WorldWideScience
1

A new measurement method for spine reposition sense  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A cost effective tool for the measurement of trunk reposition sense is needed clinically. This study evaluates the reliability and validity of a new clinical spine reposition sense device. Methods The first part of this three part investigation included 45 asymptomatic subjects examined in the first 20 repeated trials portion assessing spine reposition sense. The second portion, test-retest, examined 57 asymptomatic subjects. Initial testing consisted of subjects sitting on the device and performing 20 trials of a self-determined 2/3 trunk flexion position. The second portion of the study involved 7 trials of trunk flexion performed twice. The angular position for each trial was calculated and the mean reposition error from the initial 2/3 position was determined. For the third portion, the new device was compared to the Skill Technologies 6D (ST6D Imperial Motion Capture and Analysis System. Results ICC (3,1 for trials 4–7 was 0.79 and 0.76 for time one and time two, respectively and the test-retest ICC (3,k was 0.38. Due to the poor test-retest ICC, the Bland Altman method was used to compare test and retest absolute errors. Most measurement differences were small and fell within the 95% confidence interval. Comparable measures between the two methods were found using the Bland Altman method to compare the reposition sense device to the ST6D system. Conclusion The device may be a cost effective clinical technique for sagittal trunk reposition sense measurement.

Cope Steven

2008-03-01

2

Micromechanics of Sea Urchin Spines  

OpenAIRE

The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine’s unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT) and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading....

Tsafnat, Naomi; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Le, Hai N.; Stachurski, Zbigniew H.

2012-01-01

3

Polymer reptation and nucleosome repositioning  

CERN Document Server

We consider how beads can diffuse along a chain that wraps them, without becoming displaced from the chain; our proposed mechanism is analogous to the reptation of "stored length" in more familiar situations of polymer dynamics. The problem arises in the case of globular aggregates of proteins (histones) that are wound by DNA in the chromosomes of plants and animals; these beads (nucleosomes) are multiply wrapped and yet are able to reposition themselves over long distances, while remaining bound by the DNA chain.

Schiessel, H; Bruinsma, R F; Gelbart, W M

2001-01-01

4

Polymer reptation and nucleosome repositioning  

OpenAIRE

We consider how beads can diffuse along a chain that wraps them, without becoming displaced from the chain; our proposed mechanism is analogous to the reptation of "stored length" in more familiar situations of polymer dynamics. The problem arises in the case of globular aggregates of proteins (histones) that are wound by DNA in the chromosomes of plants and animals; these beads (nucleosomes) are multiply wrapped and yet are able to reposition themselves over long distances,...

Schiessel, H.; Widom, J.; Bruinsma, R. F.; Gelbart, W. M.

2001-01-01

5

Tunica vaginalis hydrocele of reposited testis  

OpenAIRE

Tunica vaginalis hydrocele (TVH) is a relatively common entity. The procedure of testicular reposition in a subcutaneous pouch following severe scrotal avulsion injury is also a standard line of care. Though, the occurrence of TVH in such a reposited testis is extremely rare clinical presentation. We herein report a case of 55-year male patient who presented with swelling over medial aspect of left upper thigh which was diagnosed as TVH of reposited testis on detailed assessment. The patient ...

Tiwari Manish; Sinha Anand; Dave Divyang

2009-01-01

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Tunica vaginalis hydrocele of reposited testis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tunica vaginalis hydrocele (TVH is a relatively common entity. The procedure of testicular reposition in a subcutaneous pouch following severe scrotal avulsion injury is also a standard line of care. Though, the occurrence of TVH in such a reposited testis is extremely rare clinical presentation. We herein report a case of 55-year male patient who presented with swelling over medial aspect of left upper thigh which was diagnosed as TVH of reposited testis on detailed assessment. The patient was managed on the usual lines of management protocols of TVH with successful outcome.

Tiwari Manish

2009-01-01

7

Osteoporosis and Your Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home » Osteoporosis and Your Spine Osteoporosis and Your Spine Your spine is made up of small bones ... called kyphosis. Kyphosis and Bone Breaks in the Spine The bones in the spine are called vertebrae. ...

8

Percutaneous Repositioning of dislodged atrial pacing lead  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The overall rate of atrial pacing lead dislodgement is estimated to be about 3%. These leads are generally repositioned via a second operation through opening the pacemaker pocket.Some operators have introduced percutaneous techniques using snare system or deflectable catheters for this purpose.In this article we present our experience with five cases of percutaneous lead repositioning. Three cases were performed using deflectable ablation catheters and in two cases we used a specially designed urologic basket. The procedural success rate was 100% at the beginning but the long term success rate was 60%.

Ali Kazemi saeid

2006-07-01

9

Human experience with canalith repositioning maneuvers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three distinct pathological conditions, related to different means by which dense intralabyrinthine particles interfere with the function of a semicircular canal and cause nystagmus and vertigo, are amenable to treatment with repositioning maneuvers. Known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and variants, these conditions are better designated collectively by the term "vestibular lithiasis." Each form requires a different treatment strategy of head maneuvers and application of other modalities to restore normal semicircular function and thereby eliminate the positional nystagmus and vertigo. Real-time observation of the nystagmus induced by the particles during the maneuvers can greatly facilitate the repositioning process. PMID:11710460

Epley, J M

2001-10-01

10

Lumbosacral spine CT  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal CT; CT - lumbosacral spine ... In other cases, a CT of the lumbosacral spine may be done after injecting contrast dye into ... of the body. A CT of the lumbosacral spine can evaluate fractures and changes of the spine, ...

11

Spine surgery - discharge  

Science.gov (United States)

... discharge; Microdecompression - discharge; Laminotomy - discharge; Disk removal - discharge; Spine surgery - diskectomy - discharge; Intervertebral foramina - discharge; Spine surgery - foraminotomy - ...

12

Coronally repositioned flap in gingival recession therapy  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical therapy of coronally repositioned flap (CRF) in solving the problem of gingival recession. Research involved 10 patients and CRP was used to cover denuded surfaces of 21 teeth. The success of the operation was evaluated through the measurement of the denuded root surfaces (DRS) and the estimation of the condition of the periodontal tissues measuring: clinical attachment level (CAL) clinical gingival level (CGL), keratinized gingival width (KGW), ...

Stevanovi? Ružica; Zeli? Obrad

2003-01-01

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Firm entry, product repositioning and welfare  

OpenAIRE

We show that the entry of a second firm in a horizontally differentiated market (ala Hotelling) may harm consumers as prices increase and consumer's surplus possibly decrease. We first derive the price and the consumer's surplus of a monopoly which is located at the center of the market. When a second firm enters the market the first firm repositions and the two firms locate at their equilibrium points. Although competition adds to variety and increases consumer's surplus, the post entry incr...

Zacharias, Eleftherios

2009-01-01

14

In silico drug repositioning: what we need to know.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug repositioning, exemplified by sildenafil and thalidomide, is a promising way to explore alternative indications for existing drugs. Recent research has shown that bioinformatics-based approaches have the potential to offer systematic insights into the complex relationships among drugs, targets and diseases necessary for successful repositioning. In this article, we propose the key bioinformatics steps essential for discovering valuable repositioning methods. The proposed steps (repurposing with a purpose, repurposing with a strategy and repurposing with confidence) are aimed at providing a repurposing pipeline, with particular focus on the proposed Drugs of New Indications (DNI) database, which can be used alongside currently available resources to improve in silico drug repositioning. PMID:22935104

Liu, Zhichao; Fang, Hong; Reagan, Kelly; Xu, Xiaowei; Mendrick, Donna L; Slikker, William; Tong, Weida

2013-02-01

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North American Spine Society  

Science.gov (United States)

... Grants Nontraditional Nonsurgical Treatment Grants Clinical Traveling Fellowships North American Spine Foundation About us We Need Your ... Blog NASS on Spine LINKEDIN TWITTER YOUTUBE FACEBOOK NORTH AMERICAN SPINE SOCIETY BURR RIDGE, IL 7075 Veterans ...

16

Protecting Your Fragile Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

Protecting Your Fragile Spine Table of Contents PROTECTING YOUR FRAGILE SPINE 1 Osteoporosis basics .........................................................................2 Are you at risk ..................................................................................3 Broken bones in the spine ..............................................................3 Signs and symptoms of broken bones in ...

17

Lumbar spine CT scan  

Science.gov (United States)

... spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... DM, Roditi G. Intravascular contrast media for radiology, CT, and MRI. ... tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

18

Cervical spine CT scan  

Science.gov (United States)

... scan – cervical spine; Computed tomography scan – cervical spine; CT scan - cervical spine; Neck CT scan ... Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye CT scans expose you to more radiation than ...

19

Postoperative spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 15-30 % of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are associated with complications that require further diagnostic work-up. The choice of imaging modality for postoperative complications depends on the extent, pattern and temporal evolution of the postoperative neurological signs and symptoms as well as on the preoperative clinical status, the surgical procedure itself and the underlying pathology. The interpretation of imaging findings, in particular the distinction between postoperative complications and normally expected nonspecific postoperative imaging alterations can be challenging and requires the integration of clinical neurological information and the results of laboratory tests. The combination of different imaging techniques might help in cases of equivocal imaging results. (orig.)

20

[Postoperative spine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 15-30?% of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are associated with complications that require further diagnostic work-up. The choice of imaging modality for postoperative complications depends on the extent, pattern and temporal evolution of the postoperative neurological signs and symptoms as well as on the preoperative clinical status, the surgical procedure itself and the underlying pathology. The interpretation of imaging findings, in particular the distinction between postoperative complications and normally expected nonspecific postoperative imaging alterations can be challenging and requires the integration of clinical neurological information and the results of laboratory tests. The combination of different imaging techniques might help in cases of equivocal imaging results. PMID:25398572

Schlaeger, R; Lieb, J M; Shariat, K; Ahlhelm, F J

2014-11-01

21

Sisyphi Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

26 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a spine of material exposed in the Sisyphi Planum region of Mars. Gullies can be seen on the deeply-shadowed ridge slope. Mass movement (landsliding) has contributed to the erosion of this ridge and the creation of the apron of talus that surrounds it. Location near: 70.7oS, 357.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

2006-01-01

22

Signaling in dendritic spines and spine microdomains  

OpenAIRE

The specialized morphology of dendritic spines creates an isolated compartment that allows for localized biochemical signaling. Recent studies have revealed complexity in the function of the spine head as a signaling domain and indicate that (1) the spine is functionally subdivided into multiple independent microdomains and (2) not all biochemical signals are equally compartmentalized within the spine. Here we review these findings as well as the developments in fluorescence microscopy that a...

Chen, Yao; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

2012-01-01

23

Lateral crural repositioning for treatment of cephalic malposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

After completion of this article, the reader should be able to describe the indications for lateral crural repositioning, understand the key steps to performing the procedure, and be able to manage the complications associated with this treatment strategy. PMID:25430928

Toriumi, Dean M; Asher, Scott A

2015-02-01

24

Spine Injuries and Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Your backbone, or spine, is made up of 26 bone discs called vertebrae. The vertebrae protect your spinal cord and allow you to ... of problems can change the structure of the spine or damage the vertebrae and surrounding tissue. They ...

25

Spine Conditioning Program  

Science.gov (United States)

... assistance should consult his or her orthopaedic surgeon. Spine Conditioning Program Purpose of Program _________________________________________________________________ After an injury ... goals. Strength: Strengthening the muscles that support your spine will help keep your back and upper body ...

26

Thoracic spine CT scan  

Science.gov (United States)

... spine Arthritis of the spine Tumor of the spine Other spinal injury Thoracic CT scan can also be used during or after an x-ray of the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots (myelography) or an x-ray of the disk ( ...

27

Locally unknotted spines of Heegaard splittings  

OpenAIRE

We show that under reasonable conditions, the spines of the handlebodies of a strongly irreducible Heegaard splitting will intersect a closed ball in a graph which is isotopic into the boundary of the ball. This is in some sense a generalization of the results by Scharlemann on how a strongly irreducible Heegaard splitting surface can intersect a ball.

Johnson, Jesse

2004-01-01

28

Cactus spine injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cactus spines produce injuries whose clinical significance is loosely in inverse proportion to the dimensions of the spine. Long and medium spines of saguaro and barrel cacti seldom result in embedded fragments, but when they do they are difficult to locate and remove. Other medium spines, those of prickly pear and cholla, are a nuisance but they can be removed readily by traction, as can the smaller spines (glochids) of the prickly pear. The very small spines (also glochids) of the polka dot or bunny's ear cactus (Opuntia microdasys) and the beavertail cactus (Opuntia basilaris) offer the most frustrating problem of all, but can be peeled off with a dried film of a professional facial gel. PMID:3390256

Lindsey, D; Lindsey, W E

1988-07-01

29

Management of intrusive luxation with immediate surgical repositioning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusive luxation is one of the most severe forms of traumatic injuries in which the affected tooth is forced to displace deeper into the alveolus. As a consequence of this type of injury, maximum damage occurs to the pulp and all the supporting structures. This report presents a case of severe intrusive luxation of mature maxillary central and lateral incisor in a 40-year-old male. The intruded tooth was immediately repositioned (surgical extrusion and splinted within hours following injury. Antibiotic therapy was initiated at the time of repositioning and maintained for 5 days. Pulp removal and calcium hydroxide treatment of the root canal was carried out after repositioning. Splint was removed 2 months later. Definitive root canal treatment with Gutta percha was accomplished at a later appointment. Clinical and radiographic examination 6, 12 and 24 months after the surgical extrusion revealed satisfactory progressive apical and periodontal healing.

Mazumdar Dibyendu

2009-01-01

30

The ‘addicted’ spine.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Medium Spiny Neurons of the Nucleus Accumbens show a reduced number of dendritic spines and a decrease in TH-positive terminals upon withdrawal from opiates, cannabinoids and alcohol. The reduction is localized ‘strictly’ to second order dendritic branches where, dopamine-containing terminals impinging upon spines, make synaptic contacts. In addition, long-thin spines seems preferentially affected raising the possibility that cellular learning of these neurons may be selectively hampered. These findings suggest that dendritic spines are affected by drugs widely abused by humans and provide yet another example of drug-induced aberrant neural plasticity with marked reflections on the physiology of synapses, system structural organization, and neuronal circuitry remodeling.

Marco Diana

2014-10-01

31

A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a function of their duration; for example, sailing slowly between two ports is cheaper than sailing quickly. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We model the LSFRP using PDDL and solve it using the planner.

Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda

2012-01-01

32

Anesthesia for Spine Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Patient presenting for surgical procedures of the spine are a diverse population undergoing a wide variety of operative procedures and present diverse challenge to the anesthesiologists. The anesthetic management depends on the operative site; spine pathology; surgical approach and the anesthesiologists experience & expertise.

Dr. Aloka Samantaray

2006-01-01

33

Spine-Tingling Excitement from Glutamate Receptors  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionotropic glutamate receptors excite nerve cells by forming cation-selective pores in the membrane. Recent work, however, provides evidence that atypical signaling by glutamate receptors regulates the production and maintenance of dendritic spines, the short outgrowths that receive most central excitatory synapses. The control of spine formation involves the amino-terminal extracellular domain of the GluR2 subunit of AMPA (?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptors. How interactions with this domain elicit signals to downstream effectors remains to be elucidated, but ion flux through the channel may not be required. This Perspective discusses the possibility that regulation of spines by GluR2 may be one of a growing collection of cases in which ionotropic glutamate receptors can elicit biochemical changes that are conventionally attributed to metabotropic receptors. It is suggested that proteins in contact with specific glutamate receptor subunits may directly sense the conformational changes produced by agonist binding.

James E. Huettner (Washington University Medical School; Department of Cell Biology and Physiology REV)

2003-11-25

34

Solving The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm of the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph and evaluate them on real world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare our approach's performance against an actual repositioning scenario, one of many undertaken by our industrial collaborator in 2011, in which our simulated annealing algorithm is able to double the profit earned in our industrial collaborator's solution to $15.5 million dollars using only few minutes of CPU time, showing that our algorithm could be used in a decision support system to solve the LSFRP.

Tierney, Kevin; Áskelsdóttir, Björg

2013-01-01

35

Lumbosacral spine x-ray  

Science.gov (United States)

X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... be placed over the lower part of your spine. You will be asked to hold your breath ... x-ray. The most common reason for lumbosacral spine x-ray is to look for the cause ...

36

Spine and sport.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spine, in athletes is a relatively frequent origin of problems. Chronic spine problems are much more common compared to acute injuries. Chronic injuries to the spine most often occur in low-contact sports like gymnastics and are most commonly the result of overuse. Acute injuries are more common in high-speed and full contact sports and are traumatic in origin. Injuries to the spinal cord can be devastating but are fortunately very uncommon. Although imaging of the spine appears to be straightforward, any radiologist will acknowledge that the optimal imaging strategy is often unclear due to several reasons. For the cervical spine much has improved since the NEXUS and CCR studies appeared in which clear rules were defined when to image the C-spine in acute trauma situations. For the thoracic and lumbar spines such rules are not defined. Although conventional imaging has long been the primary imaging modality of choice there is ample evidence that this should be abandoned in favor of multidetector CT for the C-spine. This is reflected in the ACR criteria in which conventional imaging of tile C-spine in trauma is rated as the least appropriate imaging method. However, this is not true in children and adolescents although a strict age criterion is not defined. It is also not true for injuries to the thoracic and lumbar spine in which conventional imaging still plays a large role as primary imaging modality followed by evaluation by CT in trauma situations. The role for MRI in acute situations is increasing especially with the increasing use of the TLICS system to classify injuries of the thoracic and lumbar spine in which the evaluation of the integrity of the posterior ligamentous structures is included. For the evaluation of chronic complaints, the roles of CT and MRI are basically reversed in which MRI will become the prime imaging modality of choice after conventional imaging after which CT can be reserved for a selected patient group. The merit of the different imaging modalities will be discussed together with a spectrum of acute and chronic injuries often encountered in the spine in athletes. PMID:24896742

de Jonge, Milko C; Kramer, Josef

2014-07-01

37

Dendritic Spines and Distributed Circuits  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines receive most excitatory connections in pyramidal cells and many other principal neurons. But why do neurons use spines, when they could accommodate excitatory contacts directly on their dendritic shafts? One suggestion is that spines serve to connect with passing axons, and increasing the connectivity of the dendrites. Another hypothesis is that spines are biochemical compartments that enable input-specific synaptic plasticity. A third possibility is that spines have an elect...

Yuste, Rafael

2011-01-01

38

New Spines, New Memories  

OpenAIRE

For more than a century dendritic spines have been a source of fascination and speculation. The long-held belief that these anatomical structures are involved in learning and memory are addressed. Specifically, two lines of evidence that support this claim are reviewed. In the first, we review evidence that experimental manipulations that affect dendritic spine number in the hippocampus also affect learning processes of various sorts. In the second, we review evidence that learning itself aff...

Leuner, Benedetta; Shors, Tracey J.

2004-01-01

39

Cervical spine trauma  

OpenAIRE

Cervical spine trauma is a common problem with a wide range of severity from minor ligamentous injury to frank osteo-ligamentous instability with spinal cord injury. The emergent evaluation of patients at risk relies on standardized clinical and radiographic protocols to identify injuries; elucidate associated pathology; classify injuries; and predict instability, treatment and outcomes. The unique anatomy of each region of the cervical spine demands a review of each segment individually. Thi...

Torretti Joel; Sengupta Dilip

2007-01-01

40

Pediatric cervical spine instability  

OpenAIRE

Cervical spine instability in children is rare but not exceptional and may be due to many factors. Although it mostly occurs at the upper cervical spine, all vertebrae from the occiput to T1 may be involved. It may be acute or chronic, occurring secondary to trauma or due to congenital anomaly, skeletal or metabolic dystrophy or rheumatoid arthritis. It can be isolated or associated with other musculoskeletal or visceral anomalies. A thorough knowledge of embryology, anatomy, physiology and p...

Ghanem, Ismat; El Hage, Samer; Rachkidi, Rami; Kharrat, Khalil; Dagher, Fernand; Kreichati, Gabi

2008-01-01

41

Lip repositioning: An alternative cosmetic treatment for gummy smile  

OpenAIRE

Excessive gingival display, commonly referred to as ‘gummy smile’ is a major hurdle in overall personality of an individual. Gummy smile, secondary to altered passive eruption and tooth mal-positioning, can be predictably treated with Surgery and orthodontic therapy. In patients with jaw deformities, orthognathic surgery can be performed. However, this requires hospitalization and entails significant discomfort. Lip repositioning is a simple surgical procedure to treat ‘gummy smile’. ...

Dayakar, Mudnoor Manjunath; Gupta, Sachin; Shivananda, Hiranya

2014-01-01

42

Epley's canalith-repositioning manoeuvre for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

OpenAIRE

The efficacy of the Epley's canalith-repositioning manoeuvre in the treatment of BPPV was assessed in this prospective study of 62 patients. Patients were selected based on symptoms of positional vertigo and positive Dix-Hallpike's positional test. Patients were divided into two groups; first group comprising 34 patients underwent Epley's manoeuvre alone where as the other group comprising 28 patients underwent Epley's manoeuvre along with mastoid oscillator. At the end of 1 month patients we...

Khatri, M.; Raizada, R. M.; Puttewar, M. P.

2005-01-01

43

A bidirectional drug repositioning approach for Parkinson's disease through network-based inference.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is one of the most prevailing neurodegenerative disorders. Novel computational approaches are required to find new ways of using the existing drugs or drug repositioning, as currently there exists no cure for PD. We proposed a new bidirectional drug repositioning method that consists of Top-down and Bottom-up approaches and finally gives information about significant repositioning drug candidates. This method takes into account of the topological significance of drugs in the tripartite Indication-drug-target network (IDTN) as well the significance of their targets in the PD-specific protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). 9 non-Parkinsonian drugs have been proposed as the significant repositioning candidates for PD. In order to find out the efficiency of the repositioning candidates we introduced a parameter called the On-target ratio (OTR). The average OTR value of final repositioning candidates has been found to be higher than that of known PD specific drugs. PMID:25576361

Rakshit, Hindol; Chatterjee, Paulami; Roy, Debjani

2015-02-13

44

Cervical spine trauma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cervical spine trauma is a common problem with a wide range of severity from minor ligamentous injury to frank osteo-ligamentous instability with spinal cord injury. The emergent evaluation of patients at risk relies on standardized clinical and radiographic protocols to identify injuries; elucidate associated pathology; classify injuries; and predict instability, treatment and outcomes. The unique anatomy of each region of the cervical spine demands a review of each segment individually. This article examines both upper cervical spine injuries, as well as subaxial spine trauma. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the broad topic of cervical spine trauma with reference to the classic literature, as well as to summarize all recently available literature on each topic. Identification of References for Inclusion: A Pubmed and Ovid search was performed for each topic in the review to identify recently published articles relevant to the review. In addition prior reviews and classic references were evaluated individually for inclusion of classic papers, classifications and previously unidentified references.

Torretti Joel

2007-01-01

45

Patient repositioning and pressure ulcer risk—Monitoring interface pressures of at-risk patients  

OpenAIRE

Repositioning patients regularly to prevent pressure ulcers and reduce interface pressures is the standard of care, yet prior work has found that standard repositioning does not relieve all areas of at-risk tissue in nondisabled subjects. To determine whether this holds true for high-risk patients, we assessed the effectiveness of routine repositioning in relieving at-risk tissue of the perisacral area using interface pressure mapping. Bedridden patients at risk for pressure ulcer formation (...

Matthew J Peterson, Phd; Nikolaus Gravenstein, Md; Wilhelm K Schwab, Phd; Johannes H Oostrom, Phd; Lawrence J Caruso, Md

2013-01-01

46

Ultrastructure of Dendritic Spines: Correlation Between Synaptic and Spine Morphologies  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines are critical elements of cortical circuits, since they establish most excitatory synapses. Recent studies have reported correlations between morphological and functional parameters of spines. Specifically, the spine head volume is correlated with the area of the postsynaptic density (PSD), the number of postsynaptic receptors and the ready-releasable pool of transmitter, whereas the length of the spine neck is proportional to the degree of biochemical and electrical isolation...

JavierDeFelipe; RafaelYuste

2007-01-01

47

Ultrastructure of dendritic spines: correlation between synaptic and spine morphologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dendritic spines are critical elements of cortical circuits, since they establish most excitatory synapses. Recent studies have reported correlations between morphological and functional parameters of spines. Specifically, the spine head volume is correlated with the area of the postsynaptic density (PSD, the number of postsynaptic receptors and the ready-releasable pool of transmitter, whereas the length of the spine neck is proportional to the degree of biochemical and electrical isolation of the spine from its parent dendrite. Therefore, the morphology of a spine could determine its synaptic strength and learning rules. To better understand the natural variability of neocortical spine morphologies, we used a combination of gold-toned Golgi impregnations and serial thin-section electron microscopy and performed three-dimensional reconstructions of spines from layer 2/3 pyramidal cells from mouse visual cortex. We characterized the structure and synaptic features of 144 completed reconstructed spines, and analyzed their morphologies according to their positions. For all morphological parameters analyzed, spines exhibited a continuum of variability, without clearly distinguishable subtypes of spines or clear dependence of their morphologies on their distance to the soma. On average, the spine head volume was correlated strongly with PSD area and weakly with neck diameter, but not with neck length. The large morphological diversity suggests an equally large variability of synaptic strength and learning rules.

JavierDeFelipe

2007-10-01

48

The feasibility of repositioning ability as a tool for ergonomic evaluation: effects of chair back inclination and fatigue on head repositioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poor posture has been suggested as one of the main factors contributing to the high prevalence of neck pain in video display unit (VDU) users, but no clear association between pain and any particular resting neck posture has been found. Postural awareness of the neck, as indicated by the repositioning accuracy, may therefore be an appropriate measure and potentially useful assessment tool. The objective of this study is to examine whether posture and fatigue affect the head repositioning ability in typical VDU usage. A group of 20 healthy participants reproduced a normal comfortable posture for forward, upright and backward chair back inclinations in random order both before and after fatigue of the upper trapezius muscles. Ten repetitions of the posture were recorded for 2 s each, and the angular and translational deviations from the original head position were measured with regard to the external environment (head in space repositioning) and with regard to the trunk (head on trunk repositioning). Analysis by repeated measures ANOVA showed significant effects and interactions of fatigue and chair back inclination on the repositioning errors in the sagittal plane, which typically showed systematic trends towards certain postures rather than random errors around a mean position. While further work is required to examine the ergonomic impact of impaired repositioning ability, head repositioning is sensitive to ergonomic factors such as seating configuration and fatigue, and may therefore be a useful tool for evaluation of static working postures. PMID:16801232

Wong, T F Y; Chow, D H K; Holmes, A D; Cheung, K M C

2006-07-15

49

Multiplanar CT of the spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics are: CT of the Sacrum, The Postoperative Spine, Film Organizations and Case Reporting, Degeneration and Disc Disease of the Intervertebral Joint, Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, and Cervical and Thoracic Spine.

Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V.

1985-01-01

50

Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain  

Science.gov (United States)

MENU Return to Web version Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain More than 40 million people in the United States have osteoporosis (a decrease in the amount ...

51

Imaging of spine injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spinal trauma requires a prompt and detailed diagnosis for estimating the prognosis and installing proper therapy. Conventional radiograms are the first imaging modality in most cases. In the cervical and the lumbar spine, a CT has to be performed in patients with polytrauma and a higher risk of complications or with signs of instability. Especially for imaging the cervicocranium, multiplanar reformations in sagittal and coronal planes are necessary. For fractures of the thoracic spine, MR imaging is superior to CT because of the better detection of associated neurologic complications. (author)

52

Sodium channels amplify spine potentials  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines mediate most excitatory synapses in the brain. Past theoretical work and recent experimental evidence have suggested that spines could contain sodium channels. We tested this by measuring the effect of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) on depolarizations generated by two-photon uncaging of glutamate on spines from mouse neocortical pyramidal neurons. In practically all spines examined, uncaging potentials were significantly reduced by TTX. This effect was postsyna...

Araya, Roberto; Nikolenko, Volodymyr; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Yuste, Rafael

2007-01-01

53

An investigation of a video-based patient repositioning technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: We have investigated a video-based patient repositioning technique designed to use skin features for radiotherapy repositioning. We investigated the feasibility of the clinical application of this system by quantitative evaluation of performance characteristics of the methodology. Methods and Materials: Multiple regions of interest (ROI) were specified in the field of view of video cameras. We used a normalized correlation pattern-matching algorithm to compute the translations of each ROI pattern in a target image. These translations were compared against trial translations using a quadratic cost function for an optimization process in which the patient rotation and translational parameters were calculated. Results: A hierarchical search technique achieved high-speed (compute correlation for 128x128 ROI in 512x512 target image within 0.005 s) and subpixel spatial accuracy (as high as 0.2 pixel). By treating the observed translations as movements of points on the surfaces of a hypothetical cube, we were able to estimate accurately the actual translations and rotations of the test phantoms used in our experiments to less than 1 mm and 0.2 deg. with a standard deviation of 0.3 mm and 0.5 deg. respectively. For human volunteer cases, we estimated the translations and rotations to have an accuracy of 2 mm and 1.2 deg. Conclusion: A personal computer-based video system is suitable for routine patient setup of fractionated conformal radiotherapy. It is expected to aonformal radiotherapy. It is expected to achieve high-precision repositioning of the skin surface with high efficiency

54

3-D repositioning and differential images of volumetric CT measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In quantitative computed tomography (QCT), time serial measurements are performed to detect a global bone density loss or to identify localized bone density changes. A prerequisite for an unambiguous analysis is the comparison of identical bone volumes. Usually, manual repositioning is too coarse. The authors therefore developed a mathematical procedure that allows matching two three-dimensional image volumes. The algorithm is based on correlation techniques. The procedure has been optimized and applied to computer-tomographic 3-D images of the human knee. It has been tested with both artificially created and in vivo measured image data. Furthermore, typical results of differential images calculated from real bone measurements are presented

55

Space Stations: Sponge Spool Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners simulate what happens to a human spine in space by making Sponge Spool Spines (alternating sponge pieces and spools threaded on a pipe cleaner). This represents a human spine on Earth, with the discs (sponges) pressed between the spinal vertebrae (the wooden spools). Learners measure the spine length, dip it in a glass of water (simulating microgravity), and then re-measure the spine. They will find it has expanded, just like in space! This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

Dr. Diane Byerly

2006-01-01

56

Canalith Repositioning Variations for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To determine if variations in common treatments for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) affected efficacy. Study Design Prospective, pseudo-randomized study. Setting Out-patient practice in a tertiary care facility Subjects and Methods Patients (n=118) with unilateral BPPV of the posterior canal, including 13 patients with BPPV of the lateral canal were tested at a tertiary care center on one of five interventions: canalith repositioning maneuver (CRP), CRP plus home exercise, modified CRP, CRP for patients with involvement of two semicircular canals, self-CRP home exercise. Self-CRP was also compared to previously published data on efficacy of the Brandt Daroff exercise. Main outcome measures were vertigo intensity and frequency, presence/ absence of Dix-Hallpike responses, Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL), computerized dynamic posturography. Results Vertigo intensity and frequency and Dix-Hallpike responses decreased significantly and posturography and VADL improved significantly from pre- to post tests. No other significant changes were found. The groups did not differ significantly. Vertigo intensity and frequency were not strongly related at pre-test but were related at post-test. Length of illness and age did not influence the results. Conclusions However the head is moved, as long as it is moved rapidly enough and through the correct planes in space repositioning treatments are likely to be effective. Therefore clinicians have a range of choices in selecting the treatment best suited for each patient’s unique needs. PMID:20723779

Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh

2010-01-01

57

High-throughput Drug Repositioning for the Discovery of New Treatments for Chagas Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite affecting around 8 million people worldwide and representing an economic burden above $7 billion/ year, currently approved medications to treat Chagas disease are still limited to two drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole, which were developed more than 40 years ago and present important efficacy and safety limitations. Drug repositioning (i.e. finding second or further therapeutic indications for known drugs) has raised considerable interest within the international drug development community. There are many explanations to the current interest on drug repositioning including the possibility to partially circumvent clinical trials and the consequent saving in time and resources. It has been suggested as a particular attractive approach for the development of novel therapeutics for neglected diseases, which are usually driven by public or non-profit organizations. Here we review current computer-guided approaches to drug repositioning and reports on drug repositioning stories oriented to Chagas disease, with a focus on computer-guided drug repositioning campaigns. PMID:25769967

Bellera, Carolina L; Sbaraglini, Maria L; Balcazar, Dario E; Fraccaroli, Laura; Vanrell, M Cristina; Casassa, A Florencia; Labriola, Carlos A; Romano, Patricia S; Carrillo, Carolina; Talevi, Alan

2015-01-01

58

The Effect of Early Canalith Repositioning on Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo on Recurrence  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) can be treated using a simple repositioning maneuver. This study demonstrates the effects of early repositioning therapy in patients with BPPV, especially with regard to recurrence. Methods We enrolled 138 consecutive patients who had been diagnosed with BPPV in the emergency rooms and ENT out-patient clinics of Chung-Ang University Hospital and Samyook Medical Center from January to June 2009. All patients immediately underwent appropriate canalith repositioning procedures (CRPs) depending on canalith type and location. The CRPs were performed daily until the patient's symptoms were resolved. The patients were classified into two groups according to the duration between symptom onset and initial treatment: less than 24 hours (early repositioning group, n=66) and greater 24 hours (delayed repositioning group, n=72). We prospectively compared the numbers of treatments received and the recurrence rates between the two groups. Results Follow-up periods ranged from 8 to 14 months, 77 cases involved posterior canal BPPV, 48 cases were lateral canal BPPV (of which 20 cases were cupulolithiasis), and 13 cases were multiple canal BPPV. BPPV recurrence was found in a total of 46 patients (33.3%). The necessary numbers of CRPs were 2.3 for the early repositioning group and 2.5 for the late repositioning group, a difference that was not statistically significant (P=0.582). The early repositioning group showed a recurrence rate of 19.7%, and the delayed repositioning group showed a recurrence rate of 45.8% (P=0.002). Conclusion Performing repositioning treatments as soon as possible after symptom onset may be an important factor in the prevention of BPVV recurrence. PMID:21949575

Do, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Jin; Park, Chong Yoon; Chung, Myung-Hyun; Moon, In Seok

2011-01-01

59

Infections of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnosis of infectious disease of the spine in an early stage ist difficult. Conventional X-ray examinations, often used as a basic screening study, will show the characteristic narrowing of the intervertebral disc space and the osteolytic and sclerotic changes in the adjointing vertebra only after two to eight weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a sensitivity equivalent to bone scintigraphy and, due to its superior delineation of anatomic details, MRI has become the method of choice not only for the assessment of location, extent, and associated lesions in infectious bone disease, but also in the diagnosis of intradural infections including myelitis. MRI examination in the assessment of a successful therapy or osteomyelitis of the spine aims for the detection of regression of bone marrow edema, reappearance of fatty marrow, and less pronounced contrast enhancement. Computed tomography (CT) is mainly used for image-guided biopsy to obtain specimen for microbiologic culture or for the placement of a percutaneous drainage. (orig.)

60

Interventional spine procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of some spinal diseases are percutaneous treatments, proposed before classic surgery. By using imaging guidance, one can significantly increase accuracy and decrease complication rates. This review report physiopathology and discusses indications, methods, complications and results of performing these techniques on the spine, including different level (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacroiliac) and different kind of treatments (nerve block, disc treatment and bone treatment). Finally the present article also reviews current literature on the controversial issues involved

61

Cactus spine granuloma.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the case of a 45-year-old woman with a 2-week history of painful erythematous papules on the palmar aspect of the fingertips of her right hand, resulting from contact with a cholla cactus 3 weeks prior in Arizona. The patient initially was given clobetasol propionate ointment, resulting in some improvement; however, the lesions resolved only after punch biopsies were performed to confirm the diagnosis of cactus spine granuloma. PMID:17674586

Madkan, Vandana K; Abraham, Tonya; Lesher, Jack L

2007-03-01

62

Spine revisited: Principles and parlance redefined  

OpenAIRE

A revised appreciation of the evolution and the nature of bone in general and of vertebrae in particular, allows revisiting the human spine to usher in some new principles and more rational parlance, that embody spine?s phylogeny, ontogeny, anatomy and physiology. Such an approach accords primacy to spine?s soft-tissues, and relegates to its bones a secondary place.

Kothari M; Mehta Lopa; Natarajan M; Kothari V

2005-01-01

63

C Spine Fracture on OPG  

OpenAIRE

Maxillofacial injuries are common and they occur in a variety of situations. All patients who undergo maxillofacial or head trauma, are presumed to sustain cervical spine injuries. Identification of cervical spine injuries is essential in management of trauma, because a missed injury can result in a catastrophic spinal cord injury. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines have suggested that routine use of cervical spine radiographs may not be required in an asymptomatic patient. We are...

N S, Kedarnath; N S, Mamatha; R, Shruthi

2013-01-01

64

Preoperative erythropoietin in spine surgery  

OpenAIRE

Spine surgery may be associated with profuse intraoperative bleeding that often requires blood transfusions. In recent years several techniques have been developed to avoid allogenic transfusions and their potential complications to surgical patients. In this study we review and analyse the role of preoperative recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) administration in spine surgery as a blood conservation strategy. Between 1998 and 2002, a total of 250 patients scheduled for spine surgery w...

Colomina, Maria J.; Bago?, Juan; Pellise?, Ferran; Godet, Carmen; Villanueva, Carlos

2004-01-01

65

Observation of curative effect of modified canalith reposition on 48 cases with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the canalith repositioning maneuver in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. Methods The modified Epley procedure, Semont maneuver and Barbecue maneuver were applied in 48 cases of BPPV. Followed for one year, the curative effects were observed. Results After treatment in modified canalith reposition, the recovery rate was 89.58% , and effective rate was 100% . Followed for one year, the recurrence rate was 6.25% . Conclusion Modified canalith reposition for BPPV has no contraindications, and no special adverse reactions. It is simple and can fastly relieve symptoms. The cost and recurrence rate are low. It is suitable for clinical application.

LAN Jun

2012-02-01

66

49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine. 572.187 Section 572.187 Transportation...50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.187 Lumbar spine. (a) The lumbar spine assembly consists of parts shown in drawing...

2010-10-01

67

Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

... Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine A spinal fracture is a serious injury. The most common fractures of the spine occur in the thoracic (midback) and lumbar spine ( ...

68

Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

North American Spine Society Public Education Series Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is it? What can be ... exercises. The Importance of Exercise for the Neck Spine experts agree that physical activity is important for ...

69

Surgical results of anterior decompression for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the thoracic spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment procedure of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the thoracic spine (OPLL/TS), which spontaneously results in severe progressive thoracic myelopathy, has not been standardized yet and presently requires anterior decompression by open surgery via ventral approach, of which results obtained in authors' department are described herein. Patients are 20 cases with OPLL/TS (8 M/12 F, av. age 56 y) and are followed up for 6 mo-14 y (av. 6 y 4 mo). Results are evaluated by surgical matters, imaging findings, complication and efficacy. Images after operation in all patients present the finding of fusion of transplanted bone to stabilize spines. The actual CT, MRI and X-ray images of typical 2 cases before and after operation are presented to exhibit decompressed spine re-positioned normally by surgery. Despite some tasks of approaching and spine numbers to be operable, effective improvement is found to be as high as 60% in average and authors' procedure is concluded to be useful. (R.T.)

70

Changes in the cervical spine in chronic polyarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 93 patients with classical chronic polyarthritis (rheumatoid arthritis) (at least five ARA-criterias) there were inflammatory lesions of dens epistropheus in 48.4%, ventral atlantoaxial subluxations in 25.8%, lateral atlantoaxial dislocations in 14% und pseudobasilary invagination in 5.4%. Step-ladder-subluxation between C 2/C 7 was found in 31.2%, discitis in 12.5% and spondylarthritis in 38% of cases. Inflammatory signs of the cervical spine were correlated to the Steinbrocker-Grade IV, ANA level 1 : 40 and the degree of Waaler-Rose. The correlation between long standing steroid-therapy and signs of cervical involvement during c.p. - specially in C1/C2 - is found to be proven. There are connections between the duration of c.p. (more than 10 years) and manifestation of cervical spine lesions, further, in a protective sense between longstanding gold therapy and cervical spine lesions. (orig.)

71

Lipid dynamics at dendritic spines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dynamic changes in the structure and composition of the membrane protrusions forming dendritic spines underlie memory and learning processes. In recent years a great effort has been made to characterize in detail the protein machinery that controls spine plasticity. However, we know much less about the involvement of lipids, despite being major membrane components and structure determinants. Moreover, protein complexes that regulate spine plasticity depend on specific interactions with membrane lipids for proper function and accurate intracellular signalling. In this review we attempt to gather the far from complete information available on the lipid composition at dendritic spine membranes and on its dynamics. We pay particular attention to the influence that spine lipid dynamism has on glutamate receptors, which are key regulators of synaptic plasticity.

Carlos Gerardo Dotti

2014-08-01

72

Development of methods for detecting and repositioning of snug-fitting annulus spacers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annulus spacers are used in the fuel channels of the CANDU power reactor to maintain the gap, or annulus space, between the pressure tube and surrounding calandria tube. It is important that the spacers remain close to their installed locations to prevent pressure tube to calandria tube contact and subsequent hydride blister formation. There is currently no means of in-service repositioning for snug-fitting annulus spacers. In addition, it is desirable to have a means to directly detect the location of a snug-fit spacer that does not rely on secondary effects of spacer location. AECL has been working to develop the capability to directly detect and reposition snug-fitting spacers. To date, means to detect and reposition snug-fitting spacers using vibration have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory and work is continuing towards implementing this technology for field use. This paper presents an overview of the detection and repositioning techniques. (author)

Feenstra, P.A.; Smith, B.A.W.; King, J.M., E-mail: feenstrp@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

2008-07-01

73

Development of methods for detecting and repositioning of snug-fitting annulus spacers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annulus spacers are used in the fuel channels of the CANDU power reactor to maintain the gap, or annulus space, between the pressure tube and surrounding calandria tube. It is important that the spacers remain close to their installed locations to prevent pressure tube to calandria tube contact and subsequent hydride blister formation. There is currently no means of in-service repositioning for snug-fitting annulus spacers. In addition, it is desirable to have a means to directly detect the location of a snug-fit spacer that does not rely on secondary effects of spacer location. AECL has been working to develop the capability to directly detect and reposition snug-fitting spacers. To date, means to detect and reposition snug-fitting spacers using vibration have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory and work is continuing towards implementing this technology for field use. This paper presents an overview of the detection and repositioning techniques. (author)

74

Repositioning reference new methods and new services for a new age  

CERN Document Server

Repositioning Reference reimagines reference services in libraries and information organizations and the role of reference librarians, taking into account rapid developments in technology and information-specific services in non-library sectors.

Rozaklis, Lillian

2014-01-01

75

Fractures of the cervical spine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in pol [...] ytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative.

Raphael Martus, Marcon; Alexandre Fogaca, Cristante; William Jacobsen, Teixeira; Douglas Kenji, Narasaki; Reginaldo Perilo, Oliveira; Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa de, Barros.

1455-14-01

76

Long-Term Efficacy of Repositioning Maneuvers in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo  

OpenAIRE

To determine the characteristics of 12 patients with a diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) treated by the repositioning maneuver during a 24-month follow-up period after the initial discharge a longitudinal clinical study was performed in which a questionnaire for the assessment of discomfort caused by dizziness was applied at the first visit, at the last visit after treatment and 2 years after the initial discharge. Repositioning treatment was again offered to patients w...

Julio Cesar Moriguti; Miguel Ângelo Hyppolito; Nathali Singaretti Moreno; Erika Barioni Mantello; Ana Paula do Rego André

2011-01-01

77

[Treating benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with the canalith repositioning maneuver of Epley. Our experience].  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common peripheral vestibular disorders. Particle repositioning maneuvers are simple and effective treatments for patients with BPPV. This study included 37 consecutive cases of BPPV treated with the particle repositioning maneuver of Epley. 97% of patients improved and the maneuver was well tolerated. We conclude that Epley Maneuver is safe and effective in the treatment of BPPV. PMID:11526863

Pérez Vázquez, P; Manrique Estrada, C; Muñoz Pinto, C; Baragaño Río, L; Bernardo Corte, M J; Suárez Nieto, C

2001-04-01

78

Drug Repositioning by Kernel-Based Integration of Molecular Structure, Molecular Activity, and Phenotype Data  

OpenAIRE

Computational inference of novel therapeutic values for existing drugs, i.e., drug repositioning, offers the great prospect for faster and low-risk drug development. Previous researches have indicated that chemical structures, target proteins, and side-effects could provide rich information in drug similarity assessment and further disease similarity. However, each single data source is important in its own way and data integration holds the great promise to reposition drug more accurately. H...

Wang, Yongcui; Chen, Shilong; Deng, Naiyang; Wang, Yong

2013-01-01

79

The spine problem: Finding a function for dendritic spines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Why do neurons have dendritic spines? This question— the heart of what Yuste calls “the spine problem”— presupposes that why-questions of this sort have scientific answers: that empirical findings can favor or count against claims about why neurons have spines. Here we show how such questions can receive empirical answers. We construe such why-questions as questions about how spines make a difference to the behavior of some mechanism that we take to be significant. Why-questions are driven fundamentally by the effort to understand how some item, such as the dendritic spine, is situated in the causal structure of the world (the causal nexus. They ask for a filter on that busy world that allows us to see a part’s individual contribution to a mechanism, independent of everything else going on. So understood, answers to why-questions can be assessed by testing the claims these answers make about the causal structure of a mechanism. We distinguish four ways of making a difference to a mechanism (necessary, modulatory, component, background condition, and we sketch their evidential requirements. One consequence of our analysis is that there are many spine problems and that any given spine problem might have many acceptable answers.

Sarah Malanowski

2014-09-01

80

Patient repositioning and pressure ulcer risk—Monitoring interface pressures of at-risk patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Repositioning patients regularly to prevent pressure ulcers and reduce interface pressures is the standard of care, yet prior work has found that standard repositioning does not relieve all areas of at-risk tissue in nondisabled subjects. To determine whether this holds true for high-risk patients, we assessed the effectiveness of routine repositioning in relieving at-risk tissue of the perisacral area using interface pressure mapping. Bedridden patients at risk for pressure ulcer formation (n = 23, Braden score 95% of the observation period. Thirteen participants were observed in three distinct positions (supine, turned left, turned right, and all had specific skin areas (166 +/– 184 cm2 that exceeded pressure thresholds for >95% of the observation period. At-risk patients have skin areas that are likely always at risk throughout their hospital stay despite repositioning. Healthcare providers are unaware of the actual tissue-relieving effectiveness (or lack thereof of their repositioning interventions, which may partially explain why pressure ulcer mitigation strategies are not always successful. Relieving at-risk tissue is a necessary part of pressure ulcer prevention, but the repositioning practice itself needs improvement.

Matthew J. Peterson, PhD

2013-07-01

81

Disk repositioning surgery of the temporomandibular joint with bioabsorbable anchor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathologic disease is anterior-medial displacement of the articular disk, which can lead to TMJ-related symptoms.The indication for disk repositioning surgery is irreversible TMJ damage associated with temporomandibular pain. We describe a surgical technique using a preauricular approach with a high condylectomy to reshape the condylar head. The disk is anchored with a bioabsorbable microanchor (Mitek Microfix QuickAnchor Plus 1.3) to the lateral aspect of the condylar head. The anchor is linked with a 3.0 Ethibond absorbable suture to fix the posterolateral side of the disk above the condyle.The aims of this surgery were to alleviate temporomandibular pain, headaches, and neck pain and to restore good jaw mobility. In the long term, we achieved these objectives through restoration of the physiological position and function of the disk and the lower articular compartment.In our opinion, the bioabsorbable anchor is the best choice for this type of surgery because it ensures the stability of the restored disk position and leaves no artifacts in the long term that might impede follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:24036782

Spallaccia, Fabrizio; Rivaroli, Andrea; Basile, Emanuela; Cascone, Piero

2013-01-01

82

Subependymoma of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subependymoma is a rare benign CNS tumor (WHO grade I). The common sites of origin for this type of tumor are the lateral and the fourth ventricles. A spinal intramedullary location is rare. Radiological features of intramedullary subependymoma can mimic more common and more aggressive tumor types. We report a case of a 61-year-old male who presented with a 3-year history of low back pain, associated with right lower limb progressive weakness and sensory numbness. An MRI of the lumbar spine revealed an intradural intramedullary lesion extending from the level of T10-L1. Clinical presentation, radiological, and pathological studies of this case of subependymoma are presented. The incidence of spinal subependymoma was also discussed in light of a literature review. PMID:20672503

Jabri, Hussam E; Dababo, Mohammad A; Alkhani, Ahmed M

2010-04-01

83

Rigid spine syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 16-year-old male with typical features of rigid spine syndrome orginally reported by Dubowitz in 1970, was studied by x-ray computed tomography (CT), histochemistry and electron-microscopy. A CT scan of the muscles showed characteristic findings of remarkable hypodensities of the cervical multifidus, semispinalis cervicis and capitis, multifidus of the back, erector spinae, long heads of biceps femoris and soleus muscles. Histochemical studies of the left rectus femoris muscle revealed increased variation in fiber diameters with type I fiber atrophy, partial necrosis and fatty degeneration, infiltration of phagocytes and no ragged red fiber. An electron microscopic examination disclosed increased vacuoles and lipid bodies, dilatation of sarcoplasmic reticula, deformed mitochondria and cytoplasmic bodies associated with derangement of myofibrils. The feature of Z band streaming strongly suggested that the cytoplasmic body originated from Z band degeneration. A review of the histopathological findings of the past literatures was also made. (author)

84

Spine injuries in dancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Care of a dancer calls for a unique balance between athlete and artist. The physician must familiarize himself or herself with dance terminology, common moves, correct technique, and dancer's mentality. The goal is to work intimately with the dancer to care for the injury and, if possible, continue to participate in portions of dance class to limit anxiety and increase compliance to treatment. The spine is the second most injured area of the body in dancers, and many issues stem from poor technique and muscle imbalance. This often leads to hyperlordosis, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, lumbar facet sprain, discogenic back pain, and muscle spasm and piriformis syndrome. This article reviews these causes of low back pain with a focus on dance-related presentation and treatment issues. PMID:21228650

Gottschlich, Laura M; Young, Craig C

2011-01-01

85

Trauma of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary reconstructive surgery is assuming increasing importance in the management of fractures of the spine. Analysis of the injury and thus surgical decision-making are greatly facilitated by the diagnostic power of CT and MRI. This volume provides a systemic introduction to the interpretation of CT and MRI images of injuries to the spinal column and the spinal cord, with special emphasis on the assessment or residual stability. Since survey X-rays remain the indispensable first step in radiodiagnosis, the typical appearances of spinal injuries on conventional films are also shown. This will help the reader interpret the CT and MRI images and also reflects the procedure in radiologic practice. The book's classification of spinal fractures, together with the attempt to conclude how the injury happened by analyzing the damage caused, paves the way for individually oriented therapy. (orig.) With 72 figs. in 132 separate illustrations

86

De novo spine surgery as a predictor of additional spine surgery at the same or distant spine regions  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Degenerative spine disorders are steadily increasing parallel to the aging of the population with considerable impact on cost and productivity. In this paper we study the prevalence and risk factors for multiple spine surgery and its impact on cost. Methods: Data on 1,153 spine surgery inpatients operated between October 2005 and September 2008 (index spine surgery) in regard to the number of previous spine surgeries and location of surgeries (cervical or lumbar) were retrospect...

Tolaymat, Abdullah; Abbara, Moataz; Robinson Iii, Joe Sam; Walid, M. Sami; Robinson Jr, Joe Sam

2011-01-01

87

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

... performed to assess the anatomy of the lumbar spine, to help plan surgery on the spine, or to monitor changes in the spine after ... For example, it can find areas of the spine where the spinal canal (which ... narrowed and might require surgery. It can assess the disks to see whether ...

88

Geometrical spines of lens manifolds  

OpenAIRE

Geometrical spines are defined for 3-manifolds with natural metrics, in particular, for lens manifolds. We show that any spine of L(p,q) close enough to its geometrical spine (i.e., to the cut locus with respect to the standard metric) contains at least E(p,q)-3 vertices, which is exactly the conjectured value for Matveev's complexity of L(p,q); here E(p,q) stands for the sum of the elements of the continued fraction expansion of p/q. As a byproduct, we find the minimal (ove...

Anisov, Sergei

2005-01-01

89

CT of pyogenic spine infection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective review of 19 patients with a diagnosis of pyogenic spine infection evaluated with spine CT was performed. In addition to displaying bone involvement, CT routinely depicted paraspinous and epidural involvement often not apparent on conventional radiographs or nuclear medicine studies. CT proved particularly useful in (1) workup of patients with clinical evidence of infection associated with back pain and neurologic symptoms, (2) evaluation of patients with fever and recurrent back pain following recent spine surgery, (3) guiding diagnostic aspiration of suspected spinal regions for culture and sensitivity, (4) pre-operative planning of debridement surgery. (orig.)

90

Of goats and spines :a feeding experiment  

OpenAIRE

Spines in plants have evolved to reduce mammalian herbivory, and their main function may be to protect twigs more than photosynthetic tissue. Type and frequency of spines vary in different scales. We hypothesised that different types of spines affect animal foraging through different mechanisms. We studied feeding behaviour by twig browsing goats in relation to two types of spines of Acacia tortilis using experimental manipulation of the occurrence of spines. Feeding time, number of biting ac...

Skarpe, Christina; Bergstro?m, Roger; Danell, Kjell; Eriksson, Helena; Kunz, Camilla

2012-01-01

91

Spine revisited: Principles and parlance redefined  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A revised appreciation of the evolution and the nature of bone in general and of vertebrae in particular, allows revisiting the human spine to usher in some new principles and more rational parlance, that embody spine?s phylogeny, ontogeny, anatomy and physiology. Such an approach accords primacy to spine?s soft-tissues, and relegates to its bones a secondary place.

Kothari M

2005-01-01

92

Dendritic Spine Pathology in Schizophrenia  

OpenAIRE

Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder whose clinical features include impairments in perception, cognition and motivation. These impairments reflect alterations in neuronal circuitry within and across multiple brain regions that are due, at least in part, to deficits in dendritic spines, the site of most excitatory synaptic connections. Dendritic spine alterations have been identified in multiple brain regions in schizophrenia, but are best characterized in layer 3 of the neocortex, ...

Glausier, Jill R.; Lewis, David A.

2012-01-01

93

Canalith repositioning maneuver for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE To determine whether the canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM) is effective for treating benign paroxysmal positional vertigo when it is used by family physicians in primary care settings. DESIGN Randomized, prospective, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. SETTING An academic family practice in Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Eighty-one patients 18 years or older whose dizziness was confirmed by the Dix-Hallpike (DH) vertigo-triggering maneuver and who had no contraindications to the CRM. INTERVENTIONS At the first visit, the intervention group received the CRM and the control group received a sham maneuver. Both groups received the CRM at the second and third visits 1 and 2 weeks later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Negative results of the DH test or self-reported resolution of vertigo after the initial treatment. RESULTS Eighty-one patients were randomized and received the first treatment. After the first treatment, 34.2% of patients in the intervention group and 14.6% of patients in the control group had negative DH test results (relative risk 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 5.2, P = .04); and 31.6% of patients in the intervention group and 24.4% of patients in the control group reported resolution of dizziness (relative risk 1.2, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.9, P = .48). One week later, patients in both intervention and control groups received the CRM, and 61.8% and 57.1% of them, respectively, had negative DH test results (P = .81). By week 3, approximately 75% of patients in both groups had improved. CONCLUSION A statistically significant proportion of patients in the CRM group returned to a negative response to the DH maneuver immediately after the first treatment. Family physicians can use the CRM to treat benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and potentially avoid delays in treatment and unnecessary referrals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT00182273 (ClinicalTrials.gov) PMID:17872784

Munoz, Juan E.; Miklea, Jonel T.; Howard, Michelle; Springate, Russ; Kaczorowski, Janusz

2007-01-01

94

CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

Mruphy, Gloria A.

2010-01-01

95

The postoperative spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is one of the most perplexing medical and medicoeconomic problems facing our health system today. In many studies reoperation rates tend to be between 10 and 20%, but as many as 20-45% 3 of patients may have persistent back or radicular pain following what was to have been definitive therapy. The causes for the FBSS are very complex. The Workmen's Compensation system and medicolegal trends toward very high settlements of litigation for injury have provided serious incentive for patients to remain symptomatic. It is difficult to analyze any statistical survey of symptomatic back patients without serious bias from this group of patients. Others suggest that patients with severe psychological problems, drug abuse, and alcoholism are inappropriately selected as surgical candidates. They believe that careful psychological evaluation of patients minimizes FBSS. Even if all extrinsic factors could be eliminated, the problem of failed back surgery would still be a major one. This chapter is based on a review of 300 postoperative lumbar spine multiplanar CT scans performed over a 15-month period. All patients had a complete set of axial images, with sagittal and coronal reformations photographed twice: optimized once for bone definition and once for soft-tissue contrast resolution

96

Radiology illustrated. Spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

97

Postoperative spine; Postoperative Wirbelsaeule  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 15-30 % of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are associated with complications that require further diagnostic work-up. The choice of imaging modality for postoperative complications depends on the extent, pattern and temporal evolution of the postoperative neurological signs and symptoms as well as on the preoperative clinical status, the surgical procedure itself and the underlying pathology. The interpretation of imaging findings, in particular the distinction between postoperative complications and normally expected nonspecific postoperative imaging alterations can be challenging and requires the integration of clinical neurological information and the results of laboratory tests. The combination of different imaging techniques might help in cases of equivocal imaging results. (orig.) [German] Etwa 15-30 % der operativen Eingriffe im Bereich der lumbalen Wirbelsaeule verlaufen nicht komplikationsfrei und erfordern weiterfuehrende Abklaerungen. Die Auswahl des bildgebenden Verfahrens im Rahmen postoperativer Komplikationen haengt dabei wesentlich von der zeitlichen Entwicklung, dem Ausmass und Verteilungsmuster der neuaufgetretenen klinisch-neurologischen bzw. orthopaedischen Symptome sowie von den Ausfaellen vor dem Eingriff, der zugrundeliegenden Pathologie und der Lokalisation und Art des Eingriffs ab. Die Interpretation der bildgebenden Befunde, insbesondere die Abgrenzung postoperativer Komplikationen von natuerlicherweise zu erwartenden postoperativen Veraenderungen kann dabei eine Herausforderung darstellen. Bei unklaren Befunden kann ergaenzend zur eingehend klinisch-neurologischen und laborchemischen Bestandsaufnahme auch der kombinierte Einsatz mehrerer bildgebender Modalitaeten diagnostisch weiterhelfen. (orig.)

Schlaeger, R. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Basel (Switzerland); Lieb, J.M. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Basel (Switzerland); Shariat, K. [Neurochirurgie Koeln-Merheim, Koeln (Germany); Ahlhelm, F.J. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland)

2014-11-15

98

Radiology illustrated. Spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

2014-04-01

99

Adaptive prostate IGRT combining online re-optimization and re-positioning: a feasibility study  

Science.gov (United States)

In prostate radiation therapy, inter-fractional organ motion/deformation has posed significant challenges on reliable daily dose delivery. To correct for this issue, off-line re-optimization and online re-positioning have been used clinically. In this paper, we propose an adaptive images guided radiation therapy (AIGRT) scheme that combines these two correction methods in an anatomy-driven fashion. The AIGRT process first tries to find a best plan for the daily target from a plan pool, which consists of the original CT plan and all previous re-optimized plans. If successful, the selected plan is used for daily treatment with translational shifts. Otherwise, the AIGRT invokes the re-optimization process of the CT plan for the anatomy of the day, which is afterward added to the plan pool as a candidate for future fractions. The AIGRT scheme is evaluated by comparisons with daily re-optimization and online re-positioning techniques based on daily target coverage, organs at risk (OAR) sparing and implementation efficiency. Simulated treatment courses for 18 patients with re-optimization alone, re-positioning alone and AIGRT shows that AIGRT offers reliable daily target coverage that is highly comparable to daily re-optimization and significantly improves from re-positioning. AIGRT is also seen to provide improved OAR sparing compared to re-positioning. Apart from dosimetric benefits, AIGRT in addition offers an efficient scheme to integrate re-optimization to current re-positioning-based IGRT workflow.

Li, Taoran; Thongphiew, Danthai; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Lee, W. Robert; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie

2011-03-01

100

Detection and repositioning of tight fighting annulus spacers in CANDU® fuel channels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The latest generation of CANDU® reactors has been constructed with tight-fitting annulus spacers to maintain the annular gap between the inner pressure tubes and the outer calandria tubes. These spacers cannot be detected and repositioned with the existing Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) process, which is designed to work with loose-fitting annulus spacers. There is currently no established technology to detect and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has been performing research and development to locate and move tight-fitting annulus spacers using Modal Detection and Repositioning (MODAR) technology since 2005 and is currently working in collaboration with Candu Energy and Bruce Power on a production system to be deployed for an In-reactor demonstration in the next year. The MODAR technology uses controlled vibrations on a short, isolated length of pressure tube to locate and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. MODAR technology will allow the utilities to demonstrate fuel channel integrity to the regulator and obtain approval for additional years of reactor operation. This paper briefly describes the technology and provides an overview of the tool testing and development. (author)

101

Detection and repositioning of tight fighting annulus spacers in CANDU® fuel channels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The latest generation of CANDU® reactors has been constructed with tight-fitting annulus spacers to maintain the annular gap between the inner pressure tubes and the outer calandria tubes. These spacers cannot be detected and repositioned with the existing Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) process, which is designed to work with loose-fitting annulus spacers. There is currently no established technology to detect and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has been performing research and development to locate and move tight-fitting annulus spacers using Modal Detection and Repositioning (MODAR) technology since 2005 and is currently working in collaboration with Candu Energy and Bruce Power on a production system to be deployed for an In-reactor demonstration in the next year. The MODAR technology uses controlled vibrations on a short, isolated length of pressure tube to locate and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. MODAR technology will allow the utilities to demonstrate fuel channel integrity to the regulator and obtain approval for additional years of reactor operation. This paper briefly describes the technology and provides an overview of the tool testing and development. (author)

Hersak, G.; Kittmer, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Goszczynski, J. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kazimer, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

2014-06-15

102

Adaptive prostate IGRT combining online re-optimization and re-positioning: a feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In prostate radiation therapy, inter-fractional organ motion/deformation has posed significant challenges on reliable daily dose delivery. To correct for this issue, off-line re-optimization and online re-positioning have been used clinically. In this paper, we propose an adaptive images guided radiation therapy (AIGRT) scheme that combines these two correction methods in an anatomy-driven fashion. The AIGRT process first tries to find a best plan for the daily target from a plan pool, which consists of the original CT plan and all previous re-optimized plans. If successful, the selected plan is used for daily treatment with translational shifts. Otherwise, the AIGRT invokes the re-optimization process of the CT plan for the anatomy of the day, which is afterward added to the plan pool as a candidate for future fractions. The AIGRT scheme is evaluated by comparisons with daily re-optimization and online re-positioning techniques based on daily target coverage, organs at risk (OAR) sparing and implementation efficiency. Simulated treatment courses for 18 patients with re-optimization alone, re-positioning alone and AIGRT shows that AIGRT offers reliable daily target coverage that is highly comparable to daily re-optimization and significantly improves from re-positioning. AIGRT is also seen to provide improved OAR sparing compared to re-positioning. Apart from dosimetric benefits, AIGRT in addition offers an efficient scheme to integrate re-optimization to current re-positioning-based IGRT workflow.

Li Taoran; Zhu Xiaofeng; Lee, W Robert; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Yin Fangfang; Wu, Q Jackie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Centre, Durham, NC (United States); Thongphiew, Danthai, E-mail: taoran.li@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

2011-03-07

103

Drug Repositioning for Gynecologic Tumors: A New Therapeutic Strategy for Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of drug repositioning are to find a new pharmacological effect of a drug for which human safety and pharmacokinetics are established and to expand the therapeutic range of the drug to another disease. Such drug discovery can be performed at low cost and in the short term based on the results of previous clinical trials. New drugs for gynecologic tumors may be found by drug repositioning. For example, PPAR ligands may be effective against ovarian cancer, since PPAR activation eliminates COX-2 expression, arrests the cell cycle, and induces apoptosis. Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, is effective for endometrial cancer through inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway by activating LKB1-AMPK and reduction of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 due to AMPK activation. COX-2 inhibitors for cervical cancer may also be examples of drug repositioning. PGE2 is induced in the arachidonate cascade by COX-2. PGE2 maintains high expression of COX-2 and induces angiogenic factors including VEGF and bFGF, causing carcinogenesis. COX-2 inhibitors suppress these actions and inhibit carcinogenesis. Combination therapy using drugs found by drug repositioning and current anticancer drugs may increase efficacy and reduce adverse drug reactions. Thus, drug repositioning may become a key approach for gynecologic cancer in drug discovery. PMID:25734181

Banno, Kouji; Yanokura, Megumi; Irie, Haruko; Masuda, Kenta; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

2015-01-01

104

Development of the young spine questionnaire  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases -- a conceptualisation, development and testing phase. The conceptualisation phase followed the Wilson and Cleary model and included questions regarding spinal prevalence estimates, pain frequency and intensity, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. Items from existing questionnaires and the "Revised Faces Pain Scale" (rFPS) were included during the development phase. The testing phase consisted of a mixed quantitative and qualitative iterative method carried out in two pilot tests using 4th grade children and focusing on assessment of spinal area location and item validity. Results The testing phase resulted in omission of the pain drawings and the questions and answer categories were simplified in several questions. Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings among target respondents. These preliminary results suggest that the YSQ is feasible, has content validity and is a well understood questionnaire to be used in studies of children aged 9 to 11 years.

Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

2013-01-01

105

Long-Term Efficacy of Repositioning Maneuvers in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of 12 patients with a diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV treated by the repositioning maneuver during a 24-month follow-up period after the initial discharge a longitudinal clinical study was performed in which a questionnaire for the assessment of discomfort caused by dizziness was applied at the first visit, at the last visit after treatment and 2 years after the initial discharge. Repositioning treatment was again offered to patients who suffered relapses. In 10 cases (83.34% there was no recurrence of symptoms and 2 patients (16.66% presented symptoms exactly 2 years after the original discharge showing that treatment of BPPV by repositioning manuevers is effective in the long term, but new studies in larger populations are needed to determine the pattern of the rates of recurrence of BPPV.

Julio Cesar Moriguti

2011-05-01

106

Canal switch after canalith repositioning procedure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canal switch is a complication following canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Instead of being returned to the utricle, the loose otoconia migrate into the superior or horizontal semicircular canal. Patients remain symptomatic, and treatment can be ineffective unless the switch is recognized and additional repositioning maneuvers directed toward the appropriate semicircular canal are performed. This report provides the first videographic documentation of canal switch involving conversion of unilateral posterior semicircular canal BPPV to geotropic horizontal canalithiasis. PMID:22549695

Lin, Giant C; Basura, Gregory J; Wong, Hiu Tung; Heidenreich, Katherine D

2012-09-01

107

Pulmonary complications after spine surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spine surgery is one of the fastest growing branches of orthopedic surgery. Patients often present with a relatively high acuity and, depending on surgical approach, morbidity and mortality can be comparatively high. Among the most prevalent and most frequently fatality-bound perioperative complications are those affecting the pulmonary system; evidence of clinical or subclinical lung injury triggered by spine surgical procedures is emerging. Increasing burden of comorbidity among the patient population further increases the likelihood of adverse outcome. This review is intended to give an overview over some of the most important causes of pulmonary complications after spine surgery, their pathophysiology and possible ways to reduce harm associated with those conditions. We discuss factors surrounding surgical trauma, timing of surgery, bone marrow and debris embolization, transfusion associated lung injury, and ventilator associated lung injury.

Ottokar Stundner

2012-01-01

108

Spine neck plasticity regulates compartmentalization of synapses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic spines have been proposed to transform synaptic signals through chemical and electrical compartmentalization. However, the quantitative contribution of spine morphology to synapse compartmentalization and its dynamic regulation are still poorly understood. We used time-lapse super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) imaging in combination with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) measurements, two-photon glutamate uncaging, electrophysiology and simulations to investigate the dynamic link between nanoscale anatomy and compartmentalization in live spines of CA1 neurons in mouse brain slices. We report a diversity of spine morphologies that argues against common categorization schemes and establish a close link between compartmentalization and spine morphology, wherein spine neck width is the most critical morphological parameter. We demonstrate that spine necks are plastic structures that become wider and shorter after long-term potentiation. These morphological changes are predicted to lead to a substantial drop in spine head excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) while preserving overall biochemical compartmentalization. PMID:24657968

Tønnesen, Jan; Katona, Gergely; Rózsa, Balázs; Nägerl, U Valentin

2014-05-01

109

Desmoplastic fibroma of the cervical spine  

OpenAIRE

There have been only a few cases of desmoplastic fibroma of the spine in the literature and only one of them was purely located on the cervical spine. We report a new patient with the diagnosis of desmoplastic fibroma of the fourth cervical spine. The patient had the complaints of left arm and neck pain. After his radiological evaluation, a mass lesion was found on the left lamina of the fourth cervical spine. Surgical treatment was performed, and the histopathological examination revealed th...

Daneyemez, Mehmet; Akay, Kamil Melih; Izci, Yusuf

2005-01-01

110

Examining Form and Function of Dendritic Spines  

OpenAIRE

The majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system takes place at protrusions along dendrites called spines. Dendritic spines are highly heterogeneous, both morphologically and functionally. Not surprisingly, there has been much speculation and debate on the relationship between spine structure and function. The advent of multi-photon laser-scanning microscopy has greatly improved our ability to investigate the dynamic interplay between spine form and function...

Cary Soares; Lee, Kevin F. H.; Amp Xe Amp Xef Que, Jean-claude B.

2012-01-01

111

Rapid functional maturation of nascent dendritic spines  

OpenAIRE

Spine growth and retraction with synapse formation and elimination plays an important role in shaping brain circuits during development and in the adult brain. Yet the temporal relationship between spine morphogenesis and the formation of functional synapses remains poorly defined. We imaged hippocampal pyramidal neurons to identify spines of different ages. We then used two-photon glutamate uncaging, whole-cell recording, and Ca2+ imaging to analyze the properties of nascent spines and their...

Zito, Karen; Scheuss, Volker; Knott, Graham; Hill, Travis; Svoboda, Karel

2009-01-01

112

Spine Plasticity in the Motor Cortex  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic sites of the majority of excitatory synapses in the mammalian central nervous system. The morphology and dynamics of dendritic spines change throughout the lifespan of animals, in response to novel experiences and neuropathologies. New spines form rapidly as animals learn new tasks or experience novel sensory stimulations. This is followed by a selective elimination of previously existing spines, leading to significant synaptic remodeling. In the brain da...

Yu, Xinzhu; Zuo, Yi

2010-01-01

113

Development and Regulation of Dendritic Spine Synapses  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic spines are small protrusions from neuronal dendrites that form the postsynaptic component of most excitatory synapses in the brain. They play critical roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Recent advances in imaging and molecular technologies reveal that spines are complex, dynamic structures that contain a dense array of cytoskeletal, transmembrane, and scaffolding molecules. Several neurological and psychiatric disorders exhibit dendritic spine abnormalities.

Barbara Calabrese (The Scripps Research Institute Department of Cell Biology & Institute for Childhood and Neglected Diseases)

2006-02-01

114

Repositioning Secondary School Administration for Quality Assurance in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the challenges and prospects of repositioning secondary school administration for quality assurance in Ekiti State, Nigeria. In recent time, there had been a radical transformation of the education sector in Ekiti State part of which included the restructuring of the secondary school system. The senior and junior secondary schools were merged together to become a single school under the administration of a school principal. This paper examines the strategies used in repositioning secondary school administration for quality assurance by the state government. It highlights the challenges of repositioning the school administration based on the public outcry and the reactions of the school principals towards this new development. It x- rays the prospects of repositioning secondary school administration for quality assurance in Ekiti State to include high competency of secondary school administrators, removal of dichotomy between senior and junior secondary schools, unity and team work spirit among teachers, centralization of school policies, improved school infrastructures and facilities, and effective supervision of school personnel. The paper recommended among others that the Teaching Service Commission in Ekiti State should always consider performance, competency and years of experience in the appointment of secondary school principals.

Babatope Kolade Oyewole

2013-07-01

115

Three dimensional assessment of repositioning accuracy of fractionated intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is very important to achieve set-up accuracy of stereotactic radiotherapy. A non-invasive fixation mask device is used for stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in our hospital. Especially, fractionated stereotactic irradiation is useful due to less damage on normal tissues, for which the positioning accuracy of the removable non-invasive fixation device is important. We used our original 3-D examination of set-up, and examined the repositioning accuracy of a removable non-invasive fixation device on the coordinates of CT for treatment planning. The subjects were 25 patients who had undergone head SRT. The removable non-invasive fixation mask device used was for the BrainLAB system. The repositioning accuracy of the fixation device was examined using differences in the distance on the X, Y, and Z coordinates in each three points between the treatment planning and repositioning times determined by comparing the relative coordinates. Evaluation was performed using the relative coordinates of the standard and test points. In the 25 patients, an accuracy of the difference in the distance between the treatment planning and repositioning procedures within 2 mm was obtained in 79.1% of the patients using the fixation device. Our original 3-D examination of a set-up accuracy for non-invasive stereotactic irradiation was considered useful for routine treatment with high accuracy. (author)

116

Insertional torque and pullout strength of pedicle screws with or without repositioning: a porcine study.  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE. To evaluate the insertion torque and pullout strength of pedicle screws with or without repositioning. METHODS. 20 fresh porcine lumbar vertebrae of similar size were used. The entry point was at the site just lateral and distal to the superior facet joint of the vertebra, and to a depth of 35 mm. A 6.2-mm-diameter, 35-mm-long pedicle screw was inserted parallel to the superior end plate on one side as control. On the other side, an identical screw was first inserted 10º caudal to the superior end plate, and then repositioned parallel to the superior end plate. The insertional torque and pullout strength were measured. RESULTS. Three of the specimens were excluded owing to pedicle fractures during the pullout test. Repositioned pedicle screws were significantly weaker than controls in terms of the maximum insertional torque (3.20 ± 0.28 vs. 2.04 ± 0.28 Nm, 36% difference, ppedicle screws should be avoided, especially when the pedicle wall is breached. If repositioning is deemed necessary, augmentation with polymethyl methacrylate or a screw with a larger diameter should be considered. PMID:25163961

Tan, Chun Ee; Fok, Margaret Woon Man; Luk, Keith Dip Kei; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

2014-08-01

117

Prediction of drug gene associations via ontological profile similarity with application to drug repositioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The amount of biomedical literature has been increasing rapidly during the last decade. Text mining techniques can harness this large-scale data, shed light onto complex drug mechanisms, and extract relation information that can support computational polypharmacology. In this work, we introduce a fully corpus-based and unsupervised method which utilizes the MEDLINE indexed titles and abstracts to infer drug gene associations and assist drug repositioning. The method measures the Pointwise Mutual Information (PMI) between biomedical terms derived from the Gene Ontology and the Medical Subject Headings. Based on the PMI scores, drug and gene profiles are generated and candidate drug gene associations are inferred when computing the relatedness of their profiles. Results show that an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of up to 0.88 can be achieved. The method can successfully identify direct drug gene associations with high precision and prioritize them. Validation shows that the statistically derived profiles from literature perform as good as manually curated profiles. In addition, we examine the potential application of our approach towards drug repositioning. For all FDA approved drugs repositioned over the last 5years, we generate profiles from publications before 2009 and show that new indications rank high in the profiles. In summary, literature mined profiles can accurately predict drug gene associations and provide insights onto potential repositioning cases. PMID:25498216

Kissa, Maria; Tsatsaronis, George; Schroeder, Michael

2015-03-01

118

Magnetic resonance of the spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 12 chapters. Three chapters discuss principles of cerebrospinal fluid flow, spinal imaging techniques, and the physical basis and anatomic correlates of signal intensity in the spine. There are chapters on normal anatomy, congenital anomalies, trauma, tumors, infection, demyelinating disease, degenerative disease, vascular conditions, and syringomyelia.

Enzmann, D.R.; De La Paz, R.L.; Rubin, J.R.

1990-01-01

119

Adaptive prostate IGRT combining online re-optimization and re-positioning: a feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In prostate radiation therapy, inter-fractional organ motion/deformation has posed significant challenges on reliable daily dose delivery. To correct for this issue, off-line re-optimization and online re-positioning have been used clinically. In this paper, we propose an adaptive images guided radiation therapy (AIGRT) scheme that combines these two correction methods in an anatomy-driven fashion. The AIGRT process first tries to find a best plan for the daily target from a plan pool, which consists of the original CT plan and all previous re-optimized plans. If successful, the selected plan is used for daily treatment with translational shifts. Otherwise, the AIGRT invokes the re-optimization process of the CT plan for the anatomy of the day, which is afterward added to the plan pool as a candidate for future fractions. The AIGRT scheme is evaluated by comparisons with daily re-optimization and online re-positioning techniques based on daily target coverage, organs at risk (OAR) sparing and implementation efficiency. Simulated treatment courses for 18 patients with re-optimization alone, re-positioning alone and AIGRT shows that AIGRT offers reliable daily target coverage that is highly comparable to daily re-optimization and significantly improves from re-positioning. AIGRT is also seen to provide improved OAR sparing compared to re-positioning. Apart from dosimetric benefits, AIGRT in addition offers an efficient scheme to integrate re-optimization to current re-p integrate re-optimization to current re-positioning-based IGRT workflow.

120

Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

121

[Cervical spine instability in the surgical patient].  

Science.gov (United States)

Many congenital and acquired diseases, including trauma, may result in cervical spine instability. Given that airway management is closely related to the movement of the cervical spine, it is important that the anesthesiologist has detailed knowledge of the anatomy, the mechanisms of cervical spine instability, and of the effects that the different airway maneuvers have on the cervical spine. We first review the normal anatomy and biomechanics of the cervical spine in the context of airway management and the concept of cervical spine instability. In the second part, we review the protocols for the management of cervical spine instability in trauma victims and some of the airway management options for these patients. PMID:24050606

Barbeito, A; Guerri-Guttenberg, R A

2014-03-01

122

Primary tumors of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal tumors consist of a large spectrum of various histologic entities. Multiple spinal lesions frequently represent known metastatic disease or lymphoproliferative disease. In solitary lesions primary neoplasms of the spine should be considered. Primary spinal tumors may arise from the spinal cord, the surrounding leptomeninges, or the extradural soft tissues and bony structures. A wide variety of benign neoplasms can involve the spine including enostosis, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, and osteochondroma. Common malignant primary neoplasms are chordoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and osteosarcoma. Although plain radiographs may be useful to characterize some spinal lesions, magnetic resonance imaging is indispensable to determine the extension and the relationship with the spinal canal and nerve roots, and thus determine the plan of management. In this article we review the characteristic imaging features of extradural spinal lesions. PMID:24896744

Orguc, Sebnem; Arkun, Remide

2014-07-01

123

Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

2010-06-15

124

Dendritic spine dysgenesis in neuropathic pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropathic pain is a significant unmet medical need in patients with variety of injury or disease insults to the nervous system. Neuropathic pain often presents as a painful sensation described as electrical, burning, or tingling. Currently available treatments have limited effectiveness and narrow therapeutic windows for safety. More powerful analgesics, e.g., opioids, carry a high risk for chemical dependence. Thus, a major challenge for pain research is the elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie neuropathic pain and developing targeted strategies to alleviate pathological pain. The mechanistic link between dendritic spine structure and circuit function could explain why neuropathic pain is difficult to treat, since nociceptive processing pathways are adversely "hard-wired" through the reorganization of dendritic spines. Several studies in animal models of neuropathic pain have begun to reveal the functional contribution of dendritic spine dysgenesis in neuropathic pain. Previous reports have demonstrated three primary changes in dendritic spine structure on nociceptive dorsal horn neurons following injury or disease, which accompany chronic intractable pain: (I) increased density of dendritic spines, particularly mature mushroom-spine spines, (II) redistribution of spines toward dendritic branch locations close to the cell body, and (III) enlargement of the spine head diameter, which generally presents as a mushroom-shaped spine. Given the important functional implications of spine distribution, density, and shape for synaptic and neuronal function, the study of dendritic spine abnormality may provide a new perspective for investigating pain, and the identification of specific molecular players that regulate spine morphology may guide the development of more effective and long-lasting therapies. PMID:25445354

Tan, Andrew M; Waxman, Stephen G

2014-11-20

125

Heterogeneity of spine bone density  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short communication investigates how accurate bone density measured in the lumbar spine (L1-L4 or L2-L4) reflects the bone density of vertebrae where many compression fractures occur (T12 and L1). The ability of two dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers (Lunar DPX and Hologic QDR-1000) to determine the bone density of T12 was also investigated. (Author)

126

MRI of the postoperative spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid technical development of magnetic resonance imaging has thrust it into the role of the premier imaging modality of CNS evaluation. A particularly difficult area of spinal imaging from both a clinical and radiologic standpoint is the postoperative lumbar spine patient. The areas which will be covered in this issue include some of the most common abnormalities encountered, as well as some of the most difficult to diagnosis including: scar versus recurrent disc herniation, arachnoiditis, bony stenosis, and postoperative fluid collections. (author)

127

Spine Immobilizer for Accident Victims  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposed conformal bladder filled with tiny spheres called "microballoons," enables spine of accident victim to be rapidly immobilized and restrained and permit victim to be safely removed from accident scene in extremely short time after help arrives. Microballoons expand to form rigid mass when pressure within bladder is less than ambient. Bladder strapped to victim is also strapped to rescue chair. Void between bladder and chair is filled with cloth wedges.

Vykukal, H. C.; Lampson, K.

1983-01-01

128

Chondrosarcoma Apoplexy in Thoracic Spine  

OpenAIRE

Chondrosarcoma is a very uncommon malignant primary bone tumor, especially, it occurs extremely rare in the spine. A 52-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with sudden paraplegia. Twelve hours prior to a paraplegic event, he visited an outpatient clinic with discomfort and tenderness around the medial border of the right scapular, and his neurologic status was absolutely intact. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lobulated soft tissue mass from T3 to T5, which extended to the epi...

Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Min Su; Jung, Young Jin

2013-01-01

129

Cervical spine motion: radiographic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

130

Persistent Direction-Fixed Nystagmus Following Canalith Repositioning Maneuver for Horizontal Canal BPPV: A Case of Canalith Jam  

OpenAIRE

The authors report a 64-year-old man who developed persistent direction fixed nystagmus after a canalith repositioning maneuver for horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV). The patient was initially diagnosed with right HC-BPPV given that the Dix-Hallpike test showed geotropic horizontal nystagmus that was more pronounced on the right side, although the roll test did not show any positional nystagmus. The patient was treated with a canalith repositioning maneuver (Lemp...

Chang, Young-soo; Choi, Jeesun; Chung, Won-ho

2014-01-01

131

Effect of Repositioning Maneuver Type and Postmaneuver Restrictions on Vertigo and Dizziness in Benign Positional Paroxysmal Vertigo  

OpenAIRE

Introduction. To compare the efficiency of Epley (Ep) and Sémont-Toupet (ST) repositioning maneuvers and to evaluate postmaneuver restriction effect on short-term vertigo and dizziness after repositioning maneuvers by an analog visual scale (VAS) in benign positional paroxysmal vertigo (BPPV). Material and Methods. 226 consecutive adult patients with posterior canal BPPV were included. Patients were randomized into 2 different maneuver sequence groups (n = 113): 2 ST then 1 Ep or 2 Ep then 1...

Toupet, Michel; Ferrary, Evelyne; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

2012-01-01

132

Repositioning accuracy: Comparison of a noninvasive head holder with thermoplastic mask for fractionated radiotherapy and a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To compare accuracy, clinical feasibility, and subjective patient impression between a noninvasive head holder (Vogele Bale Hohner [VBH]; Wellhoefer Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) developed at the University of Innsbruck and the thermoplastic mask fixation system for use in fractionated external radiotherapy. We present a case report of an actual patient fixated in the VBH head holder during radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: The VBH head holder consists of an individualized vacuum dental cast connected to a head plate via two hydraulic arms allowing noninvasive, reproducible head fixation of even uncooperative patients. Accuracy was tested and compared with that of the thermoplastic mask using the Phillips EasyGuide navigation system on five volunteers. Specific external registration points served as landmarks and their positions were compared after each repositioning. System and operator inaccuracy were also taken into account. The times taken for production and repositioning of the respective fixation devices were compared, and subjective impressions were noted. Results: Mean VBH head holder repositioning accuracy was 1.02 mm while that of the thermoplastic mask was 3.05 mm. 69% of mask repositionings showed a deviation > 2 mm and 41% > 3 mm (as opposed to 8% and 1% respectively for the VBH head holder) Those points located farthest away from the respective plane of fixation showed the largest deviations. Both production and repositioning timess. Both production and repositioning times were similar between the systems; depending upon the patient, the VBH head holder was generally better tolerated than the mask system. Conclusion: Due to its significantly better repositioning accuracy compared to that of the thermoplastic mask, the VBH head holder is especially suited for external radiation requiring precise repositioning due to critical tissues in immediate surrounding of the area to be irradiated

133

Nuclear repositioning of the VSG promoter during developmental silencing in Trypanosoma brucei  

OpenAIRE

Interphase nuclear repositioning of chromosomes has been implicated in the epigenetic regulation of RNA polymerase (pol) II transcription. However, little is known about the nuclear position–dependent regulation of RNA pol I–transcribed loci. Trypanosoma brucei is an excellent model system to address this question because its two main surface protein genes, procyclin and variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), are transcribed by pol I and undergo distinct transcriptional activation or downreg...

Landeira, David; Navarro, Miguel

2007-01-01

134

Comparison of Coronally Advanced and Semilunar Coronally Repositioned Flap for the Treatment of Gingival Recession  

OpenAIRE

Background: Gingival Recession (GR) occurs in population with low oral hygiene levels. Root coverage may be achieved by a number of surgical techniques, including pedicle gingival grafts, free grafts, connective tissue grafts, gtr may also be used. The objective of the present study is to compare the clinical outcomes of the Semilunar Coronally Repositioned Flap (SCRF) and Coronally Advanced Flap (CAF) procedure in the treatment of miller’s class I gingival recession defects in maxillary te...

Moka, Leela Rani; Boyapati, Ramanarayana; M, Srinivas; D, Narasimha Swamy; Swarna, Chakrapani; Putcha, Madhusudhan

2014-01-01

135

Recurrent Upside-Down Stomach after Endoscopic Repositioning and Gastropexy Treated by Laparoscopic Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Patients with an upside-down stomach usually receive surgical treatment. In high-risk patients, endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy can be performed. However, the risk of recurrence after endoscopic treatment is not known. We treated a case of recurrent upside-down stomach after endoscopic therapy that indicated the limits of endoscopic treatment and risk of recurrence. An 88-year-old woman was treated three times for vomiting in the past. She presented to our hospital with periodic vomit...

Toyota, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Yuji; Hatano, Yu

2014-01-01

136

Serial repositioning of a Guenther tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filter in a pediatric patient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report an 11-year-old boy who required inferior vena cava (IVC) filtration for a prolonged period of time. A retrievable IVC filter was placed and repositioned three times, providing a total of 60 days of IVC filtration. The filter was removed when his risk of pulmonary embolus had decreased substantially. This is a relatively uncommon practice in the pediatric population. The technique is presented, and the available literature is reviewed. (orig.)

137

Serial repositioning of a Guenther tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filter in a pediatric patient  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report an 11-year-old boy who required inferior vena cava (IVC) filtration for a prolonged period of time. A retrievable IVC filter was placed and repositioned three times, providing a total of 60 days of IVC filtration. The filter was removed when his risk of pulmonary embolus had decreased substantially. This is a relatively uncommon practice in the pediatric population. The technique is presented, and the available literature is reviewed. (orig.)

Haider, Ehsan A.; Rosen, J. Choi; Torres, Carlos; Valenti, David A. [McGill University Health Center, Department of Radiology, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2005-11-01

138

Helmet Versus Active Repositioning for Plagiocephaly: A Three-Dimensional Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthotic helmets and active repositioning are the most common treatments for deformational plagiocephaly (DP). Existing evidence is not sufficient to objectively inform decisions between these options. A three-dimensional (3D), whole-head asymmetry analysis was used to rigorously compare outcomes of these 2 treatment methods. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Whole-head 3D surface scans of 70 infants with DP were captured before and after treatment by using stereophotogrammetric imaging technology. Helmeted (n = 35) and nonhelmeted/actively repositioned (n = 35) infants were matched for severity of initial deformity. Surfaces were spatially registered to a symmetric template, which was deformed to achieve detailed right-to-left point correspondence for every point on the head surface. A ratio-metric asymmetry value was calculated for each point relative to its contralateral counterpart. Maximum and mean asymmetry values were determined. Change in mean and maximum asymmetry with treatment was the basis for group comparison. RESULTS: The helmeted group had a larger reduction than the repositioned group in both maximum (4.0% vs 2.5%; P = .02) and mean asymmetry (0.9% vs 0.5%; P = .02). The greatest difference was localized to the occipital region. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-head 3D asymmetry analysis is capable of rigorously quantifying the relative efficacy of the 2 common treatments of DP. Orthotic helmets provide statistically superior improvement in head symmetry compared with active repositioning immediately after therapy. Additional studies are needed to (1) establish the clinical significance of these quantitative differences in outcome, (2) define what constitutes pathologic head asymmetry, and (3) determine whether superiority of orthotic treatment lasts as the child matures. Pediatrics 2010;126:e936-e945

Lipira, A.B.; Gordon, S.

2010-01-01

139

Repositioning drugs for inflammatory disease - fishing for new anti-inflammatory agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation is an important and appropriate host response to infection or injury. However, dysregulation of this response, with resulting persistent or inappropriate inflammation, underlies a broad range of pathological processes, from inflammatory dermatoses to type 2 diabetes and cancer. As such, identifying new drugs to suppress inflammation is an area of intense interest. Despite notable successes, there still exists an unmet need for new effective therapeutic approaches to treat inflammation. Traditional drug discovery, including structure-based drug design, have largely fallen short of satisfying this unmet need. With faster development times and reduced safety and pharmacokinetic uncertainty, drug repositioning - the process of finding new uses for existing drugs - is emerging as an alternative strategy to traditional drug design that promises an improved risk-reward trade-off. Using a zebrafish in vivo neutrophil migration assay, we undertook a drug repositioning screen to identify unknown anti-inflammatory activities for known drugs. By interrogating a library of 1280 approved drugs for their ability to suppress the recruitment of neutrophils to tail fin injury, we identified a number of drugs with significant anti-inflammatory activity that have not previously been characterized as general anti-inflammatories. Importantly, we reveal that the ten most potent repositioned drugs from our zebrafish screen displayed conserved anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of skin inflammation (atopic dermatitis). This study provides compelling evidence that exploiting the zebrafish as an in vivo drug repositioning platform holds promise as a strategy to reveal new anti-inflammatory activities for existing drugs. PMID:25038060

Hall, Christopher J; Wicker, Sophie M; Chien, An-Tzu; Tromp, Alisha; Lawrence, Lisa M; Sun, Xueying; Krissansen, Geoffrey W; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

2014-09-01

140

Multiple myeloma presenting as cervical spine compression  

OpenAIRE

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells usually showing bone involvement with predilection of the spine. The cervical spine is the least common site of disease involvement. We report the case of 72-year-old man presenting with progressively increased cervical pain, associated with sciatica and disturb walking. In the neurological exam, there was a quadripyramidal syndrome, and superficial sensory disturbance. The X- ray examination of the cervical spine s...

Tahia Boudawara; Zouhir Bahloul; Zaher Boudawara; Hanen Haj Kacem; Faten Frikha; Makram Frigui

2011-01-01

141

Microtubules in Dendritic Spine Development and Plasticity  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies indicate that microtubules (MTs) may play an important role in spine development and dynamics. Several imaging studies have now documented the exploration of dendritic spines by dynamic MTs in an activity-dependent manner. Furthermore, it was found that alterations of MT dynamics by pharmacological and molecular approaches exert profound influence on the development and plasticity of spines associated with neuronal activity. It is reasonable to speculate that dynamic MTs may be...

Gu, Jiaping; Zheng, James Q.

2009-01-01

142

Imaging membrane potential in dendritic spines  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines mediate most excitatory inputs in the brain. Although it is clear that spines compartmentalize calcium, it is still unknown what role, if any, they play in integrating synaptic inputs. To investigate the electrical function of spines directly, we used second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of membrane potential in pyramidal neurons from hippocampal cultures and neocortical brain slices. With FM 4-64 as an intracellular SHG chromophore, we imaged membrane potential in the so...

Nuriya, Mutsuo; Jiang, Jiang; Nemet, Boaz; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Yuste, Rafael

2006-01-01

143

Use-dependent inhibition of dendritic spines  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines are now known to be subject to use-dependent plasticity that affects both their structure and their numbers. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a use-dependent increase in the density of dendritic spines occurs in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the mouse barrel cortex. Furthermore, it has been shown that although this increase in the density of spines and excitatory synapses is transient, the increase in spinous inhibitory synapses is long-lasting. These find...

Keller, Asaf

2002-01-01

144

Postsynaptic signaling during plasticity of dendritic spines  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines, small bulbous postsynaptic compartments emanating from neuronal dendrites, have been thought to serve as basic units of memory storage. Despite their small size (~0.1 femtoliter), thousands of species of proteins exist in the spine, including receptors, channels, scaffolding proteins and signaling enzymes. Biochemical signaling mediated by these molecules leads to morphological and functional plasticity of dendritic spines, and ultimately learning and memory in the brain. He...

Murakoshi, Hideji; Yasuda, Ryohei

2012-01-01

145

The international spine registry SPINE TANGO: status quo and first results  

OpenAIRE

With an official life time of over 5 years, Spine Tango can meanwhile be considered the first international spine registry. In this paper we present an overview of frequency statistics of Spine Tango for demonstrating the genesis of questionnaire development and the constantly increasing activity in the registry. Results from two exemplar studies serve for showing concepts of data analysis applied to a spine registry. Between 2002 and 2006, about 6,000 datasets were submitted by 25 centres. ...

Melloh, Markus; Staub, Lukas; Aghayev, Emin; Zweig, Thomas; Barz, Thomas; Theis, Jean-claude; Chavanne, Albert; Grob, Dieter; Aebi, Max; Roeder, Christoph

2008-01-01

146

Methods of estimation of spine density--are spines evenly distributed throughout the dendritic field?  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines are small protrusions extending from the dendrites of nerve cells, which bear the majority of synapses. In the past, researchers quantified spine density as the number of visible spines per estimated micrometre of dendrite. This estimate ignores all those spines hidden from view due to their position on the dendrite. Dendrites vary in diameter and the underestimation in some will be greater than others. Estimation of dendritic length is also subjective and difficult in those ...

Horner, C. H.; Arbuthnott, E.

1991-01-01

147

Pharmacologically active metabolites, combination screening and target identification-driven drug repositioning in antituberculosis drug discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been renewed interest in alternative strategies to address bottlenecks in antibiotic development. These include the repurposing of approved drugs for use as novel anti-infective agents, or their exploitation as leads in drug repositioning. Such approaches are especially attractive for tuberculosis (TB), a disease which remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally and, increasingly, is associated with the emergence of drug-resistance. In this review article, we introduce a refinement of traditional drug repositioning and repurposing strategies involving the development of drugs that are based on the active metabolite(s) of parental compounds with demonstrated efficacy. In addition, we describe an approach to repositioning the natural product antibiotic, fusidic acid, for use against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Finally, we consider the potential to exploit the chemical matter arising from these activities in combination screens and permeation assays which are designed to confirm mechanism of action (MoA), elucidate potential synergies in polypharmacy, and to develop rules for drug permeability in an organism that poses a special challenge to new drug development. PMID:24997576

Kigondu, Elizabeth M; Wasuna, Antonina; Warner, Digby F; Chibale, Kelly

2014-08-15

148

Location of the mucogingival junction 18 years after apically repositioned flap surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The apically repositioned flap procedure, by definition, implies that the mucogingival junction (MGJ) is shifted into an apical location. That this actually would be the case has never been shown in long-term studies. The 13 subjects in the present study had during the years 1964-1965 received treatment of moderately advanced periodontal disease (probing pocket depths less than or equal to 5 mm) in the lower jaw. An apically repositioned flap (ARF) procedure was applied in the left or right half of the mandible and a gingivectomy (GE) was performed in the contralateral side. Starting in December 1981, the patients were recalled for clinical and radiographic determination of long-term results. The width of the band of keratinized gingiva was measured clinically and the distance from the MGJ to the lower border of the mandible (LBM) was measured from orthopantomograms. Slightly less keratinized gingiva was observed on the sides where GE had been used. There was no statistically significant difference in the orthopantomographic distance from the MGJ to the LBM between ARF and GE operations. The results indicate that the apically repositioned flap procedure does not result in a permanent apical shift of the MGJ. PMID:1732309

Ainamo, A; Bergenholtz, A; Hugoson, A; Ainamo, J

1992-01-01

149

A Node Flow Model for the Inflexible Visitation Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We introduce a novel, node flow based mathematical model for the fixed-time version of a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). We call this version of the problem the Inflexible Visitation LSFRP (IVLSFRP). During repositioning, ves- sels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Shipping lines wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. We intro- duce two versions of a node flow based model that exploit the fixed activity times of the IVLSFRP’s graph to handle cargo demands on the nodes of the graph, in- stead of the arcs, significantly reducing the number of variables. Using this model in CPLEX, we are able to solve 12 previously unsolved IVLSFRP instances to optimality. Additionally, we improve the solution time on every instance in the IVLSFRP dataset, sometimes by several orders of magnitude.

Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

2013-01-01

150

[Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation as part of a complex cervical spine injury. Case report in a 12-year-old girl].  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) appears to be an unusual and almost universally fatal injury. Although AOD is the cause of death in about 10% of fatal cervical spine injuries an increasing number of reports document cases of survival following this injury. Improved pre-hospital and in-hospital emergency care according to ATLS guidelines that include early cervical spine stabilization, effective diagnosis because of improved imaging after trauma including whole body multislice CT followed by expeditious reposition and adequate immobilization are reasons for this phenomenon. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl surviving an AOD accompanied by a distraction injury C6/7 with unilateral fixed spinal luxation. After a primary attempt at closed reduction and external stabilization with a halo vest, the injury was treated by a navigated dorsal spondylodesis C0-C1 using the CerviFix rod system and open reposition of the remaining subluxation C6/7 with laminar hooks. The literature was reviewed for diagnostic possibilities, management and prognosis of AOD. PMID:17431574

Schmal, H; Südkamp, N P; Oberst, M

2007-08-01

151

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis. 572.9 Section... 50th Percentile Male § 572.9 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis consist of the...

2010-10-01

152

Unintentional conversion of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo caused by repositioning procedures for canalithiasis: transitional BPPV.  

Science.gov (United States)

BPPV when diagnosed before any repositioning procedure is called primary BPPV. Primary BPPV canalithiasis treatment with repositioning procedures sometimes results in unintentional conversion of BPPV form: transitional BPPV. Objectives were to find transitional BPPV forms, how they influence relative rate of canal involvement and how to be treated. This study is a retrospective case review performed at an ambulatory, tertiary referral center. Participants were 189 consecutive BPPV patients. Main outcome measures were detection of transitional BPPV, outcome of repositioning procedures for transitional canalithiasis BPPV and spontaneous recovery for transitional cupulolithiasis BPPV. Canal distribution of primary BPPV was: posterior canal (Pc): 85.7% (162/189), horizontal canal (Hc): 11.6% (22/189), anterior canal (Ac): 2.6% (5/189); taken together with transitional BPPV it was: Pc: 71.3% (164/230), Hc: 26.5% (61/230), Ac: 2.2% (5/230). Transitional BPPV forms were: Hc canalithiasis 58% (24/41), Hc cupulolithiasis 37% (15/41) and common crux reentry 5% (2/41). Treated with barbecue maneuver transitional Hc canalithiasis cases either resolved in 58% (14/24) or transitioned further to transitional Hc cupulolithiasis in 42% (10/24). In follow-up of transitional Hc cupulolithiasis we confirmed spontaneous recovery in 14/15 cases in less than 2 days. The most frequent transitional BPPV form was Hc canalithiasis so it raises importance of barbecue maneuver treatment. Second most frequent was transitional Hc cupulolithiasis which very quickly spontaneously recovers and does not require any intervention. The rarest found transitional BPPV form was common crux reentry which is treated by Canalith repositioning procedure. Transitional BPPV taken together with primary BPPV may decrease relative rate of Pc BPPV, considerably increase relative rate of Hc BPPV and negligibly influence relative rate of Ac BPPV. Transitional BPPV forms can be produced by repositioning maneuvers (transitional Hc cupulolithiasis) or by the subsequent controlling positional test (transitional Hc canalithiasis and common crux reentry); underlying mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23605245

Babic, Borivoj B; Jesic, Snezana D; Milovanovic, Jovica D; Arsovic, Nenad A

2014-05-01

153

Thoracic and lumbar spine trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete thoracolumbar trauma evaluation incorporates radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Primarily to localize the level of injury, diagnosis of thoracolumbar spine trauma begins with radiographs. Computed tomography with sagittal reformatted images is more sensitive for identifying the full extent of injury and the degree of involvement of the bony posterior elements. Magnetic resonance imaging is used for evaluating the extent of soft tissue injury, including damage to ligaments, discs, and epidural spaces. Magnetic resonance imaging is most frequently performed when radiographs and computed tomography do not explain the patients' symptoms and when there is a possibility of epidural hematoma, traumatic disc herniation, or spinal cord injury. PMID:11327527

Gray, L; Vandemark, R; Hays, M

2001-04-01

154

Rigid spine syndrome: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe a patient who had difficulty in walking since toddling stage and presented proximal upper and lower member weakness which have evolved to a progressive limitation of neck and trunk flexure, compatible with rigid spine syndrome. The serum muscle enzymes were somewhat elevated and the electromyography showed a myopatic change. The muscle biopsy demonstrated an active and chronic myopathy. The DNA analysis through PCR did not display any abnormality for dystrophin gene. The dystrophin by immnofluorescence was present in all fibers, but some interruptions were found in the plasma membrane giving it the appearance of a rosary. The test for merosin was normal.

ZÉTOLA VIVIANE H. FLUMIGNAN

1998-01-01

155

X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

... Ray Exam: Cervical Spine Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? ... cervical spine X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to take a picture of the bones in the back of the ...

156

Anatomy and radiology of the sellar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five anatomical and radiological observations of a spine protruding into the pituitary fossa are reported. This osseous spine, about 4 mm long, arises in the midline from the inferior part of the anterior aspect of the dorsum sellae and extends upward and forward. The possible origins of this malformation are discussed. (orig.)

157

Dendritic spine dysgenesis in neuropathic pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The failure of neuropathic pain to abate even years after trauma suggests that adverse changes to synaptic function must exist in a chronic pathological state in nociceptive pathways. The chronicity of neuropathic pain therefore underscores the importance of understanding the contribution of dendritic spines-micron-sized postsynaptic structures that represent modifiable sites of synaptic contact. Historically, dendritic spines have been of great interest to the learning and memory field. More recent evidence points to the exciting implication that abnormal dendritic spine structure following disease or injury may represent a "molecular memory" for maintaining chronic pain. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in dorsal horn neurons contributes to nociceptive hyperexcitability associated with neuropathic pain, as demonstrated in multiple pain models, i.e., spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve injury, diabetic neuropathy, and thermal burn injury. Because of the relationship between dendritic spine structure and neuronal function, a thorough investigation of dendritic spine behavior in the spinal cord is a unique opportunity to better understand the mechanisms of sensory dysfunction after injury or disease. At a conceptual level, a spinal memory mechanism that engages dendritic spine remodeling would also contribute to a broad range of intractable neurological conditions. Molecules involved in regulating dendritic spine plasticity may offer novel targets for the development of effective and durable therapies for neurological disease. PMID:25744680

Tan, Andrew Michael

2015-01-01

158

Chondrosarcoma apoplexy in thoracic spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chondrosarcoma is a very uncommon malignant primary bone tumor, especially, it occurs extremely rare in the spine. A 52-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with sudden paraplegia. Twelve hours prior to a paraplegic event, he visited an outpatient clinic with discomfort and tenderness around the medial border of the right scapular, and his neurologic status was absolutely intact. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lobulated soft tissue mass from T3 to T5, which extended to the epidural space. Computed tomography scans showed soft tissue mass on the spinal posterior arch and osteolytic change of the adjacent bony structures. Emergent surgery was performed and the lesion was removed. Dark reddish blood and gel-like material were encountered around the dura and posterior arch during the operation. Multiple pulmonary nodules were found on a chest CT scan and a biopsy of one of them had been proven to be a metastasis of chondrosarcoma. The histologic examination showed dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. The patient's neurologic deficit was improved slowly from ASIA A to ASIA D. Chondrosarcoma in the spine is extremely rare, even more with acute hemorrhage and sudden expansion into the epidural space. We named it chondrosarcoma apoplexy. We should consider the possibility of a hemorrhagic event when the patient's neurologic deficit worsens suddenly with spinal bone tumor. PMID:23441034

Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Min Su; Jung, Young Jin

2013-01-01

159

Effect of Different Levels of Localized Muscle Fatigue on Knee Position Sense  

OpenAIRE

There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS) prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was ...

Gear, William S.

2011-01-01

160

Sport injuries of the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion. (orig.)

161

Solving a static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems using iterated tabu search  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we study the static bike repositioning problem where the problem consists of selecting a subset of stations to visit, sequencing them, and determining the pick-up/drop-off quantities (associated with each of the visited stations) under the various operational constraints. The objective is to minimize the total penalties incurred at all the stations. We present an iterated tabu search heuristic to solve the described problem. Experimental results show that this simple heuristic can generate high quality solutions using small computing times.

Ho, Sin C.; Szeto, W. Y.

2014-01-01

162

Physics characteristics of a CANDU-600 with repositional adjuster rods fuelled with MOX or natural uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Repositioning the adjuster rods in 4 axial banks in future CANDU-600 reactors would permit the flexibility of grading the inner and outer banks to achieve optimal flattening of the axial power distribution for any particular fuel. With the 4 banks identical, acceptable axial power profiles can be achieved for both MOX and natural uranium fuels. Future work is to be directed at assessing the impact of lower zone controller and shutoff rod worth in the configuration of reactivity devices considered here, and if necessary, in identifying means of increasing their worth

163

Physics characteristics of a CANDU-600 with repositioned adjuster rods fuelled with MOX or natural uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Repositioning the adjuster rods in 4 axial banks in future CANDU-600 reactors would permit the flexibility of grading the inner and outer banks to achieve optimal flattening of the axial power distribution for any particular fuel. With the 4 banks identical, acceptable axial power profiles can be achieved for both MOX and natural uranium fuels. Future work is to be directed at assessing the impact of lower zone controller and shutoff rod worth in the configuration of reactivity devices considered here, and if necessary, in identifying means of increasing their worth

164

New customized patient repositioning system for use in three dimensional (3D) treatment planning and radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose/Objective: To develop a safe and easy method for customized patient repositioning and immobilization prior to 3-D treatment planning and during precise radiotherapy. Materials and methods: The new material consists of impression material, and covering material to fix and hold the impression. The impression material is composed of numerous effervescent polystyrene beads (3.1 mm in diameter) coated by polymerizing substance, urethane prepolymer. When being wet, the material beads adhere to each other due to polymelization, and it is hardened in 5 to 10 minutes. Within one hour the mold is sufficiently dry to be used for treatment planning utilizing computed tomography(CT). The physical characteristics of the material, the subjective comfort of the patient, the reduction in time required for repositioning in the treatment of the head and neck tumors, and the reduction in patient movement in the treatment of the breast cancers were investigated. Results: During the hardening stage, the maximum temperature of the material was 33 deg. C. Non-toxic CO2 gas was produced and evaporated from the covering fabric. The mold, with a density of 0.095, was strong enough to endure compression, flexure, and scratching. In the healthy volunteers, no sensitivity to the skin was observed after 12 hours' attachment to the skin. The CT number of the material was less than minus 800, and no build-up effect was demonstrated in megavoltage photon therapy. Various molds were oltage photon therapy. Various molds were made and used as neck rest adjunctive to thermoplastic face mask, whole body cast, and arm rest (Figure). A questionnaire survey administered to 59 patients with brain, head and neck tumors, and to 18 patients with breast cancers, revealed that subjective comfort was markedly improved (90.9%) of improved (9.1%) by virtue of the new material. In the treatment of head and neck tumors, the mean time and SD for repositioning were 61.1 ± 13.6 seconds with the ready-made neck-rest and 49.4 ± 8.4 seconds with the individualized neck-rest. For 90 breast irradiations in 15 patients, the mean and standard deviations of displacement were 6.5 mm and 2.0 mm without the arm-rest, and 0.7 mm and 0.5 mm with the use of the arm-rest of new material (p< 0.0001). Conclusion: The new customized patient repositioning system is safer, easier, and more comfortable both for the patient and medical staffs than previous methods are, and it is suitable for precise 3-D treatment planning and radiotherapy

165

Late Acceptance Hill Climbing for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Late Acceptance Hill Climbing (LAHC) has been shown to be an effective local search method for sev- eral types of optimization problems, such as on certain types of scheduling problems as well as the traveling salesman problem. We apply LAHC to a central prob- lem in the liner shipping industry, the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP in- volves the movement of vessels between routes in a liner shipping network subject to complex costs and timing restrictions. We show that despite LAHC’s promising performance on other problems, it is unable to achieve the performance of simulated annealing on the LSFRP.

Tierney, Kevin

166

Interventional spine procedures in athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Back pain is common in athletes and a source of missed time from practice and competition. Pain generators include muscle (strain), ligament (myofascial sprain and strain), intervertebral disc (herniation and degeneration), nerve (radiculopathy), joint (facet and sacroiliac (SI) joint), and bones (pars interarticularis defect). The goal of treatment of an athlete with back pain is to relieve symptoms and facilitate safe but rapid return to play with no change in performance. Initial conservative treatment includes relative rest, anti-inflammatory medications, and physical therapy. The use of interventional spine procedures in athletes with back pain has gained popularity as a nonoperative treatment option. Although there is lack of high-quality evidence of these procedures specifically in athletes, this article will discuss the utility of selective nerve root blocks, epidural steroid injections, intradiscal injections, pars interarticularis injection, facet joint interventions (intraarticular injection, medial branch block, and radiofrequency neurotomy), and SI joint interventions (intraarticular injection and radiofrequency neurotomy). PMID:23147023

Petron, David J; Prideaux, Cara C; Likness, Lincoln

2012-01-01

167

Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented. PMID:25210342

Ramdasi, Raghvendra V; Nadkarni, Trimurti D; Goel, Naina A

2014-04-01

168

Computed tomography of the postoperative lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the postoperative patient ordinary radiographs of the spine generally add very little information, revealing the usual postoperative bone changes and often postoperative narrowing of the intervertebral space. Myelography may sometimes be informative, showing evidence of focal arachnoiditis or a focal defect at the surgical site. However, the latter finding is difficult to interpret. As experience with high-resolution CT scanning of the lumbar spine has been increasing, it is becoming apparent that this noninvasive and easily performed study can give considerably more information about the postoperative spine than any of the other current imaging methods. About 750 patients with previous lumbar laminectomies had CT scanning within a 28 month period

169

Computed tomography of the postoperative lumbar spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the postoperative patient ordinary radiographs of the spine generally add very little information, revealing the usual postoperative bone changes and often postoperative narrowing of the intervertebral space. Myelography may sometimes be informative, showing evidence of focal arachnoiditis or a focal defect at the surgical site. However, the latter finding is difficult to interpret. As experience with high-resolution CT scanning of the lumbar spine has been increasing, it is becoming apparent that this noninvasive and easily performed study can give considerably more information about the postoperative spine than any of the other current imaging methods. About 750 patients with previous lumbar laminectomies had CT scanning within a 28 month period.

Teplick, J.G.; Haskin, M.E.

1983-11-01

170

Gonadal dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different ways to minimize the gonadal dose in lumbar spine radiography have been studied. Two hundred and fifty lumbar spine radiographs were reviewed to assess the clinical need for lateral L5/S1 projection. Modern film/screen combinations and gonadal shielding of externally scattered radiation play a major role in the reduction of the genetic dose. The number of exposures should be minimized. Our results show that two projections, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral, appear to be sufficient in routine radiography of the lumbar spine. (orig.)

171

Persistent Direction-Fixed Nystagmus Following Canalith Repositioning Maneuver for Horizontal Canal BPPV: A Case of Canalith Jam  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a 64-year-old man who developed persistent direction fixed nystagmus after a canalith repositioning maneuver for horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV). The patient was initially diagnosed with right HC-BPPV given that the Dix-Hallpike test showed geotropic horizontal nystagmus that was more pronounced on the right side, although the roll test did not show any positional nystagmus. The patient was treated with a canalith repositioning maneuver (Lempert maneuver). The next day, the patient experienced a different character of dizziness, and left-beating spontaneous nystagmus regardless of head position was observed. After a forced prolonged left decubitus and frequent head shaking, his symptoms and nystagmus resolved. This condition, referred to as canalith jam, can be a complication after the repositioning maneuver in patients with BPPV. Atypical positional tests suggest that abnormal canal anatomy could be the underlying cause of canalith jam. PMID:24917912

Chang, Young-Soo; Choi, Jeesun

2014-01-01

172

Persistent Direction-Fixed Nystagmus Following Canalith Repositioning Maneuver for Horizontal Canal BPPV: A Case of Canalith Jam.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a 64-year-old man who developed persistent direction fixed nystagmus after a canalith repositioning maneuver for horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV). The patient was initially diagnosed with right HC-BPPV given that the Dix-Hallpike test showed geotropic horizontal nystagmus that was more pronounced on the right side, although the roll test did not show any positional nystagmus. The patient was treated with a canalith repositioning maneuver (Lempert maneuver). The next day, the patient experienced a different character of dizziness, and left-beating spontaneous nystagmus regardless of head position was observed. After a forced prolonged left decubitus and frequent head shaking, his symptoms and nystagmus resolved. This condition, referred to as canalith jam, can be a complication after the repositioning maneuver in patients with BPPV. Atypical positional tests suggest that abnormal canal anatomy could be the underlying cause of canalith jam. PMID:24917912

Chang, Young-Soo; Choi, Jeesun; Chung, Won-Ho

2014-06-01

173

Imaging, clearance, and controversies in pediatric cervical spine trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosing cervical spine injury in children can be difficult because the clinical examination can be unreliable, and evidence-based consensus guidelines for cervical spine injury evaluation in children have not been established. However, the consequences of cervical spine injuries are significant. Therefore, practitioners should understand common patterns of cervical spine injury in children, the evidence and indications for cervical spine imaging, and which imaging modalities to use. Herein, we review the epidemiology and unique anatomical features of pediatric cervical spine injury. In addition, we will summarize current practice for clearance and imaging of the pediatric cervical spine in trauma. PMID:25469605

Tat, Sonny T; Mejia, Michelle J; Freishtat, Robert J

2014-12-01

174

Transoral crossbow injury to the cervical spine: an unusual case of penetrating cervical spine injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexity of missile injuries to the cervical spine has increased as the technology that causes these injuries has become more sophisticated. Management requires adaptation of conventional neurosurgical approaches to the cervical spine in an effort to limit neurological deficit and establish stability. We report an unusual case of a 19-year-old man who suffered transoral penetration of the cervical spine by an arrow released by a crossbow at close range. PMID:2067619

Salvino, C K; Origitano, T C; Dries, D J; Shea, J F; Springhorn, M; Miller, C J

1991-06-01

175

Dendritic spine dynamics leading to spine elimination after repeated inductions of LTD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Memory is fixed solidly by repetition. However, the cellular mechanism underlying this repetition-dependent memory consolidation/reconsolidation remains unclear. In our previous study using stable slice cultures of the rodent hippocampus, we found long-lasting synaptic enhancement/suppression coupled with synapse formation/elimination after repeated inductions of chemical LTP/LTD, respectively. We proposed these phenomena as useful model systems for analyzing repetition-dependent memory consolidation. Recently, we analyzed the dynamics of dendritic spines during development of the enhancement, and found that the spines increased in number following characteristic stochastic processes. The current study investigates spine dynamics during the development of the suppression. We found that the rate of spine retraction increased immediately leaving that of spine generation unaltered. Spine elimination occurred independent of the pre-existing spine density on the dendritic segment. In terms of elimination, mushroom-type spines were not necessarily more stable than stubby-type and thin-type spines. PMID:25573377

Hasegawa, Sho; Sakuragi, Shigeo; Tominaga-Yoshino, Keiko; Ogura, Akihiko

2015-01-01

176

Network-based drug ranking and repositioning with respect to DrugBank therapeutic categories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug repositioning is a challenging computational problem involving the integration of heterogeneous sources of biomolecular data and the design of label ranking algorithms able to exploit the overall topology of the underlying pharmacological network. In this context, we propose a novel semisupervised drug ranking problem: prioritizing drugs in integrated biochemical networks according to specific DrugBank therapeutic categories. Algorithms for drug repositioning usually perform the inference step into an inhomogeneous similarity space induced by the relationships existing between drugs and a second type of entity (e.g., disease, target, ligand set), thus making unfeasible a drug ranking within a homogeneous pharmacological space. To deal with this problem, we designed a general framework based on bipartite network projections by which homogeneous pharmacological networks can be constructed and integrated from heterogeneous and complementary sources of chemical, biomolecular and clinical information. Moreover, we present a novel algorithmic scheme based on kernelized score functions that adopts both local and global learning strategies to effectively rank drugs in the integrated pharmacological space using different network combination methods. Detailed experiments with more than 80 DrugBank therapeutic categories involving about 1,300 FDA-approved drugs show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:24407295

Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

2013-01-01

177

Can stimulating massage improve joint repositioning error in patients with knee osteoarthritis?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of massage applied to the thigh muscles on joint repositioning error (JRE) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA).We hypothesized that stimulating massage of the muscles around an osteoarthritic knee joint, could improve the neuromuscular function and thereby optimize the positive and minimize the negative performance factors in relation to an exercise program. METHODS: In a cross-over design, 19 patients with knee osteoarthritis, mean age of 73.1 years (SD: 9.4; range 56 to 88 years), recruited from the local department of rheumatology, were randomly allocated to either receive massage and a week later, act as controls or vice versa. The applied massage consisted of stimulating massage of the quadriceps femoris, sartorious, gracilus, and hamstrings muscles for 10 min on the affected leg. Participants had their JRE measured before and immediately after the 10 min massage and control sessions. Data were analyzed by using paired t-test. RESULTS: No significant change in JRE was observed (95% CI: -0.62 degrees to 0.85 degrees, p = 0.738). CONCLUSION: Massage has no effect on the immediate joint repositioning error in patients with knee osteoarthritis, ie, if an improved JRE is important for improving the performance factors when exercising, stimulating massage may not be recommendable to use.

Lund, Hans; Henriksen, Marius

2009-01-01

178

Larval Zebrafish Model for FDA-Approved Drug Repositioning for Tobacco Dependence Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Cigarette smoking remains the most preventable cause of death and excess health care costs in the United States, and is a leading cause of death among alcoholics. Long-term tobacco abstinence rates are low, and pharmacotherapeutic options are limited. Repositioning medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may efficiently provide clinicians with new treatment options. We developed a drug-repositioning paradigm using larval zebrafish locomotion and established predictive clinical validity using FDA-approved smoking cessation therapeutics. We evaluated 39 physician-vetted medications for nicotine-induced locomotor activation blockade. We further evaluated candidate medications for altered ethanol response, as well as in combination with varenicline for nicotine-response attenuation. Six medications specifically inhibited the nicotine response. Among this set, apomorphine and topiramate blocked both nicotine and ethanol responses. Both positively interact with varenicline in the Bliss Independence test, indicating potential synergistic interactions suggesting these are candidates for translation into Phase II clinical trials for smoking cessation. PMID:24658307

Cousin, Margot A.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Wiinamaki, Amanda R.; Urban, Mark D.; Argue, David P.; Ekker, Stephen C.; Klee, Eric W.

2014-01-01

179

Orbit determination and prediction of GEO satellite of BeiDou during repositioning maneuver  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to establish a continuous GEO satellite orbit during repositioning maneuvers, a suitable maneuver force model has been established associated with an optimal orbit determination method and strategy. A continuous increasing acceleration is established by constructing a constant force that is equivalent to the pulse force, with the mass of the satellite decreasing throughout maneuver. This acceleration can be added to other accelerations, such as solar radiation, to obtain the continuous acceleration of the satellite. The orbit determination method and strategy are illuminated, with subsequent assessment of the orbit being determined and predicted accordingly. The orbit of the GEO satellite during repositioning maneuver can be determined and predicted by using C-Band pseudo-range observations of the BeiDou GEO satellite with COSPAR ID 2010-001A in 2011 and 2012. The results indicate that observations before maneuver do affect orbit determination and prediction, and should therefore be selected appropriately. A more precise orbit and prediction can be obtained compared to common short arc methods when observations starting 1 day prior the maneuver and 2 h after the maneuver are adopted in POD (Precise Orbit Determination). The achieved URE (User Range Error) under non-consideration of satellite clock errors is better than 2 m within the first 2 h after maneuver, and less than 3 m for further 2 h of orbit prediction.

Cao, Fen; Yang, XuHai; Li, ZhiGang; Sun, BaoQi; Kong, Yao; Chen, Liang; Feng, Chugang

2014-11-01

180

Design and development of compact, durable electromagnetic pulse power coils for repositioning of coolant tube spacers in CANDU nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the fall of 1983, a novel electromagnetic technique to reposition the coolant tube spacers (garter springs) in the fuel channels of CANDU nuclear reactors was successfully developed at Ontario Hydro Research Division. This paper describes the design, development and performance of the compact solenoidal coils used to reposition the garter springs. The coils are capable of withstanding oscillatory current pulses having a first peak of 200 kA and can survive several thousand pulses at current levels exceeding 140 kA. The operating criteria and measures introduced to achieve long coil life with a reasonably high repetition rate for discharging the capacitor bank are also discussed

181

Principles of Long-Term Dynamics of Dendritic Spines  

OpenAIRE

Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synapse strength requires enlargement of dendritic spines on cerebral pyramidal neurons. Long-term depression (LTD) is linked to spine shrinkage. Indeed, spines are dynamic structures: they form, change their shapes and volumes or can disappear in the space of hours. Do all such changes result from synaptic activity, or do some changes result from intrinsic processes? How do enlargement and shrinkage of spines relate to elimination and generation of spines, and...

Yasumatsu, Nobuaki; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Miyazaki, Takashi; Noguchi, Jun; Kasai, Haruo

2008-01-01

182

Dendritic spines linearize the summation of excitatory potentials  

OpenAIRE

In mammalian cortex, most excitatory inputs occur on dendritic spines, avoiding dendritic shafts. Although spines biochemically isolate inputs, nonspiny neurons can also implement biochemical compartmentalization; so, it is possible that spines have an additional function. We have recently shown that the spine neck can filter membrane potentials going into and out of the spine. To investigate the potential function of this electrical filtering, we used two-photon uncaging of glutamate and com...

Araya, Roberto; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Yuste, Rafael

2006-01-01

183

Sampling issues in quantitative analysis of dendritic spines morphology  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Quantitative analysis of changes in dendritic spine morphology has become an interesting issue in contemporary neuroscience. However, the diversity in dendritic spine population might seriously influence the result of measurements in which their morphology is studied. The detection of differences in spine morphology between control and test group is often compromised by the number of dendritic spines taken for analysis. In order to estimate the impact of dendritic spine di...

Ruszczycki B?a?ej; Szepesi Zsuzsanna; Wilczynski Grzegorz M; Bijata Monika; Kalita Katarzyna; Kaczmarek Leszek; Wlodarczyk Jakub

2012-01-01

184

Dendritic spine dysgenesis in Rett syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spines are small cytoplasmic extensions of dendrites that form the postsynaptic compartment of the majority of excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. Alterations in the numerical density, size, and shape of dendritic spines have been correlated with neuronal dysfunction in several neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with intellectual disability, including Rett syndrome (RTT. RTT is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability that is caused by loss of function mutations in the transcriptional regulator methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating that principal neurons in RTT individuals and Mecp2-based experimental models exhibit alterations in the number and morphology of dendritic spines. We also discuss the exciting possibility that signaling pathways downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which is transcriptionally regulated by MeCP2, offer promising therapeutic options for modulating dendritic spine development and plasticity in RTT and other MECP2-associated neurodevelopmental disorders.

Lucas Pozzo-Miller

2014-09-01

185

Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses how MRI has become an invaluable diagnostic adjunct to CT in the study of the lumbar spine. MRI provides improved resolution of soft tissue structures, which leads to more accurate diagnosis of degenerative disc disease and lateral nerve root entrapment as well as spinal neoplasm, infection, and hematoma. MRI is the procedure of choice in the study of complicated spine pathology in postoperative patients. CT currently remains the procedure of choice in the study of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine in the nonoperated patient because of its superb bone and soft tissue imaging and its inexpensiveness when compared to MRI. MRI imaging can be expect to improve with software modifications and new imaging techniques. MRI will play an increasingly prominent role in lumbar spine imaging

186

Airway management for cervical spine injury.  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT In this review, important factors related to initial management, diagnosis, airway, and anesthetic management of patients with cervical spine injury (CSI) are discussed. Early diagnostic and clinical evaluation is important in excluding CSI. In-line stabilization reduces movement of the cervical spine. Tracheal intubation under fiberscopic control, offers safety, and comfort to the patient. However, in cases of severe deterioration of vital functions, intubation must be performed ...

Siddiqui, Ahsan K.

2009-01-01

187

Studying Signal Transduction in Single Dendritic Spines  

OpenAIRE

Many forms of synaptic plasticity are triggered by biochemical signaling that occurs in small postsynaptic compartments called dendritic spines, each of which typically houses the postsynaptic terminal associated with a single glutamatergic synapse. Recent advances in optical techniques allow investigators to monitor biochemical signaling in single dendritic spines and thus reveal the signaling mechanisms that link synaptic activity and the induction of synaptic plasticity. This is mostly in ...

Yasuda, Ryohei

2012-01-01

188

Computed tomography of the sellar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report the CT scan findings in a case of sellar spine. This osseous spine which arises on the midline of the anterior aspect of the dorsum sellae and is directed toward the center of the sella turcica has already been described on specimens and on plain films but never on CT scans. The CT scan findings confirm the normal appearance of the surrounding structures. (orig.)

189

Fine structure of synapses on dendritic spines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Camillo Golgi’s “Reazione Nera” led to the discovery of dendritic spines, small appendages originating from dendritic shafts. With the advent of electron microscopy (EM they were identified as sites of synaptic contact. Later it was found that changes in synaptic strength were associated with changes in the shape of dendritic spines. While live-cell imaging was advantageous in monitoring the time course of such changes in spine structure, EM is still the best method for the simultaneous visualization of all cellular components, including actual synaptic contacts, at high resolution. Immunogold labeling for EM reveals the precise localization of molecules in relation to synaptic structures. Previous EM studies of spines and synapses were performed in tissue subjected to aldehyde fixation and dehydration in ethanol, which is associated with protein denaturation and tissue shrinkage. It has remained an issue to what extent fine structural details are preserved when subjecting the tissue to these procedures. In the present review, we report recent studies on the fine structure of spines and synapses using high-pressure freezing (HPF, which avoids protein denaturation by aldehydes and results in an excellent preservation of ultrastructural detail. In these studies, HPF was used to monitor subtle fine-structural changes in spine shape associated with chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP at identified hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Changes in spine shape result from reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report that cLTP was associated with decreased immunogold labeling for phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing protein. Phosphorylation of cofilin renders it unable to depolymerize F-actin, which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. Decreased levels of p-cofilin, in turn, suggest increased actin turnover, possibly underlying the changes in spine shape associated with cLTP. The findings reviewed here establish HPF as an appropriate m

Michael Frotscher

2014-09-01

190

Intrapartum Ultrasound Assessment of Fetal Spine Position  

OpenAIRE

We investigated the role of foetal spine position in the first and second labour stages to determine the probability of OPP detection at birth and the related obstetrical implications. We conducted an observational-longitudinal cohort study on uncomplicated cephalic single foetus pregnant women at term. We evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound in predicting occiput position at birth, influence of fetal spine in occiput position during labour, labour trend, analgesia request, type of delivery, ...

Salvatore Gizzo; Alessandra Andrisani; Marco Noventa; Giorgia Burul; Stefania Di Gangi; Omar Anis; Emanuele Ancona; Antona, Donato D.; Giovanni Battista Nardelli; Guido Ambrosini

2014-01-01

191

Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

192

Ranked retrieval of segmented nuclei for objective assessment of cancer gene repositioning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct segmentation is critical to many applications within automated microscopy image analysis. Despite the availability of advanced segmentation algorithms, variations in cell morphology, sample preparation, and acquisition settings often lead to segmentation errors. This manuscript introduces a ranked-retrieval approach using logistic regression to automate selection of accurately segmented nuclei from a set of candidate segmentations. The methodology is validated on an application of spatial gene repositioning in breast cancer cell nuclei. Gene repositioning is analyzed in patient tissue sections by labeling sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, followed by measurement of the relative position of each gene from the nuclear center to the nuclear periphery. This technique requires hundreds of well-segmented nuclei per sample to achieve statistical significance. Although the tissue samples in this study contain a surplus of available nuclei, automatic identification of the well-segmented subset remains a challenging task. Results Logistic regression was applied to features extracted from candidate segmented nuclei, including nuclear shape, texture, context, and gene copy number, in order to rank objects according to the likelihood of being an accurately segmented nucleus. The method was demonstrated on a tissue microarray dataset of 43 breast cancer patients, comprising approximately 40,000 imaged nuclei in which the HES5 and FRA2 genes were labeled with FISH probes. Three trained reviewers independently classified nuclei into three classes of segmentation accuracy. In man vs. machine studies, the automated method outperformed the inter-observer agreement between reviewers, as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Robustness of gene position measurements to boundary inaccuracies was demonstrated by comparing 1086 manually and automatically segmented nuclei. Pearson correlation coefficients between the gene position measurements were above 0.9 (p Conclusions Accurate segmentation is necessary to automate quantitative image analysis for applications such as gene repositioning. However, due to heterogeneity within images and across different applications, no segmentation algorithm provides a satisfactory solution. Automated assessment of segmentations by ranked retrieval is capable of reducing or even eliminating the need to select segmented objects by hand and represents a significant improvement over binary classification. The method can be extended to other high-throughput applications requiring accurate detection of cells or nuclei across a range of biomedical applications.

Cukierski William J

2012-09-01

193

Measurement of repositioning accuracy during fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for intracranial tumors using noninvasive fixation of BrainLAB radiotherapy equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: A noninvasive fixation mask device is used for stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in our hospital. Fractionated SRT is useful because it results in less damage to normal tissues, for which the positioning accuracy of the removable noninvasive fixation device is important. We examined the repositioning accuracy of a BrainLAB removable noninvasive fixation device on the coordinates of computed tomography (CT) for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 13 patients who had undergone head SRT. The removable noninvasive fixation mask device used was a noninvasive fixation device for the BrainLAB system. The accuracy of the irradiation apparatus was evaluated using Winston-Lutz test film, and the repositioning accuracy of the fixation device was examined using differences in the distance on the X, Y, and Z coordinates between the treatment planning and repositioning times determined by comparing the relative coordinates. The evaluation was performed using the relative coordinates of the standard and test points. Results: The accuracy of the irradiation center with the apparatus was within 0.5 mm. In the 13 patients, the difference in the distance between the treatment planning and repositioning procedures ranged from 0.1 to 2.080 mm, and an accuracy of within 2 mm was obtained in 84.6% of the patients using the fixation device. Conclusion: The BrainLAB noninvasive SRT fixation device was considered useful for routine treatment with high accuracyfor routine treatment with high accuracy

194

Conspicuous and aposematic spines in the animal kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

Spines serve as a common physical defence mechanism in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Here we argue that as in plants, defensive animal spines are often conspicuous (shape and colour) and should be considered aposematic. Conspicuous spines may evolve as signals or serve as a cue for potential predators. Spine conspicuousness in animals has evolved independently across and within phyla occupying aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, indicating that this convergent phenomenon is highly adaptive. Still, many spines are cryptic, suggesting that conspicuity is not simply constrained by developmental factors such as differences in the chemical composition of the integument. Aposematism does not preclude the signalling role of conspicuous spines in the sexual arena.

Inbar, Moshe; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

2005-04-01

195

Raziskovalni model strateškega repozicioniranja blagovne znamke = Research Model of Strategic Repositioning of the Brand  

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Full Text Available Development of the world food market has, in recent years, been markedby rapid, unexpected and complex changes. The world food industryis operating in an explicitly dynamic environment which demandsconstant adjustments and responses. Good familiarity with consumers,their habits, wishes, and motives for buying a certain product is becomingan increasingly important area and food companies have,therefore, devoted more attention to it. The paper uses case a studyof the brand Perutnina Ptuj to illustrate the importance of action elementsin repositioning a brand in competitive markets. The exampleis illustrated by using a research model of strategic repositioningof a brand. The results of the analysis of competitors, the analysis ofthe brand, the results of qualitative research, and the developmentand testing of possible concepts on international markets have offereda basic starting-point for a new positioning of the brand.

Tina Vukasovi?

2009-09-01

196

The canalith repositioning procedure: for treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canalith Repositioning Procedure (CRP) is designed to treat benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) through induced out-migration of free-moving pathological densities in the endolymph of a semicircular canal, using timed head maneuvers and applied vibration. This article describes the procedure and its rationale, and reports the results in 30 patients who exhibited the classic nystagmus of BPPV with Hallpike maneuvers. CRP obtained timely resolution of the nystagmus and positional vertigo in 100%. Of these, 10% continued to have atypical symptoms, suggesting concomitant pathology; 30% experienced one or more recurrences, but responded well to retreatment with CRP. These results also support an alternative theory that the densities that impart gravity-sensitivity to a semicircular canal in BPPV are free in the canal, rather than attached to the cupula. CRP offers significant advantages over invasive and other noninvasive treatment modalities in current use. PMID:1408225

Epley, J M

1992-09-01

197

Comparison of Coronally Advanced and Semilunar Coronally Repositioned Flap for the Treatment of Gingival Recession  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Gingival Recession (GR) occurs in population with low oral hygiene levels. Root coverage may be achieved by a number of surgical techniques, including pedicle gingival grafts, free grafts, connective tissue grafts, gtr may also be used. The objective of the present study is to compare the clinical outcomes of the Semilunar Coronally Repositioned Flap (SCRF) and Coronally Advanced Flap (CAF) procedure in the treatment of miller’s class I gingival recession defects in maxillary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty systemically healthy patients, with isolated miller’s class 1 gingival recessions, were selected and allocated randomly into two groups, Group I and Group II with 10 patients in each. In Group I, the patients were treated with coronally advanced flap procedure with sling sutures, whereas in Group II, patients were treated with semilunar coronally repositioned flap without sutures. Results: Descriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study. Results on continuous measurements are presented on Mean ± SD. Significance is assessed at 5 % level of significance. Student t-test (two tailed, dependent) has been used to find the significance of study parameters between baseline - 3 months and baseline - 6 months, 90% Confidence interval for mean has been computed. Conclusion: CAF provides consistently better results than SCRF With all other parameters, such as clinical attachment levels, percentage of root coverage and complete root coverage and esthetics were taken into account, caf was found to be superior. In contrary to this, there is significant increase in width of keratinized tissue in scrf group. PMID:25121054

Moka, Leela Rani; M, Srinivas; D, Narasimha swamy; Swarna, Chakrapani; Putcha, Madhusudhan

2014-01-01

198

Recurrent upside-down stomach after endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy treated by laparoscopic surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with an upside-down stomach usually receive surgical treatment. In high-risk patients, endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy can be performed. However, the risk of recurrence after endoscopic treatment is not known. We treated a case of recurrent upside-down stomach after endoscopic therapy that indicated the limits of endoscopic treatment and risk of recurrence. An 88-year-old woman was treated three times for vomiting in the past. She presented to our hospital with periodic vomiting and an inability to eat, and a diagnosis of upside-down stomach was made. Endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy were performed. The anterior stomach wall was fixed to the abdominal wall in three places as widely as possible. Following treatment, she became symptom-free. Three months later, she was hospitalized again because of a recurrent upside-down stomach. Laparoscopic repair of hernias and gastropexy was performed. Using a laparoscope, two causes of recurrence were found. One cause was that the range of adherence between the stomach and the abdominal wall was narrow (from the antrum only to the lower corpus of stomach), so the upper corpus of stomach was rotated and herniated into the esophageal hiatus. The other cause was adhesion between the omentum and the esophageal hiatus which caused the stomach to rotate and repeatedly become herniated. Although endoscopic treatment for upside-down stomach can be a useful alternative method in high-risk patients, its ability to prevent recurrence is limited. Moreover, a repeated case caused by adhesions has risks of recurrence. PMID:24574947

Toyota, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Yuji; Hatano, Yu

2014-01-01

199

Minimally invasive spine technology and minimally invasive spine surgery: a historical review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The trend of using smaller operative corridors is seen in various surgical specialties. Neurosurgery has also recently embraced minimal access spine technique, and it has rapidly evolved over the past 2 decades. There has been a progression from needle access, small incisions with adaptation of the microscope, and automated percutaneous procedures to endoscopically and laparoscopically assisted procedures. More recently, new muscle-sparing technology has come into use with tubular access. This has now been adapted to the percutaneous placement of spinal instrumentation, including intervertebral spacers, rods, pedicle screws, facet screws, nucleus replacement devices, and artificial discs. New technologies involving hybrid procedures for the treatment of complex spine trauma are now on the horizon. Surgical corridors have been developed utilizing the interspinous space for X-STOP placement to treat lumbar stenosis in a minimally invasive fashion. The direct lateral retroperitoneal corridor has allowed for minimally invasive access to the anterior spine. In this report the authors present a chronological, historical perspective of minimal access spine technique and minimally invasive technologies in the lumbar, thoracic, and cervical spine from 1967 through 2009. Due to a low rate of complications, minimal soft tissue trauma, and reduced blood loss, more spine procedures are being performed in this manner. Spine surgery now entails shorter hospital stays and often is carried out on an outpatient basis. With education, training, and further research, more of our traditional open surgical management will be augmented or replaced by these technologies and approaches in the future. PMID:19722824

Oppenheimer, Jeffrey H; DeCastro, Igor; McDonnell, Dennis E

2009-09-01

200

Embryonic development of fin spines in Callorhinchus milii (Holocephali); implications for chondrichthyan fin spine evolution.  

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Fin spines are commonly known from fossil gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) and are usually associated with paired and unpaired fins. They are less common among extant gnathostomes, being restricted to the median fins of certain chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish), including chimaerids (elephant sharks) and neoselachians (sharks, skates, and rays). Fin spine growth is of great interest and relevance but few studies have considered their evolution and development. We investigated the development of the fin spine of the chimaerid Callorhinchus milii using stained histological sections from a series of larval, hatchling, and adult individuals. The lamellar trunk dentine of the Callorhinchus spine first condenses within the mesenchyme, rather than at the contact surface between mesenchyme and epithelium, in a manner more comparable to dermal bone formation than to normal odontode development. Trabecular dentine forms a small component of the spine under the keel; it is covered externally with a thin layer of lamellar trunk dentine, which is difficult to distinguish in sectioned adult spines. We suggest that the distinctive characteristics of the trunk dentine may reflect an origin through co-option of developmental processes involved in dermal bone formation. Comparison with extant Squalus and a range of fossil chondrichthyans shows that Callorhinchus is more representative than Squalus of generalized chondrichthyan fin-spine architecture, highlighting its value as a developmental model organism. PMID:25378057

Jerve, Anna; Johanson, Zerina; Ahlberg, Per; Boisvert, Catherine

2014-01-01

201

Multiple myeloma presenting as cervical spine compression  

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Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a malignant monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells usually showing bone involvement with predilection of the spine. The cervical spine is the least common site of disease involvement. We report the case of 72-year-old man presenting with progressively increased cervical pain, associated with sciatica and disturb walking. In the neurological exam, there was a quadripyramidal syndrome, and superficial sensory disturbance. The X- ray examination of the cervical spine showed lytic lesions of C2. A tumoral process was found by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI compressing the spinal cord at the level of C4 with osteolysis of the posterior arch. An open surgery was performed. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma of kappa subtype. Immunoelectrophoresis revealed the presence of immunoglobulin G kappa. The patient was diagnosed as having MM with cervical vertebra involvement and he has started chemo­therapy.

Tahia Boudawara

2011-01-01

202

Functional oblique views of the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of the paper deals with measurements of 152 radiographs. It was found that the conventional views of the lumbar spine in two planes can demonstrate only 49.1% of the articular joints. Oblique views in two planes increase the accuracy to 88.7%. In view of the relatively high accuracy of the oblique views, these were used as the basis for a new functional method for examining the intervertebral joints. For this examination, oblique views of the lumbar spine are taken in the lordotic and kyphotic positions. The position of the patient during the examination is described in detail. In the second part of the paper, the results of measurements of 80 functional examinations are evaluated. Average values for the mobility of individual elements of the lumbar spine have been derived. Finally, the practical value of the new technique is demonstrated. Its special place for subluxations and spondylolyses is stressed. (orig.)

203

Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery

204

Congenital block vertebrae in lumbar spine  

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Full Text Available A 34-year-old female visited our rheumatology clinic with the complaint of non-inflammatory back pain that usually occurred on bending down and radiated to bilateral lower limbs. A diagnosis of compressive neuropathy was suspected and an initially performed digital X-ray of lumbar spine revealed a rare congenital anomaly termed as ‘Congenital block vertebrae’ in the lumbar spine (Fig 1.Block vertebrae, a congenital anomaly, occurs due to improper segmentation of vertebral column during fetal development. Improper segmentation leads to fusion of adjacent vertebrae through their inter-vertebral disc. The most common site of this deformity is cervical spine and the lumbar vertebral involvement is rare. The disco-vertebral articulation is always involved and depending on the degree of involvement, the presenting complaints could be either neurological due to the compression of nerve roots or scoliosis due to the vertebral deformity.

Ankur Nandan Varshney

2013-05-01

205

Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the thoracic spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a proliferative lesion of the synovial membranes. Knees, hips, and other large weight-bearing joints are most commonly affected. PVNS rarely presents in the spine, in particular the thoracic segments. We present a patient with PVNS in the thoracic spine and describe its clinical presentation, radiographic findings, pathologic features, and treatment as well as providing the first comprehensive meta-analysis and review of the literature on this topic, to our knowledge. A total of 28 publications reporting 56 patients were found. The lumbar and cervical spine were most frequently involved (40% and 36% of patients, respectively) with infrequent involvement of the thoracic spine (24% of patients). PVNS affects a wide range of ages, but has a particular predilection for the thoracic spine in younger patients. The mean age in the thoracic group was 22.8 years and was significantly lower than the cervical and lumbar groups (42.4 and 48.6 years, respectively; p=0.0001). PVNS should be included in the differential diagnosis of osteodestructive lesions of the spine, especially because of its potential for local recurrence. The goal of treatment should be complete surgical excision. Although the pathogenesis is not clear, mechanical strain may play an important role, especially in cervical and lumbar PVNS. The association of thoracic lesions and younger age suggests that other factors, such as neoplasia, derangement of lipid metabolism, perturbations of humoral and cellular immunity, and other undefined patient factors, play a role in the development of thoracic PVNS. PMID:24938389

Roguski, Marie; Safain, Mina G; Zerris, Vasilios A; Kryzanski, James T; Thomas, Christine B; Magge, Subu N; Riesenburger, Ron I

2014-10-01

206

Guidelines for use of lumbar spine radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In deciding whether to obtain lumbosacral spine films, the emergency physician must not ask whether a diagnosis can be established, but whether obtaining films will affect management. Low back pain is a considerable problem for society with cost in billions of dollars. Gonadal radiation from lumbosacral radiographs is significant, and thus ordering films should be minimized. Plain radiographs are rarely indicated in otherwise healthy patients 20 to 50 years old with mechanical or root pain on initial presentation. In other patients alternative diagnostic methodologies such as computed tomography may be superior, with less radiation risk. Specific recommendations for emergency radiographic evaluation of the lumbosacral spine are offered.68 references

207

Cervical spine fractures and dislocations in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospectivce analysis of pediatric admissions over 10 years revealed 29 patients with cervical spine injuries. Eleven patients were below 12 years of age, and 10 of these had injuries involving C1, C2 or the occipitoatlantal articulation. Eighteen patients were between 12 and 16 years of age with injuries distributed throughout the cervical spine similar to injuries in the adult population. Our results suggest that teenagers with suspected cervical injuries are best evaluated by an adult radiographic series including trauma oblique views. In younger patients, careful evaluation of occipitoatlantoaxial alignment and the prevertebral soft tissues is required for diagnosis and selection of additional imaging evaluation. (orig.)

208

Rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cervical spine is commonly affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Erosive synovitis of the joints of the cervical spine can result in various types of subluxations. Subluxations and pannus formation can cause significant pain and neurological compromise. Surgery is an important treatment modality for patients with intractable neck pain and neurological deficits. This article reviews the indications for surgery and surgical procedures of decompression and arthrodesis. New surgical fixation techniques have resulted in improved arthrodesis rates. However, long-term effects on adjacent motion segments is not known. The cornerstone of good surgical outcome remains careful selection of patients and appropriate choice of surgical decompression and fusion. PMID:12524563

Kolen, E Robert; Schmidt, Meic H

2002-06-01

209

Cytoplasmic organization in cerebellar dendritic spines  

OpenAIRE

Three sets of filamentous structures were found to be associated with synaptic junctions in slices of cerebellar tissue prepared by rapid- freezing and freeze-etch techniques. The electron-dense fuzz subjacent to postsynaptic membranes corresponds to a web of 4-6-nm-diam filaments that were clearly visualized in rapid-frozen, freeze-etched preparations. Purkinje cell dendritic spines are filled with a meshwork of 5-7-nm filaments that were found to contact the spine membrane everywhere except...

1983-01-01

210

Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques

211

[Results of treatment of acute injuries of the thoracolumbar spine by ridged plates.].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors evaluate the results of surgery of fresh injuries of the thoracolumbar spine achieved by transpedicular fixation, using ridged plates. At the orthopaedic clinic in Brno-Bohunice this technique was systematically introduced in 1989; in 1991 they started to use a better principle of stabilization by an internal fixation device. The authors used plates fixed in a transpedicular way in 58 injured subjects. Most frequently fractures of L1, T12 and L2 were involved, usually of a burst type. In more than half the patients they recorded a nervous deficit of varying degree. They stabilized usually typically four mobile segments and fused two internal ones. In 44 patients manual realignment before operation and during its course were used. After reduction of the vertebral body by reposition of the adjacent surfaces they added spongioplasty. In 3/4 they decompressed nervous structures. In more than 1/3 they supplemented the operation by intersomatic fusion. Stabilization was enhanced by translaminar fusion of intervertebral joints. The results of treatment were evaluated in 54 patients; 38 patients were checked for more than two years after operation. A positive neurological finding after operation did not change in 15 patients, in 13 it improved and in one it deteriorated. In 1/4 the screws cracked, usually caudal ones, in two operated patients a pseudoarthrosis was repaired. In 38 patients checked for a minimum period of 2 years after operation two are confined to a wheelchair, two walk with two French crutches, three with one, 31 without support. Impaired voiding is reported by 18 patients, impaired sexual function by four. Sixteen patients resumed their original occupation, 22 operated patients have invalid pensions. Transpedicular fixation by means of plates contributed significantly to the improvement of comprehensive care of deformities, injuries and spinal injuries. It proved useful not only in the treatment of fresh injuries but also in the treatment of their sequelae and the necessity to 1 LQ / ACTA CHIRURGIAE ORTHOPAEDICAE I DO / ET TRAUMATOLOGIAE CECHOSL., 59. 1992, CS PUVODNI PRACE achieve stabilization in other diseases, e. g. tumours or olisthesis. However, with regard to the mentioned disadvantages the authors abondoned this technique in 1991 and started to use the principles of stabilization of the spine by internal fixation devices. Key words: injuries of the thoracolumbar spine, transpedicular stabilization, surgical technique. PMID:20483081

Vlach, O; Václavek, O

1992-01-01

212

Functional and Morphological Plasticity of Dendritic Spines in the Hippocampus  

OpenAIRE

On CA1 pyramidal neurons, the majority of excitatory synapses are located on dendritic spines. Previous experiments demonstrated that the induction of LTP can modify spine numbers and morphology. However, there was no direct proof if and when the newly grown spines are contacted by a presynaptic terminal and potentially form a functional synapse. To address this, the extent of colocalization of newly grown spines with antibody staining for either synapsin, a marker of mature presynap...

Eberhorn, Nicola

2005-01-01

213

The Relationship between Recurrent Spine Surgery and Employment Status  

OpenAIRE

Background: What is the quantitative relationship between repeated surgical intervention and unemployment in the spine surgery population? And, does the literature pay sufficient attention to this important aspect of spine surgery outcome? Methods: This was a retrospective review of 905 patients of working age undergoing one of three types of spine surgery. The index surgery at the time of the study was either on the cervical or lumbar spine. We retrospectively collected data on patients’ e...

Mohammad Sami Walid; Nadezhda Zaytseva; Moataz Abbara; Azhar Abdullah

2011-01-01

214

Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT--Experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To implement and evaluate clinic-ready adaptive imaging protocols for online patient repositioning (motion tracking) during prostate IMRT using treatment beam imaging supplemented by minimal, as-needed use of on-board kV. Methods: The authors examine the two-step decision-making strategy: (1) Use cine-MV imaging and online-updated characterization of prostate motion to detect target motion that is potentially beyond a predefined threshold and (2) use paired MV-kV 3D localization to determine overthreshold displacement and, if needed, reposition the patient. Two levels of clinical implementation were evaluated: (1) Field-by-field based motion correction for present-day linacs and (2) instantaneous repositioning for new-generation linacs with capabilities of simultaneous MV-kV imaging and remote automatic couch control during treatment delivery. Experiments were performed on a Varian Trilogy linac in clinical mode using a 4D motion phantom programed with prostate motion trajectories taken from patient data. Dosimetric impact was examined using a 2D ion chamber array. Simulations were done for 536 trajectories from 17 patients. Results: Despite the loss of marker detection efficiency caused by the MLC leaves sometimes obscuring the field at the marker's projected position on the MV imager, the field-by-field correction halved (from 23% to 10%) the mean percentage of time that target displacement exceeded a 3 mm threshold, as compared to no intervention. This was achieved at minimal cost in additional imaging (average of one MV-kV pair per two to three treatment fractions) and with a very small number of repositionings (once every four to five fractions). Also with low kV usage ({approx}2/fraction), the instantaneous repositioning approach reduced overthreshold time by more than 75% (23% to 5%) even with severe MLC blockage as often encountered in current IMRT and could reduce the overthreshold time tenfold (to <2%) if the MLC blockage problem were relieved. The information acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. Conclusions: This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques.

Liu Wu; Qian Jianguo; Hancock, Steven L.; Xing, Lei; Luxton, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States) and Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States)

2010-10-15

215

Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT--Experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To implement and evaluate clinic-ready adaptive imaging protocols for online patient repositioning (motion tracking) during prostate IMRT using treatment beam imaging supplemented by minimal, as-needed use of on-board kV. Methods: The authors examine the two-step decision-making strategy: (1) Use cine-MV imaging and online-updated characterization of prostate motion to detect target motion that is potentially beyond a predefined threshold and (2) use paired MV-kV 3D localization to determine overthreshold displacement and, if needed, reposition the patient. Two levels of clinical implementation were evaluated: (1) Field-by-field based motion correction for present-day linacs and (2) instantaneous repositioning for new-generation linacs with capabilities of simultaneous MV-kV imaging and remote automatic couch control during treatment delivery. Experiments were performed on a Varian Trilogy linac in clinical mode using a 4D motion phantom programed with prostate motion trajectories taken from patient data. Dosimetric impact was examined using a 2D ion chamber array. Simulations were done for 536 trajectories from 17 patients. Results: Despite the loss of marker detection efficiency caused by the MLC leaves sometimes obscuring the field at the marker's projected position on the MV imager, the field-by-field correction halved (from 23% to 10%) the mean percentage of time that target displacement exceeded a 3 mm threshold, as compared to no intervention. This was, as compared to no intervention. This was achieved at minimal cost in additional imaging (average of one MV-kV pair per two to three treatment fractions) and with a very small number of repositionings (once every four to five fractions). Also with low kV usage (?2/fraction), the instantaneous repositioning approach reduced overthreshold time by more than 75% (23% to 5%) even with severe MLC blockage as often encountered in current IMRT and could reduce the overthreshold time tenfold (to <2%) if the MLC blockage problem were relieved. The information acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. Conclusions: This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques.

216

A simple reproducible and time saving method of semi-automatic dendrite spine density estimation compared to manual spine counting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Estimation of spine number and spine density by manual counting under the assumption that all dendrite protrusions equal spines are often used in studies on neuroplasticity occurring during health, brain diseases, and different experimental paradigms. Manual spine counting is, however, time consuming and biased by inter-observer variation. We present accordingly a quick, reproducible and simple non-stereological semi-automatic spine density estimation method based on the irregularity of the dendrite surface. Using the freeware ImageJ program, microphotographs of Golgi impregnated hippocampal dendrites derived from a previously performed study on the impact of chronic restrained stress were binarized, skeletonized, and the skeleton endings assumed to represent spine positions were counted and the spine densities calculated. The results based on 754 dendrite fragments were compared to manual spine counting of the same dendrite fragments using the Bland-Altman method. The results from both methods were correlated (r=0.79, p

Orlowski, Dariusz; Bjarkam, C R

2012-01-01

217

49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. 572.19 Section... 3-Year-Old Child § 572.19 Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis consist of the...

2010-10-01

218

49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572...Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for...

2010-10-01

219

49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine flexure. 572.85 Section 572.85...9-Month Old Child § 572.85 Lumbar spine flexure. (a) When subjected to continuously...paragraph (b) of this section, the lumbar spine assembly shall flex by an amount that...

2010-10-01

220

Dendritic spines: from structure to in vivo function  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines receive inputs from excitatory axons, but questions about their function remain. This review tackles our understanding of their structural and biochemical properties, and the imaging methods that allow spine activity to be studied in living tissue. These new results shed light on the development, integration properties and plasticity of dendritic spines.

Rochefort, Nathalie L.; Konnerth, Arthur

2012-01-01

221

SPINE-D: Accurate Prediction of Short and Long Disordered Regions by a Single Neural-Network Based Method  

OpenAIRE

Short and long disordered regions of proteins have different preference for different amino acid residues. Different methods often have to be trained to predict them separately. In this study, we developed a single neural-network-based technique called SPINE-D that makes a three-state prediction first (ordered residues and disordered residues in short and long disordered regions) and reduces it into a two-state prediction afterwards. SPINE-D was tested on various sets composed of different co...

Zhang, Tuo; Faraggi, Eshel; Xue, Bin; Dunker, A. Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Zhou, Yaoqi

2012-01-01

222

X-Ray parameters of lumbar spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of anatomic spinal structures, especially its relation-ship to the functions performed, is necessary to form a correct diagnosis. The anatomical structure of the vertebrae varies de-pending on the level of the spinal segment. Normal anatomical parameters, derived from bone structures of the spine, are roughly determined by X-ray method.This paper presents the results of the survey radiography of the lumbar spine in a straight line and lateral projections in 30 individ-uals without pathology spine, aged 21-60 years with frequently observed lumbar spinal stenosis stenosis. Applying X-ray method there were studied shape, height, and the contours of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disc in the front (interpedicular and sagittal planes; there were measured dimensions of the lumbar canal and foramen holes in the same planes. Using X-ray method can fully identify the bone parameters of vertebral column. How-ever, the informativity of the method depends on knowledge of radiologist about topographic anatomical features of spine.

Otabek Ablyazov

2012-05-01

223

Neurosurgical management of the rheumatoid cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rheumatoid arthritis affects the cervical spine in up to 88% of patients with seropositive disease. Neurologic sequelae result either from direct compression by a rheumatoid pannus or from spinal subluxations. Indications for and techniques of neurosurgical intervention are discussed. PMID:8072510

More, J; Sen, C

1994-05-01

224

Striatal spine plasticity in Parkinson's Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Striatal dopamine (DA denervation results in a significant loss of dendritic spines on medium spiny projection neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys, spines contacted either by cortical or thalamic glutamatergic terminals are severely affected on both direct and indirect striatofugal neurons. In rodents, indirect pathway neurons appear to be more sensitive, at least in early stages of acute dopamine denervation. The remaining corticostriatal and thalamostriatal axo-spinous synapses undergo complex ultrastructural remodeling consistent with increased synaptic activity in the DA-denervated primate striatum, which may explain the pathophysiological overactivity of the corticostriatal system reported in various animal models of parkinsonism. The calcium-mediated regulation of the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 was recognized as a possible underlying mechanism for striatal spine plasticity. Future studies to determine how alterations in striatal spine plasticity contribute to the symptomatology of parkinsonism are warranted.

RosaMVillalba

2010-12-01

225

Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

Hidetoshi Nojiri

2009-10-01

226

Primary telangiectatic osteosarcoma of the cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Telangiectatic osteosarcoma (TOS) is one of the 8 subtypes of osteosarcoma that infrequently affects the spine. The radiopathological features of TOS overlap with those of more benign entities, most commonly the aneurysmal bone cyst), and therefore is a significant diagnostic challenge. It is a rare but well-described entity in the thoracolumbar and sacral spine, and to the authors' knowledge has not been previously reported in the cervical spine. The authors report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 6-month history of neck pain and torticollis. He underwent preoperative glue embolization followed by a staged subtotal C-5 spondylectomy and posterior fusion for a C-5 vertebral body lytic expansile lesion. Histopathological examination showed the lesion to be TOS. The surgery was followed by adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy with a favorable outcome at the 1-year follow-up. This report reiterates that TOS is an important differential diagnosis for aneurysmal bone cyst and giant-cell tumor of the spine, as its biological behavior and clinical outcome differ from those of these more benign lesions, which it mimics. PMID:22225487

Turel, Mazda K; Joseph, Vivek; Singh, Vandita; Moses, Vinu; Rajshekhar, Vedantam

2012-04-01

227

Occult ligamentous injury of the cervical spine associated with cervical spine fracture.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a 20-year-old patient with a C5 cervical spine fracture and an undetected ligamentous lesion between C1 and C2. Cervical spine lesion protocols and the rates of lesions that are not diagnosed with standard evaluation protocols are reviewed, with particular emphasis on comatose patients. Dynamic studies during the surgical procedure for fixation of the fracture are recommended to increase the detection of ligamentous lesions. PMID:16459871

Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Casamitjana, José

2005-12-01

228

Extracts from the Cochrane Library: modifications of the Epley (canalith repositioning) maneuver for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

OpenAIRE

The "Cochrane Corner" is a quarterly section in the Journal that highlights systematic reviews relevant to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, with invited commentary to aid clinical decision making. This installment features a Cochrane review "Modifications of the Epley (Canalith Repositioning) Manoeuvre for Posterior Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)" that finds no evidence of benefit for mastoid oscillation applied during the Epley maneuver nor any clinically important be...

Burton, Mj; Eby, Tl; Rosenfeld, Rm

2012-01-01

229

Horizontal canal paroxysmal positional vertigo (HCPPV) vs classical BPPV (new concepts about mechanism and domiciliary repositioning of particles)  

OpenAIRE

Some new modificutiont of existing diagnostic and therapeutic manoeuvres (repositioning of particles) have been proposed, basing an the applications of the principles of hydrodynamics, inertial and gravitational forces in the semicircular canals. The above has been tried successfully on patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and horizontal eanal paroxysmal positional vertigo (HCPPV) which can be executed by the patients themselves at home without the kelp of a therapist.

Ghosh, P.

2002-01-01

230

Semilunar Coronally Repositioned Flap for the Treatment of Gingival Recession with and without Tissue Adhesives: A Pilot Study  

OpenAIRE

Statement of problem: One of the main goals in periodontal therapy is the correction of recession defects; therefore the efficacy and predictability of the various techniques are important considerations for clinicians.Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the outcomes of gingival recession therapy using the semilunar coronally repositioned flap (SCRF) alone and in conjunction with a tissue adhesive (EPIGLU).Materials and Methods: Thirty-two anterior and premolar teeth with ...

Jahangirnezhad, M.

2006-01-01

231

Computer codes used in the repositioning of garter springs in the fuel channels of the Embalse nuclear generation station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each of the 380 fuel channels (FC) of the Embalse Nuclear Generation Station (CNE) has 4 garter springs (GS) located between the pressure tube (PT) and the Calandria tube (CT) and distributed along the channel, aiming to avoid the contact PT/CT. Generally, the GS shifts from their design positions, and their actual positions have to be verified within each FC. If necessary, they have to be relocated to avoid PT/CT contact during the service life of the reactor. The localization and repositioning of the GS is performed with the SLARette (Spacer Location And Repositioning tooling) tool, and the decision to carry it out and where, is taken with a Computer Code developed in CNEA named MACACO (MAteriales CAnal COmbustible). This code permits to predict the evolution of the in service deformation of each Fuel Channel, and calculates the necessary operation time till an eventual PT/CT contact. This work presents results obtained with version 98 of the code MACACO and the criteria used in the repositioning of the GS. (author)

232

Predictors of Success in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance: A Systematic Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects up to 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of adult women. It is associated with obesity. Objective The objective of this article is to review the literature to determine which factors best correlate with treatment success in patients with obstructive s [...] leep apnea syndrome treated with a mandibular repositioning appliance. Data Synthesis A search was performed of the PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scielo, and Web of Science databases of articles published from January 1988 to January 2012. Two review authors independently collected data and assessed trial quality. Sixty-nine articles were selected from PubMed and 1 from Cochrane library. Of these, 42 were excluded based on the title and abstract, and 27 were retrieved for complete reading. A total of 13 articles and 1 systematic review were considered eligible for further review and inclusion in this study: 6 studies evaluated anthropomorphic and physiologic factors, 3 articles addressed cephalometric and anatomic factors, and 4 studies evaluated variables related to mandibular repositioning appliance design and activation. All the studies evaluated had low to moderate methodologic quality and were not able to support evidence on prediction of treatment success. Conclusion Based on this systematic review on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treatment, it remains unclear which predictive factors can be used with confidence to select patients suitable for treatment with a mandibular repositioning appliance.

Fernanda, Saffer; José Faibes Lubianca, Lubianca; Cassiano, Rösing; Caroline, Dias; Luciane, Closs.

2015-03-01

233

Assessment of berberine as a multi-target antimicrobial: a multi-omics study for drug discovery and repositioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postgenomics drug development is undergoing major transformation in the age of multi-omics studies and drug repositioning. Rather than applications solely in personalized medicine, omics science thus additionally offers a better understanding of a broader range of drug targets and drug repositioning. Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in many medicinal plants. We report here a whole genome microarray study in tandem with proteomics techniques for mining the plethora of targets that are putatively involved in the antimicrobial activity of berberine against Escherichia coli. We found DNA replication/repair and transcription to be triggered by berberine, indicating that nucleic acids, in general, are among its targets. Our combined transcriptomics and proteomics multi-omics findings underscore that, in the presence of berberine, cell wall or cell membrane transport and motility-related functions are also specifically regulated. We further report a general decline in metabolism, as seen by repression of genes in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, energy production, and conversion. An involvement of multidrug efflux pumps, as well as reduced membrane permeability for developing resistance against berberine in E. coli was noted. Collectively, these findings offer original and significant leads for omics-guided drug discovery and future repositioning approaches in the postgenomics era, using berberine as a multi-omics case study. PMID:24237354

Karaosmanoglu, Kubra; Sayar, Nihat Alpagu; Kurnaz, Isil Aksan; Akbulut, Berna Sariyar

2014-01-01

234

Effects of N-cadherin disruption on spine morphological dynamics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Structural changes at synapses are thought to be a key mechanism for the encoding of memories in the brain. Recent studies have shown that changes in the dynamic behavior of dendritic spines accompany bidirectional changes in synaptic plasticity, and that the disruption of structural constraints at synapses may play a mechanistic role in spine plasticity. While the prolonged disruption of N-cadherin, a key synaptic adhesion molecule, has been shown to alter spine morphology, little is known about the short-term regulation of spine morphological dynamics by N-cadherin. With time-lapse, confocal imaging in cultured hippocampal neurons, we examined the progression of structural changes in spines following an acute treatment with AHAVD, a peptide known to interfere with the function of N-cadherin. We characterized fast and slow timescale spine dynamics (minutes and hours, respectively in the same population of spines. We show that N-cadherin disruption leads to enhanced spine motility and reduced length, followed by spine loss. The structural effects are accompanied by a loss of functional connectivity. Further, we demonstrate that early structural changes induced by AHAVD treatment, namely enhanced motility and reduced length, are indicators for later spine fate, i.e., spines with the former changes are more likely to be subsequently lost. Our results thus reveal the short-term regulation of synaptic structure by N-cadherin and suggest that some forms of morphological dynamics may be potential readouts for subsequent, stimulus-induced rewiring in neuronal networks.

ShreeshPMysore

2007-12-01

235

Evaluation and management of 2 ferocactus spines in the orbit.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 49-year-old woman, who had fallen face first in a cactus 1 week earlier, presented with a small, mobile, noninflamed subcutaneous nodule at the rim of her right lateral orbit with no other functional deficits. A CT scan was obtained, which revealed a 4-cm intraorbital tubular-shaped foreign body resembling a large cactus spine. A second preoperative CT scan, obtained for an intraoperative guidance system, demonstrated a second cactus spine, which was initially not seen on the first CT scan. Both spines were removed surgically without complication. The authors discuss factors that can cause diagnosis delay, review the radiographic features of cactus spines, and discuss the often times benign clinical course of retained cactus spine foreign bodies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of cactus spines in the orbit. Health-care professionals should have a low threshold for imaging in cases of traumatic injuries involving cactus spines. PMID:23314099

Russell, David J; Kim, Tim I; Kubis, Kenneth

2013-01-01

236

Whole-body MRI using a sliding table and repositioning surface coil approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To introduce and assess a new way of performing whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a non-integrated surface coil approach as available on most clinical MRI systems worldwide. Ten consecutive asymptomatic subjects prospectively underwent whole-body MRI for health screening. Whole-body MRI included T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted sequences, and was performed using a non-integrated surface coil to image four different stations without patient repositioning. The four separately acquired stations were merged, creating seamless coronal whole-body T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations were qualitatively assessed. The average time ({+-}SD) taken to change the surface coil from one station to the next station was 53.8 ({+-}7.1) s. The average total extra examination time {+-} SD was 2 min 41.4 s ({+-}15.3 s). Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations of T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI were overall graded as ''good'' to ''excellent''. This study shows that a time-efficient and high-quality whole-body MRI examination can easily be performed by using a non-integrated sliding surface coil approach. (orig.)

Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas; Luijten, Peter [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kibune, Satoshi [Koga Hospital 21, Department of Radiology, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Ochiai, Reiji [Fukuoka Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, Tetsuro [Philips Healthcare Japan, Shinagawa (Japan); Niwa, Tetsu [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Van Cauteren, Marc [Philips Healthcare, Asia Pacific, Shinagawa (Japan)

2010-06-15

237

Drug Repositioning and Pharmacophore Identification in the Discovery of Hookworm MIF Inhibitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a 'proof-of-concept' for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

Y Cho; J Vermeire; J Merkel; L Leng; X Du; R Bucala; M Cappello; E Lolis

2011-12-31

238

A Subpathway-Based Method of Drug Reposition for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for development of new therapeutic agents for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is urgent due to general lack of efficient and specialized drugs currently available. We aimed to explore the metabolic mechanism of PCOS and inferred drug reposition for PCOS by a subpathway-based method. Using the GSE34526 microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we first identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PCOS and normal samples. Then, we identified 13 significantly enriched metabolic subpathways that may be involved in the development of PCOS. Finally, by an integrated analysis of PCOS-involved subpathways and drug-affected subpathways, we identified 54 novel small molecular drugs capable to target the PCOS-involved subpathways. We also mapped the DEGs of PCOS and a potential novel drug (alprostadil) into purine metabolism pathway to illustrate the potentially active mechanism of alprostadil on PCOS. Candidate agents identified by our approach may provide insights into a novel therapy approach for PCOS. PMID:25015903

Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, Jian-Qiao; Mai, Zi-Xin; Zeng, Yan-Ting

2014-07-11

239

Variables Affecting Canalith Repositioning Maneuver (CRM Trend for Treating Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to identify variables affecting outcome in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV treated with canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM. Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 58 patients (14 males, 44 females, mean age 48.12+13.22 referred to the Vertigo Rehabilitation Clinic of the Rehabilitation School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from 2002 to 2004. All patients were treated with CRM. According to the treatment efficacy the patients were allocated in three groups: completely treated, partially treated, and not treated. The effect of factors including age, sex, etiology, duration of BPPV, unilateral or bilateral disease, number of maneuvers, and number of sessions on outcome in patients was evaluated. Results: Forty-nine patients (84.5% were completely cured. Age, sex, etiology, and duration did not significantly affect the treatment outcome. Unilateral BPPV can be treated significantly better than bilateral BPPV. Forty-seven patients who were completely treated needed 1 session and thirty-seven of them required 2 maneuvers. Conclusion: CRM is significantly effective for BPPV treatment. Treating unilateral BPPV is expected to be easier. As most of the patients will be cured by 1 or 2 maneuvers or in 1 session, patients who required more sessions or more maneuvers may not be completely treated.

E. Entezari

2006-07-01

240

Drug repositioning and pharmacophore identification in the discovery of hookworm MIF inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a "proof-of-concept" for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity. PMID:21944748

Cho, Yoonsang; Vermeire, Jon J; Merkel, Jane S; Leng, Lin; Du, Xin; Bucala, Richard; Cappello, Michael; Lolis, Elias

2011-09-23

241

Tubular foreign body or stent: safe retrieval or repositioning using the coaxial snare technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the utility and advantages of the coaxial snare technique in the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies. Using the coaxial snare technique, we attempted to retrieve tubular foreign bodies present in seven patients. The bodies were either stents which were malpositioned or had migrated from their correct position in the vascular system (n=2), a fragmented venous introducer sheath (n=1), fragmented drainage catheters in the biliary tree (n=2), or fractured external drainage catheters in the urinary tract (n=2). After passing a guidewire and/or a dilator through the lumina of these foreign bodies, we introduced a loop snare over the guidewire or dilator, thus capturing and retrieving them. In all cases, it was possible to retrieve or reposition the various items, using a minimum-sized introducer sheath or a tract. No folding was involved. In no case were surgical procedures required, and no complications were encountered. The coaxial snare technique, an application of the loop snare technique, is a useful and safe method for the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies, and one which involves minimal injury to the patient.

Seong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Yong Joo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Hyun Beom; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-01-01

242

Tubular foreign body or stent: safe retrieval or repositioning using the coaxial snare technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the utility and advantages of the coaxial snare technique in the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies. Using the coaxial snare technique, we attempted to retrieve tubular foreign bodies present in seven patients. The bodies were either stents which were malpositioned or had migrated from their correct position in the vascular system (n=2), a fragmented venous introducer sheath (n=1), fragmented drainage catheters in the biliary tree (n=2), or fractured external drainage catheters in the urinary tract (n=2). After passing a guidewire and/or a dilator through the lumina of these foreign bodies, we introduced a loop snare over the guidewire or dilator, thus capturing and retrieving them. In all cases, it was possible to retrieve or reposition the various items, using a minimum-sized introducer sheath or a tract. No folding was involved. In no case were surgical procedures required, and no complications were encountered. The coaxial snare technique, an application of the loop snare technique, is a useful and safe method for the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies, and one which involves minimal injury to the patient

243

Whole-body MRI using a sliding table and repositioning surface coil approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To introduce and assess a new way of performing whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a non-integrated surface coil approach as available on most clinical MRI systems worldwide. Ten consecutive asymptomatic subjects prospectively underwent whole-body MRI for health screening. Whole-body MRI included T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted sequences, and was performed using a non-integrated surface coil to image four different stations without patient repositioning. The four separately acquired stations were merged, creating seamless coronal whole-body T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations were qualitatively assessed. The average time (±SD) taken to change the surface coil from one station to the next station was 53.8 (±7.1) s. The average total extra examination time ± SD was 2 min 41.4 s (±15.3 s). Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations of T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI were overall graded as ''good'' to ''excellent''. This study shows that a time-efficient and high-quality whole-body MRI examination can easily be performed by using a non-integrated sliding surface coil approach. (orig.)

244

From periphery to the centre: Towards repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to public health care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of communities in health care has gained prominence in the last few years. Churches as community structures have been identified as instrumental in health-care delivery. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that churches provide important health services, particularly in countries where there are poorly-developed health sectors, the role of churches in health care is poorly understood and often overlooked. This article discusses some causes of this lacuna and makes suggestions for repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to health care. Firstly, the article provides a context by reviewing literature on the church and health care. Secondly, it clarifies the nature of interventions and the competencies of churches. Thirdly, it discusses the operational meaning of church and churches for assessing health-care contributions. Fourthly, it explores the health-care models that are discerned in church and health-care literature. Fifthly, it discusses the contribution of churches within a multidisciplinary health team. Sixthly, it proposes an appropriate motivation that should drive churches to be involved in health care and the ecclesiological design that underpins such health care interventions.

Vhumani Magezi

2012-12-01

245

From periphery to the centre: towards repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to public health care  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The role of communities in health care has gained prominence in the last few years. Churches as community structures have been identified as instrumental in health-care delivery. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that churches provide important health services, particularly in countries where there a [...] re poorly-developed health sectors, the role of churches in health care is poorly understood and often overlooked. This article discusses some causes of this lacuna and makes suggestions for repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to health care. Firstly, the article provides a context by reviewing literature on the church and health care. Secondly, it clarifies the nature of interventions and the competencies of churches. Thirdly, it discusses the operational meaning of church and churches for assessing health-care contributions. Fourthly, it explores the health-care models that are discerned in church and health-care literature. Fifthly, it discusses the contribution of churches within a multidisciplinary health team. Sixthly, it proposes an appropriate motivation that should drive churches to be involved in health care and the ecclesiological design that underpins such health care interventions.

Vhumani, Magezi.

246

Reubicación del ombligo al realizar un colgajo TRAM / Umbillical repositioning in TRAM flap  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Describimos un método simple para reubicar el ombligo en los casos de plicatura abdominal unilateral consecutiva a la rotación de un colgajo TRAM. El ombligo se desplaza a lo largo de una incisión hecha en la aponeurosis anterior del músculo recto abdominal contralateral. Este procedimiento no debil [...] ita la musculatura abdominal contralateral, mantiene el ombligo estable, sin estenosis, y evita la formación de cicatrices hipertróficas a su alrededor. Tras este procedimiento los pacientes conservan una resistencia abdominal normal, pudiendo realizar esfuerzo y ejercicio sin manifestar áreas de debilidad. Abstract in english A new method of umbilical repositioning by incising the anterior rectus sheath and rectus abdominis muscle is reported for cases of unilateral abdominal wall plication during the TRAM flap operation. This method does not weaken the contralateral abdominal muscles, keeps the umbilicus stable and nons [...] tenotic, and it avoids hypertrophic scars. With this technique, patients have normal abdominal strength, performing abdominal strain and general exercise without areas of weakness in the abdominal wall.

A., Fuente del Campo; T., Raveh; C.B., Gordon.

2014-09-01

247

Repositioning the use of the Bible towards a mission-oriented theological education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is an undeniable fact that mission remains the cardinal essence of the Church. However, in Africa and in Nigeria, the Church seems to have lost focus regarding the main reason for its existence, namely mission. One of the factors responsible for this may be the form of theological education in vogue. In view of this anomaly, this paper reflects on how the study of the Bible, which serves as the primary basis for theological education in some institutions, can be repositioned to enhance a mission-oriented theological education. The importance of proper interpretation of the Bible in enhancing missions can be premised on the fact that a sound biblical hermeneutics is prerequisite to the formulation of an effective and functional theology of missions. If our theology of mission is faulty, the practice cannot be anything but flawed. In view of this, the paper explores ways in which the Bible can be meaningfully studied in order to promote a mission-oriented theological education.

Adekunle O. Dada

2013-05-01

248

The Effectiveness of a Modified Type of the Mandibular Repositioning Device on the Elimination of Snoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Snoring is the most common sleep disorder which in itself may only be viewed as an obnoxious disturbance in human society; however it must be considered a potential indicator of significant medical problems such as: hypertension,obstructive sleep apnea, cerebrovascular infarction and ischemic heart disease.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified type of Mandibular Repositioning Device (MRD splint on the treatment of snoring.Materials and Methods: This before and after interventional study was carried out on 15 patients (4 females and 11 males who suffered from snoring. All subjects had no upper airway obstruction. Maxillary and mandibular splints were made by clear heatcuredacrylic resin. A special screw connected to the anterior portion of the maxillary splint and an orthodontic wire No 1 positioned on the lower splint. The devices were tried in the mouth and relined with a softliner. This appliance was designed to protrude the mandible by use of a screw system. Snoring grades were detemined before, and 3weeks after treatment with the MRD. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test.Results: A significant difference was observed between the snoring severity, before and after using the splints (P = 0.001.Conclusion: The present study showed this modified type of splint can be effective in decreasing or eliminating snoring. The effectiveness of the splint in the treatment of snoring could be related to its role of widening the upper airway.

B. Ebadian

2005-09-01

249

Repositioning the use of the Bible towards a mission-oriented theological education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available It is an undeniable fact that mission remains the cardinal essence of the Church. However, in Africa and in Nigeria, the Church seems to have lost focus regarding the main reason for its existence, namely mission. One of the factors responsible for this may be the form of theological education in vo [...] gue. In view of this anomaly, this paper reflects on how the study of the Bible, which serves as the primary basis for theological education in some institutions, can be repositioned to enhance a mission-oriented theological education. The importance of proper interpretation of the Bible in enhancing missions can be premised on the fact that a sound biblical hermeneutics is prerequisite to the formulation of an effective and functional theology of missions. If our theology of mission is faulty, the practice cannot be anything but flawed. In view of this, the paper explores ways in which the Bible can be meaningfully studied in order to promote a mission-oriented theological education.

Adekunle O., Dada.

250

[Injuries of the cervical spine in children].  

Science.gov (United States)

Injuries of the spine in children rarely occur. They amount to about 0.2% of all fractures and dislocation and to 1.5 to 3% of all lesions of the spine. The younger an injured child is, the more likely it has sustained a lesion of the upper cervical spine. This spinal segment in comparison to adults is concerned more often and accounts for 50% of all C-spine injuries. Important differences between the adult spine and the spine in the child disappear with the age of 10 years. Later diagnostics, classification and treatment correspond widely with the principles valid in adults. The knowledge of the normal shape and development of the spine are crucial in avoiding misinterpretations of X-ray films. Typical examples include the confusion of synchondrosis with fractures or of subluxations of the atlas and the C2/C3 segment with "true" instabilities. Relevant lesions always are accompanied by clear clinical symptoms. Specific injuries of the growing axial skeleton are lesions of the cartilaginous endplates and "fractures" of the synchondrosis. Atlantooccipital dislocations (AOD) occur typically in children. According to our experiences with 16 AOD we propose--dependent on the direction of dislocation of the occipital condyles--a simplified classification in anterior, posterior and completely unstable AOD. In one boy in our series we treated the lesion successfully by temporary internal fixation. He presented a massive improvement of initially subtotal neurologic symptoms. Injuries to the synchondrosis of the dens represent another typical lesion in childhood. Four out of 5 children treated in our clinic were involved as back seat passengers in head-on motor vehicle accidents. Three of them were restrained by 4 point children's seat harnesses. For conservative treatment we prefer a halo and plaster-vest for 12 weeks after closed reduction. We recommend operative treatment in cases of major dislocation with greater instability where it may be impossible to maintain alignment with halo fixation. Surgical equipment and techniques correspond in detail to those used in adults. Three of the five children mentioned have been stabilized successfully by anterior screw fixation. Atlantoaxial dislocations (AAD) are divided into translatory and rotatory instabilities. Sagittal dislocations of the atlas in children also need to be fixed by a fusion between C1 and C2. Rotatory instabilities in the acute phase are easy to reduce and are treated with a halo-fixator. According to our experiences in two delayed cases anatomical reduction is also possible after months partly by open, partly by closed means. For the lower C-spine lesion with encroachment of the spinal canal and above all ligamentous injuries represent a clear indication for operative treatment because, similar to the adult spine, they do not become stable after close management. PMID:9782764

Blauth, M; Schmidt, U; Lange, U

1998-08-01

251

MRI of the spine in endemic fluorosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate role of MRI in the diagnosis of the spinal lesions in endemic fluorosis. Methods: MRI of the spine in 81 patients with endemic fluorosis, including the cervical spine in 57 patients, thoracic spine in 10, and lumbar spine in 14, were analyzed and compared with X-ray plain films. Results: Fat-containing marrow in the vertebral bodies with endemic fluorosis was decreased and unevenly distributed. Signal intensity of the vertebral bodies was homogeneously or inhomogeneously decreased on T1- and T2- weighted images. The mean values of signal intensity of the cervical vertebral bodies from 3rd to 7th were lower in 32 patients with fluorosis than those in 100 patients of the control group on T1-weighted image (P1-weighted images, the signal intensity similar to yellow bone marrow within OPLL in 63 patients and within OYL in 36 patients was observed in 32 patients (50%) and in 31 patients (86%), respectively. Of the 81 patients, herniation of the intervertebral disk was found in 68 patients (84%), degeneration of und in 68 patients (84%), degeneration of the intervertebral disk was observed in 57 patients (70%), and spinal canal narrowing was found in 75 patients (93%), in which compression of the spinal cord was showed in 63 patients (78%) and pathologic changes within the cord were noted in 28 patients (35%). In 57 patients with fluorosis, MR showed compression of the cervical spinal cord in 48 patients (84.21%), the anterioposterior diameter of the cervical spinal canal on X-ray plain film was either 9 mm or less at any level of the vertebra (indicating the compression of the cervical spinal cord) in 41(71.92%) patients (P=0.115). In 57 patients with fluorosis and 100 patients of control group, intervertebral herniation was observed in 51 patients (89.47%) and 62 patients (62%), respectively (P<0.001), and intervertebral degeneration was noted in 37 patients (64.91%) and 37 patients (37%), respectively (P=0.001). Conclusion: The spine of endemic fluorosis with MR examination may interpret homogeneous or inhomogeneous low signal from the increasing activity of osteoblasts, content and distribution of the calcium fluoride and fat-containing bone marrow within the vertebral body. MR is superior to X-ray plain film in showing the compression and pathologic changes of the spine cord, intervertebral herniation, and intervertebral degeneration. (authors)

252

The international spine registry SPINE TANGO: status quo and first results.  

Science.gov (United States)

With an official life time of over 5 years, Spine Tango can meanwhile be considered the first international spine registry. In this paper we present an overview of frequency statistics of Spine Tango for demonstrating the genesis of questionnaire development and the constantly increasing activity in the registry. Results from two exemplar studies serve for showing concepts of data analysis applied to a spine registry. Between 2002 and 2006, about 6,000 datasets were submitted by 25 centres. Descriptive analyses were performed for demographic, surgical and follow-up data of three generations of the Spine Tango surgery and follow-up forms. The two exemplar studies used multiple linear regression models to identify potential predictor variables for the occurrence of dura lesions in posterior spinal fusion, and to evaluate which covariates influenced the length of hospital stay. Over the study period there was a rise in median patient age from 52.3 to 58.6 years in the Spine Tango data pool and an increasing percentage of degenerative diseases as main pathology from 59.9 to 71.4%. Posterior decompression was the most frequent surgical measure. About one-third of all patients had documented follow-ups. The complication rate remained below 10%. The exemplar studies identified "centre of intervention" and "number of segments of fusion" as predictors of the occurrence of dura lesions in posterior spinal fusion surgery. Length of hospital stay among patients with posterior fusion was significantly influenced by "centre of intervention", "surgeon credentials", "number of segments of fusion", "age group" and "sex". Data analysis from Spine Tango is possible but complicated by the incompatibility of questionnaire generations 1 and 2 with the more recent generation 3. Although descriptive and also analytic studies at evidence level 2++ can be performed, findings cannot yet be generalised to any specific country or patient population. Current limitations of Spine Tango include the low number and short duration of follow-ups and the lack of sufficiently detailed patient data on subgroup levels. Although the number of participants is steadily growing, no country is yet represented with a sufficient number of hospitals. Nevertheless, the benefits of the project for the whole spine community become increasingly visible. PMID:18446386

Melloh, Markus; Staub, Lukas; Aghayev, Emin; Zweig, Thomas; Barz, Thomas; Theis, Jean-Claude; Chavanne, Albert; Grob, Dieter; Aebi, Max; Roeder, Christoph

2008-09-01

253

Electroradiography of the spine and pelvic bones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During examination of the spine an optimal regimen and exposition conditions of electroradiologic process have been studied with regard to the resolving power and X-ray doses. Experiments with aqueous-osteal phantoms and on 60 patients have shown that it is advisable to use screens while taking X-ray films, in order to preserve high quality of electroradiography of the massive spinal sections (thoracic and lumbar) as well as the pelvic bones. Taking into consideration higher X-ray doses in electroradiography compared to those in X-ray films, the indications for this method employment in examination of the spine should be more strict. It is advisable to apply electroradiography to patients with malignant neoplasms

254

Stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary spine metastasis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A clear consensus has not been established regarding the best treatment for solitary bone metastasis. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients with a controlled primary malignancy who had only solitary spine metastasis without metastasis to the extraspinal bone or viscera and underwent treatment between April 2007 and December 2012 with stereotactic body radiosurgery using CyberKnife, with a total dose of 24 Gy in three to four fractions. During that time, there were only four cases. This was effective in each case, and all the four patients had no local failure and remained alive at a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 64 to 80 months). Although our experience is limited, this study suggests that stereotactic body radiotherapy could be a feasible, safe, effective, and noninvasive alternative treatment for solitary spine metastasis in patients who are medically inoperable or unsuitable for surgery.

Lee, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sun Medical Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Mison [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Jo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Eulji Universtiy School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-15

255

Stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary spine metastasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A clear consensus has not been established regarding the best treatment for solitary bone metastasis. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients with a controlled primary malignancy who had only solitary spine metastasis without metastasis to the extraspinal bone or viscera and underwent treatment between April 2007 and December 2012 with stereotactic body radiosurgery using CyberKnife, with a total dose of 24 Gy in three to four fractions. During that time, there were only four cases. This was effective in each case, and all the four patients had no local failure and remained alive at a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 64 to 80 months). Although our experience is limited, this study suggests that stereotactic body radiotherapy could be a feasible, safe, effective, and noninvasive alternative treatment for solitary spine metastasis in patients who are medically inoperable or unsuitable for surgery.

256

Branched standard spines of 3-manifolds  

CERN Document Server

This book provides a unified combinatorial realization of the categroies of (closed, oriented) 3-manifolds, combed 3-manifolds, framed 3-manifolds and spin 3-manifolds. In all four cases the objects of the realization are finite enhanced graphs, and only finitely many local moves have to be taken into account. These realizations are based on the notion of branched standard spine, introduced in the book as a combination of the notion of branched surface with that of standard spine. The book is intended for readers interested in low-dimensional topology, and some familiarity with the basics is assumed. A list of questions, some of which concerning relations with the theory of quantum invariants, is enclosed.

Benedetti, Riccardo

1997-01-01

257

Cervical spine injury. Diagnosis, prognosis and management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cervical spine injuries are a common occurrence in multi-trauma patients and should be taken into account when planning further clinical management. This review describes in detail upper and lower cervical spine injuries and introduces the sub-axial injury classification (SLIC) that is based on three components: injury morphology, integrity of the discoligamentous complex and the neurologic status of the patient. If the total SLIC score is <3, non-surgical treatment is recommended. If the total is ?5, operative treatment is indicated as such a score is associated with instability and probably neurologic deficits. The precise diagnosis of the radiologist, which would include the SLIC classification, should facilitate clinical decision-making about further management. (orig.)

258

Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Title Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire Authors & Affiliations Henrik Hein Lauridsen1, Lise Hestbæk1,2 1. Research Unit for Clinical Biomechanics, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Clinical Locomotion Network, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark 2. Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Clinical Locomotion Network, Forskerparken 10A, 5230 Odense M, Denmark Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Therefore preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific instruments to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for children aged 9-12 years which could fill this gap in the literature. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases – the conceptualisation, development and testing phase. We used the conceptual model of Wilson and Cleary (1995) and divided the YSQ into two parts: part one included spinal prevalence estimates (including pictures of spinal area) and part two questions regarding pain, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. During the developing phase we used an iterative process to carefully rephrase existing items used in prior questionnaires such as the Standardised Nordic Questionnaire. To measure pain the “Revised Faces Pain Scale” (rFPS) was included. The testing phase consisted of an iterative method assessing respondent understanding during two pilot tests. In the first pilot test 52 4th grade children filled in the draft version of the YSQ. This was followed by a semi-structured interview two days later designed to obtain the same information ascontained in the YSQ, however, using different semantics and open-ended questions. The revised questionnaire was tested and reviewed a second time at the end of the first pilot test. The second pilot test included 23 children from the 4th grade. It followed similar procedures as the first pilot test but focused mainly on revised versions of the drawings demarcating the spinal areas. Results Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). Correlations between the rFPS and the interview NRS score ranged between 0.71 (cervical spine) and 0.84 (thoracic spine). Agreement between the questionnaire drawings and the interviews of the upper and lower boundaries of the spinal areas were 91.8% for the cervical spine and 67.4% (lumbar spine) and 63.3% (thoracic spine). This resulted in alterations to the drawings. Lastly, as some questions in the second part of the YSQ had a high prevalence of non-responses, it was decided to change question semantics and response options. Conclusion The Young Spine Questionnaire is a novel self-report measure of spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for understanding of content among target respondents, and the results showed acceptable agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings. On the basis of these preliminary results we conclude that the YSQ is a feasible and valid instrument to be used in cross-sectional cohort studies of children aged 9 to 12 years.

Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

259

Manifestations of spine infections for RMN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instead of demonstrate the utility and benefits of MRI imaging in infectious processes of the spine, 8 patients with lumbar pain affected by spondilodiscitis were studied. T1 SE, T2, SE with and without fat sat and proton density imaging was performed, axial; sagittal and coronal views were obtained. Contrast media was used in 1 Patient. hypointense lesions in T1 and hyperintense lesions in T2 compatible with esponsilodiscitis were observed in every patient. Images with great anatomic detail of bone and soft tissue structures were obtained. MRI is an alternative diagnostic method with multiplanar images and excellent contrast that permits a precise diagnosis in any of the stages of infectious processes of the spine

260

Endoplasmic reticulum Calcium stores in dendritic spines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite decades of research, the role of calcium stores in dendritic spines structure, function and plasticity is still debated. The reasons for this may have to do with the multitude of overlapping calcium handling machineries in the neuron, including stores, voltage and ligand gated channels, pumps and transporters. Also, different cells in the brain are endowed with calcium stores that are activated by different receptor types, and their differential compartmentalization in dendrites, spines and presynaptic terminals complicates their analysis. In the present review we address several key issues, including the role of calcium stores in synaptic plasticity, their role during development, in stress and in neurodegenerative diseases. Apparently, there is increasing evidence for a crucial role of calcium stores, especially of the ryanodine species, in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival.

Menahem Segal

2014-07-01

261

Congenital anomalies of the cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are numerous congenital anomalies of the cervical spine. They can be simple and clinically inconsequential to complex with serious neurologic and structural implications. They can occur in isolation or as one of several maldeveloped organs in the patients. Many are discovered incidentally. The more common anomalies seen by pediatric spine surgeons include defects of the anterior or posterior arches of C1, occipital assimilation of the atlas, basilar invagination or impression, os odontoideum, and Klippel-Feil syndrome. Management begins with a detailed history, physical examination, and imaging studies. In general, those lesions that are causing or have caused neurologic injury, chronic pain, or spinal deformity or place the patient at high risk for developing these require treatment. PMID:17678749

Klimo, Paul; Rao, Ganesh; Brockmeyer, Douglas

2007-07-01

262

Retropharyngeal cold abscess without Pott's spine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Retropharyngeal abscesses are infections deep in the neck space that can pose an immediate life-threatening emergency, with potential for airway compromise and other catastrophic complications. In adults these abscesses can develop as a result of vertebral pyogenic osteomyelitis, tube Reculosis of t [...] he spine, or external injuries caused by endoscopes or foreign bodies (e.g. fish bones). Tuberculosis of the retropharyngeal space is one of the rare forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent the serious complications of the disease. We present a case of tuberculous retropharyngeal abscess in an adult woman without tuberculosis of the cervical spine who was managed surgically by aspirating the retropharyngeal abscess transorally, together with antituberculosis treatment.

J, Singh; H, Velankar; D, Shinde; N, Chordia; S, Budhwani.

2012-11-01

263

Minimally invasive spine surgery: systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minimally invasive procedures in spine surgery have undergone significant development in recent times. These procedures have the common aim of avoiding biomechanical complications associated with some traditional destructive methods and improving efficacy. These new techniques prevent damage to crucial posterior stabilizers and preserve the structural integrity and stability of the spine. The wide variety of reported minimally invasive methods for different pathologies necessitates a systematic classification. In the present review, authors first provide a classification system of minimally invasive techniques based on the location of the pathologic lesion to be treated, to help the surgeon in selecting the appropriate procedure. Minimally invasive techniques are then described in detail, including technical features, advantages, complications, and clinical outcomes, based on available literature. PMID:25199809

Banczerowski, Péter; Czigléczki, Gábor; Papp, Zoltán; Veres, Róbert; Rappaport, Harry Zvi; Vajda, János

2015-01-01

264

Upright positional MRI of the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used in the assessment of low back pain and radiculopathy. However, imaging findings often correlate poorly with clinical findings. This is partly related to the positional dependence of spinal stenosis, which reflects dynamic changes in soft-tissue structures (ligaments, disc, dural sac, epidural fat, and nerve roots). Upright MRI in the flexed, extended, rotated, standing, and bending positions, allows patients to reproduce the positions that bring about their symptoms and may uncover MRI findings that were not visible with routine supine imaging. Assessment of the degree of spinal stability in the degenerate and postoperative lumbar spine is also possible. The aim of this review was to present the current literature concerning both the normal and symptomatic spine as imaged using upright MRI and to illustrate the above findings using clinical examples

265

Upright positional MRI of the lumbar spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Supine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used in the assessment of low back pain and radiculopathy. However, imaging findings often correlate poorly with clinical findings. This is partly related to the positional dependence of spinal stenosis, which reflects dynamic changes in soft-tissue structures (ligaments, disc, dural sac, epidural fat, and nerve roots). Upright MRI in the flexed, extended, rotated, standing, and bending positions, allows patients to reproduce the positions that bring about their symptoms and may uncover MRI findings that were not visible with routine supine imaging. Assessment of the degree of spinal stability in the degenerate and postoperative lumbar spine is also possible. The aim of this review was to present the current literature concerning both the normal and symptomatic spine as imaged using upright MRI and to illustrate the above findings using clinical examples.

Alyas, F.; Connell, D. [London Upright MRI Centre, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [London Upright MRI Centre, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)], E-mail: asif.saifuddin@rnoh.nhs.uk

2008-09-15

266

Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson ?2 test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

267

Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson {chi}{sup 2} test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Dosda, Rosa; Molla, Enrique [Department of Radiology, Quiron Clinic, Avd. Blasco Ibanez, 14, 46010 Valencia (Spain)

2002-11-01

268

Biomechanical Comparison Of Intact Lumbar Lamp Spine And Endoscopic Discectomized Lamp Spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Purpose of current study was biomechanical comparison of changes wrought on motion segments after minimally invasive percutan endoscopic discectomized and intact spine. Materials and Methods: We prepared ten fresh-frozen lamb spines were used for this study. The spine of each specimen was dissected between L4-L5. The biomechanical tests for both intact spine and discectomized spine were performed by using axial compression testing machine (AG-I 10 kN, Shimadzu, Japanese. The axial compression was applied to all specimens with the loading speed of 5 mm/min. 8400 N/mm moment was applied to each specimen to achieve flexion and extension motions, right and left bending by a specially designed fixture. Results: In axial compression and flexion tests, the specimens were more stable according to displacement values. The displacement values of sectioned specimens were closer to intact specimens. Only displacement values of left-bending anteroposterior test for both situations were significant (0.05 ;#8805; P. Conclusion: PTED hasn't biomechanical and cilinical disadvantages. Endoscopic discectomy hadn't any disadvantages in stability. Only anterior-posterior displacement values of left bending test were statistically significant. We consider that cause of these results were due to the fact that all specimens had percutan transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED from left side.

Ahmet Karakasli

2012-06-01

269

Sampling issues in quantitative analysis of dendritic spines morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative analysis of changes in dendritic spine morphology has become an interesting issue in contemporary neuroscience. However, the diversity in dendritic spine population might seriously influence the result of measurements in which their morphology is studied. The detection of differences in spine morphology between control and test group is often compromised by the number of dendritic spines taken for analysis. In order to estimate the impact of dendritic spine diversity we performed Monte Carlo simulations examining various experimental setups and statistical approaches. The confocal images of dendritic spines from hippocampal dissociated cultures have been used to create a set of variables exploited as the simulation resources. Results The tabulated results of simulations given in this article, provide the number of dendritic spines required for the detection of hidden morphological differences between control and test groups in terms of spine head-width, length and area. It turns out that this is the head-width among these three variables, where the changes are most easily detected. Simulation of changes occurring in a subpopulation of spines reveal the strong dependence of detectability on the statistical approach applied. The analysis based on comparison of percentage of spines in subclasses is less sensitive than the direct comparison of relevant variables describing spines morphology. Conclusions We evaluated the sampling aspect and effect of systematic morphological variation on detecting the differences in spine morphology. The results provided here may serve as a guideline in selecting the number of samples to be studied in a planned experiment. Our simulations might be a step towards the development of a standardized method of quantitative comparison of dendritic spines morphology, in which different sources of errors are considered.

Ruszczycki B?a?ej

2012-08-01

270

Instrumentation related complications in spine surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal instrumentation constructs are frequently necessary for the surgical management of patients with variable spinal pathology. However, surgical complications may appear. These should be detected early and managed to achieve recovery and good functional outcome for the patient. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the most common instrumentation-related complications of spine surgery as well as a diagnostic plan and treatment options for the management of these challenging entities once they occur. PMID:23662657

Ballas, Efstathios; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Karamanis, Eirineos; Mimidis, George; Tolis, Konstantinos; Soultanis, Konstantinos; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

2012-01-01

271

Airway management in cervical spine injury  

OpenAIRE

To minimize risk of spinal cord injury, airway management providers must understand the anatomic and functional relationship between the airway, cervical column, and spinal cord. Patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury may require emergent intubation for airway protection and ventilatory support or elective intubation for surgery with or without rigid neck stabilization (i.e., halo). To provide safe and efficient care in these patients, practitioners must identify high-risk pat...

Austin, Naola; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Dagal, Arman

2014-01-01

272

Pharyngocutaneous fistula after anterior cervical spine surgery  

OpenAIRE

Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of anterior spine surgery occurring in less than 0.1% of all anterior surgery cases. We report a case of a 19 year old female who sustained a C6 burst fracture with complete quadriplegia. She was treated urgently with a C6 corpectomy with anterior cage and plating followed by posterior cervical stabilization at another institution. Post operatively she developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula that failed to heal despite several attempts of clos...

Sansur, Charles A.; Early, Stephen; Reibel, James; Arlet, Vincent

2009-01-01

273

Treatment of metastases of the cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the experience of 73 patients, the authors state their guidelines on the treatment of bone metastases on the cervical spine. Most of the cases on which no vertebral collapse occur neither neurological deficit, radiation therapy and external support are suggested. Surgery is necessary on case of severe bone destruction, collapse with or without subsequent neurological impairment. Anterior excision is considered the best approach, sometimes complemented by posterior stabilisation. PMID:9718821

Denaro, V; Gulino, G; Papapietro, N; Denaro, L

1998-01-01

274

Pigmented villonodular synovitis in lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) very rarely develops in the lumbar spine. We have found no more than 14 cases in the literature, only three of which were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We present a case of PVNS is a lumbar facet joint. The results of imaging studies (including CT myelography and MRI) are described and discussed, and a review of the literature is provided. (Author) 9 refs

275

Amyloid plaque formation precedes dendritic spine loss  

OpenAIRE

Amyloid-beta plaque deposition represents a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. While numerous studies have described dendritic spine loss in proximity to plaques, much less is known about the kinetics of these processes. In particular, the question as to whether synapse loss precedes or follows plaque formation remains unanswered. To address this question, and to learn more about the underlying kinetics, we simultaneously imaged amyloid plaque deposition and dendritic ...

Bittner, Tobias; Burgold, Steffen; Dorostkar, Mario M.; Fuhrmann, Martin; Wegenast-braun, Bettina M.; Schmidt, Boris; Kretzschmar, Hans; Herms, Jochen

2012-01-01

276

[Modeling the spine and spinal cord].  

Science.gov (United States)

3D reconstruction of the spine may cover morphological, mechanical and functional aspects, among others. Since the computer era, rapid progress has been made in the development of practical applications, as well in the analysis of spinal pathophysiology during growth and aging. This technology is particularly usefulfor the planning, simulation and execution of corrective surgery, invention of new procedures, and therapeutic follow-up. PMID:22844745

Dubousset, Jean; Lavaste, Françoise; Skalli, Wafa; Lafage, Virginie

2011-11-01

277

Hebb and the art of spine remodeling  

OpenAIRE

The notion that synaptic remodeling underlies certain forms of learning is one of the main tenets of Hebb's inspiring theories dating from the 1940s. Until recently, however, direct evidence for tight relationships between synaptic remodeling and behavior has been scarce. Fascinating data from recent studies on the remodeling of postsynaptic structures known as dendritic spines indicates that such relationships might be more complex than initially expected.

Ziv, Noam E.

2010-01-01

278

Findings in osteosarcoma of the dorsal spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 60-year-old male had a left pneumonectomy four-and-a-half-years ago to remove a carcinoma of the lung; the surgery was followed by radiation therapy. In September 1997, he complained of back pain. When the back pain was investigated, a malignant tumor was found in the upper dorsal spine. Tumor decompression was performed in November 1997. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of radiation bone sarcoma and he was treated with postoperative chemotherapy. In April 1998, the patient had another surgery in which three ribs were removed from the upper left chest wall posteriorly and most of the tumor was removed from the left side of the spine. A second surgery was planned to remove tumor from the right side of the spine. An {sup 18}FDG study was requested to determine the extent of the tumor prior to the second operation. It is concluded that adding attenuation correction to the ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) gamma-camera, markedly improved the quality of the {sup 18}FDG images and the accuracy of the anatomical distribution of uptake

Abdel-Dayem, H. [Saint Vincents Hospital and Medical Centre, New York (United States)

1998-09-01

279

Findings in osteosarcoma of the dorsal spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 60-year-old male had a left pneumonectomy four-and-a-half-years ago to remove a carcinoma of the lung; the surgery was followed by radiation therapy. In September 1997, he complained of back pain. When the back pain was investigated, a malignant tumor was found in the upper dorsal spine. Tumor decompression was performed in November 1997. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of radiation bone sarcoma and he was treated with postoperative chemotherapy. In April 1998, the patient had another surgery in which three ribs were removed from the upper left chest wall posteriorly and most of the tumor was removed from the left side of the spine. A second surgery was planned to remove tumor from the right side of the spine. An 18FDG study was requested to determine the extent of the tumor prior to the second operation. It is concluded that adding attenuation correction to the ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) gamma-camera, markedly improved the quality of the 18FDG images and the accuracy of the anatomical distribution of uptake

280

Tumors of the spine and spinal cord  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors review their personal experience in tumors of the spine and the spinal cord, based on 30 cases evaluated with plain x-ray film of the spine, plain Computed Tomography (CT), myelography and myelo-CT. The value of both plain film of the spine and CT in tumoral lesions involving the skeleton is assessed; however, as far as nervous structures are concerned myelography and myelo-CT are necessary. Both myelography and myelo-CT showed high sensitivity (96%), thus allowing the definition of intra- extra-thecal extension of the tumor and its relationships with the spinal cord and surrounding structures. Myelo-CT turned out to be extremely useful in myelographic stop: the upper extention of the lesion could be difined in 85% of cases. However, the contribution of myelography and myelo-CT was relatively limited when positive findings were present at CT. The evaluation of the density of the lesions proved to be of limited value since no significant differences could be recognized in different tumors. Finally, a diagnostic protocol is proposed for patients with spinal neurologic, based upon the clinical level of the lesion

281

Inflammatory disorders of the cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common inflammatory disorders affecting the cervical spine include adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, and psoriatic arthritis. These disorders are characterized by typical deformities and instabilities of the cervical spine that result from the destruction caused by synovitis in bony and ligamentous structures in the neck. The treatment of these inflammatory lesions differs from the treatment of similar lesions found in the posttraumatic or degenerative spine. This article attempts to outline the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and natural history of these conditions. Various radiographic parameters for evaluating disease progression have been used over the years, and their usefulness is reviewed in the context of recent studies better defining the radiographic natural history of these lesions. An algorithm for the use of the various imaging methods including magnetic resonance scanning is provided, and recent progress in delineating the proper timing of surgical intervention and the predictors of neurologic recovery is presented. The current surgical procedures available to treat these conditions are discussed with emphasis on distinguishing those cases in which stabilization alone is required from those in which a decompression procedure is also necessary. PMID:9879101

Reiter, M F; Boden, S D

1998-12-15

282

Normal CT anatomy of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To analyse the anatomo-radiological correlation of the spine and spinal cord, 22 formalized, frozen anatomical specimens corresponding to different regions of the spinal column (8 cervical, 5 dorsal, and 9 lumbar) were studied by CT scans on axial, sagittal and coronal planes and by contact radiography after they were cut into anatomical slices in order to clarify the normal CT anatomy of the spinal column. The results obtained from CT patient scans, performed exclusively on the axial plane, were compared with those obtained from the anatomical specimens (both CT and contrast radiography). High resolution CT programs were used, enabling us to obtain better individualization of the normal structures contained in the spinal column. Direct sagittal and coronal sections were performed on the specimens in order to get further anatomo-radiological information. Enhanced CT studies of the specimens were also available because of the air already present in the subarachnoid spaces. Excellent visualization was obtained of bone structures, soft tissue and the spinal cord. High CT resolution of the spine appeares to be an excellent neuroradiological procedure to study the spine and spinal cord. A metrizamide CT scan is, however, necessary when a normal unenhanced CT scan is insufficient for diagnosis and when the spinal cord is not clearly visible, as often happens at the cervical level. Clinical findings are certainly very useful to ascertain the exact CT level and to limit the rtain the exact CT level and to limit the radiation exposure. (orig.)

283

Spondylolisthesis of the thoracic spine. Case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thoracic spine is stabilized in the anteroposterior direction by the rib cage and the facet joints. Spondylolisthesis of the thoracic spine is less common than that of the lumbar spine. The authors describe a rare case of thoracic spondylolisthesis in which the patient suffered back pain and myelopathy. The patient was a 44-year-old woman. Plain radiography revealed Grade I T11-12 spondylolisthesis. The pedicle-facet joint angle at T-11 was 118 degrees, greater than that of T-10 or T-12. Postmyelography computerized tomography scanning revealed posterior compression of the dural sac as well as enlargement of and degenerative changes in the facet joint at T-11. Magnetic resonance imaging showed anterior and posterior compression of the spinal cord at the level of the spondylolisthesis. To achieve posterior T10-12 decompression, the surgeons performed a laminectomy and posterolateral fusion in which a pedicle screw fixation system was placed. The patient's back pain disappeared immediately after the operation. The authors conclude that the enlargement of the pedicle-facet joint angle and the degenerative changes of the facet joint caused the thoracolumbar spondylolisthesis. PMID:16703910

Shimada, Yoichi; Kasukawa, Yuji; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ando, Shigeru; Itoi, Eiji

2006-05-01

284

ApoE4 delays dendritic spine formation during neuron development and accelerates loss of mature spines in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ?4 allele of the gene that encodes apolipoprotein E (APOE4 is the greatest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD, while APOE2 reduces AD risk, compared to APOE3. The mechanism(s underlying the effects of APOE on AD pathology remains unclear. In vivo, dendritic spine density is lower in APOE4-targeted replacement (APOE-TR mice compared with APOE2- and APOE3-TR mice. To investigate whether this apoE4-induced decrease in spine density results from alterations in the formation or the loss of dendritic spines, the effects of neuron age and apoE isoform on the total number and subclasses of spines were examined in long-term wild-type neurons co-cultured with glia from APOE2-, APOE3- and APOE4-TR mice. Dendritic spine density and maturation were evaluated by immunocytochemistry via the presence of drebrin (an actin-binding protein with GluN1 (NMDA receptor subunit and GluA2 (AMPA receptor subunit clusters. ApoE isoform effects were analyzed via a method previously established that identifies phases of spine formation (day-in-vitro, DIV10–18, maintenance (DIV18–21 and loss (DIV21–26. In the formation phase, apoE4 delayed total spine formation. During the maintenance phase, the density of GluN1+GluA2 spines did not change with apoE2, while the density of these spines decreased with apoE4 compared to apoE3, primarily due to the loss of GluA2 in spines. During the loss phase, total spine density was lower in neurons with apoE4 compared to apoE3. Thus, apoE4 delays total spine formation and may induce early synaptic dysfunction via impaired regulation of GluA2 in spines.

Evelyn Nwabuisi?Heath

2014-01-01

285

Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereo observation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc.

Yoshinaga, Haruhiko (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

1984-05-01

286

Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereoobservation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality oive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc. (J.P.N.)

287

Paget's disease of the spine: Unusual features and complications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paget's disease of bone is a common disorder, with the spine being involved in over 50% of cases. This pictorial review illustrates unusual features and complications of the disease as related to the spine. Unusual features include location in the atlanto-axial region, lytic vertebral Paget's disease and Pagetic ankylosis. Complications related to the spine are mainly neurological due to spinal stenosis, compression fractures and sarcomatous degeneration

288

Glia selectively approach synapses on thin dendritic spines  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the relationship between the morphological modality of 189 dendritic spines and the surrounding astroglia using full three-dimensional reconstructions of neuropil fragments. An integrative measure of three-dimensional glial coverage confirms that thin spine postsynaptic densities are more tightly surrounded by glia. This distinction suggests that diffusion-dependent synapse–glia communication near ‘learning’ synapses (associated with thin spines) could be stronger th...

Medvedev, Nikolai; Popov, Victor; Henneberger, Christian; Kraev, Igor; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Stewart, Michael G.

2014-01-01

289

Methods for comparing and constraining models of dendritic spines  

OpenAIRE

Physiological evidence using Infrared Video Microscopy during the uncaging of glutamate has proven the existence of excitable calcium ion channels in spine heads, highlighting the need for reliable models of spines. In this study we compare the three main methods of simulating excitable spines: Baer & Rinzel's Continuum (B&R) model, Coombes' Spike-Diffuse-Spike (SDS) model and paired cable and ion channel equations (Cable model). Tests are done to determine how well the models approximate eac...

Skene, Nathan; Nasuto, Slawomir

2008-01-01

290

Accelerators, Brakes, and Gears of Actin Dynamics in Dendritic Spines  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines are actin-rich structures that accommodate the postsynaptic sites of most excitatory synapses in the brain. Although dendritic spines form and mature as synaptic connections develop, they remain plastic even in the adult brain, where they can rapidly grow, change, or collapse in response to normal physiological changes in synaptic activity that underlie learning and memory. Pathological stimuli can adversely affect dendritic spine shape and number, and this is seen in neurode...

Pontrello, Crystal G.; Ethell, Iryna M.

2009-01-01

291

Actin in dendritic spines: connecting dynamics to function  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines are small actin-rich protrusions from neuronal dendrites that form the postsynaptic part of most excitatory synapses and are major sites of information processing and storage in the brain. Changes in the shape and size of dendritic spines are correlated with the strength of excitatory synaptic connections and heavily depend on remodeling of its underlying actin cytoskeleton. Emerging evidence suggests that most signaling pathways linking synaptic activity to spine morphology ...

Hotulainen, P.; Hoogenraad, C. C.

2010-01-01

292

Spines of 3-Manifolds as Polyhedra with Identified Faces  

OpenAIRE

In this article we establish the relation between the spines of 3-manifolds and the polyhedra with identified faces. We do this by showing that the spines of the closed, connected, orientable 3-manifolds can be presented through polyhedra with identified faces in a very natural way. We also prove the equivalence between the special spines and a certain type of polyhedra, and other related results.

Isaza, Simo?n

2012-01-01

293

Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements.

SWENSON, C.E.

2000-05-15

294

Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements

295

A simple reproducible and time saving method of semi-automatic dendrite spine density estimation compared to manual spine counting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimation of spine number and spine density by manual counting under the assumption that all dendrite protrusions equal spines are often used in studies on neuroplasticity occurring during health, brain diseases, and different experimental paradigms. Manual spine counting is, however, time consuming and biased by inter-observer variation. We present accordingly a quick, reproducible and simple non-stereological semi-automatic spine density estimation method based on the irregularity of the dendrite surface. Using the freeware ImageJ program, microphotographs of Golgi impregnated hippocampal dendrites derived from a previously performed study on the impact of chronic restrained stress were binarized, skeletonized, and the skeleton endings assumed to represent spine positions were counted and the spine densities calculated. The results based on 754 dendrite fragments were compared to manual spine counting of the same dendrite fragments using the Bland-Altman method. The results from both methods were correlated (r=0.79, p<0.0001), The semi-automatic counting method gave a statistically higher (approx. 4%) spine density number, but both counting methods showed similar significant differences between the groups in the CA1 area, and no differences between the groups in the CA3 area. In conclusion, the presented semi-automatic spine density estimation method yields consistently a higher spine density number than manual counting resulting in similar significance between groups. The proposed method may therefore be a reproducible time saving and useful non-stereological approach to spine counting in neuroplasticity studies requiring analysis of hundreds of dendrites. PMID:22595026

Orlowski, Dariusz; Bjarkam, Carsten R

2012-07-15

296

Nerve Retraction During Inferior Alveolar Nerve Repositioning Procedure: A New Simple Method and Review of the Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Nerve Repositioning surgery is one of the treatments chosen for the patients with edentulous posterior atrophic mandible. Like any other treatments, this therapy has its advantages and disadvantages, indications and contraindications. The most important complication of this procedure is neurosensory disturbance. This problem may occur at different stages of the treatment. One of the common times that nerve damage happens , is when the nerve is located outside the canal and the drilling and inserting of the implant are performed. Accordingly, this report describes a simple and feasible method to retract and protect nerves outside the canal during the treatment of nerve transposition. It will reduce the risk of nerve damage. PMID:24344674

Hassani, Ali; Saadat, Sarang; Moshiri, Roya; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh; Hassani, Amin

2013-12-17

297

Morphometric study of distance between posterior inferior iliac spine and ischial spine of the human hip bone for sex determination  

OpenAIRE

Background: Objective of current study was to study the distance between Posterior Inferior Iliac Spine and Ischial Spine (PIIS-IS) of human hip bone for determination of sex. Methods: The study comprised unpaired 149 adult human hip bones of known sex. The posterior inferior iliac spine and ischial spine were identified in all the hip bones and a vernier calliper was used to measure the distance between the PIIS-IS. Results: It was observed that the mean distance of PIIS-IS in males a...

Abhishek Prasad Sinha; Anamika Kumari; Sadakat Ali; Jethani, S. L.

2014-01-01

298

Augmented reality visualization for thoracoscopic spine surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

We are developing an augmented reality (AR) image guidance system in which information derived from medical images is overlaid onto a video view of the patient. The centerpiece of the system is a head-mounted display custom fitted with two miniature color video cameras that capture the stereo view of the scene. Medical graphics is overlaid onto the video view and appears firmly anchored in the scene, without perceivable time lag or jitter. We have been testing the system for different clinical applications. In this paper we discuss minimally invasive thoracoscopic spine surgery as a promising new orthopedic application. In the standard approach, the thoracoscope - a rigid endoscope - provides visual feedback for the minimally invasive procedure of removing a damaged disc and fusing the two neighboring vertebrae. The navigation challenges are twofold. From a global perspective, the correct vertebrae on the spine have to be located with the inserted instruments. From a local perspective, the actual spine procedure has to be performed precisely. Visual feedback from the thoracoscope provides only limited support for both of these tasks. In the augmented reality approach, we give the surgeon additional anatomical context for the navigation. Before the surgery, we derive a model of the patient's anatomy from a CT scan, and during surgery we track the location of the surgical instruments in relation to patient and model. With this information, we can help the surgeon in both the global and local navigation, providing a global map and 3D information beyond the local 2D view of the thoracoscope. Augmented reality visualization is a particularly intuitive method of displaying this information to the surgeon. To adapt our augmented reality system to this application, we had to add an external optical tracking system, which works now in combination with our head-mounted tracking camera. The surgeon's feedback to the initial phantom experiments is very positive.

Sauer, Frank; Vogt, Sebastian; Khamene, Ali; Heining, Sandro; Euler, Ekkehard; Schneberger, Marc; Zuerl, Konrad; Mutschler, Wolf

2006-03-01

299

Percutaneous spine injection: considerations for improving treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To discuss the causes of treatment failure in percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radiculopathy by analyzing patients who have experienced negative treatment effect on their first visit and a positive treatment effect on their second visit. The authors reviewed the cases of 24 patients who visited the pain intervention outpatient department in our hospital due to back pain or radiculopathy. All patients reviewed experienced a negative treatment effect following their first spine injection, but a positive treatment effect following the second injection. The dates of the cases range from June 2003 to May 2004. Two radiologists analyzed the possible causes of the negative treatment effect following the first injection therapies by considering clinical aspects as well as reviewing radiological images. The most common condition was the presence of the change in the level of the second selective nerve root block (n=13). In seven cases, the methods for administering the injections were changed to facet block (n=2), midline epidural block (n=1), selective nerve root block (n=3) and caudal epidural block (n=1). In four cases, there were no changes in the methods for administering the injections nor were there any changes in the level of the selective nerve root block between first and second visit. In those cases, after reviewing spot radiographs performed during injection, we attributed the causes of failure of injection therapy to an inappropriate distributionn therapy to an inappropriate distribution of drugs. We can improve the effect of percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radioculopathy by determining the exact level of perineural root block, trying alternative methods, and insuring a good distribution of the injected drugs

300

[Tuberculosis of the upper cervical spine].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present a case report on a 25-year-old female patient with the tuberculous spondylitis of 2nd cervical vertebra. For the treatment they choose a two-stage surgical procedure. Within the first stage they removed transorally the focus and filled in the defect in the body of the vertebra with autospongy bone grafts. In the second stage they stabilized the spine from the dorsal approach. Postoperative treatment in the plaster of Paris collar lasted three months. Thus the disease was quickly eliminated. PMID:2239043

Vlach, O; Cienciala, J

1990-07-01

301

Optimising safety in the spine theatre  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english With the proliferation of spinal surgery, both in numbers of cases annually and variety of surgery, there has been an increase in complications and associated litigation. Fager reports that up to 40% of cases were non-defensible. A review of the published literature was performed to highlight some o [...] f the more common aspects in an effort to highlight them to the spine surgeon in an attempt to reduce their incidence and optimise safety in theatre. The following issues are discussed: Wrong level surgery Patient positioning Infection risk and rituals Neurophysiological monitoring Neuronavigation.

RN, Dunn; MJ, Jacobsohn.

302

MR of the postoperative lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, 40 patients who had undergone disc surgery were examined by high resolution CT and MR for possible recurrence of the disc prolapse and the results are compared. It appears that high resolution spinal MR, using its various tissue parameters provides no new insights into possible recurrence of a disc prolapse. As in the case with CT, the investigator must also evaluate other morphological and clinical factors. In spite of this, MR can be useful in the investigation of abnormal spines. (orig.)

303

Incidence of venous thromboembolism after spine surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has varied among studies of patients undergoing elective spine surgery. This may be because of differences in prophylaxis for VTE and differences in methods of observation. Furthermore, some studies have reported symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary thromboembolism (PE), whereas others have included asymptomatic DVT or PE, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic PE in patients undergoing elective spine surgery and to evaluate therapeutic methods for these conditions. The subjects were 1975 patients who underwent spine surgery in our hospital from 1990 to 2011. Patients treated from January 1990 to November 1996 (n=541, Group A) did not receive prophylaxis whereas those treated from January 2000 to February 2011 (n=1,434, Group B) used a foot pump during and after surgery and subsequently wore elastic stockings. All subjects in Group A began ambulation ?2 weeks after surgery whereas those in Group B began to walk earlier-within 3 days for patients who underwent decompression and within 1 week for those treated with fusion. From June 2010 to February 2011, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed 1 week after surgery for 100 patients to evaluate the presence of DVT and PE. Since March 2004, D-dimer was measured 1 week after surgery and patients with a level ?10 ?g/mL were followed up. The incidence g/mL were followed up. The incidence of symptomatic PE was significantly higher in Group A than in Group B (8/541, 1.5% vs. 3/1,434, 0.2%). In 3 patients in Group B, PE developed within 1 week postoperatively and D-dimer values at onset were ?10 ?g/mL. In the 100 cases examined by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), asymptomatic PE and VTE were detected in 18 and 19%, respectively. The D-dimer level 1 week after surgery was ?10 ?g/mL in 105 of 841 patients; however, none of these patients had clinically symptomatic VTE for at least 3 months postoperatively. Mechanical prophylaxis and early ambulation may be effective in reducing the incidence of symptomatic PE after spine surgery. Asymptomatic PE developed in 18% of patients who received mechanical prophylaxis, but the incidence of symptomatic PE was only 0.2%. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are required for patients who develop symptomatic PE. (author)

304

Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

305

CT in pyogenic osteomyelitis of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six patients with bacteriologically proven pyogenic osteomyelitis of the spine were followed serially with computed tomography (CT). Initial evaluation of the involved vertebral bodies and adjacent soft tissues showed a drop in CT numbers when compared to normal cancellous bone and soft tissues. A soft-tissue mass was seen in all cases. After appropriate antibiotic therapy, all six patients showed an increase in bone density and a diminution of the soft-tissue mass (p < 0.05). Five of the six patients showed a further decrease in soft-tissue CT numbers

306

Cooperative aquatic sensing using the telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet  

Science.gov (United States)

Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth's climate and ecology. Typical ocean sensing is done with satellites or in situ buoys and research ships which are slow to reposition. Cloud cover inhibits study of localized transient phenomena such as Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB). A fleet of extended-deployment surface autonomous vehicles will enable in situ study of characteristics of HAB, coastal pollutants, and related phenomena. We have developed a multiplatform telesupervision architecture that supports adaptive reconfiguration based on environmental sensor inputs. Our system allows the autonomous repositioning of smart sensors for HAB study by networking a fleet of NOAA OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sensor Integration System) surface autonomous vehicles. In situ measurements intelligently modify the search for areas of high concentration. Inference Grid and complementary information-theoretic techniques support sensor fusion and analysis. Telesupervision supports sliding autonomy from high-level mission tasking, through vehicle and data monitoring, to teleoperation when direct human interaction is appropriate. This paper reports on experimental results from multi-platform tests conducted in the Chesapeake Bay and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania waters using OASIS platforms, autonomous kayaks, and multiple simulated platforms to conduct cooperative sensing of chlorophyll-a and water quality.

Dolan, John M.; Podnar, Gregg W.; Stancliff, Stephen; Low, Kian Hsiang; Elfes, Alberto; Higinbotham, John; Hosler, Jeffrey; Moisan, Tiffany; Moisan, John

2009-09-01

307

Dosimetric implications of changes in patient repositioning and organ motion in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the influence of patient repositioning and organ motion on dose distribution within the prostate and the seminal vesicles (clinical target volume, (CTV)). Material and methods: Nine patients were simulated and treated in the supine position, with an empty bladder, and without immobilization devices. While on treatment, patients underwent weekly pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans under conditions identical to those at simulation. Patients were aligned using lasers on anterior and lateral skin tattoos, onto which lead markers were placed. After each CT scan (n=53) the CTV was redefined by contouring, and a new isocenter was obtained. A six-field technique was used. The field margins around the CTV were 20 mm in the cranio-caudal axis, and 13 mm in the other axes, except in the lateral fields where a 10 mm posterior margin was used. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for each organ were compared with those determined at simulation, using the notion of the proportional change in the area under the CTV-DVH curve resulting from a change in treatment plan (cDVH). Results: The reproducibility of the dose distribution was good for the prostate (%cDVH, mean±SD: -0.97±2.11%) and less than optimal for the seminal vesicles (%cDVH, mean±SD: -4.66±10.45%). When correlating prostate %cDVH variations with displacements of the isocenter in the Y axis (antero-posterior) the %cDVH exceeded (-)5% in only two dosimetries, both with an isocenter shift of >10 mm. For the an isocenter shift of >10 mm. For the seminal vesicles, however, ten out of 53 dosimetries showed a %cDVH exceeding (-) 5%. In nine of these ten dose distribution studies the posterior shift of the isocenter exceeded 8 mm. Conclusions: Precise targeting of prostate radiotherapy is primarily dependent on careful daily set-up and on random changes in rectal geometry. Margins no less than 10 mm around the prostate and at least 15 mm around the seminal vesicles are probably necessary to insure adequate target coverage with a six-field technique

308

Automated 4D analysis of dendritic spine morphology: applications to stimulus-induced spine remodeling and pharmacological rescue in a disease model  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Uncovering the mechanisms that regulate dendritic spine morphology has been limited, in part, by the lack of efficient and unbiased methods for analyzing spines. Here, we describe an automated 3D spine morphometry method and its application to spine remodeling in live neurons and spine abnormalities in a disease model. We anticipate that this approach will advance studies of synapse structure and function in brain development, plasticity, and disease.

Swanger Sharon A; Yao Xiaodi; Gross Christina; Bassell Gary J

2011-01-01

309

Automated 4D analysis of dendritic spine morphology: applications to stimulus-induced spine remodeling and pharmacological rescue in a disease model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Uncovering the mechanisms that regulate dendritic spine morphology has been limited, in part, by the lack of efficient and unbiased methods for analyzing spines. Here, we describe an automated 3D spine morphometry method and its application to spine remodeling in live neurons and spine abnormalities in a disease model. We anticipate that this approach will advance studies of synapse structure and function in brain development, plasticity, and disease.

Swanger Sharon A

2011-10-01

310

Spine Loss in Primary Somatosensory Cortex during Trace Eyeblink Conditioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classical conditioning that involves mnemonic processing, that is, a "trace" period between conditioned and unconditioned stimulus, requires awareness of the association to be formed and is considered a simple model paradigm for declarative learning. Barrel cortex, the whisker representation of primary somatosensory cortex, is required for the learning of a tactile variant of trace eyeblink conditioning (TTEBC) and undergoes distinct map plasticity during learning. To investigate the cellular mechanism underpinning TTEBC and concurrent map plasticity, we used two-photon imaging of dendritic spines in barrel cortex of awake mice while being conditioned. Monitoring layer 5 neurons' apical dendrites in layer 1, we show that one cellular expression of barrel cortex plasticity is a substantial spine count reduction of ?15% of the dendritic spines present before learning. The number of eliminated spines and their time of elimination are tightly related to the learning success. Moreover, spine plasticity is highly specific for the principal barrel column receiving the main signals from the stimulated vibrissa. Spines located in other columns, even those directly adjacent to the principal column, are unaffected. Because layer 1 spines integrate signals from associative thalamocortical circuits, their column-specific elimination suggests that this spine plasticity may be the result of an association of top-down signals relevant for declarative learning and spatially precise ascending tactile signals. PMID:25740508

Joachimsthaler, Bettina; Brugger, Dominik; Skodras, Angelos; Schwarz, Cornelius

2015-03-01

311

Some borderlands of the cervical spine. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The normal cervical spine may appear abnormal due to several factors, namely: The complexity of the cervical vertebra, the normal variation, the superimposition of the adjacent vertebrae, and the superimposition of structures outside the spine such as the craniofacial and laryngeal structures. (orig.)

312

Clinical radiology of the spine and spinal cord  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is a source of information about aspects of radiology of the spine and spinal column. It presents coverage of both normal and abnormal conditions. Contents: Spinal fractures and dislocations. Degenerative diseases of the spine. Gross anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges. Intraspinal mass lesions. Spinal dysraphism. Congenital anomalies. Tumors of the vertebral column, and more

313

49 CFR 572.43 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.43 Section 572.43 Transportation...Side Impact Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.43 Lumbar spine and pelvis. (a) When the pelvis of a fully...

2010-10-01

314

Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the spine: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a synovial lesion of joints or tendon sheaths, characterized by villous and nodular overgrowth of the synovial membrane. It commonly occurs in synovial joints of the appendicular skeleton, particularly those of the knee and hip, but rarely affecting those of the spine. We report a case of PVNS of the lumbar spine mimicking epidural mass

315

Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the spine: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a synovial lesion of joints or tendon sheaths, characterized by villous and nodular overgrowth of the synovial membrane. It commonly occurs in synovial joints of the appendicular skeleton, particularly those of the knee and hip, but rarely affecting those of the spine. We report a case of PVNS of the lumbar spine mimicking epidural mass.

Seong, Su Ok; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Yi, Jeong Geun [Cheongju St. Mary' s Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

2000-10-01

316

Operative stabilization of the cervical spine in cases of metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of intraspinal space requirement or instability of the cervical spine, metastases may lead to a compression of the spinal cord and/or the nerve roots. Early decompression and stabilization prevents unavoidable tetraparesis. In most cases quality of life can be maintained. The indication and methodology of cervical spine stabilization as well as the results of treatment in 18 patients are demonstrated. (orig.)

317

Ocular VEMPs indicate repositioning of otoconia to the utricle after successful liberatory maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo  

Science.gov (United States)

Conclusions This study showed a transient increase of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) amplitudes in the affected ear after successful liberatory maneuvers and no changes in cervical VEMP (cVEMP) amplitudes. These findings support the hypothesis that successful liberatory maneuvers can lead to a repositioning of otoconia to the utricle. Objectives To evaluate whether oVEMP amplitudes increase after successful liberatory maneuvers in patients with posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (pc-BPPV), while cVEMP amplitudes do not change. These findings may indicate a successful repositioning of dislodged otoconia to the utricular macula, but not to the saccular macula. Methods Thirty patients with unilateral pc-BPPV were prospectively examined with bone-conducted oVEMP and air-conducted cVEMP at four time points: before, after, 1 week after, and 1 month after the liberatory maneuvers (Sémont maneuvers). Results At the 1-week follow-up, 20 of 30 patients were asymptomatic (responders); BPPV could still be induced in the other 10 (non-responders). In responders the mean n10 amplitude on the affected side increased from 12 ± 6.5 ?V at baseline (before the treatment) to 15.9 ± 7.1 ?V at 1 week after treatment; this increase was significantly (p = 0.001) higher in responders than in non-responders. cVEMP did not differ significantly. PMID:24245699

BREMOVA, TATIANA; BAYER, OTMAR; AGRAWAL, YURI; KREMMYDA, OLYMPIA; BRANDT, THOMAS; TEUFEL, JULIAN; STRUPP, MICHAEL

2014-01-01

318

Repositioning of Barcelona’s Image in the Light of a Redefinition of the Urban Tourism Planning Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Barcelona’s city tourism model over the last fifteen years has chalked up many successes in terms of soaring tourist numbers, overnight stays, cruise liner passengers, hotel beds and visits to priced sights. Growth in city breaks has soared to the point where Barcelona has become one of Europe’s most visited cities. But this growth has come at a heavy price: mass tourism, concentration in certain neighbourhoods, competition for space between tourists and residents, lack of adequate inter-modal transport. All of these problems threaten Barcelona’s competitive position. The paper reviews the city’s competitiveness, comparing Barcelona to ten other European cities. Starting out from a qualitative analysis of internal players and a Delphi Study with external players, we find thecity’s tourism model needs correcting. We also identify the vectors and most important factors for achieving this repositioning. The vectors reinforce the competitiveness concerning the model’s sustainability, integrated management and governance, and client orientation. The proposed strategic repositioning will allow Barcelona to continue competing with Europe’s main cities.

Josep-Francesc Valls

2013-01-01

319

West Nile Virus Methyltransferase Catalyzes Two Methylations of the Viral RNA Cap through a Substrate-Repositioning Mechanism?  

Science.gov (United States)

Flaviviruses encode a single methyltransferase domain that sequentially catalyzes two methylations of the viral RNA cap, GpppA-RNA?m7GpppA-RNA?m7GpppAm-RNA, by using S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. Crystal structures of flavivirus methyltransferases exhibit distinct binding sites for SAM, GTP, and RNA molecules. Biochemical analysis of West Nile virus methyltransferase shows that the single SAM-binding site donates methyl groups to both N7 and 2?-O positions of the viral RNA cap, the GTP-binding pocket functions only during the 2?-O methylation, and two distinct sets of amino acids in the RNA-binding site are required for the N7 and 2?-O methylations. These results demonstrate that flavivirus methyltransferase catalyzes two cap methylations through a substrate-repositioning mechanism. In this mechanism, guanine N7 of substrate GpppA-RNA is first positioned to SAM to generate m7GpppA-RNA, after which the m7G moiety is repositioned to the GTP-binding pocket to register the 2?-OH of the adenosine with SAM, generating m7GpppAm-RNA. Because N7 cap methylation is essential for viral replication, inhibitors designed to block the pocket identified for the N7 cap methylation could be developed for flavivirus therapy. PMID:18305027

Dong, Hongping; Ren, Suping; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Yangsheng; Puig-Basagoiti, Francesc; Li, Hongmin; Shi, Pei-Yong

2008-01-01

320

West Nile virus methyltransferase catalyzes two methylations of the viral RNA cap through a substrate-repositioning mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flaviviruses encode a single methyltransferase domain that sequentially catalyzes two methylations of the viral RNA cap, GpppA-RNA-->m(7)GpppA-RNA-->m(7)GpppAm-RNA, by using S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. Crystal structures of flavivirus methyltransferases exhibit distinct binding sites for SAM, GTP, and RNA molecules. Biochemical analysis of West Nile virus methyltransferase shows that the single SAM-binding site donates methyl groups to both N7 and 2'-O positions of the viral RNA cap, the GTP-binding pocket functions only during the 2'-O methylation, and two distinct sets of amino acids in the RNA-binding site are required for the N7 and 2'-O methylations. These results demonstrate that flavivirus methyltransferase catalyzes two cap methylations through a substrate-repositioning mechanism. In this mechanism, guanine N7 of substrate GpppA-RNA is first positioned to SAM to generate m(7)GpppA-RNA, after which the m(7)G moiety is repositioned to the GTP-binding pocket to register the 2'-OH of the adenosine with SAM, generating m(7)GpppAm-RNA. Because N7 cap methylation is essential for viral replication, inhibitors designed to block the pocket identified for the N7 cap methylation could be developed for flavivirus therapy. PMID:18305027

Dong, Hongping; Ren, Suping; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Yangsheng; Puig-Basagoiti, Francesc; Li, Hongmin; Shi, Pei-Yong

2008-05-01

321

Systematic drug repositioning for a wide range of diseases with integrative analyses of phenotypic and molecular data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug repositioning, or the application of known drugs to new indications, is a challenging issue in pharmaceutical science. In this study, we developed a new computational method to predict unknown drug indications for systematic drug repositioning in a framework of supervised network inference. We defined a descriptor for each drug-disease pair based on the phenotypic features of drugs (e.g., medicinal effects and side effects) and various molecular features of diseases (e.g., disease-causing genes, diagnostic markers, disease-related pathways, and environmental factors) and constructed a statistical model to predict new drug-disease associations for a wide range of diseases in the International Classification of Diseases. Our results show that the proposed method outperforms previous methods in terms of accuracy and applicability, and its performance does not depend on drug chemical structure similarity. Finally, we performed a comprehensive prediction of a drug-disease association network consisting of 2349 drugs and 858 diseases and described biologically meaningful examples of newly predicted drug indications for several types of cancers and nonhereditary diseases. PMID:25602292

Iwata, Hiroaki; Sawada, Ryusuke; Mizutani, Sayaka; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

2015-02-23

322

A cost-outcome analysis of Image-Guided Patient Repositioning in the radiation treatment of cancer of the prostate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: With Image-Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) rapidly gaining acceptance in the clinic it is timely to commence an assessment of its potential outcome benefit versus costs. Materials and methods: Using Activity-Based Costing we have calculated the incremental cost of adding Image-Guided Patient Repositioning (IGPR), a significant component of IGRT, to both Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3DCRT) for prostate cancer. The dosimetric outcome benefit resulting from the implementation of IGPR is estimated from a publication describing the improvement in set-up accuracy using each of four correction protocols. In our study outcome is quantified using a metric based on the Equivalent Uniform Dose. Our discussion is limited to image-guided corrective translations of the patient and does not specifically address margin reduction, rotations, organ deformation or major equipment failure modes, all of which are significant additional justifications for implementing an IGRT program. Results: Image guidance used solely for translational patient repositioning for prostate cancer adds costs with relatively little improvement in dosimetric quality. Full exploitation of the potential of IGRT, particularly through margin reduction, can be expected to result in a reduction in the cost-outcome ratios reported here. Conclusions: IMRT benefits more than 3DCRT from IGPR with the Weekly Shrinking Action Level PR with the Weekly Shrinking Action Level approach yielding the lowest cost-outcome ratio.

323

Ambulatory spine surgery: a survey study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Study Design?Cross-sectional study. Objective?To assess the current practices of spine surgeons performing ambulatory surgery in the United States. Methods?An electronic survey was distributed to members of the International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery. Data were initially examined in a univariate manner; variables with a p value?invest in ambulatory surgery centers (p?=?0.0024) and perform surgery at least part of the time in a surgery center (p?=?0.0039). Conclusions?Though the numbers were too few to calculate statistical significance, there was a trend toward the performance of high-risk procedures on an ambulatory basis being undertaken by those with investment status in an ambulatory center. It is possible that this plays a role in the decision to perform these procedures in this setting versus that of a hospital, where a patient may have better access to care should a complication arise requiring emergent assessment and treatment by a physician. This decision should divest itself of financial incentives and focus entirely on patient safety. PMID:25083356

Baird, Evan O; Brietzke, Sasha C; Weinberg, Alan D; McAnany, Steven J; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Cho, Samuel K; Hecht, Andrew C

2014-08-01

324

Primary osseous hemangiopericytoma in the thoracic spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare tumor of the central nervous system, most commonly found in the cranial cavity. HPCs in the spine are rare, and very few of them are primary osseous HPC. The aims of this study were to describe a rare case of primary osseous HPC in the thoracic spine and review the literature. A 54-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of back pain. Aneuro logical examination revealed no motor or sensory deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a tumor originating from the bone structure of the T10 vertebra with paravertebral extension, and chest CT revealed pulmonary metastases. A laminectomy, face-totomy,and subtotal resection of the tumor was performed with posterior pedicle screw system fixation followed by radiotherapy. The post-operative course was uneventful. His back pain was resolved completely after surgery. The patient survived with tumor during the 18-month follow-up period. Histopathology and immunohistologic findings were consistent with HPC. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for vimentin and CD34, partially positive for S-100, but negative for EMA, desmin, CD117, and CD1a. A literature review identified eight such cases reported between 1942 and 2013. As a conclusion, clinical manifestations of primary osseous spinal HPCs are different from intraspinal meningeal HPCs. Although showing certain variability, histopathology and immunohistochemical examinations are essential to establish the diagnosis. Surgical resection and radiotherapy are the treatment of choice. *These authors contributed equally to this work. PMID:24887400

Ren, Ke; Zhou, Xing; Wu, SuJia; Sun, Xiaoliang

2014-01-01

325

Transoral approach to the upper cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transoral approach to pathology of the upper cervical spine is logical, but it is seldom used due to concerns about exposure and infection. The authors report on 16 consecutive patients requiring exposure from clivus through C3 for pathology, including spinal cord compression by rheumatoid pannus, craniovertebral anomalies, and tumor. Exposure was obtained using a Dingman mouth gag and soft palate retraction with silicone rubber sheeting. A horizontal "H" incision was made in the posterior pharyngeal wall creating three layers, closed separately, with attention to a watertight closure of the final mucosal layer. In no case was it necessary to divide the mandible, tongue, soft palate, or uvula. There were no deaths, wound breakdowns, infections, or persistent cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Patients with neurological indications improved postoperatively, and all tumors were grossly resected. Combined otolaryngology/neurosurgical exposure and treatment of pathology involving the upper cervical spine via the transoral approach is safe and effective. Functional results have been excellent, and no major complications were encountered. PMID:2062162

Merwin, G E; Post, J C; Sypert, G W

1991-07-01

326

Radiological manifestations of tuberculosis of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical roentgenographic features of tuberculosis of the spine such as narrowing of the intervertebral disc, collapse of the vertebral bodies, with or without the shadow of a cold abscess, present a specific picture of the actural pathological process. However, the diagnosis of tuberculosis is not confirmed unless proven by biopsy, or the findings of the tubercle bacilius. 120 cases of proven spinal tuberculosis, at Kwangju Christian Hospital during the period from January 1973 through August 1980, were studied and analysed. The results were as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female was 1 : 1.1. The age preference was under 30 years old. 2. The most frequent site of involvement was the lumber spine (44.1%) and next the thoracic (39.2%). 3. The incidence of lytic type was 50.8%, mixed type 36.7%, and scierotic type 12.5%. 4. Associated pulmonary tuberculous lesions were observed in 94 patients (78.3%). 5. The central type, with wedging or collapse of the vertebral body, was more common in the younger age group and the intervertebral articular type in older patients. 6. The incidense of typical radiologic findings were: Collapse of vertebral body (90%), cold abscess (78.3%) and narrowing of intervertebral space (70%). 7. Associated kyphosis was observed in 37 cases (30.8%). Among these 37 cases the range of angulation was between 21 to 40 degrees in 40%

327

MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine

328

Flexible Robotic Spine Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A flexible robotic spine actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA can achieve both bending motion and impact absorption, which will allow robots to realize a variety of postures. In this paper, the robotic spine is designed and simplified into a multi-segment dynamic model based on several verified assumptions. The SMA wire is modelled using the Seelecke-Muller-Acenbach theory. An iterative algorithm is developed to address the external forces distributed along the spine and compute the spine’s bending angle. Based on the dynamic model, we improve the simulation structure and search algorithm to achieve good efficiency and stable solutions. Experiments are conducted to verify the simulation and the results fit the simulation prediction well, with error of less than five degrees. Design optimization with our simulation tool based on several parameters is also discussed in this paper.

Shiquan Wang

2014-04-01

329

Effect of spine motion on mobility in quadruped running  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of current running quadruped robots have similar construction: a stiff body and four compliant legs. Many researches have indicated that the stiff body without spine motion is a main factor in limitation of robots' mobility. Therefore, investigating spine motion is very important to build robots with better mobility. A planar quadruped robot is designed based on cheetahs' morphology. There is a spinal driving joint in the body of the robot. When the spinal driving joint acts, the robot has spine motion; otherwise, the robot has not spine motion. Six group prototype experiments with the robot are carried out to study the effect of spine motion on mobility. In each group, there are two comparative experiments: the spinal driving joint acts in one experiment but does not in the other experiment. The results of the prototype experiments indicate that the average speeds of the robot with spine motion are 8.7%-15.9% larger than those of the robot without spine motion. Furthermore, a simplified sagittal plane model of quadruped mammals is introduced. The simplified model also has a spinal driving joint. Using a similar process as the prototype experiments, six group simulation experiments with the simplified model are conducted. The results of the simulation experiments show that the maximum rear leg horizontal thrusts of the simplified mode with spine motion are 68.2%-71.3% larger than those of the simplified mode without spine motion. Hence, it is found that spine motion can increase the average running speed and the intrinsic reason of speed increase is the improvement of the maximum rear leg horizontal thrust.

Chen, Dongliang; Liu, Qi; Dong, Litao; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Qun

2014-11-01

330

Glucose Sensing  

CERN Document Server

Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

Geddes, Chris D

2006-01-01

331

The Relationship between Recurrent Spine Surgery and Employment Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: What is the quantitative relationship between repeated surgical intervention and unemployment in the spine surgery population? And, does the literature pay sufficient attention to this important aspect of spine surgery outcome? Methods: This was a retrospective review of 905 patients of working age undergoing one of three types of spine surgery. The index surgery at the time of the study was either on the cervical or lumbar spine. We retrospectively collected data on patients’ employment status and history of prior spine surgery. In this study, history of prior spine surgery was coded using two nominal (categorical variables: The number of previous spine surgeries (0, 1, 2, ?3 and the variability of location of previous spine surgeries (cervical, lumbar. We also looked into scientific publications related to spine surgery and probed “employment” and “reoperation” awareness in randomized controlled trials (RCTs. In addition, we queried some common factors that are known to play an important role in exacerbating the unemployment problem, such as opioid (abuse and depression. Results: The unemployment rate was 19.4% among males and 34.8% among females. Unemployment rate correlated with the number of previous spine surgery (r = 0.077, p = 0.020, opioid use (r = 0.080, p = 0.017 and being on antidepressants (r = 0.119, p = 0.000. The unemployment rate was sta-tistically different (?2 = 10.656, p = 0.014 among patients with different numbers of previous spine surgeries: 25.6% of de novo patients versus 28.1% of patients with one previous spine surgery, 32.7% of patients with two previous spine surgeries and 48.7% of patients with three or more previous spine surgeries. Females had significantly higher unemployment rate if they had three or more previous spine surgeries in their past (31.4%, 34.4%, 46.2% versus 83.3%, ?2 = 21.841, p = 0.000. Unemployment rate was as high as 90% in female patients with ?3 surgeries on different regions of the spine and receiving antidepressants. Among randomized controlled trials addressing spine surgery in humans and published in English, 10.4% of reported studies mentioned opioids in their text, 4.1% (23/566 mentioned reoperation, 1.4% (8/566 mentioned employment, and none mentioned antidepressants. Conclusion: Females’ employment status is more sensitive to repeated surgical intervention, regardless of the part of the spine being targeted, reaching close to ten times the general population’s unemployment rate (83.3% versus 8%. On the other hand, a small percentage of randomized controlled trials pertaining to spine surgery deals with employment issues and reoperation rate in their outcome analysis.

Mohammad Sami Walid

2011-12-01

332

Comparison of online IGRT techniques for prostate IMRT treatment: adaptive vs repositioning correction.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares three online image guidance techniques (IGRT) for prostate IMRT treatment: bony-anatomy matching, soft-tissue matching, and online replanning. Six prostate IMRT patients were studied. Five daily CBCT scans from the first week were acquired for each patient to provide representative "snapshots" of anatomical variations during the course of treatment. Initial IMRT plans were designed for each patient with seven coplanar 15 MV beams on a Eclipse treatment planning system. Two plans were created, one with a PTV margin of 10 mm and another with a 5 mm PTV margin. Based on these plans, the delivered dose distributions to each CBCT anatomy was evaluated to compare bony-anatomy matching, soft-tissue matching, and online replanning. Matching based on bony anatomy was evaluated using the 10 mm PTV margin ("bone10"). Soft-tissue matching was evaluated using both the 10 mm ("soft10") and 5 mm ("soft5") PTV margins. Online reoptimization was evaluated using the 5 mm PTV margin ("adapt"). The replanning process utilized the original dose distribution as the basis and linear goal programming techniques for reoptimization. The reoptimized plans were finished in less than 2 min for all cases. Using each IGRT technique, the delivered dose distribution was evaluated on all 30 CBCT scans (6 patients x 5 CBCT/patient). The mean minimum dose (in percentage of prescription dose) to the CTV over five treatment fractions were in the ranges of 99%-100% (SD = 0.1%-0.8%), 65%-98% (SD = 0.4%-19.5%), 87%-99% (SD = 0.7%-23.3%), and 95%-99% (SD = 0.4%-10.4%) for the adapt, bone10, soft5, and soft10 techniques, respectively. Compared to patient position correction techniques, the online reoptimization technique also showed improvement in OAR sparing when organ motion/deformations were large. For bladder, the adapt technique had the best (minimum) D90, D50, and D30 values for 24, 17, and 15 fractions out of 30 total fractions, while it also had the best D90, D50, and D30 values for the rectum for 25, 16, and 19 fractions, respectively. For cases where the adapt plans did not score the best for OAR sparing, the gains of the OAR sparing in the repositioning-based plans were accompanied by an underdosage in the target volume. To further evaluate the fast online replanning technique, a gold-standard plan ("new" plan) was generated for each CBCT anatomy on the Eclipse treatment planning system. The OAR sparing from the online replanning technique was compared to the new plan. The differences in D90, D50, and D30 of the OARs between the adapt and the new plans were less than 5% in 3 patients and were between 5% and 10% for the remaining three. In summary, all IGRT techniques could be sufficient to correct simple geometrical variations. However, when a high degree of deformation or differential organ position displacement occurs, the online reoptimization technique is feasible with less than 2 min optimization time and provides improvements in both CTV coverage and OAR sparing over the position correction techniques. For these cases, the reoptimization technique can be a highly valuable online IGRT tool to correct daily treatment uncertainties, especially when hypofractionation scheme is applied and daily correction, rather than averaging over many fractions, is required to match the original plan. PMID:19544782

Thongphiew, Danthai; Wu, Q Jackie; Lee, W Robert; Chankong, Vira; Yoo, Sua; McMahon, Ryan; Yin, Fang-Fang

2009-05-01

333

Anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine: Part III: the “unstable” cervical spine  

OpenAIRE

In this, the last of the three part series on the anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine, the clinical entity-instability-is addressed. A summative definition of instability, addressing both the clinical and radiographic issues, is presented based on current available literature. The etiology of instability is discussed as it pertains to three possible mechanisms: acute trauma, latent evidence of trauma and repetitive microtrauma. The anatomical, clinical and radiographi...

Mcgregor, Marion

1990-01-01

334

Giant cells reparative granuloma of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG), was first described by Jaffe in 1953, which found it to be clinically and histopathologically different from the giant cell tumor. The GCRG accounts for 1.0 % of the osseous tumoral lesions, is more frequently found in females (68%) and in patients less than 30 years old (74%). It was believed that it only affected the jaw; it has been reported compromising other locations including the spine (7 cases). We report a case affecting the vertebral bodies of C2-C3 in a 10 years old, female patient, who was studied by plain film and MRI. The histological diagnosis was established at surgery, this report is the first one described in a cervical location and the second studied by MRI

335

Thoracoscopy for minimally invasive thoracic spine surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thoracoscopy has been used worldwide for many years by thoracic surgeons. Despite a long learning curve and technical demands of the procedure, thoracoscopy has several advantages, including better cosmesis, adequate exposure to all levels of the thoracic spine from T2 to L 1, better illumination and magnification at the site of surgery, less damage to the tissue adjacent to the surgical field, less morbidity when compared with standard thoracotomy in terms of respiratory problems, pain, blood loss, muscle and chest wall damages, consequent shorter recovery time, less postoperative pulmonary function impairment, and shorter hospitalization. Good results at short- and medium-term follow-up need to be confirmed at long-term follow-up. PMID:19773050

Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Papapietro, Nicola; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

2009-10-01

336

Congenital anomalies of the spine: radiologic findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Congenital anomalies of the spine are frequent and variable. Some are restricted to skeletal structures, while others involve combine neural tube defects or are associated with other multi-systemic disorders. Structural spinal anomalies can be classified according to their location: 1) the vertebral body, 2) the articular process, 3) the lamina with spinous process, 4) the pars interarticularis, 5) the facet joint, 6) the pedicle, or 7) other. Because of similarities between these congenital anomalies and (a) secondary changes involving infection or joint disease and (b) deformities resulting from trauma and uncertain tumorous conditions, significant confusion can occur during diagnosis. Moreover, since the anomalies often give rise to both functional impairment and cosmetic problem, appropriate treatment relies crucially on accurate diagnosis. The authors illustrate the pathogenesis and radiologic findings of the relatively common spinal anomalies confined to skeletal structures.

Ryu, Jung Kyu; Kim, Sang Won; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2003-04-01

337

Congenital anomalies of the spine: radiologic findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Congenital anomalies of the spine are frequent and variable. Some are restricted to skeletal structures, while others involve combine neural tube defects or are associated with other multi-systemic disorders. Structural spinal anomalies can be classified according to their location: 1) the vertebral body, 2) the articular process, 3) the lamina with spinous process, 4) the pars interarticularis, 5) the facet joint, 6) the pedicle, or 7) other. Because of similarities between these congenital anomalies and (a) secondary changes involving infection or joint disease and (b) deformities resulting from trauma and uncertain tumorous conditions, significant confusion can occur during diagnosis. Moreover, since the anomalies often give rise to both functional impairment and cosmetic problem, appropriate treatment relies crucially on accurate diagnosis. The authors illustrate the pathogenesis and radiologic findings of the relatively common spinal anomalies confined to skeletal structures

338

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forty subjects were examined to determine the accuracy and clinical usefulness of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) examination of the spine. The NMR images were compared with plain radiographs, high-resolution computed tomograms, and myelograms. The study included 15 patients with normal spinal cord anatomy and 25 patients whose pathological conditions included canal stenosis, herniated discs, metastatic tumors, primary cord tumor, trauma, Chiari malformations, syringomyelia, and developmental disorders. Saturation recovery images were best in differentiating between soft tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. NMR was excellent for the evaluation of the foramen magnum region and is presently the modality of choice for the diagnosis of syringomyelia and Chiari malformation. NMR was accurate in diagnosing spinal cord trauma and spinal canal block.

Modic, M.T.; Weinstein, M.A.; Pavlicek, W.; Starnes, D.L.; Duchesneau, P.M.; Boumphrey, F.; Hardy, R.J. Jr.

1984-01-01

339

Diagnostic value of MRI for spine surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired in 52 patients with diseases of the spine or spinal cord by using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences on 0.35 T and 1.5 T superconductive MR units. MR imaging was capable of delineating hemorrhage, cavitation, and tumors within the spinal cord, which were missed with conventional imaging modalities. It was of great value in the diagnosis of extraspinal lesions in terms of visualization of soft tissues, acquisition of images in any plane, and lack of bone artifacts. MR imaging served as an alternative to conventional myelography in the detection of morphological changes of the intervertebral disk and spinal cord. It was of limited value in the visualization of the nerve roots and bone tissues. (Namekawa, K.)

340

Traumatic subdural hematoma in the lumbar spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic spinal subdural hematoma is rare and its mechanism remains unclear. This intervention describes a patient with mental retardation who was suffering from back pain and progressive weakness of the lower limbs following a traffic accident. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a lumbar subdural lesion. Hematoma was identified in the spinal subdural space during an operation. The muscle power of both lower limbs recovered to normal after surgery. The isolated traumatic spinal subdural hematoma was not associated with intracranial subdural hemorrhage. A spinal subdural hematoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord compression, especially for patients who have sustained spinal trauma. Emergency surgical decompression is usually the optimal treatment for a spinal subdural hematoma with acute deterioration and severe neurological deficits. PMID:21943822

Song, Jenn-Yeu; Chen, Yu-Hao; Hung, Kuang-Chen; Chang, Ti-Sheng

2011-10-01

341

MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective was to study characteristic MRI findings in cervical spine fractures complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Technical issues related to MRI are also addressed. A review of 6,774 consecutive cervical spine multidetector CT (MDCT) scans obtained during 6.2 years revealed 33 ankylosed spines studied for suspected acute cervical spine injury complicating AS. Of these, 20 patients also underwent MRI. On MRI, of these 20 patients, 19 had a total of 29 cervical and upper thoracic spine fractures. Of 20 transverse fractures traversing both anterior and posterior columns, 7 were transdiskal and exhibited less bone marrow edema than did those traversing vertebral bodies. One Jefferson's, 1 atlas posterior arch (Jefferson's on MDCT), 2 odontoid process, and 5 non-contiguous spinous process fractures were detectable. MRI showed 2 fractures that were undetected by MDCT, and conversely, MDCT detected 6 fractures not seen on MRI; 16 patients had spinal cord findings ranging from impingement and contusion to complete transection. Magnetic resonance imaging can visualize unstable fractures of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. Paravertebral hemorrhages and any ligamentous injuries should alert radiologists to seek transverse fractures. Multiple fractures are common and often complicated by spinal cord injuries. Diagnostic images can be obtained with a flexible multipurpose coil if the use of standard spine array coil is impossible due to a rigid collar or excessive kyphosis. (orig.)

Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland)

2008-09-15

342

Repositioning and Leaving In Situ the Central Venous Catheter During Percutaneous Treatment of Associated Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: A Report of Eight Cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To describe a combined procedure of repositioning and leaving in situ a central venous catheter followed by immediate percutaneous treatment of associated superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). Methods: Eight patients are presented who have central venous catheter-associated SVCS (n = 6 Hickman catheters, n = 2 Port-a-cath) caused by central vein stenosis (n = 4) or concomitant thrombosis (n = 4). With the use of a vascular snare introduced via the transcubital or transjugular approach, the tip of the central venous catheter could be engaged, and repositioned after deployment of a stent in the innominate or superior vena cava. Results: In all patients it was technically feasible to reposition the central venous catheter and treat the SVCS at the same time. In one patient flipping of the Hickman catheter in its original position provoked dislocation of the released Palmaz stent, which could be positioned in the right common iliac vein. Conclusion: Repositioning of a central venous catheter just before and after stent deployment in SVCS is technically feasible and a better alternative than preprocedural removal of the vascular access

343

Comparison of semilunar coronally repositioned flap with gingival massaging using an Ayurvedic product (irimedadi taila) in the treatment of class-I gingival recession: A clinical study  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To study the comparison in terms of root coverage the effect of gingival massaging using an ayurvedic product and semilunar coronally repositioned flap (SCRF) to assess the treatment outcomes in the management of Miller’s class?I?gingival recessions over a-6 mo period.

Mishra, Amit Kumar; Kumathalli, Kanteshwari; Sridhar, Raja; Maru, Rahul; Mangal, Brijesh; Kedia, Sameer; Shrihatti, Ravi

2014-01-01

344

Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patient repositioning when the skin is moist e.g. due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitatively describe the effects of repositioning on the pathomechanics of moisture-related tissue damage. We designed a finite element model to analyze skin stresses under a weight-bearing bony prominence while this region of interest slides frictionally over the support surface, as occurs during repositioning. Our results show, expectedly, that maximal effective stresses in the skin increase as the moisture-contents-related COF between the skin and the mattress rises. Interestingly however, the rise in stresses for a wet interface became more prominent when the skin tissue was stiffer - which represented aging or diabetes. This finding demonstrates how the aged/diabetic skin is more fragile than a young-adult skin when repositioning in a moist environment. The modeling used herein can now be extended to test effects of different moisturizers, creams, lubricants or possibly other interventions at the skin-support interface for testing their potential in protecting the skin from superficial pressure ulcers in a standard, objective and quantitative manner.

AmitGefen

2013-10-01

345

Aesthetic management of gingival recession by root biomodification with carbon dioxide laser and subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique  

OpenAIRE

Localised gingival recessions continue to represent an important aesthetic condition requiring treatment in periodontics. Various techniques have been tried to treat exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics with high percentage of success and minimal discomfort. Root biomodification is done to improve the predictability of these procedures. This clinical report describes periodontal plastic procedure involving subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique a...

Rastogi, Pavitra Kumar; Lal, Nand; Garg, Nimit; Anand, Vishal; Singhal, Rameshwari

2012-01-01

346

Maniobra de reposición canalítica para el tratamiento del vértigo postural paroxístico benigno Canalith reposition procedure for the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Paroxysmal positional vertigo is a frequent and handicapping disease. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of physical therapies using particle reposition procedures in the treatment of paroxysmal positional vertigo. Patients and methods: Fifty nine patients (13 male with paroxysmal positional vertigo were studied. Clinical data was gathered, the affected channel was identified. In the same session, the corresponding canalith reposition procedure was performed (Epley maneuver for posterior channel and Lempert maneuver for lateral channel and the immediate response was recorded. Results: Twenty seven percent of patients had recurring episodes of vertigo and 60% had more than two weeks of evolution. In 49% of patients, vertigo was considered idiopathic and in 92%, the posterior channel was affected. One patient had a combined lesion of posterior and lateral channels and two patients had isolated lateral channel lesions. Seventy percent of patients recovered after two sessions of canalith reposition procedure. Conclusions: Canalith reposition maneuvers were highly effective for the treatment of paroxysmal positional vertigo. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 619-26.

Viviana Valenzuela P

2000-06-01

347

Magnetic Resonance staging of spine metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnosis of spine metastases is a problem of great interest which leaves many questions unanswered. In this field MR imaging plays a fundamental role, as the only technique able to directly demonstrate the changes in bone marrow tissue, bound to tumoral activity. The introduction of gradient-echo (GE) sequences has helped reduce examination time. Moreover, with the accurate choice of pulse-sequence parameters (TR, TE, flip angle) additional information is acquired which is not yielded by conventional spinecho (SE) sequences. This study was aimed at evaluating MR sensitivity in the different stages of bone metastatic evolution. The comparative adequacy was evaluated of combined bone scintigraphy and conventional radiology versus MR imaging in 62 patients with vertebral metastases. Time interval between bone scan and/ or radiological study and MR examination ranged from 10 days to 8 months. SE and GE T1-weighted images, and SE and GE T2-weighted images on the sagittal plane were employed, and axial images; coronal images were rarely acquired. Metastases were demonstrated by MR imaging at 122 vertebral levels, versus 88 true positives of combined scintigraphy and conventional radiology. Scintigraphic false-positives were observed at 15 vertebral levels, versus 9 with radiography. GE sequences were superior to SE ones in detecting vertebral morphologic lesions and bone marrow involvement thanks to their improved resolution and sensitivity. Moreover, GE sequences demod sensitivity. Moreover, GE sequences demonstrated tumoral bone marrow spread and persistent tumoral activity in the follow-up of spine metastases. Results obtained point to GE sequences as those of choice because of their higher resolution and sensitivity, which also allow response to treatment to be evaluated

348

Dendritic spine dysgenesis contributes to hyperreflexia after spinal cord injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperreflexia and spasticity are chronic complications in spinal cord injury (SCI), with limited options for safe and effective treatment. A central mechanism in spasticity is hyperexcitability of the spinal stretch reflex, which presents symptomatically as a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes and exaggerated tendon jerks. In this study we tested the hypothesis that dendritic spine remodeling within motor reflex pathways in the spinal cord contributes to H-reflex dysfunction indicative of spasticity after contusion SCI. Six weeks after SCI in adult Sprague-Dawley rats, we observed changes in dendritic spine morphology on ?-motor neurons below the level of injury, including increased density, altered spine shape, and redistribution along dendritic branches. These abnormal spine morphologies accompanied the loss of H-reflex rate-dependent depression (RDD) and increased ratio of H-reflex to M-wave responses (H/M ratio). Above the level of injury, spine density decreased compared with below-injury spine profiles and spine distributions were similar to those for uninjured controls. As expected, there was no H-reflex hyperexcitability above the level of injury in forelimb H-reflex testing. Treatment with NSC23766, a Rac1-specific inhibitor, decreased the presence of abnormal dendritic spine profiles below the level of injury, restored RDD of the H-reflex, and decreased H/M ratios in SCI animals. These findings provide evidence for a novel mechanistic relationship between abnormal dendritic spine remodeling in the spinal cord motor system and reflex dysfunction in SCI. PMID:25505110

Bandaru, Samira P; Liu, Shujun; Waxman, Stephen G; Tan, Andrew M

2015-03-01

349

Efficacy of gated image acquisition in sagittal MR spine studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-gated MR data acquisition during sagittal lumbar spine examinations. In spine phantom studies, CSF pulsation amplitudes of only 2-3 mm degraded CSF-thecal sac conspicuity on nongated images but not on gated images. Gated (effective TR = l,600-1,700 msec) and ungated (TR = 2,000-2,500 msec) sagittal lumbar spine examinations performed on 20 patients were evaluated for signal-to-noise ratio and CSF contrast. CSF-gated imaging was faster and resulted in increased CSF contrast, compared to the nongated images

350

Osteoid Osteoma of Cervical Spine in two adjacent Vertebrae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor, mainly seen in 10-30 years male. Spine is a relatively common site and almost always, posterior elements are involved. Plain X-Ray-, CT scan and Isotope scan help to identify and localize spine lesions. We described one 18 years old boy with 3 years low neck pain. Isotope scan, MRI and CT scan showed two lesions in C7 and T1. Gross inspection and histopathology examination confirmed osteoid osteoma in two adjacent vertebrae which has not been reported elsewhere in the literature. Key words: Osteoid Osteoma, Spine, Multifocal

MR Etemadifar

2005-09-01

351

[Injuries to the upper cervical spine. Part 1: ligamentous injuries].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article for continuing education describes ligamentous injuries of the upper cervical spine. Functional radiological imaging studies are particularly important in the diagnostic workup. Computed tomography can serve to visualize additional osseous traumas and magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate discoligamentous, neuronal, and vascular structures. Traumatic ligamentous instabilities of the upper cervical spine can be categorized into four main groups: occipitocervical dislocation and translational, axial, and rotational atlantoaxial instabilities. The incidence, classification, diagnostic workup, standard treatment, and characteristics of the individual ligamentous injuries are presented. In addition, the topic of combined injuries of the upper cervical spine is addressed. PMID:21069509

Kandziora, F; Schnake, K; Hoffmann, R

2010-11-01

352

Penetrating cactus spine injury to the mediastinum of a child.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injuries from contact with cactus plants are not uncommon in the southwestern United States and other arid landscapes. Most often, accidental encounters with sharp spines and barbs result in little more than mechanical damage to the skin and soft tissues with minor pain and irritation. Although cactus spine penetration into the skin has been reported to be a stimulus for cutaneous granuloma formation, our review of the published literature did not reveal any potentially life-threatening injuries from such insults. We present a unique case of a penetrating cactus spine to the anterior mediastinum in a child which required surgical extraction. PMID:18675624

O'Neill, Patrick J; Sinha, Madhumita; McArthur, Ross A; Frechette, Alan

2008-08-01

353

Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Utilizing Cone-Beam CT Image-Guidance With a Robotic Couch: Intrafraction Motion Analysis Accounting for all Six Degrees of Freedom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To evaluate the residual setup error and intrafraction motion following kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance, for immobilized spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients, with positioning corrected for in all six degrees of freedom. Methods and Materials: Analysis is based on 42 consecutive patients (48 thoracic and/or lumbar metastases) treated with a total of 106 fractions and 307 image registrations. Following initial setup, a CBCT was acquired for patient alignment and a pretreatment CBCT taken to verify shifts and determine the residual setup error, followed by a midtreatment and posttreatment CBCT image. For 13 single-fraction SBRT patients, two midtreatment CBCT images were obtained. Initially, a 1.5-mm and 1 Degree-Sign tolerance was used to reposition the patient following couch shifts which was subsequently reduced to 1 mm and 1 Degree-Sign degree after the first 10 patients. Results: Small positioning errors after the initial CBCT setup were observed, with 90% occurring within 1 mm and 97% within 1 Degree-Sign . In analyzing the impact of the time interval for verification imaging (10 {+-} 3 min) and subsequent image acquisitions (17 {+-} 4 min), the residual setup error was not significantly different (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.04) in the average three-dimensional intrafraction positional deviations favoring a more strict tolerance in translation (1 mm vs. 1.5 mm) was observed. The absolute intrafraction motion averaged over all patients and all directions along x, y, and z axis ({+-} SD) were 0.7 {+-} 0.5 mm and 0.5 {+-} 0.4 mm for the 1.5 mm and 1 mm tolerance, respectively. Based on a 1-mm and 1 Degree-Sign correction threshold, the target was localized to within 1.2 mm and 0.9 Degree-Sign with 95% confidence. Conclusion: Near-rigid body immobilization, intrafraction CBCT imaging approximately every 15-20 min, and strict repositioning thresholds in six degrees of freedom yields minimal intrafraction motion allowing for safe spine SBRT delivery.

Hyde, Derek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); British Columbia Cancer Agency, The Sindi Hawkins Cancer Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna (Canada); Lochray, Fiona; Korol, Renee; Davidson, Melanie; Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: Arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

2012-03-01

354

Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Utilizing Cone-Beam CT Image-Guidance With a Robotic Couch: Intrafraction Motion Analysis Accounting for all Six Degrees of Freedom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the residual setup error and intrafraction motion following kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance, for immobilized spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients, with positioning corrected for in all six degrees of freedom. Methods and Materials: Analysis is based on 42 consecutive patients (48 thoracic and/or lumbar metastases) treated with a total of 106 fractions and 307 image registrations. Following initial setup, a CBCT was acquired for patient alignment and a pretreatment CBCT taken to verify shifts and determine the residual setup error, followed by a midtreatment and posttreatment CBCT image. For 13 single-fraction SBRT patients, two midtreatment CBCT images were obtained. Initially, a 1.5-mm and 1° tolerance was used to reposition the patient following couch shifts which was subsequently reduced to 1 mm and 1° degree after the first 10 patients. Results: Small positioning errors after the initial CBCT setup were observed, with 90% occurring within 1 mm and 97% within 1°. In analyzing the impact of the time interval for verification imaging (10 ± 3 min) and subsequent image acquisitions (17 ± 4 min), the residual setup error was not significantly different (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.04) in the average three-dimensional intrafraction positional deviations favoring a more strict tolerance in translation (1 mm vs. 1.5 mm) was observed. The absolute intrafraction motion averaged over all patients and all n averaged over all patients and all directions along x, y, and z axis (± SD) were 0.7 ± 0.5 mm and 0.5 ± 0.4 mm for the 1.5 mm and 1 mm tolerance, respectively. Based on a 1-mm and 1° correction threshold, the target was localized to within 1.2 mm and 0.9° with 95% confidence. Conclusion: Near-rigid body immobilization, intrafraction CBCT imaging approximately every 15–20 min, and strict repositioning thresholds in six degrees of freedom yields minimal intrafraction motion allowing for safe spine SBRT delivery.

355

Becoming independent through au pair migration. : Self-making and social re-positioning among young Filipinas in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last decade, growing numbers of young Filipinas have entered Denmark on the au pair scheme. While its official aim is to broaden the cultural horizons of youth, researchers generally view Filipina au pairing as a form of labor migration using au pairs as inexpensive domestic workers. This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognized as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence in terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad to re-position themselves vis-à-vis family and friends at home.

Dalgas, Karina Märcher

2015-01-01

356

Manobras de reposicionamento no tratamento da vertigem paroxística posicional benigna Treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with repositioning manevers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introdução: Vertigem paroxística posicional benigna (VPPB é uma das mais freqüentes patologias do sistema vestibular. Caracteriza-se clinicamente pela presença de episódios recorrentes de tonturas rotatórias, tipicamente desencadeados por determinados movimentos cefálicos, realizados pelo paciente. A confirmação diagnóstica é obtida exclusivamente pela manobra de Dix-Hallpike. Nessa manobra, observa-se sistematicamente o desencadeamento de nistagmo. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Material e método: No total, sete pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de VPPB são submetidos a tratamento pela manobra de reposicionamento de Epley. Resultado: Desses sete pacientes avaliados, cinco apresentaram ótima recuperação; dois, com resultado bom; e um, com mau resultado; para este último caso, outras formas de tratamento são apresentadas. Conclusão: O exame otoneurológico, realizado em todos os pacientes, demonstrou ser de interessante valor prognóstico quanto ao resultado do tratamento proposto. A manobra de reposicionamento de Epley demonstrou ser um método de tratamento da VPPB simples, e eficaz na grande maioria dos pacientes aqui relatados.Introduction: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV is among the most common vestibular disorders. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo induced by changes in head position. The condition is readly diagnosed by performing the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. Nystagmus is always present by this way. Study design: Prospective results clinical not randomized. Material and method: A total of seven patients diagnosed with BPPV received the repositioning maneuver of Epley. Five out of seven patients had excellent recovery, two patients had good results and one had a bad result. For this last one different treatments are discussed. Conclusion: We performed otoneurological examination in all patients; this test seems to be an intersting prognosis method for seeking the results of treatment. The repositioning maneuver of Epley is an excellent treatment for BPPV. Most of the patients of our series were successfuly treated by this method.

Roberto A. Maia

2001-09-01

357

Manobras de reposicionamento no tratamento da vertigem paroxística posicional benigna / Treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with repositioning manevers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introdução: Vertigem paroxística posicional benigna (VPPB) é uma das mais freqüentes patologias do sistema vestibular. Caracteriza-se clinicamente pela presença de episódios recorrentes de tonturas rotatórias, tipicamente desencadeados por determinados movimentos cefálicos, realizados pelo paciente. [...] A confirmação diagnóstica é obtida exclusivamente pela manobra de Dix-Hallpike. Nessa manobra, observa-se sistematicamente o desencadeamento de nistagmo. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Material e método: No total, sete pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de VPPB são submetidos a tratamento pela manobra de reposicionamento de Epley. Resultado: Desses sete pacientes avaliados, cinco apresentaram ótima recuperação; dois, com resultado bom; e um, com mau resultado; para este último caso, outras formas de tratamento são apresentadas. Conclusão: O exame otoneurológico, realizado em todos os pacientes, demonstrou ser de interessante valor prognóstico quanto ao resultado do tratamento proposto. A manobra de reposicionamento de Epley demonstrou ser um método de tratamento da VPPB simples, e eficaz na grande maioria dos pacientes aqui relatados. Abstract in english Introduction: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is among the most common vestibular disorders. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo induced by changes in head position. The condition is readly diagnosed by performing the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. Nystagmus is always present by [...] this way. Study design: Prospective results clinical not randomized. Material and method: A total of seven patients diagnosed with BPPV received the repositioning maneuver of Epley. Five out of seven patients had excellent recovery, two patients had good results and one had a bad result. For this last one different treatments are discussed. Conclusion: We performed otoneurological examination in all patients; this test seems to be an intersting prognosis method for seeking the results of treatment. The repositioning maneuver of Epley is an excellent treatment for BPPV. Most of the patients of our series were successfuly treated by this method.

Roberto A., Maia; Flávia L., Diniz; Agnaldo, Carlesse.

2001-09-01

358

Spiral-CT or conventional CT-technique for spine fractures detection in children? - Comparative studies utilizing spine specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Definition of a optimized helical CT protocol for spine injuries. Methods: Comparative studies of different CT protocols utilizing spine specimens. Results: A helical CT protocol with 1-mm slice thickness and pitch 2 demonstrates in comparison the best spatial resolution, reduced dose, slightly lowered contrast resolution, and best fracture delineation. Conclusions: A helical CT protocol with 1-mm slice thickness and pitch 2 displays sagittal reconstructions with high quality and is the best compromise between reliable fracture detection of the spine and reduced radiation dose. (author)

359

Cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine in a 5-year-old girl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fractures of the tibial spine usually occur in children aged 8 to 14 years. Usually, radiographs will demonstrate a tibial spine fracture, with the degree of displacement. Tibial spine fractures in younger children have not been reported in the previously published literature. We report a tibial spine fracture that occurred in 5-year-old girl. The cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine was not revealed by radiographs because it was limited to the cartilaginous portion of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

360

Tuberculosis of the spine radiological imaging. Case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skeletal tuberculosis constitutes 1-3% of all cases of tuberculosis and involves the spine in up to 50% of cases, most commonly the thoracolumbar spine. The purpose of this article is to review the case of a 47-year-old man who complained of back pain, weakness of muscles and weight loss. He was examined with conventional anteriorposterior and lateral X-rays of thoracic spine, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. Radiological imaging suggested tubercolosis of the spine. The authors present the imaging procedures applied to diagnose this case. Conventional radiography was used as the first basic examination. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) were used as complementary methods. The final diagnosis was based on a biopsy of the bone. The definite diagnosis is required to adequate treatment. In some cases surgical treatment is used. (author)

361

Estimating Load on the Spine Using Spinal Shrinkage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Changes in body height have been used as a measure of spine compression during loading. However, a gap exists in the literature as to the actual relationship that exists between spinal shrinkage and spine load as a result of load carrying or lifting. This study proposed a mathematical model for the relationship between spinal shrinkage and spinal load. The model was validated using some load carriers in a major market in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The spinal shrinkages obtained from the study did not differ significantly from those calculated using the proposed model, thus suggesting that the model may be valid. The model established a relationship between load on the spine, spinal shrinkage, spine length and chest area.

Salami O. ISMAILA

2010-12-01

362

Asymmetric deformation structure of lava spine in Unzen Volcano, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Lava spine is commonly generated by effusive eruption of crystal-rich, dacitic-andesitic magmas. Especially, deformation rock on surface of lava spine has been related with processes of magma ascent, outgassing, and generation of volcanic earthquake (e.g., Cashman et al. 2008). To reveal the relationships and generation process of the spine, it is needed to understand a spatial distribution of the deformation rock. Here we show the spatial distribution of the deformation rock of lava spine in the Unzen volcano, Japan, to discuss the generation process of the spine. The lava spine in Unzen volcano is elongated in the E-W direction, showing a crest like shape with 150 long, 40 m wide and 50 m high. The lava spine is divided into following four parts: 1) Massive dacite part: Dense dacite with 30 m of maximum thickness, showing slickenside on the southern face; 2) Sheared dacite part: Flow band developed dacite with 1.0 m of maximum thickness; 3) Tuffisite part: Network of red colored vein develops in dacite with 0.5 m of maximum thickness; 4) Breccia part: Dacitic breccia with 10 m of maximum thickness. The Breccia part dominates in the northern part of the spine, and flops over Massive dacite part accross the Sheared dacite and Tuffisite parts. The slickenside on southern face of massive dacite demonstrates contact of solids. The slickenside breaks both of phenocryst and groundmass, demonstrating that the slickenside is formed after significant crystallization at the shallow conduit or on the ground surface. The lineation of the slickenside shows E-W direction with almost horizontal rake angle, which is consistent with the movement of the spine to an east before emplacement. Development of sub-vertical striation due to extrusion was observed on northern face of the spine (Hayashi, 1994). Therefore, we suggest that the spine just at extrusion consisted of Massive dacite, Sheared dacite, Tuffisite, Breccia, and Striation parts in the northern half of the spine. Such a variation of rock type is analogous to tectonic fault zone, suggesting that brittle failure of rigid magma due to contact with the conduit wall. Also similar variation is observed in the spine of Mt. St. Helens (Kendrick et al., 2012), which implies the existence of fault zone and brittle failure of magma are common features in the lava spine. The lava spine in Unzen volcano exhibits asymmetric deformation structure about direction of north and south. There is positive correlation between width and length in tectonic fault (Wells and Coppersmith, 1994). Therefore, development of fault zone (Sheared dacite, Tuffisite, and Breccia parts) in northern half may indicate that brittle failure starts at the deeper conduit for the northern half than the southern half of the spine. The asymmetry of magma ascent process is possible to result in asymmetries of outgassing path and location of volcanic earthquake in the conduit.

Miwa, T.; Okumura, S.; Matsushima, T.; Shimizu, H.

2013-12-01

363

An interactive multiblock approach to meshing the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Finite element (FE) analysis is a useful tool to study spine biomechanics as a complement to laboratory-driven experimental studies. Although individualized models have the potential to yield clinically relevant results, the demands associated with modeling the geometric complexity of the spine often limit its utility. Existing spine FE models share similar characteristics and are often based on similar assumptions, but vary in geometric fidelity due to the mesh generation techniques that were used. Using existing multiblock techniques, we propose mesh generation methods that ease the effort and reduce the time required to create subject-specific allhexahedral finite element models of the spine. We have demonstrated the meshing techniques by creating a C4-C5 functional spinal unit and validated it by comparing the resultant motions and vertebral strains with data reported in the literature. PMID:19394107

Kallemeyn, Nicole A; Tadepalli, Srinivas C; Shivanna, Kiran H; Grosland, Nicole M

2009-09-01

364

Arthroscopic Absorbable Suture Fixation for Tibial Spine Fractures  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this technical note and accompanying video is to describe a modified arthroscopic suture fixation technique to treat tibial spine avulsion fractures. Twenty-one patients underwent arthroscopic treatment for tibial spine avulsion with our technique; they were clinically and biomechanically evaluated at 2 years' follow-up and showed optimal clinical and radiographic outcomes. Repair with this arthroscopic technique provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and...

Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Pellegrini, Andrea; Lunini, Enricomaria; Tonino, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Francesco

2013-01-01

365

Biomechanical analysis of plate stabilization on cervical part of spine  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The main aim of the work was determination of biomechanical analysis of cervical spine – stabilizer system made of stainless steel (Cr-Ni-Mo) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.Design/methodology/approach: To define biomechanical characteristic of the system the finite elements method (FEM) was applied. Geometric model of part of spine C5-C7 and stabilizer were discretized by SOLID95 element. Appropriate boundary conditions imitating phenomena in real system with appropriate accuracy were establi...

Kiel, M.; Marciniak, J.; Szewczenko, J.; Basiaga, M.; Wolan?ski, W.

2009-01-01

366

Severe kyphoscoliosis after primary Echinococcus granulosus infection of the spine  

OpenAIRE

A primary Echinococcus granulosus infection of the spine involving the vertebrae T8 and T9 of a 6-year-old child was treated elsewhere by thoracotomy, partial corporectomy, multiple laminectomies and uninstrumented fusion. Owing to inappropriate stabilization, severe deformity developed secondary to these surgeries. X-rays, CT and MRI scans of the spine revealed a severe thoracic kyphoscoliosis of more than 100° (Fig. 1) and recurrence of Echinococcus granulosus infection. The intraspinal c...

Thaler, M.; Gabl, M.; Lechner, R.; Gsto?ttner, M.; Bach, C. M.

2010-01-01

367

Estimating Load on the Spine Using Spinal Shrinkage  

OpenAIRE

Changes in body height have been used as a measure of spine compression during loading. However, a gap exists in the literature as to the actual relationship that exists between spinal shrinkage and spine load as a result of load carrying or lifting. This study proposed a mathematical model for the relationship between spinal shrinkage and spinal load. The model was validated using some load carriers in a major market in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The spinal shrinkages obtained from the stud...

Ismaila, Salami O.; Charles-owaba, Oliver E.; Alamu, Oguntola J.; Akanbi, Olusegun G.

2010-01-01

368

The spine of an SQG almost-sharp front  

Science.gov (United States)

We study solutions of the surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) equation which are locally constant outside a thin neighbourhood of a curve that evolves with time. To such an SQG solution we associate a distinguished curve (the 'spine'). If the above thin neighbourhood has thickness ?, then we prove that the spine satisfies its own evolution equation (equal to the sharp-front equation) modulo errors O(?2|log?|).

Fefferman, Charles; Luli, Garving; Rodrigo, Jose

2012-02-01

369

Synovial osteochondromatosis of the cervical spine: A case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare, benign condition characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules within the synovium. It rarely occurs at cervical spine, and only six cases have been previously reported in the English literature. We describe another case of synovial osteochondromatosis in the cervical spine in a 77-year-old man who presented with compressive myelopathy. Here we briefly review the literature and discuss the differential diagnosis based on CT and MR findings.

Chee, Choong Guen; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Guen Young; Yeom, Jin S.; Choe, Ghee Young; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-15

370

Synovial osteochondromatosis of the cervical spine: A case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare, benign condition characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules within the synovium. It rarely occurs at cervical spine, and only six cases have been previously reported in the English literature. We describe another case of synovial osteochondromatosis in the cervical spine in a 77-year-old man who presented with compressive myelopathy. Here we briefly review the literature and discuss the differential diagnosis based on CT and MR findings.

371

The spine of an SQG almost-sharp front  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study solutions of the surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) equation which are locally constant outside a thin neighbourhood of a curve that evolves with time. To such an SQG solution we associate a distinguished curve (the 'spine'). If the above thin neighbourhood has thickness ?, then we prove that the spine satisfies its own evolution equation (equal to the sharp-front equation) modulo errors O(?2|log?|)

372

The dynamics of excitatory synapse formation on dendritic spines  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines, the postsynaptic compartments of most functional excitatory synapses in the Central Nervous System (CNS), are highly dynamic structures, having the ability to grow, change shape, or retract in response to varying levels of neuronal activity. This dynamic nature of spines allows modifications in brain circuitry and connectivity, thus participating in fundamental processes such as learning, recall, and emotional behaviors. Although many studies have characterized the precise m...

Amaral, Michelle D.; Pozzo-miller, Lucas

2009-01-01

373

Thoracic trauma with injury of the thoracic spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From a major series of surgically treated patients with fractures and fracture dislocations of the thoracic spine 4 cases are presented exhibiting different trauma mechanisms and presenting with a variety of associated acute and chronic intrathoracic lesions. Surgical stabilisation and treatment of additional intrathoracic injury (vascular, lymphatic duct, empyema, posttraumatic fibrothorax) nessecitated a transpleural approach, effective for the spine as well. Diagnostic radiology was restricted to minimal requirements due to urgency and/or difficulties of exposure. (orig.)

374

Neurofibromin Is the Major Ras Inactivator in Dendritic Spines  

OpenAIRE

In dendritic spines, Ras plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity but its regulation mechanism is not fully understood. Here, using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer/fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-based Ras imaging technique in combination with 2-photon glutamate uncaging, we show that neurofibromin, in which loss-of-function mutations cause Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1), contributes to the majority (?90%) of Ras inactivation in dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in...

Oliveira, Ana F.; Yasuda, Ryohei

2014-01-01

375

Synaptic amplification by dendritic spines enhances input cooperativity  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines are the nearly ubiquitous site of excitatory synaptic input onto neurons1–2 and as such are critically positioned to influence diverse aspects of neuronal signaling. Decades of theoretical studies have proposed that spines may function as highly effective and modifiable chemical and electrical compartments that regulate synaptic efficacy, integration, and plasticity3–8. Experimental studies have confirmed activity-dependent structural dynamics and biochemical compartmenta...

Harnett, Mark T.; Makara, Judit K.; Spruston, Nelson; Kath, William L.; Magee, Jeffrey C.

2012-01-01

376

The Dynamic Cytoskeleton: Backbone of Dendritic Spine Plasticity  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines are small actin-rich protrusions on the surface of dendrites whose morphological and molecular plasticity play key roles in learning and memory. Both the form and function of spines are critically dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. However, new research, using electron microscopy and live-cell super-resolution microscopy indicates that the actin cytoskeleton is more complex and dynamic than originally thought. Also, exciting recent studies from several labs indicate that mi...

Dent, Erik W.; Merriam, Elliott B.; Hu, Xindao

2010-01-01

377

Complications of transpedicular screw fixation in the cervical spine  

OpenAIRE

Today, posterior stabilization of the cervical spine is most frequently performed by lateral mass screws or spinous process wiring. These techniques do not always provide sufficient stability, and anterior fusion procedures are added secondarily. Recently, transpedicular screw fixation of the cervical spine has been introduced to provide a one-stage stable posterior fixation. The aim of the present prospective study is to examine if cervical pedicle screw fixation can be done by low risk and ...

Kast, E.; Mohr, K.; Richter, H. -p; Bo?rm, W.

2005-01-01

378

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the cervical spine: a case report  

OpenAIRE

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS) is a rare and aggressive bone tumor with poor prognosis. Primary DDCS of the mobile spine is extremely rare, particularly in the cervical spine. We herein describe a first case of cervical DDCS in an 81-year-old male presenting with a slowly growing mass. Radiographs showed an expansion of the cortical contour of the C2 lamina and a soft tissue mass with punctate calcification. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a lobulated lesion expanding over the...

Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Yusuke; Harimaya, Katsumi; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Okada, Seiji; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Doi, Toshio; Sakamoto, Akio; Matsunobu, Tomoya; Oda, Yoshinao; Iwamoto, Yukihide

2013-01-01

379

Translaminar screw fixation in the lumbar spine: technique, indications, results  

OpenAIRE

Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar spine represents a simple and effective technique for short segment fusion in the degenerative spine. Clinical experience with 173 patients who underwent translaminar screw fixation revealed a fusion rate of 94%. The indications for translaminar screw fixation as a primary fixation procedure are: segmental dysfunction, lumbar spinal stenosis with painful degenerative changes, segmental revision surgery after discectomies, and painful disc-related synd...

Grob, D.; Humke, T.

1998-01-01

380

The Technological Development of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Minimally invasive spine surgery has its roots in the mid-twentieth century with a few surgeons and a few techniques, but it has now developed into a large field of progressive spinal surgery. A wide range of techniques are now called “minimally invasive,” and case reports are submitted constantly with new “minimally invasive” approaches to spinal pathology. As minimally invasive spine surgery has become more mainstream over the past ten years, in this paper we discuss its history and...

Snyder, Laura A.; Toole, John O.; Eichholz, Kurt M.; Perez-cruet, Mick J.; Richard Fessler

2014-01-01

381

Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. Tith manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks

382

Traumatic rotatory displacement of the lower cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe the classification for traumatic rotary injuries of the cervical spine. The classification is based on a review of 306 severe lower cervical spine injuries observed in 255 patients between 1980 and 1994. Traumatic rotatory displacements (TRD) represented 39% of the 306 severe injuries. Three different lesions were observed: unilateral facet fractures, fracture-separation of the articular pillars, and unilateral facet dislocations. PMID:10789039

Argenson, C; de Peretti, F; Ghabris, A; Eude, P; Hovorka, I

2000-01-01

383

Synapses, spines and kinases in mammalian learning and memory, and the impact of aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synapses are the building blocks of neuronal networks. Spines, the postsynaptic elements, are morphologically the most plastic part of the synapse. It is thought that spine plasticity underlies learning and memory processes, driven by kinases and cytoskeleton protein reorganization. Spine strength depends primarily on the number of incorporated glutamatergic receptors, which are more numerous in larger spines. Intrinsic and circadian fluctuations, occurring independently of presynaptic stimulation, demonstrate the native instability of spines. Despite innate spine instability some spines remain intact lifelong. Threats to spine survival are reduced by physical and mental activity, and declining sensory input, conditions characteristic for aging. Large spines are considered less vulnerable than thin spines, and in the older brain large spines are more abundant, whereas the thin spines are functionally weaker. It can be speculated that this shift towards memory spines contributes to enhanced retention of remote memories typically seen in the elderly. Gaining further insight in spine plasticity regulation, its homeostatic nature and how to maintain spine health will be important future research topics in Neuroscience. PMID:24998408

van der Zee, Eddy A

2015-03-01

384

Villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the imaging features of spinal pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pathologically proven spinal PVNS. Patient demographics and clinical presentation were reviewed. Radiologic studies were evaluated by consensus of two musculoskeletal radiologists for spinal location, spinal segments affected, lesion center, detection of facet origin and intrinsic characteristics on radiography (n =11), myelography (n =7), CT (n =6) and MR imaging (n =6). Women (64%) were more commonly affected than men (36%) with an average age of 28 years. Clinical symptoms were pain (45%), neurologic (9%) or both (36%). Lesions most frequently affected the cervical spine (53%) followed by the thoracic (27%) and lumbar regions (20%). The majority of lesions (93%) were centered in the posterior elements with frequent involvement of the pedicle (67%), neural foramina (73%), lamina (67%) and facets (93%). No lesions showed calcification. Determination of a facet origin by imaging was dependent on imaging modality and lesion size. A facet origin could be determined in 45% of cases by radiography vs 67% of patients by CT (n=6) and MR (n=6). Large lesions (greater than 3 cm in at least one dimension) obscured the facet origin in all cases with CT and/or MR imaging (44%,n=4). Small lesions (less than 3 cm in any dimension) demonstrated an obvious facet origin in all cases by CT and/or MR imaging (56%,n=5). Low-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen in all cases on T2-weighted MR images resulting from hemosiderin deposition with ''blooming effect'' in one case with gradient echo MR images. PVNS of the spine is rare. Large lesions obscure the facet origin and simulate an aggressive intraosseous neoplasm. Patient age, a solitary noncystic lesion centered in the posterior elements, lack of mineralization and low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR pulse sequences may suggest the diagnosis in these cases. Small lesions demonstrate a facet origin on CT or MR imaging. This limits differential considerations to synovial-based lesions and additional features of a solitary focus, lack of underlying disease or systemic arthropathy, no calcification as well as low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR images should allow spinal PVNS to be suggested as the likely diagnosis. (orig.)

385

Villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To describe the imaging features of spinal pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pathologically proven spinal PVNS. Patient demographics and clinical presentation were reviewed. Radiologic studies were evaluated by consensus of two musculoskeletal radiologists for spinal location, spinal segments affected, lesion center, detection of facet origin and intrinsic characteristics on radiography (n =11), myelography (n =7), CT (n =6) and MR imaging (n =6). Women (64%) were more commonly affected than men (36%) with an average age of 28 years. Clinical symptoms were pain (45%), neurologic (9%) or both (36%). Lesions most frequently affected the cervical spine (53%) followed by the thoracic (27%) and lumbar regions (20%). The majority of lesions (93%) were centered in the posterior elements with frequent involvement of the pedicle (67%), neural foramina (73%), lamina (67%) and facets (93%). No lesions showed calcification. Determination of a facet origin by imaging was dependent on imaging modality and lesion size. A facet origin could be determined in 45% of cases by radiography vs 67% of patients by CT (n=6) and MR (n=6). Large lesions (greater than 3 cm in at least one dimension) obscured the facet origin in all cases with CT and/or MR imaging (44%,n=4). Small lesions (less than 3 cm in any dimension) demonstrated an obvious facet origin in all cases by CT and/or MR imaging (56%,n=5). Low-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen in all cases on T2-weighted MR images resulting from hemosiderin deposition with ''blooming effect'' in one case with gradient echo MR images. PVNS of the spine is rare. Large lesions obscure the facet origin and simulate an aggressive intraosseous neoplasm. Patient age, a solitary noncystic lesion centered in the posterior elements, lack of mineralization and low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR pulse sequences may suggest the diagnosis in these cases. Small lesions demonstrate a facet origin on CT or MR imaging. This limits differential considerations to synovial-based lesions and additional features of a solitary focus, lack of underlying disease or systemic arthropathy, no calcification as well as low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR images should allow spinal PVNS to be suggested as the likely diagnosis. (orig.)

Motamedi, Kambiz [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Radiologic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology), 200 UCLA Medical Plaza, Suite 165-59, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Murphey, Mark D. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Radiologic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States); University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fetsch, John F.; Furlong, Mary A. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Soft Tissue Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Vinh, Tinhoa N.; Sweet, Donald E. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Laskin, William B. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgical Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States)

2005-04-01

386

Classification of screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by larval spine morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The morphology of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), larval spines was affected by larval substrate and geographic effects on variation. Spine morphology of individual larvae was used to determine criteria for discrimination analysis classification. Classification criteria for types of wounds and host species were determined for larvae from central and southern Mexico. Larvae from marginal populations (United States, Caribbean Islands, Costa Rica) were classified by these criteria. Classifications were 27% accurate for wound type and 20% correct for animal species. When single egg masses were split and larvae were reared on laboratory diet and animal substrates, analysis of spine types showed significant rearing environment and sibship (egg mass) effects. Cluster analysis of geographic groups showed that larvae from central populations were closely clustered, whereas marginal groups were morphologically dissimilar from each other and from the central populations. These results indicate that larval spine morphology has limited value in taxonomic or systematic studies of screwworms and that mating compatibility was not related to spine similarity among populations. The significant differences between wound-reared and artificial media-reared larvae indicate that differences in spine morphology could be used to verify that samples from the field were indeed taken from animal wounds. PMID:2332873

Mangan, R L; Welch, J B

1990-05-01

387

L-methionine decreases dendritic spine density in mouse frontal cortex [Spine density downregulation by L-methionine  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia postmortem brain is characterized by GABAergic downregulation and by decreased dendritic spine density in frontal cortex. Protracted L-methionine treatment exacerbates schizophrenia symptoms, and our previous work (Tremolizzo et al. and Dong et al.) has shown that L-methionine decreases reelin and GAD67 transcription in mice which is prevented by co-administration of valproate. In this study, we observed a decrease in spine density following L-methionine treatment, which was prevented by co-administration of valproate. Together with our previous findings conducted under the same experimental conditions, we suggest that downregulation of spine density in L-methionine -treated mice may be due to decreased expression of reelin and that valproate may prevent spine downregulation by inhibiting the methylation induced decrease in reelin. PMID:20442623

Tueting, Patricia; Davis, John M.; Veldic, Marin; Pibiri, Fabio; Kadriu, Bashkim; Guidotti, Alessandro; Costa, Erminio

2010-01-01

388

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LOCALIZED MUSCLE FATIGUE ON KNEE POSITION SENSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001. Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02 and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02. Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue.

William S. Gear

2011-12-01

389

L-methionine decreases dendritic spine density in mouse frontal cortex [Spine density downregulation by L-methionine  

OpenAIRE

Schizophrenia postmortem brain is characterized by GABAergic downregulation and by decreased dendritic spine density in frontal cortex. Protracted L-methionine treatment exacerbates schizophrenia symptoms, and our previous work (Tremolizzo et al. and Dong et al.) has shown that L-methionine decreases reelin and GAD67 transcription in mice which is prevented by co-administration of valproate. In this study, we observed a decrease in spine density following L-methionine treatment, which was pre...

Tueting, Patricia; Davis, John M.; Veldic, Marin; Pibiri, Fabio; Kadriu, Bashkim; Guidotti, Alessandro; Costa, Erminio

2010-01-01

390

A Systematic Review of the Current Role of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in the Management of Metastatic Spine Disease  

OpenAIRE

Although increasingly aggressive decompression and resection methods have resulted in improved outcomes for patients with metastatic spine disease, these aggressive surgeries are not feasible for patients with numerous comorbid conditions. Such patients stand to benefit from management via minimally invasive spine surgery (MIS), given its association with decreased perioperative morbidity. We performed a systematic review of literature with the goal of evaluating the clinical efficacy and saf...

Molina, Camilo A.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Sciubba, Daniel M.

2011-01-01

391

Instrumentation of the paediatric cervical spine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paediatric cervical fusion surgery is challenging. Traditional techniques such as external stabilisation, onlay fusions and wiring techniques resulted in unsatisfactory outcomes due to inferior biomechanical stability. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of paediatric patients [...] who underwent instrumented cervical fusion surgery under 16 years of age. Fusion rates, blood loss, levels fused, theatre time, technique and complications were assessed. RESULTS: An average of 2.5 levels was fused, with an estimated blood loss of 428 ml and surgical duration of 159 min. Anterior procedures had an average of one level fused with blood loss of 117 ml and surgical duration of 98 min. Posterior procedures had an average number of 1.9 levels fused, blood loss of 306 ml and surgical time of 131 min. Combined procedures had an average of 5.5 levels fused, blood loss 810 ml and surgical duration of 241 min. Four surgery-related complications were encountered. These consisted of dural leaks and wound sepsis which were all treated effectively. All patients achieved radiological fusion. CONCLUSION: The use of modern segmental spinal instrumentation in the paediatric cervical spine is a viable option. Although the study sample was small we are able to demonstrate that no major surgical complications were encountered due to the use of adult cervical spinal instrumentation techniques in the paediatric group.

RN, Dunn; AH, Botha.

2014-01-01

392

Longitudinal ligaments of the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnosis of disruption of the posterior longitudinal ligament in disk herniation is important in deciding between surgical or percutaneous management of HNP. The normal ligaments studied on spine specimens are better seen on long repetition time (TR), short echo time (TE) images and appear as linear structures with very low signal intensity on all pulse sequences surrounding the outer anulus. The authors prospectively imaged 20 HNPs in 18 patients who underwent surgery. In eight cases, the posterior longitudinal ligament was seen intact around the HNP on both short TR, short TE and long TR, short TE images. All were subligamentous at surgery. MR imaging demonstrated disruption of the longitudinal ligament in ten cases because of interruption, absence around the disk fragment, or interposition between disk and fragment. The ligament was disrupted at surgery in only eight of these cases. The two false-positive images showed a pseudointerruption related to a chemical shift antifact. The two remaining studies were qualified as questionable. The overall sensitivity of MR imaging was 100%, and its specificity was 77%

393

Conjoined nerve root of the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been a number of reports on lumbosacral nerve root anomalies. Among the most common of these anomalies is the conjoined nerve root. However, it is difficult to diagnose this condition preoperatively. We review the records of 142 patients who underwent microendoscopic discectomy (MED) for herniation of the lumbar disc. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine before surgery. For most patients, only sagittal and axial images were obtained; coronal images were obtained in only a minority of the patients. Postoperative coronal images were obtained in patients with conjoined nerve roots. A diagnosis of conjoined nerve roots was made intraoperatively in 4 patients; this diagnosis had not been possible preoperatively. After surgery, new coronal images were obtained for the 4 patients with conjoined nerve roots; however, there was no evidence of the condition on the new images. The surgical procedure employed was endoscopic decompression and herniotomy. The results were favorable, even though pediculotomy was not performed. It is difficult to diagnose nerve root anomalies preoperatively. However, the possibility of nerve root anomalies should always be considered during surgery to ensure a safe procedure, without intraoperative occurrence of nerve root injury. (author)

394

Helical tomotherapy for spine oligometastases from gastrointestinal malignancies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated the treatment effectiveness and proper radiation dose of helical tomotherapy (HT) in spine oligometastases from gastrointestinal cancers. From 2006 to 2010, 20 gastrointestinal cancer patients were treated with HT for spine oligometastases (31 spine lesions). The gross tumor volume (GTV) was the tumor evident from magnetic resonance imaging images fused with simulation computed tomography images. Clinical target volume (CTV) encompassed involved vertebral bodies or dorsal elements. We assumed that the planning target volume was equal to the CTV. We assessed local control rate after HT for 31 spine metastases. Pain response was scored by using a numeric pain intensity scale (NPIS, from 0 to 10). Spine metastatic lesions were treated with median dose of 40 Gy (range, 24 to 51 Gy) and median 5 Gy per fraction (range, 2.5 to 8 Gy) to GTV with median 8 fractions (range, 3 to 20 fraction). Median biologically equivalent dose (BED, ?/? = 10 Gy) was 52 Gy10 (range, 37.5 to 76.8 Gy10) to GTV. Six month local control rate for spine metastasis was 90.3%. Overall infield failure rate was 15% and outfield failure rate was 75%. Most patients showed pain relief after HT (93.8%). Median local recurrence free survival was 3 months. BED over 57 Gy10 and oligometastases were identified as prognostic factors associated with improved local progression free survival (p = 0.012, p = 0.041). HT was capable of delivering higher BED to metastatic lesions in close proximiD to metastatic lesions in close proximity of the spinal cord. Spine metastases from gastrointestinal tumors were sensitive to high dose radiation, and BED (?/? = 10 Gy) higher than 57 Gy10 could improve local control.

395

MRI features of hydatid disease of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the typical MRI findings and to evaluate the value of MRI in the diagnosis of hydatid disease of the spine. Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 16 patients with hydatidosis of the spine evaluated with MRI. All patients had surgery with histological diagnosis. MR myelography (MRM) was done in 4 eases, contrast-enhanced scan in 2 cases and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in 1 case. X-ray was performed in 8 cases and CT in 5 cases. Results: All 16 cases were diagnosed as hydatid disease with multicysts. Hydatid disease involved thoracic spine in 5 cases, lumbar spine in 4 cases, sacrum in 3 eases, lumbosacral spine in 2 cases and a combination of thoracic, lumbar spine and sacrum in 2 cases. MR imaging showed bone destruction with wedge shaped compression of single or multiple vertebra. The lesions were round in contour with different sizes and involved the bony spinal canal, appendix of vertebra and neighboring soft tissues. Cystic lesions with multiple daughter cysts demonstrated long T1 and long T2 abnormal signal intensity on MR imaging. On T2-weighted images, a hypointense rim was seen. Cystic lesions were better seen on T2 SPIR and MRM. Mild contrast enhancement of these lesions were seen. A single case showed iso-perfusion on PWI. Conclusions: MRI can demonstrate hydatid cysts in vertebra, spinal canal, paravertebral and neighboring soft tissue. MRI is a valuable tool in the diagnosis anMRI is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment planning of hydatid disease of the spine. (authors)

396

[Canalith repositioning maneuver: proposal of a new therapy for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior semicircular canal].  

Science.gov (United States)

A new therapy is proposed for the treatment of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (B.P.P.V.) of the Posterior Semicircular Canal (P.S.C.): the Canalith Repositioning Maneuver (C.R.M.). The need for a new maneuver to treat B.P.P.V. of the P.S.C. arises from the difficulties encountered in daily practice, under particular conditions (i.e. elderly, obese, traumatized patients and in the presence of rachis pain, etc.), to perform the most common rehabilitative techniques such as the Semont Maneuver and Epley's Canalith Repositioning Procedure (C.R.P.). The results achieved using this new technique on a group of 47 consecutive out-patients are presented and compared to those achieved using the Semont Maneuver in an analogous group of 23 patients. C.R.M. and the Semont Maneuver were performed once per treatment session and all patients were checked every 3 days until the symptoms of B.P.P.V. disappeared. Thereafter they were invited to return for check-up if signs of vertigo returned (follow-up 6-25 months). The two techniques proved equally effective: 87.5% of the cases were resolved with C.R.M., 82.6% with the Semont Maneuver. However, the C.R.M. provided other advantages as it resolved the problem immediately (i.e. in a single session) in 81% of the cases vs. 68.4% for the Semont Maneuver. In view of the Canalith theory, the action mechanism envisaged for all three maneuvers--C.R.M., the Semont Maneuver and the Epley C.R.P.--can be explained assuming that the canalith passes from the ampullar to the non ampullar branch of the (P.S.C.) passing finally through the Common Duct and into the Utricle. C.R.M. is a specific treatment for the B.P.P.V. of the P.S.C. and is simple to perform, well tolerated and quite effective. It is indicated in all cases of B.P.P.V. of the P.S.C. both as initial treatment and as alternative to other treatment methods which have proved ineffective or difficult to perform. Indeed, in therapy it is best to be quite skilled in more than one technique, availing oneself of a full range possibilities; in this way the cure can be tailored to the patient in each individual case and not vice versa. PMID:10361743

D'Onofrio, F; Costa, G; Mazzone, A; Barillari, U

1998-10-01

397

Fibrin glue application in conjunction with tetracycline hydrochloride root conditioning and semilunar coronally repositioned flap in the treatment of gingival recession  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this case report is to present the results of Fibrin Adhesive System (FAS) application, a topical biological tissue adhesive in the treatment of maxillary buccal recessions. A 40-year-old male patient presented with a pair of class I buccal recession defects on maxillary cuspids. Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. Semilunar coronally repositioned flap (Tarnow's technique), root debridement, root conditioning with tetracycline hydrochloride solution and one of the defect was treated with FAS application. Significant recession, height reduction, and attachment gain were observed with the FAS application defect site. About 50% of root coverage was noted in the FAS-treated defect and almost no root coverage in the defect site with no FAS application. Semilunar coronally repositioned flap with FAS application is an effective procedure for root coverage in anterior teeth. The addition of FAS improves the amount of root coverage, especially in relatively shallow defects. PMID:21772728

George, Joann Pauline; Prabhuji, M. L. V.; Shaeesta, K. B.; Lazarus, Flemingson

2011-01-01

398

Gota axial / Gout in the spine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A gota axial pode afetar todos os segmentos da coluna vertebral. Ela se manifesta como dor nas costas, dor associada com sintomas neurológicos, e como comprometimento neurológico sem dor em 17,9%, 75,8% e 4,2% dos casos, respectivamente. Essas manifestações foram a primeira apresentação da gota em m [...] uitos pacientes. Embora radiografias, bem como tomografia computadorizada e especialmente ressonância magnética, possam ser muito sugestivos, análises histopatológicas, citológicas e pesquisa de cristais são o padrão ouro de diagnóstico. Na maioria dos casos que envolveram manifestações neurológicas, o paciente foi submetido à cirurgia, levando a resultados satisfatórios. Há, no entanto, alguns relatos de recuperação total após o tratamento clínico habitual para gota, o que sugere que esse tratamento pode ser a opção inicial para os indivíduos com histórico de gota e sinais radiológicos de envolvimento axial. Abstract in english Axial gout can affect all segments of the spine. It is manifested as back pain, as pain associated with neurological symptoms, and as neurological impairment without pain in 17.9%, 75.8% and 4.2% of cases, respectively. These manifestations were the first presentation of gout in many patients. Altho [...] ugh x-rays as well as computed tomography and especially magnetic resonance scans can be very suggestive, histopathological, cytological and crystal analyses are the diagnostic gold standard. In most cases involving neurological manifestations, the patient underwent surgery, leading to satisfactory results. There are, however, some reports of full recovery following the usual clinical treatment for gout, suggesting that such treatment may be the initial option for those subjects with a history of gout and radiological findings of axial involvement

Eduardo Massato, Hasegawa; Filipe Martins de, Mello; Cláudia, Goldenstein-Schainberg; Ricardo, Fuller.

2013-06-01

399

Aesthetic management of gingival recession by root biomodification with carbon dioxide laser and subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Localised gingival recessions continue to represent an important aesthetic condition requiring treatment in periodontics. Various techniques have been tried to treat exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics with high percentage of success and minimal discomfort. Root biomodification is done to improve the predictability of these procedures. This clinical report describes periodontal plastic procedure involving subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique and root biomodification with CO(2) laser for the management of gingival recession. PMID:22778454

Rastogi, Pavitra Kumar; Lal, Nand; Garg, Nimit; Anand, Vishal; Singhal, Rameshwari

2012-01-01

400

Fibrin glue application in conjunction with tetracycline hydrochloride root conditioning and semilunar coronally repositioned flap in the treatment of gingival recession  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this case report is to present the results of Fibrin Adhesive System (FAS) application, a topical biological tissue adhesive in the treatment of maxillary buccal recessions. A 40-year-old male patient presented with a pair of class I buccal recession defects on maxillary cuspids. Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. Semilunar coronally repositioned flap (Tarnow's technique), root debridement, root conditioning with tetracycline hydrochloride sol...

George, Joann Pauline; Prabhuji, M. L. V.; Shaeesta, K. B.; Lazarus, Flemingson

2011-01-01

401

Frameless linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases: analysis of patient repositioning using a mask fixation system and clinical outcomes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Purpose To assess the accuracy of patient repositioning and clinical outcomes of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases using a stereotactic mask fixation system. Patients and Methods One hundred two patients treated consecutively with frameless SRS as primary treatment at University of Rome Sapienza Sant'Andrea Hospital between October 2008 and April 2010 and followed prospectively were involved in the study. A commercial stereotactic mask fixation system (Br...

Minniti Giuseppe; Scaringi Claudia; Clarke Enrico; Valeriani Maurizio; Osti Mattia; Enrici Riccardo

2011-01-01

402

Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed  

OpenAIRE

Patient repositioning when the skin is moist, e.g., due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF) and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitativel...

AmitGefen

2013-01-01

403

Single-voxel recording of voltage transients in dendritic spines.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report sensitive recording of membrane potential in single dendritic spines in cortical neurons within a brain slice using two-photon excitation and a new, fluorinated, intracellularly loaded organic dye, di-2-AN(F)EPPTEA. With a two-photon excitation wavelength of 1060 nm, we achieve voltage sensitivity of >16% change in fluorescence per 100 mV. By targeting single spines in single-voxel recordings, we attain excellent single/noise quality, with back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) visible in single sweeps while recording at 10 kHz. This recording rate allows us to reliably assess fast bAP dynamics on single sweeps including bAP rise times of 0.5 ms. The amplitude and propagation delays of the bAPs are similar among different spines located within the same dendritic region, and this is true despite large differences in spine size. The interregion differences in bAP waveforms in spines vary in relation to their distance from the soma and the caliber of their parent dendrites. PMID:21767473

Acker, Corey D; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M

2011-07-20

404

Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale, which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS, can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars, neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia, Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth.

Federico Canavese

2013-01-01

405

Neurological deterioration during intubation in cervical spine disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaesthesiologists are often involved in the management of patients with cervical spine disorders. Airway management is often implicated in the deterioration of spinal cord function. Most evidence on neurological deterioration resulting from intubation is from case reports which suggest only association, but not causation. Most anaesthesiologists and surgeons probably believe that the risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) during intubation is largely due to mechanical compression produced by movement of the cervical spine. But it is questionable that the small and brief deformations produced during intubation can produce SCI. Difficult intubation, more frequently encountered in patients with cervical spine disorders, is likely to produce greater movement of spine. Several alternative intubation techniques are shown to improve ease and success, and reduce cervical spine movement but their role in limiting SCI is not studied. The current opinion is that most neurological injuries during anaesthesia are the result of prolonged deformation, impaired perfusion of the cord, or both. To prevent further neurological injury to the spinal cord and preserve spinal cord function, minimizing movement during intubation and positioning for surgery are essential. The features that diagnose laryngoscopy induced SCI are myelopathy present on recovery, short period of unconsciousness, autonomic disturbances following laryngoscopy, cranio-cervical junction disease or gross instability below C3. It is difficult to accept or refute the claim that neurological deterioration was induced by intubation. Hence, a record of adequate care at laryngoscopy and also perioperative period are important in the event of later medico-legal proceedings. PMID:25624530

Durga, Padmaja; Sahu, Barada Prasad

2014-01-01

406

Musical representation of dendritic spine distribution: a new exploratory tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic spines are small protrusions along the dendrites of many types of neurons in the central nervous system and represent the major target of excitatory synapses. For this reason, numerous anatomical, physiological and computational studies have focused on these structures. In the cerebral cortex the most abundant and characteristic neuronal type are pyramidal cells (about 85 % of all neurons) and their dendritic spines are the main postsynaptic target of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Thus, our understanding of the synaptic organization of the cerebral cortex largely depends on the knowledge regarding synaptic inputs to dendritic spines of pyramidal cells. Much of the structural data on dendritic spines produced by modern neuroscience involves the quantitative analysis of image stacks from light and electron microscopy, using standard statistical and mathematical tools and software developed to this end. Here, we present a new method with musical feedback for exploring dendritic spine morphology and distribution patterns in pyramidal neurons. We demonstrate that audio analysis of spiny dendrites with apparently similar morphology may "sound" quite different, revealing anatomical substrates that are not apparent from simple visual inspection. These morphological/music translations may serve as a guide for further mathematical analysis of the design of the pyramidal neurons and of spiny dendrites in general. PMID:24395057

Toharia, Pablo; Morales, Juan; de Juan, Octavio; Fernaud, Isabel; Rodríguez, Angel; DeFelipe, Javier

2014-04-01

407

Multidetector CT of blunt cervical spine trauma in adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of new developments in cervical spine imaging have transpired since the introduction of 64-section computed tomographic (CT) scanners in 2004. An increasing body of evidence favors the use of multidetector CT as a stand-alone screening test for excluding cervical injuries in polytrauma patients with obtundation. A new grading scale that is based on CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, the cervical spine Subaxial Injury Classification and Scoring (SLIC) system, is gaining acceptance among spine surgeons. Radiographic measurements described for the evaluation of craniocervical distraction injuries are now being reevaluated with the use of multidetector CT. Although most patients with blunt trauma are now treated nonsurgically, evolution in the understanding of spinal stability, as well as the development of new surgical techniques and hardware, has driven management strategies that are increasingly favorable toward surgical intervention. It is therefore essential that radiologists recognize findings that distinguish injuries with ligamentous instability or a high likelihood of nonfusion that require surgical stabilization from those that are classically stable and can be treated with a collar or halo vest alone. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of cervical spine injuries, from the craniocervical junction through the subaxial spine, and present the most widely used grading systems for each injury type. PMID:25384284

Dreizin, David; Letzing, Michael; Sliker, Clint W; Chokshi, Falgun H; Bodanapally, Uttam; Mirvis, Stuart E; Quencer, Robert M; Munera, Felipe

2014-01-01

408

Spatial Positioning of All 24 Chromosomes in the Lymphocytes of Six Subjects: Evidence of Reproducible Positioning and Spatial Repositioning following DNA Damage with Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultraviolet B  

Science.gov (United States)

The higher-order organization of chromatin is well-established, with chromosomes occupying distinct positions within the interphase nucleus. Chromatin is susceptible to, and constantly assaulted by both endogenous and exogenous threats. However, the effects of DNA damage on the spatial topology of chromosomes are hitherto, poorly understood. This study investigates the organization of all 24 human chromosomes in lymphocytes from six individuals prior to- and following in-vitro exposure to genotoxic agents: hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet B. This study is the first to report reproducible distinct hierarchical radial organization of chromosomes with little inter-individual differences between subjects. Perturbed nuclear organization was observed following genotoxic exposure for both agents; however a greater effect was observed for hydrogen peroxide including: 1) More peripheral radial organization; 2) Alterations in the global distribution of chromosomes; and 3) More events of chromosome repositioning (18 events involving 10 chromosomes vs. 11 events involving 9 chromosomes for hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet B respectively). Evidence is provided of chromosome repositioning and altered nuclear organization following in-vitro exposure to genotoxic agents, with notable differences observed between the two investigated agents. Repositioning of chromosomes following genotoxicity involved recurrent chromosomes and is most likely part of the genomes inherent response to DNA damage. The variances in nuclear organization observed between the two agents likely reflects differences in mobility and/or decondensation of chromatin as a result of differences in the type of DNA damage induced, chromatin regions targeted, and DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:25756782

Kandukuri, Lakshmi; Quadri, Ameer; Becerra, Victor; Simpson, Joe Leigh

2015-01-01

409

Loss of PSD-95 enrichment is not a prerequisite for spine retraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in neuronal structure are thought to underlie long-term behavioral modifications associated with learning and memory. In particular, considerable evidence implicates the destabilization and retraction of dendritic spines along with the loss of spine synapses as an important cellular mechanism for refining brain circuits, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating spine elimination remain ill-defined. The postsynaptic density protein, PSD-95, is highly enriched in dendritic spines and has been associated with spine stability. Because spines with low levels of PSD-95 are more dynamic, and the recruitment of PSD-95 to nascent spines has been associated with spine stabilization, we hypothesized that loss of PSD-95 enrichment would be a prerequisite for spine retraction. To test this hypothesis, we used dual-color time-lapse two-photon microscopy to monitor rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons cotransfected with PSD-95-GFP and DsRed-Express, and we analyzed the relationship between PSD-95-GFP enrichment and spine morphological changes. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that the majority of spines that retracted were relatively unenriched for PSD-95-GFP. However, in the subset of PSD-95-GFP-enriched spines that retracted, spine shrinkage and loss of PSD-95-GFP were tightly coupled, suggesting that loss of PSD-95-GFP enrichment did not precede spine retraction. Moreover, we found that, in some instances, spine retraction resulted in a significant enrichment of PSD-95-GFP on the dendritic shaft. Our data support a model of spine retraction in which loss of PSD-95 enrichment is not required prior to the destabilization of spines. PMID:21865455

Woods, Georgia F; Oh, Won Chan; Boudewyn, Lauren C; Mikula, Sarah K; Zito, Karen

2011-08-24

410

Pervasive sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

The coordinated exploitation of modern communication, micro- sensor and computer technologies makes it possible to give global reach to our senses. Web-cameras for vision, web- microphones for hearing and web-'noses' for smelling, plus the abilities to sense many factors we cannot ordinarily perceive, are either available or will be soon. Applications include (1) determination of weather and environmental conditions on dense grids or over large areas, (2) monitoring of energy usage in buildings, (3) sensing the condition of hardware in electrical power distribution and information systems, (4) improving process control and other manufacturing, (5) development of intelligent terrestrial, marine, aeronautical and space transportation systems, (6) managing the continuum of routine security monitoring, diverse crises and military actions, and (7) medicine, notably the monitoring of the physiology and living conditions of individuals. Some of the emerging capabilities, such as the ability to measure remotely the conditions inside of people in real time, raise interesting social concerns centered on privacy issues. Methods for sensor data fusion and designs for human-computer interfaces are both crucial for the full realization of the potential of pervasive sensing. Computer-generated virtual reality, augmented with real-time sensor data, should be an effective means for presenting information from distributed sensors.

Nagel, David J.

2000-11-01

411

Promoter-proximal transcription factor binding is transcriptionally active when coupled with nucleosome repositioning in immediate vicinity  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have analyzed patterns of transcription, transcription factor (TF) binding or mapped nucleosome occupancy across the genome. These suggest that the three aspects are genetically connected but the cause and effect relationships are still unknown. For example, physiologic TF binding studies involve many TFs, consequently, it is difficult to assign nucleosome reorganization to the binding site occupancy of any particular TF. Therefore, several aspects remain unclear: does TF binding influence nucleosome (re)organizations locally or impact the chromatin landscape at a more global level; are all or only a fraction of TF binding a result of reorganization in nucleosome occupancy and do all TF binding and associated changes in nucleosome occupancy result in altered gene expression? With these in mind, following characterization of two states (before and after induction of a single TF of choice) we determined: (i) genomic binding sites of the TF, (ii) promoter nucleosome occupancy and (iii) transcriptome profiles. Results demonstrated that promoter-proximal TF binding influenced expression of the target gene when it was coupled to nucleosome repositioning at or close to its binding site in most cases. In contrast, only in few cases change in target gene expression was found when TF binding occurred without local nucleosome reorganization. PMID:25081206

Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Thakur, Ram Krishna; Eckloff, Bruce; Baral, Aradhita; Singh, Ankita; Halder, Rashi; Kumar, Akinchan; Alam, Mohammad Parwez; Kundu, Tapas K.; Pandita, Raj; Pandita, Tej K.; Wieben, Eric D.; Chowdhury, Shantanu

2014-01-01

412

Repositioning accuracy of cerebral fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy using CT scanning; Evaluation par tomodensitometrie du repositionnement en radiotherapie stereotaxique fractionnee cerebrale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of patient repositioning in fractionated cerebral stereotactic radiotherapy using a Brain Lab stereotactic cranial mask in conjunction with standard dental fixation. Patients and methods: Fifty planning and checking CT scans were performed in 25 patients. The check CT scan was performed before or after one of the three sessions of treatment. Co registration to the planning CT scan was used to assess alignment of the iso centre to the reference markers. The relative position of the P.T.V. with regard to iso centre allowed us to determine its total displacement (3-dimensional vector). Results: Mean iso centre translations ({+-} S.D.) taking into account direction were -0.01 {+-} 0.7, -0.2 {+-} 1.3 and 0.07 {+-} 0.5 mm in medio-lateral, cranio caudal and anteroposterior directions respectively. Mean rotations ({+-}S.D.) were -0.02 {+-} 0.6, -0.08 {+-} 0.3 and -0.1 {+-} 0.3 degree in medio-lateral, cranio caudal and anteroposterior axes respectively. Mean overall P.T.V. displacement was 1.8 {+-} 1.5 mm. P.T.V. displacement was smaller than 2 and 3 mm in 19/25 and 23/25 patients respectively. Conclusion: The accuracy of patient positioning using a stereotactic cranial mask system is similar to those reported in the literature and shows a satisfactory reproducibility with a standard dental fixation. (authors)

Pasquier, D.; Dubus, F.; Castelain, B.; Delplanque, M.; Lartigau, E. [Centre O.-Lambret, Dept. Universitaire de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France); Pasquier, D. [Centre Galilee, Polyclinique de la Louviere, 59 - Lille (France); Bernier, V.; Buchheit, I. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Kerr, C.; Santoro, I. [Centre Val d' Aurelle, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 34 - Montpellier (France); Huchet, A.; Causse, N. [Hopital Saint-Andre, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Dubus, F.; Castelain, B.; Delplanque, M.; Lartigau, E. [Lille-2 Univ., 59 (France)

2009-09-15

413

Vitrectomía pars plana y reimplante de lente intraocular en surco / Pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular lens repositioning in the sulcus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se presentó un caso de lente intraocular luxado a vítreo en paciente con conteo bajo de células endoteliales e intolerancia a lentes de contacto. Se practicó vitrectomía pars plana con reimplante de lente en surco ciliar con el objetivo de demostrar la fiabilidad de la técnica para casos que present [...] en condiciones adecuadas y situaciones especiales. Se revisó la bibliografía para conocer las tendencias actuales con respecto al manejo de esta patología. El paciente alcanzó una agudeza visual de 20/30. El lente permaneció estable en el surco 3 meses después de practicada la vitrectomía. El manejo de esta entidad debe ser personalizado. La técnica utilizada debe ser siempre la primera opción de tratamiento y parece ser segura en casos cuidadosamente escogidos. Abstract in english A case of dislocated intraocular lens moved to the vitreous cavity in a patient with low endothelial cell count and contact lens intolerance was reported. A pars plana vitrectomy with lens repositioning was performed to demonstrate the safety of this technique for some special cases under adequate c [...] onditions. The literature was reviewed to learn about the current management of this pathology. Finally, patient's best visual acuity was 20/30. The stability of the lens was confirmed three month l after the vitrectomy. Management of this disorder should be customized. This technique should be considered as the first option of treatment and seems to be safe in selected cases.

Alejandro, Guerra García; Luis, Curbelo Cunill; Frank, Eguía Martínez; María del Carmen, Rivas Canino.

414

Promoter-proximal transcription factor binding is transcriptionally active when coupled with nucleosome repositioning in immediate vicinity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have analyzed patterns of transcription, transcription factor (TF) binding or mapped nucleosome occupancy across the genome. These suggest that the three aspects are genetically connected but the cause and effect relationships are still unknown. For example, physiologic TF binding studies involve many TFs, consequently, it is difficult to assign nucleosome reorganization to the binding site occupancy of any particular TF. Therefore, several aspects remain unclear: does TF binding influence nucleosome (re)organizations locally or impact the chromatin landscape at a more global level; are all or only a fraction of TF binding a result of reorganization in nucleosome occupancy and do all TF binding and associated changes in nucleosome occupancy result in altered gene expression? With these in mind, following characterization of two states (before and after induction of a single TF of choice) we determined: (i) genomic binding sites of the TF, (ii) promoter nucleosome occupancy and (iii) transcriptome profiles. Results demonstrated that promoter-proximal TF binding influenced expression of the target gene when it was coupled to nucleosome repositioning at or close to its binding site in most cases. In contrast, only in few cases change in target gene expression was found when TF binding occurred without local nucleosome reorganization. PMID:25081206

Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Thakur, Ram Krishna; Eckloff, Bruce; Baral, Aradhita; Singh, Ankita; Halder, Rashi; Kumar, Akinchan; Alam, Mohammad Parwez; Kundu, Tapas K; Pandita, Raj; Pandita, Tej K; Wieben, Eric D; Chowdhury, Shantanu

2014-09-01

415

Different therapeutic mechanisms of rigid and semi-rigid mandibular repositioning devices in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

To clarify the mechanisms of rigid and semi-rigid mandibular repositioning devices (MRDs) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), seven and 13 patients received rigid and semi-rigid MRDs, respectively. Each patient underwent polysomnographic and computed tomographic examinations at the initial consultation and after symptom improvement. Three-dimensional models of the upper airway (hard palate level to epiglottic base) were reconstructed by image processing software (Mimics version 14.2) to measure airway morphology. The mean age and body mass index were 58.1 years and 24.8 kg/m(2), respectively, in the rigid MRD group and 57.9 years and 23.2 kg/m(2), respectively, in the semi-rigid MRD group. The apnea-hypopnea index significantly improved (P sleep in the respective groups. The cross-sectional areas measured at the epiglottic tip (from 2.0 to 2.6 cm(2)) and hard palate (from 2.6 to 3.3 cm(2)) levels also increased in the respective groups (P < 0.05). However, airway volume, cross-sectional area measured at the uvular tip level, and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the airway were not significantly different. In conclusion, both types of MRDs improve respiratory status, but they affect different parts of the airway. PMID:24969766

Suga, Hokuto; Mishima, Katsuaki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Asuka; Matsumura, Mayumi; Mano, Takamitsu; Yamasaki, Youichi; Ueyama, Yoshiya

2014-12-01

416

Balance in posterior and horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo before and after canalith repositioning maneuvers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by acute, brief and rotatory vertigo attacks provoked by changes in head position. Most patients complain of a loss of equilibrium and unstable gait during and between the vertigo attacks. Canalith repositioning maneuvers (CRM) relieve attacks and improve postural stability. In this study balance ability of 32 patients with PC BPPV and 12 patients with HC BPPV before and after treatment with CRM was investigated. 50 healthy volunteers served as the control group. Static balance was measured as mean center of gravity sway velocity recorded in four different conditions: on a static platform and on foam with eyes open and closed. Dynamic balance was measured in tandem walk test. PC BPPV patients demonstrated greater sway velocity in stance on foam with eyes closed. After CRM the velocity decreased significantly. The results of the HC BPPV patients were not different from the healthy volunteers all through the four test conditions. Walking speed of the patients both with PC BPPV and HC BPPV was significantly low. It increased after treatment in both groups. In conclusion, patients with PC BPPV had impaired static balance ability due to a clot in the affected canal. Dynamic balance ability measured by walking speed was impaired both in PC and HC BPPV patients. Static and dynamic deficits improved significantly after CRM. PMID:19138524

Celebisoy, Ne?e; Bayam, Ece; Güleç, Feray; Köse, Timur; Akyürekli, Onder

2009-04-01

417

Student apathy for classroom learning and need of repositioning in present andragogy in Indian dental schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the world of technology, when today's student is approaching the on-line /distance learning in the open universities and doing on-line self-assessment, the classroom learning is vanishing slowly. Globally, teachers are taking efforts to improve the pedagogy by implementing effective methods to retain the classroom teaching and student attendance. The present study aims at shedding some light on the need of changing the adult education strategies (andragogy, which can effectively improve the student attendance for lectures. Methods It is an observational study, and the conceptual framework of it is based on beliefs, opinions and personal experiences of the respondents. Triangulation method is used for collecting the data. The data is achieved from three groups of concerned population who could provide valid results to support the study. It is collected by interviewing 10 senior faculty members who are/were the 'education experts' in the universities, while the main concerned groups of present educational stream, i.e. 'institution-teachers' and the 'students', were given questionnaires. 570 teacher respondents and 200 student respondents are the main participants of this study. Results As per data, it has been observed that senior faculty (90% and students (93.25% feel need of student motivation more than the institutional teachers (52.44%. P-values were obtained using Chi-Square test for testing the significance of difference between agreement and disagreement for a specific question. Conclusions In India, Universities have already sensed the need of 'teacher development programmes'. But teachers in dental colleges, demand more efforts to be taken by universities and managements in this regard and expect better educational policies to give them accessibility to prove themselves.

Dable Rajani A

2012-11-01

418

Improved MR imaging of the cervical spine, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparative study of incidence of disk protrusion was performed on the basis of MR imaging in a state of flexion versus extension. The results showed that the incidnece of disk protrusion at each disk level was generally higher on the extension images than on the flexion images at the corresponding levels. The degree of difference in the incidence of the disk protrusion on flexion and extension was the greatest at the mid-cervical level spine. Based on the results with respect to features of the cervical spine in extension and flexion, it appears that the difference in incidence of disk protrusion is probably caused by movement in response to bending of the cervical spine. These results may provide information concerning the dynamic of cervical disks and may partly explain cases in which patients have symptoms of cervical myelopathy and/or radiculopathy but have no disk protrusion on images in the neutral position. (author)

419

Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry of the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry of the lumbar spine was performed in 300 subjects of both sexes ranging in age from 21 to 90 years. Two different systems were used (Hologic QRD-1000 and Lunar DPX). Data were derived for individual levels and for the entire spine. In a subgroup of patients, results were compared with those obtained by dual-photon absorptiometry of the lumbar spine with a Lunar DP3 system. There was a high correlation between results obtained by the three methods (r = .9, P < .0001), and data interconversion factors were calculated. Among patients with risk factors for osteopenia, bone density was significantly (P < .05) decreased as compared with age- and sex-matched controls

420

[Indications for surgical management of injuries of the cervical spine].  

Science.gov (United States)

The indication for operative treatment of serious injuries to the cervical spine is basically determinated by instability and dislocation. Timing of the operation is based on the neurological deficit. If there is a chance for recovery operative treatment is urgent. For the upper cervical spine defined indications are existing for type-2-fractures of the dens and C 2/C 3-instabilities of the hangman-type with major dislocation. Fractures of C 0 and C 1 are preferably treated by conservative methods. Only cases with compound injury patterns with a high degree of ligamentous instability may require dorsal fusion. For serious injuries of the lower cervical spine operative treatment is needed in most instances. Conservative treatment is only indicated if functional stability can be proofed and injuries to the discs and compression to the myelon are ruled out. PMID:9757535

Bühren, V; Hofmeister, M; Militz, M; Potulski, M

1998-01-01

421

Granuloma formation induced by spines of the cactus, Opuntia acanthocarpa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Embedded cactus spines may cause immediate pain due to mechanical damage, be a source of infection, or result in foreign body granulomas. The cholla cacti are particularly tenacious in the manner in which the spines stay embedded in the skin. Pulling away from the cactus may result in a portion breaking away from the main plant and embedding other spines. Granuloma formation has been seen with plant material embedded in the dermis. Onset is generally within a few days, and duration may be as long as 9 mo. Treatment is generally best accomplished with a topical corticosteroid. We present a case of granuloma caused by the cactus Opuntia acanthocarpa which persisted for 8 w despite topical treatment with 0.05% fluocinonide. PMID:1897129

Spoerke, D G; Spoerke, S E

1991-08-01

422

Spinal CT scan, 2. Lumbar and sacral spines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plain CT described fairly accurately the anatomy and lesions of the lumbar and sacral spines on their transverse sections. Since hernia of the intervertebral disc could be directly diagnosed by CT, indications of myelography could be restricted. Spinal-canal stenosis of the lumbar spine occurs because of various factors, and CT not only demonstrated the accurate size and morphology of bony canals, but also elucidated thickening of the joints and yellow ligament. CT was also useful for the diagnosis of tumors in the lumbar and sacral spines, visualizing the images of bone changes and soft tissues on the trasverse sections. But the diagnosis of intradural tumors required myelography and metrizamide CT. CT has become important for the diagnosis of spinal and spinal-cord diseases and for selection of the route of surgical arrival.

Nakagawa, Hiroshi (Aichi Medical Univ., Aichi (Japan))

1982-08-01

423

NMR imaging of degenerative changes of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computerized tomography and nuclear spin resonance tomography, are today considered excellent ways of demonstrating herniae of intervertebral disks, especially in the lumbal region, at high sensitivity and accuracy. The facility of multiplanar imaging without reconstruction, the clearly greater amount of information by using different pulse sequences, better contrast resolution, and lacking ionizing radiation speak in favour of nuclear spin resonance tomography. Using nulcear spin resonance tomography, in all parts of the spine the excellent demonstration of the epidural space, of the myeloma, of the nerve roots as well as of the surrounding osseous and ligamentous structure is achieved. So, for the diagnosis of discopathies in the region of the cervical spine nuclear spin resonance tomography should be preferred to computerized tomography. In the region of the lumbar spine, however, CT will be of importance in the diagnosis of discopathies for some time. (orig./MG)

424

Importance of lateral spine view in DEXA bone densitometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement is an invaluable technique for assessing fracture risk in suspected cases of osteoporosis. The routine procedure includes AP spine and hip views. But quite often there are discordant results between them, bone mineral concentration (BMC) in the AP spine appears higher than hip. Our study was done to establish the importance of lateral spine view. The lateral view would provide better scope to draw the ROI perfectly and so BMC would be more accurately measured. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study a total of 60 consecutive patients (48F, 12M) were evaluated for bone densitometric measurements. The age group was 35 - 80 years (Mean 59 years). None of the patients received estrogen, biphosphonates or steroid therapy. Bone density of the hip and lumbar spine were measured with Norland XR 36. The T-score, which measures the difference between patient's BMD and young-normal was computed and age-matched Z-score were calculated. X-ray correlation was also done in most of the cases. Results: When we analyzed the femoral neck values, 30 cases were osteoporotic and 23 were osteopenic whereas according to AP spine views only 20 were osteoporotic and 30 were osteopenic. So, clearly a significant number of patients having osteoporosis were interpreted as osteopenia (P0.05). But in the same vertebra theres (P>0.05). But in the same vertebra there were significant differences (P<0.05) of BMC measured with AP and lateral views. Conclusion: The lateral view can exclude the posterior element of the vertebra as well as the aorta anteriorly, where a high incidence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques are present. AP view includes these drawbacks resulting in falsely higher BMC. Lateral spine view can eliminate these problems and so it provides an important role in BMD measurements. The authors recommend that it should be included in routine practice

425

Recurrent spine surgery patients in hospital administrative database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital patient databases are typically used by administrative staff to estimate loss-profit ratios and to help with the allocation of hospital resources. These databases can also be very useful in following rehospitalization. This paper studies the recurrence of spine surgery patients in our hospital population based on administrative data analysis. Methods: Hospital data on 4,958 spine surgery patients operated between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. After sorting the cohort per ascending discharge date, the patient official name, consisting of first, middle and last names, was used as the variable determining duplicate cases in the SPSS statistical program, designating the first case in each group as primary. Yearly recurrence rate and change in procedure distribution were studied. In addition, hospital charges and length of stay were compared using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of 4,958 spine surgery patients 364 (7.3% were categorized as duplicate cases by SPSS. The number of primary cases from which duplicate cases emerged was 327 meaning that some patients had more than two spine surgeries. Among primary patients (N=327 the percentage of excision of intervertebral disk procedures was 33.3% and decreased to 15.1% in recurrent admissions of the same patients (N=364. This decrease was compensated by an increase in lumbar fusion procedures. On the other hand, the rate of cervical fusion remained the same. The difference in hospital charges between primary and duplicate patients was $2,234 for diskectomy, $6,319 for anterior cervical fusion, $8,942 for lumbar fusion – lateral technique, and $12,525 for lumbar fusion – posterior technique. Recurrent patients also stayed longer in hospital, up to 0.9 day in lumbar fusion – posterior technique patients. Conclusion: Spine surgery is associated with an increasing possibility of additional spine surgery with rising invasiveness and cost.

M. Sami Walid

2012-02-01

426

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime

427

Roentgenological diagnosis of the functioning of the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basing on literature and 230 own functional examinations of the cervical spine, the author reports on a reontgenological method which satisfies practical requirements. In patients with degenerative and post-traumatic changes, the extent and localisation of the disorders of function and structure of the vertebrae can be determined by this method, enabling discovery of functional disorders in a large number of patients with clinical cervical spine syndrome. X-ray functional testing is shown to be a necessary complement to conventional X-ray diagnosis and clinical examination. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB

428

CT examination of the spine and the spinal canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analogous to its other fields of application, CT of the spine and the spinal canal has also already achieved a permanent place among the diagnostic methods. Numerically, CT studies of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine for our patient population with a total of 460 examinations are in the ratio 2:1:4.5. The essential advantages are improved differential diagnosis for many processes, the exact breakdown of the degree of extraspinal and intraspinal involvement in the change, the increasing limitation of myelography and last but not least the possibility of reducing cost. (orig.)

429

Interobserver discrepancies in distance measurements from lumbar spine CT scans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lumbar spine computed tomographic (CT) scans of 10 patients were examined independently at two levels by five experienced radiologists. At each level the minimum midline sagittal diameter was measured, and at each intervertebral space the left foramen was measured for its minimum diameter. Statistically significant differences were found between the measurements of different observers, differences that in a number of cases could have led to disagreement over whether or not stenosis was present. There were reasonably strong correlations between different observers' readings of midline sagittal diameters but generally not of foraminal diameters. Reasons for discrepancies between observers in spine CT measurements are reviewed briefly

430

Optimal computed-tomographic techniques for cervical spine imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors compare various techniques for optimal computed-tomographic imaging of the cervical spine and find that no single method is adequate for visualizing all anatomic structures. Thin sections are needed to obtain images of intervertebral disks, but thick sections are preferred to obtain images of the spinal cord. Spatial resolution is more important than contrast resolution when imaging the vertebrae. Small-body calibration is recommended for adequate cervical spine visualization, although some artifacts can be minimized when large-body calibration is used

431

Study on calcium concentration in the spine by computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcium concentrations in the spine were estimated by a calculation method for calcium concentrations in bones using a whole body CT-scanner, EMI CT 5005/12. The CT value (EMI value) in decalcified bones was 19.7 +- 1.2. There was a linear relationship between CT values and calcium concentrations (0.83). Calcium concentrations in bone tissues were estimated from CT values. Calcium concentration in the spine showed its peak in both men and women in their twenties and thirties, and it decreased with aging. Expecially, calcium concentration in women decreased rapidly after the age of fifty. (Tsunoda, M.)

432

Biometric X-ray-function diagnosis of the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subject of this study was the investigation of functional disorders of the cervical spine and their possible causal relation with the symptoms and signs of pathological cervical images. In order to approach this investigation with objectively measurable time criteria, functional X-ray diagnostics results to be the appropriate method. From the results obtained in individual and statistical group examinations as well as in examinations of the longitudinal section the conclusion is drawn that a functional disorder of the cervical spine may provoke a cervical syndrome. (APR)

433

Skeletal changes in growing spine following radiotherapy of tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis is given of a group of 20 children after nephrectomy and radiotherapy of Wilms' tumor and of one child following ovariectomy and radiotherapy of a dysgermanoma more than 5 years after the termination of the therapy. Morphological and structural changes were evaluated in the vertebrae as well as axial alterations of the spine. Interrelationships were found between the radiation dose, the patient's age and the degree of the skeletal changes in the spine. The most pronounced morphological, structural and axial changes occurred in children below 4 years treated with radiation doses above 20.0 Gy. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 3 refs

434

Categorical exhibit imaging of adult cervical spine trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Routine radiographs remain the most effective screening technique in evaluation of spinal trauma. The data obtained from these views are often sufficient to determine the mechanism and stability of the injury. Decisions regarding additional techniques can be made based on plain film findings and the patient's clinical status. The value of routine views and mechanisms of cervical spine trauma will be demonstrated. Case examples of injuries to the upper and lower cervical spine and combination injuries will be presented. The areas where certain special studies specifically CT and conventional tomography, are most useful will be emphasized

435

History of spine surgery in older obese patients  

OpenAIRE

Goal: To study the interaction of obesity and age in patients with multiple spine surgeries.Methods: Data on the body mass index (BMI) of 956 patients were collected and classified into four groups: non-obese (BMI =30 kg/m2), obese-class II (BMI >=35 kg/m2) and obese-class III (BMI >=40 kg/m2). Patients' age was categorized into the following age groups: =66. T-test and Chi-square test were applied using SPSS v16.Results: In lumbar patients aged >=66 years with previous spine surgery, the ...

Walid, Ms; Zaytseva, N.

2011-01-01

436

Piecewise linear spine for speed-energy efficiency trade-off in quadruped robots  

OpenAIRE

We compare the effects of linear and piecewise linear compliant spines on locomotion performance of quadruped robots in terms of energy efficiency and locomotion speed through a set of simulations and experiments. We first present a simple locomotion system that behaviorally resembles a bounding quadruped with flexible spine. Then, we show that robots with linear compliant spines have higher locomotion speed and lower cost of transportation in comparison with those with rigid spine. However, ...

Khoramshahi, Mahdi; Bidgoly, Hamed Jalaly; Shafiee, Soroosh; Asaei, Ali; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili

2013-01-01

437

Synaptic Regulation of Microtubule Dynamics in Dendritic Spines by Calcium, F-Actin, and Drebrin  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines are actin-rich compartments that protrude from the microtubule-rich dendritic shafts of principal neurons. Spines contain receptors and postsynaptic machinery for receiving the majority of glutamatergic inputs. Recent studies have shown that microtubules polymerize from dendritic shafts into spines and that signaling through synaptic NMDA receptors regulates this process. However, the mechanisms regulating microtubule dynamics in dendrites and spines remain unclear. Here we s...

Merriam, Elliott B.; Millette, Matthew; Lumbard, Derek C.; Saengsawang, Witchuda; Fothergill, Thomas; Hu, Xindao; Ferhat, Lotfi; Dent, Erik W.

2013-01-01

438

Dendritic cable with active spines: a modeling study in the spike-diffuse-spike framework  

OpenAIRE

The spike-diffuse-spike (SDS) model describes a passive dendritic tree with active dendritic spines. Spine-head dynamics is modelled with a simple integrate-and-fire process, whilst communication between spines is mediated by the cable equation. Here we develop a computational framework that allows the study of multiple spiking events in a network of such spines embedded in a simple one-dimensional cable. This system is shown to support saltatory waves as a result of the discrete distributi...

Timofeeva, Yulia; Lord, Gabriel; Coombes, Stephen

2005-01-01

439

Release of calcium from stores alters the morphology of dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons  

OpenAIRE

The ability to monitor ongoing changes in the shape of dendritic spines has important implications for the understanding of the functional correlates of the great variety of shapes and sizes of dendritic spines in central neurons. We have monitored and three-dimensionally reconstructed dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons over several hours of observation in a confocal laser scanning microscope. In the absence of extrinsic stimulation, the dimensions of dendritic spines of 3-week-...

Korkotian, E.; Segal, M

1999-01-01

440

Stochasticity in Ca$^{2+}$ increase in spines enables robust and sensitive information coding  

OpenAIRE

A dendritic spine is a very small structure (~0.1 {\\mu}m$^3$) of a neuron that processes input timing information. Why are spines so small? Here, we provide functional reasons; the size of spines is optimal for information coding. Spines code input timing information by the probability of Ca$^{2+}$ increases, which makes robust and sensitive information coding possible. We created a stochastic simulation model of input timing-dependent Ca$^{2+}$ increases in a cerebellar Pur...

Koumura, Takuya; Urakubo, Hidetoshi; Ohashi, Kaoru; Fujii, Masashi; Kuroda, Shinya

2013-01-01

441

The trouble with spines in fragile X syndrome: density, maturity and plasticity  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines are the principal recipients of excitatory synaptic inputs and the basic units of neural computation in the mammalian brain. Alterations in the density, size, shape, turnover of mature spines, or defects in how spines are generated and establish synapses during brain development, could all result in neuronal dysfunction and lead to cognitive and/or behavioral impairments. That spines are abnormal in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and in the best-studied animal model of this disorde...

He, Cynthia X.; Portera-cailliau, Carlos

2012-01-01

442

Osteochondroma of the cervical spine: Report of two cases in preadolescent males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although considered to be rare in the spine, osteochondromas are in fact found there as often as other benign bone tumors. Three percent of all osteochondromas occur in the spine, while forty percent of osteoblastomas are to be found there. Yet, because osteochondromas are so much more common overall than osteoblastomas, their actual occurrences in the spine can be expected to be equal. Two cases of osteochondroma of the cervical spine, one of which was diagnosed by computed tomography, are reported. (orig.)

443

The Relationship of SmokingOpioidAntidepressant Use and History of Spine Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: In a recent paper, smoking was shown to be an independent predictor of longterm continued opioid use in spine patients (Krebs et al. 2010). In this paper, we study the interaction of smoking with opioid and antidepressant use and the relationship with prior spine surgery and future spine surgery. Methods: Data on smoking, opioid and antidepressant use were retrospectively collected from 758 spine surgery inpatients [lumbar microdiskectomy (LMD), anterior cervical decompression a...

Walid Mohammad; Zaytseva Nadezhda

2010-01-01

444

Matrix metalloproteinase-7 disrupts dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons through NMDA receptor activation  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic spines are protrusions from the dendritic shaft that host most excitatory synapses in the brain. Although they first emerge during neuronal maturation, dendritic spines remain plastic through adulthood, and recent advances in the molecular mechanisms governing spine morphology have shown them to be exquisitely sensitive to changes in the micro-environment. Among the many factors affecting spine morphology are components and regulators of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Modification ...

Bilousova, Tina V.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Ethell, Douglas W.; Ethell, Iryna M.

2006-01-01

445

Lateral radiological evaluation of transarticular screw placement in the lower cervical spine  

OpenAIRE

This study assessed the ideal district of lateral radiograph in evaluation of transarticular screw placement in the lower cervical spine. To assess the ideal zone of lateral radiographs in determining the safe or hazardous locations of the screw tips during transarticular screw implantation in the lower cervical spine. Transarticular screw in the lower cervical spine had been used as an alternative technique to achieve posterior cervical spine stability. Injury to the spinal nerves caused by ...

Xu, Rongming; Zhao, Liujun; Chai, Bo; Ma, Weihu; Xia, Huajie; Wang, Guoping; Jiang, Weiyu

2009-01-01

446

Descriptive findings on the morphology of dendritic spines in the rat medial amygdala.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a brain area in which gonadal hormones induce notable plastic effects in the density of dendritic spines. Dendritic spines are post-synaptic specializations whose shape and spacing change neuronal excitability. Our aim was to obtain new data on the dendritic spines morphology and density from MePD neurons using the carbocyanine dye DiI under confocal microscopy. In adult male rats, the dendritic spine density of the medial branches of the left MePD (mean+/-SD) was 1.15+/-0.67spines/dendritic microm. From the total sampled, approximately 53% of the spines were classified as thin, 22.5% as "mushroom-like", and 21.5% as stubby/wide. Other spine shapes (3%) included those ramified, with a filopodium-like or a gemule appearance, and others with a protruding spinule. Additional experiment joining DiI and synaptophysin (a pre-synaptic protein) labeling suggested synaptic sites on dendritic shafts and spines. Dendritic spines showed synaptophysin puncta close to their head and neck, although some spines had no evident labeled puncta on them or, conversely, multiple puncta appeared upon one spine. These results advance previous light microscopy results by revealing features and complexities of the dendritic spines at the same time that give new insight on the possible synaptic organization of the adult rat MePD. PMID:20691759

Brusco, Janaína; Dall'Oglio, Aline; Rocha, Lenaldo B; Rossi, Marcos A; Moreira, Jorge E; Rasia-Filho, Alberto A

2010-10-11

447

The structure and function of actin cytoskeleton in mature glutamatergic dendritic spines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic spines are actin-rich protrusions from the dendritic shaft, considered to be the locus where most synapses occur, as they receive the vast majority of excitatory connections in the central nervous system (CNS). Interestingly, hippocampal spines are plastic structures that contain a dense array of molecules involved in postsynaptic signaling and synaptic plasticity. Since changes in spine shape and size are correlated with the strength of excitatory synapses, spine morphology directly reflects spine function. Therefore several neuropathologies are associated with defects in proteins located at the spines. The present work is focused on the spine actin cytoskeleton attending to its structure and function mainly in glutamatergic neurons. It addresses the study of the structural plasticity of dendritic spines associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) and the mechanisms that underlie learning and memory formation. We have integrated the current knowledge on synaptic proteins to relate this plethora of molecules with actin and actin-binding proteins. We further included recent findings that outline key uncharacterized proteins that would be useful to unveil the real ultrastructure and function of dendritic spines. Furthermore, this review is directed to understand how such spine diversity and interplay contributes to the regulation of spine morphogenesis and dynamics. It highlights their physiological relevance in the brain function, as well as it provides insights for pathological processes affecting dramatically dendritic spines, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24854120

Bellot, Alba; Guivernau, Biuse; Tajes, Marta; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Valls-Comamala, Victòria; Muñoz, Francisco J

2014-07-21