industry and the academia, who discussed and proposed new routes for success in drug repositioning based on their own experience in the field. This meeting report summarizes the most relevant presentations and issues discussed. PMID:19330171

  20. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping lines and ports, and provides algorithms and mathematical models for use by shipping lines and port authorities for decision support. One of these problems is the repositioning of container ships in a liner shipping network in order to adjust the network to seasonal shifts in demand or changes in the world economy. We provide the rst problem description and mathematical model of repositioning and dene the liner shipping eet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity ow over paths dened by the activities chosen. We rst model the problem without cargo ows with a variety of well-known optimization techniques, as well as using a novel method called linear temporal optimization planning that combines linear programming with partial-order planning in a branch-and-bound framework. We then model the LSFRP with cargo ows, using several dierent mathematical models as well as two heuristic approaches. We evaluate our techniques on a real-world dataset that includes a scenario from our industrial collaborator. We show that our approaches scale to the size of problems faced by industry, and are also able to improve the prot on the reference scenario by over US$14 million. This dissertation also addresses the topic of inter-terminal transportation (ITT), which involves minimizing the delay experienced by containers being transported between terminals in a port under varying infrastructure congurations and material handling equipment properties. Minimizing the delay of ITT is an important problem in the strategic planning of new ports and port expansions, and one that has not yet been addressed in an optimization based approach. We provide the rst mathematical model of ITT and show how the model can be used to provide critical information to port authorities on two real ports, the port of Hamburg, Germany, and the Maasvlakte area of the port of Rotterdam, Netherlands. Finally, this thesis gives a polynomial time algorithm for an open problem from the container stowage literature, the capacitated k-shift problem with a xed number of stacks and stack heights, providing an answer to a 13 year old theoretical question in the container stowage domain.

  1. An innovative cosmetic technique called lip repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical report describing the successful use of the lip repositioning technique for the reduction of excessive gingival display. A female patient aged 34 years reported with a chief complaint of gummy smile and was treated with this technique performed under local anesthesia with the main objective to reduce gummy smile by limiting the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, levator anguli, orbicularis oris, and levator labii superioris. The technique is fulfilled by removing a strip of mucosa from maxillary buccal vestibule and creating a partial thickness flap between mucogingival junction and upperlip musculature, and suturing the lip mucosa with mucogingival junction, resulting in a narrow vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby reducing gingival display.

  2. Repositioning Strategy for Malaysian Companies Internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismi Rajiani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the emerging-market countries offers both developing and developed countries a unique opportunity to gain the benefits of a truly international economy. Consequently, it is imper- ative to advance our knowledge of emerging-market countries MNC emergence and competitive- ness including Malaysian firms on how will they position their products strategically. Based on the framework of Porter’s Generic Strategy, this paper is composed of price/ volume segments and im- pacts on product strategy theory. The aim is to identify crucial triggering cues and focus areas for Malaysian companies and measure what role these play in different segments. This study argues that some Malaysian companies will reposition themselves strategically when internationalizing and that they will focus on other factors or triggering cues when doing so not merely adapting the prevalent price leadership strategy.

  3. South American policy: a sign for Argentine international repositioning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Miranda; Andrea Assenti del, Rio.

    Full Text Available This paper summarises some comments and preliminary conclusions of a research project on the Argentine role in South American policy. The starting point is the importance the South American space has gained within the international context, in spite of the fact that it is excluded from the world age [...] nda. One of the fundamental problems of the evolution within this context since the 80s has been the frustration due to the lack of institutionalisation of the different integrationist schemes. In spite of rivalries, differences and mutual distrust, South American countries have organised a co-operation matrix, tightly-knit and significant. This proves that beyond interstate structures and their crises, the idea of South American integration is always in vogue. In this sense, a response based on the preservation of this idea can be given by Argentina by encouraging initiatives and strategies tending to improve co-operation through consensus in intraregional interdependence matters. This would contribute to reducing the influence of foreign factors as well as setting limits to possible hegemonic roles deriving from regional leaderships. In this way, Argentine participation in South American policy can be an effective possible path way towards international repositioning.

  4. Reposition af næsefrakturer i lokal anæstesi versus generel anæstesi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Klaus U; Gano, Lars; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nose fractures are the most common among facial fractures. A well-approved treatment of isolated nose fractures is closed reposition under local or general anaesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 150 patients who were treated with closed reposition for simple and isolated nose fracture at the Otorhinolaryngology Department of Odense University Hospital during the period 1 January 2003 until 31 December 2004. The case records were retrospectively examined and the pat...

  5. The ‘addicted’ spine.

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    Saturnino Spiga

    2014-10-01

    Medium Spiny Neurons of the Nucleus Accumbens show a reduced number of dendritic spines and a decrease in TH-positive terminals upon withdrawal from opiates, cannabinoids and alcohol. The reduction is localized ‘strictly’ to second order dendritic branches where, dopamine-containing terminals impinging upon spines, make synaptic contacts. In addition, long-thin spines seems preferentially affected raising the possibility that cellular learning of these neurons may be selectively hampered. These findings suggest that dendritic spines are affected by drugs widely abused by humans and provide yet another example of drug-induced aberrant neural plasticity with marked reflections on the physiology of synapses, system structural organization, and neuronal circuitry remodeling.

  6. Numerical and experimental analysis of spine’s transpedicular stabilizer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kiel; J. Marciniak; M. Basiaga; J. Szewczenko; W. Kus; G. Kokot; T. Wadek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the work was a numerical and experimental analysis of spine’s transpedicular stabilizer on lumbar part of spine. The result of the analysis was determination of displacements of the stabilizers’ elements.Design/methodology/approach: To define numerical characteristic of the lumbar spine – transpedicular spine stabilizer system, the finite element method was applied. Geometrical models of lumbar part of spine and transpedicular stabilizer were discretized by SOLID95 element...

  7. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  8. Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain More than 40 million people in the ... bones that puts them at risk for spine fractures (broken bones). Thinning of the bones can occur ...

  9. Multiplanner spine computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. K.; Jeon, H. J.; Hong, K. C.; Chung, K. B.; Suh, W. H. [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    The computed tomography is useful in evaluation of bony structures and adjacent soft tissues of the spine. Recently, the multiplanar spine CT scan is highly superior than usual axial scan, because of easily demonstrable longitudinal dimension, level of spine and spinal canal. We evaluated 62 cases of spine CT, whom complains of spinal symptoms, from July, 1982 to January, 1983. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 45 male and 17 female, ages were from 15 years to 76 years, and sites were 15 cervical spine, 7 thoracic spine, 42 lumbar spine and 21 sacral spine. 2. Sixty two cases of the CT diagnosis were reviewed and shows 19 cases of herniated intervertebral disc, 7 cases of spine fracture, 5 cases of degenerative disease, 4 cases of metastatic cancer, 2 cases of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, 1 case of cord injury and 24 cases of normal. 3. The CT findings of herniated intervertebral disc were protruding disc, obliteration of anterior epidural fat, with or without indentation of dural sac and calcification within posterior disc margin. In cases of trauma, the multiplanar spine CT scan detects more specific extension of the fracture sites, and it is able to demonstrate relationship between fracture fragment and spinal cord, therefore operability can be decided. In case of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, it is easy to demonstrate linear high density along posterior margin of vertebral bodies on sagittal reconstruction scan. 4. The computed tomography is diagnostic in detection of spinal disease. However, multiplanar spine CT is more diagnostic than axial computed tomography such as detecting the longitudinal dimension and demonstration of spinal canal.

  10. Multiplanner spine computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomography is useful in evaluation of bony structures and adjacent soft tissues of the spine. Recently, the multiplanar spine CT scan is highly superior than usual axial scan, because of easily demonstrable longitudinal dimension, level of spine and spinal canal. We evaluated 62 cases of spine CT, whom complains of spinal symptoms, from July, 1982 to January, 1983. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 45 male and 17 female, ages were from 15 years to 76 years, and sites were 15 cervical spine, 7 thoracic spine, 42 lumbar spine and 21 sacral spine. 2. Sixty two cases of the CT diagnosis were reviewed and shows 19 cases of herniated intervertebral disc, 7 cases of spine fracture, 5 cases of degenerative disease, 4 cases of metastatic cancer, 2 cases of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, 1 case of cord injury and 24 cases of normal. 3. The CT findings of herniated intervertebral disc were protruding disc, obliteration of anterior epidural fat, with or without indentation of dural sac and calcification within posterior disc margin. In cases of trauma, the multiplanar spine CT scan detects more specific extension of the fracture sites, and it is able to demonstrate relationship between fracture fragment and spinal cord, therefore operability can be decided. In case of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, it is easy to demonstrate linear high density along posterior margin of vertebral bodies on sagittal reconstruction scan. 4. The computed tomography is diagnostic in detection of spinal disease. However, multiplanar spine CT is more diagnostic than axial computed tomography such as detecting the longitudinal dimension and demonstration of spinal canal

  11. Laryngeal dislocation after ventral fusion of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Krauel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 70-year-old patient who underwent ventral fusion of the cervical spine (C3/4 and C4/5 for spinal canal stenosis performed by the neurosurgery department. The patient suffered an exceedingly rare complication of the surgery - laryngeal dislocation. Had the deformed laryngeal structures been overlooked and the patient extubated as usual after surgery, reintubation would have been impossible due to the associated swelling, which might have had disastrous consequences. Leftward dislocation of the larynx became apparent post-operatively, but prior to extubation. Extubation was therefore postponed and a subsequent computed tomography (CT scan revealed entrapment of laryngeal structures within the osteosynthesis. A trial of repositioning using microlaryngoscopy performed by otolaryngology (ears, nose and throat specialists failed, making open surgical revision necessary. At surgery, the entrapped laryngeal tissue was successfully mobilised. Laryngeal oedema developed despite prompt repositioning; thus, necessitating tracheotomy and long-term ventilation. Laryngeal dislocation may be an unusual cause of post-operative neck swelling after anterior cervical spine surgery and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if surgical site haematoma and other causes have been ruled out. Imaging studies including CT of the neck may be needed before extubation to confirm the suspicion and should be promptly obtained to facilitate specific treatment.

  12. Thoracic spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic spine pain, or thoracalgia, is one of the common reasons for seeking for medical advice. The epidemiology and semiotics of pain in the thoracic spine unlike in those in the cervical and lumbar spine have not been inadequately studied. The causes of thoracic spine pain are varied: diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal systems, injuries to the musculoskeletal structures of the cervical and thoracic portions, which require a thorough differential diagnosis. Facet, costotransverse, and costovertebral joint injuries and myofascial syndrome are the most common causes of musculoskeletal (nonspecific pain in the thoracic spine. True radicular pain is rarely encountered. Traditionally, treatment for thoracalgia includes a combination of non-drug and drug therapies. The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor meloxicam (movalis may be the drug of choice in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

  13. Management of intrusive luxation with immediate surgical repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumdar Dibyendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusive luxation is one of the most severe forms of traumatic injuries in which the affected tooth is forced to displace deeper into the alveolus. As a consequence of this type of injury, maximum damage occurs to the pulp and all the supporting structures. This report presents a case of severe intrusive luxation of mature maxillary central and lateral incisor in a 40-year-old male. The intruded tooth was immediately repositioned (surgical extrusion and splinted within hours following injury. Antibiotic therapy was initiated at the time of repositioning and maintained for 5 days. Pulp removal and calcium hydroxide treatment of the root canal was carried out after repositioning. Splint was removed 2 months later. Definitive root canal treatment with Gutta percha was accomplished at a later appointment. Clinical and radiographic examination 6, 12 and 24 months after the surgical extrusion revealed satisfactory progressive apical and periodontal healing.

  14. Laser measurement and analysis of reposition error in polishing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weisen; Wang, Junhua; Xu, Min; He, Xiaoying

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, robotic reposition error measurement method based on laser interference remote positioning is presented, the geometric error is analyzed in the polishing system based on robot and the mathematical model of the tilt error is presented. Studies show that less than 1 mm error is mainly caused by the tilt error with small incident angle. Marking spot position with interference fringe enhances greatly the error measurement precision, the measurement precision of tilt error can reach 5 um. Measurement results show that reposition error of the polishing system is mainly from the tilt error caused by the motor A, repositioning precision is greatly increased after polishing system improvement. The measurement method has important applications in the actual error measurement with low cost, simple operation.

  15. Spine problems in adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent’s idiopathic scoliosis, Scheuermann kyphosis, spondylolysis and spondylolistesis are the most common spine problems of adolescence which needs orthopaedic treatment and follow-up. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 65-7

  16. North American Spine Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... starts here. Become a Member Now. 24/7 online access to all education Sessions from the comfort ... Connecting Spine Care professionals with companies seeking qualified candidates Buyer's Guide View the latest innovative and cutting- ...

  17. Protecting Your Fragile Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DXA machine to diagnose osteoporosis. DXA stands for dual X-ray absorptiometry. A bone density test can ... a simple movement such as rolling over in bed or coughing can cause a spine fracture. Signs ...

  18. SpineData

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Kongsted, Alice; Jensen, Tue Secher; Albert, Hanne Birgit; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Manniche, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large-scale clinical registries are increasingly recognized as important resources for quality assurance and research to inform clinical decision-making and health policy. We established a clinical registry (SpineData) in a conservative care setting where more than 10,000 new cases of...... spinal pain are assessed each year. This paper describes the SpineData registry, summarizes the characteristics of its clinical population and data, and signals the availability of these data as a resource for collaborative research projects. Methods: The SpineData registry is an Internet-based system...... that captures patient data electronically at the point of clinical contact. The setting is the government-funded Medical Department of the Spine Centre of Southern Denmark, Hospital Lillebaelt, where patients receive a multidisciplinary assessment of their chronic spinal pain. Results: Started in 2011...

  19. Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  20. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting cargo flows. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multicommodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against an actual repositioning scenario, one of many undertaken by our industrial collaborator in 2011. Our simulated annealing algorithm is able to increase the profit from $18.1 to $31.8 million using only a few minutes of CPU time. This shows that our algorithm could be used in a decision support system to solve the LSFRP.

  1. Gorham's Disease of Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Sekharappa, Vijay; Arockiaraj, Justin; Amritanand, Rohit; Krishnan, Venkatesh; David, Kenny Samuel; David, Sundararaj Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Gorham's disease is a rare disorder characterized by clinical and radiological disappearance of bone by proliferation of non-neoplastic vascular tissue. The disease was first reported by Jackson in 1838 in a boneless arm. The disease was then described in detail in 1955 by Gorham and Stout. Since then, about 200 cases have been reported in the literature, with only about 28 cases involving the spine. We report 2 cases of Gorham's disease involving the spine and review related literature to ga...

  2. Lip repositioning: An alternative cosmetic treatment for gummy smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayakar, Mudnoor Manjunath; Gupta, Sachin; Shivananda, Hiranya

    2014-07-01

    Excessive gingival display, commonly referred to as 'gummy smile' is a major hurdle in overall personality of an individual. Gummy smile, secondary to altered passive eruption and tooth mal-positioning, can be predictably treated with Surgery and orthodontic therapy. In patients with jaw deformities, orthognathic surgery can be performed. However, this requires hospitalization and entails significant discomfort. Lip repositioning is a simple surgical procedure to treat 'gummy smile'. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles thereby reducing the gingival display while smiling. This procedure is safe and predictable with minimal risk or side effects. This case report describes the successful treatment of excessive gingival display using surgical lip repositioning procedure which can be used as an alternative treatment modality for treatment of excessive gingival display. PMID:25210272

  3. Multiplanar CT of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics are: CT of the Sacrum, The Postoperative Spine, Film Organizations and Case Reporting, Degeneration and Disc Disease of the Intervertebral Joint, Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, and Cervical and Thoracic Spine.

  4. Mining integrated semantic networks for drug repositioning opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Joseph; Tipney, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Current research and development approaches to drug discovery have become less fruitful and more costly. One alternative paradigm is that of drug repositioning. Many marketed examples of repositioned drugs have been identified through serendipitous or rational observations, highlighting the need for more systematic methodologies to tackle the problem. Systems level approaches have the potential to enable the development of novel methods to understand the action of therapeutic compounds, but requires an integrative approach to biological data. Integrated networks can facilitate systems level analyses by combining multiple sources of evidence to provide a rich description of drugs, their targets and their interactions. Classically, such networks can be mined manually where a skilled person is able to identify portions of the graph (semantic subgraphs) that are indicative of relationships between drugs and highlight possible repositioning opportunities. However, this approach is not scalable. Automated approaches are required to systematically mine integrated networks for these subgraphs and bring them to the attention of the user. We introduce a formal framework for the definition of integrated networks and their associated semantic subgraphs for drug interaction analysis and describe DReSMin, an algorithm for mining semantically-rich networks for occurrences of a given semantic subgraph. This algorithm allows instances of complex semantic subgraphs that contain data about putative drug repositioning opportunities to be identified in a computationally tractable fashion, scaling close to linearly with network data. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by mining an integrated drug interaction network built from 11 sources. This work identified and ranked 9,643,061 putative drug-target interactions, showing a strong correlation between highly scored associations and those supported by literature. We discuss the 20 top ranked associations in more detail, of which 14 are novel and 6 are supported by the literature. We also show that our approach better prioritizes known drug-target interactions, than other state-of-the art approaches for predicting such interactions. PMID:26844016

  5. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention...... in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model of the LSFRP with cargo flows based on a carefully constructed graph and evaluate it on real world data from our industrial collaborator....

  6. Lip repositioning: An alternative cosmetic treatment for gummy smile

    OpenAIRE

    Dayakar, Mudnoor Manjunath; Gupta, Sachin; Shivananda, Hiranya

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gingival display, commonly referred to as ‘gummy smile’ is a major hurdle in overall personality of an individual. Gummy smile, secondary to altered passive eruption and tooth mal-positioning, can be predictably treated with Surgery and orthodontic therapy. In patients with jaw deformities, orthognathic surgery can be performed. However, this requires hospitalization and entails significant discomfort. Lip repositioning is a simple surgical procedure to treat ‘gummy smile’. The proc...

  7. Drug Repositioning for Diabetes Based on 'Omics' Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming; Luo, Heng; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Drug repositioning has shorter developmental time, lower cost and less safety risk than traditional drug development process. The current study aims to repurpose marketed drugs and clinical candidates for new indications in diabetes treatment by mining clinical ‘omics’ data. We analyzed data from genome wide association studies (GWAS), proteomics and metabolomics studies and revealed a total of 992 proteins as potential anti-diabetic targets in human. Information on the drugs that target thes...

  8. Spine Involvement in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk ?ENDUR

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis affecting the cervical spine has been well described. In contrast with the neck, thoracic and lumbar spine involvement has not been widely investigated. In this paper, pathophysiology, clinical findings and radiological imaging methods of spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis was reviewed with the current reports. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008; 54 Suppl 1: 15-9

  9. Effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin Tae; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults with no orthopaedic or neurological problems participated in this study. [Methods] The repositioning error of the knee joint was measured using a digital goniometer when the subjects extended their dominant-side knee to a random target angle (30°, 45°, or 60°) with their eyes closed, before and after a quadriceps muscle fatigue protocol, and after application of kinesiology tape. [Results] We found that repositioning errors of the dominant-side knee joint increased after quadriceps fatigue compared with no-fatigue conditions. However, kinesiology taping of the quadriceps muscle and patella after quadriceps fatigue significantly decreased repositioning errors of the knee joint. [Conclusion] These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue increases the repositioning error of the knee joint, whereas application of kinesiology tape decreases fatigue-induced joint repositioning error. PMID:25013297

  10. A Node Flow Model for the Inflexible Visitation Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel, node flow based mathematical modelfor the fixed-time version of a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). We call this version of the problem the Inflexible Visitation LSFRP (IVLSFRP).During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a linershipping network. Shipping lines wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is character...

  11. Interventional spine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelekis, A.D. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: akelekis@cc.uoa.gr; Somon, T. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Yilmaz, H. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Bize, P. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Brountzos, E.N. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece); Lovblad, K. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Ruefenacht, D. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Martin, J.B. [Clinique Generale Beaulieu 12 chemin Beau Soleil 1206 Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jbmartin@beaulieu.ch

    2005-09-01

    Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of some spinal diseases are percutaneous treatments, proposed before classic surgery. By using imaging guidance, one can significantly increase accuracy and decrease complication rates. This review report physiopathology and discusses indications, methods, complications and results of performing these techniques on the spine, including different level (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacroiliac) and different kind of treatments (nerve block, disc treatment and bone treatment). Finally the present article also reviews current literature on the controversial issues involved.

  12. Repositioning of malpositioned or flipped central venous catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary misplaced or secondary flipped implanted catheters are located mostly in the right jugular vein. We demonstrate an effective method to replace fix implanted catheters such as Ports, Grochomg or Hickman catheters. Using a femoral venous approach, replacement into the superior vena cava can easily be done with a Sidewinder 1 catheter which is hooked over the misplaced central venous approach. In all our patients the method was successful. The repositioning technique described is simple, fast and has low costs. We can keep sterile conditions and do not need to solve the catheters' fixation. (orig.)

  13. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  14. Spine revisited: Principles and parlance redefined

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari M; Mehta Lopa; Natarajan M; Kothari V

    2005-01-01

    A revised appreciation of the evolution and the nature of bone in general and of vertebrae in particular, allows revisiting the human spine to usher in some new principles and more rational parlance, that embody spine?s phylogeny, ontogeny, anatomy and physiology. Such an approach accords primacy to spine?s soft-tissues, and relegates to its bones a secondary place.

  15. Correction of Asian Short Nose with Lower Lateral Cartilage Repositioning and Ear Cartilage Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Suk Byun, MD, PhD

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: LLC repositioning and ear cartilage grafting aid in the correction of short nose in Asians. With LLC repositioning and ear cartilage grafting, the nasal tip can be positioned in accordance with the patient’s anatomic limits. The entire nasal tip and columella can be lengthened, while the tip maintains its mobility.

  16. Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American Spine Society Public Education Series Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is ... physician before starting any exercises. The Importance of Exercise for the Neck Spine experts agree that physical ...

  17. Beyond the spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David; Cancelliere, Carol; Poulsen, Erik; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Kilsgaard, Jørgen; Blanchette, Marc-André; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, clinical research within the chiropractic profession has focused on the spine and spinal conditions, specifically neck and low back pain. However, there is now a small group of chiropractors with clinical research training that are shifting their focus away from...... traditional research pursuits towards new and innovative areas. Specifically, these researchers are now delving into areas such as brain injury, work disability prevention, undifferentiated chest pain, hip osteoarthritis, and prevention of pain in children and adolescents to name a few. In this paper, we...

  18. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  19. Lipid dynamics at dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gerardo Dotti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic changes in the structure and composition of the membrane protrusions forming dendritic spines underlie memory and learning processes. In recent years a great effort has been made to characterize in detail the protein machinery that controls spine plasticity. However, we know much less about the involvement of lipids, despite being major membrane components and structure determinants. Moreover, protein complexes that regulate spine plasticity depend on specific interactions with membrane lipids for proper function and accurate intracellular signalling. In this review we attempt to gather the far from complete information available on the lipid composition at dendritic spine membranes and on its dynamics. We pay particular attention to the influence that spine lipid dynamism has on glutamate receptors, which are key regulators of synaptic plasticity.

  20. Lip repositioning surgery: A pioneering technique for perio-esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our esthetic conscious society people are now demanding all types of treatments possible to have a pleasing and attractive personality. A dazzling and beautiful smile can work wonders for anyone?s personality. Our smile mirrors our persona, our unique being. However, a beautiful smile comprises of a perfect balance of the white and pink. This imbalance of excessive gingival display (EGD can be managed by a variety of treatment modalities, depending on accurate diagnosis. This case report demonstrates the successful management of EGD with a lip-repositioning procedure in a patient with incompetent short upper lip. This was accomplished by removing a partial thickness strip of mucosa from the maxillary buccal vestibule and suturing the lip mucosa to the mucogingival line. This resulted in a narrower vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby resulting in competent lips and reduced gingival display during smiling.

  1. Remote repositioning of fuel channels in Bruce A reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to axial elongation, the fuel channels in Bruce A reactor Units 1, 2 and 3 were approaching the limit of support bearing engagement at the channel free ends. The elongation is induced by fast neutron irradiation of the Zr 2.5 wt% Nb pressure tube material, the rate being in the order of 4 mm per year. By repositioning the elongated fuel channels towards the fixed end, the full amount of bearing engagement at the free end is utilized, providing a further 10 years of normal operation. Described herein is the project which was implemented to execute the shifts on each of the 480 channels per reactor. The project encompassed a full life cycle, from tooling system conception to implementation on the reactor face. Remote operation of dedicated purpose tooling was maximized. (orig.)

  2. Lip repositioning surgery for correction of excessive gingival display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Santhanakrishnan; Natarajan, Shanmuganathan; Madhankumar, Seenivasan; Sampathkumar, Jayakrishnakumar

    2015-08-01

    Esthetic demands have considerably increased over the years in routine clinical practice. A pleasant smile can give supreme confidence to an individuals personality. However, a perfect smile is dictated by a perfect balance of the white (teeth) and pink (gingival) display. This balance can be managed different treatment modalities, which is based on proper diagnosis. This case report demonstrates a successful management of gummy smile with a lip-repositioning procedure in a patient with an incompetent upper lip. This was accomplished by removing a partial thickness strip of mucosa from the maxillary buccal vestibule and suturing the lip mucosa to the mucogingival line. This resulted in a narrower vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby resulting incompetent lips and reduced gingival display during smiling. PMID:26538972

  3. Fractures of the cervical spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raphael Martus, Marcon; Alexandre Fogaca, Cristante; William Jacobsen, Teixeira; Douglas Kenji, Narasaki; Reginaldo Perilo, Oliveira; Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa de, Barros.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in pol [...] ytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative.

  4. The spine problem: Finding a function for dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Malanowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Why do neurons have dendritic spines? This question— the heart of what Yuste calls “the spine problem”— presupposes that why-questions of this sort have scientific answers: that empirical findings can favor or count against claims about why neurons have spines. Here we show how such questions can receive empirical answers. We construe such why-questions as questions about how spines make a difference to the behavior of some mechanism that we take to be significant. Why-questions are driven fundamentally by the effort to understand how some item, such as the dendritic spine, is situated in the causal structure of the world (the causal nexus. They ask for a filter on that busy world that allows us to see a part’s individual contribution to a mechanism, independent of everything else going on. So understood, answers to why-questions can be assessed by testing the claims these answers make about the causal structure of a mechanism. We distinguish four ways of making a difference to a mechanism (necessary, modulatory, component, background condition, and we sketch their evidential requirements. One consequence of our analysis is that there are many spine problems and that any given spine problem might have many acceptable answers.

  5. Percutaneous transfemoral repositioning of malpositioned central venous access device: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Ashutosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of long term central venous access devices (CVAD such as chemo ports and Hickman?s catheters are associated with a definite risk of catheter tip malpositioning. As such, malpositioning runs a risk of venous thrombosis and related complications; it is imperative to reposition the catheter. Percutaneous transfemoral venous approach has been described as a minimally invasive and safe method for the repositioning. We present two cases in which the CVAD implanted in one subclavian vein got malpositioned in contra lateral subclavian vein. A percutaneous transfemoral venous approach utilizing 5 Fr angiographic catheter was successful in repositioning of the catheters in both cases.

  6. Spine revisited: Principles and parlance redefined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A revised appreciation of the evolution and the nature of bone in general and of vertebrae in particular, allows revisiting the human spine to usher in some new principles and more rational parlance, that embody spine?s phylogeny, ontogeny, anatomy and physiology. Such an approach accords primacy to spine?s soft-tissues, and relegates to its bones a secondary place.

  7. Repositioning reference new methods and new services for a new age

    CERN Document Server

    Rozaklis, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Repositioning Reference reimagines reference services in libraries and information organizations and the role of reference librarians, taking into account rapid developments in technology and information-specific services in non-library sectors.

  8. Catastrophic spine injuries in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Prior, Chris

    2005-02-01

    Catastrophic spine injuries in sports are rare but tragic events. The sports with the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing and snowboarding, rugby, cheerleading, and baseball. A common mechanism of injury for all at-risk sports is an axial compression force to the top of the head with the neck slightly flexed. We review common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for spine injuries in the at-risk sports. PMID:15659279

  9. Tuberculosis of spine: neurological deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anil K.; Kumar, Jaswant

    2012-01-01

    The most dreaded neurological complications in TB spine occur in active stage of disease by mechanical compression, instability and inflammation changes, while in healed disease, these occur due to intrinsic changes in spinal cord secondary to internal salient in long standing kyphotic deformity. A judicious combination of conservative therapy and operative decompression when needed should form a comprehensive integrated course of treatment for TB spine with neurological complications. The pa...

  10. Concept of Gunshot Wound Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Manish; Mittal, Radhey Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Gunshot wound (GSW) to the spine which was earlier common in the military population is now being increasingly noted in civilians due to easy availability of firearms of low velocity either licensed or illegal combined with an increased rate of violence in the society. Contributing to 13% to 17% of all spinal injuries, the management of complex injury to the spine produced by a GSW remains controversial. Surgery for spinal cord injuries resulting from low velocity GSWs is reserved for patient...

  11. Effects of Kinesiology Taping on Repositioning Error of the Knee Joint after Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jin Tae; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults with no orthopaedic or neurological problems participated in this study. [Methods] The repositioning error of the knee joint was measured using a digital goniometer when the subjects extended their dominant-side knee to a random target angle (30°, 45°, or 60°) with their eyes closed, befo...

  12. Acute hypoxaemia due to intraoperative lung collapse after repositioning the patient

    OpenAIRE

    Bina P Butala; Veena R. Shah; Guruprasad P Bhosale

    2011-01-01

    Desaturation after induction of anaesthesia and repositioning due to mucus plug causing atelectasis (lung collapse) is a rare event. We present a case of intraoperative right lung collapse due to mucus plug in a patient undergoing left laparoscopic nephrectomy. Hypoxaemia occurred after the induction of anaesthesia and repositioning. X-ray chest revealed right lung collapse and surgery was subsequently postponed. Lung re-expanded after postural drainage and suction. Postoperatively patient wa...

  13. Elimination of a "Gummy Smile" With Crown Lengthening and Lip Repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Excessive gingival display is considered unattractive by many patients. A combination of surgical approaches may be required to correct this problem. Clinical crown lengthening involves recontouring crestal bone levels and moving the gingival margin in an apical direction. Lip repositioning reduces gingival display by limiting upper lip movement when smiling. This article describes a case in which a combination of clinical crown lengthening and lip repositioning was used to correct excessive gingival display when smiling. PMID:26863221

  14. Glocalisation of global market forces and the repositioning of a peripheral Russian mining community

    OpenAIRE

    Suutarinen Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    Increasing globalisation and global market forces shape the development of resource peripheries in the Barents region. Foreign direct investments are concrete example of global market forces. Their glocalisation forces the locals to evaluate their consequences for the local development and reposition their communities in global context. This article studies glocalisation of global market forces and preferred directions of repositioning of a peripheral single-industry mining community in th...

  15. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  16. Postoperative spine; Postoperative Wirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaeger, R. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Basel (Switzerland); Lieb, J.M. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Basel (Switzerland); Shariat, K. [Neurochirurgie Koeln-Merheim, Koeln (Germany); Ahlhelm, F.J. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    Approximately 15-30 % of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are associated with complications that require further diagnostic work-up. The choice of imaging modality for postoperative complications depends on the extent, pattern and temporal evolution of the postoperative neurological signs and symptoms as well as on the preoperative clinical status, the surgical procedure itself and the underlying pathology. The interpretation of imaging findings, in particular the distinction between postoperative complications and normally expected nonspecific postoperative imaging alterations can be challenging and requires the integration of clinical neurological information and the results of laboratory tests. The combination of different imaging techniques might help in cases of equivocal imaging results. (orig.) [German] Etwa 15-30 % der operativen Eingriffe im Bereich der lumbalen Wirbelsaeule verlaufen nicht komplikationsfrei und erfordern weiterfuehrende Abklaerungen. Die Auswahl des bildgebenden Verfahrens im Rahmen postoperativer Komplikationen haengt dabei wesentlich von der zeitlichen Entwicklung, dem Ausmass und Verteilungsmuster der neuaufgetretenen klinisch-neurologischen bzw. orthopaedischen Symptome sowie von den Ausfaellen vor dem Eingriff, der zugrundeliegenden Pathologie und der Lokalisation und Art des Eingriffs ab. Die Interpretation der bildgebenden Befunde, insbesondere die Abgrenzung postoperativer Komplikationen von natuerlicherweise zu erwartenden postoperativen Veraenderungen kann dabei eine Herausforderung darstellen. Bei unklaren Befunden kann ergaenzend zur eingehend klinisch-neurologischen und laborchemischen Bestandsaufnahme auch der kombinierte Einsatz mehrerer bildgebender Modalitaeten diagnostisch weiterhelfen. (orig.)

  17. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  18. Postoperative Spine Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchi, Paolo Domenico; Evangelisti, Gisberto; Andreani, Lorenzo; Girardi, Federico; Darren, Lebl; Sama, Andrew; Lisanti, Michele

    2015-09-28

    Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients' outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication. PMID:26605028

  19. Postoperative spine infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenico Parchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of post-operative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication.

  20. Patient repositioning and pressure ulcer risk—Monitoring interface pressures of at-risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Peterson, PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Repositioning patients regularly to prevent pressure ulcers and reduce interface pressures is the standard of care, yet prior work has found that standard repositioning does not relieve all areas of at-risk tissue in nondisabled subjects. To determine whether this holds true for high-risk patients, we assessed the effectiveness of routine repositioning in relieving at-risk tissue of the perisacral area using interface pressure mapping. Bedridden patients at risk for pressure ulcer formation (n = 23, Braden score 95% of the observation period. Thirteen participants were observed in three distinct positions (supine, turned left, turned right, and all had specific skin areas (166 +/– 184 cm2 that exceeded pressure thresholds for >95% of the observation period. At-risk patients have skin areas that are likely always at risk throughout their hospital stay despite repositioning. Healthcare providers are unaware of the actual tissue-relieving effectiveness (or lack thereof of their repositioning interventions, which may partially explain why pressure ulcer mitigation strategies are not always successful. Relieving at-risk tissue is a necessary part of pressure ulcer prevention, but the repositioning practice itself needs improvement.

  1. Electromyography of symmetrical trunk movements and trunk position sense in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Fen; Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Wang, Ray-Yau; Su, Fong-Chin; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] To explore the differences in bilateral trunk muscle activation between chronic stroke patients and healthy controls, this study investigated the symmetry index and cross-correlation of trunk muscles during trunk flexion and extension movements. This study also assessed the differences in trunk reposition error between groups and the association between trunk reposition error and bilateral trunk muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen stroke patients and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects participated. Bilateral trunk muscle activations were collected by electromyography during trunk flexion and extension. Trunk reposition errors in trunk flexion and extension directions were recorded by a Qualisys motion capture system. [Results] Compared with the healthy controls, the stroke patients presented lower symmetrical muscle activation of the bilateral internal oblique and lower cross-correlation of abdominal muscles during trunk flexion, and lower symmetry index and cross-correlation of erector spinae in trunk extension. They also showed a larger trunk extension reposition error. A smaller trunk reposition error was associated with higher cross-correlation of bilateral trunk muscles during trunk movements in all subjects. [Conclusion] Trunk muscle function during symmetrical trunk movements and trunk reposition sense were impaired in the chronic stroke patients, and trunk position sense was associated with trunk muscle functions. Future studies should pay attention to symmetrical trunk movements as well as trunk extension position sense for patients with chronic stroke. PMID:26504267

  2. Development of the young spine questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2013-01-01

    Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases -- a conceptualisation, development and testing phase. The conceptualisation phase followed the Wilson and Cleary model and included questions regarding spinal prevalence estimates, pain frequency and intensity, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. Items from existing questionnaires and the "Revised Faces Pain Scale" (rFPS) were included during the development phase. The testing phase consisted of a mixed quantitative and qualitative iterative method carried out in two pilot tests using 4th grade children and focusing on assessment of spinal area location and item validity. Results The testing phase resulted in omission of the pain drawings and the questions and answer categories were simplified in several questions. Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings among target respondents. These preliminary results suggest that the YSQ is feasible, has content validity and is a well understood questionnaire to be used in studies of children aged 9 to 11 years.

  3. Computed tomography of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the computed tomography (CT) is very useful in identifying the boy structures and adjacent soft tissues of the spine. We have studied 69 cases of spine CT with EMI-CT 5005 whole body scanner from Oct. 1977 to Aug. 1979. The results were as follows: 1. CT of the spine provided the normal cross sectional anatomy which was not shown by the conventional radiographies including tomography. Spinal canal consists of osseous and articular segments. 2. CT of the spine permitted the diagnosis of hypertrophy of superior and inferior facets and adjacent lamina, causing encroachment into the lumbar spinal canal, which was often not shown by the conventional examinations. 3. In tumorous conditions, CT demonstrated more precise localization, contour and extent of intra-and extra-spinal tumor. 4. Under CT guidance, exact pathologic diagnosis could be made by percutaneous needle biopsy, and therapeutic percutaneous needle aspiration was possible in case of cyst or abscess. 5. We experienced one case of intramedullary astrocytoma enhancing homogeneously by contrast medium injection. 6. The followings are thought to be important limitations of the spine CT. First, the distinction of spinal cord from subarachnoid space and definition of nerve root pouches is difficult and misleading due to artifact and computer program limitations related to the encircling bone. Second, precise and reproducible positioning is difficult to achieve. Third, without coronal or sagittal scanning (or reconstruction), the important longitudinal dimension of the spinal canal is difficult to appreciate fully

  4. CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

  5. Damage control surgery for spine trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossmann, Thomas; Trease, Larissa; Freedman, Ilan; Malham, Gregory

    2004-07-01

    The concept of "damage control" surgery was originally developed for massive abdominal trauma and also successfully applied to the management of lone bone injuries. More recently this has been extended to severely injured patients with spine injuries. This paper provided an overview of how damage control principles can be applied to multitrauma patients with spine injuries, to patients with isolated spine injuries and to spine injuries with and without neurology. The role of neuroimaging in acute spine trauma and controversies in the pharmaceutical approach to spine injuries are discussed. Additional prospective controlled trials are required to delineate the role and timing of damage control surgery in acute spine injury. With improved neuroimaging early spinal damage control surgery will be formally established in the management of spine trauma. PMID:15203306

  6. Detection and repositioning of tight fighting annulus spacers in CANDU® fuel channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersak, G.; Kittmer, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Goszczynski, J. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kazimer, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    The latest generation of CANDU® reactors has been constructed with tight-fitting annulus spacers to maintain the annular gap between the inner pressure tubes and the outer calandria tubes. These spacers cannot be detected and repositioned with the existing Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) process, which is designed to work with loose-fitting annulus spacers. There is currently no established technology to detect and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has been performing research and development to locate and move tight-fitting annulus spacers using Modal Detection and Repositioning (MODAR) technology since 2005 and is currently working in collaboration with Candu Energy and Bruce Power on a production system to be deployed for an In-reactor demonstration in the next year. The MODAR technology uses controlled vibrations on a short, isolated length of pressure tube to locate and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. MODAR technology will allow the utilities to demonstrate fuel channel integrity to the regulator and obtain approval for additional years of reactor operation. This paper briefly describes the technology and provides an overview of the tool testing and development. (author)

  7. Novel insight into drug repositioning: Methylthiouracil as a case in point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Moon-Chang; Jung, Byeongjin; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-09-01

    Drug repositioning refers to the development of existing drugs for new indications. These drugs may have (I) failed to show efficacy in late stage clinical trials without safety issues; (II) stalled in the development for commercial reasons; (III) passed the point of patent expiry; or (IV) are being explored in new geographic markets. Over the past decade, pressure on the pharmaceutical industry caused by the 'innovation gap' owing to rising development costs and stagnant product output have become major reasons for the growing interest in drug repositioning. Companies that offer a variety of broad platforms for identifying new indications have emerged; some have been successful in building their own pipelines of candidates with reduced risks and timelines associated with further clinical development. The business models and platforms offered by these companies will be validated if they are able to generate positive proof-of-concept clinical data for their repositioned compounds. This review describes the strategy of biomarker-guided repositioning of chemotherapeutic drugs for inflammation therapy, considering the repositioning of methylthiouracil (MTU), an antithyroid drug, as a potential anti-inflammatory reagent. PMID:26117428

  8. Adaptive prostate IGRT combining online re-optimization and re-positioning: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In prostate radiation therapy, inter-fractional organ motion/deformation has posed significant challenges on reliable daily dose delivery. To correct for this issue, off-line re-optimization and online re-positioning have been used clinically. In this paper, we propose an adaptive images guided radiation therapy (AIGRT) scheme that combines these two correction methods in an anatomy-driven fashion. The AIGRT process first tries to find a best plan for the daily target from a plan pool, which consists of the original CT plan and all previous re-optimized plans. If successful, the selected plan is used for daily treatment with translational shifts. Otherwise, the AIGRT invokes the re-optimization process of the CT plan for the anatomy of the day, which is afterward added to the plan pool as a candidate for future fractions. The AIGRT scheme is evaluated by comparisons with daily re-optimization and online re-positioning techniques based on daily target coverage, organs at risk (OAR) sparing and implementation efficiency. Simulated treatment courses for 18 patients with re-optimization alone, re-positioning alone and AIGRT shows that AIGRT offers reliable daily target coverage that is highly comparable to daily re-optimization and significantly improves from re-positioning. AIGRT is also seen to provide improved OAR sparing compared to re-positioning. Apart from dosimetric benefits, AIGRT in addition offers an efficient scheme to integrate re-optimization to current re-positioning-based IGRT workflow.

  9. [Minimally invasive spine surgery: past and present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corniola, M V; Stienen, M N; Tessitore, E; Schaller, K; Gautschi, O P

    2015-11-18

    In the early twentieth century, the understanding of spine biomechanics and the advent of surgical techniques of the lumbar spine, led to the currently emerging concept of minimal invasive spine surgery, By reducing surgical access, blood loss, infection rate and general morbidity, functional prognosis of patients is improved. This is a real challenge for the spine surgeon, who has to maintain a good operative result by significantly reducing surgical collateral damages due to the relatively traumatic conventional access. PMID:26742240

  10. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine Print A A A ... columna cervical What It Is A cervical spine X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  11. Modified lip repositioning: A surgical approach to treat the gummy smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Gopinath Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gummy smile has been an esthetic concern for many patients. This clinical report describes a successful surgical coverage obtained by modified lip repositioning, thus surgically treating the gummy smile. The technique was performed to limit the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, orbicularis oris, leviator anguli oris and levator labi oris. The technique is fulfilled by removing two strips of mucosa from maxillary buccal vestibule on both the sides leaving the frenum untouched and creating a partial thickness flap between mucogingival junction and upper lip musculature, and suturing the lip mucosa with mucogingival junction, resulting in a narrow vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby reducing gingival display. This technique is different from the conventional surgical lip repositioning as labial frenum is left untouched over here as it helps in maintain Litton the midline for lip repositioning and reduces the morbidity associated with it.

  12. Modified lip repositioning: A surgical approach to treat the gummy smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Aditya Gopinath; Koganti, Vijay Prasad; Prabhakar, Ashok Kodangala; Soni, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Gummy smile has been an esthetic concern for many patients. This clinical report describes a successful surgical coverage obtained by modified lip repositioning, thus surgically treating the gummy smile. The technique was performed to limit the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, orbicularis oris, leviator anguli oris and levator labi oris.) The technique is fulfilled by removing two strips of mucosa from maxillary buccal vestibule on both the sides leaving the frenum untouched and creating a partial thickness flap between mucogingival junction and upper lip musculature, and suturing the lip mucosa with mucogingival junction, resulting in a narrow vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby reducing gingival display. This technique is different from the conventional surgical lip repositioning as labial frenum is left untouched over here as it helps in maintain Litton the midline for lip repositioning and reduces the morbidity associated with it. PMID:26229285

  13. Drug repositioning: Re-investigating existing drugs for new therapeutic indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Padhy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery and development is an expensive, time-consuming, and risky enterprise. In order to accelerate the drug development process with reduced risk of failure and relatively lower costs, pharmaceutical companies have adopted drug repositioning as an alternative. This strategy involves exploration of drugs that have already been approved for treatment of other diseases and/or whose targets have already been discovered. Various techniques including data mining, bioinformatics, and usage of novel screening platforms have been used for identification and screening of potential repositioning candidates. However, challenges in clinical trials and intellectual property issues may be encountered during the repositioning process. Nevertheless, such initiatives not only add value to the portfolio of pharmaceutical companies but also provide an opportunity for academia and government laboratories to develop new and innovative uses of existing drugs for infectious and neglected diseases, especially in emerging countries like India.

  14. A brief history of endoscopic spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfeian, Albert E; Veeravagu, Anand; Oyelese, Adetokunbo A; Gokaslan, Ziya L

    2016-02-01

    Few neurosurgeons practicing today have had training in the field of endoscopic spine surgery during residency or fellowship. Nevertheless, over the past 40 years individual spine surgeons from around the world have worked to create a subfield of minimally invasive spine surgery that takes the point of visualization away from the surgeon's eye or the lens of a microscope and puts it directly at the point of spine pathology. What follows is an attempt to describe the story of how endoscopic spine surgery developed and to credit some of those who have been the biggest contributors to its development. PMID:26828883

  15. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  16. Acute hypoxaemia due to intraoperative lung collapse after repositioning the patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina P Butala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desaturation after induction of anaesthesia and repositioning due to mucus plug causing atelectasis (lung collapse is a rare event. We present a case of intraoperative right lung collapse due to mucus plug in a patient undergoing left laparoscopic nephrectomy. Hypoxaemia occurred after the induction of anaesthesia and repositioning. X-ray chest revealed right lung collapse and surgery was subsequently postponed. Lung re-expanded after postural drainage and suction. Postoperatively patient was diagnosed to have retrocardiac bronchiectasis. After preoperative preparation with postural drainage, chest physiotherapy, and antibiotics, the patient underwent surgery uneventfully.

  17. Thoracic spine sports-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, Heather; Gill, G Keith; Paterson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although sports-related injuries to the thoracic spine are relatively uncommon, they are among the most feared due to the potential for catastrophic neurologic injury. The increased biomechanical support of the thoracic spine makes injuries in this region particularly rare compared with the cervical and lumbar spine. As a result, thoracic spine injuries can be missed easily, difficult to diagnose, and problematic to treat. Recognition of mechanism and awareness of injury patterns help physicians determine a diagnosis and create an index of suspicion for unstable thoracic spine injuries. Aggressive full-contact sports receive the most attention for spinal injury; however several sports with repetitive loading of the spine can cause severe injuries, including rowing, gymnastics, and golf. The goal of this article was to provide an overview of the unique anatomic and biomechanical features of the thoracic spine and to discuss some of the more common thoracic injuries that can affect athletes. PMID:25574880

  18. Wrong-site Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Mark A; Bianco, Aaron J; Esmende, Sean; Daniels, Alan H

    2013-05-01

    Wrong-site spine surgery is an adverse event that has potentially devastating consequences for the patient as well as the surgeon. Despite substantial efforts to prevent wrong-site spine surgery, this complication continues to occur and has the potential for serious medical, personal, and legal repercussions. Although systems-based prevention methods are effective in identifying the proper patient, procedure, and region of the spinal column, they cannot be relied on to establish the correct vertebral level during the operation. The surgeon must design and implement a patient-specific protocol to ensure that the appropriate operation is performed on the correct side and level or levels of the spinal column. PMID:23637150

  19. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  20. NMR imaging of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J.S. (Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH); Kaufman, B.; El Yousef, S.J.; Benson, J.E.; Bonstelle, C.T.; Alfidi, R.J.; Haaga, J.R.; Yeung, H.; Huss, R.G.

    1983-12-01

    The usefulness of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images in the evaluation of spinal disorders below the craniocervical junction was studied. Six normal subjects and 41 patients with various spinal abnormalities were examined. NMR proved capable of demonstrating important normal and pathologic anatomic structures; it was useful in the evaluation of syringohydromyelia and cystic spinal cord tumors, and the bright signal intensity of lipoma was quite impressive. In the evaluation of herniated disk, NMR images offered a new perspective by visualizing abnormal degradation of the signal intensity of the nucleus pulposus itself. NMR images were least valuable in the evaluation of spondylosis and spinal stenosis. Although NMR imaging of the spine is still in a very early developmental stage, the absence of both ionizing radiation and risks associated with contrast material makes it especially attractive as a new diagnostic method. This limited experience with currently available equipment suggests that, with technical refinement, the efficacy of NMR of the spine will increase.

  1. Primary tumors of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orguc, Sebnem; Arkun, Remide

    2014-07-01

    Spinal tumors consist of a large spectrum of various histologic entities. Multiple spinal lesions frequently represent known metastatic disease or lymphoproliferative disease. In solitary lesions primary neoplasms of the spine should be considered. Primary spinal tumors may arise from the spinal cord, the surrounding leptomeninges, or the extradural soft tissues and bony structures. A wide variety of benign neoplasms can involve the spine including enostosis, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, and osteochondroma. Common malignant primary neoplasms are chordoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and osteosarcoma. Although plain radiographs may be useful to characterize some spinal lesions, magnetic resonance imaging is indispensable to determine the extension and the relationship with the spinal canal and nerve roots, and thus determine the plan of management. In this article we review the characteristic imaging features of extradural spinal lesions. PMID:24896744

  2. Melting "Snow" and Shifting "Cultures": The Strategic Repositioning of Australian Universities' Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Millicent E.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that, for Australia, technological innovation and international competitiveness will require collaboration of two "cultures": science/technology and social sciences/humanities. Natural and social scientists will have to develop strategic alliances to reposition university research and development within Australian national priorities.…

  3. Program management for spring location and repositioning (SLAR) operations at Pickering NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 a major project was planned for Units 5 and 6 of Pickering NGS (Nuclear Generating Station). The project involved remotely locating and repositioning the four spacer (garter) springs separating each pressure tube from the surrounding calandria tube. This paper describes the requirements for SLAR, and the work being undertaken at Pickering NGS to implement the project

  4. Repositioning Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Youths Employment and National Security in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbunaya, T. C.; Udoudo, Ekereobong S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper focused on repositioning Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for youth's employment and national security in Nigeria. It examined briefly the concepts of technical vocational education and training (TVET), youths, unemployment and national security as well as the effects of unemployment on national security in Nigeria.…

  5. Helmet Versus Active Repositioning for Plagiocephaly: A Three-Dimensional Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipira, A.B.; Gordon, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, N. V.; Van Pelt, A.E.; Naidoo, S.D.; Govier, D.; Kane, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthotic helmets and active repositioning are the most common treatments for deformational plagiocephaly (DP). Existing evidence is not sufficient to objectively inform decisions between these options. A three-dimensional (3D), whole-head asymmetry analysis was used to rig...

  6. Repositioning Your EMBA Program and Reinventing Your Brand: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to illustrate how Fordham University, the Jesuit University of New York, repositioned its Executive MBA Program and reinvented its brand, over a ten year period. More specifically, this research will analyze the current state of the Executive MBA market and will discuss the best practices and frameworks implemented…

  7. Repositioning Guidance and Counselling and Curriculum Innovation in Higher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyilofor, Florence N. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on repositioning guidance and counseling and curriculum innovation in higher education in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. The study covered four Federal universities in the South-West Geopolitical zone of Nigeria, namely University of Ibadan in Oyo State; Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife…

  8. Stability of Le Fort I maxillary inferior repositioning surgery with rigid internal fixation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convens, J M C; Kiekens, R M A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Fudalej, P S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of Le Fort I maxillary inferior repositioning surgery in patients with a vertical maxillary deficiency at least 6 months after surgery. The electronic databases were searched to identify all articles reporting the long-term effects of one-piece maxillary inferior repositioning with rigid fixation. Methodological quality was evaluated according to 15 criteria related to study design, measurements, and statistical analysis. Two articles were identified, with a total of 22 patients. The maxilla was repositioned inferiorly from a mean 3.2 to 4.5mm in the anterior part and from a mean 0.1 to 1.8mm in the posterior part. At 6 months post-treatment, absolute relapse of a mean 1.6mm was measured for the anterior part of the maxilla and 0.3mm for the posterior part of the maxilla. The stability of maxillary inferior repositioning surgery could not be confirmed due to the small sample size, unclear diagnosis, and potential confounding factors. PMID:25600315

  9. Pre and post garter spring repositioning ultrasonic inspection of pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper present a description of the ultrasonic cracked hydride blister detections system used for pre and post inspection of pressure tubes during garter spring repositioning in CNE (Embalse Nuclear Power Station). Ultrasonic system setup configuration, transducers characteristics, blister detection head, calibration of parameters, operating procedure, records of ultrasonic inspections and evaluation. (author)

  10. Effect of body repositioning after venous air embolism. An echocardiographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, H. J.; Allen, S. J.; Mehlhorn, U.; Davis, K. L.; Morris, W. P.; Butler, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) may include the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position, although its effectiveness has been questioned. This study used transesophageal echocardiography to evaluate the effect of body repositioning on intracardiac air and acute cardiac dimension changes. METHODS: Eighteen anesthetized dogs in the supine position received a venous air injection of 2.5 ml/kg at a rate of 5 ml/ s. After 1 min the dogs were repositioned into either the LLR, LLR 10 degrees head down (LLR-10 degrees), right lateral recumbence, or remained in the supine position. RESULTS: Repositioning after VAE resulted in relocation of intracardiac air to nondependent areas of the right heart. Peak right ventricular (RV) diameter increase and mean arterial pressure decrease were greater in the repositioned animals compared with those in the supine position (P Right ventricular diameter and mean arterial pressure showed an inverse correlation (r = 0.81). Peak left atrial diameter decrease was greater in the LLR and LLR-10 degrees positions compared with the supine position (P animals showed electrocardiogram and echocardiographic changes reconcilable with myocardial ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs, body repositioning after VAE provided no benefit in hemodynamic performance or cardiac dimension changes, although relocation of intracardiac air was demonstrated. Right ventricular air did not appear to result in significant RV outflow obstruction, as pulmonary artery pressure increased uniformly in all groups and was not influenced by the relocation of intracardiac air. The combination of increased RV afterload and arterial hypotension, possibly with subsequent RV ischemia rather than RV outflow obstruction by an airlock appeared to be the primary mechanism for cardiac dysfunction after VAE.

  11. Thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for tuberculosis of cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Huzurbazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective was to report this rare case and discuss the probable mechanism of thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for Kochs cervical spine.

  12. Giant Cell Tumor of Upper Thoracic Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chul Gab; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Dong Min; Kim, Seok Won

    2014-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the spine is a rare benign tumor, but can be aggressive and can exhibit a high local recurrence rate. Furthermore, GCT of the upper thoracic spine may pose diagnostic and management difficulties. Here, we report a rare case of GCT of the upper thoracic spine with soft tissue extension to the spinal canal. The patient was managed by decompressive laminectomy and posterolateral fusion followed by an injection of polymethylmethacrylate into the vertebral lesion. The pat...

  13. The international spine registry SPINE TANGO: status quo and first results

    OpenAIRE

    Melloh, Markus; Staub, Lukas; Aghayev, Emin; Zweig, Thomas; Barz, Thomas; Theis, Jean-Claude; Chavanne, Albert; Grob, Dieter; Aebi, Max; Roeder, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    With an official life time of over 5 years, Spine Tango can meanwhile be considered the first international spine registry. In this paper we present an overview of frequency statistics of Spine Tango for demonstrating the genesis of questionnaire development and the constantly increasing activity in the registry. Results from two exemplar studies serve for showing concepts of data analysis applied to a spine registry. Between 2002 and 2006, about 6,000 datasets were submitted by 25 centres. D...

  14. Analgesic therapy for major spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanesarajah, Varun; Liauw, Jason A; Lo, Sheng-fu; Lina, Ioan A; Witham, Timothy F; Gottschalk, Allan

    2015-07-01

    Pain following spine surgery is often difficult to control and can persist. Reduction of this pain requires a multidisciplinary approach that depends on contributions of both surgeons and anesthesiologists. The spine surgeon's role involves limiting manipulation of structures contributing to pain sensation in the spine, which requires an in-depth understanding of the specific anatomic etiologies of pain originating along the spinal axis. Anesthesiologists, on the other hand, must focus on preemptive, multimodal analgesic treatment regimens. In this review, we first discuss anatomic sources of pain within the spine, before delving into a specific literature-supported pain management protocol intended for use with spinal surgery. PMID:25680636

  15. Targeting the new generation woman: voice-over as a tool in gender repositioning traditionally male dominant product

    OpenAIRE

    Staunton, Ciara

    1995-01-01

    This exploratory research study examines the power of the voice-over as a tool in gender re-positioning of a traditionally male dominant product and the response of the female market to such re-positioning. The increasing consumption by females of masculine products has led marketers to question how they can target such products at the female market, without losing the existing male customers. A potentially appropriate method of doing so is through subtle gender re-positioning by altering the...

  16. MR imaging of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging has been shown to be highly accurate in the postoperative lumbar spine. This paper attempts to determine the exact diagnostic contribution of the post-Gd-DTPA sequence and to correlate it with clinical and surgical findings. Thirty patients with FBSS were evaluated. Precontrast T1- and T2-weighted images were assessed for the presence of abnormal epidural tissue, surgical levels, epidural location, size, shape, signal intensity, tissue displacement, and disc contiguity. The post-Gd-DTPA images were also evaluated for the presence and characteristics of tissue enhancement. The imaging findings were correlated with clinical data and with data from seven surgical reexplorations

  17. Anatomy and radiology of the sellar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five anatomical and radiological observations of a spine protruding into the pituitary fossa are reported. This osseous spine, about 4 mm long, arises in the midline from the inferior part of the anterior aspect of the dorsum sellae and extends upward and forward. The possible origins of this malformation are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Anatomy and radiology of the sellar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.; Lang, J.; Francke, J.P.; Clarisse, J.; Bonneville, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    Five anatomical and radiological observations of a spine protruding into the pituitary fossa are reported. This osseous spine, about 4 mm long, arises in the midline from the inferior part of the anterior aspect of the dorsum sellae and extends upward and forward. The possible origins of this malformation are discussed.

  19. Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

  20. Transcatheter Retrieval and Repositioning of Embolized Stent from the Right Ventricle in an Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Singh, Harinder R.; Turner, Daniel R.; Forbes, Thomas J.; Gowda, Srinath T.

    2012-01-01

    Intracardiac stent embolization is a challenging complication in a small infant. A Palmaz stent was placed across the atrial septum in a 3-month-old boy to relieve symptoms of right-side heart failure. On routine chest radiography one week later, the stent was found to have embolized into the right ventricle. The stent was retrieved and repositioned by means of transcatheter technique, without subsequent complications. We found this method to be a viable alternative to surgery in a high-risk infant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful transcatheter retrieval and repositioning of an expandable intravascular stent from an intraventricular position in an infant. PMID:23109757

  1. NFFinder: an online bioinformatics tool for searching similar transcriptomics experiments in the context of drug repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoain, Javier; Franch, Mònica; Martínez, Marta; Tabas-Madrid, Daniel; Sorzano, Carlos O S; Bakker, Annette; Gonzalez-Couto, Eduardo; Elvira, Juan; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Drug repositioning, using known drugs for treating conditions different from those the drug was originally designed to treat, is an important drug discovery tool that allows for a faster and cheaper development process by using drugs that are already approved or in an advanced trial stage for another purpose. This is especially relevant for orphan diseases because they affect too few people to make drug research de novo economically viable. In this paper we present NFFinder, a bioinformatics tool for identifying potential useful drugs in the context of orphan diseases. NFFinder uses transcriptomic data to find relationships between drugs, diseases and a phenotype of interest, as well as identifying experts having published on that domain. The application shows in a dashboard a series of graphics and tables designed to help researchers formulate repositioning hypotheses and identify potential biological relationships between drugs and diseases. NFFinder is freely available at http://nffinder.cnb.csic.es. PMID:25940629

  2. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion. (orig.)

  3. Minimally invasive spine surgery in spinal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú-López, F; Vanaclocha-Vanaclocha, V; Gozalbes-Esterelles, L; Sánchez-Pardo, M

    2014-06-01

    Infections of the spine have been a constant throughout history. At present there are infections in the spine fostered in part by the same advances in medicine: there are a lot of immunocompromised patients, the life expectancy of patients with chronic diseases is augmented and the increasing number of complex spinal surgeries can result in secondary infection. In this review the main types of infection of the spine and its treatment highlighting techniques in minimally invasive surgery are discussed. Spontaneous pyogenic and nonpyogenic spine infections as well as iatrogenic infections can be treated in a different manner depending on its extension, location and microorganism involved. We will review the use and the indication of percutaneous image-guided techniques, endoscopic and microsurgical techniques with or without use of tubular retractors. We conclude that techniques in minimally invasive surgery in spine infections are safe, effective and have benefits in morbidity of the approach and subsequent patient recovery. PMID:24819481

  4. The Effectiveness of a Modified Type of the Mandibular Repositioning Device on the Elimination of Snoring

    OpenAIRE

    B Ebadian; SM. Hashemi; Adeli, M

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Snoring is the most common sleep disorder which in itself may only be viewed as an obnoxious disturbance in human society; however it must be considered a potential indicator of significant medical problems such as: hypertension,obstructive sleep apnea, cerebrovascular infarction and ischemic heart disease.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified type of Mandibular Repositioning Device (MRD splint) on the treatment of snoring.Mat...

  5. Repositioning of the anthelmintic drug mebendazole for the treatment for colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Peter; Fryknäs, Mårten; Anagel, Bengt; Larsson, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we screened a compound library containing 1,600 clinically used compounds with the aim to identify compounds, which potentially could be repositioned for colon cancer therapy. Two established colon cancer cell lines were tested using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). For compound comparison connectivity map (CMAP) analysis, NCI 60 data mining and protein kinase binding measurements were performed. Sixty-eight compounds were defined as hits with act...

  6. Phylogeny of horse chromosome 5q in the genus Equus and centromere repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, F M; Nergadze, S G; Poletto, V; Cerutti, F; Ryder, O A; Leeb, T; Raimondi, E; Giulotto, E

    2009-01-01

    Horses, asses and zebras belong to the genus Equus and are the only extant species of the family Equidae in the order Perissodactyla. In a previous work we demonstrated that a key factor in the rapid karyotypic evolution of this genus was evolutionary centromere repositioning, that is, the shift of the centromeric function to a new position without alteration of the order of markers along the chromosome. In search of previously undiscovered evolutionarily new centromeres, we traced the phylogeny of horse chromosome 5, analyzing the order of BAC markers, derived from a horse genomic library, in 7 Equus species (E. caballus, E. hemionus onager, E. kiang, E. asinus, E. grevyi, E. burchelli and E. zebra hartmannae). This analysis showed that repositioned centromeres are present in E. asinus (domestic donkey, EAS) chromosome 16 and in E. burchelli (Burchell's zebra, EBU) chromosome 17, confirming that centromere repositioning is a strikingly frequent phenomenon in this genus. The observation that the neocentromeres in EAS16 and EBU17 are in the same chromosomal position suggests that they may derive from the same event and therefore, E. asinus and E. burchelli may be more closely related than previously proposed; alternatively, 2 centromere repositioning events, involving the same chromosomal region, may have occurred independently in different lineages, pointing to the possible existence of hot spots for neocentromere formation. Our comparative analysis also showed that, while E. caballus chromosome 5 seems to represent the ancestral configuration, centric fission followed by independent fusion events gave rise to 3 different submetacentric chromosomes in other Equus lineages. PMID:20016166

  7. Solving a static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems using iterated tabu search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Szeto, W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the static bike repositioning problem where the problem consists of selecting a subset of stations to visit, sequencing them, and determining the pick-up/drop-off quantities (associated with each of the visited stations) under the various operational constraints. The objective is to minimize the total penalties incurred at all the stations. We present an iterated tabu search heuristic to solve the described problem. Experimental results show that this simple heuristic can...

  8. Can stimulating massage improve joint repositioning error in patients with knee osteoarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Hans; Henriksen, Marius; Bartels, Else M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of massage applied to the thigh muscles on joint repositioning error (JRE) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA).We hypothesized that stimulating massage of the muscles around an osteoarthritic knee joint, could improve the neuromuscular function and thereby optimize the positive and minimize the negative performance factors in relation to an exercise program. METHODS: In a cross-over design, 19 patients with knee osteoart...

  9. Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security hologram with in-built repositioning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit K Sharma; D P Chhachhia; D Mohan; A K Aggarwal

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded anticounterfeit security features in the security hologram can only be read through a key hologram. Key hologram also facilitates in-built repositioning of security hologram. The method of fabrication, the principle of reconstruction and the experimental results are presented.

  10. The Comparison of Cervical Repositioning Errors According to Smartphone Addiction Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, JeonHyeong; Seo, KyoChul

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades of adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of smartphone addiction was conducted of 200 adults. Based on the survey results, 30 subjects were chosen to participate in this study, and they were divided into three groups of 10; a Normal Group, a Moderate Addiction Group, and a Severe Addiction Group. After attaching a C-ROM, we measured the cervic...

  11. Head repositioning errors in normal student volunteers: a possible tool to assess the neck's neuromuscular system

    OpenAIRE

    Gudavalli M Ram; Henderson Charles NR; Owens Edward F; Pickar Joel G

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background A challenge for practitioners using spinal manipulation is identifying when an intervention is required. It has been recognized that joint pain can interfere with the ability to position body parts accurately and that the recent history of muscle contraction can play a part in that interference. In this study, we tested whether repositioning errors could be induced in a normal population by contraction or shortening of the neck muscles. Methods In the experimental protocol...

  12. Peugeot’s repositioning : how to change people’s engagement towards an automobile brand

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Francisco Quedas Rodrigues dos

    2015-01-01

    Peugeot, acting in the automobile sector, represents about 9,5% of the Portuguese passengers car market. This market is characterized by representing risky and planned acquisitions and usually with many influencers throughout the buying process in order to lower the risk to the buyer. In 2013, after the verified crisis in the automobile sector in terms of sales, the group was conducted to a new strategy – ‘Back In The Race’ – described by a repositioning of the already exist...

  13. Towards Drug Repositioning: A Unified Computational Framework for Integrating Multiple Aspects of Drug Similarity and Disease Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ping De; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    In response to the high cost and high risk associated with traditional de novo drug discovery, investigation of potential additional uses for existing drugs, also known as drug repositioning, has attracted increasing attention from both the pharmaceutical industry and the research community. In this paper, we propose a unified computational framework, called DDR, to predict novel drug-disease associations. DDR formulates the task of hypothesis generation for drug repositioning as a constraine...

  14. A miRNA-Driven Inference Model to Construct Potential Drug-Disease Associations for Drug Repositioning

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hailin; Zhang, Zuping

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence discovered that the inappropriate expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) will lead to many kinds of complex diseases and drugs can regulate the expression level of miRNAs. Therefore human diseases may be treated by targeting some specific miRNAs with drugs, which provides a new perspective for drug repositioning. However, few studies have attempted to computationally predict associations between drugs and diseases via miRNAs for drug repositioning. In this paper, we developed an...

  15. Pharmacologically active metabolites, combination screening and target identification-driven drug repositioning in antituberculosis drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigondu, Elizabeth M; Wasuna, Antonina; Warner, Digby F; Chibale, Kelly

    2014-08-15

    There has been renewed interest in alternative strategies to address bottlenecks in antibiotic development. These include the repurposing of approved drugs for use as novel anti-infective agents, or their exploitation as leads in drug repositioning. Such approaches are especially attractive for tuberculosis (TB), a disease which remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally and, increasingly, is associated with the emergence of drug-resistance. In this review article, we introduce a refinement of traditional drug repositioning and repurposing strategies involving the development of drugs that are based on the active metabolite(s) of parental compounds with demonstrated efficacy. In addition, we describe an approach to repositioning the natural product antibiotic, fusidic acid, for use against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Finally, we consider the potential to exploit the chemical matter arising from these activities in combination screens and permeation assays which are designed to confirm mechanism of action (MoA), elucidate potential synergies in polypharmacy, and to develop rules for drug permeability in an organism that poses a special challenge to new drug development. PMID:24997576

  16. Temporomandibular joint disc repositioning using bone anchors: an immediate post surgical evaluation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Majd S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Open joint procedures using bone anchors have shown clinical and radiograph good success, but post surgical disc position has not been documented with MRI imaging. We have designed a modified technique of using two bone anchors and 2 sutures to reposition the articular discs. This MRI study evaluates the post surgical success of this technique to reposition and stabilize the TMJ articular discs. Methods Consecutive 81 patients with unilateral TMJ internal derangement (ID (81 TMJs were treated between December 1, 2003, and December 1, 2006, at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth Peoples Hospital, Shanghai, Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. All patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging before and one to seven days post surgery to determine disc position using the modified bone anchor technique. Results Postoperative MRIs (one to seven days confirm that 77 of 81 joints were identified as excellent results and one joint was considered good for an overall effective rate of 96.3% (78 of 81 joints. Only 3.7% (3 of 81 of the joints were designated as poor results requiring a second open surgery. Conclusions This procedure has provided successful repositioning of the articular discs in unilateral TMJ ID at one to seven days post surgery.

  17. PhenoPredict: A disease phenome-wide drug repositioning approach towards schizophrenia drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-08-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a common complex disorder with poorly understood mechanisms and no effective drug treatments. Despite the high prevalence and vast unmet medical need represented by the disease, many drug companies have moved away from the development of drugs for SCZ. Therefore, alternative strategies are needed for the discovery of truly innovative drug treatments for SCZ. Here, we present a disease phenome-driven computational drug repositioning approach for SCZ. We developed a novel drug repositioning system, PhenoPredict, by inferring drug treatments for SCZ from diseases that are phenotypically related to SCZ. The key to PhenoPredict is the availability of a comprehensive drug treatment knowledge base that we recently constructed. PhenoPredict retrieved all 18 FDA-approved SCZ drugs and ranked them highly (recall=1.0, and average ranking of 8.49%). When compared to PREDICT, one of the most comprehensive drug repositioning systems currently available, in novel predictions, PhenoPredict represented clear improvements over PREDICT in Precision-Recall (PR) curves, with a significant 98.8% improvement in the area under curve (AUC) of the PR curves. In addition, we discovered many drug candidates with mechanisms of action fundamentally different from traditional antipsychotics, some of which had published literature evidence indicating their treatment benefits in SCZ patients. In summary, although the fundamental pathophysiological mechanisms of SCZ remain unknown, integrated systems approaches to studying phenotypic connections among diseases may facilitate the discovery of innovative SCZ drugs. PMID:26151312

  18. The comparison of cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonhyeong; Seo, Kyochul

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades of adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of smartphone addiction was conducted of 200 adults. Based on the survey results, 30 subjects were chosen to participate in this study, and they were divided into three groups of 10; a Normal Group, a Moderate Addiction Group, and a Severe Addiction Group. After attaching a C-ROM, we measured the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, right lateral flexion and left lateral flexion. [Results] Significant differences in the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, and right and left lateral flexion were found among the Normal Group, Moderate Addiction Group, and Severe Addiction Group. In particular, the Severe Addiction Group showed the largest errors. [Conclusion] The result indicates that as smartphone addiction becomes more severe, a person is more likely to show impaired proprioception, as well as impaired ability to recognize the right posture. Thus, musculoskeletal problems due to smartphone addiction should be resolved through social cognition and intervention, and physical therapeutic education and intervention to educate people about correct postures. PMID:24764641

  19. Ablation of ErbB4 from excitatory neurons leads to reduced dendritic spine density in mouse prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Margaret A; Koleske, Anthony J

    2014-10-01

    Dendritic spine loss is observed in many psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, and likely contributes to the altered sense of reality, disruption of working memory, and attention deficits that characterize these disorders. ErbB4, a member of the EGF family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is genetically associated with schizophrenia, suggesting that alterations in ErbB4 function contribute to the disease pathology. Additionally, ErbB4 functions in synaptic plasticity, leading us to hypothesize that disruption of ErbB4 signaling may affect dendritic spine development. We show that dendritic spine density is reduced in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex of ErbB4 conditional whole-brain knockout mice. We find that ErbB4 localizes to dendritic spines of excitatory neurons in cortical neuronal cultures and is present in synaptic plasma membrane preparations. Finally, we demonstrate that selective ablation of ErbB4 from excitatory neurons leads to a decrease in the proportion of mature spines and an overall reduction in dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex of weanling (P21) mice that persists at 2 months of age. These results suggest that ErbB4 signaling in excitatory pyramidal cells is critical for the proper formation and maintenance of dendritic spines in excitatory pyramidal cells. PMID:24752666

  20. Benign tumors of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Nikhil A; Daniels, Alan H; Schiller, Jonathan; Valdes, Mauricio A; Czerwein, John K; Schiller, Alan; Esmende, Sean; Terek, Richard M

    2012-11-01

    Benign tumors in the spine include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, osteochondroma, neurofibroma, giant cell tumor of bone, eosinophilic granuloma, and hemangioma. Although some are incidental findings, some cause local pain, radicular symptoms, neurologic compromise, spinal instability, and deformity. The evaluation of spinal tumors includes a thorough history and physical examination, imaging, sometimes laboratory evaluation, and biopsy when indicated. Appropriate treatment may be observational (eg, eosinophilic granuloma) or ablative (eg, osteoid osteoma, neurofibroma, hemangioma), but generally is surgical, depending on the level of pain, instability, neurologic compromise, and natural history of the lesion. Knowledge of the epidemiology, common presentation, imaging, and treatment of benign bone tumors is essential for successful management of these lesions. PMID:23118137

  1. The aging spine in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Elson, Lauren; Brand, Erik

    2012-07-01

    1. Masters athletes may experience low back pain from multiple sources. Masters athletes with discogenic back pain should avoid or modify sports with combined rotational and compressive forces; individuals with facet-mediated pain should avoid or modify sports with excessive extension and rotation. 2. Optimization of flexibility, strength, endurance, and core control is critical. Sports specific training, realistic goal setting, and counseling are of maximal importance. 3. Overall, the health benefits of continued sports and athletic participation outweigh the potential risks of spinal degeneration in middle-aged athletes. There is little correlation between radiographic appearance of the spine and symptoms; therefore, symptoms should serve as the primary guide when determining activity modifications. Overall, masters athletes should be encouraged to remain active and fit to enhance their quality of life and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22657996

  2. Vascular malformations of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vascular malformations of the spine and spinal cord are rare diseases. Possible symptoms may consist in a transient neurological deficit, a progressive sensorimotor transverse lesion or an acute para- or tetraplegia. Damage to the spinal cord occurs by bleeding, space-occupying effects and venous congestion, rarely by steal effects. Classification of the true inborn malformations differentiates between arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), cavernomas and capillary teleangiectasias. The more frequent spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) of the elderly patient is a probably acquired lesion which is presented in a separate paper. Capillary teleangiectasias are mostly incidental findings but may cause differential diagnostic problems. Cavernomas are important causes of hemorrhage and may initially be obscured within the bleeding. MRI is the most relevant imaging procedure in the early diagnostic workup. In case of an AVM selective spinal angiography is required to define the type of the lesion and to decide about the appropriate therapy which may be endovascular-interventional, neurosurgical, combined or attentive. (orig.)

  3. Cortical Composition Hierarchy Driven by Spine Proportion Economical Maximization or Wire Volume Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The structure and quantitative composition of the cerebral cortex are interrelated with its computational capacity. Empirical data analyzed here indicate a certain hierarchy in local cortical composition. Specifically, neural wire, i.e., axons and dendrites take each about 1/3 of cortical space, spines and glia/astrocytes occupy each about (1/3)2, and capillaries around (1/3)4. Moreover, data analysis across species reveals that these fractions are roughly brain size independent, which suggests that they could be in some sense optimal and thus important for brain function. Is there any principle that sets them in this invariant way? This study first builds a model of local circuit in which neural wire, spines, astrocytes, and capillaries are mutually coupled elements and are treated within a single mathematical framework. Next, various forms of wire minimization rule (wire length, surface area, volume, or conduction delays) are analyzed, of which, only minimization of wire volume provides realistic results that are very close to the empirical cortical fractions. As an alternative, a new principle called “spine economy maximization” is proposed and investigated, which is associated with maximization of spine proportion in the cortex per spine size that yields equally good but more robust results. Additionally, a combination of wire cost and spine economy notions is considered as a meta-principle, and it is found that this proposition gives only marginally better results than either pure wire volume minimization or pure spine economy maximization, but only if spine economy component dominates. However, such a combined meta-principle yields much better results than the constraints related solely to minimization of wire length, wire surface area, and conduction delays. Interestingly, the type of spine size distribution also plays a role, and better agreement with the data is achieved for distributions with long tails. In sum, these results suggest that for the efficiency of local circuits wire volume may be more primary variable than wire length or temporal delays, and moreover, the new spine economy principle may be important for brain evolutionary design in a broader context. PMID:26436731

  4. Cortical Composition Hierarchy Driven by Spine Proportion Economical Maximization or Wire Volume Minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowski, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The structure and quantitative composition of the cerebral cortex are interrelated with its computational capacity. Empirical data analyzed here indicate a certain hierarchy in local cortical composition. Specifically, neural wire, i.e., axons and dendrites take each about 1/3 of cortical space, spines and glia/astrocytes occupy each about (1/3)2, and capillaries around (1/3)4. Moreover, data analysis across species reveals that these fractions are roughly brain size independent, which suggests that they could be in some sense optimal and thus important for brain function. Is there any principle that sets them in this invariant way? This study first builds a model of local circuit in which neural wire, spines, astrocytes, and capillaries are mutually coupled elements and are treated within a single mathematical framework. Next, various forms of wire minimization rule (wire length, surface area, volume, or conduction delays) are analyzed, of which, only minimization of wire volume provides realistic results that are very close to the empirical cortical fractions. As an alternative, a new principle called "spine economy maximization" is proposed and investigated, which is associated with maximization of spine proportion in the cortex per spine size that yields equally good but more robust results. Additionally, a combination of wire cost and spine economy notions is considered as a meta-principle, and it is found that this proposition gives only marginally better results than either pure wire volume minimization or pure spine economy maximization, but only if spine economy component dominates. However, such a combined meta-principle yields much better results than the constraints related solely to minimization of wire length, wire surface area, and conduction delays. Interestingly, the type of spine size distribution also plays a role, and better agreement with the data is achieved for distributions with long tails. In sum, these results suggest that for the efficiency of local circuits wire volume may be more primary variable than wire length or temporal delays, and moreover, the new spine economy principle may be important for brain evolutionary design in a broader context. PMID:26436731

  5. Galen: a pioneer of spine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marketos, S G; Skiadas, P K

    1999-11-15

    Galen of Pergamum AD (2nd century), the most eminent Greek physician after Hippocrates, marked the history of medicine for more than 14 centuries. His doctrines, expressed in his voluminous work, combined the medical heritage of the Hippocratic, the Alexandrian, and some of the most important medical schools of antiquity. The strong influence of the Hippocratic tradition can characteristically be traced in orthopaedics and particularly in Galen's presentation of the spine. Based on his observations, derived from dissection and vivisection of animals, Galen established a pioneer model for the study of human spine. His research ended in an accurate description of the vertebral column and the spinal cord. He also described the course and the distribution of the nerves emerging from the spine. In addition, he dealt with the diseases affecting these structures focusing on spinal tuberculosis and the injuries of the spine and the spinal marrow. Galen was the first physician to demonstrate the neurological implications following transection of the spinal cord at several levels. The predominant feature in Galen's reference to spine is its teleological perspective; the great physician tended to attribute the prodigious structure of the spine to nature's providence. Despite the inevitable anatomical errors, Galen's inspired experiments remained the only thorough approach of spinal anatomy and pathology until the recent centuries, when the evolution of sophisticated technical aids opened new pathways to spine research. PMID:10586461

  6. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw; Wichuk, Stephanie; Østergaard, Mikkel; Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the ...

  7. Repositioning accuracy: Comparison of a noninvasive head holder with thermoplastic mask for fractionated radiotherapy and a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare accuracy, clinical feasibility, and subjective patient impression between a noninvasive head holder (Vogele Bale Hohner [VBH]; Wellhoefer Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) developed at the University of Innsbruck and the thermoplastic mask fixation system for use in fractionated external radiotherapy. We present a case report of an actual patient fixated in the VBH head holder during radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: The VBH head holder consists of an individualized vacuum dental cast connected to a head plate via two hydraulic arms allowing noninvasive, reproducible head fixation of even uncooperative patients. Accuracy was tested and compared with that of the thermoplastic mask using the Phillips EasyGuide navigation system on five volunteers. Specific external registration points served as landmarks and their positions were compared after each repositioning. System and operator inaccuracy were also taken into account. The times taken for production and repositioning of the respective fixation devices were compared, and subjective impressions were noted. Results: Mean VBH head holder repositioning accuracy was 1.02 mm while that of the thermoplastic mask was 3.05 mm. 69% of mask repositionings showed a deviation > 2 mm and 41% > 3 mm (as opposed to 8% and 1% respectively for the VBH head holder) Those points located farthest away from the respective plane of fixation showed the largest deviations. Both production and repositioning times were similar between the systems; depending upon the patient, the VBH head holder was generally better tolerated than the mask system. Conclusion: Due to its significantly better repositioning accuracy compared to that of the thermoplastic mask, the VBH head holder is especially suited for external radiation requiring precise repositioning due to critical tissues in immediate surrounding of the area to be irradiated

  8. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pozzo-Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spines are small cytoplasmic extensions of dendrites that form the postsynaptic compartment of the majority of excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. Alterations in the numerical density, size, and shape of dendritic spines have been correlated with neuronal dysfunction in several neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with intellectual disability, including Rett syndrome (RTT. RTT is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability that is caused by loss of function mutations in the transcriptional regulator methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating that principal neurons in RTT individuals and Mecp2-based experimental models exhibit alterations in the number and morphology of dendritic spines. We also discuss the exciting possibility that signaling pathways downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which is transcriptionally regulated by MeCP2, offer promising therapeutic options for modulating dendritic spine development and plasticity in RTT and other MECP2-associated neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. THE SPINE OF THE COSMIC WEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between the watershed basins to trace the critical points in the density field and the separatrices defined by them. The separatrices are classified into walls and the spine, the network of filaments and nodes in the matter distribution. Testing the method with a heuristic Voronoi model yields outstanding results. Following the discussion of the test results, we apply the SpineWeb method to a set of cosmological N-body simulations. The latter illustrates the potential for studying the structure and dynamics of the Cosmic Web.

  10. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw; Wichuk, Stephanie; Østergaard, Mikkel; Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...... an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the...... localization and phenotypic diversity of fat lesions in patients with axial SpA....

  11. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to ...

  12. Computed tomography of the sellar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the CT scan findings in a case of sellar spine. This osseous spine which arises on the midline of the anterior aspect of the dorsum sellae and is directed toward the center of the sella turcica has already been described on specimens and on plain films but never on CT scans. The CT scan findings confirm the normal appearance of the surrounding structures. (orig.)

  13. Computed tomography of the sellar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Poulignot, D.

    1983-01-01

    The authors report the CT scan findings in a case of sellar spine. This osseous spine which arises on the midline of the anterior aspect of the dorsum sellae and is directed toward the center of the sella turcica has already been described on specimens and on plain films but never on CT scans. The CT scan findings confirm the normal appearance of the surrounding structures.

  14. Imaging of Cervical Spine Injuries in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bogner, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Trauma of the cervical spine is one of the most harrowing injuries seen in athletics. Although such injuries are not common, their impact can be devastating. Based on a thorough review of the literature, this article explains the identification of cervical spine trauma and the importance of stability therein. Multiple examples are given highlighting these findings and the way that multiple modalities can be used to asses such injuries. The article concludes with a brief review of the current ...

  15. Injuries of the spine sustained in rugby

    OpenAIRE

    Thurston, John

    1984-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1982, 67 rugby players (63 rugby union, two rugby league, and two American football) sustained serious injuries of their spine. The injuries fell predominantly on the lower cervical spine. Forty eight of the players sustained serious injuries of the spinal cord, leading to paralysis and total incapacity. The incidence of such injuries appears to have increased in recent years, particularly those incurred in tackles and mauls and rucks, and particularly among schoolboys. Chang...

  16. Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot, Jonathan [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Mosel, Leigh; Kong, Andrew; Hayward, Mike [Flinders Medical Centre, Department of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park, South Australia (Australia)

    2005-12-01

    Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

  17. Management of Cervical Spine Injuries in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bailes, Julian E.; Petschauer, Meredith; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marano, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injury in sport has been significantly reduced over the past 3 decades, the injury warrants continued attention because of the altered quality of life that often accompanies such an injury. The purpose of our literature review was to provide athletic trainers with an understanding of the mechanisms, anatomical structures, and complications often associated with sport-related cervical spine injury. We also present the most curren...

  18. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; van de Weygaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S

    2008-01-01

    We present a new concept, the Spine of the Cosmic Web, for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its filaments and walls. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the method invokes the local properties of the regions adjacent to the critical points, which define its separatrices. Our method allows their classification into walls and the spine of filaments and clusters. Tests on a heuristic Voronoi model yielded outstanding results.

  19. Posteroanterior versus anteroposterior lumbar spine radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The posteroanterior view of the lumbar spine has important features including radiation protection and image quality; these have been studied by various investigators. Investigators have shown that sensitive tissues receive less radiation dosage in the posteroanterior view of the spine for scoliosis screening and intracranial tomography without altering the image quality. This paper emphasizes the importance of the radiation safety aspect of the posteroanterior view and shows the improvement in shape distortion in the lumbar vertebrae

  20. Posteroanterior versus anteroposterior lumbar spine radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, M.M.; Shu, G.J. (Cleveland Chiropractic College, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The posteroanterior view of the lumbar spine has important features including radiation protection and image quality; these have been studied by various investigators. Investigators have shown that sensitive tissues receive less radiation dosage in the posteroanterior view of the spine for scoliosis screening and intracranial tomography without altering the image quality. This paper emphasizes the importance of the radiation safety aspect of the posteroanterior view and shows the improvement in shape distortion in the lumbar vertebrae.

  1. Cervical spine involvements in Reiter's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical spine radiographs of 38 patients orginating from 145 consecutive cases with Reiter's syndrome (RS) were reviewed. Five of these 145 patients (3.4%) had cervical spine manifestations: anterior atlanto-axial dislocation 2, craniovertebral lesions typical for rhreumatoid arthritis (RA), spondylitis typical for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and anterior ossification, one each. Four of these patients were males. Cervical lesions in RS turned out to be rare. These lesions are alone indistinguisable from those of other chronic rheumatic inflammatory diseases. (orig.)

  2. Temporomandibular joint orthopedics with anterior repositioning appliance therapy and therapeutic injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Clifton

    2014-08-01

    TMD orthopedics is the assessment, diagnosis and management of orthopedic disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Anterior repositioning appliance (ARA) therapy for TMJ internal derangements is successful in long-term recapturing of disks in reducing and nonreducing joints at a rate of 64 percent and in regenerating degenerated condyles in some cases. ARA therapy for TMJ internal derangements is subjectively successful in relieving symptoms in reducing and nonreducing disk displacement TMJs in this study at an average rate of 94.5 percent. PMID:25174212

  3. Solving a static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems using iterated tabu search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Szeto, W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the static bike repositioning problem where the problem consists of selecting a subset of stations to visit, sequencing them, and determining the pick-up/drop-off quantities (associated with each of the visited stations) under the various operational constraints. The objective is to minimize the total penalties incurred at all the stations. We present an iterated tabu search heuristic to solve the described problem. Experimental results show that this simple heuristic can generate high quality solutions using small computing times.

  4. Treatment of excessive gingival display using a modified lip repositioning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Noé Vital; Campos, Thiago Veiga de Souza; Rodrigues, Jefferson Guilherme; Martins, Thiago Modolo Azevedo; Silva, Cléverson O

    2013-01-01

    Excessive gingival display during smiling ("gummy smile") is an esthetic issue that affects a considerable part of the population. The hyperactivity of the elevator muscle of the upper lip is one of the main causes of a gummy smile, and several techniques have been proposed for its treatment. The aim of this report is to describe a modification of the lip repositioning technique to achieve stable and significant outcomes through a more conservative procedure. Two patients complaining about a gummy smile were treated with the proposed technique and presented, after a 6-month follow-up, significant improvement in the amount of gingival exposure and esthetic satisfaction. PMID:23593624

  5. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ...Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER...Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY...

  6. Neurotrophin and Wnt signaling cooperatively regulate dendritic spine formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiester, Brian G.; Galati, Domenico F.; Salinas, Patricia C.; Jones, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic spines are major sites of excitatory synaptic transmission and changes in their numbers and morphology have been associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a secreted growth factor that influences hippocampal, striatal and neocortical pyramidal neuron dendritic spine density. However, the mechanisms by which BDNF regulates dendritic spines and how BDNF interacts with other regulators of spines remain unclear. We propose that one mechanism by which BDNF promotes dendritic spine formation is through an interaction with Wnt signaling. Here, we show that Wnt signaling inhibition in cultured cortical neurons disrupts dendritic spine development, reduces dendritic arbor size and complexity, and blocks BDNF-induced dendritic spine formation and maturation. Additionally, we show that BDNF regulates expression of Wnt2, and that Wnt2 is sufficient to promote cortical dendrite growth and dendritic spine formation. Together, these data suggest that BDNF and Wnt signaling cooperatively regulate dendritic spine formation. PMID:23639831

  7. Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Keigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine. Methods For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9, 400 adolescents (ages 10-19 and 400 adults (ages 20-29, with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree, right (> +1 degree, and left ( Results In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p Conclusions Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.

  8. Persistent Direction-Fixed Nystagmus Following Canalith Repositioning Maneuver for Horizontal Canal BPPV: A Case of Canalith Jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Soo; Choi, Jeesun

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a 64-year-old man who developed persistent direction fixed nystagmus after a canalith repositioning maneuver for horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV). The patient was initially diagnosed with right HC-BPPV given that the Dix-Hallpike test showed geotropic horizontal nystagmus that was more pronounced on the right side, although the roll test did not show any positional nystagmus. The patient was treated with a canalith repositioning maneuver (Lempert maneuver). The next day, the patient experienced a different character of dizziness, and left-beating spontaneous nystagmus regardless of head position was observed. After a forced prolonged left decubitus and frequent head shaking, his symptoms and nystagmus resolved. This condition, referred to as canalith jam, can be a complication after the repositioning maneuver in patients with BPPV. Atypical positional tests suggest that abnormal canal anatomy could be the underlying cause of canalith jam. PMID:24917912

  9. Vital staining of palatal soft tissue in horseshoe Le Fort I osteotomy for superior repositioning of the maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Susumu; Iwai, Toshinori; Honda, Koji; Shibutani, Naoki; Fujita, Koichi; Yamashita, Yosuke; Takasu, Hikaru; Murata, Shogo; Tohnai, Iwai

    2015-05-01

    In maxillary orthognathic surgery, superior repositioning of the maxilla is sometimes difficult, and removal of the bony interference, especially around the descending palatine artery, is very time-consuming in cases of severe maxillary impaction. A useful method introduced for superior repositioning of the maxilla is horseshoe-shaped osteotomy combined with Le Fort I osteotomy (horseshoe Le Fort I osteotomy). However, injury to the palatal soft tissue during horseshoe-shaped osteotomy may cause aseptic complications of the maxilla. Therefore, a safe method is required to prevent such injury to reduce the risk for aseptic necrosis. We describe here vital staining of palatal soft tissue in horseshoe Le Fort I osteotomy for safer superior repositioning of the maxilla. PMID:25887202

  10. Drug screen in patient cells suggests quinacrine to be repositioned for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find drugs suitable for repositioning for use against leukemia, samples from patients with chronic lymphocytic, acute myeloid and lymphocytic leukemias as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were tested in response to 1266 compounds from the LOPAC1280 library (Sigma). Twenty-five compounds were defined as hits with activity in all leukemia subgroups (<50% cell survival compared with control) at 10 ?M drug concentration. Only one of these compounds, quinacrine, showed low activity in normal PBMCs and was therefore selected for further preclinical evaluation. Mining the NCI-60 and the NextBio databases demonstrated leukemia sensitivity and the ability of quinacrine to reverse myeloid leukemia gene expression. Mechanistic exploration was performed using the NextBio bioinformatic software using gene expression analysis of drug exposed acute myeloid leukemia cultures (HL-60) in the database. Analysis of gene enrichment and drug correlations revealed strong connections to ribosomal biogenesis nucleoli and translation initiation. The highest drug–drug correlation was to ellipticine, a known RNA polymerase I inhibitor. These results were validated by additional gene expression analysis performed in-house. Quinacrine induced early inhibition of protein synthesis supporting these predictions. The results suggest that quinacrine have repositioning potential for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia by targeting of ribosomal biogenesis

  11. A computational method for drug repositioning using publicly available gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Motivation The identification of new therapeutic uses of existing drugs, or drug repositioning, offers the possibility of faster drug development, reduced risk, lesser cost and shorter paths to approval. The advent of high throughput microarray technology has enabled comprehensive monitoring of transcriptional response associated with various disease states and drug treatments. This data can be used to characterize disease and drug effects and thereby give a measure of the association between a given drug and a disease. Several computational methods have been proposed in the literature that make use of publicly available transcriptional data to reposition drugs against diseases. Method In this work, we carry out a data mining process using publicly available gene expression data sets associated with a few diseases and drugs, to identify the existing drugs that can be used to treat genes causing lung cancer and breast cancer. Results Three strong candidates for repurposing have been identified- Letrozole and GDC-0941 against lung cancer, and Ribavirin against breast cancer. Letrozole and GDC-0941 are drugs currently used in breast cancer treatment and Ribavirin is used in the treatment of Hepatitis C. PMID:26679199

  12. Hippocrates. The father of spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marketos, S G; Skiadas, P

    1999-07-01

    Hippocrates (5th-4th century B. C.), the founder of scientific medicine, left a valuable heritage of knowledge and methodology, which extends to almost all branches of modern medicine. Among the many fields of medicine he explored, he devoted much of his scientific interest to the study of orthopedics. In fact, some of the principles found in the Hippocratic treatises On Fractures and On Joints are still valid today. This great physician also was the first to deal with the anatomy and the pathology of human spine. In his books, he provides a precise description of the segments and the normal curves of the spine, the structure of the vertebrae, the tendons attached to them, the blood supply to the spine, and even its anatomic relations to adjacent vessels. The Hippocratic list of spinal diseases includes tuberculous spondylitis, post-traumatic kyphosis, scoliosis, concussion, dislocations of the vertebrae, and fractures of the spinous processes. Hippocrates devised two apparatuses, known as the Hippocratic ladder and the Hippocratic board, to reduce displaced vertebrae. Those pioneer methods are deemed to be the precursors to the sophisticated techniques used in spine surgery today. Because of his thorough study of spinal diseases and their management, which was the first such study in orthopedics in the history of medicine, Hippocrates should be regarded as the father of spine surgery. PMID:10404583

  13. Management of thoracolumbar spine trauma An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rajasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common injuries that can result in significant disability, deformity and neurological deficit. Controversies exist regarding the appropriate radiological investigations, the indications for surgical management and the timing, approach and type of surgery. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, biomechanical principles, radiological and clinical evaluation, classification and management principles. Literature review of all relevant articles published in PubMed covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with or without neurologic deficit was performed. The search terms used were thoracolumbar, thoracic, lumbar, fracture, trauma and management. All relevant articles and abstracts covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with and without neurologic deficit were reviewed. Biomechanically the thoracolumbar spine is predisposed to a higher incidence of spinal injuries. Computed tomography provides adequate bony detail for assessing spinal stability while magnetic resonance imaging shows injuries to soft tissues (posterior ligamentous complex [PLC] and neurological structures. Different classification systems exist and the most recent is the AO spine knowledge forum classification of thoracolumbar trauma. Treatment includes both nonoperative and operative methods and selected based on the degree of bony injury, neurological involvement, presence of associated injuries and the integrity of the PLC. Significant advances in imaging have helped in the better understanding of thoracolumbar fractures, including information on canal morphology and injury to soft tissue structures. The ideal classification that is simple, comprehensive and guides management is still elusive. Involvement of three columns, progressive neurological deficit, significant kyphosis and canal compromise with neurological deficit are accepted indications for surgical stabilization through anterior, posterior or combined approaches.

  14. Confined prostate cancer treated by conformational irradiation with intensity modulation with or without echography repositioning: is the dose received equivalent to the prescribed dose?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results suggest it would be possible to dispense a homogenous dose in agreement with the ICRU recommendations, nearer than the forward looking dose when the daily echographic repositioning is applied. This repositioning does not influence significantly the dosimetry for the risk organs. These results will validated in a bigger population. (N.C.)

  15. Radiologic evaluation of cervical spine fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological findings of various cervical spine fractures were analyzed on the basis of J. Harris classification. It appears to be important for the radiologist to be familiar with radiographic findings of cervical spine fractures, particularly those of unstable fractures which can result in serious medical problems if improperly handled in the department of radiology. 68 cases of cervical spine fractures were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. Stable and unstable fractures were about equal in incidence. 2. Anterior subluxation accounts for 43.4% of stable fractures, 19 % of all fractures. 3. Bilateral interfacetal dislocation accounts for 51.1% of unstable fractures, 25% of all fractures. 4. Associated fractures were involved in skull, scapula, mandible and femur. 5. About 80% of the patients is in third through fifth decade

  16. Embryonic development of fin spines in Callorhinchus milii (Holocephali); implications for chondrichthyan fin spine evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerve, Anna; Johanson, Zerina; Ahlberg, Per; Boisvert, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Fin spines are commonly known from fossil gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) and are usually associated with paired and unpaired fins. They are less common among extant gnathostomes, being restricted to the median fins of certain chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish), including chimaerids (elephant sharks) and neoselachians (sharks, skates, and rays). Fin spine growth is of great interest and relevance but few studies have considered their evolution and development. We investigated the development of the fin spine of the chimaerid Callorhinchus milii using stained histological sections from a series of larval, hatchling, and adult individuals. The lamellar trunk dentine of the Callorhinchus spine first condenses within the mesenchyme, rather than at the contact surface between mesenchyme and epithelium, in a manner more comparable to dermal bone formation than to normal odontode development. Trabecular dentine forms a small component of the spine under the keel; it is covered externally with a thin layer of lamellar trunk dentine, which is difficult to distinguish in sectioned adult spines. We suggest that the distinctive characteristics of the trunk dentine may reflect an origin through co-option of developmental processes involved in dermal bone formation. Comparison with extant Squalus and a range of fossil chondrichthyans shows that Callorhinchus is more representative than Squalus of generalized chondrichthyan fin-spine architecture, highlighting its value as a developmental model organism. PMID:25378057

  17. Actin Remodeling and Polymerization Forces Control Dendritic Spine Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Miermans, Karsten; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic spines are small membranous structures that protrude from the neuronal dendrite. Each spine contains a synaptic contact site that may connect its parent dendrite to the axons of neighboring neurons. Dendritic spines are markedly distinct in shape and size, and certain types of stimulation prompt spines to evolve, in fairly predictable fashion, from thin nascent morphologies to the mushroom-like shapes associated with mature spines. This striking progression is coincident with the (re)configuration of the neuronal network during early development, learning and memory formation, and has been conjectured to be part of the machinery that encodes these processes at the scale of individual neuronal connections. It is well established that the structural plasticity of spines is strongly dependent upon the actin cytoskeleton inside the spine. A general framework that details the precise role of actin in directing the transitions between the various spine shapes is lacking. We address this issue, and present...

  18. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations-occurrence and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, C R; Nordeide, J T; Gjøen, H M; Larsen, B; Egeland, E S

    2015-01-01

    Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are few, despite the large interest in the species' behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females' spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained. PMID:25861558

  19. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations—occurrence and inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Amundsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus are few, despite the large interest in the species’ behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females’ spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained.

  20. Cervical spine fractures and dislocations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospectivce analysis of pediatric admissions over 10 years revealed 29 patients with cervical spine injuries. Eleven patients were below 12 years of age, and 10 of these had injuries involving C1, C2 or the occipitoatlantal articulation. Eighteen patients were between 12 and 16 years of age with injuries distributed throughout the cervical spine similar to injuries in the adult population. Our results suggest that teenagers with suspected cervical injuries are best evaluated by an adult radiographic series including trauma oblique views. In younger patients, careful evaluation of occipitoatlantoaxial alignment and the prevertebral soft tissues is required for diagnosis and selection of additional imaging evaluation. (orig.)

  1. Fiducial marker placement for intraoperative spine localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichal, Daniel A; Barnett, David W; Meler, James D; Layton, Kennith F

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great increase in the number of cases of image-guided fiducial marker placement for the purposes of stereotactic radiosurgery. At the authors' parent institution, a tertiary referral academic medical center, the placement of fiducial markers has also been used for the purposes of localization before spine surgery. Given the reported prevalence of "wrong-site" surgical intervention documented in the medical literature, particularly involving spinal surgery, the neurosurgical department at the authors' institution has requested the expertise of interventional radiology for assistance in preoperative spine localization. Therefore, there are medicolegal, medical cost, and patient care implications of image-guided fiducial marker placement. PMID:21109457

  2. Guidelines for use of lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In deciding whether to obtain lumbosacral spine films, the emergency physician must not ask whether a diagnosis can be established, but whether obtaining films will affect management. Low back pain is a considerable problem for society with cost in billions of dollars. Gonadal radiation from lumbosacral radiographs is significant, and thus ordering films should be minimized. Plain radiographs are rarely indicated in otherwise healthy patients 20 to 50 years old with mechanical or root pain on initial presentation. In other patients alternative diagnostic methodologies such as computed tomography may be superior, with less radiation risk. Specific recommendations for emergency radiographic evaluation of the lumbosacral spine are offered.68 references

  3. Cervical spine injuries in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovio, O M; Van Peteghem, P K; Schweigel, J F

    1984-03-15

    Nine patients with serious cervical spine injuries that occurred while they were playing rugby were seen in a British Columbia acute spinal cord injury unit during the period 1975-82. All the injuries had occurred during the "scrum" or the "tackle". Two of the patients were rendered permanently quadriplegic, and one patient died. There is a need for a central registry that would record all cervical spine injuries in rugby players as well as for changes in the rules of the game. PMID:6697282

  4. Development and validation of a strategic repositioning model for defense and aerospace contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, John A.

    Strategic repositioning refers to the organized efforts of defense contractors to "reposition" a technology that they have developed for a defense sector customer into a civilian or commercial market. The strategic repositioning model developed here is a structural model: it seeks to isolate the factors that influence choice of strategy, which in turn influences the organization's performance. The model draws from the prior experience of contractors (through interviews and surveys) and companies in other sectors (through a review of the relevant published research). (1) Over all, the model accounted for 55% of the variance in financial performance of the sample and 35% for the underlying population. (2) Key success factors include a rigorous planning process, a target market in the growth (vs. incubation) stage, a priority on market leadership as well as financial return, the ability to operate in an ambiguous business environment, and a relatively short time horizon but strong corporate support. (3) The greatest challenges that a contractor is likely to encounter are understanding his new customers' buying practices, strong competition, and adapting his technology to their needs and price expectations. (4) To address these issues contractors often involve partners in their entry strategy, but partnerships of equals tend to be more difficult to bring off than direct entry strategies. (5) The two major target market categories--government and commercial--present different challenges. Commercial customers are more likely to resist doing business with the contractor, while contractors entering government and other noncommercial markets are more likely to encounter price resistance, low technical sophistication among customers, and difficulties reaching their customer base. (6) Despite these differences across markets, performance is not influenced by the target market category, nor by the type of product or service or the contractor's functional orientation (marketing, technology, or operations). (7) The absence of a difference in performance may be partly due to natural selection. Noncommercial markets tend to attract contractors with more deliberative, consultative, and process-oriented corporate cultures, while commercial markets tend to attract contractors with results-oriented, opportunistic cultures.

  5. Head repositioning errors in normal student volunteers: a possible tool to assess the neck's neuromuscular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudavalli M Ram

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A challenge for practitioners using spinal manipulation is identifying when an intervention is required. It has been recognized that joint pain can interfere with the ability to position body parts accurately and that the recent history of muscle contraction can play a part in that interference. In this study, we tested whether repositioning errors could be induced in a normal population by contraction or shortening of the neck muscles. Methods In the experimental protocol, volunteers free of neck problems first found a comfortable neutral head posture with eyes closed. They deconditioned their cervical muscles by moving their heads 5 times in either flexion/extension or lateral flexion and then attempted to return to the same starting position. Two conditioning sequences were interspersed within the task: hold the head in an extended or laterally flexed position for 10 seconds; or hold a 70% maximum voluntary contraction in the same position for 10 seconds. A computer-interfaced electrogoniometer was used to measure head position while a force transducer coupled to an auditory alarm signaled the force of isometric contraction. The difference between the initial and final head orientation was calculated in 3 orthogonal planes. Analysis of variance (1-way ANOVA with a blocking factor (participants was used to detect differences in proprioceptive error among the conditioning sequences while controlling for variation between participants. Results Forty-eight chiropractic students participated: 36 males and 12 females, aged 28.2 ± 4.8 yrs. During the neck extension test, actively contracting the posterior neck muscles evoked an undershoot of the target position by 2.1° (p Conclusion The results suggest that the recent history of cervical paraspinal muscle contraction can influence head repositioning in flexion/extension. To our knowledge this is the first time that muscle mechanical history has been shown to influence proprioceptive accuracy in the necks of humans. This finding may be used to elucidate the mechanism behind repositioning errors seen in people with neck pain and could guide development of a clinical test for involvement of paraspinal muscles in cervical pain and dysfunction.

  6. Sensitivity of lumbar spine loading to anatomical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putzer, Michael; Ehrlich, Ingo; Rasmussen, John; Gebbeken, Norbert; Dendorfer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal simulations of lumbar spine loading rely on a geometrical representation of the anatomy. However, this data has an inherent inaccuracy. This study evaluates the in uence of dened geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading utilizing ve parametrized musculoskeletal lumbar spine models for four different postures. The in uence of the dimensions of vertebral body, disc, posterior parts of the vertebrae as well as the curvature of the lumbar spine were studied. Additionally, simul...

  7. EphB/syndecan-2 signaling in dendritic spine morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethell, I M; Irie, F; Kalo, M S; Couchman, J R; Pasquale, E B; Yamaguchi, Y

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported that the cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-2 can induce dendritic spine formation in hippocampal neurons. We demonstrate here that the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylates syndecan-2 and that this phosphorylation event is crucial for syndecan-2 clustering and spin...... receptors play a physiological role in dendritic spine morphogenesis. Our observations suggest that spine morphogenesis is triggered by the activation of Eph receptors, which causes tyrosine phosphorylation of target molecules, such as syndecan-2, in presumptive spines....

  8. "What Sort of Person Ought I to Be?"--Repositioning EPs in Light of the Children and Families Bill (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The changes brought by the Special Educational Needs and Disability (SEND) code of practice: 0 to 25 years, 2014, is an opportunity for educational psychologists (EPs) to reposition ourselves so that we can improve our contribution to the services for children and young people with special educational needs (SENs) or a disability. Underpinning…

  9. Dendritic Spines in Depression: What We Learned from Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Hui; Li, Ming-Xing; Xu, Chang; Chen, Hui-Bin; An, Shu-Cheng; Ma, Xin-ming

    2016-01-01

    Depression, a severe psychiatric disorder, has been studied for decades, but the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Depression is closely associated with alterations in dendritic spine morphology and spine density. Therefore, understanding dendritic spines is vital for uncovering the mechanisms underlying depression. Several chronic stress models, including chronic restraint stress (CRS), chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), have ...

  10. High Grade Infective Spondylolisthesis of Cervical Spine Secondary to Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hadgaonkar, Shailesh; Shah, Kunal; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2015-01-01

    Spondylolisthesis coexisting with tuberculosis is rarely reported. There is a controversy whether spondylolisthesis coexists or precedes tuberculosis. Few cases of pathological spondylolisthesis secondary to tuberculous spondylodiscitis have been reported in the lumbar and lumbosacral spine. All cases in the literature presented as anterolisthesis, except one which presented as posterolisthesis of lumbar spine. Spondylolisthesis in the cervical spine is mainly degenerative and traumatic. Spon...

  11. Persistent otolith dysfunction even after successful repositioning in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Joong; Oh, Sun-Young; Kim, Ji Soo; Yang, Tae-Ho; Yang, Si-Young

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate utricular and saccular function during the acute and resolved phases of BPPV, ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were studied in 112 patients with BPPV and 50 normal controls in a referral-based University Hospital. Ocular (oVEMPs) and cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) were induced using air-conducted sound (1000Hz tone burst, 100dB normal hearing level) at the time of initial diagnosis and 2 months after successful repositioning in patients with BPPV, and the results were compared with those of the controls. Abnormalities of cVEMPs and oVEMPs in patients with BPPV were prevalent and significantly higher compare to the healthy control group (pdamage to the otolith organs. PMID:26371697

  12. Repositioning chairs in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: implications and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Niels; Hansen, Søren; Møller, Martin Nue; Bloch, Sune Land; Klokker, Mads

    2016-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the clinical value of repositioning chairs in management of refractory benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and to study how different BPPV subtypes respond to treatment. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 consecutive cases with refractory vertigo referred to our clinic within a 10-month period. The BPPV patients were managed with classical manual manoeuvres, the Epley Omniax(®) rotator (EO) or the TRV chair (TRV). In addition, a comprehensive review of the literature was performed. BPPV was identified in 95 cases. The number of needed treatments for posterior canalolithiasis versus posterior cupulolithiasis, horizontal cupulolithiasis and multi-canal affection was significant (p studies. The EO and the TRV are highly valuable assets in diagnosis and management of BPPV of particularly complex and refractory cases. However, further validation is anticipated through controlled clinical trials. PMID:25749489

  13. Raziskovalni model strateškega repozicioniranja blagovne znamke = Research Model of Strategic Repositioning of the Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vukasovi?

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of the world food market has, in recent years, been markedby rapid, unexpected and complex changes. The world food industryis operating in an explicitly dynamic environment which demandsconstant adjustments and responses. Good familiarity with consumers,their habits, wishes, and motives for buying a certain product is becomingan increasingly important area and food companies have,therefore, devoted more attention to it. The paper uses case a studyof the brand Perutnina Ptuj to illustrate the importance of action elementsin repositioning a brand in competitive markets. The exampleis illustrated by using a research model of strategic repositioningof a brand. The results of the analysis of competitors, the analysis ofthe brand, the results of qualitative research, and the developmentand testing of possible concepts on international markets have offereda basic starting-point for a new positioning of the brand.

  14. Development of the Korean Spine Database and Automatic Surface Mesh Intersection Algorithm for Constructing e-Spine Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Dongmin Seo; Hanmin Jung; Won-Kyung Sung; Dukyun Nam

    2014-01-01

    By 2026, Korea is expected to surpass the UN’s definition of an aged society and reach the level of a superaged society. With an aging population come increased disorders involving the spine. To prevent unnecessary spinal surgery and support scientific diagnosis of spinal disease and systematic prediction of treatment outcomes, we have been developing e-Spine, which is a computer simulation model of the human spine. In this paper, we present the Korean spine database and automatic surface mes...

  15. Canalith repositioning in apogeotropic horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: Do we need faster maneuvering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Minho; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kang, Kyung-Wook; Lee, Dasom; Lee, Sae-Young; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Han

    2015-11-15

    A correct diagnosis and a proper treatment may yield a rapid and simple cure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Although the Gufoni maneuver is widely used to treat apogeotropic horizontal-canal BPPV (HC-BPPV), few studies have clarified the relationship between the speed and intensity of maneuver execution and successful canalith reposition. To evaluate the effect of accelerated execution of the Gufoni maneuver, a prospective randomized controlled study was conducted with HC-BPPV patients in a single dizziness clinic. The patients had been diagnosed with apogeotropic HC-BPPV and were undergoing treatment at the dizziness clinic of a tertiary university hospital from January 2013 to August 2014. Two groups were treated with the maneuver performed at different speeds and the resolution rate was compared. The accelerated maneuver group was subjected to faster position changing-within 1s-during the reposition maneuver, while the non-accelerated maneuver group underwent slower maneuvers. Therapeutic efficacy was defined as dizziness relief or resolution of nystagmus within 1h. Fifty patients with apogeotropic HC-BPPV were enrolled and treated with the Gufoni maneuver in two groups of 25 patients. The overall resolution rate was 48% (24 of 50; p=1.00), regardless of acceleration. Our results suggest that a faster, more intense execution of the Gufoni maneuver provides little benefit in treating apogeotropic HC-BPPV. Detachment of the otolith from the cupula or the gravitational force-when the otolith is in the anterior arm of the HC-may be more important contributors to treatment efficacy. PMID:26341154

  16. Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Nojiri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

  17. Intradural hemangiopericytoma of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemangiopericytoma is a rare tumor that can affect the lumbar spine; the intradural location is very infrequent. We report a 54-years-old man with lumbociatic pain during a period of several month, with a diagnosis of lumbar intradural hemangiopericytoma. This case report describes the results obtained by RMI and pathology. (author)

  18. Extraspinal abnormalities identified on lumbar spine CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrospective review of 1517 lumbar CT examinations revealed extraspinal pathology in 22 (1.45%). Retroperitoneal tumors and lymphadenopathy as well as vascular, urinary tract and gynecologic abnormalities were identified. This study demonstrates the need to carefully evaluate the visualized portions of the abdomen and pelvis on all lumbar spine CT examinations even when the patient's symptomatology is suggestive of spinal abnormalities. (orig.)

  19. Congenital spine anomalies: the closed spinal dysraphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Erin Simon [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The term congenital spinal anomalies encompasses a wide variety of dysmorphology that occurs during early development. Familiarity with current terminology and a practical, clinico-radiologic classification system allows the radiologist to have a more complete understanding of malformations of the spine and improves accuracy of diagnosis when these entities are encountered in practice. (orig.)

  20. X-Ray parameters of lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otabek Ablyazov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of anatomic spinal structures, especially its relation-ship to the functions performed, is necessary to form a correct diagnosis. The anatomical structure of the vertebrae varies de-pending on the level of the spinal segment. Normal anatomical parameters, derived from bone structures of the spine, are roughly determined by X-ray method.This paper presents the results of the survey radiography of the lumbar spine in a straight line and lateral projections in 30 individ-uals without pathology spine, aged 21-60 years with frequently observed lumbar spinal stenosis stenosis. Applying X-ray method there were studied shape, height, and the contours of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disc in the front (interpedicular and sagittal planes; there were measured dimensions of the lumbar canal and foramen holes in the same planes. Using X-ray method can fully identify the bone parameters of vertebral column. How-ever, the informativity of the method depends on knowledge of radiologist about topographic anatomical features of spine.

  1. Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed. (orig.)

  2. A feeling of being (in)visible : The illness trajectory experienced by patients having spine fusion surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene

    Abstract PhD Day 2015 The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long and uncoordinated trajectories. The patients describe a feeling of being mistrusted and thrown around in the system. It is the aim of this study to examine how spine fusion patients experience their illness trajectory and hospitalisation. Methods The study is based on qualitative interviews, and the data analysis is inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur’s phenomenological hermeneutic theory of interpretation. Data were collected through observations and semi-structured interviews at an Elective Surgery Centre in a Danish regional hospital. Results The results show that experiences related to prolonged contact with the healthcare system and healthcare professionals are often dismissed as irrelevant.It is also evident that spine fusion patients are denied the opportunity to verbalise what it feels like to, for example, be ”a person in constant pain” or someone who ”holds back” to avoid being an inconvenience. These feelings are internalised as a sense of doubt and powerlessness, resulting in spine fusion patients experiencing that they are ”disappearing” as a person; losing their identity. Conclusion To conclude, the biomedical perspective obscures spine fusion patients’ horizon of meaning, which is existentially rooted in the areas of the lifeworld. This can lead to psychological and social problems, which in turn can result in a compromised sense of identity and a reduced feeling of social belonging.

  3. Super-Brownian motion: Lp-convergence of martingales through the pathwise spine decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Murillo-Salas, A E Kyprianou A

    2011-01-01

    Evans (1992) described the semi-group of a superprocess with quadratic branching mechanism under a martingale change of measure in terms of the semi-group of an immortal particle and the semigroup of the superprocess prior to the change of measure. This result, commonly referred to as the spine decomposition, alludes to a pathwise decomposition in which independent copies of the original process `immigrate' along the path of the immortal particle. For branching particle diffusions the analogue of this decomposition has already been demonstrated in the pathwise sense, see for example Hardy and Harris (2009). The purpose of this short note is to exemplify a new {\\it pathwise} spine decomposition for supercritical super-Brownian motion with general branching mechanism (cf. Kyprianou et al. (2010)) by studying $L^p$ convergence of naturally underlying additive martingales in the spirit of analogous arguments for branching particle diffusions due to Hardys and Harris (2009). Amongst other ingredients, the Dynkin-K...

  4. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B. [Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-03-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  5. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  6. Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Utilizing Cone-Beam CT Image-Guidance With a Robotic Couch: Intrafraction Motion Analysis Accounting for all Six Degrees of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual setup error and intrafraction motion following kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance, for immobilized spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients, with positioning corrected for in all six degrees of freedom. Methods and Materials: Analysis is based on 42 consecutive patients (48 thoracic and/or lumbar metastases) treated with a total of 106 fractions and 307 image registrations. Following initial setup, a CBCT was acquired for patient alignment and a pretreatment CBCT taken to verify shifts and determine the residual setup error, followed by a midtreatment and posttreatment CBCT image. For 13 single-fraction SBRT patients, two midtreatment CBCT images were obtained. Initially, a 1.5-mm and 1° tolerance was used to reposition the patient following couch shifts which was subsequently reduced to 1 mm and 1° degree after the first 10 patients. Results: Small positioning errors after the initial CBCT setup were observed, with 90% occurring within 1 mm and 97% within 1°. In analyzing the impact of the time interval for verification imaging (10 ± 3 min) and subsequent image acquisitions (17 ± 4 min), the residual setup error was not significantly different (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.04) in the average three-dimensional intrafraction positional deviations favoring a more strict tolerance in translation (1 mm vs. 1.5 mm) was observed. The absolute intrafraction motion averaged over all patients and all directions along x, y, and z axis (± SD) were 0.7 ± 0.5 mm and 0.5 ± 0.4 mm for the 1.5 mm and 1 mm tolerance, respectively. Based on a 1-mm and 1° correction threshold, the target was localized to within 1.2 mm and 0.9° with 95% confidence. Conclusion: Near-rigid body immobilization, intrafraction CBCT imaging approximately every 15–20 min, and strict repositioning thresholds in six degrees of freedom yields minimal intrafraction motion allowing for safe spine SBRT delivery.

  7. Does applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduce cervical spine radiography rates in alert patients with blunt trauma to the neck? A retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cautious outlook towards neck injuries has been the norm to avoid missing cervical spine injuries. Consequently there has been an increased use of cervical spine radiography. The Canadian Cervical Spine rule was proposed to reduce unnecessary use of cervical spine radiography in alert and stable patients. Our aim was to see whether applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduced the need for cervical spine radiography without missing significant cervical spine injuries. This was a retrospective study conducted in 2 hospitals. 114 alert and stable patients who had cervical spine radiographs for suspected neck injuries were included in the study. Data on patient demographics, high risk & low risk factors as per the Canadian Cervical Spine rule and cervical spine radiography results were collected and analysed. 28 patients were included in the high risk category according to the Canadian Cervical Spine rule. 86 patients fell into the low risk category. If the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied, there would have been a significant reduction in cervical spine radiographs as 86/114 patients (75.4%) would not have needed cervical spine radiograph. 2/114 patients who had significant cervical spine injuries would have been identified when the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied. Applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule for neck injuries in alert and stable patients would have reduced the use of cervical spine radiographs without missing out significant cervical spine injuries. This relates to reduction in radiation exposure to patients and health care costs

  8. Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT--Experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wu; Qian Jianguo; Hancock, Steven L.; Xing, Lei; Luxton, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States) and Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate clinic-ready adaptive imaging protocols for online patient repositioning (motion tracking) during prostate IMRT using treatment beam imaging supplemented by minimal, as-needed use of on-board kV. Methods: The authors examine the two-step decision-making strategy: (1) Use cine-MV imaging and online-updated characterization of prostate motion to detect target motion that is potentially beyond a predefined threshold and (2) use paired MV-kV 3D localization to determine overthreshold displacement and, if needed, reposition the patient. Two levels of clinical implementation were evaluated: (1) Field-by-field based motion correction for present-day linacs and (2) instantaneous repositioning for new-generation linacs with capabilities of simultaneous MV-kV imaging and remote automatic couch control during treatment delivery. Experiments were performed on a Varian Trilogy linac in clinical mode using a 4D motion phantom programed with prostate motion trajectories taken from patient data. Dosimetric impact was examined using a 2D ion chamber array. Simulations were done for 536 trajectories from 17 patients. Results: Despite the loss of marker detection efficiency caused by the MLC leaves sometimes obscuring the field at the marker's projected position on the MV imager, the field-by-field correction halved (from 23% to 10%) the mean percentage of time that target displacement exceeded a 3 mm threshold, as compared to no intervention. This was achieved at minimal cost in additional imaging (average of one MV-kV pair per two to three treatment fractions) and with a very small number of repositionings (once every four to five fractions). Also with low kV usage ({approx}2/fraction), the instantaneous repositioning approach reduced overthreshold time by more than 75% (23% to 5%) even with severe MLC blockage as often encountered in current IMRT and could reduce the overthreshold time tenfold (to <2%) if the MLC blockage problem were relieved. The information acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. Conclusions: This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques.

  9. Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT--Experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate clinic-ready adaptive imaging protocols for online patient repositioning (motion tracking) during prostate IMRT using treatment beam imaging supplemented by minimal, as-needed use of on-board kV. Methods: The authors examine the two-step decision-making strategy: (1) Use cine-MV imaging and online-updated characterization of prostate motion to detect target motion that is potentially beyond a predefined threshold and (2) use paired MV-kV 3D localization to determine overthreshold displacement and, if needed, reposition the patient. Two levels of clinical implementation were evaluated: (1) Field-by-field based motion correction for present-day linacs and (2) instantaneous repositioning for new-generation linacs with capabilities of simultaneous MV-kV imaging and remote automatic couch control during treatment delivery. Experiments were performed on a Varian Trilogy linac in clinical mode using a 4D motion phantom programed with prostate motion trajectories taken from patient data. Dosimetric impact was examined using a 2D ion chamber array. Simulations were done for 536 trajectories from 17 patients. Results: Despite the loss of marker detection efficiency caused by the MLC leaves sometimes obscuring the field at the marker's projected position on the MV imager, the field-by-field correction halved (from 23% to 10%) the mean percentage of time that target displacement exceeded a 3 mm threshold, as compared to no intervention. This was achieved at minimal cost in additional imaging (average of one MV-kV pair per two to three treatment fractions) and with a very small number of repositionings (once every four to five fractions). Also with low kV usage (∼2/fraction), the instantaneous repositioning approach reduced overthreshold time by more than 75% (23% to 5%) even with severe MLC blockage as often encountered in current IMRT and could reduce the overthreshold time tenfold (to <2%) if the MLC blockage problem were relieved. The information acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. Conclusions: This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques.

  10. Comparison of two repositioning devices used during radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patients irradiated for Hodgkin's disease are fixed in an immobilization cradle to improve repositioning. In the early 1990s, we changed our cradle system from a 'short' upper torso cradle to an extended near-total body cradle that also includes the lower torso and thighs. In this study, we assess the impact of the extended cradle on the reproducibility of patient repositioning during irradiation of Hodgkin's disease. Methods and Materials: A total of 782 port films of 56 patients treated immediately before and after the change-over were studied to assess positioning reproducibility. Patients treated prior to 1993 were positioned in the short cradle, while those treated 1993 and later were positioned in the extended cradle. All treatment were delivered via anterior and posterior fields and treatment areas above and below the diaphragm were considered separately and together. All treatment fields were simulated and the field shape was designed on anterior and posterior radiographs. Discrepancies in field placement between the simulation radiographs and subsequent port films were noted by a radiation oncologist and requests for position adjustment (both translational and rotational shifts) were noted. The number, magnitude, and direction of any physician-requested position adjustment on port films were retrospectively reviewed. For the purpose of scoring the frequency of field misplacements, when an adjustment was noted on two port films taken during the same treatment session (i.e., a left shift on both an anterior and a posterior port film), it was scored as only one event. A two-tailed chi-square test was used to compare the differences in requested shifts in the two patient groups. Results: The study population consisted of 56 patients (31 short and 25 extended cradle) representing 92 treatment sites. A total of 782 port films representing 450 treatment setups were analyzed (292 above and 158 below the diaphragm). When all port films above the diaphragm (mostly mantle fields) are considered, position adjustments were requested in 13.4% 921 out of 157) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 5.9% (8 out of 135) of treatment setups with the extended cradle (p = 0.054). When all port films below the diaphragm (mostly paraaortic/spleen and pelvic fields) are considered, position adjustments were requested in 33.8% (27 out of 80) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 16.7% (13 out of 78) of treatment setups with the extended cradle (p = 0.056). A reduction in the frequency of both translational and rotational adjustments were seen. When both treatment sites are combined, position adjustments were requested in 20.3% (48 out of 237) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 9.9% (21 out of 213) of treatment setups when the extended cradle was used (p = 0.0086). Conclusions: The extended cradle provides superior repositioning of patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. Differences observed in setup accuracy in this study underscore the importance of aggressive immobilization of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Increased accuracy of daily setup may provide an opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio both by increased likelihood of tumor control and decreased risk of normal tissue complications

  11. Comparison of two repositioning devices used during radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Reproducible patient positioning is fundamental to the success of fractionated radiation therapy in all patients. In patients with a radio curable disease and a long life expectancy, such as those with Hodgkin's disease, accurate repositioning is crucial to maximize the likelihood of cure and to minimize incidental irradiation of non-target normal tissues. In the late 1980s, we replaced an upper torso positioning cradle with an extended near-total body cradle which also includes the lower torso and thighs. This study was performed to assess the impact of the extended cradle on the reproducibility of patient repositioning during irradiation of Hodgkin's disease. Methods and Materials: Patients treated from 1990-1992 were positioned in the short cradle while those treated from 1992 - 1995 were positioned in the extended cradle. All treatments were delivered via anterior and posterior fields. Treatment areas above and below the diaphragm were considered separately. All fields were simulated and beam-shaping blocks designed on anterior and posterior radiographs. Discrepancies in isocenter placement between the simulation radiographs and subsequent port films were noted by a radiation oncologist and requests for isocenter shifts were indicated. The number, magnitude, and direction of any physician-requested isocenter shifts on port films were retrospectively reviewed. For the purpose of scoring the frequency of isocenter misplacements, when a shift was noted on two port films taken during the same treatment session (i.e., a left shift on both an anterior and a posterior port film), it was scored as only one event. A two-tailed chi-square test was used to compare the differences in requested shifts in the two patient groups. Results: The study population consisted of 57 patients (32 short and 25 extended cradle). A total of 815 port films representing 459 isocenter placements were analyzed (288 above and 170 below the diaphragm). When all port films above the diaphragm (mostly mantle fields) are considered, isocenter shifts were requested in 15.6% ((24(154))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 6.7% ((9(134))) of isocenter placements with the extended cradle (p = 0.035). When all port films below the diaphragm (mostly paraaortic/spleen and pelvic fields) are considered, isocenter shifts were requested in 30.1% ((28(93))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 16.7% ((13(78))) of isocenter placements with the extended cradle (p = 0.106). When both treatment sites are combined, isocenter shifts were requested in 21.1% ((52(247))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 10.4% ((22(212))) of isocenter placements when the extended cradle was used (p 0.008). Conclusions: The extended cradle provides superior repositioning of patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. Differences observed in setup accuracy in this study underscore the importance of aggressive immobilization of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Increased accuracy of daily setup provides an opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio both by increased likelihood of tumor control and decreased risk of normal tissue complications

  12. Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    Title Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire Authors & Affiliations Henrik Hein Lauridsen1, Lise Hestbæk1,2 1. Research Unit for Clinical Biomechanics, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Clinical Locomotion Network, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark 2. Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Clinical Locomotion Network, Forskerparken 10A, 5230 Odense M, Denmark Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Therefore preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific instruments to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for children aged 9-12 years which could fill this gap in the literature. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases – the conceptualisation, development and testing phase. We used the conceptual model of Wilson and Cleary (1995) and divided the YSQ into two parts: part one included spinal prevalence estimates (including pictures of spinal area) and part two questions regarding pain, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. During the developing phase we used an iterative process to carefully rephrase existing items used in prior questionnaires such as the Standardised Nordic Questionnaire. To measure pain the “Revised Faces Pain Scale” (rFPS) was included. The testing phase consisted of an iterative method assessing respondent understanding during two pilot tests. In the first pilot test 52 4th grade children filled in the draft version of the YSQ. This was followed by a semi-structured interview two days later designed to obtain the same information ascontained in the YSQ, however, using different semantics and open-ended questions. The revised questionnaire was tested and reviewed a second time at the end of the first pilot test. The second pilot test included 23 children from the 4th grade. It followed similar procedures as the first pilot test but focused mainly on revised versions of the drawings demarcating the spinal areas. Results Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). Correlations between the rFPS and the interview NRS score ranged between 0.71 (cervical spine) and 0.84 (thoracic spine). Agreement between the questionnaire drawings and the interviews of the upper and lower boundaries of the spinal areas were 91.8% for the cervical spine and 67.4% (lumbar spine) and 63.3% (thoracic spine). This resulted in alterations to the drawings. Lastly, as some questions in the second part of the YSQ had a high prevalence of non-responses, it was decided to change question semantics and response options. Conclusion The Young Spine Questionnaire is a novel self-report measure of spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for understanding of content among target respondents, and the results showed acceptable agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings. On the basis of these preliminary results we conclude that the YSQ is a feasible and valid instrument to be used in cross-sectional cohort studies of children aged 9 to 12 years.

  13. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary spine metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sun Medical Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Mison [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Jo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Eulji Universtiy School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A clear consensus has not been established regarding the best treatment for solitary bone metastasis. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients with a controlled primary malignancy who had only solitary spine metastasis without metastasis to the extraspinal bone or viscera and underwent treatment between April 2007 and December 2012 with stereotactic body radiosurgery using CyberKnife, with a total dose of 24 Gy in three to four fractions. During that time, there were only four cases. This was effective in each case, and all the four patients had no local failure and remained alive at a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 64 to 80 months). Although our experience is limited, this study suggests that stereotactic body radiotherapy could be a feasible, safe, effective, and noninvasive alternative treatment for solitary spine metastasis in patients who are medically inoperable or unsuitable for surgery.

  14. Upright positional MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alyas, F.; Connell, D. [London Upright MRI Centre, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [London Upright MRI Centre, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)], E-mail: asif.saifuddin@rnoh.nhs.uk

    2008-09-15

    Supine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used in the assessment of low back pain and radiculopathy. However, imaging findings often correlate poorly with clinical findings. This is partly related to the positional dependence of spinal stenosis, which reflects dynamic changes in soft-tissue structures (ligaments, disc, dural sac, epidural fat, and nerve roots). Upright MRI in the flexed, extended, rotated, standing, and bending positions, allows patients to reproduce the positions that bring about their symptoms and may uncover MRI findings that were not visible with routine supine imaging. Assessment of the degree of spinal stability in the degenerate and postoperative lumbar spine is also possible. The aim of this review was to present the current literature concerning both the normal and symptomatic spine as imaged using upright MRI and to illustrate the above findings using clinical examples.

  15. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary spine metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clear consensus has not been established regarding the best treatment for solitary bone metastasis. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients with a controlled primary malignancy who had only solitary spine metastasis without metastasis to the extraspinal bone or viscera and underwent treatment between April 2007 and December 2012 with stereotactic body radiosurgery using CyberKnife, with a total dose of 24 Gy in three to four fractions. During that time, there were only four cases. This was effective in each case, and all the four patients had no local failure and remained alive at a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 64 to 80 months). Although our experience is limited, this study suggests that stereotactic body radiotherapy could be a feasible, safe, effective, and noninvasive alternative treatment for solitary spine metastasis in patients who are medically inoperable or unsuitable for surgery.

  16. Biomechanical Comparison Of Intact Lumbar Lamp Spine And Endoscopic Discectomized Lamp Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Karakasli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Purpose of current study was biomechanical comparison of changes wrought on motion segments after minimally invasive percutan endoscopic discectomized and intact spine. Materials and Methods: We prepared ten fresh-frozen lamb spines were used for this study. The spine of each specimen was dissected between L4-L5. The biomechanical tests for both intact spine and discectomized spine were performed by using axial compression testing machine (AG-I 10 kN, Shimadzu, Japanese. The axial compression was applied to all specimens with the loading speed of 5 mm/min. 8400 N/mm moment was applied to each specimen to achieve flexion and extension motions, right and left bending by a specially designed fixture. Results: In axial compression and flexion tests, the specimens were more stable according to displacement values. The displacement values of sectioned specimens were closer to intact specimens. Only displacement values of left-bending anteroposterior test for both situations were significant (0.05 ;#8805; P. Conclusion: PTED hasn't biomechanical and cilinical disadvantages. Endoscopic discectomy hadn't any disadvantages in stability. Only anterior-posterior displacement values of left bending test were statistically significant. We consider that cause of these results were due to the fact that all specimens had percutan transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED from left side.

  17. Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson χ2 test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

  18. Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Dosda, Rosa; Molla, Enrique [Department of Radiology, Quiron Clinic, Avd. Blasco Ibanez, 14, 46010 Valencia (Spain)

    2002-11-01

    Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson {chi}{sup 2} test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

  19. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Are Segregated Depending on Their Actin Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Calvo, María; Benoist, Marion; Esteban, José Antonio; Morales, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are mushroom-shaped protrusions of the postsynaptic membrane. Spines receive the majority of glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Their morphology, dynamics, and density have been related to synaptic plasticity and learning. The main determinant of spine shape is filamentous actin. Using FRAP, we have reexamined the actin dynamics of individual spines from pyramidal hippocampal neurons, both in cultures and in hippocampal organotypic slices. Our results indicate that, in cultures, the actin mobile fraction is independently regulated at the individual spine level, and mobile fraction values do not correlate with either age or distance from the soma. The most significant factor regulating actin mobile fraction was the presence of astrocytes in the culture substrate. Spines from neurons growing in the virtual absence of astrocytes have a more stable actin cytoskeleton, while spines from neurons growing in close contact with astrocytes show a more dynamic cytoskeleton. According to their recovery time, spines were distributed into two populations with slower and faster recovery times, while spines from slice cultures were grouped into one population. Finally, employing fast lineal acquisition protocols, we confirmed the existence of loci with high polymerization rates within the spine.

  20. Dendritic spine geometry can localize GTPase signaling in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Samuel A; Raghavachari, Sridhar; Lew, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic terminals of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. Learning and memory are associated with long-lasting structural remodeling of dendritic spines through an actin-mediated process regulated by the Rho-family GTPases RhoA, Rac, and Cdc42. These GTPases undergo sustained activation after synaptic stimulation, but whereas Rho activity can spread from the stimulated spine, Cdc42 activity remains localized to the stimulated spine. Because Cdc42 itself diffuses rapidly in and out of the spine, the basis for the retention of Cdc42 activity in the stimulated spine long after synaptic stimulation has ceased is unclear. Here we model the spread of Cdc42 activation at dendritic spines by means of reaction-diffusion equations solved on spine-like geometries. Excitable behavior arising from positive feedback in Cdc42 activation leads to spreading waves of Cdc42 activity. However, because of the very narrow neck of the dendritic spine, wave propagation is halted through a phenomenon we term geometrical wave-pinning. We show that this can account for the localization of Cdc42 activity in the stimulated spine, and, of interest, retention is enhanced by high diffusivity of Cdc42. Our findings are broadly applicable to other instances of signaling in extreme geometries, including filopodia and primary cilia. PMID:26337387

  1. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Are Segregated Depending on Their Actin Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Calvo, María; Benoist, Marion; Esteban, José Antonio; Morales, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are mushroom-shaped protrusions of the postsynaptic membrane. Spines receive the majority of glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Their morphology, dynamics, and density have been related to synaptic plasticity and learning. The main determinant of spine shape is filamentous actin. Using FRAP, we have reexamined the actin dynamics of individual spines from pyramidal hippocampal neurons, both in cultures and in hippocampal organotypic slices. Our results indicate that, in cultures, the actin mobile fraction is independently regulated at the individual spine level, and mobile fraction values do not correlate with either age or distance from the soma. The most significant factor regulating actin mobile fraction was the presence of astrocytes in the culture substrate. Spines from neurons growing in the virtual absence of astrocytes have a more stable actin cytoskeleton, while spines from neurons growing in close contact with astrocytes show a more dynamic cytoskeleton. According to their recovery time, spines were distributed into two populations with slower and faster recovery times, while spines from slice cultures were grouped into one population. Finally, employing fast lineal acquisition protocols, we confirmed the existence of loci with high polymerization rates within the spine. PMID:26881098

  2. Barriers in the brain: resolving dendritic spine morphology and compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Max; Kusters, Remy; Wierenga, Corette J; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic spines are micron-sized protrusions that harbor the majority of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. The head of the spine is connected to the dendritic shaft by a 50-400 nm thin membrane tube, called the spine neck, which has been hypothesized to confine biochemical and electric signals within the spine compartment. Such compartmentalization could minimize interspinal crosstalk and thereby support spine-specific synapse plasticity. However, to what extent compartmentalization is governed by spine morphology, and in particular the diameter of the spine neck, has remained unresolved. Here, we review recent advances in tool development - both experimental and theoretical - that facilitate studying the role of the spine neck in compartmentalization. Special emphasis is given to recent advances in microscopy methods and quantitative modeling applications as we discuss compartmentalization of biochemical signals, membrane receptors and electrical signals in spines. Multidisciplinary approaches should help to answer how dendritic spine architecture affects the cellular and molecular processes required for synapse maintenance and modulation. PMID:25538570

  3. Extraspinal abnormalities identified on lumbar spine CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frager, D.H.; Elkin, C.M.; Kansler, F.; Mendelsohn, S.L.; Leeds, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    Retrospective review of 1517 lumbar CT examinations revealed extraspinal pathology in 22 (1.45%). Retroperitoneal tumors and lymphadenopathy as well as vascular, urinary tract and gynecologic abnormalities were identified. This study demonstrates the need to carefully evaluate the visualized portions of the abdomen and pelvis on all lumbar spine CT examinations even when the patient's symptomatology is suggestive of spinal abnormalities. (orig.).

  4. Supratentorial Intraparenchymal Haemorrhages during Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Chan, Johnny Ping Hon

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial haemorrhages are rare but potentially life-threatening complications of spine surgery. Most reported cases involved subdural or cerebellar haemorrhages; supratentorial parenchymal bleeding is very uncommon. We report a 28-year-old woman who underwent resection of a thoracic Ewing's sarcoma, and developed fatal haemorrhages around her cerebral metastases during surgery. The clinical presentations, possible pathogenesis and potential preventive measures are discussed. Patients with...

  5. Dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Balkan; Richter, Marcus; Huch, Klaus; Puhl, Wolfhart; Schmidt, René

    2006-08-01

    This study analyzed the outcome of patients treated with total disk replacement and posterior dynamic stabilization. For pathologies of different origin, dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine is a novel alternative to fusion surgery. Although a physiological reconstruction of the sagittal profile was not always achieved, improvement was seen in all subscales of the clinical outcome measures in both treatment groups. Posterior dynamic stabilization and total disk replacement are promising alternatives to fusion with acceptable morbidity for strictly defined indications. PMID:16924866

  6. Screening of the spine in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Degerfalk, Anna; Kentsdotter, Linn; Hestbaek, Lise

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on the reliability of clinical tests used for the spinal screening of children and adolescents is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability and measurement error of clinical tests commonly used when screening young spines. METHODS: Two experienced chiropractors independently assessed 111 adolescents aged 12-14 years who were recruited from a primary school in Denmark. A standardised examination protocol was used to test ...

  7. Imaging guideline 1: blunt cervical spine trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical question: when do patients with blunt cervical spine trauma need imaging and which imaging modality should be used first? Purpose and scope: to assist clinicians in determining (i) the requirement for imaging in patients with acute blunt neck trauma and (ii) whether computed tomography or plain radiography is the more appropriate first test in those patients who need imaging. The details of guideline development are described fully in reference. The risk of clinically significant cervical spine injury being present if all five National X-radiography Utilization Study Group (NEXUS) criteria are negative is less than 0.1% and it is appropriate that these patients be managed without imaging. In contrast, patients with head injury requiring CT scanning are at substantially increased risk of cervical spine injury. Hanson et al. have determined that it may be a cost-effective procedure to image this group of patients initially with helical CT instead of plain radiographs if a high-energy mechanism of trauma was involved. Coronal and sagittal reformatted images should be viewed with axial images in order to maximize detection of fracture and dislocation, especially if plain radiographs are omitted as the first step. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  8. Spine mineral change during osteoporosis therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, M.R.; Kolb, F.O.; Meier, K.A.; Schafer, S.A.

    1985-05-01

    Osteoporosis therapy has been handicapped by lack of means to quantitate the process. Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) offers accurate (4%) and precise (2%) estimation of lumbar spine mineral. The authors followed 42 osteoporotics to determine response to therapy. There were 17 patients with normal menopause (NM), 4 with surgical menopause (SM), 3 with premature menopause (PM), and 18 with idiopathic osteoporoses (10). Intervals between DPA spine mineral estimation were 16.5 +- 5.2 mo. for NM, 14.3 +- 8.4 mo. for SM, 14.0 +- 7.5 mo. for PM and 16.7 +- 5.8 mo. for 10. Observed average percent change of spine mineral under therapy for those intervals was 5.2 +- 7.9% for NM, +7.3 +- 1.7% for SM, -2.4 +- 6.3% for PM and +1.8 +- 12.3% for 10. Therapy invariably was with Ca, low dose Premarin in NM and PM, often with phosphates in IO, sometimes with thiazides, often with Vitamin D and with occasional other modalities, including NaF. The authors find DPA is a cost-effective way to measure osteopenia in the osteoporeses, document response to therapy, identify need for therapy change when there is continued bone loss under therapy, and to encourage the patient's compliance with long-term, complex therapies.

  9. Giant cell tumor of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Toshifumi; Liljenqvist, Ulf; Halm, Henry; Hillmann, Axel; Gosheger, Georg; Winkelmann, Winfried

    2002-08-01

    Six patients with giant cell tumor of the spine had surgery between 1981 and 1995. Three lesions were located in the scrum, two lesions were in the thoracic spine, and one lesion was in the lumbar spine. Preoperatively, all patients had local pain and neurologic symptoms. Two patients had cement implanted after curettage or intralesional excision of the sacral tumor; one patient had a local relapse. After the second curettage and cement implantation, the tumor was controlled. One patient with a sacral lesion had marginal excision and spondylodesis; no relapse developed. Two patients with thoracic lesions had planned marginal excision and spondylodesis; the margins finally became intralesional, but no relapse developed. One patient with a lumbar lesion had incomplete removal of the tumor and received postoperative irradiation. At the final followup (median, 69 months), five of six patients were disease-free and one patient died of disease progression. Two of the five surviving patients had pain after standing or neurologic problems. Although some contamination occurred, planning a marginal excision of the lesion seems beneficial for vertebral lesions above the sacrum. Total sacrectomy of a sacral lesion seems to be too invasive when cement implantation can control the lesion. PMID:12151896

  10. Sports-related injuries of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.)

  11. U-shaped Osteotomy Around the Descending Palatine Artery to Prevent Posterior Osseous Interference for Superior/Posterior Repositioning of the Maxilla in Le Fort I Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Susumu; Iwai, Toshinori; Honda, Koji; Shibutani, Naoki; Fujita, Koichi; Yamashita, Yosuke; Takasu, Hikaru; Murata, Shogo; Tohnai, Iwai

    2015-07-01

    In maxillary orthognathic surgery, superior repositioning of the maxilla is sometimes difficult, and removal of bony interference, especially around the descending palatine artery (DPA), is very time-consuming in cases of severe maxillary impaction. Posterior repositioning of the maxilla for removal of bony interference between the posterior maxilla and the pterygoid process is also technically difficult. Because the most common site of hemorrhage in Le Fort I osteotomy is the posterior maxilla, this bone removal is a source of frustration for surgeons in DPA injury. When the DPA is injured during bone removal and ligation is performed, aseptic necrosis of the maxilla may occur. Therefore, a simple and safe method for maxillary superior/posterior repositioning is required to remove osseous interference around the DPA. The authors describe here U-shaped osteotomy around the DPA to prevent posterior osseous interference for superior/posterior repositioning of the maxilla in Le Fort I osteotomy. PMID:26106994

  12. Repositioning the patient: patient organizations, consumerism, and autonomy in Britain during the 1960s and 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how and why the patient came to be repositioned as a political actor within British health care during the 1960s and 1970s. Focusing on the role played by patient organizations, it is suggested that the repositioning of the patient needs to be seen in the light of growing demands for greater patient autonomy and the application of consumerist principles to health. Examining the activities of two patient groups-the National Association for the Welfare of Children in Hospital (NAWCH) and the Patients Association (PA)-indicates that while such groups undoubtedly placed more emphasis on individual autonomy, collective concerns did not entirely fall away. The voices of patients, as well as the patient, continued to matter within British health care. PMID:23811711

  13. Room-temperature repositioning of individual C60 molecules at Cu steps: Operation of a molecular counting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuberes, M. T.; Schlittler, R. R.; Gimzewski, J. K.

    1996-11-01

    C60 molecules absorbed on a monoatomic Cu step have been reversibly repositioned at room temperature with the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope by performing controlled displacements along the step direction. We demonstrate the feasibility of building an abacus on the nanometer scale using single molecules as ``counters,'' Cu monoatomic steps as ``rods'' that constrain the molecular motion to one dimension, and the scanning tunneling microscope as an ``actuator'' for counting operations.

  14. Cervical spine models for biomechanical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjabi, M M

    1998-12-15

    Biomechanical models have been used for the understanding of the basic normal function and dysfunction of the cervical spine and for testing implants and devices. Biomechanical models can be broadly categorized into four groups: 1) Physical models, made of nonanatomic material (e.g., plastic blocks), are often used for the testing of spinal instrumentation when only the device is to be evaluated. 2) In vitro models consisting of a cadaveric spine specimen are useful in providing basic understanding of the functioning of the spine. Human specimens are more suitable for these models than are animal specimens whenever anatomy, size (for instrumentation), and kinematics are important. Animal specimens are less costly, easier to obtain, and often have less variability but should be used with care because of the absence of anatomic fidelity with the human. 3) In vivo animal models provide the means to model living phenomena, such as fusion, development of disc degeneration, instability, and adaptive responses in segments adjacent to spinal instrumentation. Choosing the appropriate animal is important. The appropriate animal should have spinal loading, kinematics, kinetics, vertebral size, and healing-fusion rates as similar to those in humans as possible. For better interpretation of in vivo animal experimental results, in vitro biomechanical study using the same animal cadaveric specimen is useful but has not been used routinely. 4) Computer models are developed from mathematical equations that incorporate geometry and physical characteristics of the human spine and may be advantageously used for problems that are difficult to model by other means. Examples are the changes in disc and vertebral stresses in response to graded transection of facet joints and the study of changes in endplate loading caused by disc degeneration. Because these models are purely mathematical, their validation is essential. Validation is best achieved by first incorporating high-quality geometry and physical characteristics of the human spine and then comparing the model predictions with experimental observations. Sometimes an enthusiastic researcher may use a computer model beyond its validation boundary, making the model's predictions unreliable. In general, it is important to remember that a biomechanical model, similar to any other model, represents only a certain aspect of the real living human being. The aspect chosen for representation should be selected with great care. The model should be designed to answer specifically the question asked. Its predictions are valid only within the boundaries of assumptions and limitations that it incorporates. PMID:9879095

  15. ApoE4 delays dendritic spine formation during neuron development and accelerates loss of mature spines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Nwabuisi?Heath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ?4 allele of the gene that encodes apolipoprotein E (APOE4 is the greatest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD, while APOE2 reduces AD risk, compared to APOE3. The mechanism(s underlying the effects of APOE on AD pathology remains unclear. In vivo, dendritic spine density is lower in APOE4-targeted replacement (APOE-TR mice compared with APOE2- and APOE3-TR mice. To investigate whether this apoE4-induced decrease in spine density results from alterations in the formation or the loss of dendritic spines, the effects of neuron age and apoE isoform on the total number and subclasses of spines were examined in long-term wild-type neurons co-cultured with glia from APOE2-, APOE3- and APOE4-TR mice. Dendritic spine density and maturation were evaluated by immunocytochemistry via the presence of drebrin (an actin-binding protein with GluN1 (NMDA receptor subunit and GluA2 (AMPA receptor subunit clusters. ApoE isoform effects were analyzed via a method previously established that identifies phases of spine formation (day-in-vitro, DIV10–18, maintenance (DIV18–21 and loss (DIV21–26. In the formation phase, apoE4 delayed total spine formation. During the maintenance phase, the density of GluN1+GluA2 spines did not change with apoE2, while the density of these spines decreased with apoE4 compared to apoE3, primarily due to the loss of GluA2 in spines. During the loss phase, total spine density was lower in neurons with apoE4 compared to apoE3. Thus, apoE4 delays total spine formation and may induce early synaptic dysfunction via impaired regulation of GluA2 in spines.

  16. A miRNA-driven inference model to construct potential drug-disease associations for drug repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hailin; Zhang, Zuping

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence discovered that the inappropriate expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) will lead to many kinds of complex diseases and drugs can regulate the expression level of miRNAs. Therefore human diseases may be treated by targeting some specific miRNAs with drugs, which provides a new perspective for drug repositioning. However, few studies have attempted to computationally predict associations between drugs and diseases via miRNAs for drug repositioning. In this paper, we developed an inference model to achieve this aim by combining experimentally supported drug-miRNA associations and miRNA-disease associations with the assumption that drugs will form associations with diseases when they share some significant miRNA partners. Experimental results showed excellent performance of our model. Case studies demonstrated that some of the strongly predicted drug-disease associations can be confirmed by the publicly accessible database CTD (www.ctdbase.org), which indicated the usefulness of our inference model. Moreover, candidate miRNAs as molecular hypotheses underpinning the associations were listed to guide future experiments. The predicted results were released for further studies. We expect that this study will provide help in our understanding of drug-disease association prediction and in the roles of miRNAs in drug repositioning. PMID:25789319

  17. Predictors of Success in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance: A Systematic Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda, Saffer; José Faibes Lubianca, Lubianca; Cassiano, Rösing; Caroline, Dias; Luciane, Closs.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects up to 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of adult women. It is associated with obesity. Objective The objective of this article is to review the literature to determine which factors best correlate with treatment success in patients with obstructive s [...] leep apnea syndrome treated with a mandibular repositioning appliance. Data Synthesis A search was performed of the PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scielo, and Web of Science databases of articles published from January 1988 to January 2012. Two review authors independently collected data and assessed trial quality. Sixty-nine articles were selected from PubMed and 1 from Cochrane library. Of these, 42 were excluded based on the title and abstract, and 27 were retrieved for complete reading. A total of 13 articles and 1 systematic review were considered eligible for further review and inclusion in this study: 6 studies evaluated anthropomorphic and physiologic factors, 3 articles addressed cephalometric and anatomic factors, and 4 studies evaluated variables related to mandibular repositioning appliance design and activation. All the studies evaluated had low to moderate methodologic quality and were not able to support evidence on prediction of treatment success. Conclusion Based on this systematic review on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treatment, it remains unclear which predictive factors can be used with confidence to select patients suitable for treatment with a mandibular repositioning appliance.

  18. Target and peripheral dose from radiation sector motions accompanying couch repositioning of patient coordinates with the Gamma Knife® Perfexion™

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GammaPlan™ treatment planning system (TPS) does not fully account for shutter dose when multiple shots are required to deliver a patient’s treatment. The unaccounted exposures to the target site and its periphery are measured in this study. The collected data are compared to a similar effect from the Gamma Knife® model 4C. A stereotactic head frame was attached to a Leksell® 16 cm diameter spherical phantom; using a fiducial-box, CT images of the phantom were acquired and registered in the TPS. Measurements give the relationship of measured dose to the number of repositions with the patient positioning system (PPS) and to the collimator size. An absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the 50% isodose line was prescribed to the target site and all measurements were acquired with an ionization chamber. Measured dose increases with frequency of repositioning and with collimator size. As the radiation sectors transition between the beam on and beam off states, the target receives more shutter dose than the periphery. Shutter doses of 3.53±0.04 and 1.59±0.04 cGy/reposition to the target site are observed for the 16 and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The target periphery receives additional dose that varies depending on its position relative to the target. The radiation sector motions for the Gamma Knife® Perfexion™ result in an additional dose due to the shutter effect. The magnitude of this exposure is comparable to that measured for the model 4C

  19. Repositioning the use of the Bible towards a mission-oriented theological education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adekunle O., Dada.

    Full Text Available It is an undeniable fact that mission remains the cardinal essence of the Church. However, in Africa and in Nigeria, the Church seems to have lost focus regarding the main reason for its existence, namely mission. One of the factors responsible for this may be the form of theological education in vo [...] gue. In view of this anomaly, this paper reflects on how the study of the Bible, which serves as the primary basis for theological education in some institutions, can be repositioned to enhance a mission-oriented theological education. The importance of proper interpretation of the Bible in enhancing missions can be premised on the fact that a sound biblical hermeneutics is prerequisite to the formulation of an effective and functional theology of missions. If our theology of mission is faulty, the practice cannot be anything but flawed. In view of this, the paper explores ways in which the Bible can be meaningfully studied in order to promote a mission-oriented theological education.

  20. Posture and re-positioning considerations of a complete torso topographic analysis system for assessing scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajemba, Peter O.; Durdle, Nelson G.; Hill, Doug L.; Raso, V. J.

    2006-02-01

    The influence of posture and re-positioning (sway and breathing) on the accuracy of a torso imaging system for assessing scoliosis was evaluated. The system comprised of a rotating positioning platform and one or two laser digitizers. It required four partial-scans taken at 90 ° intervals over 10 seconds to generate two complete torso scans. Its accuracy was previously determined to be 1.1+/-0.9mm. Ten evenly spaced cross-sections obtained from forty scans of five volunteers in four postures (free-standing, holding side supports, holding front supports and with their hands on their shoulders) were used to assess the variability due to posture. Twenty cross-sections from twenty scans of two volunteers holding side supports were used to assess the variability due to positioning. The variability due to posture was less than 4mm at each cross-section for all volunteers. Variability due to sway ranged from 0-3.5mm while that due to breathing ranged from 0-3mm for both volunteers. Holding side supports was the best posture. Taking the four shots within 10 seconds was optimal. As major torso features that are indicative of scoliosis are larger than 4mm in size, the system could be used in obtaining complete torso images used in assessing and managing scoliosis.

  1. The Effectiveness of a Modified Type of the Mandibular Repositioning Device on the Elimination of Snoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ebadian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Snoring is the most common sleep disorder which in itself may only be viewed as an obnoxious disturbance in human society; however it must be considered a potential indicator of significant medical problems such as: hypertension,obstructive sleep apnea, cerebrovascular infarction and ischemic heart disease.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified type of Mandibular Repositioning Device (MRD splint on the treatment of snoring.Materials and Methods: This before and after interventional study was carried out on 15 patients (4 females and 11 males who suffered from snoring. All subjects had no upper airway obstruction. Maxillary and mandibular splints were made by clear heatcuredacrylic resin. A special screw connected to the anterior portion of the maxillary splint and an orthodontic wire No 1 positioned on the lower splint. The devices were tried in the mouth and relined with a softliner. This appliance was designed to protrude the mandible by use of a screw system. Snoring grades were detemined before, and 3weeks after treatment with the MRD. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test.Results: A significant difference was observed between the snoring severity, before and after using the splints (P = 0.001.Conclusion: The present study showed this modified type of splint can be effective in decreasing or eliminating snoring. The effectiveness of the splint in the treatment of snoring could be related to its role of widening the upper airway.

  2. Argus II retinal prosthesis malrotation and repositioning with intraoperative optical coherence tomography in a posterior staphyloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seider MI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael I Seider, Paul Hahn Duke University Eye Center, Durham, NC, USA Introduction: The Argus II retinal prosthesis may improve visual function in patients with severe vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa. Optimal centration of the electrode array over the macula is important to achieve optimal visual results. Argus tack malrotation is a novel entity that may be encountered during placement, especially in patients with posterior staphyloma.Methods: Retrospective case review.Results: During tacking of the electronics array a clockwise rotation occurred resulting in malposition. We hypothesize this was secondary to undue rotation or posterior pressure applied during tack insertion in conjunction with placement over a previously unrecognized posterior staphyloma. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography, because of the cross-sectional images provided, was helpful in visualizing the distance between the electronics array and the retina, which was difficult to assess using the surgical microscope alone. Repositioning was achieved by adjusting the tack without removal. The patient experienced an improvement in vision as a result of the surgery.Conclusion: Malrotation may occur when tacking the Argus II prosthesis, and the presence of a posterior staphyloma may increase this risk. It is important to differentiate malrotation from tack misplacement – the former may be addressed with array unrotation or partial tack withdrawal and the latter may require tack removal and reinsertion. Also, intraoperative optical coherence tomography may be helpful in characterizing electronics array position during surgery. Keywords: Argus, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal tack

  3. From periphery to the centre: Towards repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to public health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of communities in health care has gained prominence in the last few years. Churches as community structures have been identified as instrumental in health-care delivery. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that churches provide important health services, particularly in countries where there are poorly-developed health sectors, the role of churches in health care is poorly understood and often overlooked. This article discusses some causes of this lacuna and makes suggestions for repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to health care. Firstly, the article provides a context by reviewing literature on the church and health care. Secondly, it clarifies the nature of interventions and the competencies of churches. Thirdly, it discusses the operational meaning of church and churches for assessing health-care contributions. Fourthly, it explores the health-care models that are discerned in church and health-care literature. Fifthly, it discusses the contribution of churches within a multidisciplinary health team. Sixthly, it proposes an appropriate motivation that should drive churches to be involved in health care and the ecclesiological design that underpins such health care interventions.

  4. Reubicación del ombligo al realizar un colgajo TRAM / Umbillical repositioning in TRAM flap

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Fuente del Campo; T., Raveh; C.B., Gordon.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Describimos un método simple para reubicar el ombligo en los casos de plicatura abdominal unilateral consecutiva a la rotación de un colgajo TRAM. El ombligo se desplaza a lo largo de una incisión hecha en la aponeurosis anterior del músculo recto abdominal contralateral. Este procedimiento no debil [...] ita la musculatura abdominal contralateral, mantiene el ombligo estable, sin estenosis, y evita la formación de cicatrices hipertróficas a su alrededor. Tras este procedimiento los pacientes conservan una resistencia abdominal normal, pudiendo realizar esfuerzo y ejercicio sin manifestar áreas de debilidad. Abstract in english A new method of umbilical repositioning by incising the anterior rectus sheath and rectus abdominis muscle is reported for cases of unilateral abdominal wall plication during the TRAM flap operation. This method does not weaken the contralateral abdominal muscles, keeps the umbilicus stable and nons [...] tenotic, and it avoids hypertrophic scars. With this technique, patients have normal abdominal strength, performing abdominal strain and general exercise without areas of weakness in the abdominal wall.

  5. Repositioning the use of the Bible towards a mission-oriented theological education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle O. Dada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is an undeniable fact that mission remains the cardinal essence of the Church. However, in Africa and in Nigeria, the Church seems to have lost focus regarding the main reason for its existence, namely mission. One of the factors responsible for this may be the form of theological education in vogue. In view of this anomaly, this paper reflects on how the study of the Bible, which serves as the primary basis for theological education in some institutions, can be repositioned to enhance a mission-oriented theological education. The importance of proper interpretation of the Bible in enhancing missions can be premised on the fact that a sound biblical hermeneutics is prerequisite to the formulation of an effective and functional theology of missions. If our theology of mission is faulty, the practice cannot be anything but flawed. In view of this, the paper explores ways in which the Bible can be meaningfully studied in order to promote a mission-oriented theological education.

  6. Cheaper faster drug development validated by the repositioning of drugs against neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kevin; Bilsland, Elizabeth; Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Young, Michael; Soldatova, Larisa N; De Grave, Kurt; Ramon, Jan; de Clare, Michaela; Sirawaraporn, Worachart; Oliver, Stephen G; King, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent need to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. This will enable the development of treatments for diseases currently neglected for economic reasons, such as tropical and orphan diseases, and generally increase the supply of new drugs. Here, we report the Robot Scientist 'Eve' designed to make drug discovery more economical. A Robot Scientist is a laboratory automation system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to discover scientific knowledge through cycles of experimentation. Eve integrates and automates library-screening, hit-confirmation, and lead generation through cycles of quantitative structure activity relationship learning and testing. Using econometric modelling we demonstrate that the use of AI to select compounds economically outperforms standard drug screening. For further efficiency Eve uses a standardized form of assay to compute Boolean functions of compound properties. These assays can be quickly and cheaply engineered using synthetic biology, enabling more targets to be assayed for a given budget. Eve has repositioned several drugs against specific targets in parasites that cause tropical diseases. One validated discovery is that the anti-cancer compound TNP-470 is a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase from the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium vivax. PMID:25652463

  7. Drug Repositioning and Pharmacophore Identification in the Discovery of Hookworm MIF Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Cho; J Vermeire; J Merkel; L Leng; X Du; R Bucala; M Cappello; E Lolis

    2011-12-31

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a 'proof-of-concept' for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

  8. Variables Affecting Canalith Repositioning Maneuver (CRM Trend for Treating Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Entezari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to identify variables affecting outcome in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV treated with canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM. Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 58 patients (14 males, 44 females, mean age 48.12+13.22 referred to the Vertigo Rehabilitation Clinic of the Rehabilitation School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from 2002 to 2004. All patients were treated with CRM. According to the treatment efficacy the patients were allocated in three groups: completely treated, partially treated, and not treated. The effect of factors including age, sex, etiology, duration of BPPV, unilateral or bilateral disease, number of maneuvers, and number of sessions on outcome in patients was evaluated. Results: Forty-nine patients (84.5% were completely cured. Age, sex, etiology, and duration did not significantly affect the treatment outcome. Unilateral BPPV can be treated significantly better than bilateral BPPV. Forty-seven patients who were completely treated needed 1 session and thirty-seven of them required 2 maneuvers. Conclusion: CRM is significantly effective for BPPV treatment. Treating unilateral BPPV is expected to be easier. As most of the patients will be cured by 1 or 2 maneuvers or in 1 session, patients who required more sessions or more maneuvers may not be completely treated.

  9. Argus II retinal prosthesis malrotation and repositioning with intraoperative optical coherence tomography in a posterior staphyloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Michael I; Hahn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Argus II retinal prosthesis may improve visual function in patients with severe vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa. Optimal centration of the electrode array over the macula is important to achieve optimal visual results. Argus tack malrotation is a novel entity that may be encountered during placement, especially in patients with posterior staphyloma. Methods Retrospective case review. Results During tacking of the electronics array a clockwise rotation occurred resulting in malposition. We hypothesize this was secondary to undue rotation or posterior pressure applied during tack insertion in conjunction with placement over a previously unrecognized posterior staphyloma. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography, because of the cross-sectional images provided, was helpful in visualizing the distance between the electronics array and the retina, which was difficult to assess using the surgical microscope alone. Repositioning was achieved by adjusting the tack without removal. The patient experienced an improvement in vision as a result of the surgery. Conclusion Malrotation may occur when tacking the Argus II prosthesis, and the presence of a posterior staphyloma may increase this risk. It is important to differentiate malrotation from tack misplacement – the former may be addressed with array unrotation or partial tack withdrawal and the latter may require tack removal and reinsertion. Also, intraoperative optical coherence tomography may be helpful in characterizing electronics array position during surgery. PMID:26648688

  10. Inversion of dynamically repositioned multi-axis electromagnetic data for ordnance characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keranen, Joe; Shubitidze, Fridon; Besaw, Lance; Casari, Matthew J.; Miller, Jonathan; Schultz, Gregory

    2011-06-01

    The challenges associated with removing UXO and explosive remnants of war have led to a variety of methods for detection and discrimination of buried metallic objects using time-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI). Recent work has shown that parameters recovered from physics-based inversions can discriminate and classify buried ordnance from non-ordnance. We present results of applying advanced processing to data from a dynamically repositioned multiaxis EMI instrument. Data are collected using an adaptive sampling process to find the center of the anomaly and collect minimal data while maintaining model fidelity. An ortho-normalized volume magnetic source (ONVMS) model is used to resolve various targets at different depths. The ONVMS model is a generalized volume dipole model, with the single dipole model being a special limiting case. Using the ONVMS model, an object's response to a sensor's primary magnetic field is modeled mathematically by a set of equivalent magnetic dipoles distributed inside a volume containing the object. We assess the utility and veracity of the dynamic sampling strategy coupled with the ONVMS model on data acquired over a set of calibration and simulant targets. Rapid target characterization codes are aggregated into a software package with particular focus on ease of use for non-expert users.

  11. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars. PMID:26309385

  12. Paget's disease of the spine: Unusual features and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paget's disease of bone is a common disorder, with the spine being involved in over 50% of cases. This pictorial review illustrates unusual features and complications of the disease as related to the spine. Unusual features include location in the atlanto-axial region, lytic vertebral Paget's disease and Pagetic ankylosis. Complications related to the spine are mainly neurological due to spinal stenosis, compression fractures and sarcomatous degeneration

  13. The illness trajectory experienced by patients having spine fusion surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long and uncoordinated trajectories. The patients describe a feeling of being mistrusted and thrown around in the system. It is the aim of this study to examine how spine fusion patients experience their illness trajectory and hospitalisati...

  14. Imaging of primary bone tumors of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevelegas, Antonios; Sofroniadis, Ioannis [Ahepa University Hospital, S. Kyraikidi 1, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chourmouzi, Danai; Boulogianni, Glikeria [Asklipios Aristotelio Diagnostic Center, Papanastasiou 207, 54236 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2003-08-01

    Primary tumors of the spine are relatively infrequent lesions compared with metastatic disease, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. A wide variety of benign and malignant neoplasms can involve the spine. The imaging features of these lesions are often characteristic. We present an overview of the imaging modalities in primary tumors of the spine in order to provide a useful tool in current radiologic practice. The role of CT and MRI is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Helical tomotherapy for spine oligometastases from gastrointestinal malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yunseon; Kim, Jun Won; Lee, Ik Jae; Han, Hee Ji; Baek, Jonggeal; Seong, Jinsil

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the treatment effectiveness and proper radiation dose of helical tomotherapy (HT) in spine oligometastases from gastrointestinal cancers. Materials and Methods From 2006 to 2010, 20 gastrointestinal cancer patients were treated with HT for spine oligometastases (31 spine lesions). The gross tumor volume (GTV) was the tumor evident from magnetic resonance imaging images fused with simulation computed tomography images. Clinical target volume (CTV) encompassed invol...

  16. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm2 in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm2 and 0.765g/cm2. Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures

  17. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-salem (United States)

    2001-04-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm{sup 2} in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm{sup 2} and 0.765g/cm{sup 2}. Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures.

  18. Percutaneous spine injection: considerations for improving treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, In Sook; Choi, Jung Ah; Yoon, Chang Jin; Hwang, Sung Il; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Young Hwan; Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    To discuss the causes of treatment failure in percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radiculopathy by analyzing patients who have experienced negative treatment effect on their first visit and a positive treatment effect on their second visit. The authors reviewed the cases of 24 patients who visited the pain intervention outpatient department in our hospital due to back pain or radiculopathy. All patients reviewed experienced a negative treatment effect following their first spine injection, but a positive treatment effect following the second injection. The dates of the cases range from June 2003 to May 2004. Two radiologists analyzed the possible causes of the negative treatment effect following the first injection therapies by considering clinical aspects as well as reviewing radiological images. The most common condition was the presence of the change in the level of the second selective nerve root block (n=13). In seven cases, the methods for administering the injections were changed to facet block (n=2), midline epidural block (n=1), selective nerve root block (n=3) and caudal epidural block (n=1). In four cases, there were no changes in the methods for administering the injections nor were there any changes in the level of the selective nerve root block between first and second visit. In those cases, after reviewing spot radiographs performed during injection, we attributed the causes of failure of injection therapy to an inappropriate distribution of drugs. We can improve the effect of percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radioculopathy by determining the exact level of perineural root block, trying alternative methods, and insuring a good distribution of the injected drugs.

  19. Percutaneous spine injection: considerations for improving treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To discuss the causes of treatment failure in percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radiculopathy by analyzing patients who have experienced negative treatment effect on their first visit and a positive treatment effect on their second visit. The authors reviewed the cases of 24 patients who visited the pain intervention outpatient department in our hospital due to back pain or radiculopathy. All patients reviewed experienced a negative treatment effect following their first spine injection, but a positive treatment effect following the second injection. The dates of the cases range from June 2003 to May 2004. Two radiologists analyzed the possible causes of the negative treatment effect following the first injection therapies by considering clinical aspects as well as reviewing radiological images. The most common condition was the presence of the change in the level of the second selective nerve root block (n=13). In seven cases, the methods for administering the injections were changed to facet block (n=2), midline epidural block (n=1), selective nerve root block (n=3) and caudal epidural block (n=1). In four cases, there were no changes in the methods for administering the injections nor were there any changes in the level of the selective nerve root block between first and second visit. In those cases, after reviewing spot radiographs performed during injection, we attributed the causes of failure of injection therapy to an inappropriate distribution of drugs. We can improve the effect of percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radioculopathy by determining the exact level of perineural root block, trying alternative methods, and insuring a good distribution of the injected drugs

  20. Traumatic thoracolumbar spine injuries: what the spine surgeon wants to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Bharti; Sheehan, Scott E; Sodickson, Aaron; Bono, Christopher M; Harris, Mitchel B

    2013-01-01

    The Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) is a scoring and classification system developed by the Spine Trauma Study Group in response to the recognition that previous classification systems have limited prognostic value and generally do not suggest treatment pathways. The TLICS provides a spine injury severity score based on three components: injury morphology, integrity of the posterior ligamentous complex (PLC), and neurologic status of the patient. A numerical score is calculated for each category, with a lower point value assigned to a less severe or less urgent injury and a higher point value assigned to a more severe injury requiring urgent management. The total score helps guide decision making about surgical versus nonsurgical management. The TLICS also emphasizes the importance of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating PLC injury and acknowledges that the primary driver of surgical intervention is the patient's neurologic status. Knowledge of PLC anatomy and its significance is essential in recognizing unstable injuries. Signs of PLC injury at computed tomography include interspinous distance widening, facet joint widening, spinous process fracture, and vertebral subluxation or dislocation. Familiarity with the TLICS will help radiologists who interpret spine trauma imaging studies to effectively communicate findings to spine trauma surgeons. The complete article is available online . PMID:24224597

  1. 78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits... (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. During the comment... forms of information technology. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: (Neck (Cervical Spine)...

  2. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire... oira_submission@omb.eop.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-- NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine...- ] NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY...

  3. Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    non-responses, it was decided to change question semantics and response options. Conclusion The Young Spine Questionnaire is a novel self-report measure of spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for understanding of content among target respondents, and the results showed...... during two pilot tests. In the first pilot test 52 4th grade children filled in the draft version of the YSQ. This was followed by a semi-structured interview two days later designed to obtain the same information as contained in the YSQ, however, using different semantics and open-ended questions. The...

  4. Surgical Site Infections After Pediatric Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floccari, Lorena V; Milbrandt, Todd A

    2016-04-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) after spinal deformity surgery is a complication in the pediatric population resulting in high morbidity and cost. Despite modern surgical techniques and preventative strategies, the incidence remains substantial, especially in the neuromuscular population. This review focuses on recent advancements in identification of risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment strategies for acute and delayed pediatric spine infections. It reviews recent literature, including the best practice guidelines for infection prevention in high-risk patients. Targets of additional research are highlighted to assess efficacy of current practices to further reduce risk of SSI in pediatric patients with spinal deformity. PMID:26772947

  5. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  6. MR of the postoperative lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, 40 patients who had undergone disc surgery were examined by high resolution CT and MR for possible recurrence of the disc prolapse and the results are compared. It appears that high resolution spinal MR, using its various tissue parameters provides no new insights into possible recurrence of a disc prolapse. As in the case with CT, the investigator must also evaluate other morphological and clinical factors. In spite of this, MR can be useful in the investigation of abnormal spines. (orig.)

  7. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Koh, Yoon-Woo [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Kim, Hee-Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jung-Mi [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  8. Subliminal Reorientation and Repositioning in Immersive Virtual Environments using Saccadic Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Benjamin; Lappe, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Virtual reality strives to provide a user with an experience of a simulated world that feels as natural as the real world. Yet, to induce this feeling, sometimes it becomes necessary for technical reasons to deviate from a one-to-one correspondence between the real and the virtual world, and to reorient or reposition the user's viewpoint. Ideally, users should not notice the change of the viewpoint to avoid breaks in perceptual continuity. Saccades, the fast eye movements that we make in order to switch gaze from one object to another, produce a visual discontinuity on the retina, but this is not perceived because the visual system suppresses perception during saccades. As a consequence, our perception fails to detect rotations of the visual scene during saccades. We investigated whether saccadic suppression of image displacement (SSID) can be used in an immersive virtual environment (VE) to unconsciously rotate and translate the observer's viewpoint. To do this, the scene changes have to be precisely time-locked to the saccade onset. We used electrooculography (EOG) for eye movement tracking and assessed the performance of two modified eye movement classification algorithms for the challenging task of online saccade detection that is fast enough for SSID. We investigated the sensitivity of participants to translations (forward/backward) and rotations (in the transverse plane) during trans-saccadic scene changes. We found that participants were unable to detect approximately ±0.5m translations along the line of gaze and ±5° rotations in the transverse plane during saccades with an amplitude of 15°. If the user stands still, our approach exploiting SSID thus provides the means to unconsciously change the user's virtual position and/or orientation. For future research and applications, exploiting SSID has the potential to improve existing redirected walking and change blindness techniques for unlimited navigation through arbitrarily-sized VEs by real walking. PMID:26357105

  9. Nucleosome repositioning links DNA (de)methylation and differential CTCF binding during stem cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teif, Vladimir B; Beshnova, Daria A; Vainshtein, Yevhen; Marth, Caroline; Mallm, Jan-Philipp; Höfer, Thomas; Rippe, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    During differentiation of embryonic stem cells, chromatin reorganizes to establish cell type-specific expression programs. Here, we have dissected the linkages between DNA methylation (5mC), hydroxymethylation (5hmC), nucleosome repositioning, and binding of the transcription factor CTCF during this process. By integrating MNase-seq and ChIP-seq experiments in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and their differentiated counterparts with biophysical modeling, we found that the interplay between these factors depends on their genomic context. The mostly unmethylated CpG islands have reduced nucleosome occupancy and are enriched in cell type-independent binding sites for CTCF. The few remaining methylated CpG dinucleotides are preferentially associated with nucleosomes. In contrast, outside of CpG islands most CpGs are methylated, and the average methylation density oscillates so that it is highest in the linker region between nucleosomes. Outside CpG islands, binding of TET1, an enzyme that converts 5mC to 5hmC, is associated with labile, MNase-sensitive nucleosomes. Such nucleosomes are poised for eviction in ESCs and become stably bound in differentiated cells where the TET1 and 5hmC levels go down. This process regulates a class of CTCF binding sites outside CpG islands that are occupied by CTCF in ESCs but lose the protein during differentiation. We rationalize this cell type-dependent targeting of CTCF with a quantitative biophysical model of competitive binding with the histone octamer, depending on the TET1, 5hmC, and 5mC state. PMID:24812327

  10. Automated 4D analysis of dendritic spine morphology: applications to stimulus-induced spine remodeling and pharmacological rescue in a disease model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanger Sharon A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncovering the mechanisms that regulate dendritic spine morphology has been limited, in part, by the lack of efficient and unbiased methods for analyzing spines. Here, we describe an automated 3D spine morphometry method and its application to spine remodeling in live neurons and spine abnormalities in a disease model. We anticipate that this approach will advance studies of synapse structure and function in brain development, plasticity, and disease.

  11. Operative stabilization of the cervical spine in cases of metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of intraspinal space requirement or instability of the cervical spine, metastases may lead to a compression of the spinal cord and/or the nerve roots. Early decompression and stabilization prevents unavoidable tetraparesis. In most cases quality of life can be maintained. The indication and methodology of cervical spine stabilization as well as the results of treatment in 18 patients are demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. The Robotic Lumbar Spine: Dynamics and Feedback Linearization Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadogan, Ernur; Williams, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The robotic lumbar spine (RLS) is a 15 degree-of-freedom, fully cable-actuated robotic lumbar spine which can mimic in vivo human lumbar spine movements to provide better hands-on training for medical students. The design incorporates five active lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum, with dimensions of an average adult human spine. It is actuated by 20 cables connected to electric motors. Every vertebra is connected to the neighboring vertebrae by spherical joints. Medical schools can benefit from a tool, system, or method that will help instructors train students and assess their tactile proficiency throughout their education. The robotic lumbar spine has the potential to satisfy these needs in palpatory diagnosis. Medical students will be given the opportunity to examine their own patient that can be programmed with many dysfunctions related to the lumbar spine before they start their professional lives as doctors. The robotic lumbar spine can be used to teach and test medical students in their capacity to be able to recognize normal and abnormal movement patterns of the human lumbar spine under flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial torsion. This paper presents the dynamics and nonlinear control of the RLS. A new approach to solve for positive and nonzero cable tensions that are also continuous in time is introduced. PMID:24151527

  13. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the spine: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a synovial lesion of joints or tendon sheaths, characterized by villous and nodular overgrowth of the synovial membrane. It commonly occurs in synovial joints of the appendicular skeleton, particularly those of the knee and hip, but rarely affecting those of the spine. We report a case of PVNS of the lumbar spine mimicking epidural mass

  14. Micromechanics of Minor Cervical Spine Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Peter F.; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H.; Walz, Felix H.

    Minor soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine are of increasing significance in public health. They may in particular be associated with long-term impairment. Such injuries are observed primarily in rear-end automobile collisions at low impact speeds and are attributed to a “whiplash”-type event. The question with respect to injury mechanisms of the cervical spine in cases of impacts of a low severity have raised controversial views in the past. Among proposed injury mechanisms, interactions between fluid and solid structures have been postulated: Viscous shear stresses or pressure gradients which arise in the deforming anatomical structures may have an adverse influence, e. g., on cellular membranes. In this communication, mathematical modeling approaches are presented which allow for a quantification of fluid/solid interactions under typical loading conditions of interest here. It is found, that the shear stresses caused by fluids and acting on accelerated surfaces of fluid-filled bodies depend largely on the size of the fluid space under consideration. Accelerations exhibit a stronger influence than their duration. It cannot be excluded that critical levels are reached even in a low speed impact scenario.

  15. [Imaging strategy for cervical spine injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbeaux, Patrick; Portier, François

    2003-12-13

    MAKING THE DIAGNOSIS: Exploration strategies when faced with a suspected spine injury have improved with the recent development of new imaging techniques (notably the helical CT scan). A selection must be made between the techniques available in order to optimise diagnostic habits. THE FUNDAMENTAL POINTS: The clinical examination identifies the small group of patients that does not require radiographic exploration. When cervical lesions exist, they are often multiple and layered. This justifies the fact that, if an exploration of the cervical spine is proposed, it should be complete and include the upper and lower hinges. The quality of the standard images (face, profile, mouth open) varies greatly. Their negative quality and predictive value decreases when the severity of the injury increases. PARTICULAR EXAMINATIONS: Scanning is the most efficient technique for not only detecting but also formally eliminating an injury. Its indications should therefore be extended but also limited to a selected population. The MRI is currently a second line examination, indicated for any suspicion of a neurological lesion, notably of the bone marrow. Lesions of the ligaments are often missed and should be systematically searched for using dynamic imaging. These can be done at distance from the injury. PMID:14713882

  16. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine

  17. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements

  18. Strategic positioning and repositioning of oil companies in the upstream business: understanding the historical evolution of firms' strategic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second article of a series whose objective is to use the analytical framework proposed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, to study the global oil competition game and the competitive advantages of oil companies. The paper focuses on the historical changes in the positioning and behavior of various actors in the upstream oil industry. The authors start by describing the main oil actors and their initial strategic positioning before 1973. Then, the changes and the firm's strategic repositioning during the oil crisis in the 1970's and 1980's are analyzed. (author)

  19. Self-repositioning of an embolized patent ductus arteriosus device--a nightmare turned into sweet dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Venkateshwaran; Kavassery Mahadevan, Krishnamoorthy; Sivasubramonian, Sivasankaran

    2015-05-01

    A 7-month-old boy was admitted for the device closure of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with moderate pulmonary hypertension. The PDA measured 4.2 mm with adequate ampulla. It was closed with an 8-6 mm Heart R device from pulmonary artery (PA) end. Post extubation, the device embolized to proximal descending thoracic aorta just distal to PDA ampulla. While attempting to snare from the venous side, the device self-repositioned to PDA. It was stable thereafter and patient was discharged after 2 days. We report a complication, which got self-corrected. PMID:25381681

  20. Dosimetric implications of changes in patient repositioning and organ motion in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the influence of patient repositioning and organ motion on dose distribution within the prostate and the seminal vesicles (clinical target volume, (CTV)). Material and methods: Nine patients were simulated and treated in the supine position, with an empty bladder, and without immobilization devices. While on treatment, patients underwent weekly pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans under conditions identical to those at simulation. Patients were aligned using lasers on anterior and lateral skin tattoos, onto which lead markers were placed. After each CT scan (n=53) the CTV was redefined by contouring, and a new isocenter was obtained. A six-field technique was used. The field margins around the CTV were 20 mm in the cranio-caudal axis, and 13 mm in the other axes, except in the lateral fields where a 10 mm posterior margin was used. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for each organ were compared with those determined at simulation, using the notion of the proportional change in the area under the CTV-DVH curve resulting from a change in treatment plan (cDVH). Results: The reproducibility of the dose distribution was good for the prostate (%cDVH, mean±SD: -0.97±2.11%) and less than optimal for the seminal vesicles (%cDVH, mean±SD: -4.66±10.45%). When correlating prostate %cDVH variations with displacements of the isocenter in the Y axis (antero-posterior) the %cDVH exceeded (-)5% in only two dosimetries, both with an isocenter shift of >10 mm. For the seminal vesicles, however, ten out of 53 dosimetries showed a %cDVH exceeding (-) 5%. In nine of these ten dose distribution studies the posterior shift of the isocenter exceeded 8 mm. Conclusions: Precise targeting of prostate radiotherapy is primarily dependent on careful daily set-up and on random changes in rectal geometry. Margins no less than 10 mm around the prostate and at least 15 mm around the seminal vesicles are probably necessary to insure adequate target coverage with a six-field technique

  1. [Results of using Spine Assist Mazor in surgical treatment of spine disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreval', O N; Rynkov, I P; Kasparova, K A; Bruskin, A; Aleksandrovski?, V; Zil'bernshte?n, V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the possibility of using a bone-mounted miniature robot based on the experience of different surgeries performed in 77 patients divided into four groups according to the general pathology (degenerative stenosis of the vertebral canal, fractures of vertebral bodies, spondylolisthesis, hemangiomas, and tumors). All the patients underwent surgical intervention using Spine Assist Mazor, such as stabilization using the Go-Lif system, transpedicular systems, vertebroplasty, and vertebral body biopsy. The new method and the technology of stabilizing surgeries using Spine Assist Mazor allow one to perform preoperative virtual planning based on CT images and to identify an ideal and safe trajectory of placing screws or needles for vertebroplasty or biopsy. PMID:25146652

  2. Insufficient pain management after spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Dahl, Jørgen Berg; Mathiesen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A prospective observational quality assurance study was performed at Glostrup Hospital, Denmark, to describe patients undergoing spine surgery with regard to perioperative analgesic management, post-operative pain, opioid consumption and side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... experienced acceptable pain levels, but instrumented lumbar fusion leads to moderate to severe pain levels and a relatively high opioid consumption. The scheduled standard pain management protocols were sparsely followed. Challenges exist in post-operative pain management as observed in previous surveys...... generally experienced VAS ≤ 3. For instrumented lumbar fusion, the total 0-24 h consumption of intravenous morphine equivalents was 39.1 (27.5-62.7) mg. Only eight of 87 patients received the entire scheduled standard post-operative pain treatment. Adverse events were rare. CONCLUSION: Most patients...

  3. Giant cells reparative granuloma of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG), was first described by Jaffe in 1953, which found it to be clinically and histopathologically different from the giant cell tumor. The GCRG accounts for 1.0 % of the osseous tumoral lesions, is more frequently found in females (68%) and in patients less than 30 years old (74%). It was believed that it only affected the jaw; it has been reported compromising other locations including the spine (7 cases). We report a case affecting the vertebral bodies of C2-C3 in a 10 years old, female patient, who was studied by plain film and MRI. The histological diagnosis was established at surgery, this report is the first one described in a cervical location and the second studied by MRI

  4. NMR in the SPINE Structural Proteomics project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab, E; Atkinson, A R; Banci, L; Bertini, I; Ciofi-Baffoni, S; Brunner, K; Diercks, T; Dötsch, V; Engelke, F; Folkers, G E; Griesinger, C; Gronwald, W; Günther, U; Habeck, M; de Jong, R N; Kalbitzer, H R; Kieffer, B; Leeflang, B R; Loss, S; Luchinat, C; Marquardsen, T; Moskau, D; Neidig, K P; Nilges, M; Piccioli, M; Pierattelli, R; Rieping, W; Schippmann, T; Schwalbe, H; Travé, G; Trenner, J; Wöhnert, J; Zweckstetter, M; Kaptein, R

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the developments, role and contributions of the NMR spectroscopy groups in the Structural Proteomics In Europe (SPINE) consortium. Focusing on the development of high-throughput (HTP) pipelines for NMR structure determinations of proteins, all aspects from sample preparation, data acquisition, data processing, data analysis to structure determination have been improved with respect to sensitivity, automation, speed, robustness and validation. Specific highlights are protonless (13)C-direct detection methods and inferential structure determinations (ISD). In addition to technological improvements, these methods have been applied to deliver over 60 NMR structures of proteins, among which are five that failed to crystallize. The inclusion of NMR spectroscopy in structural proteomics pipelines improves the success rate for protein structure determinations. PMID:17001092

  5. Congenital anomalies of the spine: radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital anomalies of the spine are frequent and variable. Some are restricted to skeletal structures, while others involve combine neural tube defects or are associated with other multi-systemic disorders. Structural spinal anomalies can be classified according to their location: 1) the vertebral body, 2) the articular process, 3) the lamina with spinous process, 4) the pars interarticularis, 5) the facet joint, 6) the pedicle, or 7) other. Because of similarities between these congenital anomalies and (a) secondary changes involving infection or joint disease and (b) deformities resulting from trauma and uncertain tumorous conditions, significant confusion can occur during diagnosis. Moreover, since the anomalies often give rise to both functional impairment and cosmetic problem, appropriate treatment relies crucially on accurate diagnosis. The authors illustrate the pathogenesis and radiologic findings of the relatively common spinal anomalies confined to skeletal structures

  6. Development of the young spine questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2013-01-01

    primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. Methods The Young Spine...... influence of parental back trouble. Items from existing questionnaires and the "Revised Faces Pain Scale" (rFPS) were included during the development phase. The testing phase consisted of a mixed quantitative and qualitative iterative method carried out in two pilot tests using 4th grade children and......Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has...

  7. Treatment of subacute thoracic spine fracture-dislocation by total vertebrectomy and spine shortening: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Alecio C E S; Botelho, Ricardo V

    2013-02-01

    Vertebral resection with spine shortening has been primarily reported for the treatment of demanding cases of nontraumatic disorders. Recently, this technique has been applied to the treatment of traumatic disorders. The current treatment of vertebral fracture-dislocation when there is partial or total telescoping of the involved vertebrae is a combined anterior-posterior approach with corpectomy, anterior support implant, and further posterior instrumentation. These procedures usually require 2 surgical teams, involve longer operating times and greater risk of surgical complications related to the anterior approach, and commonly entail longer postoperative care before discharge. The authors report on 2 patients with high thoracic fracture-dislocations with telescoping (T-2 and T-4) who were treated in the subacute phase with total spondylectomy (T-3 and T-5, respectively) and spine shortening by using only a posterior approach. Complete recovery of the sagittal balance was achieved with this technique and the postoperative periods were clinically uneventful. One patient presented with asymptomatic hemothorax that did not require drainage. In paraplegic patients with anterior thoracic dislocation fractures in which one vertebral body blocks the reduction of the other, total spondylectomy and spine shortening seem to be a reasonably safe and effective technique. PMID:23176187

  8. Dendritic spine morphology and dynamics in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stacey Lee,1 Huaye Zhang,2 Donna J Webb1,3,4 1Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 2Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, 3Department of Cancer Biology, 4Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Dendritic spines are actin-rich structures that form the postsynaptic terminals of excitatory synapses in the brain. The development and plasticity of spines are essential for cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, and defects in their density, morphology, and size underlie a number of neurological disorders. In this review, we discuss the contribution and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in spine formation and plasticity as well as learning and memory. We also highlight the role of key receptors and intracellular signaling pathways in modulating the development and morphology of spines and cognitive function. Moreover, we provide insight into spine/synapse defects associated with several neurological disorders and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these spine defects. Keywords: dendritic spines, synapses, synaptic plasticity, actin cytoskeleton, glutamate receptors, neurological disorders

  9. Testosterone modulation of dendritic spines of somatosensory cortical pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeng-Rung; Wang, Tsyr-Jiuan; Lim, Seh-Hong; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang

    2013-11-01

    Brain structures and functions are increasingly recognized to be directly affected by gonadal hormones, which classically determine reproductive functions and sexual phenotypes. In this regard, we found recently that ovariectomy trimmed the dendritic spines of female rat primary somatosensory cortical neurons and estradiol supplement reversed it. Here, we investigated whether in the male androgen also has a cortical modulatory effect. The dendritic arbors and spines of rat somatosensory cortical pyramidal neurons were studied following intracellular dye injection and three-dimensional reconstruction. Dendritic spines, but not length, of the layers III and V pyramidal neurons were found reduced at 2 weeks and rebounded slightly at 4 weeks and further at 8 and 24 weeks following castration, which, however, remained significantly fewer than those of the intact animals. Two weeks of osmotic pump-delivered testosterone treatment to animals castrated for 4 weeks replenished serum testosterone and reversed the densities of dendritic spines on these neurons to control animal levels. Androgen receptor appears to mediate this effect as its antagonist flutamide reduced the dendritic spines of normal adult rats while causing a mild feedback surge of serum testosterone. On the other hand, blocking the conversion of testosterone to estrogen with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole failed to alter the dendritic spine densities in male adult rats. In conclusion, these results support our hypothesis that testosterone acts directly on the androgen receptor in males to modulate the dendritic spines of somatosensory cortical output neurons. PMID:23340667

  10. MIM-Induced Membrane Bending Promotes Dendritic Spine Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikangas, Juha; Kourdougli, Nazim; Senju, Yosuke; Chazal, Genevieve; Segerstråle, Mikael; Minkeviciene, Rimante; Kuurne, Jaakko; Mattila, Pieta K; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M; Becker, Lore; Racz, Ildikó; Hans, Wolfgang; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin; von Ossowski, Lotta; Taira, Tomi; Lappalainen, Pekka; Rivera, Claudio; Hotulainen, Pirta

    2015-06-22

    Proper morphogenesis of neuronal dendritic spines is essential for the formation of functional synaptic networks. However, it is not known how spines are initiated. Here, we identify the inverse-BAR (I-BAR) protein MIM/MTSS1 as a nucleator of dendritic spines. MIM accumulated to future spine initiation sites in a PIP2-dependent manner and deformed the plasma membrane outward into a proto-protrusion via its I-BAR domain. Unexpectedly, the initial protrusion formation did not involve actin polymerization. However, PIP2-dependent activation of Arp2/3-mediated actin assembly was required for protrusion elongation. Overexpression of MIM increased the density of dendritic protrusions and suppressed spine maturation. In contrast, MIM deficiency led to decreased density of dendritic protrusions and larger spine heads. Moreover, MIM-deficient mice displayed altered glutamatergic synaptic transmission and compatible behavioral defects. Collectively, our data identify an important morphogenetic pathway, which initiates spine protrusions by coupling phosphoinositide signaling, direct membrane bending, and actin assembly to ensure proper synaptogenesis. PMID:26051541

  11. MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-09-15

    The objective was to study characteristic MRI findings in cervical spine fractures complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Technical issues related to MRI are also addressed. A review of 6,774 consecutive cervical spine multidetector CT (MDCT) scans obtained during 6.2 years revealed 33 ankylosed spines studied for suspected acute cervical spine injury complicating AS. Of these, 20 patients also underwent MRI. On MRI, of these 20 patients, 19 had a total of 29 cervical and upper thoracic spine fractures. Of 20 transverse fractures traversing both anterior and posterior columns, 7 were transdiskal and exhibited less bone marrow edema than did those traversing vertebral bodies. One Jefferson's, 1 atlas posterior arch (Jefferson's on MDCT), 2 odontoid process, and 5 non-contiguous spinous process fractures were detectable. MRI showed 2 fractures that were undetected by MDCT, and conversely, MDCT detected 6 fractures not seen on MRI; 16 patients had spinal cord findings ranging from impingement and contusion to complete transection. Magnetic resonance imaging can visualize unstable fractures of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. Paravertebral hemorrhages and any ligamentous injuries should alert radiologists to seek transverse fractures. Multiple fractures are common and often complicated by spinal cord injuries. Diagnostic images can be obtained with a flexible multipurpose coil if the use of standard spine array coil is impossible due to a rigid collar or excessive kyphosis. (orig.)

  12. MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to study characteristic MRI findings in cervical spine fractures complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Technical issues related to MRI are also addressed. A review of 6,774 consecutive cervical spine multidetector CT (MDCT) scans obtained during 6.2 years revealed 33 ankylosed spines studied for suspected acute cervical spine injury complicating AS. Of these, 20 patients also underwent MRI. On MRI, of these 20 patients, 19 had a total of 29 cervical and upper thoracic spine fractures. Of 20 transverse fractures traversing both anterior and posterior columns, 7 were transdiskal and exhibited less bone marrow edema than did those traversing vertebral bodies. One Jefferson's, 1 atlas posterior arch (Jefferson's on MDCT), 2 odontoid process, and 5 non-contiguous spinous process fractures were detectable. MRI showed 2 fractures that were undetected by MDCT, and conversely, MDCT detected 6 fractures not seen on MRI; 16 patients had spinal cord findings ranging from impingement and contusion to complete transection. Magnetic resonance imaging can visualize unstable fractures of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. Paravertebral hemorrhages and any ligamentous injuries should alert radiologists to seek transverse fractures. Multiple fractures are common and often complicated by spinal cord injuries. Diagnostic images can be obtained with a flexible multipurpose coil if the use of standard spine array coil is impossible due to a rigid collar or excessive kyphosis. (orig.)

  13. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  14. Repositioning of Barcelona’s Image in the Light of a Redefinition of the Urban Tourism Planning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-Francesc Valls

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barcelona’s city tourism model over the last fifteen years has chalked up many successes in terms of soaring tourist numbers, overnight stays, cruise liner passengers, hotel beds and visits to priced sights. Growth in city breaks has soared to the point where Barcelona has become one of Europe’s most visited cities. But this growth has come at a heavy price: mass tourism, concentration in certain neighbourhoods, competition for space between tourists and residents, lack of adequate inter-modal transport. All of these problems threaten Barcelona’s competitive position. The paper reviews the city’s competitiveness, comparing Barcelona to ten other European cities. Starting out from a qualitative analysis of internal players and a Delphi Study with external players, we find thecity’s tourism model needs correcting. We also identify the vectors and most important factors for achieving this repositioning. The vectors reinforce the competitiveness concerning the model’s sustainability, integrated management and governance, and client orientation. The proposed strategic repositioning will allow Barcelona to continue competing with Europe’s main cities.

  15. Vascular abnormalities of the spine: an imaging review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, SoHyun; Hartel, James; Hogg, Jeffery P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this educational article is to present a variety of vascular abnormalities of the spine to aid in recognition and accurate diagnosis. The lesions differ in clinical presentation, prognosis, and treatment. This has implications for patient care including treatment options. We provide an example-based illustrated glossary to help the reader identify varying types of vascular spine lesions. Collected cross-sectional and angiographic imaging of the spine from our tertiary care institution provides a clear patient-based representation. PMID:20307788

  16. Contextual Learning Induces Dendritic Spine Clustering in Retrosplenial Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and electrophysiological studies find convergent evidence suggesting that plasticity within a dendritic tree is not randomly dispersed, but rather clustered into functional groups. Further, results from in silico neuronal modeling show that clustered plasticity is able to increase storage capacity 45 times compared to dispersed plasticity. Recent in vivo work utilizing chronic 2-photon microscopy tested the clustering hypothesis and showed that repetitive motor learning is able to induce clustered addition of new dendritic spines on apical dendrites of L5 neurons in primary motor cortex; moreover, clustered spines were found to be more stable than non-clustered spines, suggesting a physiological role for spine clustering. To further test this hypothesis we used in vivo 2-photon imaging in Thy1-YFP-H mice to chronically examine dendritic spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex (RSC during spatial learning. RSC is a key component of an extended spatial learning and memory circuit that includes hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Importantly, RSC is known from both lesion and immediate early gene studies to be critically involved in spatial learning and more specifically in contextual fear conditioning. We utilized a modified contextual fear conditioning protocol wherein animals received a mild foot shock each day for five days; this protocol induces gradual increases in context freezing over several days before the animals reach a behavioral plateau. We coupled behavioral training with four separate in vivo imaging sessions, two before training begins, one early in training, and a final session after training is complete. This allowed us to image spine dynamics before training as well as early in learning and after animals had reached behavioral asymptote. We find that this contextual learning protocol induces a statistically significant increase in the formation of clusters of new dendritic spines in trained animals when compared to home cage controls. Furthermore, most clustering occurs over the period where animals experience the largest increase in freezing behavior, suggesting that the clustered addition of spines may be subserving this learning process. Most importantly, the number of new clustered spines correlates with behavioral performance; specifically, animals with the highest proportion of new spines formed in clusters also have the highest context freezing, further supporting the hypothesis that clustered addition of spines is important for learning. In sum, these results support the hypothesis that spine clustering is a general mechanism for learning-related information storage in the brain and a mechanism specifically operating in the RSC.

  17. Theoretical Exploration of Barrel-Shaped Drops on Cactus Spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To survive an arid environment, desert cacti are capable of harvesting water from fog by transporting condensed water drops using their spines. Cactus spines have a conical shape. In this work, on the basis of the difference of liquid pressure, a new theoretical model has been developed for a barrel-shaped liquid drop on a conical wire. This model is further simplified to interpret the effects of contact angles, conical angle, surface microgrooves, and gravity on the drop movement along a cactus spine. PMID:26473466

  18. Acquired pathology of the pediatric spine and spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palasis, Susan; Hayes, Laura L. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric spine pathology poses a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Acquired spine pathology often yields nonspecific signs and symptoms in children, especially in the younger age groups, and diagnostic delay can carry significant morbidity. This review is focused on some of the more common diagnostic dilemmas we face when attempting to evaluate and diagnose acquired pediatric spine anomalies in daily practice. An understanding of some of the key differentiating features of these disease processes in conjunction with pertinent history, physical exam, and advanced imaging techniques can indicate the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Osteoid Osteoma of Cervical Spine in two adjacent Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor, mainly seen in 10-30 years male. Spine is a relatively common site and almost always, posterior elements are involved. Plain X-Ray-, CT scan and Isotope scan help to identify and localize spine lesions. We described one 18 years old boy with 3 years low neck pain. Isotope scan, MRI and CT scan showed two lesions in C7 and T1. Gross inspection and histopathology examination confirmed osteoid osteoma in two adjacent vertebrae which has not been reported elsewhere in the literature. Key words: Osteoid Osteoma, Spine, Multifocal

  20. Fractionated stereotactic irradiation by Cyberknife of choroid melanomas: repositioning validation, closed eyelids; Irradiation stereotaxique fractionnee par Cyberknife des melanomes choroidiens: validation du repositionnement, paupieres fermees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, S.; Rezvoy, N.; Lacornerie, T.; Mirabel, X.; Labalette, P.; Lartigau, E. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Service de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2009-10-15

    The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife is an option in the treatment of eyes tumors. The advantages of the Cyberknife in the choroid melanomas are in its infra-millimetric precision, to the automated repositioning on the skull bones and to the conformity brought by the stereotaxy. The objective of this study was to validate the quality of repositioning and the immobility of the eyes with closed eyelids. Conclusion: the reproducibility of the eye positioning with closed eyelids seems enough to consider the conservative treatment of choroid melanomas by fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife without implementation of fiducials nor retrobulbar anaesthesia. (N.C.)

  1. Lumbar position sense acuity during an electrical shock stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallentin Nils

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal motor control of the spine depends on proprioceptive input as a prerequisite for co-ordination and the stability of the spine. Muscle spindles are known to play an important role in proprioception. Animal experiments suggest that an increase in sympathetic outflow can depress muscle spindle sensitivity. As the muscle spindle may be influenced by sympathetic modulation, we hypothesized that a state of high sympathetic activity as during mental stress would affect the proprioceptive output from the muscle spindles in the back muscles leading to alterations in proprioception and position sense acuity. The aim was to investigate the effect of mental stress, in this study the response to an electrical shock stressor, on position sense acuity in the rotational axis of the lumbar spine. Methods Passive and active position sense acuity in the rotational plane of the lumbar spine was investigated in the presence and absence of an electrical shock stressor in 14 healthy participants. An electrical shock-threat stressor lasting for approximately 12 minutes was used as imposed stressor to build up a strong anticipatory arousal: The participants were told that they were going to receive 8 painful electrical shocks however the participants never received the shocks. To quantify the level of physiological arousal and the level of sympathetic outflow continuous beat-to-beat changes in heart rate (beats*min-1 and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure (mmHg were measured. To quantify position sense acuity absolute error (AE expressed in degrees was measured. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measurements (subjects as random factor and treatments as fixed factors was used to compare the different treatments. Results Significant increases were observed in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate during the stress sessions indicating elevated sympathetic activity (15, 14 and 10%, respectively. Despite pronounced changes in the sympathetic activity and subjective experiences of stress no changes were found in position sense acuity in the rotational plane of the lumbar spine in the presence of the electrical shock stressor compared to the control period. Conclusion The present findings indicate that position sense acuity in the rotational plane of the spine was unaffected by the electrical shock stressor.

  2. Cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine in a 5-year-old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures of the tibial spine usually occur in children aged 8 to 14 years. Usually, radiographs will demonstrate a tibial spine fracture, with the degree of displacement. Tibial spine fractures in younger children have not been reported in the previously published literature. We report a tibial spine fracture that occurred in 5-year-old girl. The cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine was not revealed by radiographs because it was limited to the cartilaginous portion of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

  3. Cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine in a 5-year-old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Ryul; Song, Ji Hun; Lee, Ju Hong [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jeonju (Korea); Lee, Sang Yong [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Jeonju (Korea); Yoo, Wan Hee [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Rheumatology, Jeonju (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    Fractures of the tibial spine usually occur in children aged 8 to 14 years. Usually, radiographs will demonstrate a tibial spine fracture, with the degree of displacement. Tibial spine fractures in younger children have not been reported in the previously published literature. We report a tibial spine fracture that occurred in 5-year-old girl. The cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine was not revealed by radiographs because it was limited to the cartilaginous portion of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

  4. Combined injuries in the upper cervical spine: clinical and epidemiological data over a 14-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Gleizes, V; Jacquot, F. P.; Signoret, F.; Féron, J.-M. G.

    2000-01-01

    Concomitant traumatic injuries in the upper cervical spine are often encountered and rarely reported. We examined the data concerning 784 patients with cervical spine injuries following trauma, including 116 patients with upper cervical spine injuries. Twenty-six percent of patients with upper cervical spine injuries (31 cases) were found to have combined injuries involving either the upper or the upper and lower cervical spine. The frequent patterns were combined type I bipedicular fracture ...

  5. [Double location of breast and spine tuberculosis. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A; Mnif, N; Karray, M; Kribi, L; Ellouze, T; Hamza, R

    2004-04-01

    We describe the case of a 38-year-old woman with breast tuberculosis associated with a second localization in the lumber spine. These features simulated breast cancer with vertebral metastasis. Clinical and imaging findings are described herein. PMID:15052182

  6. [Traumatic fracture of the thoracic spine T1-T10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Righesso Neto, Orlando; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani; Boniatti, Márcio Manozzo

    2004-12-01

    We describe the incidence, causes, management and prognosis of traumatic fractures of the thoracic spine from T1 to T10 in surgical cases of traumatic fractures of spine during the period from June 1994 to June 2003 studied retrospectively. The type of fracture was determined according to the Gertzbein classification, and the degree of stability using the Denis classification. The neurological picture at admission and 30 days after surgery was evaluated using the ASIA/IMSOP classification. Surgery was performed in patients with complete spinal cord injury (n=7) for the purpose of stabilization using the posterior approach. In cases without spinal cord injury or incomplete injury (n=12), the surgical procedure was performed aiming to decompress the nerve tissue, to correct the alignment of the spine and to stabilize the spine. PMID:15608977

  7. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. The complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. This exhibit illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT reconstructed images of spinal abnormalities in children

  8. Minimally invasive spine surgery: Hurdles to be crossed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Bijjawara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MISS as a concept is noble and all surgeons need to address and minimize the surgical morbidity for better results. However, we need to be cautions and not fall prey into accepting that minimally invasive spine surgery can be done only when certain metal access systems are used. Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS has come a long way since the description of endoscopic discectomy in 1997 and minimally invasive TLIF (mTLIF in 2003. Today there is credible evidence (though not level-I that MISS has comparable results to open spine surgery with the advantage of early postoperative recovery and decreased blood loss and infection rates. However, apart from decreasing the muscle trauma and decreasing the muscle dissection during multilevel open spinal instrumentation, there has been little contribution to address the other morbidity parameters like operative time , blood loss , access to decompression and atraumatic neural tissue handling with the existing MISS technologies. Since all these parameters contribute to a greater degree than posterior muscle trauma for the overall surgical morbidity, we as surgeons need to introspect before we accept the concept of minimally invasive spine surgery being reduced to surgeries performed with a few tubular retractors. A spine surgeon needs to constantly improve his skills and techniques so that he can minimize blood loss, minimize traumatic neural tissue handling and minimizing operative time without compromising on the surgical goals. These measures actually contribute far more, to decrease the morbidity than approach related muscle damage alone. Minimally invasine spine surgery , though has come a long way, needs to provide technical solutions to minimize all the morbidity parameters involved in spine surgery, before it can replace most of the open spine surgeries, as in the case of laparoscopic surgery or arthroscopic surgery.

  9. Spine Expansion and Stabilization Associated with Long-term Potentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yunlei; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Frerking, Matthew; Zhou, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Stable expression of long-term synaptic plasticity is critical for the developmental refinement of neural circuits and for some forms of learning and memory. Although structural remodeling of dendritic spines is associated with the stable expression of long term potentiation (LTP), the relationship between structural and physiological plasticity remains unclear. To define whether these two processes are related or distinct, we simultaneously monitored EPSPs and dendritic spines, using combine...

  10. Arthroscopic Absorbable Suture Fixation for Tibial Spine Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Pellegrini, Andrea; Lunini, Enricomaria; Tonino, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this technical note and accompanying video is to describe a modified arthroscopic suture fixation technique to treat tibial spine avulsion fractures. Twenty-one patients underwent arthroscopic treatment for tibial spine avulsion with our technique; they were clinically and biomechanically evaluated at 2 years' follow-up and showed optimal clinical and radiographic outcomes. Repair with this arthroscopic technique provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and...

  11. Pediatric cervical spine trauma imaging: a practical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Alexia M.; Kadom, Nadja; Vezina, Gilbert; Bulas, Dorothy [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Cervical spine trauma in children is rare and the diagnosis can be challenging due to anatomical and biomechanical differences as compared to adults. A variety of algorithms have been used in adults to accurately diagnose injuries, but have not been fully studied in pediatric patients. In this article we review suggested imaging protocols and the general characteristics, types of injuries, and measurements used to diagnose cervical spine injuries in children. (orig.)

  12. Synovial osteochondromatosis of the cervical spine: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Choong Guen; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Guen Young; Yeom, Jin S.; Choe, Ghee Young; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare, benign condition characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules within the synovium. It rarely occurs at cervical spine, and only six cases have been previously reported in the English literature. We describe another case of synovial osteochondromatosis in the cervical spine in a 77-year-old man who presented with compressive myelopathy. Here we briefly review the literature and discuss the differential diagnosis based on CT and MR findings.

  13. Villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motamedi, Kambiz [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Radiologic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology), 200 UCLA Medical Plaza, Suite 165-59, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Murphey, Mark D. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Radiologic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States); University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fetsch, John F.; Furlong, Mary A. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Soft Tissue Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Vinh, Tinhoa N.; Sweet, Donald E. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Laskin, William B. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgical Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2005-04-01

    To describe the imaging features of spinal pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pathologically proven spinal PVNS. Patient demographics and clinical presentation were reviewed. Radiologic studies were evaluated by consensus of two musculoskeletal radiologists for spinal location, spinal segments affected, lesion center, detection of facet origin and intrinsic characteristics on radiography (n =11), myelography (n =7), CT (n =6) and MR imaging (n =6). Women (64%) were more commonly affected than men (36%) with an average age of 28 years. Clinical symptoms were pain (45%), neurologic (9%) or both (36%). Lesions most frequently affected the cervical spine (53%) followed by the thoracic (27%) and lumbar regions (20%). The majority of lesions (93%) were centered in the posterior elements with frequent involvement of the pedicle (67%), neural foramina (73%), lamina (67%) and facets (93%). No lesions showed calcification. Determination of a facet origin by imaging was dependent on imaging modality and lesion size. A facet origin could be determined in 45% of cases by radiography vs 67% of patients by CT (n=6) and MR (n=6). Large lesions (greater than 3 cm in at least one dimension) obscured the facet origin in all cases with CT and/or MR imaging (44%,n=4). Small lesions (less than 3 cm in any dimension) demonstrated an obvious facet origin in all cases by CT and/or MR imaging (56%,n=5). Low-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen in all cases on T2-weighted MR images resulting from hemosiderin deposition with ''blooming effect'' in one case with gradient echo MR images. PVNS of the spine is rare. Large lesions obscure the facet origin and simulate an aggressive intraosseous neoplasm. Patient age, a solitary noncystic lesion centered in the posterior elements, lack of mineralization and low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR pulse sequences may suggest the diagnosis in these cases. Small lesions demonstrate a facet origin on CT or MR imaging. This limits differential considerations to synovial-based lesions and additional features of a solitary focus, lack of underlying disease or systemic arthropathy, no calcification as well as low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR images should allow spinal PVNS to be suggested as the likely diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the imaging features of spinal pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pathologically proven spinal PVNS. Patient demographics and clinical presentation were reviewed. Radiologic studies were evaluated by consensus of two musculoskeletal radiologists for spinal location, spinal segments affected, lesion center, detection of facet origin and intrinsic characteristics on radiography (n =11), myelography (n =7), CT (n =6) and MR imaging (n =6). Women (64%) were more commonly affected than men (36%) with an average age of 28 years. Clinical symptoms were pain (45%), neurologic (9%) or both (36%). Lesions most frequently affected the cervical spine (53%) followed by the thoracic (27%) and lumbar regions (20%). The majority of lesions (93%) were centered in the posterior elements with frequent involvement of the pedicle (67%), neural foramina (73%), lamina (67%) and facets (93%). No lesions showed calcification. Determination of a facet origin by imaging was dependent on imaging modality and lesion size. A facet origin could be determined in 45% of cases by radiography vs 67% of patients by CT (n=6) and MR (n=6). Large lesions (greater than 3 cm in at least one dimension) obscured the facet origin in all cases with CT and/or MR imaging (44%,n=4). Small lesions (less than 3 cm in any dimension) demonstrated an obvious facet origin in all cases by CT and/or MR imaging (56%,n=5). Low-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen in all cases on T2-weighted MR images resulting from hemosiderin deposition with ''blooming effect'' in one case with gradient echo MR images. PVNS of the spine is rare. Large lesions obscure the facet origin and simulate an aggressive intraosseous neoplasm. Patient age, a solitary noncystic lesion centered in the posterior elements, lack of mineralization and low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR pulse sequences may suggest the diagnosis in these cases. Small lesions demonstrate a facet origin on CT or MR imaging. This limits differential considerations to synovial-based lesions and additional features of a solitary focus, lack of underlying disease or systemic arthropathy, no calcification as well as low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR images should allow spinal PVNS to be suggested as the likely diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Associative Learning on Memory Spine Formation in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, Malgorzata; Siucinska, Ewa; Jasek, Ewa; Litwin, Jan A.; Pyza, Elzbieta; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Associative fear learning, in which stimulation of whiskers is paired with mild electric shock to the tail, modifies the barrel cortex, the functional representation of sensory receptors involved in the conditioning, by inducing formation of new inhibitory synapses on single-synapse spines of the cognate barrel hollows and thus producing double-synapse spines. In the barrel cortex of conditioned, pseudoconditioned, and untreated mice, we analyzed the number and morphological features of dendritic spines at various maturation and stability levels: sER-free spines, spines containing smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), and spines containing spine apparatus. Using stereological analysis of serial sections examined by transmission electron microscopy, we found that the density of double-synapse spines containing spine apparatus was significantly increased in the conditioned mice. Learning also induced enhancement of the postsynaptic density area of inhibitory synapses as well as increase in the number of polyribosomes in such spines. In single-synapse spines, the effects of conditioning were less pronounced and included increase in the number of polyribosomes in sER-free spines. The results suggest that fear learning differentially affects single- and double-synapse spines in the barrel cortex: it promotes maturation and stabilization of double-synapse spines, which might possibly contribute to permanent memory formation, and upregulates protein synthesis in single-synapse spines.

  16. Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Utilizing Cone-Beam CT Image-Guidance With a Robotic Couch: Intrafraction Motion Analysis Accounting for all Six Degrees of Freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Derek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); British Columbia Cancer Agency, The Sindi Hawkins Cancer Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna (Canada); Lochray, Fiona; Korol, Renee; Davidson, Melanie; Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: Arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual setup error and intrafraction motion following kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance, for immobilized spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients, with positioning corrected for in all six degrees of freedom. Methods and Materials: Analysis is based on 42 consecutive patients (48 thoracic and/or lumbar metastases) treated with a total of 106 fractions and 307 image registrations. Following initial setup, a CBCT was acquired for patient alignment and a pretreatment CBCT taken to verify shifts and determine the residual setup error, followed by a midtreatment and posttreatment CBCT image. For 13 single-fraction SBRT patients, two midtreatment CBCT images were obtained. Initially, a 1.5-mm and 1 Degree-Sign tolerance was used to reposition the patient following couch shifts which was subsequently reduced to 1 mm and 1 Degree-Sign degree after the first 10 patients. Results: Small positioning errors after the initial CBCT setup were observed, with 90% occurring within 1 mm and 97% within 1 Degree-Sign . In analyzing the impact of the time interval for verification imaging (10 {+-} 3 min) and subsequent image acquisitions (17 {+-} 4 min), the residual setup error was not significantly different (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.04) in the average three-dimensional intrafraction positional deviations favoring a more strict tolerance in translation (1 mm vs. 1.5 mm) was observed. The absolute intrafraction motion averaged over all patients and all directions along x, y, and z axis ({+-} SD) were 0.7 {+-} 0.5 mm and 0.5 {+-} 0.4 mm for the 1.5 mm and 1 mm tolerance, respectively. Based on a 1-mm and 1 Degree-Sign correction threshold, the target was localized to within 1.2 mm and 0.9 Degree-Sign with 95% confidence. Conclusion: Near-rigid body immobilization, intrafraction CBCT imaging approximately every 15-20 min, and strict repositioning thresholds in six degrees of freedom yields minimal intrafraction motion allowing for safe spine SBRT delivery.

  17. Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine after neck injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltsios, Michail; Savvidou, Olga; Mitsiokapa, Evanthia A; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Kaspiris, Angelos; Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2013-07-01

    The normal sagittal alignment of the cervical spine is lordotic and is affected by the posture of the head and neck. The question of whether loss of cervical lordosis is the result of muscle spasm after injury or a normal variation, and the clinical significance of such changes in sagittal profile of the cervical spine has been an issue of several studies. The purpose of this paper is to study the incidence of normal cervical lordosis and its changes after neck injury compared to the healthy population. We studied the lateral radiographs of the cervical spine of 60 patients with neck injury compared to 100 patients without a neck injury. Lateral radiographs were obtained in the standing or sitting position, and the curvature of the cervical spine was measured using the angle formed between the inferior end plates of the C2 and C7 vertebrae. In the patients without neck injury, lordotic and straight cervical spine sagittal alignment was observed in 36.5% each, double curvature in 17%, and kyphotic in 10%. In the patients with neck injury, lordotic sagittal alignment was observed in 36%, straight in 34%, double curvature in 26% and kyphotic in 4%. No significant difference between the two groups regarding all types of sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was found (p > 0.100). The alterations in normal cervical lordosis in patients with neck injury must be considered coincidental. These alterations should not be associated with muscle spasm caused by neck pain. PMID:23412281

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis: Radiological changes in the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to describe the radiographic cervical spine changes in rheumatoid arthritis patients.Forty-nine patients (37 females and 12 males ) diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between June 1998 and December 2000, were studied for their radiographic cervical spine changes . Their mean age at disease onset was 41.4+ 13.4 years (range of 18-73)and mean duration of disease was 9.1+-6.28 years (range of 2-34). Their demographic data including rheumatoid factor status was obtained. Standard conventional radiographs cervical spine were obtained to study the cervical spine changes. Cervical radiographic changes were found in 34 patients (27 females and 7 males) 10 had subluxation (7 with atlanto-axial subluxation,2 with sub-axial subluxation,and one with lateral subluxation ). No vertical impaction was seen. Erosion of odontoid process was seen in one patient .All were rheumatoid seropositive Cervical spine changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are common, in particular subluxation in the upper cervical spine. Our study showed somewhat lesser prevalence of these changes. These were clinically correlated with disease duration, female sex, and rheumatoid factor, but were not clinically significant. (author)

  19. Dendritic Spines in Depression: What We Learned from Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hui; Li, Ming-Xing; Xu, Chang; Chen, Hui-Bin; An, Shu-Cheng; Ma, Xin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Depression, a severe psychiatric disorder, has been studied for decades, but the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Depression is closely associated with alterations in dendritic spine morphology and spine density. Therefore, understanding dendritic spines is vital for uncovering the mechanisms underlying depression. Several chronic stress models, including chronic restraint stress (CRS), chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), have been used to recapitulate depression-like behaviors in rodents and study the underlying mechanisms. In comparison with CRS, CUMS overcomes the stress habituation and has been widely used to model depression-like behaviors. CSDS is one of the most frequently used models for depression, but it is limited to the study of male mice. Generally, chronic stress causes dendritic atrophy and spine loss in the neurons of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Meanwhile, neurons of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens exhibit an increase in spine density. These alterations induced by chronic stress are often accompanied by depression-like behaviors. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This review summarizes our current understanding of the chronic stress-induced remodeling of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens and also discusses the putative underlying mechanisms.

  20. Peribrachiocephalic approaches to the anterior cervicothoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattarov, Kamran V; Fard, Salman Abbasi; Patel, Apar S; Alkadhim, Mustafa; Avila, Mauricio J; Walter, Christina M; Baaj, Ali A

    2015-11-01

    This cadaveric study aims to reexamine the corridors to the anterior cervicothoracic junction, relative to the left brachiocephalic vein, and to present these working corridors as either supra- or infra-brachiocephalic. The anterior cervicothoracic junction incorporates the seventh cervical vertebrae through the fourth thoracic vertebrae (C7-T4) and involves critical anatomical structures. Operative approaches to this area are well described in the literature, with the predominant implementation of three surgical corridors. We used three embalmed, human, cadaveric specimens for this study. No pathology involving the cervicothoracic junction was noted. While dissecting, we tried to imitate the actual surgery. For each surgical step, photographs were taken, drawing attention to the critical structures and highlighting the different corridors to the spine relative to the left brachiocephalic vein. It is possible to access the cervicothoracic junction relative to the brachiocephalic vein from the left. The supra-brachiocephalic approach gives access to the C7-T4 vertebrae, whereas if T4-T5 is the goal, the infra-brachiocephalic approach may be utilized. In the supra-brachiocephalic approach, the brachiocephalic artery can be either medialized or lateralized as needed. A re-examination of the anterior cervicothoracic junction anatomy has allowed us to classify approaches relative to the left brachiocephalic vein. Identifying and understanding the approaches relative to this structure will assist in safe and effective spinal surgery in this area. PMID:26165469

  1. Repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to present the surgical experience in the repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine. Background: Spodylolysis is an important cause of low back pain in young adults and is responsible for high grade of incapacity. Classically, patients with surgical indications with Spondylolysis have been treated with vertebral arthrodesis arthrodesis, with the following functional lost of the intervened segment and biomechanical overload of the upper contiguous segment. There are not previous reports about repairing of lysis in national literature and international references in this technique are scarce. Materials and methods: Eight patients within 2002-2004 were operated, a direct repairing of the lyses by in situ, fusion and interfragmental osteosynthesis with AO 3.5 mm titanium cortical screws with autogenous bone grafts was achieved. The casuistic was analyzed depending on clinical presentation, consolidation, mobility and vitality of the disc in imaginology studies. Results: During the follow-up a firm fusion in all cases, mobility and vitality preservation of the L5-S1 intervertebral disc was detected. There was neither infection nor neurological deficit. Recommendations: Repairing of spondylolysis in lumbar column, in young symptomatic patients without or with mild lystesis (grade I) and without associated disc damage, is a safe surgical technique

  2. Instrumentation of the paediatric cervical spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RN, Dunn; AH, Botha.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paediatric cervical fusion surgery is challenging. Traditional techniques such as external stabilisation, onlay fusions and wiring techniques resulted in unsatisfactory outcomes due to inferior biomechanical stability. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of paediatric patients [...] who underwent instrumented cervical fusion surgery under 16 years of age. Fusion rates, blood loss, levels fused, theatre time, technique and complications were assessed. RESULTS: An average of 2.5 levels was fused, with an estimated blood loss of 428 ml and surgical duration of 159 min. Anterior procedures had an average of one level fused with blood loss of 117 ml and surgical duration of 98 min. Posterior procedures had an average number of 1.9 levels fused, blood loss of 306 ml and surgical time of 131 min. Combined procedures had an average of 5.5 levels fused, blood loss 810 ml and surgical duration of 241 min. Four surgery-related complications were encountered. These consisted of dural leaks and wound sepsis which were all treated effectively. All patients achieved radiological fusion. CONCLUSION: The use of modern segmental spinal instrumentation in the paediatric cervical spine is a viable option. Although the study sample was small we are able to demonstrate that no major surgical complications were encountered due to the use of adult cervical spinal instrumentation techniques in the paediatric group.

  3. Aesthetic management of gingival recession by root biomodification with carbon dioxide laser and subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Pavitra Kumar; Lal, Nand; Garg, Nimit; Anand, Vishal; Singhal, Rameshwari

    2012-01-01

    Localised gingival recessions continue to represent an important aesthetic condition requiring treatment in periodontics. Various techniques have been tried to treat exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics with high percentage of success and minimal discomfort. Root biomodification is done to improve the predictability of these procedures. This clinical report describes periodontal plastic procedure involving subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique a...

  4. Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmitGefen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patient repositioning when the skin is moist e.g. due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitatively describe the effects of repositioning on the pathomechanics of moisture-related tissue damage. We designed a finite element model to analyze skin stresses under a weight-bearing bony prominence while this region of interest slides frictionally over the support surface, as occurs during repositioning. Our results show, expectedly, that maximal effective stresses in the skin increase as the moisture-contents-related COF between the skin and the mattress rises. Interestingly however, the rise in stresses for a wet interface became more prominent when the skin tissue was stiffer - which represented aging or diabetes. This finding demonstrates how the aged/diabetic skin is more fragile than a young-adult skin when repositioning in a moist environment. The modeling used herein can now be extended to test effects of different moisturizers, creams, lubricants or possibly other interventions at the skin-support interface for testing their potential in protecting the skin from superficial pressure ulcers in a standard, objective and quantitative manner.

  5. Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Eliav; Gefen, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Patient repositioning when the skin is moist, e.g., due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF) and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitatively describe the effects of repositioning on the pathomechanics of moisture-related tissue damage. We designed a finite element model to analyze skin stresses under a weight-bearing bony prominence while this region of interest slides frictionally over the support surface, as occurs during repositioning. Our results show, expectedly, that maximal effective stresses in the skin increase as the moisture-contents-related COF between the skin and the mattress rises. Interestingly however, the rise in stresses for a wet interface became more prominent when the skin tissue was stiffer - which represented aging or diabetes. This finding demonstrates how the aged/diabetic skin is more fragile than a young-adult skin when repositioning in a moist environment. The modeling used herein can now be extended to test effects of different moisturizers, creams, lubricants, or possibly other interventions at the skin-support interface for testing their potential in protecting the skin from superficial pressure ulcers in a standard, objective, and quantitative manner. PMID:25022867

  6. Maniobra de reposición canalítica para el tratamiento del vértigo postural paroxístico benigno Canalith reposition procedure for the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Valenzuela P

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paroxysmal positional vertigo is a frequent and handicapping disease. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of physical therapies using particle reposition procedures in the treatment of paroxysmal positional vertigo. Patients and methods: Fifty nine patients (13 male with paroxysmal positional vertigo were studied. Clinical data was gathered, the affected channel was identified. In the same session, the corresponding canalith reposition procedure was performed (Epley maneuver for posterior channel and Lempert maneuver for lateral channel and the immediate response was recorded. Results: Twenty seven percent of patients had recurring episodes of vertigo and 60% had more than two weeks of evolution. In 49% of patients, vertigo was considered idiopathic and in 92%, the posterior channel was affected. One patient had a combined lesion of posterior and lateral channels and two patients had isolated lateral channel lesions. Seventy percent of patients recovered after two sessions of canalith reposition procedure. Conclusions: Canalith reposition maneuvers were highly effective for the treatment of paroxysmal positional vertigo. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 619-26.

  7. Short Communication Elucidation of bacterial community structure on thin-spined porcupine (Chaetomys subspinosus) spines by denaturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, R A; Giné, G A F; Marques, E L S; Abreu-Tarazi, M F; Rezende, R P; Gaiotto, F A

    2015-01-01

    Thin-spined porcupines (Chaetomys subspinosus) are threatened with extinction and are categorized as vulnerable. This is because of alteration to and loss of their habitat and possible hunting activities in their distribution area. Their spines constitute one of their defense mechanisms, which can be fomites for pathogens to humans. However, little is known about such pathogens. The present study aimed to detect bacteria on spines of C. subspinosus, from the Una Biological Reserve, South of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, by analyzing metagenomic DNA, isolating bacterial culture, using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique, and sequencing. Six anatomical points were selected for withdrawing spine samples from an individual C. subspinosus. At all sample points, bacteria were detected by bacteriological culture and/or DGGE and sequencing of excised bands. When all samples were combined, standard PCR-DGGE analysis of bacteria present in the spines identified 15 distinct bands, thereby revealing a distinct bacterial community. The main pathogens identified through sequencing were Bacillus cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. pumilus. The present study demonstrated the isolation and identification of non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria on the spines of C. subspinosus. PMID:26436511

  8. Becoming independent through au pair migration : Self-making and social re-positioning among young Filipinas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, growing numbers of young Filipinas have entered Denmark on the au pair scheme. While its official aim is to broaden the cultural horizons of youth, researchers generally view Filipina au pairing as a form of labor migration using au pairs as inexpensive domestic workers. This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognized as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence in terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad to re-position themselves vis-à-vis family and friends at home.

  9. Bone Mineral Density Measurement of Rats Using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry: Precision of In Vivo Measurements for Various Skeletal Sites with or without Repositioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong Hyun; Jung, Jae Ho; Woo, Sang Keun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byung Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements need to be precise enough to be capable of detecting small changes in bone mass of rats. Using a regular dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), we measured many BMD of various skeletal sites in rats to examine precision of DXA in relation to the repositioning on the bones of rats. Using DXA and small animal software, scans were performed 4 times in all 12 male rats without repositioning (Group 1a). Another four scans for 6 of 12 rats were done with repositioning between scans (Group 2). Customized regions of interest (ROIs), encapsulate the right hind limb, L1-4, skull and pelvic bones were drawn at each measurement. The precision of the measurements was evaluated by measuring the coefficient of variation (CV) of four measurements of BMD at each skeletal site of all rats with or without repositioning. Significance of differences between group 1b (six rats out of group 1a, which were come under group 2) and group2 were evaluated with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test. CVs obtained at different skeletal sites of all measurements in Group 1b and 2. It was 3.51{+-}1.20, 2.62{+-}1.20 for the hindlimb (p=0.173), 3.83{+-}2.02, 4.59{+-}2.02 for L1-4 (p=0.600), 3.73{+-}1.87, 1.53{+-}0.89 for skull (p=0.046), and 2.92{+-}0.60, 1.45{+-}0.60 for pelvic bones (p=0.075). Our study demonstrates that the DXA technique has the precision necessary when used to assess BMD for various skeletal sites in rats regardless of repositioning.

  10. SENILE DEGENERATIVE CHANGES IN ADULT LUMBAR SPINE! - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garjesh Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP is a common presenting complaint affecting mostly middle aged and older person and traditionally considered as ageing process, but now-a-days large number of younger people are also affected by this debilitating chronic disorder. The cause of early onset of degenerative spine disease is multifactorial, but genetical predisposition plays very important role. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To find out association between genetic predisposition and degenerative spine disease in adult patients and to assess the pattern of MRI findings of various degenerative diseases in lumbo-sacral spine. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The present cross-sectional study had been performed among 100 selected patients in 1yr period, who presented with chief complaint of chronic low back pain. After taking detailed clinical and professional history, MRI of lumbosacral spine had been performed. Total 100 patients were divided in two groups on the basis of genetical predisposition. Prevalence and spectrum of degenerative changes were compared between both groups. RESULTS: Hundred patients of 20 to 35-year age had been selected with mean age of 27yr. Out of 100 patients; 47 were male and 53 were female. The most common degenerative findings were desiccation of disc (95% followed by disc bulge, herniation, spinal canal stenosis, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, facet joint hypertrophy and modic changes. L4-L5 and L5- S1 were the most commonly involved spinal levels for any degenerative pathology. CONCLUSION: Good association is seen between early onset of degenerative spine disease and genetical predisposition in patients who have history of similar type degenerative spine disease in one or more first degree relatives in comparison to those patients who do not have any genetical predisposition. So it can be concluded that heredity play important role in early onset of degenerative spine disease in adults.

  11. Spine formation and maturation in the developing rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtele, Scott J; Losh, Joe; Dailey, Michael E; Green, Steven H

    2011-11-01

    The rat auditory cortex is organized as a tonotopic map of sound frequency. This map is broadly tuned at birth and is refined during the first 3 weeks postnatal. The structural correlates underlying tonotopic map maturation and reorganization during development are poorly understood. We employed fluorescent dye ballistic labeling ("DiOlistics") alone, or in conjunction with immunohistochemistry, to quantify synaptogenesis in the auditory cortex of normal hearing rats. We show that the developmental appearance of dendritic protrusions, which include both immature filopodia and mature spines, on layers 2/3, 4, and 5 pyramidal and layer 4 spiny nonpyramidal neurons occurs in three phases: slow addition of dendritic protrusions from postnatal day 4 (P4) to P9, rapid addition of dendritic protrusions from P9 to P19, and a final phase where mature protrusion density is achieved (>P21). Next, we combined DiOlistics with immunohistochemical labeling of bassoon, a presynaptic scaffolding protein, as a novel method to categorize dendritic protrusions as either filopodia or mature spines in cortex fixed in vivo. Using this method we observed an increase in the spine-to-filopodium ratio from P9-P16, indicating a period of rapid spine maturation. Previous studies report mature spines as being shorter in length compared to filopodia. We similarly observed a reduction in protrusion length between P9 and P16, corroborating our immunohistochemical spine maturation data. These studies show that dendritic protrusion formation and spine maturation occur rapidly at a time previously shown to correspond to auditory cortical tonotopic map refinement (P11-P14), providing a structural correlate of physiological maturation. PMID:21800311

  12. Helical tomotherapy for spine oligometastases from gastrointestinal malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Seon; Kim, Jun Won; Lee, Ik Jae; Han, Hee Ji; Baek, Jong Geal; Seong, Jin Sil [Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This study evaluated the treatment effectiveness and proper radiation dose of helical tomotherapy (HT) in spine oligometastases from gastrointestinal cancers. From 2006 to 2010, 20 gastrointestinal cancer patients were treated with HT for spine oligometastases (31 spine lesions). The gross tumor volume (GTV) was the tumor evident from magnetic resonance imaging images fused with simulation computed tomography images. Clinical target volume (CTV) encompassed involved vertebral bodies or dorsal elements. We assumed that the planning target volume was equal to the CTV. We assessed local control rate after HT for 31 spine metastases. Pain response was scored by using a numeric pain intensity scale (NPIS, from 0 to 10). Spine metastatic lesions were treated with median dose of 40 Gy (range, 24 to 51 Gy) and median 5 Gy per fraction (range, 2.5 to 8 Gy) to GTV with median 8 fractions (range, 3 to 20 fraction). Median biologically equivalent dose (BED, {alpha}/{beta} = 10 Gy) was 52 Gy10 (range, 37.5 to 76.8 Gy10) to GTV. Six month local control rate for spine metastasis was 90.3%. Overall infield failure rate was 15% and outfield failure rate was 75%. Most patients showed pain relief after HT (93.8%). Median local recurrence free survival was 3 months. BED over 57 Gy10 and oligometastases were identified as prognostic factors associated with improved local progression free survival (p = 0.012, p = 0.041). HT was capable of delivering higher BED to metastatic lesions in close proximity of the spinal cord. Spine metastases from gastrointestinal tumors were sensitive to high dose radiation, and BED ({alpha}/{beta} = 10 Gy) higher than 57 Gy10 could improve local control.

  13. Computertomographic examinations of the canine lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) documentation of cross-sectional anatomy of the lumbosacral area, 2) to obtain and describe abnormalities and finally 3)to develop a CT technique for the diagnosis of a L7/S1 spondylolisthesis. In a 3 year retrospective study 61 large breed dogs with history of suspected cauda equina-syndrome were examined using flexion-extension radiography and flexion-extension computed tomography. 25 out of 60 dogs were German shepherd dogs, 3 shepherd-cross, 7 mongrels, 4 Rottweilers and 22 other breeds. 27 dogs of the flexion/extension group were also morphometrically examined. CT studies regarding morphology of the lumbosacral joint showed differences between flexed and extended position: The intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed position, the intervertebral disc, segmental spinal nerves and contrast enhanced blood vessels were more easily to evaluate. In flexion the lumbosacral foramen was 'open' in all cases, while it was 'closed' in most of the extension slices. The cranial articular processes of the sacrum appeared earlier in extension, they seemed to 'slip' beneath the caudal articular processes of the last lumbar vertebra, the articular surfaces got incongruent, and therefore the intervertebral foramina were narrowed. The most common pathologic findings were disk protrusion (28 dogs) and spondylosis (24 dogs). Rare diagnoses were neoplasia (1 case), transitional vertebra (1 case), shortened L7 (2 cases) and osteochondrosis dissecans of the L7 or sacral endplate (5 cases). Morphometrical examinations showed that the intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed positions, not only in length (craniocaudal dimension) but also in their dorsoventral diameter. There was no difference in the dorsoventral diameter of the spinal canal between flexion and extension CT. This study showed that computed tomography is superior to common ways of imaging of the lumbosacral spine like radiography or myelography. It was possible to identify pathologic changes as morphologic and morphometric differences between flexed and extended positions. A technique for diagnosis of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis could not be obtained. (author)

  14. Insufficient pain management after spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A prospective observational quality assurance study was performed at Glostrup Hospital, Denmark, to describe patients undergoing spine surgery with regard to perioperative analgesic management, post-operative pain, opioid consumption and side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients eligible for the study were identified consecutively from the operation chart. The following data were registered: post-operative visual analogue (VAS) pain score at rest and during mobilisation, opioid consumption for the first 24 h, other analgesics administered and side effects. RESULTS: A total of 87 patients were included. For instrumented lumbar fusion patients (n = 24), the VAS pain scores at 1, 4 and 24 h after surgery were (median (interquartile range)) 5 (0-7), 2.5 (0-8) and 5.5 (0-9) at rest and 5 (0-8), 3 (0-9) and 7 (3-9) during mobilisation, respectively. The other surgical subgroups generally experienced VAS ? 3. For instrumented lumbar fusion, the total 0-24 h consumption of intravenous morphine equivalents was 39.1 (27.5-62.7) mg. Only eight of 87 patients received the entire scheduled standard post-operative pain treatment. Adverse events were rare. CONCLUSION: Most patients experienced acceptable pain levels, but instrumented lumbar fusion leads to moderate to severe pain levels and a relatively high opioid consumption. The scheduled standard pain management protocols were sparsely followed. Challenges exist in post-operative pain management as observed in previous surveys, especially for instrumented lumbar fusion surgery. Future work should focus on optimising treatment plans. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

  15. Gota axial / Gout in the spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Massato, Hasegawa; Filipe Martins de, Mello; Cláudia, Goldenstein-Schainberg; Ricardo, Fuller.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A gota axial pode afetar todos os segmentos da coluna vertebral. Ela se manifesta como dor nas costas, dor associada com sintomas neurológicos, e como comprometimento neurológico sem dor em 17,9%, 75,8% e 4,2% dos casos, respectivamente. Essas manifestações foram a primeira apresentação da gota em m [...] uitos pacientes. Embora radiografias, bem como tomografia computadorizada e especialmente ressonância magnética, possam ser muito sugestivos, análises histopatológicas, citológicas e pesquisa de cristais são o padrão ouro de diagnóstico. Na maioria dos casos que envolveram manifestações neurológicas, o paciente foi submetido à cirurgia, levando a resultados satisfatórios. Há, no entanto, alguns relatos de recuperação total após o tratamento clínico habitual para gota, o que sugere que esse tratamento pode ser a opção inicial para os indivíduos com histórico de gota e sinais radiológicos de envolvimento axial. Abstract in english Axial gout can affect all segments of the spine. It is manifested as back pain, as pain associated with neurological symptoms, and as neurological impairment without pain in 17.9%, 75.8% and 4.2% of cases, respectively. These manifestations were the first presentation of gout in many patients. Altho [...] ugh x-rays as well as computed tomography and especially magnetic resonance scans can be very suggestive, histopathological, cytological and crystal analyses are the diagnostic gold standard. In most cases involving neurological manifestations, the patient underwent surgery, leading to satisfactory results. There are, however, some reports of full recovery following the usual clinical treatment for gout, suggesting that such treatment may be the initial option for those subjects with a history of gout and radiological findings of axial involvement

  16. Diagnostic value of high resolutional computed tomography of spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-enhanced high resolution computed tomography provide clear visualization of soft tissue in the canal and bony details of spine, particularly of the lumbar spine. We observed 70 cases of spine CT using GE CT/T 8800 scanner during the period from Dec. 1982 to Sep. 1983 at Jeonbug National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 55 males and 15 females : age was from 17 years to 67 years; sites were 11 cervical spine, 5 thoracic spine and 54 lumbosacral spine. 2. CT diagnosis showed 44 cases of lumbar disc herniation, 7 cases of degenerative disease, 3 cases of spine fracture and each 1 cases of cord tumor, metastatic tumor, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, epidural abscess, spine tbc., meningocele with diastematomyelia. 3. Sites of herniated nucleus pulposus were 34 cases (59.6%) between L4-5 interspace and 20 cases (35.1%) between L5-S1 interspace. 13 cases (29.5%) of lumbar disc herniation disclosed multiple lesions. Location of herniation were central type in 28 cases(49.1%), right-central type in 12 cases(21.2%), left-central type in 11 cases (19.2%) and far lateral type in 6 cases(10.5%). 4. CT findings of herniated nucleus pulposus were as follows : focal protrusion of posterior disc margin and obliteration of anterior epidural fat in all cases, dural sac indentation in 26 cases(45.6%), soft tissue mass in epidural fat in 21 cases(36.8%), displacement or compression of nerve root sheath in 12 cases(21%). 5. Multiplanar reformatted images and Blink mode provide more effective evaluation about definite level and longitudinal dimension of lesion, such as obscure disc herniation, spine fracture, cord tumor and epidural abscess. 6. Non-enhanced and enhanced high resolutional computed tomography were effectively useful in demonstrating compression or displacement of spinal cord and nerve root, examing congenital anomaly such as meningocele and primary or metastatic spinal lesions

  17. Diagnostic value of high resolutional computed tomography of spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S. M.; Im, S. K.; Sohn, M. H.; Lim, K. Y.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, K. C. [Jeonbug National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Non-enhanced high resolution computed tomography provide clear visualization of soft tissue in the canal and bony details of spine, particularly of the lumbar spine. We observed 70 cases of spine CT using GE CT/T 8800 scanner during the period from Dec. 1982 to Sep. 1983 at Jeonbug National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 55 males and 15 females : age was from 17 years to 67 years; sites were 11 cervical spine, 5 thoracic spine and 54 lumbosacral spine. 2. CT diagnosis showed 44 cases of lumbar disc herniation, 7 cases of degenerative disease, 3 cases of spine fracture and each 1 cases of cord tumor, metastatic tumor, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, epidural abscess, spine tbc., meningocele with diastematomyelia. 3. Sites of herniated nucleus pulposus were 34 cases (59.6%) between L4-5 interspace and 20 cases (35.1%) between L5-S1 interspace. 13 cases (29.5%) of lumbar disc herniation disclosed multiple lesions. Location of herniation were central type in 28 cases(49.1%), right-central type in 12 cases(21.2%), left-central type in 11 cases (19.2%) and far lateral type in 6 cases(10.5%). 4. CT findings of herniated nucleus pulposus were as follows : focal protrusion of posterior disc margin and obliteration of anterior epidural fat in all cases, dural sac indentation in 26 cases(45.6%), soft tissue mass in epidural fat in 21 cases(36.8%), displacement or compression of nerve root sheath in 12 cases(21%). 5. Multiplanar reformatted images and Blink mode provide more effective evaluation about definite level and longitudinal dimension of lesion, such as obscure disc herniation, spine fracture, cord tumor and epidural abscess. 6. Non-enhanced and enhanced high resolutional computed tomography were effectively useful in demonstrating compression or displacement of spinal cord and nerve root, examing congenital anomaly such as meningocele and primary or metastatic spinal lesions.

  18. Prevention of spine deforimities in adoloscents due to inaduquate posture

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    Lazovi? Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The spine deformities tend to increase, and in 90% of children they change the quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the percents of spinal deformity in our population of adolescents, and long bad posture in and out of school as a factor for its increase. Material and methods. The study included 124 adolescents attending High Musical School in Bitola and Skopje, who underwent four standard spine tests and an interview. Results. According to the test 3, 50% of the examined adolescents in Bitola and 69% in Skopje had the postural spine deformity, the average being 59.5%. The results obtained by the questionnaire showed that 50% of adolescents did not have any physical activity out of school, the longest daily activity, lasting four hours, in 48% of the examinees was practising their musical instruments; 40% of the examinees spent two hours watching TV or using the computer, whereas 18% did not use any of them at all. Conclusion. The bad spine posture tends to deteriorate in adolescents and the factor influencing this result should be established by studies aimed at determining the effects of physical activity on reducing such deformities, since the specific type of their education induces the risk of developing pain and early degenerative changes of the spine, which are predominant in the professionals.

  19. Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth. PMID:24147251

  20. Cervical spine trauma: Radiologic manifestations and imaging algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical spine trauma is very critical injury that is incurred most frequently in automobile accidents, mining incidents, and war. Injuries of the cervical spine produce neurologic damage in approximately 40% of cases, whereas injuries of the thoracolumbar junction produce neurologic damage in 4% and injuries of the thoracic spine do so in 10%. Radiology has a fundamental role in the recognition and follow-up of patients. Radiologists should be quite familiar with the imaging algorithms and various radiologic manifestations of cervical spine injuries. In this paper, techniques of examining severely injured patients as well as those with slight or questionable injuries are demonstrated. Indications and limitations of various diagnostic procedures (plain film radiography, tomography, CT, and MR imaging) are discussed. A systematic plan for the study of the cervical spine with an emphasis on joints, bones, ligaments and soft tissues (JO-B-LI-ST) is introduced. Mechanisms of injury and the stability or instability of the injuries are presented. Plain radiography as well as other imaging modalities are used to demonstrate the most important forms of injuries at various levels. Follow-up of some of the treated cases is shown. The late complications of spinal cord damage in closed injuries and open wounds (urinary stones, myositis, ossificans, contractures, fractures, disuse atrophy, and bone infections) are presented at the end

  1. Functional diagnostics of the cervical spine by using computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, J.; Hayek, J.; Grob, D.; Penning, L.; Panjabi, M.M.; Zehnder, R.

    1988-04-01

    35 healthy adults and 137 patients after cervical spine injury were examined by functional CT. The range of axial rotation at the level occiput/atlas, atlas/axis and the segment below were measured in all subjects. A rotation occiput/atlas of more than 7/sup 0/, and C1/C2 more than 54/sup 0/ could refer to segmental hypermobility, a rotation at the segment C1/C2 less than 29/sup 0/ to hypomobility. According to the postulated normal values based upon a 98% confidence level, out of 137 patients examined after cervical spine injury and with therapy-resistant neck pain, 45 showed signs of segmental hypermobility of the upper cervical spine, 17 showed hyper- or hypomobility at different levels, 10 patients presented segmental hypomobility at C1/C2 level alone. In all patients, according to the clinical assessment, functional pathology was suspected in the upper cervical spine. Surgical correction of rotatory instability should be considered as a possible therapeutic procedure after successful diagnostic stabilisation of the cervical spine by minerva cast.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the ovine lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisolle, J F; Wang, X Q; Squélart, M; Hontoir, F; Kirschvink, N; Clegg, P; Vandeweerd, J M

    2014-06-01

    Although the ovine spine is a useful research model for intervertebral disc pathology and vertebral surgery, there is little peer-reviewed information regarding the MRI anatomy of the ovine spine. To describe the lumbar spine MRI anatomy, 10 lumbar segments of cadaver ewes were imaged by 1.5-Tesla MR. Sagittal and transverse sequences were performed in T1 and T2 weighting (T1W, T2W), and the images were compared to gross anatomic sagittal and transverse sections performed through frozen spines. MRI was able to define most anatomic structures of the ovine spine in a similar way as can be imaged in humans. In both T1W and T2W, the signals of ovine IVDs were similar to those observed in humans. Salient anatomic features were identified: (1) a 2- to 3-mm linear zone of hypersignal was noticed on both extremities of the vertebral body parallel to the vertebral plates in sagittal planes; (2) the tendon of the crura of the diaphragm appeared as a hypointense circular structure between hypaxial muscles and the aorta and caudal vena cava; (3) dorsal and ventral longitudinal ligaments and ligamentum flavum were poorly imaged; (4) no ilio-lumbar ligament was present; (5) the spinal cord ended between S1-S2 level, and the peripheral white matter and central grey matter were easily distinguished on T1W and T2W images. This study provides useful reference images to researchers working with ovine models. PMID:23668479

  3. An Algorithmic Approach to Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Scott M; Moll, Stephan; Lim, Moe R

    2015-10-01

    Venous thromboembolic embolism (VTE) is a potentially serious and life-threatening complication in spine surgery. However, VTE incidence and prophylaxis in spine surgery remains controversial. Current recommendations for VTE prophylaxis address "spine surgery" as a single broad category and mainly consider patient factors when determining risk. We performed a literature review to determine the varying VTE and bleeding risks within spine surgery to develop an individualized prophylactic algorithm. Our review suggests that the current guidelines on VTE prophylaxis for spine surgery from NASS and ACCP are suboptimal. Consideration of (1) patient-related VTE risks, (2) procedure-related VTE risks, and (3) the risk of neurological compromise from bleeding complications will more appropriately balance safety and effectiveness when choosing a VTE prophylaxis method. To better individualize VTE prophylaxis, we have developed the VTE Prophylaxis Risk/Benefit Score that considers this currently available best evidence to arrive at a recommendation for the most appropriate form of VTE prophylaxis. This algorithm informs the surgeon to help make a more nuanced and individualized determination of prophylaxis. PMID:26327600

  4. Functional diagnostics of the cervical spine by using computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    35 healthy adults and 137 patients after cervical spine injury were examined by functional CT. The range of axial rotation at the level occiput/atlas, atlas/axis and the segment below were measured in all subjects. A rotation occiput/atlas of more than 70, and C1/C2 more than 540 could refer to segmental hypermobility, a rotation at the segment C1/C2 less than 290 to hypomobility. According to the postulated normal values based upon a 98% confidence level, out of 137 patients examined after cervical spine injury and with therapy-resistant neck pain, 45 showed signs of segmental hypermobility of the upper cervical spine, 17 showed hyper- or hypomobility at different levels, 10 patients presented segmental hypomobility at C1/C2 level alone. In all patients, according to the clinical assessment, functional pathology was suspected in the upper cervical spine. Surgical correction of rotatory instability should be considered as a possible therapeutic procedure after successful diagnostic stabilisation of the cervical spine by minerva cast. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of cervical spine function in healthy persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiograms were taken of subjects with no symptoms of cervical spine problems; the cervical spine was evaluated in the spontaneous posture and at maximal flexion and extension. The position and movement of the vertebra, intervertebral height and gliding were calculated. The results showed that (1) lordosis in women occurred less pronouncedly than in men, and that there was an increase with age; (2) C 2-3 was the least flexible segment and mobility increased in the caudal direction; mobility decreased with age and the segments of the lower cervical spine with the highest mobility decreased the most; (3) all posterior and ventral intervertebral heights showed a decrease with age at C 5-6 and C 6-7; (4) vertebral gliding decreased with age. (orig.)

  6. Psoas abscess like metastasis mimicking Koch?s spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj V Sonawane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In endemic country like India, psoas abscess is commonly associated with dorsolumbar tuberculosis. A 56-year-old HIV-negative female treated case of carcinoma of cervix presented to rural hospital with psoas abscess like lesion and vertebral involvement. Patient was managed as tuberculosis of lumbar spine. Patient presented to us after 1 year with progressive neurodefecit and huge psoas abscess. USG-guided FNAC of psoas abscess revealed squamous malignant cell. This was recurrence of the operated FIGO stage 1b carcinoma of cervix, presenting as metastasis to lumbar spine and psoas muscle. We report a rare case of cervical carcinoma in HIV-negative women presenting as lumbar vertebra involvement and psoas abscess like metastasis initially managed as tuberculosis of spine. This case report also highlights possible errors that could be made in such rare cases.

  7. Anaesthetic and Intensive Care Management of Traumatic Cervical Spine Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Umamaheswara Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma to the cervical spine may have devastating consequences. Timely interventions are essential to prevent avoidable neurological deterioration. In the initial stabilization of patients with acute cervical spine injuries, physiological disturbances, especially those involving cardiac and respiratory function require careful attention. Early surgery, which facilitates rapid mobi-lization of the patient, is fraught with important management considerations in the intraopoerative period and the subsequent critical care. Airway management poses a crucial challenge at this stage. Those patients who survive the injury with quadriplegia or quadriparesis may present themselves for incidental surgical procedures. Chronic systemic manifestations in these patients require attention in providing anaesthesia and postoperative care at this stage. The current review provides an insight into the physiological disturbances and the management issues in both acute and chronic phases of traumatic cervical spine injury.

  8. Cervical spine tuberculosis and retropharyngeal abscess in an adult Nigerian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okechukwu S Ogah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there has been an increase in the incidence of tuberculosis by 2.2 million from 1997 to 2005 and 95% of this is occurring in developing countries. Tuberculosis of the cervical spine is rare. To present our experience with a case of cervical spine tuberculosis. We present a case report of tuberculosis of the C3/C4 cervical spine associated with retropharyngeal abscess in a 36-year-old Nigerian woman. The disease was also associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Neck pain, neck stiffness, radicular pain, especially to the left shoulder and wasting of the muscles of the hand, were the main features. Our patient improved on anti-tuberculous therapy and conservative supportive care. This case stresses the usefulness of simple pain cervical X-radiograph, especially in environments like ours where sophisticated investigations are either not available or beyond the reach of most patients. Conservative management in our patient resulted in remarkable improvement.

  9. [Indications for surgical management of injuries of the cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühren, V; Hofmeister, M; Militz, M; Potulski, M

    1998-01-01

    The indication for operative treatment of serious injuries to the cervical spine is basically determinated by instability and dislocation. Timing of the operation is based on the neurological deficit. If there is a chance for recovery operative treatment is urgent. For the upper cervical spine defined indications are existing for type-2-fractures of the dens and C 2/C 3-instabilities of the hangman-type with major dislocation. Fractures of C 0 and C 1 are preferably treated by conservative methods. Only cases with compound injury patterns with a high degree of ligamentous instability may require dorsal fusion. For serious injuries of the lower cervical spine operative treatment is needed in most instances. Conservative treatment is only indicated if functional stability can be proofed and injuries to the discs and compression to the myelon are ruled out. PMID:9757535

  10. A spine-sheath model for strong-line blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a quasi-analytical model for the production of radiation in strong-line blazars, assuming a spine-sheath jet structure. The model allows us to study how the spine and sheath spectral components depend on parameters describing the geometrical and physical structure of "the blazar zone". We show that typical broad-band spectra of strong-line blazars can be reproduced by assuming the magnetization parameter to be of order unity and reconnection to be the dominant dissipation mechanism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spine-sheath model can explain why gamma-ray variations are often observed to have much larger amplitudes than the corresponding optical variations. The model is also less demanding of jet power than one-zone models, and can reproduce the basic features of extreme gamma-ray events.

  11. Region-based enhancement of chest and cervical spine radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyh-Shyan; Steller Artz, Dorothy E.; Li, Huai; Legendre, Kevin; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a region-based image processing method to enhance selective radiodense regions on digital radiographs. We employ a wavelet filtering technique to locate the radiodense regions-of-interest and then apply different degrees of enhancement procedure to them. The enhancement procedure is based on an unsharp masking technique controlled by a set of sigmoidal functions. The method was tested on computed chest radiographs to improve the visualization of the mediastinum and radiodense spine areas. The enhanced chest images showed improved visualization in the mediastinum area, and the visibility of vascular structures which were obscured by the diaphragm and mediastinum was improved. To demonstrate the method's potential in other medical image processing tasks, we applied it to cervical spine images. The processed cervical spine images also showed better visualization of the seventh cervical vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebrae in the high radiodense area caused by the superimposition of the patient's shoulder tissue over these regions of interest.

  12. Benign compression fractures of the spine: signal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen patients with 38 compression fractures of the spine underwent magnetic resonance(MR) imaging. We retrospectively evaluated MR images in those benign compression fractures. MR images showed four patterns in T1-weighted images. MR imaging patterns were normal signal(21), band like low signal(8), low signal with preservation of peripheral portion of the body(8), and diffuse low signal through the vertebral body(1). The low signal portions were changed to high signal intensities in T2-weighted images. In 7 of 15 patients (11 compression fractures), there was a history of trauma, and the remaining 8 patients (27 compression fractures) had no history of trauma. Benign compression fractures of trauma, remained 8 patients (27 compression fractures) were non-traumatic. Benign compression fractures of the spine reveal variable signal intensities in MR imagings. These patterns of benign compression fractures may be useful in interpretation of MR imagings of the spine

  13. Injuries of the spine sustained during rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, J R; Gill, S

    1988-05-01

    In 1984 JR Silver reported on 63 patients who had sustained serious injuries of their cervical spine as a result of games of rugby between the years 1952 and 1982. In this paper his results have been brought up to date. A further 19 players who were treated personally are reported, sustaining their injuries between 1983 and 1987. The mechanism of injury was still blows to the head or the head being driven into the ground. Seven injuries occurred in the scrums all were front row forwards. One was injured when the players charged, two players were inexperienced and the other cases all followed a collapse of the scrum after which the second rows continued to push. Five players were injured while tackling, six players were injured in a ruck and maul situation--in each case they were pushed to the ground while stooping to pick up the ball, other players piled on top of them (one player broke from the scrum and he endeavoured to retrieve a low ball and then fell striking his head). Further research was carried out by circularising all the spinal units in the United Kingdom to obtain the overall figures. It has been found that there has been a reduction in the number of injuries from ten in 1983 to five in 1986/7, presumably from a change in the laws. In order to determine whether a further change in the laws was necessary or whether the existing laws were adequate, research was carried out by video recording several games of rugby and analysing the games later in slow motion and determining how injuries occurred. Most of the injuries in these small number of games occurred in the ruck and maul situation. It was concluded that the majority of such injuries were not due to bad luck but were caused by irresponsible actions. The laws were still being broken and not being enforced. The existing laws were adequate since there has been a reduction in the number of injuries overall, particularly at first class and schoolboy levels, but were not enforced at junior levels-they were the main source of injury. PMID:3387737

  14. Vascular malformations of the spine; Spinale Gefaessmalformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, A.; Mull, M. [Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie; Reith, W. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2001-11-01

    The vascular malformations of the spine and spinal cord are rare diseases. Possible symptoms may consist in a transient neurological deficit, a progressive sensorimotor transverse lesion or an acute para- or tetraplegia. Damage to the spinal cord occurs by bleeding, space-occupying effects and venous congestion, rarely by steal effects. Classification of the true inborn malformations differentiates between arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), cavernomas and capillary teleangiectasias. The more frequent spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) of the elderly patient is a probably acquired lesion which is presented in a separate paper. Capillary teleangiectasias are mostly incidental findings but may cause differential diagnostic problems. Cavernomas are important causes of hemorrhage and may initially be obscured within the bleeding. MRI is the most relevant imaging procedure in the early diagnostic workup. In case of an AVM selective spinal angiography is required to define the type of the lesion and to decide about the appropriate therapy which may be endovascular-interventional, neurosurgical, combined or attentive. (orig.) [German] Die Gefaessmalformationen des Spinalkanals und Rueckenmarks sind seltene Erkrankungen, deren moegliche Symptome von transienten neurologischen Ausfaellen bis zur akuten Querschnittlaehmung reichen. Eine Schaedigung des Rueckenmarks kann durch Blutungen, Raumforderungswirkung, venoese Kongestion oder ''Steal-Effekte'' entstehen. Haeufiger als die echten (angeborenen) Malformationen, wozu arteriovenoese Malformationen (AVMs), Kavernome und kapillaere Teleangiektasien gerechnet werden, sind die vermutlich erworbenen spinalen duralen arteriovenoesen Fisteln (SDAVF) des aelteren Patienten, die gesondert dargestellt werden. Die kapillaeren Teleangiektasien sind meist Zufallsbefunde, koennen aber differenzialdiagnostische Verwirrung verursachen. Kavernome sind eine wichtige Ursache fuer Blutungen, wobei sie sich innerhalb eines Haematoms zunaechst der Diagnostik entziehen koennen. Der MRT kommt im Vorfeld die groesste diagnostische Bedeutung zu. Bei Vorliegen einer AVM muss durch selektive spinale Angiographie der Typ des AV-Angioms genau geklaert und ueber die Wahl der Behandlung entschieden werden. Waehrend Kavernome als ''Low-flow-Malformationen'' nur operativ zu behandeln sind, kommen bei AVMs prinzipiell endovaskulaer-interventionelle, neurochirurgische oder auch beides kombinierende Behandlungen in Betracht. In Einzelfaellen kann ein abwartendes Verhalten gerechtfertigt sein. (orig.)

  15. Computational reconstitution of spine calcium transients from individual proteins

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    Thomas Matthew Bartol

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We have built a stochastic model in the program MCell that simulates Ca2+ transients in spines from the principal molecular components believed to control Ca2+ entry and exit. Proteins, with their kinetic models, are located within two segments of dendrites containing 88 intact spines, centered in a fully reconstructed 5 x 5 x 6 µm cube of hippocampal neuropil. Protein components include AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, L- and R-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases, smooth endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPases, immobile Ca2+ buffers, and calbindin. Kinetic models for each protein were taken from published studies of the isolated proteins in vitro. For simulation of electrical stimuli, the time course of voltage changes in the dendritic spine was generated with the desired stimulus in the program NEURON. Voltage-dependent parameters were then continuously re-adjusted during simulations in MCell to reproduce the effects of the stimulus. Nine parameters of the model were optimized within realistic experimental limits by a process that compared results of simulations to published data. We find that simulations in the optimized model reproduce the timing and amplitude of Ca2+ transients measured experimentally in intact neurons. Thus, we demonstrate that the characteristics of individual isolated proteins determined in vitro can accurately reproduce the dynamics of experimentally measured Ca2+ transients in spines. The model will provide a test bed for exploring the roles of additional proteins that regulate Ca2+ influx into spines and for studying the behavior of protein targets in the spine that are regulated by Ca2+ influx.

  16. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z; Overley, Samuel C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design?Literature review. Objective?To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods?The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results?The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion?This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today. PMID:26835204

  17. Recurrent spine surgery patients in hospital administrative database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sami Walid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital patient databases are typically used by administrative staff to estimate loss-profit ratios and to help with the allocation of hospital resources. These databases can also be very useful in following rehospitalization. This paper studies the recurrence of spine surgery patients in our hospital population based on administrative data analysis. Methods: Hospital data on 4,958 spine surgery patients operated between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. After sorting the cohort per ascending discharge date, the patient official name, consisting of first, middle and last names, was used as the variable determining duplicate cases in the SPSS statistical program, designating the first case in each group as primary. Yearly recurrence rate and change in procedure distribution were studied. In addition, hospital charges and length of stay were compared using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of 4,958 spine surgery patients 364 (7.3% were categorized as duplicate cases by SPSS. The number of primary cases from which duplicate cases emerged was 327 meaning that some patients had more than two spine surgeries. Among primary patients (N=327 the percentage of excision of intervertebral disk procedures was 33.3% and decreased to 15.1% in recurrent admissions of the same patients (N=364. This decrease was compensated by an increase in lumbar fusion procedures. On the other hand, the rate of cervical fusion remained the same. The difference in hospital charges between primary and duplicate patients was $2,234 for diskectomy, $6,319 for anterior cervical fusion, $8,942 for lumbar fusion – lateral technique, and $12,525 for lumbar fusion – posterior technique. Recurrent patients also stayed longer in hospital, up to 0.9 day in lumbar fusion – posterior technique patients. Conclusion: Spine surgery is associated with an increasing possibility of additional spine surgery with rising invasiveness and cost.

  18. Clinical implications of alignment of upper and lower cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherekar S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The alignment of upper and lower cervical spine is presumed to be closely interrelated and the knowledge of this is mandatory when performing occipito-cervical and upper cervical fusions. The aim of this study was to establish standard values for upper and lower cervical spine alignment in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Five hundred eighteen asymptomatic volunteers (261 males and 257 females between 12 and 80 years of age underwent lateral radiography with their neck in the neutral position. Angles for occipital to 2nd cervical (Oc-C2, 1st to 2nd cervical (C1-C2 and sagittal alignment of 2nd to 7th cervical vertebrae (C2-C7 were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using a statistical package SPSS 10 for windows and the students ?t? test. Results: The mean Oc-C2, C1-C2 and C2--C7 angles were 14.66 + 9.5°, 25.6 + 7.9° and 16.8 + 12.7° in male, while same angles in female were 15.59 + 8.26°, 26.9 + 6.8° and 9.11 + 10.4° respectively. Weak statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the measured angles of the upper (Oc-C2 and C1-C2 and lower (C2-C7 cervical spines, which means if the lordosis of the occiput and upper cervical spine increases (if the Oc-C2 angle increases, the alignment of lower cervical spine becomes kyphotic and vice versa. This negative correlation was stronger between the Oc-C2 and C2-C7 angles than between the C1-C2 and C2-C7 angles. Conclusions: Relationship between alignment of the upper and the lower cervical spine should be taken into consideration when performing cervical fusion.

  19. Scoliosis and spine involvement in fibrous dysplasia of bone

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Federico; Corsi, Alessandro; De Maio, Fernando; Riminucci, Mara; Ippolito, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Few studies focused on the prevalence of scoliosis and involvement of the spine in patients with fibrous dysplasia (FD) of bone. We examined for FD involvement of the spine and scoliosis in 56 patients affected by FD of bone. Fifty patients were part of a cohort reported in a multicentric study on FD promoted by European Pediatric Orthopedic Society (EPOS) in 1999, and six were new patients. There were 30 females and 26 males (mean age 12.5 years; range 1–42 years). Twenty-three had monostoti...

  20. Spine Shape Predicts Vertebral Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, P.C.; A. Ghosh; M. G. Sorensen; Nielsen, Mads

    2008-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of patients at high risk of developing fragility fractures is crucial in the management of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the shape of the spine as can be observed from lateral X-rays is indicative for the risk of future development of fragility fractures in the spine. The study included 568 elderly women of whom 455 maintained skeletal integrity during the mean observation period of 4.8 years and 113 sustained at least one verteb...

  1. CT guided percutaneous biopsy of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effects of CT guided biopsy of cervical spine in clinical treatment, and discuss the technique involved, ten patients underwent percutaneous biopsy of cervical lesions under CT guidance. Anterior approach with the patient sitting and the needle passing through the mouth was done in one case; latero posterior approach with patient in lateral decubitus position in 5 cases; and lateral approach with 3 patients supine and 1 in lateral decubitus. Nine of ten patients had definitive histological diagnosis, the accuracy of biopsy was 90%, no complications were found. CT guided biopsy of cervical spine is safe and effective, with rare complications, providing important information for clinical treatment

  2. Delayed stabilization of dendritic spines in fragile X mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Martín, Alberto; Crespo, Michelle; Portera-Cailliau, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) causes mental impairment and autism through transcriptional silencing of the Fmr1 gene, resulting in the loss of the RNA-binding protein FMRP. Cortical pyramidal neurons in affected individuals and Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice have an increased density of dendritic spines. The mutant mice also show defects in synaptic and experience-dependent circuit plasticity, which are known to be mediated in part by dendritic spine dynamics. We used in vivo time-lapse imaging with 2-ph...

  3. Osteoid Osteoma of Cervical Spine in two adjacent Vertebrae

    OpenAIRE

    MR Etemadifar; AR Ebrahimzadeh; M Karimian

    2005-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor, mainly seen in 10-30 years male. Spine is a relatively common site and almost always, posterior elements are involved. Plain X-Ray-, CT scan and Isotope scan help to identify and localize spine lesions. We described one 18 years old boy with 3 years low neck pain. Isotope scan, MRI and CT scan showed two lesions in C7 and T1. Gross inspection and histopathology examination confirmed osteoid osteoma in two adjacent vertebrae which has not been reported e...

  4. Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Kover, Allan W.

    1978-01-01

    The steady growth of the Landsat image data base continues to make this kind of remotely sensed data second only to aerial photographs in use by geoscientists who employ image data in their research. Article reviews data uses, meetings and symposia, publications, problems, and future trends. (Author/MA)

  5. A stress fracture of the lumbar spine in a professional rugby player

    OpenAIRE

    Castinel, Bernard H; Adam, Philippe; Prat, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    In modern rugby, the spine is subjected to great physical pressure, with an increased number of impacts, on both the cervical and the lumbar spine. This case report illustrates overuse injuries of the lumbar spine in international professional rugby players. A 32?year?old sportsman had been practising rugby for 24 years and was playing for a championship level French team when he started suffering from a right lateral pain in the lumbosacral spine. A CT scan showed a unilateral isthmolysis an...

  6. Cervical spine movement during intubation using the Airtraq® and direct laryngoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    ERDEN, ?. Ayd?n; PAMUK, A. Gülsün; Uzun, ?ennur; GEY?K, Serdar; ÇEK?RGE, Saruhan; Aypar, Ülkü

    2010-01-01

    To compare 2 endotracheal intubation techniques, namely direct laryngoscopy and Airtraq®, according to their influence on cervical spine movement and intubation time and success rates, complications, and hemodynamic responses. Materials and methods: Thirty three patients without cervical spine problems were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomized into direct laryngoscopy and Airtraq® groups. Assessment of movement of the cervical spine was made by taking 3 lateral cervical spine X-ra...

  7. A non-proteinaceous toxin from the venomous spines of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M S; Cheung, P; Leong, I; Ruggieri, G D

    1985-01-01

    The venomous spines of P. volitans contain a non-proteinaceous ichthyotoxin of low molecular weight. This toxin could be isolated only from spines excised from the living fish; the toxin is apparently destroyed following death, as the extracts of the spines of the dead fish were non-toxic. PMID:4024148

  8. Using the cervical range of motion (CROM) device to assess head repositioning accuracy in individuals with cervical radiculopathy in comparison to neck- healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Wibault, Johanna; Vaillant, Jacques; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Dedering, Åsa; Peolsson, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    This study had two purposes: to compare head repositioning accuracy (HRA) using the cervical range of motion (CROM) device between individuals with cervical radiculopathy caused by disc disease (CDD; n = 71) and neck- healthy individuals (n = 173); and to evaluate the test–retest reliability of the CROM device in individuals with CDD, and criterion validity between the CROM device and a laser in neck-healthy individuals, with quantification of measurement errors. Parameters of reliability and...

  9. Risk factors and visual results in cases of LASIK flap repositioning due to folds or dislocation: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Guerra, Alfredo R; Rey, Juan J; Camacho, Paul A

    2014-02-01

    The presence of a corneal flap is a hallmark of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), which offers advantages in terms of speed of visual recovery; however, it also carries the risk of postoperative flap displacement. We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive eyes on which LASIK was performed by one single surgeon at an ophthalmological institute in Colombia between May 2005 and January 2011, looking for eyes that required flap repositioning. Demographic data, preoperative refraction, hinge position, and visual outcomes following flap repositioning were evaluated. A literature review on the subject was also conducted. We found 37 eyes on which flap repositioning was performed-12 eyes (32.4 %) with subluxation and 25 eyes (67.6 %) with folds; 21 eyes (56.8 %) had a temporal hinge and 16 eyes (43.2 %) had a superior hinge. With regard to the total number of eyes on which LASIK was performed (2,595), the overall incidence was 1.4 %. Sixteen out of 2,093 eyes (0.8 %) with a superior hinge and 21 out of 502 eyes (4.2 %) with a temporal hinge had flap-related postoperative complications (p < 0.00). A final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between 20/20 and 20/25 was found in 75.7 % and a final BCVA between 20/30 and 20/40 was found in 21.6 %. Only one eye had less than 20/40 (previous amblyopia). From the eight eyes with a BCVA between 20/30 and 20/40, three had residual microstriae and one had corneal haze. Six eyes (16.2 %) lost two or more lines of BCVA. Flap subluxation or folds requiring flap repositioning were significantly more frequent when a temporal hinge was used. PMID:23605593

  10. Chandra/ACIS Subpixel Event Repositioning. II. Further Refinements and Comparison between Backside and Front-side Illuminated X-ray CCDs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingqiang; Kastner, Joel H.; Prigozhin, Gregory Y.; Norbert S. Schulz; Feigelson, Eric D; Getman, Konstantin V.

    2004-01-01

    We further investigate subpixel event repositioning (SER) algorithms in application to Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) CCD imaging. SER algorithms have been applied to backside illuminated (BI) Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) devices, and demonstrate spatial resolution improvements in Chandra/ACIS observations. Here a new SER algorithm that is charge split dependent is added to the SER family. We describe the application of SER algorithms to frontside illuminated (F...

  11. Frameless linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases: analysis of patient repositioning using a mask fixation system and clinical outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Minniti Giuseppe; Scaringi Claudia; Clarke Enrico; Valeriani Maurizio; Osti Mattia; Enrici Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To assess the accuracy of patient repositioning and clinical outcomes of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases using a stereotactic mask fixation system. Patients and Methods One hundred two patients treated consecutively with frameless SRS as primary treatment at University of Rome Sapienza Sant'Andrea Hospital between October 2008 and April 2010 and followed prospectively were involved in the study. A commercial stereotactic mask fixation system (Br...

  12. Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed

    OpenAIRE

    AmitGefen

    2013-01-01

    Patient repositioning when the skin is moist e.g. due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF) and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitatively...

  13. Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed

    OpenAIRE

    Shaked, Eliav; Gefen, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Patient repositioning when the skin is moist, e.g., due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF) and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitativel...

  14. Plasmonic sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic sensors typically rely on detection of changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium. Here, an alternative approach is reported based on electrical surface screening and controlled dissolution of ultrasmall silver nanoparticles (NPs; R < 5 nm) that can result in a great...... increase in the sensitivity, as compared to traditional refractive index sensing. Here, a detection scheme based on controlled dissolution is reported. Monitoring the plasmon band, while the particles are continuously decreased in size, enables the investigation of size-related effects on the same fixed...... the detection that cannot be obtained by traditional refractive index sensing, without the use of bioprobes. A simple modified Drude model is used to account for shifts in the plasmon band position due to electrical charging. Here, a screening parameter is introduced in the expression for the free...

  15. Changes in temporomandibular joint morphology in class II patients treated with fixed mandibular repositioning and evaluated through 3D imaging: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, M A Q; Alsufyani, N; Flores-Mir, C; Nebbe, B; Major, P W

    2015-11-01

    To estimate the effects of skeletal class II malocclusion treatment using fixed mandibular repositioning appliances on the position and morphology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Two independent reviewers performed comprehensive electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM reviews and Scopus (until May 5, 2015). The references of the identified articles were also manually searched. All studies investigating morphological changes of the TMJ articular disc, condyle and glenoid fossa with 3D imaging following non-surgical fixed mandibular repositioning appliances in growing individuals with class II malocclusions were included in the analysis. Of the 269 articles initially reviewed, only 12 articles used magnetic resonance imaging and two articles used computed tomography (CT) or cone-beam CT images. Treatment effect on condyle and glenoid fossa was discussed in eight articles. Treatment effect on TMJ articular disc position and morphology was discussed in seven articles. All articles showed a high risk of bias due to deficient methodology: inadequate consideration of confounding variables, blinding of image assessment, selection or absence of control group and outcome measurement. Reported changes in osseous remodelling, condylar and disc position were contradictory. The selected articles failed to establish conclusive evidence of the exact nature of TMJ tissue response to fixed mandibular repositioning appliances. PMID:26260422

  16. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie; Gregersen, Markil Ebbe Gregers

    2006-01-01

    of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed...

  17. Critical care of obese patients during and after spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgafy, Hossein; Hamilton, Ryan; Peters, Nicholas; Paull, Daniel; Hassan, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent health problems facing the United States today, with a recent JAMA article published in 2014 estimating the prevalence of one third of all adults in the United States being obese. Also, due to technological advancements, the incidence of spine surgeries is growing. Considering these overall increases in both obesity and the performance of spinal surgeries, it can be inferred that more spinal surgery candidates will be obese. Due to this, certain factors must be taken into consideration when dealing with spine surgeries in the obese. Obesity is closely correlated with additional medical comorbidities, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus. The pre-operative evaluation may be more difficult, as a more extensive medical evaluation may be needed. Also, adequate radiographic images can be difficult to obtain due to patient size and equipment limitations. Administering anesthesia becomes more difficult, as does proper patient positioning. Post-operatively, the obese patient is at greater risk for reintubation, difficulty with pain control, wound infection and deep vein thrombosis. However, despite these concerns, appropriate clinical outcomes can still be achieved in the obese spine surgical candidate. Obesity, therefore, is not a contraindication to spine surgery, and appropriate patient selection remains the key to obtaining favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:26855897

  18. Positional device for cinematographic MR of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel positioning device is explained and the experience obtained so far with its application in cinematic MRI of the cervical spine, allowing an extended range of movement from 60 degrees ante- to 40 degrees retroflexion. The tests were done with volounteers. (orig./MG)

  19. Reconstitution of lost cervical spine function: management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst, Arne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The cervical spine (CS is the most vulnerable part of the whole spine because it has least protection. This is due to its high mobility (few bone, but largely muscle and joint support which is associated with a high injury risk. The anatomical characteristics are based on evolutionary biological reasons, i.e. humans had to be able to freely controlling the surrounding space with their eyes and to have permanent postural control by an upright position of the head. The cervical spine, its joint and the surrounding muscles are highly interconnected (e.g. direct neuronal projections into the brain stem, connections to the TMJ, Head's zones with projections to the skin surface. Moreover, the spinal pain memory store can lead to a variets of multi-facette clinical pictures. In addition to reversible disorders of the cervical spine, posttraumatic disorders play a major role. The therapy options available include physiotherapy, drug therapy and surgical measures. However, a multidisciplinary approach is most favourable.

  20. Instrumental design for anterior fixation of dorsal and lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an experimental work; the main purpose is design a system for anterior fixation of thoracolumbar spine. The system includes screws, rods and transverse connectors. Mechanical tests to the system with axial and rotation charges showed elevated resistance and plasticity. The process include the development of elements for application of the system

  1. Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

  2. Intra-abdominal pressure increases stiffness of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Paul W; Eriksson, A E Martin; Shirley, Debra; Gandevia, Simon C

    2005-09-01

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) increases during many tasks and has been argued to increase stability and stiffness of the spine. Although several studies have shown a relationship between the IAP increase and spinal stability, it has been impossible to determine whether this augmentation of mechanical support for the spine is due to the increase in IAP or the abdominal muscle activity which contributes to it. The present study determined whether spinal stiffness increased when IAP increased without concurrent activity of the abdominal and back extensor muscles. A sustained increase in IAP was evoked by tetanic stimulation of the phrenic nerves either unilaterally or bilaterally at 20 Hz (for 5 s) via percutaneous electrodes in three subjects. Spinal stiffness was measured as the force required to displace an indentor over the L4 or L2 spinous process with the subjects lying prone. Stiffness was measured as the slope of the regression line fitted to the linear region of the force-displacement curve. Tetanic stimulation of the diaphragm increased IAP by 27-61% of a maximal voluntary pressure increase and increased the stiffness of the spine by 8-31% of resting levels. The increase in spinal stiffness was positively correlated with the size of the IAP increase. IAP increased stiffness at L2 and L4 level. The results of this study provide evidence that the stiffness of the lumbar spine is increased when IAP is elevated. PMID:16023475

  3. Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, Michael; Schneider, Karl [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology - Paediatric Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

  4. DISH of the cervical spine causing epiglottis impingement

    OpenAIRE

    Bartalena, Tommaso; Buia, Francesco; Borgonovi, Alberto; Rinaldi, Maria Francesca; Modolon, Cecilia; BASSI, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition characterized by calcification and ossification of ligaments and entheses; it mainly affects the vertebral column. We report the case of a patient with pharyngeal dysphagia and episodic aspiration secondary to DISH involvement of the cervical spine, which had caused alteration in the epiglottic tilt mechanism during deglutition.

  5. Eleven Levels of Spinous Process Fractures in Thoracolumbar Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Whoan Jeang; Chi, Yong Joo; Park, Kyung Hoon; Choy, Won Sik

    2014-01-01

    Cases of over 5-level spinous process fractures are extremely rare. Thoracolumbar region of spine is superimposed on ribs; and as such additional studies such as computerized tomography are needed to diagnose fractures in this region. We report a case of 11 contiguous level thoracolumbar spinous process fractures, which has been treated conservatively.

  6. Landmarking and feature localization in spine x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2001-10-01

    The general problem of developing algorithms for the automated or computer-assisted indexing of images by structural contents is a significant research challenge. This is particularly so in the case of biomedical images, where the structures of interest are commonly irregular, overlapping, and partially occluded. Examples are the images created by digitizing film x-rays of the human cervical and lumbar spines. We have begun work toward the indexing of 17 000 such spine images for features of interest in the osteoarthritis and vertebral morphometry research communities. This work requires the segmentation of the images into vertebral structures with sufficient accuracy to distinguish pathology on the basis of shape, labeling of the segmented structures by proper anatomical name, and classification of the segmented, labeled structures into groups corresponding to high level semantic features of interest, using training data provided by biomedical experts. In this paper, we provide a technical characterization of the cervical spine images and the biomedical features of interest, describe the evolving technical approach for the segmentation and indexing problem, and provide results of algorithms to acquire basic landmark data and localization of spine regions in the images.

  7. The effect of breast shielding during lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of lead shielding on the dose to female breasts in conventional x-ray lumbar spine imaging. The correlation between the body mass index and the dose received by the breast was also investigated. Breast surface dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In the first phase measurements of breast dose with and without shielding from lumbar spine imaging in two projections were conducted on an anthropomorphic phantom. In the second stage measurements were performed on 100 female patients, randomly divided into two groups of 50, with breast shielding only used in one group. On average, breast exposure dose in lumbar spine imaging in both projections (anteroposterior (AP) and lateral) was found reduced by approximately 80% (p < 0,001) when shielding with 0.5 mm lead equivalent was used (from 0.45±0.25 mGy to 0.09±0.07 mGy on the right and from 0.26±0.14 mGy to 0.06±0.04 mGy on the left breast). No correlation between the body mass index (BMI) and the breast surface radiation dose was observed. Although during the lumbar spine imaging breasts receive low-dose exposure even when shielding is not used, the dose can be reduced up to 80% by breast shielding with no influence on the image quality

  8. Conservative Management for a Traumatic Cervical Spine Cycling Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Yde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitive cycling holds an inherent risk of traumatic injury often resulting in fracture. Questions regarding the probability of return to sport then arise. The purpose of this case report is to describe the treatment approach and likelihood of returning to cycling after traumatic fracture of the cervical spine and clavicle. This case report describes the use of an original combination of interventions for a C1 fracture with an associated open reduction internal fixation of a left clavicle fracture in a 39-year-old male cyclist. The patient lost control of his bike while descending a slippery slope and was propelled over the handlebars landing head first. The resultant cervical spine and clavicle fractures required twelve weeks in a cervical collar. Physical therapy interventions focused on regaining strength and functional mobility of the cervical spine and shoulder. Following treatment a minimal detectable change was seen for range of motion (>6% of the cervical spine and shoulder, the Numerical Pain Rating Scale (3 point change, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (29.2% change. The patient returned to his prior level of function at home and work. Medical clearance was received to return to training, with a hopeful prognosis of eventually returning to competition.

  9. Transoral approach to the cervical spine: report of four cases

    OpenAIRE

    O'Laoire, SA; Thomas, Dgt

    1982-01-01

    The transoral approach to the upper cervical spine is an established but little used route, offering excellent access with good wound healing, to lesions of the bodies of the atlas, axis and upper part of the third cervical vertebra. The authors report four cases which demonstrate the value of the procedure.

  10. Vitrectomía pars plana y reimplante de lente intraocular en surco Pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular lens repositioning in the sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guerra García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentó un caso de lente intraocular luxado a vítreo en paciente con conteo bajo de células endoteliales e intolerancia a lentes de contacto. Se practicó vitrectomía pars plana con reimplante de lente en surco ciliar con el objetivo de demostrar la fiabilidad de la técnica para casos que presenten condiciones adecuadas y situaciones especiales. Se revisó la bibliografía para conocer las tendencias actuales con respecto al manejo de esta patología. El paciente alcanzó una agudeza visual de 20/30. El lente permaneció estable en el surco 3 meses después de practicada la vitrectomía. El manejo de esta entidad debe ser personalizado. La técnica utilizada debe ser siempre la primera opción de tratamiento y parece ser segura en casos cuidadosamente escogidos.A case of dislocated intraocular lens moved to the vitreous cavity in a patient with low endothelial cell count and contact lens intolerance was reported. A pars plana vitrectomy with lens repositioning was performed to demonstrate the safety of this technique for some special cases under adequate conditions. The literature was reviewed to learn about the current management of this pathology. Finally, patient's best visual acuity was 20/30. The stability of the lens was confirmed three month l after the vitrectomy. Management of this disorder should be customized. This technique should be considered as the first option of treatment and seems to be safe in selected cases.

  11. Barbed reposition pharyngoplasty (BRP) for OSAHS: a feasibility, safety, efficacy and teachability pilot study. "We are on the giant's shoulders".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicini, Claudio; Hendawy, Ehsan; Campanini, Aldo; Eesa, Mohamed; Bahgat, Ahmed; AlGhamdi, Saleh; Meccariello, Giuseppe; DeVito, Andrea; Montevecchi, Filippo; Mantovani, Mario

    2015-10-01

    A new palatal procedure for snoring/obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is described. The procedure was named as barbed reposition pharyngoplasty (BRP). The technique is described step by step. The new surgical technique was carried out in ten adult OSA patients with mean age of 53.4 ± 12.4 years (average 30-70) with confirmed retropalatal obstruction. In this pilot study; we assessed the feasibility by calculating the number of cases that failed to be operated and converted to other palatal technique during the same surgical setting, safety was assessed by evaluating both intra-operative and post-operative complications, teachability measured by the learning curve of our team members (the time of surgical procedure). In this study, the technique is proved to be feasible in all cases. There were no significant intra-operative or post-operative complications. Objective clinical improvement was confirmed by polysomnography 6 months post-operative with significant decrease in mean AHI from 43.65 ± 26.83 to 13.57 ± 15.41 (P = 0.007), daytime sleepiness assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale from 11.6 ± 4.86 to 4.3 ± 2 (P safe and effective in management of OSA patients. Moreover, it is easy to learn even for not experienced surgeons, less time consuming and with no significant complications. PMID:25864183

  12. A novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique for repositioning an embolized stent in the pulmonary conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Gowda, Srinath T; Forbes, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    A 9-year-old male, with history of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, status post complete repair with a 16 mm pulmonary homograft in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) underwent 3110 Palmaz stent placement for conduit stenosis. Following deployment the stent embolized proximally into the right ventricle (RV). We undertook the choice of repositioning the embolized stent into the conduit with a transcatheter approach. Using a second venous access, the embolized stent was carefully maneuvered into the proximal part of conduit with an inflated Tyshak balloon catheter. A second Palmaz 4010 stent was deployed in the distal conduit telescoping through the embolized stent. The Tyshak balloon catheter was kept inflated in the RV to stabilize the embolized stent in the proximal conduit until it was successfully latched up against the conduit with the deployment of the overlapping second stent. One year later, he underwent Melody valve implantation in the pre-stented conduit relieving conduit insufficiency. This novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique is a feasible transcatheter option to secure an embolized stent from the RV to the RVOT. PMID:24402732

  13. Different therapeutic mechanisms of rigid and semi-rigid mandibular repositioning devices in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Hokuto; Mishima, Katsuaki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Asuka; Matsumura, Mayumi; Mano, Takamitsu; Yamasaki, Youichi; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of rigid and semi-rigid mandibular repositioning devices (MRDs) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), seven and 13 patients received rigid and semi-rigid MRDs, respectively. Each patient underwent polysomnographic and computed tomographic examinations at the initial consultation and after symptom improvement. Three-dimensional models of the upper airway (hard palate level to epiglottic base) were reconstructed by image processing software (Mimics version 14.2) to measure airway morphology. The mean age and body mass index were 58.1 years and 24.8 kg/m(2), respectively, in the rigid MRD group and 57.9 years and 23.2 kg/m(2), respectively, in the semi-rigid MRD group. The apnea-hypopnea index significantly improved (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test) from 22.0 to 8.9 and 20.5 to 11.5 events per hour of sleep in the respective groups. The cross-sectional areas measured at the epiglottic tip (from 2.0 to 2.6 cm(2)) and hard palate (from 2.6 to 3.3 cm(2)) levels also increased in the respective groups (P < 0.05). However, airway volume, cross-sectional area measured at the uvular tip level, and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the airway were not significantly different. In conclusion, both types of MRDs improve respiratory status, but they affect different parts of the airway. PMID:24969766

  14. Repositioning accuracy of cerebral fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy using CT scanning; Evaluation par tomodensitometrie du repositionnement en radiotherapie stereotaxique fractionnee cerebrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, D.; Dubus, F.; Castelain, B.; Delplanque, M.; Lartigau, E. [Centre O.-Lambret, Dept. Universitaire de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France); Pasquier, D. [Centre Galilee, Polyclinique de la Louviere, 59 - Lille (France); Bernier, V.; Buchheit, I. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Kerr, C.; Santoro, I. [Centre Val d' Aurelle, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 34 - Montpellier (France); Huchet, A.; Causse, N. [Hopital Saint-Andre, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Dubus, F.; Castelain, B.; Delplanque, M.; Lartigau, E. [Lille-2 Univ., 59 (France)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of patient repositioning in fractionated cerebral stereotactic radiotherapy using a Brain Lab stereotactic cranial mask in conjunction with standard dental fixation. Patients and methods: Fifty planning and checking CT scans were performed in 25 patients. The check CT scan was performed before or after one of the three sessions of treatment. Co registration to the planning CT scan was used to assess alignment of the iso centre to the reference markers. The relative position of the P.T.V. with regard to iso centre allowed us to determine its total displacement (3-dimensional vector). Results: Mean iso centre translations ({+-} S.D.) taking into account direction were -0.01 {+-} 0.7, -0.2 {+-} 1.3 and 0.07 {+-} 0.5 mm in medio-lateral, cranio caudal and anteroposterior directions respectively. Mean rotations ({+-}S.D.) were -0.02 {+-} 0.6, -0.08 {+-} 0.3 and -0.1 {+-} 0.3 degree in medio-lateral, cranio caudal and anteroposterior axes respectively. Mean overall P.T.V. displacement was 1.8 {+-} 1.5 mm. P.T.V. displacement was smaller than 2 and 3 mm in 19/25 and 23/25 patients respectively. Conclusion: The accuracy of patient positioning using a stereotactic cranial mask system is similar to those reported in the literature and shows a satisfactory reproducibility with a standard dental fixation. (authors)

  15. Creating A Sustainable Model of Spine Care in Underserved Communities : The World Spine Care (WSC) Charity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The world lacks sustainable models of care to manage spinal disorders in poor and underserved communities. The purpose of this article is to: (1) review the rationale and importance of developing a sustainable evidence-based model of care at low cost for people with spinal disorders in underserved and poor communities, and (2) describe the process and challenges of establishing such a program in these communities. Given that burden of disease studies rank spinal disorders among the leading causes of disability and the finding that low-income countries have much need but few resources for delivering adequate care, World Spine Care (WSC) was established to "improve lives in underserved communities through sustainable, integrated, evidence-based, spinal care." WSC is comprised of volunteers and institutions from 6 continents and several countries, and incorporates a Board of Directors, an executive committee, a clinical team and a research committee. WSC opened its first clinic in 2012 in Botswana, and now has aclinic in the Dominican Republic and a memorandum of understanding to open a clinic in Tanzania. Clinical programs, research projects, and education-based capacity-building initiatives are adapted to and integrated within each community in collaboration with local decision makers, existing health care workers and traditional healers. Cornerstones of WSC's emphasis on long-term sustainability are (1) education of community partners, governments and local health professionals, and (2) facilitation of opportunities for training graduate students in a variety of health-related fields. World Spine Care has (a) recognized the enormous need to establish clinical programs aimed at easing the suffering and disability associated with spinal disorders in resource-poor communities, (b) shown widespread support for an organization devoted to reducing the global burden of disease caused by spinal disorders, and (c) shown that establishing successful evidence-based, culturally appropriate programs in cooperation with localgovernments and communities are possible. Challenges remain, but with sound leadership, research and a model of care, there is an opportunity to help reduce the burden of the leading cause of disability in the world.

  16. Importance of lateral spine view in DEXA bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement is a very useful technique in the assessment of risks of fracture in suspected cases of osteoporosis. The procedure is routinely carried out in antero-posterior (AP) view of the spine and the hip. But very often discordant results have been reported using the above cited views. Bone mineral concentration (BMC) obtained in the AP view of spine appears higher than that obtained in the hip views. The present study was conducted to establish the importance of lateral view of spine. The lateral view would provide better scope to draw the ROI perfectly thereby resulting in more precise measurement of BMC. In a prospective study a total of 60 consecutive patients (48F, 12M) were evaluated for bone densitometric measurements. The age of the patients ranged from 35-80 years with a mean age of 59 years. None of the patients received ooestrogen, biphosphonates or steroid therapy. Bone densities of the hip and lumbar spine were measured with a Norland XR 36 bone densitometer equipment. The Tscore, which measures the difference between patient's BMD and young-normal, was computed and age-matched Z-score were calculated. X-ray correlation was also done in most of the cases. Analyses of the values obtained over femoral neck revealed 30 cases with osteoporosis and 23 cases with osteopaenia. While on the other hand analyses of AP spine views revealed osteoporosis in 20 and osteopaenia in 30 patients. Hence, it became evident that significant number of patients who were actually suffering from osteoporosis were in fact interpreted as osteopaenic (P0.05). Significant differences (P>0.05) in the values of BMC in the same vertebra measured in AP and lateral views were also observed in this study. Based on the results of this study it was concluded that the lateral view of the spine is an important factor in the accurate measurement of BMC. This view excludes the posterior element of the vertebra as well as the aorta anteriorly, where high incidence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques is present. Since AP view cannot exclude these areas from the region of interest, the BMC values obtained using this view are falsely higher than the actual value. It is therefore recommend that a lateral view of the spine should be included in the determination of BMC as a matter of routine in day to day clinical practice of bone densitometry. (author)

  17. Use of a personalized hybrid biomechanical model to assess change in lumbar spine function with a TDR compared to an intact spine

    OpenAIRE

    Knapik, Gregory G.; Mendel, Ehud; Marras, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Total disc replacements (TDRs) have been employed with increasing frequency in recent years with the intention of restoring natural motion to the spine and reducing adjacent level trauma. Previous assessments of the TDRs have subjectively measured patient satisfaction, evaluated sagittal range of motion via static imaging, or examined biomechanical loading in vitro. This study examined the kinematics and biomechanical loading of the lumbar spine with an intact spine compared to a TDR inserted...

  18. Relative Contribution of Upper and Lower Lumbar Spinal Segments to Flexion/Extension: Comparison between Normal Spines and Spines with Disc Disease in Asian Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, Tarun; Malhar N Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose To evaluate the contribution of upper and lower lumbar segments to flexion and extension of the lumbar spine in normal and diseased spines. Overview of Literature The specific contributions of upper and lower lumbar segments during flexion/extension have rarely been reported. Furthermore, no comparisons between the flexion/extension behaviors of normal and diseased spines have been reported until now. Methods Flexion and extension lateral radiogr...

  19. Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability

  20. Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, Roberto, E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guarnieri, Gianluigi, E-mail: gianluigiguarnieri@hotmail.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guglielmi, Giuseppe, E-mail: g.gugliemi@unifg.it [Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability.

  1. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multiple myeloma of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal involvement is a common presentation of multiple myeloma (MM); however, the cervical spine is the least common site of myelomatous involvement. Few studies evaluate the results of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) in the treatment of MM of the spine. The purpose of this series is to report on the use of PV in the treatment of MM of the cervical spine and to review the literature. From January 1994 to October 2007, four patients (three men and one woman; mean age, 45 years) who underwent five PV for painful MM in the cervical spine were retrospectively reviewed. The pain was estimated by the patient on a verbal analogic scale. Clinical follow-up was available for all patients (mean, 27.5 months; range, 1-96 months). The mean volume of cement injected per vertebral body was 2.3 ± 0.8 mL (range, 1.0-4.0 mL) with a mean vertebral filling of 55.0 ± 12.0% (range, 40.0-75.0%). Analgesic efficacy was achieved in all patients. One patient had a spinal instability due to a progression of spinal deformity noted on follow-up radiographs, without clinical symptoms. Cement leakage was detected in three (60%) of the five treated vertebrae. There was no clinical complication. The present series suggests that PV for MM of the cervical spine is safe and effective for pain control; nonetheless, the detrimental impact of the disease on bone quality should prompt close radiological follow-up after PV owing to the risk of spinal instability. (orig.)

  2. Irradiation spine deformity in children treated for neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective long-term follow-up review of 56 children with neuroblastoma surviving five years and longer following treatment since 1946 revealed that 57% had developed spine deformity (S.D.) following treatment with 250 kilovolt irradiation at the time of review. The average age at diagnosis was 17 months. Irradiation therapy was delivered to most children before 24 months of age. Follow-up averaged 12.9 years with a range of 5-31 years. Eighty-five per cent of the children had developed structural spine deformity at skeletal maturity and 54% of these children had scoliosis greater than 20 degrees. Sixteen per cent of irradiated children developed structural kyphosis. Non-midline opposing anterior and posterior ports were used most frequently. Mean dosage in patients who developed scoliosis of 20 degrees or more was 3588 rads (spine dosage) and 3746 rads in patients who developed kyphosis. Irradiation through opposing anterior and posterior ports was more commonly associated with the development of S.D. Sixty-six per cent of children who had more than 2000 rads developed S.D. The adolescent growth spurt was associated with an increase in the frequency and severity of spine deformity. This study indicated that moderate to severe S.D. was produced by irradiation in excess of 2000 rads administered with a 250-kilovoltage machine. This study would also suggest that children with neuroblastoma treated with orthovoltage irradiation should be followed closely by the orthopaedic surgeon, the oncologist, the radiotherapist and the paediatrician until the completion of skeletal growth for the development of unsightly structural spine deformity. Early bracing and surgery may be helpful in controlling these deformities in the pre-adolescent to early adolescent years. Continued observation is necessary to determine if current irradiation techniques will minimize or eradicate the incidence and severity of these complications. (author)

  3. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multiple myeloma of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mont' Alverne, Francisco [Universite Paris VI, Department of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Sao Paulo University, Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Vallee, Jean-Noel; Guillevin, Remy; Cormier, Evelyne; Jean, Betty; Rose, Michelle; Chiras, Jacques [Universite Paris VI, Department of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Caldas, Jose Guilherme [Sao Paulo University, Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    Spinal involvement is a common presentation of multiple myeloma (MM); however, the cervical spine is the least common site of myelomatous involvement. Few studies evaluate the results of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) in the treatment of MM of the spine. The purpose of this series is to report on the use of PV in the treatment of MM of the cervical spine and to review the literature. From January 1994 to October 2007, four patients (three men and one woman; mean age, 45 years) who underwent five PV for painful MM in the cervical spine were retrospectively reviewed. The pain was estimated by the patient on a verbal analogic scale. Clinical follow-up was available for all patients (mean, 27.5 months; range, 1-96 months). The mean volume of cement injected per vertebral body was 2.3 {+-} 0.8 mL (range, 1.0-4.0 mL) with a mean vertebral filling of 55.0 {+-} 12.0% (range, 40.0-75.0%). Analgesic efficacy was achieved in all patients. One patient had a spinal instability due to a progression of spinal deformity noted on follow-up radiographs, without clinical symptoms. Cement leakage was detected in three (60%) of the five treated vertebrae. There was no clinical complication. The present series suggests that PV for MM of the cervical spine is safe and effective for pain control; nonetheless, the detrimental impact of the disease on bone quality should prompt close radiological follow-up after PV owing to the risk of spinal instability. (orig.)

  4. Method of estimating risk of future fracture in vertebrae of spine used in medical field, involves computing different curvature values to obtain value representative of degree of irregularity of curvature of spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NOVELTY - The curvature (L1-L4) of spine at two neighboring vertebrae is calculated. The different curvature values are computed to obtain a value representative of the degree of irregularity in curvature of spine. The risk of future fracture in vertebrae of spine is estimated using the degree of irregularity in curvature of spine.

  5. HORIZON SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

  6. Imaging fusion (SPECT/CT) in degenerative disease of spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To determine the utility of Fusion Imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of the spine and to establish the impact of the use of fusion imaging in spinal pain due to degenerative changes of the spine. Materials and methods: 44 Patients (M=21, F=23) average age of 63 years and with degenerative pathology of spine were sent to Diagnosis Imaging department in FSFB. Bone scintigraphy (SPECT), CT of spine (cervical: 30%, Lumbar 70%) and fusion imaging were performed in all of them. Bone scintigraphy was carried out in a gamma camera Siemens Diacam double head attached to ESOFT computer. The images were acquired in matrix 128 x 128, 20 seg/imag, 64 images. CT of spine was performed same day or two days after in Helycoidal Siemens somatom emotion CT. The fusion was done in a Dicom workstation in sagital, axial and coronal reconstruction. The findings were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians and 2 radiologists of the staff of FSFB in an independent way. Results: Bone scan (SPECT) and CT of 44 patients were evaluated. CT showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 27 (61.3%) patients, uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 7 (15.9%), bulging disc in 9(20.4%), spinal nucleus lesion in 7(15.9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%), spinal foraminal stenosis in 7 (15.9%), spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis in 4 (9%). Bone scan showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 29 (65.9%), uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 4 (9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%) and normal 3 (6.8%). The imaging fusion showed coincidence findings (main lesion in CT with high uptake in scintigraphy) in 34 patients (77.2%) and no coincidence in 10 (22.8%). In 15 (34.09%) patients the fusion provided additional information. The analysis of the findings of CT and SPECT showed similar results in most of the cases and the fusion didn't provide additional information but it allowed to confirm the findings but when the findings didn't match where the CT showed several findings and SPECT only one area with high uptake which allowed us to address the treatment. In all cases, CT provided exact anatomical localization. Conclusion; Fusion imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of spine allows an integration of the anatomical detail with the functional information. It improves the diagnostic accuracy: Determining sites of greater metabolic activity in patients with multiple degenerative changes and improving the spatial localization in injuries detected by scintigraphy. Image fusion by SPECT/CT could have a clinical impact (34% of our series) in that the treatment was modified. (author)

  7. Use of a personalized hybrid biomechanical model to assess change in lumbar spine function with a TDR compared to an intact spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Gregory G; Mendel, Ehud; Marras, William S

    2012-06-01

    Total disc replacements (TDRs) have been employed with increasing frequency in recent years with the intention of restoring natural motion to the spine and reducing adjacent level trauma. Previous assessments of the TDRs have subjectively measured patient satisfaction, evaluated sagittal range of motion via static imaging, or examined biomechanical loading in vitro. This study examined the kinematics and biomechanical loading of the lumbar spine with an intact spine compared to a TDR inserted at L5/S1 in the same spine. A validated biologically driven personalized dynamic biomechanical model was used to assess range of motion (ROM) and lumbar spine tissue forces while a subject performed a series of bending and lifting exertions representative of normal life activities. This analysis concluded that with the insertion of a TDR, forces are of much greater magnitude in all three directions of loading and are concentrated at both the endplates and the posterior element structures compared to an intact spine. A significant difference is seen between the intact spine and the TDR spine at levels above the TDR insertion level as a function of supporting an external load (lifting). While ROM within the TDR joint was larger than in the intact spine (yet within the normal ranges under the unloaded bending conditions), the differences between spines were far greater in all three planes of motion under loaded lifting conditions. At levels above the TDR insertion, larger ROM was present during the lifting conditions. Sagittal motions were often greater at the higher lumbar levels, but there appeared to be less lateral and twisting motion. Collectively, this analysis indicates that the insertion of a TDR significantly alters the function of the spine. PMID:21445618

  8. From Participatory Sensing to Mobile Crowd Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Bin; Yu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Daqing; Zhou, Xingshe

    2014-01-01

    The research on the efforts of combining human and machine intelligence has a long history. With the development of mobile sensing and mobile Internet techniques, a new sensing paradigm called Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS), which leverages the power of citizens for large-scale sensing has become popular in recent years. As an evolution of participatory sensing, MCS has two unique features: (1) it involves both implicit and explicit participation; (2) MCS collects data from two user-participant d...

  9. The effect of forward head posture on cervical joint position sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Sajjadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have investigated the effect of age, trauma, disease and fatigue on cervical joint position sense. However, there is an absence in data regarding the role of posture on proprioception. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of Forward Head Posture (FHP on cervical joint position sense. Twenty Forward Head Posture volunteers (14 women, 6 men, with the mean age of 23.94 (SD=3.26 years, and 17 normal head posture volunteers (8 women, 9 men with the mean age of 23.50 (SD=2.68 years were asked to perform the Cervicocephalic relocation test (CRT to the neutral head position (NHP. The aim of this test was to evaluate the participants' ability to relocate the head to neutral position after they actively rotated it to left and right sides. Three trials were performed for each rotation to the left and right. In order to assess cervical joint repositioning accuracy, Absolute, Constant and Variable errors were used. No significant difference in repositioning errors was observed between experimental and control group in absolute and constant errors (P>0.05; however, compared to normal group, Forward Head Posture subjects manifested significantly higher levels of variable errors (P<0.05. Forward Head Posture can significantly affect the positioning consistency of cervical proprioception. Nonetheless, further investigation on the effect of Forward Head Posture on cervical proprioception in altered situations is recommended.

  10. Mandibular-Lingual Repositioning Device - MLRD: preliminary results of 8 patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome - OSAS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Castro, Barbosa; Flávio, Aloe; Stella, Tavares; Ademir Baptista, Silva.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os aparelhos bucais têm sido usados principalmente para o tratamento de roncos primários e síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono (SÃOS) leve-moderada. Os autores relatam resultados clínicos preliminares em 8 pacientes com síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono diagnosticada clínica e poli [...] ssonograficamente. Foram tratados com o Aparelho Reposicionador Mandíbulo-Lingual (ARML), desenvolvido por um dos autores (RCB). MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram realizados: cefalometria pré-ARML; escala de sonolência de Epworth (ESE) pré e pós-ARML e questionário que quantifica uma melhora global subjetiva (MGS) do paciente. Controles foram obtidos 4 semanas pós-ARML. RESULTADOS: A melhora global subjetiva foi de 73,75% em média e a escala de sonolência de Epwoeth variou de 13,88 (pré-ARML) para 6,63 (pósARML) apresentando significância estatística (p=0,05). Os autores discutem os prováveis fatores envolvidos na melhora da medida subjetiva de sonolência excessiva diurna. Abstract in english Dental devices have been employed in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) of mild to moderate degrees. The authors disclose the preliminary results in 8 patients with clinically diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea polisomnographically confirmed and treated with a dental [...] device (Mandibular-Lingual Repositioning Device - MLRD) developed by one of the authors (RCB). Cephalometrics was performed before usage of MLRD, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) tests were conducted before and after the MLRD and a questionnaire that subjectively qualified the Overall Subjective Improvement of the patient (OSI) was filled out. The tests were repeated 4 weeks after the application of the MLRD. The average subjective overall improvement was 73.75% and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was 13.88 (pre - MLRD) and 6.63 (post - MLRD) representing a significant statistical variation (p=0.05). The authors discuss probable factors involved in the improvement of the subjective measurements of excessive sleepiness.

  11. Semilunar Coronally Repositioned Flap for the Treatment of Gingival Recession with and without Tissue Adhesives: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahangirnezhad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: One of the main goals in periodontal therapy is the correction of recession defects; therefore the efficacy and predictability of the various techniques are important considerations for clinicians.Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the outcomes of gingival recession therapy using the semilunar coronally repositioned flap (SCRF alone and in conjunction with a tissue adhesive (EPIGLU.Materials and Methods: Thirty-two anterior and premolar teeth with class I and II Miller gingival recessions were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The test group received SCRF followed by EPIGLU application and the control group was managed with SCRF alone. Clinical parameters measured at baseline and 7, 14, 30 and90 days after surgery included vertical and horizontal recession depths, width of keratinized tissue, probing depth, clinical attachment level, percentage of root coverage,and sensitivity of root surface to air flow.Results: The recession depths decreased significantly in both groups (P<0.05. Three months after surgery, the mean root coverage in the test and control groups was 1.86mm (77.96% and 1.57mm (69.1%, respectively. The width of keratinized tissue along with all the other tested parameters except for probing depth, increased significantly in both groups, during the study period (p<0.05. Sensitivity of root surface to air flow was not observed in either group.Conclusion: The SCRF alone or with EPIGLU is an effective procedure for root coverage in anterior and premolar teeth. The addition of EPIGLU improves the amount of root coverage, especially in relatively shallow defects.

  12. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. However, the complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. The principal advantage of three-dimensional CT is its ability to display the surface relationships of complicated objects. The complexity of the spinal axis makes it ideal for study with three-dimensional CT. This presentation illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT in spinal abnormalities in children

  13. Magnetic resonance tomography for trauma of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty patients who had suffered spinal trauma were examined by magnetic resonance tomography. Fifteen patients with first degree trauma in Erdmann's classification showed no abnormality. Magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical spine appears to be a suitable method for investigating patients with whiplash injuries. It is indicated following severe flexion injuries with subluxations and neurological symptoms, since it is the only method that can demonstrate the spinal cord directly and completely and show the extent of cord compression. For patients with thoracic trauma and rapidly developing neurological symptoms, magnetic resonance tomography is ideal for showing post-traumatic syringomyelia. Magnetic resonance tomography following whiplash injuries is recommended if plain films of the cervical spine show any abnormalities, as well as for the investigation of acute or sub-acute neurological abnormalities. The various findings are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of canine degenerative lumbar spine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenerative lumbar spine diseases, i.e., sacrolumbar stenosis, intervertebral disk degeneration and protrusion and spondylosis deformans of the canine lumbar spine were studied in eleven canine patients and three healthy controls using radiography and 0.02 T and 0.04 T low field magnetic resonance imaging. The T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained in sagittal and transverse planes. The loss of hydration of nucleus pulposus, taken as a sign of degeneration in the intervertebral disks, could be evaluated in both T1 and T2 weighted images. As a noninvasive method magnetic resonance imaging gave more exact information about the condition of intervertebral disks than did radiography. Sacrolumbar stenosis and compression of the spinal cord or cauda equina and surrounding tissue could be evaluated without contrast medium

  15. A Case of Cervical Spine Tuberculosis in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S N; Bhatt, Trilok C; Kumar, Savit; Chauhan, Vikas; Pandey, Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis of cervical spine is an extremely rare entity in infants with only few case reports available in the literature. The diagnosis is often delayed due to less dramatic effects of paraplegia or quadriplegia in an infant as compared to older paediatric population. Along with clinical and laboratory investigations, imaging plays a crucial role in defining the extent of involvement, evaluation of complications, providing suitable differential diagnosis and monitoring response to treatment. Tuberculosis typically involves the discovertebral complex while involvement of isolated vertebral body or multiple vertebrae without involving the intervertebral discs is much less common. We present such an unusual case of cervical spine tuberculosis in an infant involving a single vertebral body without adjacent intervertebral disc involvement complicated with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and communicating hydrocephalus. The early medical intervention in this case resulted in early diagnosis, active treatment and resultant near normal recovery. PMID:26894144

  16. 3-dimensional reconstructions of computer tomograms of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, 50 patients were examined by a Siemens 'Somatom Plus'; continuous 2 mm sections between the third lumbar and first sacral vertebra were obtained. All these imaging procedures were suitable for the diagnosis of osteochondrosis and chondrosis. Spondylosis was diagnosed more frequently on 3-D CT. Spondyloarthrosis, with narrowing of the invertebral foramina and root canals is shown particularly well by 3-D CT, since the entire extent of these structures can be seen. 3-D surface reconstruction of the lumbar spine is useful in the diagnosis of lumbar spondyloarthrosis with narrowing of the root canals and of the spinal canal. This method of axial CT is superior to conventional radiography of the lumbar spine in the usual two planes. (orig./GDG)

  17. The dendritic spine story: an intriguing process of discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier DeFelipe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are key components of a variety of microcircuits and they represent the majority of postsynaptic targets of glutamatergic axon terminals in the brain. The present article will focus on the discovery of dendritic spines, which was possible thanks to the application of the Golgi technique to the study of the nervous system, and will also explore the early interpretation of these elements. This discovery represents an interesting chapter in the history of neuroscience as it show us that progress in the study of the structure of the nervous system is based not only on the emergence of new techniques but also on our ability to exploit the methods already available and correctly interpret their microscopic images.

  18. Chiropractors as Primary Spine Care Providers: precedents and essential measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, W Mark; Korpela, A Pauliina; Jones, Robert C

    2013-12-01

    Chiropractors have the potential to address a substantial portion of spinal disorders; however the utilization rate of chiropractic services has remained low and largely unchanged for decades. Other health care professions such as podiatry/chiropody, physiotherapy and naturopathy have successfully gained public and professional trust, increases in scope of practice and distinct niche positions within mainstream health care. Due to the overwhelming burden of spine care upon the health care system, the establishment of a 'primary spine care provider' may be a worthwhile niche position to create for society's needs. Chiropractors could fulfill this role, but not without first reviewing and improving its approach to the management of spinal disorders. Such changes have already been achieved by the chiropractic profession in Switzerland, Denmark, and New Mexico, whose examples may serve as important templates for renewal here in Canada. PMID:24302774

  19. Beyond the spine : a new clinical research priority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, clinical research within the chiropractic profession has focused on the spine and spinal conditions, specifically neck and low back pain. However, there is now a small group of chiropractors with clinical research training that are shifting their focus away from traditional research pursuits towards new and innovative areas. Specifically, these researchers are now delving into areas such as brain injury, work disability prevention, undifferentiated chest pain, hip osteoarthritis, and prevention of pain in children and adolescents to name a few. In this paper, we highlight recent research in these new areas and discuss how clinical research efforts in musculoskeletal areas beyond the spine can benefit patient care and the future of the chiropractic profession.

  20. Management of difficult airway in penetrating cervical spine injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of airway in trauma victim with penetrating cervical/thoracic spine injury has always been a challenge to the anaesthesiologist. Stabilisation of spine during airway manipulation, to prevent any further neural damage, is of obvious concern to the anaesthesiologist. Most anaesthesiologists are not exposed to direct laryngoscopy and intubation in lateral position during their training period. Tracheal intubation in the lateral position may be unavoidable in some circumstances. Difficult airway in an uncooperative patient compounds the problem to secure airway in lateral position. We present a 46-year-old alcoholic, hypertensive, morbidly obese person who suffered a sharp instrument (screwdriver spinal injury with anticipated difficult intubation; the case was managed successfully.

  1. Stability Properties of Strongly Magnetized Spine Sheath Relativistic Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Hardee, Philip E

    2007-01-01

    The linearized relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations describing a uniform axially magnetized cylindrical relativistic jet spine embedded in a uniform axially magnetized relativistically moving sheath are derived. The displacement current is retained in the equations so that effects associated with Alfven wave propagation near light speed can be studied. A dispersion relation for the normal modes is obtained. Analytical solutions for the normal modes in the low and high frequency limits are found and a general stability condition is determined. A trans-Alfvenic and even a super-Alfvenic relativistic jet spine can be stable to velocity shear driven Kelvin-Helmholtz modes. The resonance condition for maximum growth of the normal modes is obtained in the kinetically and magnetically dominated regimes. Numerical solution of the dispersion relation verifies the analytical solutions and is used to study the regime of high sound and Alfven speeds.

  2. Diseases of the spine, spinal cord, and extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the following topics: acupuncture needle in the spinal canal of the neck; thoracic tuberculous spondylitis: cold abscess; comminuted fracture of the fifth cervical vertebra; lumbar spondylolysis; lumbar spondylosis; ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament; disk herniation of the cervical spine: narrowing of the root tunnel; ankylosing spondylitis: narrowing of the root tunnel; ossification of the ligamentum flavum; narrow spinal canal syndrome; syringomyelia; epidural neurinoma of the cervical spine; neurofibromatosis; spinal arteriovenous malformation; atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord; osteomyelitis tuberculosa of the rib; osteomyelitis tuberculosa of the left femur; chronic osteomyelitis of the left humerus; malignant giant cell tumor of the left femur; rheumatoid arthritis of the left hip joint; arthrosis deformans of the left hip joint; and enchondroma of the left index finger: Proximal Phalanx

  3. The use of radiological guidelines to achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To determine if the use of request guidelines can achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee joints performed for general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: GPs referring to three community hospitals and a district general hospital were circulated with referral guidelines for radiography of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee, and all requests for these three examinations were checked. Requests that did not fit the guidelines were returned to the GP with an explanatory letter and a further copy of the guidelines. Where applicable, a large-joint replacement algorithm was also enclosed. If the GP maintained the opinion that the examination was indicated, she or he had the option of supplying further justifying information in writing or speaking to a consultant radiologist. RESULTS: Overall the number of radiographic examinations fell by 68% in the first year, achieving a 79% reduction in the second year. For knees, lumbar spine and cervical spine radiographs the total reductions were 77%, 78% and 86%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of referral guidelines, reinforced by request checking and clinical management algorithms, can produce a dramatic and sustained reduction in the number of radiographs of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

  4. Cost-Sensitive Bayesian Control Policy in Human Active Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeraz Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller, various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax (Butko and Movellan, 2010 and one-step look-ahead accuracy (greedy MAP (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005. We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of “confirmation bias” apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes several key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model.

  5. Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is measuring something without touching it. Most methods measure a portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum using energy reflected from or emitted by a material. Moving the instrument away makes it easier to see more at one time. Airplanes are good but satellites are much better. Many things can not be easily measured on the scale of an individual person. Example - measuring all the vegetation growing at one time in even the smallest country. A satellite can see things over large areas repeatedly and in a consistent way. Data from the detector is reported as digital values for a grid that covers some portion of the Earth. Because it is digital and consistent a computer can extract information or enhance the data for a specific purpose.

  6. Antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities of the spine of stingray Himantura imbricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyamoorthy Kalidasan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the spine structure of stingray Himantura imbricata (H. imbricata and to evaluate the anticoagulant properties of the spine extract obtained through various solvents extracts followed by antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Methods: Spines of H. imbricata were collected from Nagappattinam coast, Tamil Nadu, India and their spines were observed under the light microscope. The grounded spines were subjected to extraction of metabolites using methanol, ethanol, chloroform and acetone. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion technique against 10 human pathogens. Similarly, anticoagulant activity was also assessed by following United States Pharmacopeia method. Results: Light microscopic observation of spine revealed that the venom apparatus of the stingray H. imbricata consisted of two to three spines, glandular tissue and a sheath. The spine extract showed potent antibacterial activity against all tested pathogen. Maximum activity (14 mm was found against Staphylococcus aureus. Crude extract showed 91.50 USP units/mg of anticoagulant activity. Conclusions: Microscopic observations gave new insight about the spine structure of the stingray. The spine extracts of H. imbricate showed potent activity against human pathogens revealed by the good zone of inhibition. Chloroform extracts conferred the most prominent antibacterial activity. The anticoagulant activity was also comparable with that of standard heparin.

  7. Critical care of obese patients during and after spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Elgafy, Hossein; Hamilton, Ryan; Peters, Nicholas; Paull, Daniel; Hassan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent health problems facing the United States today, with a recent JAMA article published in 2014 estimating the prevalence of one third of all adults in the United States being obese. Also, due to technological advancements, the incidence of spine surgeries is growing. Considering these overall increases in both obesity and the performance of spinal surgeries, it can be inferred that more spinal surgery candidates will be obese. Due to this, certain factors mu...

  8. Huge Retroperitoneal Germinoma Presenting with Pathological Fracture of the Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ching Tzaan; Chin-Yew Lin; Shu-Hang Ng; Jen-Seng Huang

    2002-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumors are extremely rare neoplasms. The most commonpresenting features are abdominal pain and palpable abdominal masses. Pathologicalfractures of the spine presenting as bilateral lower leg weakness are exceptionally rare. Wedescribe a 16-year-old girl who developed progressive paraplegia after a minor fallinginjury. Radiological study demonstrated a huge retroperitoneal tumor with invasion of theT12 vertebral body and spinal canal. A posterior surgical appr...

  9. Modern posterior screw techniques in the pediatric cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Hedequist, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of children with cervical spine disorders requiring fusion is a challenging endeavor for a variety of reasons. The size of the patients, the corresponding abnormal bony anatomy, the inherent ligamentous laxity of children, and the relative rarity of the disorders all play a part in difficulty of treatment. The benefits of modern posterior cervical instrumentation in children, defined as rigid screw-rod systems, have been shown to be many including: improved arthrodesis rates, dimini...

  10. Thoracolumbar spine trauma: Evaluation and surgical decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei F Joaquim; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Thoracolumbar spine trauma is the most common site of spinal cord injury, with clinical and epidemiological importance. Materials and Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature review on the management and treatment of TLST. Results: Currently, computed tomography is frequently used as the primary diagnostic test in TLST, with magnetic resonance imaging used in addition to assess disc, ligamentous, and neurological injury. The Thoracolumbar Injury Classification System is ...

  11. Scheuermann’s Disease –Apprentice’s Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Keshkar S; Equebal A; Kumar R,; Singh NJ

    2007-01-01

    An uncommon case of Scheuermann’s Disease (apprentice’s spine) is being reported for two simple reasons (1) to show that it is a self limiting disease which needs only proper observation, extension exercises & extension spinal brace, (2) it becomes a diagnostic riddle when osteolytic lesion is seen in epiphyseal plates of adjacent vertebral bodies in an adolescent. Hence it stressed the need to publish this condition not only for its rarity but also for its diagnostic puzzle to differentiate ...

  12. Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema Associated with Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Yoneda, Masana; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    We report a very rare case of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) that occurred immediately after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The patient was a 25-year-old man who sustained a facet fracture-dislocation of C5 during a traffic accident. After ACDF, he developed NPPE and needed mechanical ventilation. Fortunately, he recovered fully within 24 hours. NPPE is a rare postoperative complication that may occur after cervical spine surgery. The aims of this report are to pres...

  13. Efficacy and safety of instrumentation in caries spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Saumyajit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal instrumentation may be used in tuberculosis of spine for prevention or correction of deformity. Methods: Thirty eight patients of caries spine underwent surgery with spinal instrumentation in the last 3 years. Out of these patients, 30 cases have completed a minimum follow-up of 9 months (Range 9 to 39 months, mean 12.8 months. The regional distribution was 1 in the craniocervical junction, 7 in the subaxial cervical spine, 3 in the cervicothoracic junction, 3 in the thoracic region, 4 in the thoracolumbar junction and 8 in the lumbar region and 1 in the lumbosacral junction. All the cases had anterior lesions except one, which had both anterior and posterior lesions. All of them had decompression, debridement of the lesion and instrumented fusion. Indication of surgery was caries spine with neurodeficit and /or osseous destruction and deformity, which was not responding to conservative treatment of one month. Results: Results were analyzed keeping in mind the clinical and radiological criteria. The former included recovery of pain, and neural deficit with a feeling of general well being. The latter included correction of deformity and evidence of fusion. There was no case which had wound healing/infection related problems. Complications included one case of implant failure and one case of transient neurological deterioration. Results were excellent in 20, good in 5, fair in one and poor in one patient. Majority of the patients were very satisfied with the surgery and all the patients had full anti-tubercular chemotherapy for one year. Conclusions: In properly selected patients, spinal instrumentation is justified because of its safety and efficacy in achieving deformity correction and solid fusion.

  14. Chiropractors as Primary Spine Care Providers: precedents and essential measures

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin, W Mark; Korpela, A. Pauliina; Jones, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Chiropractors have the potential to address a substantial portion of spinal disorders; however the utilization rate of chiropractic services has remained low and largely unchanged for decades. Other health care professions such as podiatry/chiropody, physiotherapy and naturopathy have successfully gained public and professional trust, increases in scope of practice and distinct niche positions within mainstream health care. Due to the overwhelming burden of spine care upon the health care sys...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Koura, Hiroshi; Kai, Nobuo; Asaumi, Koji; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Sezaki, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Shunichi; Sunami, Kazutaka [National Okayama Hospital (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    The characteristics of diagnostic imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma were examined. Twenty-one patients with stage II-III multiple myeloma (male=12, female=9, mean age=64) underwent MRI of the spine. Other diagnostic imaging modalities used in these patients included, CT bone scintigraphy, and radiography. All images of the spine were assessed and compared with the MRI images. The type of progression was evaluated based on the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki. T1-weighted images of all 21 patients showed low signals in vertebral bodies, including 14 cases with a focal low signal intensity and 7 cases with diffuse low signal intensity. On the T2-weighted images, 15 of the 21 cases (71%) showed equivalent signals, while T2*-weighted images obtained by the field-echo method yielded high signals in 10 out of 11 cases. It was difficult to differentiate between senile osteoporosis and multiple myeloma by MRI, but CT images clearly distinguished between them. The results suggested that fat-suppressive T1-contrast images and T2*-weighted images are useful in detecting lesions, especially focal low signal intensity lesions. Patients with the multiple-lesion-tumor type of disease were more likely to develop paralysis more than those with the diffuse myeloproliferative type. Thus, the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki was useful in considering radiotherapy for the treatment of patients at risk of paralysis. Bone scintigraphy revealed accumulation only in spinal lesions caused by compression fractures, while CT appeared to be useful in localizing the diffuse myeloproliferative type of lesions. The problems associated with diagnosis by MRI are differentiation of multiple myeloma from senile osteoporosis and metastatic bone tumors of the spine. There are few specific findings in multiple myeloma. (K.H.)

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of diagnostic imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma were examined. Twenty-one patients with stage II-III multiple myeloma (male=12, female=9, mean age=64) underwent MRI of the spine. Other diagnostic imaging modalities used in these patients included, CT bone scintigraphy, and radiography. All images of the spine were assessed and compared with the MRI images. The type of progression was evaluated based on the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki. T1-weighted images of all 21 patients showed low signals in vertebral bodies, including 14 cases with a focal low signal intensity and 7 cases with diffuse low signal intensity. On the T2-weighted images, 15 of the 21 cases (71%) showed equivalent signals, while T2*-weighted images obtained by the field-echo method yielded high signals in 10 out of 11 cases. It was difficult to differentiate between senile osteoporosis and multiple myeloma by MRI, but CT images clearly distinguished between them. The results suggested that fat-suppressive T1-contrast images and T2*-weighted images are useful in detecting lesions, especially focal low signal intensity lesions. Patients with the multiple-lesion-tumor type of disease were more likely to develop paralysis more than those with the diffuse myeloproliferative type. Thus, the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki was useful in considering radiotherapy for the treatment of patients at risk of paralysis. Bone scintigraphy revealed accumulation only in spinal lesions caused by compression fractures, while CT appeared to be useful in localizing the diffuse myeloproliferative type of lesions. The problems associated with diagnosis by MRI are differentiation of multiple myeloma from senile osteoporosis and metastatic bone tumors of the spine. There are few specific findings in multiple myeloma. (K.H.)

  17. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Modifications Induced by Perinatal Asphyxia

    OpenAIRE

    Capani, F; R. A. Kölliker-Frers; Gonzalez, J. (J.); Barreto, G. E.; R. Castilla; Saraceno, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) affects the synaptic function and morphological organization. In previous works, we have shown neuronal and synaptic changes in rat neostriatum subjected to hypoxia leading to long-term ubi-protein accumulation. Since F-actin is highly concentrated in dendritic spines, modifications in its organization could be related with alterations induced by hypoxia in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we investigate the effects of PA on the actin cytoskeleto...

  18. Volumetric growth of the different regions of the fetal spine.

    OpenAIRE

    PANATTONI, Gian Luigi

    1990-01-01

    The Author analysed the volumetric growth of the spine ('centra' + intervertebral discs) from the 13th week to term of prenatal life. The data were obtained from the osteological collection of the Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology (University of Turin), by means of a geometric procedure. The growth rate was compared with the observations of other Authors on the growth of the linear measures and with the results of previous works on the anteroposterior curvatures of the developing spi...

  19. Ophaceous Gout Involving the Whole Spine: An Unusual Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min Woo; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gout is a relatively common, crystal deposition disease, in which monosodium urate crystals are deposited in joint and periarticular tissues of the extremities. Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. Most patients with spinal gout present with symptomatic spinal cord compression. Diffuse involvement of tophi deposition inside the spinal central canal has not been reported. We now present a case of chronic tophaceous gout with extensive spinal involvement that resulted in diffuse spinal cord compression and led to paraplegia.

  20. Treatment for the Lumbosacral Soft Tissue Defect after Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sun Jin; Lee, Chang Bum; Park, Hyung Taek; PARK, JONG HOON; Lee, Hyeong Seok; Kim, Yong Jin

    2010-01-01

    The lumbosacral area is one of the most frequently operated spine regions because of the prevalence of disease in that area. Although a lumbosacral soft tissue defect after surgery due to inflammation and other causes is rare, such soft tissue defects are difficult to treat. Therefore, suitable methods for treating lumbosacral soft tissue defects are necessary. Therefore, this study introduces a case-treated with a transverse lumbosacral rotational flap.

  1. Lymphangioma in the Epidural Space of the Thoracic Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Bok Yong; Park, Jun Bum; Kim, Young Min; Lyo, In Uk

    2010-01-01

    A rare case of solitary intraspinal epidural lymphangioma is described with a review of the literature. A 16-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital with a history of two-year of progressive paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging study revealed a 2 × 2 × 6 cm sized epidural cystic mass in the thoracic spine. Surgical total removal and biopsy were performed. The final pathologic report on the mass indicated lymphangioma.

  2. Twelve Contiguous Spinous Process Fracture of Cervico-Thoracic Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seong Rok; Sohn, Moon Jun

    2014-01-01

    The clay-shoveler's fracture is an isolated avulsion fracture of the lower cervical or upper thoracic spinous process. Among them, multiple spinous process fractures are very rare. We present 34-year-old male patient who have multiple spinous process fractures with twelve contiguous levels of cervico-thoracic spine (from C4 to T8) after motorcycle accident. This case is multiple isolated spinous process fractures with good clinical outcome.

  3. Beyond the Spine: A New Clinical Research Priority

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David; Cancelliere, Carol; Poulsen, Erik; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Kilsgaard, Jørgen; Blanchette, Marc-André; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, clinical research within the chiropractic profession has focused on the spine and spinal conditions, specifically neck and low back pain. However, there is now a small group of chiropractors with clinical research training that are shifting their focus away from traditional research pursuits towards new and innovative areas. Specifically, these researchers are now delving into areas such as brain injury, work disability prevention, undifferentiated chest pain, hip o...

  4. Posterior longitudinal ligament status in cervical spine bilateral facet dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrino, John A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Manton, Geoffrey L.; Morrison, William B.; Flanders, Adam E. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vaccaro, Alex R. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [New York University, Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2006-07-15

    It is generally accepted that cervical spine bilateral facet dislocation results in complete disruption of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The goal of this study was to evaluate the integrity of numerous spine-stabilizing structures by MRI, and to determine if any associations between injury patterns exist with respect to the posterior longitudinal ligament status. Retrospective case series. A retrospective review was performed of 30 cervical spine injury subjects with bilateral facet dislocation. Assessment of 1.5T MRI images was carried out for: intervertebral disc disruption, facet fracture, and ligamentous disruption. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate for associations between various injury patterns and posterior longitudinal ligament status. The frequency of MRI abnormalities was: anterior longitudinal ligament disruption (26.7%), disc herniation or disruption (90%), posterior longitudinal ligament disruption (40%), facet fracture (63.3%) and disruption of the posterior column ligament complex (97%). There were no significant associations between injury to the posterior longitudinal ligament and other structures. Compared to surgical reports, MRI was accurate for determining the status for 24 of 26 ligaments (three of three anterior longitudinal ligament, seven of nine posterior longitudinal ligament, and 14 of 14 posterior column ligament complex) but generated false negatives in two instances (in both MRI showed an intact posterior longitudinal ligament that was torn at surgery). (orig.)

  5. Imaging evaluation of traumatic thoracolumbar spine injuries: Radiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Rathinam, Deepak; Rangarajan, Krithika; Kumar, Atin; Farooque, Kamran; Sharma, Vijay

    2015-09-28

    Spine fractures account for a large portion of musculoskeletal injuries worldwide. A classi?cation of spine fractures is necessary in order to develop a common language for treatment indications and outcomes. Several classification systems have been developed based on injury anatomy or mechanisms of action, but they have demonstrated poor reliability, have yielded little prognostic information, and have not been widely used. For this reason, the Arbeitsgemeinschaftfür Osteosynthesefragen (AO) committee has classified thorocolumbar spine injuries based on the pathomorphological criteria into3 types (A: Compression; B: Distraction; C: Axial torque and rotational deformity). Each of these types is further divided into 3 groups and 3 subgroups re?ecting progressive scale of morphological damage and the degree of instability. Because of its highly detailed sub classifications, the AO system has shown limited interobserver variability. It is similar to its predecessors in that it does not incorporate the patient's neurologic status.The need for a reliable, reproducible, clinically relevant, prognostic classification system with an optimal balance of ease of use and detail of injury description contributed to the development of a new classification system, the thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS). The TLICS de?nes injury based on three clinical characteristics: injury morphology, integrity of the posterior ligamentous complex, and neurologic status of the patient. The severity score offers prognostic information and is helpful in decision making about surgical vs nonsurgical management. PMID:26435776

  6. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  7. Multidetector Computed Tomography of Cervical Spine Fractures in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, M.P.; Kiuru, M.J.; Koskinen, S.K. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Trauma Center (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) cervical spine findings in trauma patients with advanced ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Using PACS, 2282 cervical spine MDCT examinations requested by emergency room physicians were found during a period of 3 years. Of these patients, 18 (16 M, aged 41-87, mean 57 years) had advanced AS. Primary imaging included radiography in 12 and MRI in 11 patients. Results: MDCT detected one facet joint subluxation and 31 fractures in 17 patients: 14 transverse fractures, 8 spinous process fractures, 2 Jefferson's fractures, 1 type I and 2 type II odontoid process fractures, and 1 each: atlanto-occipital joint fracture and C2 laminar fracture plus isolated transverse process and facet joint fractures. Radiographs detected 48% and MRI 60% of the fractures. MRI detected all transverse and odontoid fractures, demonstrating spinal cord abnormalities in 72%. Conclusion: MDCT is superior to plain radiographs or MRI, showing significantly more injuries and yielding more information on fracture morphology. MRI is valuable, however, in evaluating the spinal cord and soft-tissue injuries. Fractures in advanced AS often show an abnormal orientation and are frequently associated with spinal cord injuries. In these patients, for any suspected cervical spine injuries, MDCT is therefore the imaging modality of choice.

  8. Biomechanical evaluation of reconstructed lumbosacral spine after total sacrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hideki; Kawahara, Norio; Tomita, Katsuro; Sakamoto, Jiro; Oda, Juhachi

    2002-01-01

    When a sacral tumor involves the first sacral vertebra, total sacrectomy is necessary. It is mandatory to reconstruct the continuity between the spine and the pelvis after total sacrectomy. In this study, strain and stress on the instruments and the bones were evaluated for two reconstruction methods: a modified Galveston reconstruction (MGR) and a triangular frame reconstruction (TFR). Compressive loading tests were performed using polyurethane vertebral models, and a finite element model of a lumbar spine and pelvis was constructed. Then three-dimensional MGR and TFR models were reconstructed, and finite element analysis was performed to account for the stress on the bones and instruments. With MGR, excessive stress was concentrated at the spinal rod, and there was a strong possibility that the rod between the spine and the pelvis might fail. Although there was no stress concentration on the instruments with TFR, excessive stress on the iliac bone around the sacral rod was more than the yielding stress of the iliac bone. Such stress may cause loosening of the sacral rod from the iliac bone. If the patient were to stand or sit immediately after MGR or TFR, instrumentation failure or loosening might occur. PMID:12486469

  9. Posterior longitudinal ligament status in cervical spine bilateral facet dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that cervical spine bilateral facet dislocation results in complete disruption of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The goal of this study was to evaluate the integrity of numerous spine-stabilizing structures by MRI, and to determine if any associations between injury patterns exist with respect to the posterior longitudinal ligament status. Retrospective case series. A retrospective review was performed of 30 cervical spine injury subjects with bilateral facet dislocation. Assessment of 1.5T MRI images was carried out for: intervertebral disc disruption, facet fracture, and ligamentous disruption. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate for associations between various injury patterns and posterior longitudinal ligament status. The frequency of MRI abnormalities was: anterior longitudinal ligament disruption (26.7%), disc herniation or disruption (90%), posterior longitudinal ligament disruption (40%), facet fracture (63.3%) and disruption of the posterior column ligament complex (97%). There were no significant associations between injury to the posterior longitudinal ligament and other structures. Compared to surgical reports, MRI was accurate for determining the status for 24 of 26 ligaments (three of three anterior longitudinal ligament, seven of nine posterior longitudinal ligament, and 14 of 14 posterior column ligament complex) but generated false negatives in two instances (in both MRI showed an intact posterior longitudinal ligament that was torn at surgery). (orig.)

  10. Occurrence of cervical spine injuries during the rugby scrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, M J; Akpata, T; Laughlin, W; Levy, A S

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective study of cervical spine injuries that occurred during the rugby scrum in the United States was undertaken. In the U.S., from 1970 to 1996, 36 (58%) of the 62 documented injured players injured their cervical spines during the scrum. Thirty-five men (97%) and one woman (3%) were injured. Twenty-three of the injuries (64%) occurred when the opposing packs came together (engagement), and 13 (36%) occurred when the scrum collapsed. Twenty-eight (78%) hookers, seven (19%) props, and one (3%) second-row player were injured. Twenty (56%) hookers and three (8%) props were hurt during engagement. Eight hookers (22%), four props (11%), and one second-row player (3%) were injured when the scrum collapsed. Significantly more injuries occurred during engagement than during collapse, and hookers were injured significantly more than props. We conclude that in the rugby scrum in the U.S., the hooker suffers most of the cervical spine injuries (78% in this study) and this position is by far the most vulnerable. This study should be used to develop rugby law (rule) changes and educate players, coaches, and referees in United States rugby. PMID:9548109

  11. Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

  12. Current intraoperative devices to reduce visual loss after spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Alberto A; Baig, Mirza N; Puente, Erika G; Viloria, Adolfo; Mendel, Ehud; Bergese, Sergio D

    2012-08-01

    Postoperative visual loss (POVL) after spine surgery performed with the patient prone is a rare but devastating postoperative complication. The incidence and the mechanisms of visual loss after surgery are difficult to determine. The 4 recognized causes of POVL are ischemic optic neuropathy (approximately 89%), central retinal artery occlusion (approximately 11%), cortical infarction, and external ocular injury. There are very limited guidelines or protocols on the perioperative practice for "prone-position" surgeries. However, new devices have been designed to prevent mechanical ocular compression during prone-position spine surgeries. The authors used PubMed to perform a literature search for devices used in prone-position spine surgeries. A total of 7 devices was found; the authors explored these devices' features, advantages, and disadvantages. The cause of POVL seems to be a multifactorial problem with unclear pathophysiological mechanisms. Therefore, ocular compression is a critical factor, and eliminating any obvious compression to the eye with these devices could possibly prevent this devastating perioperative complication. PMID:22853832

  13. Left handedness and spine deformities in early adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between laterality and spine deformities in early adolescence, with special reference to sex differences. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and clinical examinations of body posture were carried out on a sample of 2546 schoolchildren, aged from 11 to 14 years, in seven elementary schools in the centre of Belgrade. Possible confounding factors (age, sex, body weight and body height) were controlled for. The overall prevalence of spine deformities (scoliosis and/or thoracic hyperkyphosis) in the investigated population was 11.8%, out of which there were 7.8% adolescents with scoliosis, 4.0% with thoracic hyperkyphosis, and 0.3% with both spine deformities. The prevalence of scoliosis was 2.7 times higher in girls compared to boys (11.7% vs. 4.3%) while the prevalence of thoracic hyperkyphosis was 1,6 higher among boys (5.0% vs. 3.2%). We found 7.6% of the schoolchildren examined to be left-handed. Left handedness was significantly related to scoliosis in girls (crude OR=1.60 and 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.54). Multivariate analysis showed that significant independent factors for scoliosis were female sex (p < 0.001), age (p=0.01) and left handedness (p=0.02). We did not find any appreciable relation between left handedness and thoracic hyperkyphosis in both sexes

  14. Access related complications during anterior exposure of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A Fantini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new millennium has witnessed the emergence of minimally invasive, non-posterior based surgery of the lumbar spine, in particular via lateral based methodologies to discectomy and fusion. In contrast, and perhaps for a variety of reasons, anterior motion preservation (non-fusion technologies are playing a comparatively lesser, though incompletely defined, role at present. Lateral based motion preservation technologies await definition of their eventual role in the armamentarium of minimally invasive surgical therapies of the lumbar spine. While injury to the major vascular structures remains the most serious and feared complication of the anterior approach, this occurrence has been nearly eliminated by the use of lateral based approaches for discectomy and fusion cephalad to L5-S1. Whether anterior or lateral based, non-posterior approaches to the lumbar spine share certain access related pitfalls and complications, including damage to the urologic and neurologic structures, as well as gastrointestinal and abdominal wall issues. This review will focus on the recognition, management and prevention of these anterior and lateral access related complications.

  15. Imaging evaluation of traumatic thoracolumbar spine injuries: Radiological review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Rathinam, Deepak; Rangarajan, Krithika; Kumar, Atin; Farooque, Kamran; Sharma, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Spine fractures account for a large portion of musculoskeletal injuries worldwide. A classi?cation of spine fractures is necessary in order to develop a common language for treatment indications and outcomes. Several classification systems have been developed based on injury anatomy or mechanisms of action, but they have demonstrated poor reliability, have yielded little prognostic information, and have not been widely used. For this reason, the Arbeitsgemeinschaftfür Osteosynthesefragen (AO) committee has classified thorocolumbar spine injuries based on the pathomorphological criteria into3 types (A: Compression; B: Distraction; C: Axial torque and rotational deformity). Each of these types is further divided into 3 groups and 3 subgroups re?ecting progressive scale of morphological damage and the degree of instability. Because of its highly detailed sub classifications, the AO system has shown limited interobserver variability. It is similar to its predecessors in that it does not incorporate the patient’s neurologic status.The need for a reliable, reproducible, clinically relevant, prognostic classification system with an optimal balance of ease of use and detail of injury description contributed to the development of a new classification system, the thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS). The TLICS de?nes injury based on three clinical characteristics: injury morphology, integrity of the posterior ligamentous complex, and neurologic status of the patient. The severity score offers prognostic information and is helpful in decision making about surgical vs nonsurgical management. PMID:26435776

  16. Correlation of Ordered Cervical Spine X-rays in Emergency Department with NEXUS and Canadian C-Spine Rules; a Clinical Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kariman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation of cervical spine injuries makes up a major part of trauma patient assessments. Based on the existing sources, more than 98% of the cervical spine X-rays show no positive findings. Therefore, the present clinical audit aimed to evaluate the correlation of ordered cervical spine X-rays in multiple trauma patients with NEXUS and Canadian c-spine clinical decision rules. Methods: The present clinical audit, evaluated the correlation of cervical spine imaging orders in multiple trauma patients presented to the emergency department, with NEXUS and Canadian c-spine rules. Initially, in a pilot study, the mentioned correlation was evaluated, and afterwards the results of this phase was analyzed. Since the correlation was low, an educational training was planned for all the physicians in charge. Finally, the calculated correlations for before and after training were compared using SPSS version 21. Results: Before and after training, cervical spine X-ray was ordered for 98 (62.82% and 85 (54.48% patients, respectively. Accuracy of cervical spine X-ray orders, based on the standard clinical decision rules, increased from 100 (64.1% cases before training, to 143 (91.7% cases after training (p < 0.001. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve regarding the correlation also raised from 52 (95% confidence interval (CI: 43 – 61 to 92 (95% CI: 87 – 97. Conclusion: Teaching NEXUS and Canadian c-spine clinical decision rules plays a significant role in improving the correlation of cervical spine X-ray orders in multiple trauma patients with the existing standards.

  17. A new instrument for recording the spine contourograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Hein

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The lysosomal enzymes activities in the athletes urine were designated and presented in this work: N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, ß-glucuronidase (GSR, arylsulfatase A (ASA. The brush border enzymes activities: leucyloaminopeptidase (LAP, alanine aminopeptidase (AAP, ?-glutamyltransferaze (GGT, the trypsin inhibitor activity (UTI and the total protein and creatinine concentrations were determined as well. Values of examined parameters are presented after its conversion to mmol creatinine units. Nine athletes subjected to physical effort in the frame of the training unit with the speed endurance accent were taken under the examination. The urine was taken before, immediately after and 24 h after effort. 9-fold increase of the protein/creatinine index was observed in the postexercise urine. In the urine taken after next 24h this index decreased to over 2-fold higher value than it presented itself before effort. Almost 3-fold increase of the NAG activity and 4-fold decrease of the ASA activity were noticed in the after effort urine. The brush border enzymes values were higher for over 2-3-fold in the postexercise urine but after next 24h they went down below values observed before effort. The correlation between NAG and brush border enzymes was observes at the level of r=0.7. All changes of examined parameters point at the passing glomerular-tubular troubles of nephrons. It may also be suggested that various forms of changes in the lysosomal enzymes activity are connected with their functions in organism and not with the degree of the renal cells structure damage. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the acceptability of a new instrument for recording the contourograph of spine curvature. The instrument based on distance measurements from the points of the spine curvature to the vertical line by the infrared optical sensor. The acceptability of measurements was assessed. The agreement of the test-retest measurements recorded using the designed instrument was analysed by the limits of agreement techniques. The validation of the lumbarsacrum angle calculated on the spine contourograph was evaluated against the measurements of the inclinometer. The amount of disagreement between test-retest values of the measured points on the spine contourograph calculated using the limits of agreement technique statistics ranged from 4.9% to 6.2%. The results of this study allowed to suggest that the designed instrument was a sensitive tool in assessing a different impact on the spine curvature.

  18. Repositioning accuracy of two different mask systems-3D revisited: Comparison using true 3D/3D matching with cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The repositioning accuracy of mask-based fixation systems has been assessed with two-dimensional/two-dimensional or two-dimensional/three-dimensional (3D) matching. We analyzed the accuracy of commercially available head mask systems, using true 3D/3D matching, with X-ray volume imaging and cone-beam CT. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiotherapy (intracranial/head-and-neck tumors) were evaluated (14 patients with rigid and 7 with thermoplastic masks). X-ray volume imaging was analyzed online and offline separately for the skull and neck regions. Translation/rotation errors of the target isocenter were analyzed. Four patients were treated to neck sites. For these patients, repositioning was aided by additional body tattoos. A separate analysis of the setup error on the basis of the registration of the cervical vertebra was performed. The residual error after correction and intrafractional motility were calculated. Results: The mean length of the displacement vector for rigid masks was 0.312 ± 0.152 cm (intracranial) and 0.586 ± 0.294 cm (neck). For the thermoplastic masks, the value was 0.472 ± 0.174 cm (intracranial) and 0.726 ± 0.445 cm (neck). Rigid masks with body tattoos had a displacement vector length in the neck region of 0.35 ± 0.197 cm. The intracranial residual error and intrafractional motility after X-ray volume imaging correction for rigid masks was 0.188 ± 0.074 cm, and was 0.134 ± 0.14 cm for thermoplastic masks. Conclusions: The results of our study have demonstrated that rigid masks have a high intracranial repositioning accuracy per se. Given the small residual error and intrafractional movement, thermoplastic masks may also be used for high-precision treatments when combined with cone-beam CT. The neck region repositioning accuracy was worse than the intracranial accuracy in both cases. However, body tattoos and image guidance improved the accuracy. Finally, the combination of both mask systems with 3D image guidance has the potential to replace therapy simulation and intracranial stereotaxy

  19. X-ray imaging dose due to the digital imaging devices used in radiation therapy for patient positioning and repositioning: How to take it into account?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patient positioning and repositioning control in radiation therapy all along the treatment can be conducted using a variety of X-ray sources and imaging detector devices. The development of image guided radiation therapy techniques leads to more frequent use of this imaging control. In this article we summarize the current methods for measuring the dose delivered by X-ray imaging devices used in radiation therapy, as well as basic proposals to take account of these imaging doses for prescribing, recording and reporting radiation therapy treatment. (authors)

  20. Implanted central venous catheter-related acute superior vena cava syndrome: management by metallic stent and endovascular repositioning of the catheter tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a case of a 49-year-old woman with stage-IIIB lung adenocarcinoma who experienced an acute superior vena cava syndrome related to an implanted central venous catheter without associated venous thrombosis. The catheter was surgically implanted for chemotherapy. Superior vena cava syndrome appeared after the procedure and was due to insertion of the catheter through a subclinical stenosis of the superior vena cava. Complete resolution of the patient's symptoms was obtained using stent placement and endovascular repositioning of the catheter tip. (orig.)

  1. The effects of cactus inspired spines on the aerodynamics of a cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Benjamin; Liu, Yingzheng

    2013-05-01

    The effect of cactus-like spines on the topology and the dynamics of the flow past a stationary or pivoted cylinder are experimentally studied. The experiments are performed either in a water channel or a wind tunnel at low to moderate Reynolds number (390-12 500). The instantaneous velocity field is recorded using TR-PIV and investigated for three different configurations: no spines, short spines (0.1D) and long spines (0.2D). The results show how the spines are able to slow the flow past the cylinder and then increase the recirculation area by up to 128% while the maximum fluctuating kinetic energy intensity is decreased by up to 35%. Moreover, the spines have a significant effect on the vortex shedding and the dynamic pressure at the surface of the cylinder, thus significantly reducing both the amplitude and the frequency at which a pivoted cylinder oscillates.

  2. Local postsynaptic voltage-gated sodium channel activation in dendritic spines of olfactory bulb granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywalez, Wolfgang G; Patirniche, Dinu; Rupprecht, Vanessa; Stemmler, Martin; Herz, Andreas V M; Pálfi, Dénes; Rózsa, Balázs; Egger, Veronica

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal dendritic spines have been speculated to function as independent computational units, yet evidence for active electrical computation in spines is scarce. Here we show that strictly local voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) activation can occur during excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the spines of olfactory bulb granule cells, which we mimic and detect via combined two-photon uncaging of glutamate and calcium imaging in conjunction with whole-cell recordings. We find that local Nav activation boosts calcium entry into spines through high-voltage-activated calcium channels and accelerates postsynaptic somatic depolarization, without affecting NMDA receptor-mediated signaling. Hence, Nav-mediated boosting promotes rapid output from the reciprocal granule cell spine onto the lateral mitral cell dendrite and thus can speed up recurrent inhibition. This striking example of electrical compartmentalization both adds to the understanding of olfactory network processing and broadens the general view of spine function. PMID:25619656

  3. WRP/srGAP3 facilitates the initiation of spine development by an inverse F-BAR domain, and its loss impairs long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Benjamin R; Lloyd, Krissey E; Kruszewski, Allison; Kim, Il-Hwan; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Heindel, Clifford; Faytell, Marika; Dudek, Serena M; Wetsel, William C; Soderling, Scott H

    2011-02-16

    The WAVE-associated Rac GAP, WRP, is thought to regulate key aspects of synapse development and function and may be linked to mental retardation in humans. WRP contains a newly described inverse F-BAR (IF-BAR) domain of unknown function. Our studies show that this domain senses/facilitates outward protrusions analogous to filopodia and that the molecular basis for this is likely explained by a convex lipid-binding surface on the WRP IF-BAR domain. In dendrites the IF-BAR domain of WRP forms a bud on the shaft from which precursors to spines emerge. Loss of WRP in vivo and in vitro results in reduced density of spines. In vivo this is primarily a loss of mushroom-shaped spines. Developmentally, WRP function is critical at the onset of spinogenesis, when dendritic filopodia are prevalent. Finally, because WRP is implicated in mental retardation, behaviors of WRP heterozygous and null mice have been evaluated. Results from these studies confirm that loss of WRP is linked to impaired learning and memory. PMID:21325512

  4. Nonmetastatic Ewing's Sarcoma of the Lumbar Spine in an Adult Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Iacoangeli; Mauro Dobran; Alessandro Di Rienzo; Lucia Giovanna Maria di Somma; Lorenzo Alvaro; Elisa Moriconi; Niccolò Nocchi; Maurizio Gladi; Massimo Scerrati

    2012-01-01

    Although the spine is frequently involved in metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, primary involvement of the spine, beside sacrum, is much less frequent, especially in adult patients. Because of the low incidence of these tumors, there are currently no clinical guidelines outlining their management and a multitude of therapeutic strategies have been employed with varying success. The definitive management of Ewing's sarcoma of the spine, as in other locations, could include the combination of three ma...

  5. Musculoskeletal simulations to investigate the influence of vertebral geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putzer, Michael; Rasmussen, John; Penzkofer, Rainer; Ehrlich, Ingo; Gebbeken, Norbert; Dendorfer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal simulations of subject-specific loads in the lumbar spine are computed by using subject-specific geometrical data. However this data has an inherent inaccuracy. This study evaluates the influence of defined geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading utilizing the AnyBody Modeling System and a parameterized musculoskeletal lumbar spine model for four different postures: upright standing, flexion (50°), torsion (10°) and lateral bending (15°). The linear dimensions of the verte...

  6. Analysis of activity-dependent morphological plasticity of dendritic spines on hippocampal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Rösch, Jan Harald

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic spines are the main sites of synaptic input onto excitatory neurons. As recent experiments showed that synaptic activity and especially long-term potentiation (LTP) can modify spine morphology and number, I studied the effect of long-term depression (LTD) on these parameters. I used a local stimulation approach in combination with intracellular recordings and 2-photon-laser-microscopy to spatially restrict the area of induced synaptic activity. My experiments indicate that spine mor...

  7. Low Back Pain and Lumbar Spine Osteoarthritis: How Are They Related?

    OpenAIRE

    Goode, Adam P; Carey, Timothy S.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar spine osteoarthritis (OA) is very common, with estimates of prevalence ranging from 40–85 %. The process of degeneration of the spine has commonly been classified as OA (disc space narrowing together with vertebral osteophyte formation); however, anatomically, the facet joint is the only synovial joint in the spine that has a similar pathological degenerative process to appendicular joints. Low back pain (LBP) is also a common condition, with nearly 80 % of Americans experiencing at le...

  8. Method to geometrically personalize a detailed finite element model of the spine

    OpenAIRE

    LALONDE, Nadine; Petit, Yvan; AUBIN, Carl-Eric; WAGNAC, Eric; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean

    2013-01-01

    To date, developing geometrically personalized and detailed solid finite element models of the spine remains a challenge, notably due to multiple articulations and complex geometries. To answer this problem, a methodology based on a free form deformation technique (kriging) was developed to deform a detailed reference finite element mesh of the spine (including discs and ligaments) to the patient-specific geometry of 10 and 82-year old asymptomatic spines. Different kriging configurations wer...

  9. Paralemmin-1, a Modulator of Filopodia Induction Is Required for Spine Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Arstikaitis, Pamela; Gauthier-Campbell, Catherine; Carolina Gutierrez Herrera, Rosario; Huang, Kun; Levinson, Joshua N; Murphy, Timothy H.; Kilimann, Manfred W.; Sala, Carlo; Michael A. Colicos; El-Husseini, Alaa

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic filopodia are thought to participate in neuronal contact formation and development of dendritic spines; however, molecules that regulate filopodia extension and their maturation to spines remain largely unknown. Here we identify paralemmin-1 as a regulator of filopodia induction and spine maturation. Paralemmin-1 localizes to dendritic membranes, and its ability to induce filopodia and recruit synaptic elements to contact sites requires protein acylation. Effects of paralemmin-1 on ...

  10. Correlation between TMD and Cervical Spine Pain and Mobility: Is the Whole Body Balance TMJ Related?

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Walczy#x144;ska-Dragon; Stefan Baron; Aleksandra Nitecka-Buchta; Ewaryst Tkacz

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) is considered to be associated with imbalance of the whole body. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of TMD therapy on cervical spine range of movement (ROM) and reduction of spinal pain. The study group consisted of 60 patients with TMD, cervical spine pain, and limited cervical spine range of movements. Subjects were interviewed by a questionnaire about symptoms of TMD and neck pain and had also masticatory motor system physically examined (accordi...

  11. Interobserver agreement for the spine instability neoplastic score varies according to the experience of the evaluator

    OpenAIRE

    William Gemio Jacobsen Teixeira; Pedro Ricardo de Mesquita Coutinho; Luiz Delboni Marchese; Douglas Kenji Narazaki; Alexandre Fogaça Cristante; Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira; Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros Filho; Olavo Pires de Camargo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interobserver agreement for the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS) among spine surgeons with or without experience in vertebral metastasis treatment and physicians in other specialties. METHODS: Case descriptions were produced based on the medical records of 40 patients with vertebral metastases. The descriptions were then published online. Physicians were invited to evaluate the descriptions by answering questions according to the Neoplastic Spine Instabili...

  12. Activity-dependent spine morphogenesis: a role for the actin-capping protein Eps8

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatakou, E.; Marzo, A.; Gibb, A.; Salinas, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal activity regulates the formation and morphology of dendritic spines through changes in the actin cytoskeleton. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate this process remain poorly understood. Here we report that Eps8, an actin-capping protein, is required for spine morphogenesis. In rat hippocampal neurons gain and loss of function studies demonstrate that Eps8 promotes the formation of dendritic spines, whereas inhibits filopodium formation. Loss of function of Eps8 increases ...

  13. Paget's disease of the spine: Unusual features and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A.; Hassan, A

    2003-02-01

    Paget's disease of bone is a common disorder, with the spine being involved in over 50% of cases. This pictorial review illustrates unusual features and complications of the disease as related to the spine. Unusual features include location in the atlanto-axial region, lytic vertebral Paget's disease and Pagetic ankylosis. Complications related to the spine are mainly neurological due to spinal stenosis, compression fractures and sarcomatous degeneration.

  14. Primary Epidural Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Lumbar Spine: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a highly malignant tumor in children and young adults, and extremely rare in the spine. We report a case of a primary epidural peripheral PNET of the lumbar spine. The present extremely rare case of primary epidural peripheral PNET of the lumbar spine illustrates the unexpected occurrence and should be included in differential diagnoses for patients with spinal tumors.

  15. Primary Epidural Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Lumbar Spine: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Jung; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Seung Sam; Jun, Young Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Dept. of Pediatrics, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a highly malignant tumor in children and young adults, and extremely rare in the spine. We report a case of a primary epidural peripheral PNET of the lumbar spine. The present extremely rare case of primary epidural peripheral PNET of the lumbar spine illustrates the unexpected occurrence and should be included in differential diagnoses for patients with spinal tumors.

  16. Airway management of patients with traumatic brain injury/C-spine injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jin Yong

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is usually combined with cervical spine (C-spine) injury. The possibility of C-spine injury is always considered when performing endotracheal intubation in these patients. Rapid sequence intubation is recommended with adequate sedative or analgesics and a muscle relaxant to prevent an increase in intracranial pressure during intubation in TBI patients. Normocapnia and mild hyperoxemia should be maintained to prevent secondary brain injury. The manual-in-line-stabi...

  17. Contemporary treatment with radiosurgery for spine metastasis and spinal cord compression in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Samuel; Yoon, Hannah; Stessin, Alexander; Gutman, Fred; Rosiello, Arthur; Davis, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    With the progress of image-guided localization, body immobilization system, and computerized delivery of intensity-modulated radiation delivery, it became possible to perform spine radiosurgery. The next question is how to translate the high technology treatment to the clinical application. Clinical trials have been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of spine radiosurgery and efficacy of the treatment in the setting of spine metastasis, leading to the randomized trials by a cooperative ...

  18. Activation of CaMKII in single dendritic spines during long-term potentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seok-Jin R.; Escobedo-Lozoya, Yasmin; Szatmari, Erzsebet M.; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2009-01-01

    Ca2+ / Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) plays a central role in long-term potentiation (LTP), which underlies some forms of learning and memory. Here we monitored the spatiotemporal dynamics of CaMKII activation in individual dendritic spines during LTP using 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in combination with 2-photon glutamate uncaging. Induction of LTP and associated spine enlargement in single spines triggered transient (? 1 min) CaMKII activation restricted to th...

  19. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter; Jozef Keckes

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpec...

  20. Injury Mechanisms in the Pediatric Cervical Spine During Out-of-Position Airbag Deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, Roger W.; Winkelstein, Beth A.; Van Ee, Chris A.; Myers, Barry S.

    1998-01-01

    The pediatric cervical spine differs considerably from the adult in both its geometry and its constitutive properties. Therefore, it is susceptible to a different set of injuries, some of which are particularly severe. Recent data from the NHTSA on cervical spine injuries in low speed out-of-position airbag deployments shows that the spectrum of injuries in children is different from that of the adult. Almost all of the children (98%) sustained head or cervical spine injuries, as compared to ...

  1. Mobile Sensing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Macias; Alvaro Suarez; Jaime Lloret

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance o...

  2. Pectoral spine size in Synodontis schall (Teleostei: Mochokidae from Asa Lake, Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A Araoye

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The pectoral spines of Synodontis schall (n = 813 were examined for 24 months. Mean length for the right (3.2 cm and left (3.1 cm pectoral spines were not significantly different [P 0.05];. However, the male and female pectoral spine lengths were significantly different (P < 0.05. A fractured pectoral spine in one of the specimens was shorter than the other. The fracture which could be deleterious to balancing, feeding and reproductive activities was attributed to an injury rather than to genetic or epigenetic defects.

  3. Software-assisted spine registered nurse care coordination and patient triage--one organization's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Leslie; Mueller, Lori; Horstman, Patricia

    2009-08-01

    Back disorders encompass a spectrum of conditions, from those of acute onset and short duration to lifelong disorders. The use of a traditional spine center model of patient flow, in which the patient is scheduled the first available appointment without an initial assessment of spine-related symptoms at West Virginia University Spine Center, Morgantown, West Virginia, resulted in frustration and delays for the spine patient and referring physician dissatisfaction. Today, the use of a software-assisted spine patient triage and registered nurse care coordinator patient navigation system in this multidiscipline, multimodality comprehensive spine program provides quick and efficient patient triage to the appropriate level of spine care (surgeon vs. nonsurgeon). The model consists of five major steps, which are explored in this article: medical history intake; films or studies retrieval; rapid review of the patient's medical condition and diagnostics by a spine specialist preappointment and subsequent triage to the appropriate level of spine care; registered nurse care coordinator patient education and guided navigation through the patient's preferred treatment plan; and last, diagnostic study, pain injection, and provider scheduling. Patient satisfaction scores, referring physician satisfaction scores, and resultant impact on referral volumes, ancillary utilization, workload productivity, and surgical yield demonstrate that this new approach to patient triage has made significant improvements in efficiency, productivity, and service. PMID:19678508

  4. Fractures of the upper thoracic spine as a cause of mediastinal widening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediastinal widening from fractures of the upper thoracic spine can mimic the radiographic findings of aortic rupture. These fractures can be sublte and before attributing a widened mediastinum to aortic rupture one should exclude a fracture of the thoracic spine. The authors emphasize the nonspecificity of the widened mediastinum and suggest that the upper thoracic spine can be closely examined for fractures on chest radiographs of patients with thoracic trauma. This observation will alert the clinician to the possibility of an unstable thoracic spine, which should be immobilized before further diagnostic examinations, such as angiography, are performed which could lead to neurologic injury

  5. Interobserver agreement for the spine instability neoplastic score varies according to the experience of the evaluator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gemio Jacobsen Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interobserver agreement for the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS among spine surgeons with or without experience in vertebral metastasis treatment and physicians in other specialties. METHODS: Case descriptions were produced based on the medical records of 40 patients with vertebral metastases. The descriptions were then published online. Physicians were invited to evaluate the descriptions by answering questions according to the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS. The agreement among physicians was calculated using the kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Seventeen physicians agreed to participate: three highly experienced spine surgeons, seven less-experienced spine surgeons, three surgeons of other specialties, and four general practitioners (n = 17. The agreement for the final SINS score among all participants was fair, and it varied according to the SINS component. The agreement was substantial for the spine location only. The agreement was higher among experienced surgeons. The agreement was nearly perfect for spinal location among the spine surgeons who were highly experienced in vertebral metastases. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the experience of the evaluator has an impact on SINS scale classification. The interobserver agreement was only fair among physicians who were not spine surgeons and among spine surgeons who were not experienced in the treatment of vertebral metastases, which may limit the use of the SINS scale for the screening of unstable lesions by less-experienced evaluators.

  6. Interobserver agreement for the spine instability neoplastic score varies according to the experience of the evaluator

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    William Gemio Jacobsen, Teixeira; Pedro Ricardo de Mesquita, Coutinho; Luiz Delboni, Marchese; Douglas Kenji, Narazaki; Alexandre Fogaça, Cristante; Manoel Jacobsen, Teixeira; Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de, Barros Filho; Olavo Pires de, Camargo.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interobserver agreement for the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS) among spine surgeons with or without experience in vertebral metastasis treatment and physicians in other specialties. METHODS: Case descriptions were produced based on the medical records of 40 pat [...] ients with vertebral metastases. The descriptions were then published online. Physicians were invited to evaluate the descriptions by answering questions according to the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS). The agreement among physicians was calculated using the kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Seventeen physicians agreed to participate: three highly experienced spine surgeons, seven less-experienced spine surgeons, three surgeons of other specialties, and four general practitioners (n = 17). The agreement for the final SINS score among all participants was fair, and it varied according to the SINS component. The agreement was substantial for the spine location only. The agreement was higher among experienced surgeons. The agreement was nearly perfect for spinal location among the spine surgeons who were highly experienced in vertebral metastases. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the experience of the evaluator has an impact on SINS scale classification. The interobserver agreement was only fair among physicians who were not spine surgeons and among spine surgeons who were not experienced in the treatment of vertebral metastases, which may limit the use of the SINS scale for the screening of unstable lesions by less-experienced evaluators.

  7. Extracellular matrix control of dendritic spine and synapse structure and plasticity in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Levy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are the receptive contacts at most excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. Spines are dynamic in the developing brain, changing shape as they mature as well as appearing and disappearing as they make and break connections. Spines become much more stable in adulthood, and spine structure must be actively maintained to support established circuit function. At the same time, adult spines must retain some plasticity so their structure can be modified by activity and experience. As such, the regulation of spine stability and remodeling in the adult animal is critical for normal function, and disruption of these processes is associated with a variety of late onset diseases including schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. The extracellular matrix (ECM, composed of a meshwork of proteins and proteoglycans, is a critical regulator of spine and synapse stability and plasticity. While the role of ECM receptors in spine regulation has been extensively studied, considerably less research has focused directly on the role of specific ECM ligands. Here, we review the evidence for a role of several brain ECM ligands and remodeling proteases in the regulation of dendritic spine and synapse formation, plasticity, and stability in adults.

  8. Understanding why the thoracic region is the 'Cinderella' region of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, N R; Rushton, A

    2016-02-01

    The thoracic spine has for a long time been the 'Cinderella' region of the spine. There has been a lesser research focus to the thoracic region compared with the cervical and lumbar spine, and there continues to be a limited understanding of the aetiology and epidemiology of a range of neuromusculoskeletal presentations which have an anatomical connection to the thoracic spine. This paper firstly, provides a critical evaluation of the available evidence to provide some understanding for this under-exploration of the thoracic spine. Secondly the paper provides an evaluation of an emerging interest in this spinal region, with a body of evidence supporting the use of thoracic spine manipulation in the management of upper quadrant presentations. This has been linked to the theory of regional interdependence with the thoracic spine being viewed as a silent contributor to clinical presentations where a pain source lies elsewhere. Finally, a case for further research is made. Identified gaps in the current evidence base include, aetiology and epidemiology of thoracic spine pain and thoracic spine dysfunction, and to investigate mechanisms of action of currently used interventions. PMID:26189592

  9. Repositioning Information Science.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibekwe-Sanjuan, Fidelia; Buckland, Michael; Latham, Kiersten

    2010-01-01

    During the twentieth century there was a strong desire for information studies to become scientific, to move from librarianship, bibliography, and documentation to an information science. In 1968 the American Documentation Institute was renamed American Society for Information Science. By the twenty-first century, however, departments of (library and) information science had turned instead towards the social sciences, but have not been successful in providing a coherent explanation of the nat...

  10. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    to complex handling and timing restrictions. The objective of the problem is cost minimization, which translates nearly directly into the minimization of CO2 emissions and pollution. Additionally, it is important that all cost elements, including the ones that are only loosely coupled with activity...

  11. Bone structure of the distal radius and the calcaneus vs BMD of the spine and proximal femur in the prediction of osteoporotic spine fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Thomas M. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster (Germany); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Technical University Munich (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieth, Volker; Matheis, Julia [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster (Germany); Newitt, David; Lu, Ying; Majumdar, Sharmila [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rummeny, Ernst J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Technical University Munich (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare structure measures obtained from high-resolution MR images of the calcaneus and the distal radius with bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine and hip in the prediction of osteoporotic spine fracture status. High-resolution MR images of the calcaneus and radius were obtained in 24 post-menopausal women with spine fractures and 22 age-matched controls. Imaging was performed at 1.5 T using a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence (slice thickness 1 mm, in-plane spatial resolution 195 x 195 {mu}m{sup 2}). Structure analysis was performed using parameters analogous to standard histomorphometry. Bone mineral density of the spine was obtained using quantitative CT and of the hip with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences between both patient groups were obtained with BMD and all structure parameters (p<0.05). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine the diagnostic performance in differentiating both groups, the best results were found for BMD of the spine, one of the radial structure measures and a combination of the calcaneal structure measures. In this study BMD of the spine and structure measures of the distal radius were best suited to predict the osteoporotic fracture status of the spine. A combination of BMD and structure measures did not yield any additional information on fracture status. (orig.)

  12. Anterior thalamic lesions reduce spine density in both hippocampal CA1 and retrosplenial cortex, but enrichment rescues CA1 spines only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Bruce C; Collings, David A; McNaughton, Neil; Abraham, Wickliffe C; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2014-10-01

    Injury to the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) may affect both hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex thus explaining some parallels between diencephalic and medial temporal lobe amnesias. We found that standard-housed rats with ATN lesions, compared with standard-housed controls, showed reduced spine density in hippocampal CA1 neurons (basal dendrites, -11.2%; apical dendrites, -9.6%) and in retrospenial granular b cortex (Rgb) neurons (apical dendrites, -20.1%) together with spatial memory deficits on cross maze and radial-arm maze tasks. Additional rats with ATN lesions were also shown to display a severe deficit on spatial working memory in the cross-maze, but subsequent enriched housing ameliorated their performance on both this task and the radial-arm maze. These enriched rats with ATN lesions also showed recovery of both basal and apical CA1 spine density to levels comparable to that of the standard-housed controls, but no recovery of Rgb spine density. Inspection of spine types in the CA1 neurons showed that ATN lesions reduced the density of thin spines and mushroom spines, but not stubby spines; while enrichment promoted recovery of thin spines. Comparison with enriched rats that received pseudo-training, which provided comparable task-related experience, but no explicit spatial memory training, suggested that basal CA1 spine density in particular was associated with spatial learning and memory performance. Distal pathology in terms of reduced integrity of hippocampal and retrosplenial microstructure provides clear support for the influence of the ATN lesions on the extended hippocampal system. The reversal by postoperative enrichment of this deficit in the hippocampus but not the retrosplenial cortex may indicate region-specific mechanisms of recovery after ATN injury. PMID:24862603

  13. Reliability assessment of a novel cervical spine deformity classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Christopher P; Smith, Justin S; Eastlack, Robert; Blaskiewicz, Donald J; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Bess, Shay; Kim, Han Jo; Mundis, Gregory M; Klineberg, Eric; Gupta, Munish; O'Brien, Michael; Hostin, Richard; Scheer, Justin K; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Fu, Kai-Ming G; Hart, Robert; Albert, Todd J; Riew, K Daniel; Fehlings, Michael G; Deviren, Vedat; Lafage, Virginie

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Despite the complexity of cervical spine deformity (CSD) and its significant impact on patient quality of life, there exists no comprehensive classification system. The objective of this study was to develop a novel classification system based on a modified Delphi approach and to characterize the intra- and interobserver reliability of this classification. METHODS Based on an extensive literature review and a modified Delphi approach with an expert panel, a CSD classification system was generated. The classification system included a deformity descriptor and 5 modifiers that incorporated sagittal, regional, and global spinopelvic alignment and neurological status. The descriptors included: "C," "CT," and "T" for primary cervical kyphotic deformities with an apex in the cervical spine, cervicothoracic junction, or thoracic spine, respectively; "S" for primary coronal deformity with a coronal Cobb angle ? 15°; and "CVJ" for primary craniovertebral junction deformity. The modifiers included C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), horizontal gaze (chin-brow to vertical angle [CBVA]), T1 slope (TS) minus C2-7 lordosis (TS-CL), myelopathy (modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association [mJOA] scale score), and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-Schwab classification for thoracolumbar deformity. Application of the classification system requires the following: 1) full-length standing posteroanterior (PA) and lateral spine radiographs that include the cervical spine and femoral heads; 2) standing PA and lateral cervical spine radiographs; 3) completed and scored mJOA questionnaire; and 4) a clinical photograph or radiograph that includes the skull for measurement of the CBVA. A series of 10 CSD cases, broadly representative of the classification system, were selected and sufficient radiographic and clinical history to enable classification were assembled. A panel of spinal deformity surgeons was queried to classify each case twice, with a minimum of 1 intervening week. Inter- and intrarater reliability measures were based on calculations of Fleiss k coefficient values. RESULTS Twenty spinal deformity surgeons participated in this study. Interrater reliability (Fleiss k coefficients) for the deformity descriptor rounds 1 and 2 were 0.489 and 0.280, respectively, and mean intrarater reliability was 0.584. For the modifiers, including the SRS-Schwab components, the interrater (round 1/round 2) and intrarater reliabilities (Fleiss k coefficients) were: C2-7 SVA (0.338/0.412, 0.584), horizontal gaze (0.779/0.430, 0.768), TS-CL (0.721/0.567, 0.720), myelopathy (0.602/0.477, 0.746), SRS-Schwab curve type (0.590/0.433, 0.564), pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (0.554/0.386, 0.826), pelvic tilt (0.714/0.627, 0.633), and C7-S1 SVA (0.071/0.064, 0.233), respectively. The parameter with the poorest reliability was the C7-S1 SVA, which may have resulted from differences in interpretation of positive and negative measurements. CONCLUSIONS The proposed classification provides a mechanism to assess CSD within the framework of global spinopelvic malalignment and clinically relevant parameters. The intra- and interobserver reliabilities suggest moderate agreement and serve as the basis for subsequent improvement and study of the proposed classification. PMID:26273762

  14. Thoracic spine disc-related abnormalities: longitudinal MR imaging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Charles J.; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Morrison, William B.; Parellada, Joan A. [TJUH Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Carrino, J.A. [Department of Radiology ASB-1, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, L1, Room 002B, 75 Francis Street, MA 02115, Boston (United States)

    2004-04-01

    To describe and characterize the temporal changes in disc-related disorders of the thoracic spine using MR imaging. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out of 40 patients with two sequential thoracic spine MR images at variable intervals. The images were assessed for baseline presence of, new incidence of and changes in disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, endplate marrow signal alteration and Schmorl nodes. The range of follow-up was 4-149 weeks. Baseline presence was: disc herniation, 10% (49/480); degenerative disc disease, 14% (66/480); endplate marrow signal alteration, 2.3% (11/480); Schmorl nodes 9.6% (46/480). Most pre-existing lesions tended to remain unchanged. Herniations showed the most change, tending to improve in 27%. New incidence was: disc herniation, 1.5% (7/480), degenerative disc disease, 2% (10/480); endplate marrow signal alteration, 1.6% (8/480); Schmorl nodes, 2.1% (10/480). Disc degeneration was first visible at an 11-week interval and once established almost never changed over many weeks to months. Endplate signal alterations (Modic changes) were uncommon. Schmorl nodes show no change from baseline for up to 2 1/2 years. All findings predominated in the lower intervertebral levels from T6 to T10. The most prevalent thoracic spine disc-related findings are degeneration and herniation. Disc herniations predominate in the lower segments and are a dynamic phenomenon. Disc degeneration can be rapidly evolving but tends to remain unchanged after occurrence. Endplate marrow signal changes were an uncommon manifestation of thoracic disc disease. Schmorl nodes showed the least change over time. (orig.)

  15. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  16. Spine growth and seismogenic faulting at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian J.; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lamb, Oliver D.; Hirose, Takehiro; De Angelis, Silvio; Aulock, Felix W.; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.; Lavallée, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The concluding episode of activity during the recent eruption of Mt. Unzen (October 1994 to February 1995) was characterized by incremental spine extrusion, accompanied by seismicity. Analysis of the seismic record reveals the occurrence of two dominant long-period event families associated with a repeating, nondestructive source mechanism, which we attribute to magma failure and fault-controlled ascent. We obtain constraints on the slip rate and distance of faulting events within these families. That analysis is complemented by an experimental thermomechanical investigation of fault friction in Mt. Unzen dacitic dome rock using a rotary-shear apparatus at variable slip rates and normal stresses. A power density threshold is found at 0.3 MW m-2, above which frictional melt forms and controls the shear resistance to slip, inducing a deviation from Byerlee's frictional law. Homogenized experimentally generated pseudotachylytes have a similar final chemistry, thickness, and crystal content, facilitating the construction of a rheological model for particle suspensions. This is compared to the viscosity constrained from the experimental data, to assess the viscous control on fault dynamics. The onset of frictional melt formation during spine growth is constrained to depths below 300 m for an average slip event. This combination of experimental data, viscosity modeling, and seismic analysis offers a new description of material response during conduit plug flow and spine growth, showing that volcanic pseudotachylyte may commonly form and modify fault friction during faulting of dome rock. This model furthers our understanding of faulting and seismicity during lava dome formation and is applicable to other eruption modes.

  17. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gefen, Ron [Cooper University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Candem, NJ (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Shabshin, Nogah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  18. Cervical spine intradural-extramedullary hematoma presenting as ipsilateral hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih Ming Lin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old Taiwanese man suffered from acute onset of right-sided extremity weakness while talking to his neighbors. He was transferred to the hospital within three-hour time after symptom onset. Initial acute ischemic cerebral infarct was diagnosed based on his symptom and cerebral computed tomography. Thrombolytic therapy was held after his symptom improved promptly and could not excluded other etiology. Thorough history taking unraveled previous Chinese medicine clinic visit because of neck sore. However, he received limited improvement after several times of massage treatment. Magnetic resnance imaging (MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated hematoma compressing right side intradural-extramedullary space at the C2/C3 level. Through his clinical course, muscle weakness was the sole neurological finding with sparing of sensory defects. Given the close anatomy relationship between sensory and motor lamina distribution in the cervical spinal cord, our patient presented a rare manifestation. Cases of cervical spine intradural-extramedullary hematoma are not often seen and only sporadic in the documented literature. We wish, through the report of this article, to inform the first- line physicians with the following information. Among the elderly, neck sore is a common symptom. Over- stretching or overt local massage is not suggested due to relatively fragile musculature. In the clinical diagnosis and localization of lesion, cerebral or cervical spine lesion could mimic with each other and manifest hemiparesis as their first symptom. Meticulous history taking, neurological/ physical examination and pertinent laboratory work-up should be done before initiation of intravenous thrombolytic therapy as it could cause catastrophic consequences if not used properly.

  19. Chemical senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoshuk, L M; Beauchamp, G K

    1994-01-01

    In the last decade, studies using approaches from molecular biology have substantially advanced our understanding of the early events in olfaction and taste. The many odorants that we can recognize may well interact with many distinct receptor proteins. Of the four taste qualities that we recognize, studies on salty and sour suggest that these tastes involve ion channels in the membrane of receptor cells while sweets and bitters bind to receptor proteins. Some volatiles (pheromones) play special roles in reproductive behavior via the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the accessory olfactory system. Initial belief that humans lack a VNO has been questioned recently, thus raising the fascinating possibility of human pheromones. The roles that taste and smell play in the world of the newborn are very different. Acceptance of sweet and rejection of bitter appear to be hard-wired while the affect associated with odors depends much more on experience. Genetic variation may produce total losses (Kallman's syndrome produces anosmia and familial dysautonomia produces ageusia) or losses specific to certain stimuli. The best known of the specific anosmias is that for androstenone, which has no smell to some, a urinous smell to others, and a smell like sandalwood to still others. Analogous to the specific anosmias, some individuals are unable to taste PROP while others, supertasters, perceive PROP to be exceedingly bitter. Clinical studies reveal pathologies responsible for total or partial losses. The olfactory system, dependent on one cranial nerve, is more vulnerable than taste, and total anosmia is a relatively common clinical problem. Three cranial nerves carry taste and two of those nerves inhibit one another such that damage to one disinhibits the other and preserves over-all taste function. Total ageusia is very rare. Throughout these studies we see that taste and olfaction have different properties and often different functions (e.g. odor and reproduction). Yet taste and smell can also be integrated to determine what does or does not enter the body. In Adrian's words, "we are dealing with the sense organs which signal the quality of the air we breathe and that of the food and drink we propose to swallow." PMID:8135507

  20. Functional MRI of the cervical spine after distortion injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    50 patients with a history of distortion injury of the cervical spine were examined with static and functional MRI. Functional MRI consisted of different patient's positions from maximal extension to maximal flexion (30 , 0 , 25 , 40 , 50 ). T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences were performed in a sagittal view for the different positions. Ligamentous instabilities and disc protrusions were seen only in functional MRI in 17 patients. These findings correlated with the neurological symptoms. Two patients were treated by operative fusion because of these findings. (orig.)