WorldWideScience

Sample records for spine reposition sense

  1. Repositioning of the caudal septal dislocations with notching and suturing the cartilage to the nasal spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akduman, Davut; Haksever, Mehmet; Yanilmaz, Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    We aim to define a cartilage reshaping and repositioning technique for caudal septal dislocations, with the logic of adapting the smoother tissues to the stiffer structures. The study was designed retrospectively with the patient charts and photographic analysis. Thirty-six patients who had septal surgery in a septoplasty or an open approach septorhinoplasty operation and meet the inclusion criteria were evaluated for the study. Postoperative success of the technique was based on preoperative and postoperative photographic analysis by two independent otorhinolaryngologists. The estimators classified 33 cases as near complete, 3 cases as improved but persisting caudal septal deviation, and any cases with no change. The improvement of the degree of reconstruction was near complete about 87% in septoplasty and 95% in septorhinoplasty groups, and 92% for all patients. In this study, we present a caudal septal repositioning maneuver which achieves a stable anchorage between postero-caudal septal cartilage and nasal spine. Septal cartilage is notched and fixed to nasal spine with two simple independent sutures as lock and key model. We define this maneuver as riding spine technique. It is an anatomic re-orientation between the septum and nasal spine for caudal septal deviations and subluxations. PMID:23543300

  2. The effects of gait with use of smartphone on repositioning error and curvature of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong-Oh; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effect of smartphone use on lumbar spine repositioning error and lumbar curvature while walking on a treadmill. [Subjects] A total of 20 healthy individuals (18 males and 2 females) volunteered for this study. [Methods] The subjects walked for 20?min on a treadmill while using a smartphone. To determine the effect of smartphone use, lumbar repositioning error was measured using an electronic goniometer while lumbar curvature was assessed using a Spinal Mouse before and immediately after treadmill use. Differences in the lumbar repositioning error and lumbar curvature data between the pre- and post-walking were compared using the paired t-test. [Results] The lumbar spine repositioning error was significantly greater post-walking compared with pre-walking (6.70±2.91° vs. 3.02±1.79°). There was no significant difference in lumbar curvature between pre- and post-walking (14.24±3.18° vs. 13.94±3.12°). [Conclusion] These findings indicate that the lumbar repositioning error increased immediately after walking while using a smartphone, but that the lumbar curvature was unchanged. PMID:26357430

  3. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of ? = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  4. Lip repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetika Gaddale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive gingival display is a frequent finding that can occur because of various intraoral or extraoral etiologies. This report describes the use of surgical lip repositioning technique for the management of a gummy smile associated with vertical maxillary excess and hypermobility of the upper lip. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles by shortening the vestibule, thus reducing the gingival display when smiling. Healing was uneventful and follow-up examinations of 10 months revealed reduced gingival display. For patients desiring a less invasive alternative to orthognathic surgery, lip repositioning is a viable alternative.

  5. Lip repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddale, Reetika; Desai, Shrikar R; Mudda, Jayashree A; Karthikeyan, I

    2014-03-01

    Excessive gingival display is a frequent finding that can occur because of various intraoral or extraoral etiologies. This report describes the use of surgical lip repositioning technique for the management of a gummy smile associated with vertical maxillary excess and hypermobility of the upper lip. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles by shortening the vestibule, thus reducing the gingival display when smiling. Healing was uneventful and follow-up examinations of 10 months revealed reduced gingival display. For patients desiring a less invasive alternative to orthognathic surgery, lip repositioning is a viable alternative. PMID:24872640

  6. Lip repositioning

    OpenAIRE

    Gaddale, Reetika; Shrikar R. Desai; Mudda, Jayashree A.; Karthikeyan, I.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gingival display is a frequent finding that can occur because of various intraoral or extraoral etiologies. This report describes the use of surgical lip repositioning technique for the management of a gummy smile associated with vertical maxillary excess and hypermobility of the upper lip. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles by shortening the vestibule, thus reducing the gingival display when smiling. Healing was uneventful and follow-up examinations...

  7. Acute neck pain: cervical spine range of motion and position sense prior to and after joint mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Peter J; Portero, Pierre; Chiquet, Christophe; Mawston, Grant; Lavaste, Francois

    2007-11-01

    Despite the relatively high prevalence of cervical spine pain, the efficacy of treatment procedures is limited. In the current study, range of motion and proprioception was assessed prior to and after specific cervical spine mobilisation techniques. A 44-year-old male office worker presented with a history of cervical pain of 1 day duration. He had woken with pain, stiffness and a loss of range of motion. Examination findings indicated pain to be at C5-6 on the left side. Measurement of maximal three-dimensional cervical motion was undertaken using a Zebris system. A position matching task tested the individual's ability to actively reposition their head and neck. The treatment undertaken involved grade III down-slope mobilisations on the left side at C5-6 and C6-7 in supine lying. This technique was then progressed by placing the subject in an upright sitting position, and sustained natural apophyseal glides were performed at C6. Immediately following the treatment, the patient reported a considerable decrease in pain, less difficulty in movement and reduced stiffness. Motion analyses showed the most marked percentage improvements in range of motion after treatment were in flexion (55%), extension (35%), left rotation (56%), and left lateral flexion (22%). Ipsilateral lateral flexion with axial rotation was also notably improved following treatment. No change in proprioceptive ability was found following the treatment. The findings showed that the application of standardised specific mobilisation techniques led to substantial improvements in the range of motion and the restitution of normal coupled motion. PMID:17070722

  8. STRATEGICALLY REPOSITIONING RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandabur Raluca Ecaterina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Positioning is a very important marketing concept. Its importance was strongly emphasized and implemented in the case of companies, but is somehow neglected when it comes to states. A country acquires a position in the mind of a person very much like any other product does, which is very important especially when that person exerts an executive role. Nowadays Russia has a poor image or no image at all, both internationally and in Romania. In order to regain an important position in the Balkans region, Russia must set aside any political agenda and reposition itself as a business partner on equal terms. The first goal of this article is to clarify Russias position in the minds of future Romanian executives. The second goal is to outline a recommended course of actions for Russias repositioning.

  9. Centromere repositioning in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Rocchi, M.; Archidiacono, N; Schempp, W; Capozzi, O; Stanyon, R

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of chromosomes can be tracked by the comparative hybridization of large panels of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. This approach has disclosed an unprecedented phenomenon: ‘centromere repositioning', that is, the movement of the centromere along the chromosome without marker order variation. The occurrence of evolutionary new centromeres (ENCs) is relatively frequent. In macaque, for instance, 9 out of 20 autosomal centromeres are evolutionarily new; in donkey ...

  10. Sensorimotor function of the cervical spine in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Artz, Neil J.; Michael A. Adams; Dolan, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    •Sensorimotor function in the cervical spine was assessed in healthy volunteers.•Cervical spine position sense was affected by posture, movement direction and age.•Cervical spine movement sense was influenced by velocity and direction of movement.•Reflex activation of cervical muscles became slower and weaker with age.•Position sense and movement sense showed no correlation with reflex responses.

  11. Polymer reptation and nucleosome repositioning

    CERN Document Server

    Schiessel, H; Bruinsma, R F; Gelbart, W M

    2001-01-01

    We consider how beads can diffuse along a chain that wraps them, without becoming displaced from the chain; our proposed mechanism is analogous to the reptation of "stored length" in more familiar situations of polymer dynamics. The problem arises in the case of globular aggregates of proteins (histones) that are wound by DNA in the chromosomes of plants and animals; these beads (nucleosomes) are multiply wrapped and yet are able to reposition themselves over long distances, while remaining bound by the DNA chain.

  12. Lumbar position sense and the risk of low back injuries in college athletes: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves N Peter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired proprioception in the lumbar spine has often been reported in people with low back pain. However, no prospective studies exist to assert the cause and effect of this association. We hypothesized that athletes with a history of low back injury (LBI would demonstrate poorer lumbar position sense (PS than athletes without a history of LBI, and that this deficit would be a risk factor for future LBI. Methods This was a prospective cohort study with 2–3 year follow-up. Lumbar spine PS in the transverse plane was evaluated in 292 athletes using three tests: 1 passive and 2 active trunk repositioning, and 3 motion perception threshold. Mean absolute (accuracy and variable (precision errors were computed. Results There were no significant differences in the repositioning errors or motion perception threshold between athletes with and without a history of LBI or between those who did and did not get injured during the follow-up. Active trunk repositioning resulted in smaller errors than passive repositioning (1.6°± 0.8° versus 2.1°± 1.0° and 1.7°± 0.8° versus 2.3°± 1.1° for the absolute and relative errors, respectively. Conclusion Poor trunk PS in transverse plane is not associated with LBI in athletes, nor does it appear that poor trunk PS predisposes athletes to LBI.

  13. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian; Britt, Adam; Coles, Amanda; Coles, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a function of their duration; for example, sailing slowly between two ports is cheaper than sailing quickly. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literatu...

  14. Cervical spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical spine; Computed tomography scan of cervical spine; CT scan of cervical spine; Neck CT scan ... Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye CT scans expose you to more radiation than ...

  15. Training Student Teachers to Reposition Infants Frequently

    OpenAIRE

    Cotnoir-Bichelman, Nicole M; Thompson, Rachel H; McKerchar, Paige M; Haremza, Jessica L

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of an intervention designed to increase the variety of positions experienced by infants in a child-care setting. Six student teachers were trained, using a multicomponent intervention, to reposition infants according to a chart. The intervention was successful in increasing the mean percentage of correct position changes made by all 6 student teachers, and performance gains by 3 student teachers persisted when supervisor feedback was briefly removed.

  16. Repositioning chairs in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Niels; Hansen, Søren; Møller, Martin Nue; Bloch, Sune Land; Klokker, Mads

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the clinical value of repositioning chairs in management of refractory benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and to study how different BPPV subtypes respond to treatment. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 consecutive cases with refractory vertigo referred to our clinic within a 10-month period. The BPPV patients were managed with classical manual manoeuvres, the Epley Omniax(®) rotator (EO) or the TRV chair (TRV). In addition, a comprehensive r...

  17. An innovative cosmetic technique called lip repositioning

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Krishna; Srivastava Amitabh; Singhal Rameshwari; Srivastava Sumedha

    2010-01-01

    A clinical report describing the successful use of the lip repositioning technique for the reduction of excessive gingival display. A female patient aged 34 years reported with a chief complaint of gummy smile and was treated with this technique performed under local anesthesia with the main objective to reduce gummy smile by limiting the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, levator anguli, orbicularis oris, and levator labii superioris). The technique is fulfilled by remo...

  18. Firm entry, product repositioning and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharias, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    We show that the entry of a second firm in a horizontally differentiated market (ala Hotelling) may harm consumers as prices increase and consumer's surplus possibly decrease. We first derive the price and the consumer's surplus of a monopoly which is located at the center of the market. When a second firm enters the market the first firm repositions and the two firms locate at their equilibrium points. Although competition adds to variety and increases consumer's surplus, the post entry incr...

  19. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by ...

  20. Drug repositioning summit: finding new routes to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campas, Clara

    2009-03-01

    The Third Annual Drug Repositioning Summit 2008 was held at the Hyatt Harborside Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts, October 6-7, and focused on new strategies for drug repositioning. The meeting, organized by The Cambridge Healthtech Institute, brought together a panel of speakers from the industry and the academia, who discussed and proposed new routes for success in drug repositioning based on their own experience in the field. This meeting report summarizes the most relevant presentations and issues discussed. PMID:19330171

  1. Accurate patient repositioning for fractionated radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Fractionated radiosurgery can achieve better treatment results than conventional single session radiosurgery. Nevertheless, lack of accuracy in patient repositioning in consecutive sessions is the main concern in such techniques. In the present work a novel approach to address the issue of patient repositioning accuracy is presented. The method is developed such that patient repositioning accuracy is significantly increased. Patient discomfort, setup speed, robustness and cost were key factors considered during the development. Also, the method is developed such that it can be used along with frameless and frame based brain tumor radiosurgery systems. Methods and Material: A pair of common CCD cameras are employed to locate the patient in the 3D space. Skin markers are employed as features to generate a 3D model of the initial patient positioning. Initial patient setup can be performed utilizing either a stereotactic frame based or a frameless system. The repositioning process relies solely on accurate and robust detection of the markers. These markers remain on the patient until the entire fractionated radiosurgery is complete. The intersection point of two LASER beams, in the therapy room, defines the reference zero for the physical 3D space. Marker positions are calculated with respect to this reference. During follow-up sessions the system recalculates the patients position with respect to the constant reference and determines any deviations from the initial setup. Any incurring errors are in turn applied to correct deviations from the original plan parameters. In a frame based radiosurgery, after the initial setup, the frames can be removed from consecutive sessions, as the repositioning calculations are independent of the stereotactic frames. However, a fixture is required to keep the head motionless during consecutive treatment sessions. Results: Tests were performed on phantom head positioning and on human subjects. Errors induced from human positioning are in the order of millimeters. The new system achieves sub-millimetric accuracy in the human case, and in the order of (1(10)) of a millimeter for the phantom case. Accuracy of the technique is directly related to the camera resolution. As such, higher resolution cameras can provide improved accuracy. Influence of the number of markers utilized and the positioning was also evaluated. As a general rule, double redundancy in marker placement was sufficient to achieve the above stated accuracy. About 1-2 min were required to build the model and compare it to the reference on a 100 MHz Pentium based PC. Conclusion: High accuracy in repositioning facilitates the use of fractionated therapy. Due to the non-invasive nature of the markers and processing speed, the system results in no additional discomfort for the patient. The system is very cost effective as all the components are readily available in the market. Further considerations need to be addressed such that the method can be applied to areas other than the brain

  2. Osteoporosis and Your Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the waist twist and bend at the torso (trunk) to an extreme carry packages that are too ... you hold your spine straight and upright. View posture exercises that help keep your spine limber and ...

  3. Spine Conditioning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in this conditioning program include: • Cervical spine (neck) • Trapezius (neck and upper back) • Latissimus dorsi (side and ... Head Rolls _______________________________________________________________________ Main muscles worked: Cervical spine muscles, trapezius You should feel this stretch all around your ...

  4. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping lines and ports, and provides algorithms and mathematical models for use by shipping lines and port authorities for decision support. One of these problems is the repositioning of container ships in a liner shipping network in order to adjust the network to seasonal shifts in demand or changes in the world economy. We provide the rst problem description and mathematical model of repositioning and dene the liner shipping eet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity ow over paths dened by the activities chosen. We rst model the problem without cargo ows with a variety of well-known optimization techniques, as well as using a novel method called linear temporal optimization planning that combines linear programming with partial-order planning in a branch-and-bound framework. We then model the LSFRP with cargo ows, using several dierent mathematical models as well as two heuristic approaches. We evaluate our techniques on a real-world dataset that includes a scenario from our industrial collaborator. We show that our approaches scale to the size of problems faced by industry, and are also able to improve the prot on the reference scenario by over US$14 million. This dissertation also addresses the topic of inter-terminal transportation (ITT), which involves minimizing the delay experienced by containers being transported between terminals in a port under varying infrastructure congurations and material handling equipment properties. Minimizing the delay of ITT is an important problem in the strategic planning of new ports and port expansions, and one that has not yet been addressed in an optimization based approach. We provide the rst mathematical model of ITT and show how the model can be used to provide critical information to port authorities on two real ports, the port of Hamburg, Germany, and the Maasvlakte area of the port of Rotterdam, Netherlands. Finally, this thesis gives a polynomial time algorithm for an open problem from the container stowage literature, the capacitated k-shift problem with a xed number of stacks and stack heights, providing an answer to a 13 year old theoretical question in the container stowage domain.

  5. An innovative cosmetic technique called lip repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical report describing the successful use of the lip repositioning technique for the reduction of excessive gingival display. A female patient aged 34 years reported with a chief complaint of gummy smile and was treated with this technique performed under local anesthesia with the main objective to reduce gummy smile by limiting the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, levator anguli, orbicularis oris, and levator labii superioris. The technique is fulfilled by removing a strip of mucosa from maxillary buccal vestibule and creating a partial thickness flap between mucogingival junction and upperlip musculature, and suturing the lip mucosa with mucogingival junction, resulting in a narrow vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby reducing gingival display.

  6. South American policy: a sign for Argentine international repositioning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Miranda; Andrea Assenti del, Rio.

    Full Text Available This paper summarises some comments and preliminary conclusions of a research project on the Argentine role in South American policy. The starting point is the importance the South American space has gained within the international context, in spite of the fact that it is excluded from the world age [...] nda. One of the fundamental problems of the evolution within this context since the 80s has been the frustration due to the lack of institutionalisation of the different integrationist schemes. In spite of rivalries, differences and mutual distrust, South American countries have organised a co-operation matrix, tightly-knit and significant. This proves that beyond interstate structures and their crises, the idea of South American integration is always in vogue. In this sense, a response based on the preservation of this idea can be given by Argentina by encouraging initiatives and strategies tending to improve co-operation through consensus in intraregional interdependence matters. This would contribute to reducing the influence of foreign factors as well as setting limits to possible hegemonic roles deriving from regional leaderships. In this way, Argentine participation in South American policy can be an effective possible path way towards international repositioning.

  7. Reposition af næsefrakturer i lokal anæstesi versus generel anæstesi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Klaus U; Gano, Lars; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nose fractures are the most common among facial fractures. A well-approved treatment of isolated nose fractures is closed reposition under local or general anaesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 150 patients who were treated with closed reposition for simple and isolated nose fracture at the Otorhinolaryngology Department of Odense University Hospital during the period 1 January 2003 until 31 December 2004. The case records were retrospectively examined and the pat...

  8. Cactus spine injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, D; Lindsey, W E

    1988-07-01

    Cactus spines produce injuries whose clinical significance is loosely in inverse proportion to the dimensions of the spine. Long and medium spines of saguaro and barrel cacti seldom result in embedded fragments, but when they do they are difficult to locate and remove. Other medium spines, those of prickly pear and cholla, are a nuisance but they can be removed readily by traction, as can the smaller spines (glochids) of the prickly pear. The very small spines (also glochids) of the polka dot or bunny's ear cactus (Opuntia microdasys) and the beavertail cactus (Opuntia basilaris) offer the most frustrating problem of all, but can be peeled off with a dried film of a professional facial gel. PMID:3390256

  9. The ‘addicted’ spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Spiga

    2014-10-01

    Medium Spiny Neurons of the Nucleus Accumbens show a reduced number of dendritic spines and a decrease in TH-positive terminals upon withdrawal from opiates, cannabinoids and alcohol. The reduction is localized ‘strictly’ to second order dendritic branches where, dopamine-containing terminals impinging upon spines, make synaptic contacts. In addition, long-thin spines seems preferentially affected raising the possibility that cellular learning of these neurons may be selectively hampered. These findings suggest that dendritic spines are affected by drugs widely abused by humans and provide yet another example of drug-induced aberrant neural plasticity with marked reflections on the physiology of synapses, system structural organization, and neuronal circuitry remodeling.

  10. Numerical and experimental analysis of spine’s transpedicular stabilizer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kiel; J. Marciniak; M. Basiaga; J. Szewczenko; W. Kus; G. Kokot; T. Wadek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the work was a numerical and experimental analysis of spine’s transpedicular stabilizer on lumbar part of spine. The result of the analysis was determination of displacements of the stabilizers’ elements.Design/methodology/approach: To define numerical characteristic of the lumbar spine – transpedicular spine stabilizer system, the finite element method was applied. Geometrical models of lumbar part of spine and transpedicular stabilizer were discretized by SOLID95 element...

  11. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  12. Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain More than 40 million people in the ... bones that puts them at risk for spine fractures (broken bones). Thinning of the bones can occur ...

  13. Multiplanner spine computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. K.; Jeon, H. J.; Hong, K. C.; Chung, K. B.; Suh, W. H. [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    The computed tomography is useful in evaluation of bony structures and adjacent soft tissues of the spine. Recently, the multiplanar spine CT scan is highly superior than usual axial scan, because of easily demonstrable longitudinal dimension, level of spine and spinal canal. We evaluated 62 cases of spine CT, whom complains of spinal symptoms, from July, 1982 to January, 1983. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 45 male and 17 female, ages were from 15 years to 76 years, and sites were 15 cervical spine, 7 thoracic spine, 42 lumbar spine and 21 sacral spine. 2. Sixty two cases of the CT diagnosis were reviewed and shows 19 cases of herniated intervertebral disc, 7 cases of spine fracture, 5 cases of degenerative disease, 4 cases of metastatic cancer, 2 cases of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, 1 case of cord injury and 24 cases of normal. 3. The CT findings of herniated intervertebral disc were protruding disc, obliteration of anterior epidural fat, with or without indentation of dural sac and calcification within posterior disc margin. In cases of trauma, the multiplanar spine CT scan detects more specific extension of the fracture sites, and it is able to demonstrate relationship between fracture fragment and spinal cord, therefore operability can be decided. In case of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, it is easy to demonstrate linear high density along posterior margin of vertebral bodies on sagittal reconstruction scan. 4. The computed tomography is diagnostic in detection of spinal disease. However, multiplanar spine CT is more diagnostic than axial computed tomography such as detecting the longitudinal dimension and demonstration of spinal canal.

  14. Multiplanner spine computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomography is useful in evaluation of bony structures and adjacent soft tissues of the spine. Recently, the multiplanar spine CT scan is highly superior than usual axial scan, because of easily demonstrable longitudinal dimension, level of spine and spinal canal. We evaluated 62 cases of spine CT, whom complains of spinal symptoms, from July, 1982 to January, 1983. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 45 male and 17 female, ages were from 15 years to 76 years, and sites were 15 cervical spine, 7 thoracic spine, 42 lumbar spine and 21 sacral spine. 2. Sixty two cases of the CT diagnosis were reviewed and shows 19 cases of herniated intervertebral disc, 7 cases of spine fracture, 5 cases of degenerative disease, 4 cases of metastatic cancer, 2 cases of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, 1 case of cord injury and 24 cases of normal. 3. The CT findings of herniated intervertebral disc were protruding disc, obliteration of anterior epidural fat, with or without indentation of dural sac and calcification within posterior disc margin. In cases of trauma, the multiplanar spine CT scan detects more specific extension of the fracture sites, and it is able to demonstrate relationship between fracture fragment and spinal cord, therefore operability can be decided. In case of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, it is easy to demonstrate linear high density along posterior margin of vertebral bodies on sagittal reconstruction scan. 4. The computed tomography is diagnostic in detection of spinal disease. However, multiplanar spine CT is more diagnostic than axial computed tomography such as detecting the longitudinal dimension and demonstration of spinal canal

  15. Thoracic spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic spine pain, or thoracalgia, is one of the common reasons for seeking for medical advice. The epidemiology and semiotics of pain in the thoracic spine unlike in those in the cervical and lumbar spine have not been inadequately studied. The causes of thoracic spine pain are varied: diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal systems, injuries to the musculoskeletal structures of the cervical and thoracic portions, which require a thorough differential diagnosis. Facet, costotransverse, and costovertebral joint injuries and myofascial syndrome are the most common causes of musculoskeletal (nonspecific pain in the thoracic spine. True radicular pain is rarely encountered. Traditionally, treatment for thoracalgia includes a combination of non-drug and drug therapies. The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor meloxicam (movalis may be the drug of choice in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

  16. Management of intrusive luxation with immediate surgical repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumdar Dibyendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusive luxation is one of the most severe forms of traumatic injuries in which the affected tooth is forced to displace deeper into the alveolus. As a consequence of this type of injury, maximum damage occurs to the pulp and all the supporting structures. This report presents a case of severe intrusive luxation of mature maxillary central and lateral incisor in a 40-year-old male. The intruded tooth was immediately repositioned (surgical extrusion and splinted within hours following injury. Antibiotic therapy was initiated at the time of repositioning and maintained for 5 days. Pulp removal and calcium hydroxide treatment of the root canal was carried out after repositioning. Splint was removed 2 months later. Definitive root canal treatment with Gutta percha was accomplished at a later appointment. Clinical and radiographic examination 6, 12 and 24 months after the surgical extrusion revealed satisfactory progressive apical and periodontal healing.

  17. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model of the LSFRP with cargo flows based on a carefully constructed graph and evaluate it on real world data from our industrial collaborator.

  18. Microtubules in Dendritic Spine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jiaping; Firestein, Bonnie L; Zheng, James Q.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally believed that only the actin cytoskeleton resides in dendritic spines and controls spine morphology and plasticity. Here we report that microtubules (MTs) are present in spines and that shRNA knockdown of the MT-plus end binding protein EB3 significantly reduces spine formation. Furthermore, stabilization and inhibition of MTs by low doses of taxol and nocodazole enhance and impair spine formation elicited by BDNF, respectively. Therefore, MTs play an important role in the con...

  19. North American Spine Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passed a bill to permanently repeal Medicare's physician payment system... read more May 04 The Physician-Patient ... American Spine Foundation CONNECT Facebook Twitter Linkedin Shop Mobile Apps Advertise Work at NASS Contact Us © Copyright ...

  20. Spine problems in adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent’s idiopathic scoliosis, Scheuermann kyphosis, spondylolysis and spondylolistesis are the most common spine problems of adolescence which needs orthopaedic treatment and follow-up. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 65-7

  1. Protecting Your Fragile Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DXA machine to diagnose osteoporosis. DXA stands for dual X-ray absorptiometry. A bone density test can ... a simple movement such as rolling over in bed or coughing can cause a spine fracture. Signs ...

  2. SpineData

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Kongsted, Alice; Jensen, Tue Secher; Albert, Hanne Birgit; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Manniche, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large-scale clinical registries are increasingly recognized as important resources for quality assurance and research to inform clinical decision-making and health policy. We established a clinical registry (SpineData) in a conservative care setting where more than 10,000 new cases of spinal pain are assessed each year. This paper describes the SpineData registry, summarizes the characteristics of its clinical population and data, and signals the availability of these data as a resou...

  3. Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  4. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting cargo flows. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multicommodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against an actual repositioning scenario, one of many undertaken by our industrial collaborator in 2011. Our simulated annealing algorithm is able to increase the profit from $18.1 to $31.8 million using only a few minutes of CPU time. This shows that our algorithm could be used in a decision support system to solve the LSFRP.

  5. Spine Involvement in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk ?ENDUR

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis affecting the cervical spine has been well described. In contrast with the neck, thoracic and lumbar spine involvement has not been widely investigated. In this paper, pathophysiology, clinical findings and radiological imaging methods of spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis was reviewed with the current reports. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008; 54 Suppl 1: 15-9

  6. Lip repositioning: An alternative cosmetic treatment for gummy smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayakar, Mudnoor Manjunath; Gupta, Sachin; Shivananda, Hiranya

    2014-07-01

    Excessive gingival display, commonly referred to as 'gummy smile' is a major hurdle in overall personality of an individual. Gummy smile, secondary to altered passive eruption and tooth mal-positioning, can be predictably treated with Surgery and orthodontic therapy. In patients with jaw deformities, orthognathic surgery can be performed. However, this requires hospitalization and entails significant discomfort. Lip repositioning is a simple surgical procedure to treat 'gummy smile'. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles thereby reducing the gingival display while smiling. This procedure is safe and predictable with minimal risk or side effects. This case report describes the successful treatment of excessive gingival display using surgical lip repositioning procedure which can be used as an alternative treatment modality for treatment of excessive gingival display. PMID:25210272

  7. Lip repositioning: An alternative cosmetic treatment for gummy smile

    OpenAIRE

    Dayakar, Mudnoor Manjunath; Gupta, Sachin; Shivananda, Hiranya

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gingival display, commonly referred to as ‘gummy smile’ is a major hurdle in overall personality of an individual. Gummy smile, secondary to altered passive eruption and tooth mal-positioning, can be predictably treated with Surgery and orthodontic therapy. In patients with jaw deformities, orthognathic surgery can be performed. However, this requires hospitalization and entails significant discomfort. Lip repositioning is a simple surgical procedure to treat ‘gummy smile’. The proc...

  8. Garter spring repositioning in Pickering and Bruce reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several garter springs are strategically located in each fuel channel of a CANDU reactor to prevent the hot pressure tube from contacting the surrounding colder calandria tube. Many of the garter springs, though, are not in their design locations. This paper discusses the results of Ontario Hydro investigations into the movement of garter springs in CANDU reactors and presents the strategies the utility has adopted to reposition the springs in its Bruce and Pickering reactors

  9. Effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin Tae; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults with no orthopaedic or neurological problems participated in this study. [Methods] The repositioning error of the knee joint was measured using a digital goniometer when the subjects extended their dominant-side knee to a random target angle (30°, 45°, or 60°) with their eyes closed, before and after a quadriceps muscle fatigue protocol, and after application of kinesiology tape. [Results] We found that repositioning errors of the dominant-side knee joint increased after quadriceps fatigue compared with no-fatigue conditions. However, kinesiology taping of the quadriceps muscle and patella after quadriceps fatigue significantly decreased repositioning errors of the knee joint. [Conclusion] These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue increases the repositioning error of the knee joint, whereas application of kinesiology tape decreases fatigue-induced joint repositioning error. PMID:25013297

  10. Physiopathology of Spine Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Maccauro, Giulio; Spinelli, Maria Silvia; Mauro, Sigismondo; Perisano, Carlo; Graci, Calogero; Rosa, Michele Attilio

    2011-01-01

    The metastasis is the spread of cancer from one part of the body to another. Two-thirds of patients with cancer will develop bone metastasis. Breast, prostate and lung cancer are responsible for more than 80% of cases of metastatic bone disease. The spine is the most common site of bone metastasis. A spinal metastasis may cause pain, instability and neurological injuries. The diffusion through Batson venous system is the principal process of spinal metastasis, but the dissemination is possibl...

  11. Interventional spine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelekis, A.D. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: akelekis@cc.uoa.gr; Somon, T. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Yilmaz, H. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Bize, P. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Brountzos, E.N. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece); Lovblad, K. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Ruefenacht, D. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Martin, J.B. [Clinique Generale Beaulieu 12 chemin Beau Soleil 1206 Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jbmartin@beaulieu.ch

    2005-09-01

    Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of some spinal diseases are percutaneous treatments, proposed before classic surgery. By using imaging guidance, one can significantly increase accuracy and decrease complication rates. This review report physiopathology and discusses indications, methods, complications and results of performing these techniques on the spine, including different level (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacroiliac) and different kind of treatments (nerve block, disc treatment and bone treatment). Finally the present article also reviews current literature on the controversial issues involved.

  12. Biologics in spine arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Abhishek; Dodwad, Shah-Nawaz M; Hsu, Wellington K

    2015-06-01

    Spine fusion is a tool used in the treatment of spine trauma, tumors, and degenerative disorders. Poor outcomes related to failure of fusion, however, have directed the interests of practitioners and scientists to spinal biologics that may impact fusion at the cellular level. These biologics are used to achieve successful arthrodesis in the treatment of symptomatic deformity or instability. Historically, autologous bone grafting, including iliac crest bong graft harvesting, had represented the gold standard in spinal arthrodesis. However, due to concerns over potential harvest site complications, supply limitations, and associated morbidity, surgeons have turned to other bone graft options known for their osteogenic, osteoinductive, and/or osteoconductive properties. Current bone graft selection includes autograft, allograft, demineralized bone matrix, ceramics, mesenchymal stem cells, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein. Each pose their respective advantages and disadvantages and are the focus of ongoing research investigating the safety and efficacy of their use in the setting of spinal fusion. Rh-BMP2 has been plagued by issues of widespread off-label use, controversial indications, and a wide range of adverse effects. The risks associated with high concentrations of exogenous growth factors have led to investigational efforts into nanotechnology and its application in spinal arthrodesis through the binding of endogenous growth factors. Bone graft selection remains critical to successful fusion and favorable patient outcomes, and orthopaedic surgeons must be educated on the utility and limitations of various biologics in the setting of spine arthrodesis. PMID:25978141

  13. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (?ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ?ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  14. Spine revisited: Principles and parlance redefined

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari M; Mehta Lopa; Natarajan M; Kothari V

    2005-01-01

    A revised appreciation of the evolution and the nature of bone in general and of vertebrae in particular, allows revisiting the human spine to usher in some new principles and more rational parlance, that embody spine?s phylogeny, ontogeny, anatomy and physiology. Such an approach accords primacy to spine?s soft-tissues, and relegates to its bones a secondary place.

  15. Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American Spine Society Public Education Series Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is ... physician before starting any exercises. The Importance of Exercise for the Neck Spine experts agree that physical ...

  16. Correction of Asian Short Nose with Lower Lateral Cartilage Repositioning and Ear Cartilage Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Suk Byun, MD, PhD

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: LLC repositioning and ear cartilage grafting aid in the correction of short nose in Asians. With LLC repositioning and ear cartilage grafting, the nasal tip can be positioned in accordance with the patient’s anatomic limits. The entire nasal tip and columella can be lengthened, while the tip maintains its mobility.

  17. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  18. Lipid dynamics at dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gerardo Dotti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic changes in the structure and composition of the membrane protrusions forming dendritic spines underlie memory and learning processes. In recent years a great effort has been made to characterize in detail the protein machinery that controls spine plasticity. However, we know much less about the involvement of lipids, despite being major membrane components and structure determinants. Moreover, protein complexes that regulate spine plasticity depend on specific interactions with membrane lipids for proper function and accurate intracellular signalling. In this review we attempt to gather the far from complete information available on the lipid composition at dendritic spine membranes and on its dynamics. We pay particular attention to the influence that spine lipid dynamism has on glutamate receptors, which are key regulators of synaptic plasticity.

  19. Fractures of the cervical spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raphael Martus, Marcon; Alexandre Fogaca, Cristante; William Jacobsen, Teixeira; Douglas Kenji, Narasaki; Reginaldo Perilo, Oliveira; Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa de, Barros.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in pol [...] ytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative.

  20. Lip repositioning surgery: A pioneering technique for perio-esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our esthetic conscious society people are now demanding all types of treatments possible to have a pleasing and attractive personality. A dazzling and beautiful smile can work wonders for anyone?s personality. Our smile mirrors our persona, our unique being. However, a beautiful smile comprises of a perfect balance of the white and pink. This imbalance of excessive gingival display (EGD can be managed by a variety of treatment modalities, depending on accurate diagnosis. This case report demonstrates the successful management of EGD with a lip-repositioning procedure in a patient with incompetent short upper lip. This was accomplished by removing a partial thickness strip of mucosa from the maxillary buccal vestibule and suturing the lip mucosa to the mucogingival line. This resulted in a narrower vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby resulting in competent lips and reduced gingival display during smiling.

  1. Lip repositioning surgery for correction of excessive gingival display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Santhanakrishnan; Natarajan, Shanmuganathan; Madhankumar, Seenivasan; Sampathkumar, Jayakrishnakumar

    2015-08-01

    Esthetic demands have considerably increased over the years in routine clinical practice. A pleasant smile can give supreme confidence to an individuals personality. However, a perfect smile is dictated by a perfect balance of the white (teeth) and pink (gingival) display. This balance can be managed different treatment modalities, which is based on proper diagnosis. This case report demonstrates a successful management of gummy smile with a lip-repositioning procedure in a patient with an incompetent upper lip. This was accomplished by removing a partial thickness strip of mucosa from the maxillary buccal vestibule and suturing the lip mucosa to the mucogingival line. This resulted in a narrower vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby resulting incompetent lips and reduced gingival display during smiling. PMID:26538972

  2. Drug Repositioning for Diabetes Based on 'Omics' Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Luo, Heng; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Drug repositioning has shorter developmental time, lower cost and less safety risk than traditional drug development process. The current study aims to repurpose marketed drugs and clinical candidates for new indications in diabetes treatment by mining clinical ‘omics’ data. We analyzed data from genome wide association studies (GWAS), proteomics and metabolomics studies and revealed a total of 992 proteins as potential anti-diabetic targets in human. Information on the drugs that target these 992 proteins was retrieved from the Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) and 108 of these proteins are drug targets with drug projects information. Research and preclinical drug targets were excluded and 35 of the 108 proteins were selected as druggable proteins. Among them, five proteins were known targets for treating diabetes. Based on the pathogenesis knowledge gathered from the OMIM and PubMed databases, 12 protein targets of 58 drugs were found to have a new indication for treating diabetes. CMap (connectivity map) was used to compare the gene expression patterns of cells treated by these 58 drugs and that of cells treated by known anti-diabetic drugs or diabetes risk causing compounds. As a result, 9 drugs were found to have the potential to treat diabetes. Among the 9 drugs, 4 drugs (diflunisal, nabumetone, niflumic acid and valdecoxib) targeting COX2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase 2) were repurposed for treating type 1 diabetes, and 2 drugs (phenoxybenzamine and idazoxan) targeting ADRA2A (Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor) had a new indication for treating type 2 diabetes. These findings indicated that ‘omics’ data mining based drug repositioning is a potentially powerful tool to discover novel anti-diabetic indications from marketed drugs and clinical candidates. Furthermore, the results of our study could be related to other disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25946000

  3. Structure and molecular organization of dendritic spines

    OpenAIRE

    Tashiro, A.; Yuste, R

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic spines mediate most excitatory synapses in the CNS and are therefore likely to be of major importance for neural processing. We review the structural aspects of dendritic spines, with particular emphasis on recent advances in the characterization of their molecular components. Spine morphology is very diverse and spine size is correlated with the strength of the synaptic transmission. In addition, the spine neck biochemically isolates individual synap...

  4. Spine revisited: Principles and parlance redefined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A revised appreciation of the evolution and the nature of bone in general and of vertebrae in particular, allows revisiting the human spine to usher in some new principles and more rational parlance, that embody spine?s phylogeny, ontogeny, anatomy and physiology. Such an approach accords primacy to spine?s soft-tissues, and relegates to its bones a secondary place.

  5. Tuberculosis of spine: neurological deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anil K.; Kumar, Jaswant

    2012-01-01

    The most dreaded neurological complications in TB spine occur in active stage of disease by mechanical compression, instability and inflammation changes, while in healed disease, these occur due to intrinsic changes in spinal cord secondary to internal salient in long standing kyphotic deformity. A judicious combination of conservative therapy and operative decompression when needed should form a comprehensive integrated course of treatment for TB spine with neurological complications. The pa...

  6. Repositioning reference new methods and new services for a new age

    CERN Document Server

    Rozaklis, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Repositioning Reference reimagines reference services in libraries and information organizations and the role of reference librarians, taking into account rapid developments in technology and information-specific services in non-library sectors.

  7. Postoperative spine; Postoperative Wirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaeger, R. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Basel (Switzerland); Lieb, J.M. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Basel (Switzerland); Shariat, K. [Neurochirurgie Koeln-Merheim, Koeln (Germany); Ahlhelm, F.J. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    Approximately 15-30 % of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are associated with complications that require further diagnostic work-up. The choice of imaging modality for postoperative complications depends on the extent, pattern and temporal evolution of the postoperative neurological signs and symptoms as well as on the preoperative clinical status, the surgical procedure itself and the underlying pathology. The interpretation of imaging findings, in particular the distinction between postoperative complications and normally expected nonspecific postoperative imaging alterations can be challenging and requires the integration of clinical neurological information and the results of laboratory tests. The combination of different imaging techniques might help in cases of equivocal imaging results. (orig.) [German] Etwa 15-30 % der operativen Eingriffe im Bereich der lumbalen Wirbelsaeule verlaufen nicht komplikationsfrei und erfordern weiterfuehrende Abklaerungen. Die Auswahl des bildgebenden Verfahrens im Rahmen postoperativer Komplikationen haengt dabei wesentlich von der zeitlichen Entwicklung, dem Ausmass und Verteilungsmuster der neuaufgetretenen klinisch-neurologischen bzw. orthopaedischen Symptome sowie von den Ausfaellen vor dem Eingriff, der zugrundeliegenden Pathologie und der Lokalisation und Art des Eingriffs ab. Die Interpretation der bildgebenden Befunde, insbesondere die Abgrenzung postoperativer Komplikationen von natuerlicherweise zu erwartenden postoperativen Veraenderungen kann dabei eine Herausforderung darstellen. Bei unklaren Befunden kann ergaenzend zur eingehend klinisch-neurologischen und laborchemischen Bestandsaufnahme auch der kombinierte Einsatz mehrerer bildgebender Modalitaeten diagnostisch weiterhelfen. (orig.)

  8. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  9. Effects of Kinesiology Taping on Repositioning Error of the Knee Joint after Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jin Tae; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults with no orthopaedic or neurological problems participated in this study. [Methods] The repositioning error of the knee joint was measured using a digital goniometer when the subjects extended their dominant-side knee to a random target angle (30°, 45°, or 60°) with their eyes closed, befo...

  10. Drug Repositioning by Kernel-Based Integration of Molecular Structure, Molecular Activity, and Phenotype Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongcui; CHEN, SHILONG; DENG, NAIYANG; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Computational inference of novel therapeutic values for existing drugs, i.e., drug repositioning, offers the great prospect for faster and low-risk drug development. Previous researches have indicated that chemical structures, target proteins, and side-effects could provide rich information in drug similarity assessment and further disease similarity. However, each single data source is important in its own way and data integration holds the great promise to reposition drug more accurately. H...

  11. Development of the young spine questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2013-01-01

    Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases -- a conceptualisation, development and testing phase. The conceptualisation phase followed the Wilson and Cleary model and included questions regarding spinal prevalence estimates, pain frequency and intensity, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. Items from existing questionnaires and the "Revised Faces Pain Scale" (rFPS) were included during the development phase. The testing phase consisted of a mixed quantitative and qualitative iterative method carried out in two pilot tests using 4th grade children and focusing on assessment of spinal area location and item validity. Results The testing phase resulted in omission of the pain drawings and the questions and answer categories were simplified in several questions. Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings among target respondents. These preliminary results suggest that the YSQ is feasible, has content validity and is a well understood questionnaire to be used in studies of children aged 9 to 11 years.

  12. Patient repositioning and pressure ulcer risk—Monitoring interface pressures of at-risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Peterson, PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Repositioning patients regularly to prevent pressure ulcers and reduce interface pressures is the standard of care, yet prior work has found that standard repositioning does not relieve all areas of at-risk tissue in nondisabled subjects. To determine whether this holds true for high-risk patients, we assessed the effectiveness of routine repositioning in relieving at-risk tissue of the perisacral area using interface pressure mapping. Bedridden patients at risk for pressure ulcer formation (n = 23, Braden score 95% of the observation period. Thirteen participants were observed in three distinct positions (supine, turned left, turned right, and all had specific skin areas (166 +/– 184 cm2 that exceeded pressure thresholds for >95% of the observation period. At-risk patients have skin areas that are likely always at risk throughout their hospital stay despite repositioning. Healthcare providers are unaware of the actual tissue-relieving effectiveness (or lack thereof of their repositioning interventions, which may partially explain why pressure ulcer mitigation strategies are not always successful. Relieving at-risk tissue is a necessary part of pressure ulcer prevention, but the repositioning practice itself needs improvement.

  13. Electromyography of symmetrical trunk movements and trunk position sense in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Fen; Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Wang, Ray-Yau; Su, Fong-Chin; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] To explore the differences in bilateral trunk muscle activation between chronic stroke patients and healthy controls, this study investigated the symmetry index and cross-correlation of trunk muscles during trunk flexion and extension movements. This study also assessed the differences in trunk reposition error between groups and the association between trunk reposition error and bilateral trunk muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen stroke patients and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects participated. Bilateral trunk muscle activations were collected by electromyography during trunk flexion and extension. Trunk reposition errors in trunk flexion and extension directions were recorded by a Qualisys motion capture system. [Results] Compared with the healthy controls, the stroke patients presented lower symmetrical muscle activation of the bilateral internal oblique and lower cross-correlation of abdominal muscles during trunk flexion, and lower symmetry index and cross-correlation of erector spinae in trunk extension. They also showed a larger trunk extension reposition error. A smaller trunk reposition error was associated with higher cross-correlation of bilateral trunk muscles during trunk movements in all subjects. [Conclusion] Trunk muscle function during symmetrical trunk movements and trunk reposition sense were impaired in the chronic stroke patients, and trunk position sense was associated with trunk muscle functions. Future studies should pay attention to symmetrical trunk movements as well as trunk extension position sense for patients with chronic stroke. PMID:26504267

  14. Damage control surgery for spine trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossmann, Thomas; Trease, Larissa; Freedman, Ilan; Malham, Gregory

    2004-07-01

    The concept of "damage control" surgery was originally developed for massive abdominal trauma and also successfully applied to the management of lone bone injuries. More recently this has been extended to severely injured patients with spine injuries. This paper provided an overview of how damage control principles can be applied to multitrauma patients with spine injuries, to patients with isolated spine injuries and to spine injuries with and without neurology. The role of neuroimaging in acute spine trauma and controversies in the pharmaceutical approach to spine injuries are discussed. Additional prospective controlled trials are required to delineate the role and timing of damage control surgery in acute spine injury. With improved neuroimaging early spinal damage control surgery will be formally established in the management of spine trauma. PMID:15203306

  15. Dendritic spine alterations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Caitlin E; Shelton, Micah A; Sweet, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic illness affecting approximately 0.5-1% of the world's population. The etiology of schizophrenia is complex, including multiple genes, and contributing environmental effects that adversely impact neurodevelopment. Nevertheless, a final common result, present in many subjects with schizophrenia, is impairment of pyramidal neuron dendritic morphology in multiple regions of the cerebral cortex. In this review, we summarize the evidence of reduced dendritic spine density and other dendritic abnormalities in schizophrenia, evaluate current data that informs the neurodevelopment timing of these impairments, and discuss what is known about possible upstream sources of dendritic spine loss in this illness. PMID:25478958

  16. CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

  17. Spine Plasticity in the Motor Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xinzhu; Zuo, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic sites of the majority of excitatory synapses in the mammalian central nervous system. The morphology and dynamics of dendritic spines change throughout the lifespan of animals, in response to novel experiences and neuropathologies. New spines form rapidly as animals learn new tasks or experience novel sensory stimulations. This is followed by a selective elimination of previously existing spines, leading to significant synaptic remodeling. In the brain da...

  18. Desmoplastic fibroma of the cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Daneyemez, Mehmet; Akay, Kamil Melih; Izci, Yusuf

    2005-01-01

    There have been only a few cases of desmoplastic fibroma of the spine in the literature and only one of them was purely located on the cervical spine. We report a new patient with the diagnosis of desmoplastic fibroma of the fourth cervical spine. The patient had the complaints of left arm and neck pain. After his radiological evaluation, a mass lesion was found on the left lamina of the fourth cervical spine. Surgical treatment was performed, and the histopathological examination revealed th...

  19. Detection and repositioning of tight fighting annulus spacers in CANDU® fuel channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersak, G.; Kittmer, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Goszczynski, J. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kazimer, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    The latest generation of CANDU® reactors has been constructed with tight-fitting annulus spacers to maintain the annular gap between the inner pressure tubes and the outer calandria tubes. These spacers cannot be detected and repositioned with the existing Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) process, which is designed to work with loose-fitting annulus spacers. There is currently no established technology to detect and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has been performing research and development to locate and move tight-fitting annulus spacers using Modal Detection and Repositioning (MODAR) technology since 2005 and is currently working in collaboration with Candu Energy and Bruce Power on a production system to be deployed for an In-reactor demonstration in the next year. The MODAR technology uses controlled vibrations on a short, isolated length of pressure tube to locate and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. MODAR technology will allow the utilities to demonstrate fuel channel integrity to the regulator and obtain approval for additional years of reactor operation. This paper briefly describes the technology and provides an overview of the tool testing and development. (author)

  20. Novel insight into drug repositioning: Methylthiouracil as a case in point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Moon-Chang; Jung, Byeongjin; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-09-01

    Drug repositioning refers to the development of existing drugs for new indications. These drugs may have (I) failed to show efficacy in late stage clinical trials without safety issues; (II) stalled in the development for commercial reasons; (III) passed the point of patent expiry; or (IV) are being explored in new geographic markets. Over the past decade, pressure on the pharmaceutical industry caused by the 'innovation gap' owing to rising development costs and stagnant product output have become major reasons for the growing interest in drug repositioning. Companies that offer a variety of broad platforms for identifying new indications have emerged; some have been successful in building their own pipelines of candidates with reduced risks and timelines associated with further clinical development. The business models and platforms offered by these companies will be validated if they are able to generate positive proof-of-concept clinical data for their repositioned compounds. This review describes the strategy of biomarker-guided repositioning of chemotherapeutic drugs for inflammation therapy, considering the repositioning of methylthiouracil (MTU), an antithyroid drug, as a potential anti-inflammatory reagent. PMID:26117428

  1. Thoracic spine sports-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, Heather; Gill, G Keith; Paterson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although sports-related injuries to the thoracic spine are relatively uncommon, they are among the most feared due to the potential for catastrophic neurologic injury. The increased biomechanical support of the thoracic spine makes injuries in this region particularly rare compared with the cervical and lumbar spine. As a result, thoracic spine injuries can be missed easily, difficult to diagnose, and problematic to treat. Recognition of mechanism and awareness of injury patterns help physicians determine a diagnosis and create an index of suspicion for unstable thoracic spine injuries. Aggressive full-contact sports receive the most attention for spinal injury; however several sports with repetitive loading of the spine can cause severe injuries, including rowing, gymnastics, and golf. The goal of this article was to provide an overview of the unique anatomic and biomechanical features of the thoracic spine and to discuss some of the more common thoracic injuries that can affect athletes. PMID:25574880

  2. Modified lip repositioning: A surgical approach to treat the gummy smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Gopinath Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gummy smile has been an esthetic concern for many patients. This clinical report describes a successful surgical coverage obtained by modified lip repositioning, thus surgically treating the gummy smile. The technique was performed to limit the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, orbicularis oris, leviator anguli oris and levator labi oris. The technique is fulfilled by removing two strips of mucosa from maxillary buccal vestibule on both the sides leaving the frenum untouched and creating a partial thickness flap between mucogingival junction and upper lip musculature, and suturing the lip mucosa with mucogingival junction, resulting in a narrow vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby reducing gingival display. This technique is different from the conventional surgical lip repositioning as labial frenum is left untouched over here as it helps in maintain Litton the midline for lip repositioning and reduces the morbidity associated with it.

  3. Modified lip repositioning: A surgical approach to treat the gummy smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Aditya Gopinath; Koganti, Vijay Prasad; Prabhakar, Ashok Kodangala; Soni, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Gummy smile has been an esthetic concern for many patients. This clinical report describes a successful surgical coverage obtained by modified lip repositioning, thus surgically treating the gummy smile. The technique was performed to limit the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, orbicularis oris, leviator anguli oris and levator labi oris.) The technique is fulfilled by removing two strips of mucosa from maxillary buccal vestibule on both the sides leaving the frenum untouched and creating a partial thickness flap between mucogingival junction and upper lip musculature, and suturing the lip mucosa with mucogingival junction, resulting in a narrow vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby reducing gingival display. This technique is different from the conventional surgical lip repositioning as labial frenum is left untouched over here as it helps in maintain Litton the midline for lip repositioning and reduces the morbidity associated with it. PMID:26229285

  4. Acute hypoxaemia due to intraoperative lung collapse after repositioning the patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina P Butala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desaturation after induction of anaesthesia and repositioning due to mucus plug causing atelectasis (lung collapse is a rare event. We present a case of intraoperative right lung collapse due to mucus plug in a patient undergoing left laparoscopic nephrectomy. Hypoxaemia occurred after the induction of anaesthesia and repositioning. X-ray chest revealed right lung collapse and surgery was subsequently postponed. Lung re-expanded after postural drainage and suction. Postoperatively patient was diagnosed to have retrocardiac bronchiectasis. After preoperative preparation with postural drainage, chest physiotherapy, and antibiotics, the patient underwent surgery uneventfully.

  5. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andrew M; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-08-01

    Neuropathic pain is a significant unmet medical need in patients with variety of injury or disease insults to the nervous system. Neuropathic pain often presents as a painful sensation described as electrical, burning, or tingling. Currently available treatments have limited effectiveness and narrow therapeutic windows for safety. More powerful analgesics, e.g., opioids, carry a high risk for chemical dependence. Thus, a major challenge for pain research is the elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie neuropathic pain and developing targeted strategies to alleviate pathological pain. The mechanistic link between dendritic spine structure and circuit function could explain why neuropathic pain is difficult to treat, since nociceptive processing pathways are adversely "hard-wired" through the reorganization of dendritic spines. Several studies in animal models of neuropathic pain have begun to reveal the functional contribution of dendritic spine dysgenesis in neuropathic pain. Previous reports have demonstrated three primary changes in dendritic spine structure on nociceptive dorsal horn neurons following injury or disease, which accompany chronic intractable pain: (I) increased density of dendritic spines, particularly mature mushroom-spine spines, (II) redistribution of spines toward dendritic branch locations close to the cell body, and (III) enlargement of the spine head diameter, which generally presents as a mushroom-shaped spine. Given the important functional implications of spine distribution, density, and shape for synaptic and neuronal function, the study of dendritic spine abnormality may provide a new perspective for investigating pain, and the identification of specific molecular players that regulate spine morphology may guide the development of more effective and long-lasting therapies. PMID:25445354

  6. Wrong-site Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Mark A; Bianco, Aaron J; Esmende, Sean; Daniels, Alan H

    2013-05-01

    Wrong-site spine surgery is an adverse event that has potentially devastating consequences for the patient as well as the surgeon. Despite substantial efforts to prevent wrong-site spine surgery, this complication continues to occur and has the potential for serious medical, personal, and legal repercussions. Although systems-based prevention methods are effective in identifying the proper patient, procedure, and region of the spinal column, they cannot be relied on to establish the correct vertebral level during the operation. The surgeon must design and implement a patient-specific protocol to ensure that the appropriate operation is performed on the correct side and level or levels of the spinal column. PMID:23637150

  7. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  8. Primary tumors of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orguc, Sebnem; Arkun, Remide

    2014-07-01

    Spinal tumors consist of a large spectrum of various histologic entities. Multiple spinal lesions frequently represent known metastatic disease or lymphoproliferative disease. In solitary lesions primary neoplasms of the spine should be considered. Primary spinal tumors may arise from the spinal cord, the surrounding leptomeninges, or the extradural soft tissues and bony structures. A wide variety of benign neoplasms can involve the spine including enostosis, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, and osteochondroma. Common malignant primary neoplasms are chordoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and osteosarcoma. Although plain radiographs may be useful to characterize some spinal lesions, magnetic resonance imaging is indispensable to determine the extension and the relationship with the spinal canal and nerve roots, and thus determine the plan of management. In this article we review the characteristic imaging features of extradural spinal lesions. PMID:24896744

  9. MRI of the fetal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  10. Tuberculosis spine: Therapeutically refractory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India ranks second amongst the high-burden multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB countries, with an estimated incidence of 2.3% MDR-TB cases amongst the new cases and 17.2% amongst the previously treated cases. The diagnosis and treatment protocol for MDR-TB of the spine are not clearly established. We report outcome of a series of 15 cases of TB spine who were suspected to be therapeutically refractory cases (MDR-TB on the basis of clinicoradiological failures of initial treatment. Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases of TB spine from C2 to L5 spine were suspected to be the cases of MDR-TB (therapeutically refractory cases on the basis of failures of adequate clinicoradiological healing response at 5 months or more on antitubercular treatment (ATT. None of the patient was immunocompromised. Thirteen out of 15 patients had tissue samples sent for histopathology, culture and sensitivity, smear, BACTEC, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All patients were put on second line ATT and followed up fortnightly with regular liver and kidney function tests, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and plain X-ray. Healing was documented as subjective improvement of symptoms, reduction in ESR, and observations on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI such as resolution of marrow edema, fatty replacement of bone marrow and resolution of abscesses. Ambiguous MRI observations in a few patients were resolved on positron emission tomography (PET scan. Patients were monitored continuously for 2 years after stopping ATT. Results: We could demonstrate a positive culture in three cases. Two of them had multi drug resistance. We could achieve healing status in 13 out of 14 patients after starting second line drugs, one patient is still on treatment while other patient with no drug resistance is responding well on ATT. Conclusions: The suspicion of therapeutically refractory case is of paramount importance. Once suspected, surgery to procure tissue for diagnosis and culture is to be undertaken. The demonstration of drug resistance on culture may not be achieved in all TB spine cases and empiric drug regimen for MDR-TB is to be started. We have achieved the healed status with immunomodulation and second line ATT. The length of treatment needs to be monitored with MRI and PET scan.

  11. Thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for tuberculosis of cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Huzurbazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective was to report this rare case and discuss the probable mechanism of thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for Kochs cervical spine.

  12. Repositioning Your EMBA Program and Reinventing Your Brand: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to illustrate how Fordham University, the Jesuit University of New York, repositioned its Executive MBA Program and reinvented its brand, over a ten year period. More specifically, this research will analyze the current state of the Executive MBA market and will discuss the best practices and frameworks implemented…

  13. Stability of Le Fort I maxillary inferior repositioning surgery with rigid internal fixation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convens, J M C; Kiekens, R M A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Fudalej, P S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of Le Fort I maxillary inferior repositioning surgery in patients with a vertical maxillary deficiency at least 6 months after surgery. The electronic databases were searched to identify all articles reporting the long-term effects of one-piece maxillary inferior repositioning with rigid fixation. Methodological quality was evaluated according to 15 criteria related to study design, measurements, and statistical analysis. Two articles were identified, with a total of 22 patients. The maxilla was repositioned inferiorly from a mean 3.2 to 4.5mm in the anterior part and from a mean 0.1 to 1.8mm in the posterior part. At 6 months post-treatment, absolute relapse of a mean 1.6mm was measured for the anterior part of the maxilla and 0.3mm for the posterior part of the maxilla. The stability of maxillary inferior repositioning surgery could not be confirmed due to the small sample size, unclear diagnosis, and potential confounding factors. PMID:25600315

  14. Repositioning Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Youths Employment and National Security in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbunaya, T. C.; Udoudo, Ekereobong S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper focused on repositioning Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for youth's employment and national security in Nigeria. It examined briefly the concepts of technical vocational education and training (TVET), youths, unemployment and national security as well as the effects of unemployment on national security in Nigeria.…

  15. Program management for spring location and repositioning (SLAR) operations at Pickering NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 a major project was planned for Units 5 and 6 of Pickering NGS (Nuclear Generating Station). The project involved remotely locating and repositioning the four spacer (garter) springs separating each pressure tube from the surrounding calandria tube. This paper describes the requirements for SLAR, and the work being undertaken at Pickering NGS to implement the project

  16. Pre and post garter spring repositioning ultrasonic inspection of pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper present a description of the ultrasonic cracked hydride blister detections system used for pre and post inspection of pressure tubes during garter spring repositioning in CNE (Embalse Nuclear Power Station). Ultrasonic system setup configuration, transducers characteristics, blister detection head, calibration of parameters, operating procedure, records of ultrasonic inspections and evaluation. (author)

  17. Postsynaptic signaling during plasticity of dendritic spines

    OpenAIRE

    Murakoshi, Hideji; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic spines, small bulbous postsynaptic compartments emanating from neuronal dendrites, have been thought to serve as basic units of memory storage. Despite their small size (~0.1 femtoliter), thousands of species of proteins exist in the spine, including receptors, channels, scaffolding proteins and signaling enzymes. Biochemical signaling mediated by these molecules leads to morphological and functional plasticity of dendritic spines, and ultimately learning and memory in the brain. He...

  18. Chondrosarcoma of the Mobile Spine and Sacrum

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckey, Ryan M.; Rex A. W. Marco

    2011-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of bone. This family of tumors can be primary malignant tumors or a secondary malignant transformation of an underlying benign cartilage tumor. Pain is often the initial presenting complaint when chondrosarcoma involves the spine. In the mobile spine, chondrosarcoma commonly presents within the vertebral body and shows a predilection for the thoracic spine. Due to the resistance of chondrosarcoma to both radiation and chemotherapy, treatment is focuse...

  19. Paediatric cervical spine injury but NEXUS negative

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Melanie J; Jardine, Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in paediatric patients following trauma are extremely rare. The National Emergency X?Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) guidelines are a set of clinical criteria used to guide physicians in identifying trauma patients requiring cervical spine imaging. It is validated for use in children. A case of a child who did not fulfil the NEXUS criteria for imaging but was found to have a cervical spine fracture is reported.

  20. The international spine registry SPINE TANGO: status quo and first results

    OpenAIRE

    Melloh, Markus; Staub, Lukas; Aghayev, Emin; Zweig, Thomas; Barz, Thomas; Theis, Jean-Claude; Chavanne, Albert; Grob, Dieter; Aebi, Max; Roeder, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    With an official life time of over 5 years, Spine Tango can meanwhile be considered the first international spine registry. In this paper we present an overview of frequency statistics of Spine Tango for demonstrating the genesis of questionnaire development and the constantly increasing activity in the registry. Results from two exemplar studies serve for showing concepts of data analysis applied to a spine registry. Between 2002 and 2006, about 6,000 datasets were submitted by 25 centres. D...

  1. Analgesic therapy for major spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanesarajah, Varun; Liauw, Jason A; Lo, Sheng-fu; Lina, Ioan A; Witham, Timothy F; Gottschalk, Allan

    2015-07-01

    Pain following spine surgery is often difficult to control and can persist. Reduction of this pain requires a multidisciplinary approach that depends on contributions of both surgeons and anesthesiologists. The spine surgeon's role involves limiting manipulation of structures contributing to pain sensation in the spine, which requires an in-depth understanding of the specific anatomic etiologies of pain originating along the spinal axis. Anesthesiologists, on the other hand, must focus on preemptive, multimodal analgesic treatment regimens. In this review, we first discuss anatomic sources of pain within the spine, before delving into a specific literature-supported pain management protocol intended for use with spinal surgery. PMID:25680636

  2. Effect of body repositioning after venous air embolism. An echocardiographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, H. J.; Allen, S. J.; Mehlhorn, U.; Davis, K. L.; Morris, W. P.; Butler, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) may include the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position, although its effectiveness has been questioned. This study used transesophageal echocardiography to evaluate the effect of body repositioning on intracardiac air and acute cardiac dimension changes. METHODS: Eighteen anesthetized dogs in the supine position received a venous air injection of 2.5 ml/kg at a rate of 5 ml/ s. After 1 min the dogs were repositioned into either the LLR, LLR 10 degrees head down (LLR-10 degrees), right lateral recumbence, or remained in the supine position. RESULTS: Repositioning after VAE resulted in relocation of intracardiac air to nondependent areas of the right heart. Peak right ventricular (RV) diameter increase and mean arterial pressure decrease were greater in the repositioned animals compared with those in the supine position (P Right ventricular diameter and mean arterial pressure showed an inverse correlation (r = 0.81). Peak left atrial diameter decrease was greater in the LLR and LLR-10 degrees positions compared with the supine position (P animals showed electrocardiogram and echocardiographic changes reconcilable with myocardial ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs, body repositioning after VAE provided no benefit in hemodynamic performance or cardiac dimension changes, although relocation of intracardiac air was demonstrated. Right ventricular air did not appear to result in significant RV outflow obstruction, as pulmonary artery pressure increased uniformly in all groups and was not influenced by the relocation of intracardiac air. The combination of increased RV afterload and arterial hypotension, possibly with subsequent RV ischemia rather than RV outflow obstruction by an airlock appeared to be the primary mechanism for cardiac dysfunction after VAE.

  3. MR imaging of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging has been shown to be highly accurate in the postoperative lumbar spine. This paper attempts to determine the exact diagnostic contribution of the post-Gd-DTPA sequence and to correlate it with clinical and surgical findings. Thirty patients with FBSS were evaluated. Precontrast T1- and T2-weighted images were assessed for the presence of abnormal epidural tissue, surgical levels, epidural location, size, shape, signal intensity, tissue displacement, and disc contiguity. The post-Gd-DTPA images were also evaluated for the presence and characteristics of tissue enhancement. The imaging findings were correlated with clinical data and with data from seven surgical reexplorations

  4. Targeting the new generation woman: voice-over as a tool in gender repositioning traditionally male dominant product

    OpenAIRE

    Staunton, Ciara

    1995-01-01

    This exploratory research study examines the power of the voice-over as a tool in gender re-positioning of a traditionally male dominant product and the response of the female market to such re-positioning. The increasing consumption by females of masculine products has led marketers to question how they can target such products at the female market, without losing the existing male customers. A potentially appropriate method of doing so is through subtle gender re-positioning by altering the...

  5. Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

  6. DMAP: a connectivity map database to enable identification of novel drug repositioning candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug repositioning is a cost-efficient and time-saving process to drug development compared to traditional techniques. A systematic method to drug repositioning is to identify candidate drug's gene expression profiles on target disease models and determine how similar these profiles are to approved drugs. Databases such as the CMAP have been developed recently to help with systematic drug repositioning. Methods To overcome the limitation of connectivity maps on data coverage, we constructed a comprehensive in silico drug-protein connectivity map called DMAP, which contains directed drug-to-protein effects and effect scores. The drug-to-protein effect scores are compiled from all database entries between the drug and protein have been previously observed and provide a confidence measure on the quality of such drug-to-protein effects. Results In DMAP, we have compiled the direct effects between 24,121 PubChem Compound ID (CID), which were mapped from 289,571 chemical entities recognized from public literature, and 5,196 reviewed Uniprot proteins. DMAP compiles a total of 438,004 chemical-to-protein effect relationships. Compared to CMAP, DMAP shows an increase of 221 folds in the number of chemicals and 1.92 fold in the number of ATC codes. Furthermore, by overlapping DMAP chemicals with the approved drugs with known indications from the TTD database and literature, we obtained 982 drugs and 622 diseases; meanwhile, we only obtained 394 drugs with known indication from CMAP. To validate the feasibility of applying new DMAP for systematic drug repositioning, we compared the performance of DMAP and the well-known CMAP database on two popular computational techniques: drug-drug-similarity-based method with leave-one-out validation and Kolmogorov-Smirnov scoring based method. In drug-drug-similarity-based method, the drug repositioning prediction using DMAP achieved an Area-Under-Curve (AUC) score of 0.82, compared with that using CMAP, AUC = 0.64. For Kolmogorov-Smirnov scoring based method, with DMAP, we were able to retrieve several drug indications which could not be retrieved using CMAP. DMAP data can be queried using the existing C2MAP server or downloaded freely at: http://bio.informatics.iupui.edu/cmaps Conclusions Reliable measurements of how drug affect disease-related proteins are critical to ongoing drug development in the genome medicine era. We demonstrated that DMAP can help drug development professionals assess drug-to-protein relationship data and improve chances of success for systematic drug repositioning efforts. PMID:26423722

  7. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion. (orig.)

  8. Ablation of ErbB4 from excitatory neurons leads to reduced dendritic spine density in mouse prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Margaret A; Koleske, Anthony J

    2014-10-01

    Dendritic spine loss is observed in many psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, and likely contributes to the altered sense of reality, disruption of working memory, and attention deficits that characterize these disorders. ErbB4, a member of the EGF family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is genetically associated with schizophrenia, suggesting that alterations in ErbB4 function contribute to the disease pathology. Additionally, ErbB4 functions in synaptic plasticity, leading us to hypothesize that disruption of ErbB4 signaling may affect dendritic spine development. We show that dendritic spine density is reduced in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex of ErbB4 conditional whole-brain knockout mice. We find that ErbB4 localizes to dendritic spines of excitatory neurons in cortical neuronal cultures and is present in synaptic plasma membrane preparations. Finally, we demonstrate that selective ablation of ErbB4 from excitatory neurons leads to a decrease in the proportion of mature spines and an overall reduction in dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex of weanling (P21) mice that persists at 2 months of age. These results suggest that ErbB4 signaling in excitatory pyramidal cells is critical for the proper formation and maintenance of dendritic spines in excitatory pyramidal cells. PMID:24752666

  9. NFFinder: an online bioinformatics tool for searching similar transcriptomics experiments in the context of drug repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoain, Javier; Franch, Mònica; Martínez, Marta; Tabas-Madrid, Daniel; Sorzano, Carlos O S; Bakker, Annette; Gonzalez-Couto, Eduardo; Elvira, Juan; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Drug repositioning, using known drugs for treating conditions different from those the drug was originally designed to treat, is an important drug discovery tool that allows for a faster and cheaper development process by using drugs that are already approved or in an advanced trial stage for another purpose. This is especially relevant for orphan diseases because they affect too few people to make drug research de novo economically viable. In this paper we present NFFinder, a bioinformatics tool for identifying potential useful drugs in the context of orphan diseases. NFFinder uses transcriptomic data to find relationships between drugs, diseases and a phenotype of interest, as well as identifying experts having published on that domain. The application shows in a dashboard a series of graphics and tables designed to help researchers formulate repositioning hypotheses and identify potential biological relationships between drugs and diseases. NFFinder is freely available at http://nffinder.cnb.csic.es. PMID:25940629

  10. Ovarian conservation and repositioning in radical hysterectomy performed for cervical cancer: Experimental and clinical observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra?a Petar D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presented an experimental procedure of subperitoneal repositioning of the ovaries into the region of abdominal wall associated with conservation of infundibulopelvic ligament, in female dogs. Relaparatomy was performed a year later. There were no significant changes in ovaries displaced both subperitoneally and subcutaneously. In seven patients under 36 years of age, who underwent the surgical procedure of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer, ovaries were repositioned intraperiotoneally into the region of lower rim of the kidney associated with conservation of vascularization across the infundibulopelvic ligament. One patient presented with a cystic degeneration of the right ovary, whereas the others presented with normal ultrasonographic findings. Urinary estrogen values, estimated a year following the surgical procedure, ranged within normal values.

  11. A miRNA-Driven Inference Model to Construct Potential Drug-Disease Associations for Drug Repositioning

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hailin; Zhang, Zuping

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence discovered that the inappropriate expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) will lead to many kinds of complex diseases and drugs can regulate the expression level of miRNAs. Therefore human diseases may be treated by targeting some specific miRNAs with drugs, which provides a new perspective for drug repositioning. However, few studies have attempted to computationally predict associations between drugs and diseases via miRNAs for drug repositioning. In this paper, we developed an...

  12. Cortical Composition Hierarchy Driven by Spine Proportion Economical Maximization or Wire Volume Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The structure and quantitative composition of the cerebral cortex are interrelated with its computational capacity. Empirical data analyzed here indicate a certain hierarchy in local cortical composition. Specifically, neural wire, i.e., axons and dendrites take each about 1/3 of cortical space, spines and glia/astrocytes occupy each about (1/3)2, and capillaries around (1/3)4. Moreover, data analysis across species reveals that these fractions are roughly brain size independent, which suggests that they could be in some sense optimal and thus important for brain function. Is there any principle that sets them in this invariant way? This study first builds a model of local circuit in which neural wire, spines, astrocytes, and capillaries are mutually coupled elements and are treated within a single mathematical framework. Next, various forms of wire minimization rule (wire length, surface area, volume, or conduction delays) are analyzed, of which, only minimization of wire volume provides realistic results that are very close to the empirical cortical fractions. As an alternative, a new principle called “spine economy maximization” is proposed and investigated, which is associated with maximization of spine proportion in the cortex per spine size that yields equally good but more robust results. Additionally, a combination of wire cost and spine economy notions is considered as a meta-principle, and it is found that this proposition gives only marginally better results than either pure wire volume minimization or pure spine economy maximization, but only if spine economy component dominates. However, such a combined meta-principle yields much better results than the constraints related solely to minimization of wire length, wire surface area, and conduction delays. Interestingly, the type of spine size distribution also plays a role, and better agreement with the data is achieved for distributions with long tails. In sum, these results suggest that for the efficiency of local circuits wire volume may be more primary variable than wire length or temporal delays, and moreover, the new spine economy principle may be important for brain evolutionary design in a broader context. PMID:26436731

  13. Cortical Composition Hierarchy Driven by Spine Proportion Economical Maximization or Wire Volume Minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowski, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The structure and quantitative composition of the cerebral cortex are interrelated with its computational capacity. Empirical data analyzed here indicate a certain hierarchy in local cortical composition. Specifically, neural wire, i.e., axons and dendrites take each about 1/3 of cortical space, spines and glia/astrocytes occupy each about (1/3)2, and capillaries around (1/3)4. Moreover, data analysis across species reveals that these fractions are roughly brain size independent, which suggests that they could be in some sense optimal and thus important for brain function. Is there any principle that sets them in this invariant way? This study first builds a model of local circuit in which neural wire, spines, astrocytes, and capillaries are mutually coupled elements and are treated within a single mathematical framework. Next, various forms of wire minimization rule (wire length, surface area, volume, or conduction delays) are analyzed, of which, only minimization of wire volume provides realistic results that are very close to the empirical cortical fractions. As an alternative, a new principle called "spine economy maximization" is proposed and investigated, which is associated with maximization of spine proportion in the cortex per spine size that yields equally good but more robust results. Additionally, a combination of wire cost and spine economy notions is considered as a meta-principle, and it is found that this proposition gives only marginally better results than either pure wire volume minimization or pure spine economy maximization, but only if spine economy component dominates. However, such a combined meta-principle yields much better results than the constraints related solely to minimization of wire length, wire surface area, and conduction delays. Interestingly, the type of spine size distribution also plays a role, and better agreement with the data is achieved for distributions with long tails. In sum, these results suggest that for the efficiency of local circuits wire volume may be more primary variable than wire length or temporal delays, and moreover, the new spine economy principle may be important for brain evolutionary design in a broader context. PMID:26436731

  14. The Effectiveness of a Modified Type of the Mandibular Repositioning Device on the Elimination of Snoring

    OpenAIRE

    B Ebadian; SM. Hashemi; Adeli, M

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Snoring is the most common sleep disorder which in itself may only be viewed as an obnoxious disturbance in human society; however it must be considered a potential indicator of significant medical problems such as: hypertension,obstructive sleep apnea, cerebrovascular infarction and ischemic heart disease.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified type of Mandibular Repositioning Device (MRD splint) on the treatment of snoring.Mat...

  15. Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security hologram with in-built repositioning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit K Sharma; D P Chhachhia; D Mohan; A K Aggarwal

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded anticounterfeit security features in the security hologram can only be read through a key hologram. Key hologram also facilitates in-built repositioning of security hologram. The method of fabrication, the principle of reconstruction and the experimental results are presented.

  16. Solving a static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems using iterated tabu search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Szeto, W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the static bike repositioning problem where the problem consists of selecting a subset of stations to visit, sequencing them, and determining the pick-up/drop-off quantities (associated with each of the visited stations) under the various operational constraints. The objective is to minimize the total penalties incurred at all the stations. We present an iterated tabu search heuristic to solve the described problem. Experimental results show that this simple heuristic can...

  17. Repositioning of the anthelmintic drug mebendazole for the treatment for colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Peter; Fryknäs, Mårten; Anagel, Bengt; Larsson, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we screened a compound library containing 1,600 clinically used compounds with the aim to identify compounds, which potentially could be repositioned for colon cancer therapy. Two established colon cancer cell lines were tested using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). For compound comparison connectivity map (CMAP) analysis, NCI 60 data mining and protein kinase binding measurements were performed. Sixty-eight compounds were defined as hits with act...

  18. Can stimulating massage improve joint repositioning error in patients with knee osteoarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Hans; Henriksen, Marius; Bartels, Else M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of massage applied to the thigh muscles on joint repositioning error (JRE) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA).We hypothesized that stimulating massage of the muscles around an osteoarthritic knee joint, could improve the neuromuscular function and thereby optimize the positive and minimize the negative performance factors in relation to an exercise program. METHODS: In a cross-over design, 19 patients with knee osteoart...

  19. Head repositioning errors in normal student volunteers: a possible tool to assess the neck's neuromuscular system

    OpenAIRE

    Gudavalli M Ram; Henderson Charles NR; Owens Edward F; Pickar Joel G

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background A challenge for practitioners using spinal manipulation is identifying when an intervention is required. It has been recognized that joint pain can interfere with the ability to position body parts accurately and that the recent history of muscle contraction can play a part in that interference. In this study, we tested whether repositioning errors could be induced in a normal population by contraction or shortening of the neck muscles. Methods In the experimental protocol...

  20. The Comparison of Cervical Repositioning Errors According to Smartphone Addiction Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, JeonHyeong; Seo, KyoChul

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades of adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of smartphone addiction was conducted of 200 adults. Based on the survey results, 30 subjects were chosen to participate in this study, and they were divided into three groups of 10; a Normal Group, a Moderate Addiction Group, and a Severe Addiction Group. After attaching a C-ROM, we measured the cervic...

  1. Peugeot’s repositioning : how to change people’s engagement towards an automobile brand

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Francisco Quedas Rodrigues dos

    2015-01-01

    Peugeot, acting in the automobile sector, represents about 9,5% of the Portuguese passengers car market. This market is characterized by representing risky and planned acquisitions and usually with many influencers throughout the buying process in order to lower the risk to the buyer. In 2013, after the verified crisis in the automobile sector in terms of sales, the group was conducted to a new strategy – ‘Back In The Race’ – described by a repositioning of the already exist...

  2. Temporomandibular joint disc repositioning using bone anchors: an immediate post surgical evaluation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Majd S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Open joint procedures using bone anchors have shown clinical and radiograph good success, but post surgical disc position has not been documented with MRI imaging. We have designed a modified technique of using two bone anchors and 2 sutures to reposition the articular discs. This MRI study evaluates the post surgical success of this technique to reposition and stabilize the TMJ articular discs. Methods Consecutive 81 patients with unilateral TMJ internal derangement (ID (81 TMJs were treated between December 1, 2003, and December 1, 2006, at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth Peoples Hospital, Shanghai, Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. All patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging before and one to seven days post surgery to determine disc position using the modified bone anchor technique. Results Postoperative MRIs (one to seven days confirm that 77 of 81 joints were identified as excellent results and one joint was considered good for an overall effective rate of 96.3% (78 of 81 joints. Only 3.7% (3 of 81 of the joints were designated as poor results requiring a second open surgery. Conclusions This procedure has provided successful repositioning of the articular discs in unilateral TMJ ID at one to seven days post surgery.

  3. A Node Flow Model for the Inflexible Visitation Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune MØller

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel, node flow based mathematical model for the fixed-time version of a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). We call this version of the problem the Inflexible Visitation LSFRP (IVLSFRP). During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Shipping lines wish to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting the cargo flows of the network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multi-commodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. We introduce two versions of a node flow based model that exploit the fixed activity times of the IVLSFRP’s graph to handle cargo demands on the nodes of the graph, instead of the arcs, significantly reducing the number of variables. Using this model in CPLEX, we are able to solve 12 previously unsolved IVLSFRP instances to optimality. Additionally, we improve the solution time on every instance in theIVLSFRP dataset, sometimes by several orders of magnitude.

  4. Nucleosome Repositioning: A Novel Mechanism for Nicotine- and Cocaine-Induced Epigenetic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jonathan H.; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse modify behavior by altering gene expression in the brain. Gene expression can be regulated by changes in DNA methylation as well as by histone modifications, which alter chromatin structure, DNA compaction and DNA accessibility. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms directing drug-induced changes in chromatin structure, we examined DNA-nucleosome interactions within promoter regions of 858 genes in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) exposed to nicotine or cocaine. Widespread, drug- and time-resolved repositioning of nucleosomes was identified at the transcription start site and promoter region of multiple genes. Nicotine and cocaine produced unique and shared changes in terms of the numbers and types of genes affected, as well as repositioning of nucleosomes at sites which could increase or decrease the probability of gene expression based on DNA accessibility. Half of the drug-induced nucleosome positions approximated a theoretical model of nucleosome occupancy based on physical and chemical characteristics of the DNA sequence, whereas the basal or drug naïve positions were generally DNA sequence independent. Thus we suggest that nucleosome repositioning represents an initial dynamic genome-wide alteration of the transcriptional landscape preceding more selective downstream transcriptional reprogramming, which ultimately characterizes the cell- and tissue-specific responses to drugs of abuse. PMID:26414157

  5. Repositioning chairs in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo : implications and clinical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Niels; Hansen, SØren

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the clinical value of repositioning chairs in management of refractory benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and to study how different BPPV subtypes respond to treatment. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 consecutive cases with refractory vertigo referred to our clinic within a 10-month period. The BPPV patients were managed with classical manual manoeuvres, the Epley Omniax(®) rotator (EO) or the TRV chair (TRV). In addition, a comprehensive review of the literature was performed. BPPV was identified in 95 cases. The number of needed treatments for posterior canalolithiasis versus posterior cupulolithiasis, horizontal cupulolithiasis and multi-canal affection was significant (p < 0.01). Thirty-seven (38 %) patients required only one repositioning manoeuvre and the overall symptom relief was 91.7-100 % after 3 treatments. Eleven patients (12 %) experienced relapse within the ½-year follow-up period. Horizontal cupulolithiasis and multi-canal affection constituted the most resilient cases. The literature search identified 9 repositioning chair studies. The EO and the TRV are highly valuable assets in diagnosis and management of BPPV of particularly complex and refractory cases. However, further validation is anticipated through controlled clinical trials.

  6. PhenoPredict: A disease phenome-wide drug repositioning approach towards schizophrenia drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-08-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a common complex disorder with poorly understood mechanisms and no effective drug treatments. Despite the high prevalence and vast unmet medical need represented by the disease, many drug companies have moved away from the development of drugs for SCZ. Therefore, alternative strategies are needed for the discovery of truly innovative drug treatments for SCZ. Here, we present a disease phenome-driven computational drug repositioning approach for SCZ. We developed a novel drug repositioning system, PhenoPredict, by inferring drug treatments for SCZ from diseases that are phenotypically related to SCZ. The key to PhenoPredict is the availability of a comprehensive drug treatment knowledge base that we recently constructed. PhenoPredict retrieved all 18 FDA-approved SCZ drugs and ranked them highly (recall=1.0, and average ranking of 8.49%). When compared to PREDICT, one of the most comprehensive drug repositioning systems currently available, in novel predictions, PhenoPredict represented clear improvements over PREDICT in Precision-Recall (PR) curves, with a significant 98.8% improvement in the area under curve (AUC) of the PR curves. In addition, we discovered many drug candidates with mechanisms of action fundamentally different from traditional antipsychotics, some of which had published literature evidence indicating their treatment benefits in SCZ patients. In summary, although the fundamental pathophysiological mechanisms of SCZ remain unknown, integrated systems approaches to studying phenotypic connections among diseases may facilitate the discovery of innovative SCZ drugs. PMID:26151312

  7. The comparison of cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonhyeong; Seo, Kyochul

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades of adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of smartphone addiction was conducted of 200 adults. Based on the survey results, 30 subjects were chosen to participate in this study, and they were divided into three groups of 10; a Normal Group, a Moderate Addiction Group, and a Severe Addiction Group. After attaching a C-ROM, we measured the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, right lateral flexion and left lateral flexion. [Results] Significant differences in the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, and right and left lateral flexion were found among the Normal Group, Moderate Addiction Group, and Severe Addiction Group. In particular, the Severe Addiction Group showed the largest errors. [Conclusion] The result indicates that as smartphone addiction becomes more severe, a person is more likely to show impaired proprioception, as well as impaired ability to recognize the right posture. Thus, musculoskeletal problems due to smartphone addiction should be resolved through social cognition and intervention, and physical therapeutic education and intervention to educate people about correct postures. PMID:24764641

  8. Galen: a pioneer of spine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marketos, S G; Skiadas, P K

    1999-11-15

    Galen of Pergamum AD (2nd century), the most eminent Greek physician after Hippocrates, marked the history of medicine for more than 14 centuries. His doctrines, expressed in his voluminous work, combined the medical heritage of the Hippocratic, the Alexandrian, and some of the most important medical schools of antiquity. The strong influence of the Hippocratic tradition can characteristically be traced in orthopaedics and particularly in Galen's presentation of the spine. Based on his observations, derived from dissection and vivisection of animals, Galen established a pioneer model for the study of human spine. His research ended in an accurate description of the vertebral column and the spinal cord. He also described the course and the distribution of the nerves emerging from the spine. In addition, he dealt with the diseases affecting these structures focusing on spinal tuberculosis and the injuries of the spine and the spinal marrow. Galen was the first physician to demonstrate the neurological implications following transection of the spinal cord at several levels. The predominant feature in Galen's reference to spine is its teleological perspective; the great physician tended to attribute the prodigious structure of the spine to nature's providence. Despite the inevitable anatomical errors, Galen's inspired experiments remained the only thorough approach of spinal anatomy and pathology until the recent centuries, when the evolution of sophisticated technical aids opened new pathways to spine research. PMID:10586461

  9. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw; Wichuk, Stephanie; Østergaard, Mikkel; Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the ...

  10. Transoral crossbow injury to the cervical spine: an unusual case of penetrating cervical spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvino, C K; Origitano, T C; Dries, D J; Shea, J F; Springhorn, M; Miller, C J

    1991-06-01

    The complexity of missile injuries to the cervical spine has increased as the technology that causes these injuries has become more sophisticated. Management requires adaptation of conventional neurosurgical approaches to the cervical spine in an effort to limit neurological deficit and establish stability. We report an unusual case of a 19-year-old man who suffered transoral penetration of the cervical spine by an arrow released by a crossbow at close range. PMID:2067619

  11. Decreased dendritic spine density and abnormal spine morphology in Fyn knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Babus, Lenard W.; Little, Elizabeth M.; Keenoy, Kathleen E; Minami, S. Sakura; Chen, Eric; Song, Jung Min; Caviness, Juliet; Koo, So-Yeon; Pak, Daniel T. S.; Rebeck, G William; Turner, R Scott; Hoe, Hyang-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Fyn is a Src-family tyrosine kinase that affects long term potentiation (LTP), synapse formation, and learning and memory. Fyn is also implicated in dendritic spine formation both in vitro and in vivo. However, whether Fyn’s regulation of dendritic spine formation is brain-region specific and age-dependent is unknown. In the present study, we systematically examined whether Fyn altered dendritic spine density and morphology in the cortex and hippocampus and if these effects were age-dependent...

  12. Barriers in the brain: resolving dendritic spine morphology and compartmentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian, Max; Kusters, Remy; Wierenga, Corette J.; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Kapitein, Lukas C.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic spines are micron-sized protrusions that harbor the majority of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. The head of the spine is connected to the dendritic shaft by a 50–400 nm thin membrane tube, called the spine neck, which has been hypothesized to confine biochemical and electric signals within the spine compartment. Such compartmentalization could minimize interspinal crosstalk and thereby support spine-specific synapse plasticity. However, to what extent compartmenta...

  13. Sampling issues in quantitative analysis of dendritic spines morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Ruszczycki B?a?ej; Szepesi Zsuzsanna; Wilczynski Grzegorz M; Bijata Monika; Kalita Katarzyna; Kaczmarek Leszek; Wlodarczyk Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Quantitative analysis of changes in dendritic spine morphology has become an interesting issue in contemporary neuroscience. However, the diversity in dendritic spine population might seriously influence the result of measurements in which their morphology is studied. The detection of differences in spine morphology between control and test group is often compromised by the number of dendritic spines taken for analysis. In order to estimate the impact of dendritic spine di...

  14. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pozzo-Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spines are small cytoplasmic extensions of dendrites that form the postsynaptic compartment of the majority of excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. Alterations in the numerical density, size, and shape of dendritic spines have been correlated with neuronal dysfunction in several neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with intellectual disability, including Rett syndrome (RTT. RTT is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability that is caused by loss of function mutations in the transcriptional regulator methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating that principal neurons in RTT individuals and Mecp2-based experimental models exhibit alterations in the number and morphology of dendritic spines. We also discuss the exciting possibility that signaling pathways downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which is transcriptionally regulated by MeCP2, offer promising therapeutic options for modulating dendritic spine development and plasticity in RTT and other MECP2-associated neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to ...

  16. Imaging of Cervical Spine Injuries in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bogner, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Trauma of the cervical spine is one of the most harrowing injuries seen in athletics. Although such injuries are not common, their impact can be devastating. Based on a thorough review of the literature, this article explains the identification of cervical spine trauma and the importance of stability therein. Multiple examples are given highlighting these findings and the way that multiple modalities can be used to asses such injuries. The article concludes with a brief review of the current ...

  17. Management of Cervical Spine Injuries in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bailes, Julian E.; Petschauer, Meredith; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Marano, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injury in sport has been significantly reduced over the past 3 decades, the injury warrants continued attention because of the altered quality of life that often accompanies such an injury. The purpose of our literature review was to provide athletic trainers with an understanding of the mechanisms, anatomical structures, and complications often associated with sport-related cervical spine injury. We also present the most curren...

  18. Injuries of the spine sustained in rugby

    OpenAIRE

    Thurston, John

    1984-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1982, 67 rugby players (63 rugby union, two rugby league, and two American football) sustained serious injuries of their spine. The injuries fell predominantly on the lower cervical spine. Forty eight of the players sustained serious injuries of the spinal cord, leading to paralysis and total incapacity. The incidence of such injuries appears to have increased in recent years, particularly those incurred in tackles and mauls and rucks, and particularly among schoolboys. Chang...

  19. Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot, Jonathan [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Mosel, Leigh; Kong, Andrew; Hayward, Mike [Flinders Medical Centre, Department of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park, South Australia (Australia)

    2005-12-01

    Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

  20. Research of cyclist's spine dynamical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griskevicius, Julius; Linkel, Arturas; Pauk, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present a dynamic model of bicyclist's lumbar spine for the evaluation of linear and angular variation of intervertebral distance in sagittal plane. Ten degrees of freedom biomechanical model of the spine was solved numerically. Larger loads acting on a cyclist spine occur mostly while sitting in a sport position in comparison with recreation or middle sitting. The load on lumbar spine region is influenced by cycle's tire pressure, road bumps and wheeling speed. The biggest linear and angular displacements were found between L4-L5 vertebras. The biggest load protractile spine muscle experiences in the sport sitting position. Maximum vertebrae rotation and linear variation values in wheeling regime with 1.5 Bar tyres pressure and at a speed of 10 km/h are 0.46° and 0.46 mm. Maximum vertebrae rotation and linear variation values for a 23 year old, 1.74 m high and 73 kg of mass (bicycle mass~7 kg) man in wheeling regime with 3.5 Bar tyres pressure and at a speed of 30 km/h are 3.9° and 1.23 mm. The biggest variation of rotation in sagittal plane between two nearest lumbar spines is about 1°. Because of this displacement the frontal part of last mentioned disc is compressed with 530 N more and dorsal disc part as much less. PMID:24708161

  1. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  2. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ...Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER...Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY...

  3. Neurotrophin and Wnt signaling cooperatively regulate dendritic spine formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiester, Brian G.; Galati, Domenico F.; Salinas, Patricia C.; Jones, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic spines are major sites of excitatory synaptic transmission and changes in their numbers and morphology have been associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a secreted growth factor that influences hippocampal, striatal and neocortical pyramidal neuron dendritic spine density. However, the mechanisms by which BDNF regulates dendritic spines and how BDNF interacts with other regulators of spines remain unclear. We propose that one mechanism by which BDNF promotes dendritic spine formation is through an interaction with Wnt signaling. Here, we show that Wnt signaling inhibition in cultured cortical neurons disrupts dendritic spine development, reduces dendritic arbor size and complexity, and blocks BDNF-induced dendritic spine formation and maturation. Additionally, we show that BDNF regulates expression of Wnt2, and that Wnt2 is sufficient to promote cortical dendrite growth and dendritic spine formation. Together, these data suggest that BDNF and Wnt signaling cooperatively regulate dendritic spine formation. PMID:23639831

  4. Temporomandibular joint orthopedics with anterior repositioning appliance therapy and therapeutic injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Clifton

    2014-08-01

    TMD orthopedics is the assessment, diagnosis and management of orthopedic disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Anterior repositioning appliance (ARA) therapy for TMJ internal derangements is successful in long-term recapturing of disks in reducing and nonreducing joints at a rate of 64 percent and in regenerating degenerated condyles in some cases. ARA therapy for TMJ internal derangements is subjectively successful in relieving symptoms in reducing and nonreducing disk displacement TMJs in this study at an average rate of 94.5 percent. PMID:25174212

  5. Repositioning of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (Ozurdex) migrated into the anterior chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, José I; Crespí, Jaume; Andreu, David

    2012-12-01

    Ozurdex (Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) is a biodegradable implant of dexamethasone (0.7 mg) injected into the vitreous cavity to treat macular oedema. We report a case of migration of Ozurdex into the anterior chamber in a patient who had a previous iris-claw lens implantation. Surgical removal of the implant was avoided due to the absence of anterior complications and the loss of effectiveness of the drug delivery system. Repositioning of the implant to the posterior segment is described. This case illustrates the efficacy of this technique in cases of migration into the anterior chamber in eyes without corneal decompensation. PMID:22763812

  6. Solving a static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems using iterated tabu search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Szeto, W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the static bike repositioning problem where the problem consists of selecting a subset of stations to visit, sequencing them, and determining the pick-up/drop-off quantities (associated with each of the visited stations) under the various operational constraints. The objective is to minimize the total penalties incurred at all the stations. We present an iterated tabu search heuristic to solve the described problem. Experimental results show that this simple heuristic can generate high quality solutions using small computing times.

  7. Treatment of excessive gingival display using a modified lip repositioning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Noé Vital; Campos, Thiago Veiga de Souza; Rodrigues, Jefferson Guilherme; Martins, Thiago Modolo Azevedo; Silva, Cléverson O

    2013-01-01

    Excessive gingival display during smiling ("gummy smile") is an esthetic issue that affects a considerable part of the population. The hyperactivity of the elevator muscle of the upper lip is one of the main causes of a gummy smile, and several techniques have been proposed for its treatment. The aim of this report is to describe a modification of the lip repositioning technique to achieve stable and significant outcomes through a more conservative procedure. Two patients complaining about a gummy smile were treated with the proposed technique and presented, after a 6-month follow-up, significant improvement in the amount of gingival exposure and esthetic satisfaction. PMID:23593624

  8. Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Keigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine. Methods For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9, 400 adolescents (ages 10-19 and 400 adults (ages 20-29, with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree, right (> +1 degree, and left ( Results In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p Conclusions Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.

  9. Vital staining of palatal soft tissue in horseshoe Le Fort I osteotomy for superior repositioning of the maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Susumu; Iwai, Toshinori; Honda, Koji; Shibutani, Naoki; Fujita, Koichi; Yamashita, Yosuke; Takasu, Hikaru; Murata, Shogo; Tohnai, Iwai

    2015-05-01

    In maxillary orthognathic surgery, superior repositioning of the maxilla is sometimes difficult, and removal of the bony interference, especially around the descending palatine artery, is very time-consuming in cases of severe maxillary impaction. A useful method introduced for superior repositioning of the maxilla is horseshoe-shaped osteotomy combined with Le Fort I osteotomy (horseshoe Le Fort I osteotomy). However, injury to the palatal soft tissue during horseshoe-shaped osteotomy may cause aseptic complications of the maxilla. Therefore, a safe method is required to prevent such injury to reduce the risk for aseptic necrosis. We describe here vital staining of palatal soft tissue in horseshoe Le Fort I osteotomy for safer superior repositioning of the maxilla. PMID:25887202

  10. Hippocrates. The father of spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marketos, S G; Skiadas, P

    1999-07-01

    Hippocrates (5th-4th century B. C.), the founder of scientific medicine, left a valuable heritage of knowledge and methodology, which extends to almost all branches of modern medicine. Among the many fields of medicine he explored, he devoted much of his scientific interest to the study of orthopedics. In fact, some of the principles found in the Hippocratic treatises On Fractures and On Joints are still valid today. This great physician also was the first to deal with the anatomy and the pathology of human spine. In his books, he provides a precise description of the segments and the normal curves of the spine, the structure of the vertebrae, the tendons attached to them, the blood supply to the spine, and even its anatomic relations to adjacent vessels. The Hippocratic list of spinal diseases includes tuberculous spondylitis, post-traumatic kyphosis, scoliosis, concussion, dislocations of the vertebrae, and fractures of the spinous processes. Hippocrates devised two apparatuses, known as the Hippocratic ladder and the Hippocratic board, to reduce displaced vertebrae. Those pioneer methods are deemed to be the precursors to the sophisticated techniques used in spine surgery today. Because of his thorough study of spinal diseases and their management, which was the first such study in orthopedics in the history of medicine, Hippocrates should be regarded as the father of spine surgery. PMID:10404583

  11. Management of thoracolumbar spine trauma An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rajasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common injuries that can result in significant disability, deformity and neurological deficit. Controversies exist regarding the appropriate radiological investigations, the indications for surgical management and the timing, approach and type of surgery. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, biomechanical principles, radiological and clinical evaluation, classification and management principles. Literature review of all relevant articles published in PubMed covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with or without neurologic deficit was performed. The search terms used were thoracolumbar, thoracic, lumbar, fracture, trauma and management. All relevant articles and abstracts covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with and without neurologic deficit were reviewed. Biomechanically the thoracolumbar spine is predisposed to a higher incidence of spinal injuries. Computed tomography provides adequate bony detail for assessing spinal stability while magnetic resonance imaging shows injuries to soft tissues (posterior ligamentous complex [PLC] and neurological structures. Different classification systems exist and the most recent is the AO spine knowledge forum classification of thoracolumbar trauma. Treatment includes both nonoperative and operative methods and selected based on the degree of bony injury, neurological involvement, presence of associated injuries and the integrity of the PLC. Significant advances in imaging have helped in the better understanding of thoracolumbar fractures, including information on canal morphology and injury to soft tissue structures. The ideal classification that is simple, comprehensive and guides management is still elusive. Involvement of three columns, progressive neurological deficit, significant kyphosis and canal compromise with neurological deficit are accepted indications for surgical stabilization through anterior, posterior or combined approaches.

  12. Does applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduce cervical spine radiography rates in alert patients with blunt trauma to the neck? A retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yesupalan Rajam; Rethnam Ulfin; Gandham Giri

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background A cautious outlook towards neck injuries has been the norm to avoid missing cervical spine injuries. Consequently there has been an increased use of cervical spine radiography. The Canadian Cervical Spine rule was proposed to reduce unnecessary use of cervical spine radiography in alert and stable patients. Our aim was to see whether applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduced the need for cervical spine radiography without missing significant cervical spine injuries...

  13. Drug screen in patient cells suggests quinacrine to be repositioned for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find drugs suitable for repositioning for use against leukemia, samples from patients with chronic lymphocytic, acute myeloid and lymphocytic leukemias as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were tested in response to 1266 compounds from the LOPAC1280 library (Sigma). Twenty-five compounds were defined as hits with activity in all leukemia subgroups (<50% cell survival compared with control) at 10 ?M drug concentration. Only one of these compounds, quinacrine, showed low activity in normal PBMCs and was therefore selected for further preclinical evaluation. Mining the NCI-60 and the NextBio databases demonstrated leukemia sensitivity and the ability of quinacrine to reverse myeloid leukemia gene expression. Mechanistic exploration was performed using the NextBio bioinformatic software using gene expression analysis of drug exposed acute myeloid leukemia cultures (HL-60) in the database. Analysis of gene enrichment and drug correlations revealed strong connections to ribosomal biogenesis nucleoli and translation initiation. The highest drug–drug correlation was to ellipticine, a known RNA polymerase I inhibitor. These results were validated by additional gene expression analysis performed in-house. Quinacrine induced early inhibition of protein synthesis supporting these predictions. The results suggest that quinacrine have repositioning potential for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia by targeting of ribosomal biogenesis

  14. A computational method for drug repositioning using publicly available gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Motivation The identification of new therapeutic uses of existing drugs, or drug repositioning, offers the possibility of faster drug development, reduced risk, lesser cost and shorter paths to approval. The advent of high throughput microarray technology has enabled comprehensive monitoring of transcriptional response associated with various disease states and drug treatments. This data can be used to characterize disease and drug effects and thereby give a measure of the association between a given drug and a disease. Several computational methods have been proposed in the literature that make use of publicly available transcriptional data to reposition drugs against diseases. Method In this work, we carry out a data mining process using publicly available gene expression data sets associated with a few diseases and drugs, to identify the existing drugs that can be used to treat genes causing lung cancer and breast cancer. Results Three strong candidates for repurposing have been identified- Letrozole and GDC-0941 against lung cancer, and Ribavirin against breast cancer. Letrozole and GDC-0941 are drugs currently used in breast cancer treatment and Ribavirin is used in the treatment of Hepatitis C. PMID:26679199

  15. Embryonic development of fin spines in Callorhinchus milii (Holocephali); implications for chondrichthyan fin spine evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerve, Anna; Johanson, Zerina; Ahlberg, Per; Boisvert, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Fin spines are commonly known from fossil gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) and are usually associated with paired and unpaired fins. They are less common among extant gnathostomes, being restricted to the median fins of certain chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish), including chimaerids (elephant sharks) and neoselachians (sharks, skates, and rays). Fin spine growth is of great interest and relevance but few studies have considered their evolution and development. We investigated the development of the fin spine of the chimaerid Callorhinchus milii using stained histological sections from a series of larval, hatchling, and adult individuals. The lamellar trunk dentine of the Callorhinchus spine first condenses within the mesenchyme, rather than at the contact surface between mesenchyme and epithelium, in a manner more comparable to dermal bone formation than to normal odontode development. Trabecular dentine forms a small component of the spine under the keel; it is covered externally with a thin layer of lamellar trunk dentine, which is difficult to distinguish in sectioned adult spines. We suggest that the distinctive characteristics of the trunk dentine may reflect an origin through co-option of developmental processes involved in dermal bone formation. Comparison with extant Squalus and a range of fossil chondrichthyans shows that Callorhinchus is more representative than Squalus of generalized chondrichthyan fin-spine architecture, highlighting its value as a developmental model organism. PMID:25378057

  16. Confined prostate cancer treated by conformational irradiation with intensity modulation with or without echography repositioning: is the dose received equivalent to the prescribed dose?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results suggest it would be possible to dispense a homogenous dose in agreement with the ICRU recommendations, nearer than the forward looking dose when the daily echographic repositioning is applied. This repositioning does not influence significantly the dosimetry for the risk organs. These results will validated in a bigger population. (N.C.)

  17. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations-occurrence and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, C R; Nordeide, J T; Gjøen, H M; Larsen, B; Egeland, E S

    2015-01-01

    Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are few, despite the large interest in the species' behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females' spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained. PMID:25861558

  18. Actin Remodeling and Polymerization Forces Control Dendritic Spine Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Miermans, Karsten; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic spines are small membranous structures that protrude from the neuronal dendrite. Each spine contains a synaptic contact site that may connect its parent dendrite to the axons of neighboring neurons. Dendritic spines are markedly distinct in shape and size, and certain types of stimulation prompt spines to evolve, in fairly predictable fashion, from thin nascent morphologies to the mushroom-like shapes associated with mature spines. This striking progression is coincident with the (re)configuration of the neuronal network during early development, learning and memory formation, and has been conjectured to be part of the machinery that encodes these processes at the scale of individual neuronal connections. It is well established that the structural plasticity of spines is strongly dependent upon the actin cytoskeleton inside the spine. A general framework that details the precise role of actin in directing the transitions between the various spine shapes is lacking. We address this issue, and present...

  19. Fiducial marker placement for intraoperative spine localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichal, Daniel A; Barnett, David W; Meler, James D; Layton, Kennith F

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great increase in the number of cases of image-guided fiducial marker placement for the purposes of stereotactic radiosurgery. At the authors' parent institution, a tertiary referral academic medical center, the placement of fiducial markers has also been used for the purposes of localization before spine surgery. Given the reported prevalence of "wrong-site" surgical intervention documented in the medical literature, particularly involving spinal surgery, the neurosurgical department at the authors' institution has requested the expertise of interventional radiology for assistance in preoperative spine localization. Therefore, there are medicolegal, medical cost, and patient care implications of image-guided fiducial marker placement. PMID:21109457

  20. Cervical spine fractures and dislocations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospectivce analysis of pediatric admissions over 10 years revealed 29 patients with cervical spine injuries. Eleven patients were below 12 years of age, and 10 of these had injuries involving C1, C2 or the occipitoatlantal articulation. Eighteen patients were between 12 and 16 years of age with injuries distributed throughout the cervical spine similar to injuries in the adult population. Our results suggest that teenagers with suspected cervical injuries are best evaluated by an adult radiographic series including trauma oblique views. In younger patients, careful evaluation of occipitoatlantoaxial alignment and the prevertebral soft tissues is required for diagnosis and selection of additional imaging evaluation. (orig.)

  1. Interbody allograft in a skeletally immature spine model

    OpenAIRE

    Rapoff, Andrew J.; Johnson, Wesley M.; Handel, Jeremy; Woo, Raymund

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this cadaveric biomechanical study was to establish further bovine spines as models for evaluating lumbar interbody allografts and to provide guidance for their use in pediatric humans. It is unknown whether interbody allografts can be used in the pediatric spine without failure of the host vertebral bone. Allografts were placed in cow and calf spines and loaded in compression. The cow spines were much stronger and stiffer than the calf, but moderate in vivo activities were e...

  2. Neurotrophin and Wnt signaling cooperatively regulate dendritic spine formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiester, B. G.; Galati, D. F.; Salinas, P. C.; Jones, K R

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic spines are major sites of excitatory synaptic transmission and changes in their numbers and morphology have been associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a secreted growth factor that influences hippocampal, striatal and neocortical pyramidal neuron dendritic spine density. However, the mechanisms by which BDNF regulates dendritic spines and how BDNF interacts with other regulators of spines remain unclear. We pr...

  3. Sensitivity of lumbar spine loading to anatomical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putzer, Michael; Ehrlich, Ingo; Rasmussen, John; Gebbeken, Norbert; Dendorfer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal simulations of lumbar spine loading rely on a geometrical representation of the anatomy. However, this data has an inherent inaccuracy. This study evaluates the in uence of dened geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading utilizing ve parametrized musculoskeletal lumbar spine models for four different postures. The in uence of the dimensions of vertebral body, disc, posterior parts of the vertebrae as well as the curvature of the lumbar spine were studied. Additionally, simul...

  4. Intracranial hypotension syndrome following chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, N.; Gallerini, S.; Gori, S.; Chiti, A.; Cosottini, M.; Orlandi, G; Murri, L.

    2006-01-01

    Cervical spine manipulation has been associated with several disorders such as cervical arteries dissection, but rarely has a relationship with intracranial hypotension been reported. We describe a patient showing intracranial hypotension syndrome following chiropractic cervical spine treatment. Magnetic resonance showed the presence of dural leakage at cervical level, suggesting the pathogenesis of the syndrome. We state that cervical spine manipulation...

  5. Development and validation of a strategic repositioning model for defense and aerospace contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, John A.

    Strategic repositioning refers to the organized efforts of defense contractors to "reposition" a technology that they have developed for a defense sector customer into a civilian or commercial market. The strategic repositioning model developed here is a structural model: it seeks to isolate the factors that influence choice of strategy, which in turn influences the organization's performance. The model draws from the prior experience of contractors (through interviews and surveys) and companies in other sectors (through a review of the relevant published research). (1) Over all, the model accounted for 55% of the variance in financial performance of the sample and 35% for the underlying population. (2) Key success factors include a rigorous planning process, a target market in the growth (vs. incubation) stage, a priority on market leadership as well as financial return, the ability to operate in an ambiguous business environment, and a relatively short time horizon but strong corporate support. (3) The greatest challenges that a contractor is likely to encounter are understanding his new customers' buying practices, strong competition, and adapting his technology to their needs and price expectations. (4) To address these issues contractors often involve partners in their entry strategy, but partnerships of equals tend to be more difficult to bring off than direct entry strategies. (5) The two major target market categories--government and commercial--present different challenges. Commercial customers are more likely to resist doing business with the contractor, while contractors entering government and other noncommercial markets are more likely to encounter price resistance, low technical sophistication among customers, and difficulties reaching their customer base. (6) Despite these differences across markets, performance is not influenced by the target market category, nor by the type of product or service or the contractor's functional orientation (marketing, technology, or operations). (7) The absence of a difference in performance may be partly due to natural selection. Noncommercial markets tend to attract contractors with more deliberative, consultative, and process-oriented corporate cultures, while commercial markets tend to attract contractors with results-oriented, opportunistic cultures.

  6. Head repositioning errors in normal student volunteers: a possible tool to assess the neck's neuromuscular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudavalli M Ram

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A challenge for practitioners using spinal manipulation is identifying when an intervention is required. It has been recognized that joint pain can interfere with the ability to position body parts accurately and that the recent history of muscle contraction can play a part in that interference. In this study, we tested whether repositioning errors could be induced in a normal population by contraction or shortening of the neck muscles. Methods In the experimental protocol, volunteers free of neck problems first found a comfortable neutral head posture with eyes closed. They deconditioned their cervical muscles by moving their heads 5 times in either flexion/extension or lateral flexion and then attempted to return to the same starting position. Two conditioning sequences were interspersed within the task: hold the head in an extended or laterally flexed position for 10 seconds; or hold a 70% maximum voluntary contraction in the same position for 10 seconds. A computer-interfaced electrogoniometer was used to measure head position while a force transducer coupled to an auditory alarm signaled the force of isometric contraction. The difference between the initial and final head orientation was calculated in 3 orthogonal planes. Analysis of variance (1-way ANOVA with a blocking factor (participants was used to detect differences in proprioceptive error among the conditioning sequences while controlling for variation between participants. Results Forty-eight chiropractic students participated: 36 males and 12 females, aged 28.2 ± 4.8 yrs. During the neck extension test, actively contracting the posterior neck muscles evoked an undershoot of the target position by 2.1° (p Conclusion The results suggest that the recent history of cervical paraspinal muscle contraction can influence head repositioning in flexion/extension. To our knowledge this is the first time that muscle mechanical history has been shown to influence proprioceptive accuracy in the necks of humans. This finding may be used to elucidate the mechanism behind repositioning errors seen in people with neck pain and could guide development of a clinical test for involvement of paraspinal muscles in cervical pain and dysfunction.

  7. A feeling of being (in)visible : The illness trajectory experienced by patients having spine fusion surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene

    Abstract PhD Day 2015 The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long and uncoordinated trajectories. The patients describe a feeling of being mistrusted and thrown around in the system. It is the aim of this study to examine how spine fusion patients experience their illness trajectory and hospitalisation. Methods The study is based on qualitative interviews, and the data analysis is inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur’s phenomenological hermeneutic theory of interpretation. Data were collected through observations and semi-structured interviews at an Elective Surgery Centre in a Danish regional hospital. Results The results show that experiences related to prolonged contact with the healthcare system and healthcare professionals are often dismissed as irrelevant.It is also evident that spine fusion patients are denied the opportunity to verbalise what it feels like to, for example, be ”a person in constant pain” or someone who ”holds back” to avoid being an inconvenience. These feelings are internalised as a sense of doubt and powerlessness, resulting in spine fusion patients experiencing that they are ”disappearing” as a person; losing their identity. Conclusion To conclude, the biomedical perspective obscures spine fusion patients’ horizon of meaning, which is existentially rooted in the areas of the lifeworld. This can lead to psychological and social problems, which in turn can result in a compromised sense of identity and a reduced feeling of social belonging.

  8. Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed. (orig.)

  9. Computer simulation of lumbar spine function.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sumec, J.; Sokol, M.; Jíra, Josef

    AnaheimCalgaryZurich : ACTA Press, 2003 - (Hamza, M.), s. 109-113 ISBN 0-88986-359-8. [IASTED International Conference on Biomechanics BioMECH 2003. Rhodos (GR), 30.06.2003-02.07.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : Spine * Intervertebral Disc * FEM Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics

  10. Extraspinal abnormalities identified on lumbar spine CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrospective review of 1517 lumbar CT examinations revealed extraspinal pathology in 22 (1.45%). Retroperitoneal tumors and lymphadenopathy as well as vascular, urinary tract and gynecologic abnormalities were identified. This study demonstrates the need to carefully evaluate the visualized portions of the abdomen and pelvis on all lumbar spine CT examinations even when the patient's symptomatology is suggestive of spinal abnormalities. (orig.)

  11. Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Nojiri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

  12. X-Ray parameters of lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otabek Ablyazov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of anatomic spinal structures, especially its relation-ship to the functions performed, is necessary to form a correct diagnosis. The anatomical structure of the vertebrae varies de-pending on the level of the spinal segment. Normal anatomical parameters, derived from bone structures of the spine, are roughly determined by X-ray method.This paper presents the results of the survey radiography of the lumbar spine in a straight line and lateral projections in 30 individ-uals without pathology spine, aged 21-60 years with frequently observed lumbar spinal stenosis stenosis. Applying X-ray method there were studied shape, height, and the contours of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disc in the front (interpedicular and sagittal planes; there were measured dimensions of the lumbar canal and foramen holes in the same planes. Using X-ray method can fully identify the bone parameters of vertebral column. How-ever, the informativity of the method depends on knowledge of radiologist about topographic anatomical features of spine.

  13. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  14. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B. [Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-03-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  15. Super-Brownian motion: Lp-convergence of martingales through the pathwise spine decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Murillo-Salas, A E Kyprianou A

    2011-01-01

    Evans (1992) described the semi-group of a superprocess with quadratic branching mechanism under a martingale change of measure in terms of the semi-group of an immortal particle and the semigroup of the superprocess prior to the change of measure. This result, commonly referred to as the spine decomposition, alludes to a pathwise decomposition in which independent copies of the original process `immigrate' along the path of the immortal particle. For branching particle diffusions the analogue of this decomposition has already been demonstrated in the pathwise sense, see for example Hardy and Harris (2009). The purpose of this short note is to exemplify a new {\\it pathwise} spine decomposition for supercritical super-Brownian motion with general branching mechanism (cf. Kyprianou et al. (2010)) by studying $L^p$ convergence of naturally underlying additive martingales in the spirit of analogous arguments for branching particle diffusions due to Hardys and Harris (2009). Amongst other ingredients, the Dynkin-K...

  16. Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Utilizing Cone-Beam CT Image-Guidance With a Robotic Couch: Intrafraction Motion Analysis Accounting for all Six Degrees of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual setup error and intrafraction motion following kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance, for immobilized spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients, with positioning corrected for in all six degrees of freedom. Methods and Materials: Analysis is based on 42 consecutive patients (48 thoracic and/or lumbar metastases) treated with a total of 106 fractions and 307 image registrations. Following initial setup, a CBCT was acquired for patient alignment and a pretreatment CBCT taken to verify shifts and determine the residual setup error, followed by a midtreatment and posttreatment CBCT image. For 13 single-fraction SBRT patients, two midtreatment CBCT images were obtained. Initially, a 1.5-mm and 1° tolerance was used to reposition the patient following couch shifts which was subsequently reduced to 1 mm and 1° degree after the first 10 patients. Results: Small positioning errors after the initial CBCT setup were observed, with 90% occurring within 1 mm and 97% within 1°. In analyzing the impact of the time interval for verification imaging (10 ± 3 min) and subsequent image acquisitions (17 ± 4 min), the residual setup error was not significantly different (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.04) in the average three-dimensional intrafraction positional deviations favoring a more strict tolerance in translation (1 mm vs. 1.5 mm) was observed. The absolute intrafraction motion averaged over all patients and all directions along x, y, and z axis (± SD) were 0.7 ± 0.5 mm and 0.5 ± 0.4 mm for the 1.5 mm and 1 mm tolerance, respectively. Based on a 1-mm and 1° correction threshold, the target was localized to within 1.2 mm and 0.9° with 95% confidence. Conclusion: Near-rigid body immobilization, intrafraction CBCT imaging approximately every 15–20 min, and strict repositioning thresholds in six degrees of freedom yields minimal intrafraction motion allowing for safe spine SBRT delivery.

  17. Automatic Thresholding for Frame-Repositioning Using External Tracking in PET Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Keller, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Motion correction (MC) in positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging become of higher importance with increasing scanner resolution. Several motion correction methods have been suggested and so far the Polaris Vicra tracking system has been the preferred one for motion registration. We present an automated algorithm for dividing PET acquisitions into subframes based on the registered head motion to correct for intra-frame motion with the frame repositioning MC method. The method is tested on real patient data (five 11C-SB studies and five 11C-PIB studies) and compared with an image based registration method (AIR). Quantitative evaluation was done using a correlation measure. The study shows that MC improves the correlation of the PET images and that AIR performed slightly better than the Polaris Vicra. We found significant intra-frame motion of 1-5 mm in 9 frames but the correlation was not significantly improved using intra-frame MC.

  18. Raziskovalni model strateškega repozicioniranja blagovne znamke = Research Model of Strategic Repositioning of the Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vukasovi?

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of the world food market has, in recent years, been markedby rapid, unexpected and complex changes. The world food industryis operating in an explicitly dynamic environment which demandsconstant adjustments and responses. Good familiarity with consumers,their habits, wishes, and motives for buying a certain product is becomingan increasingly important area and food companies have,therefore, devoted more attention to it. The paper uses case a studyof the brand Perutnina Ptuj to illustrate the importance of action elementsin repositioning a brand in competitive markets. The exampleis illustrated by using a research model of strategic repositioningof a brand. The results of the analysis of competitors, the analysis ofthe brand, the results of qualitative research, and the developmentand testing of possible concepts on international markets have offereda basic starting-point for a new positioning of the brand.

  19. Persistent otolith dysfunction even after successful repositioning in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Joong; Oh, Sun-Young; Kim, Ji Soo; Yang, Tae-Ho; Yang, Si-Young

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate utricular and saccular function during the acute and resolved phases of BPPV, ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were studied in 112 patients with BPPV and 50 normal controls in a referral-based University Hospital. Ocular (oVEMPs) and cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) were induced using air-conducted sound (1000Hz tone burst, 100dB normal hearing level) at the time of initial diagnosis and 2months after successful repositioning in patients with BPPV, and the results were compared with those of the controls. Abnormalities of cVEMPs and oVEMPs in patients with BPPV were prevalent and significantly higher compare to the healthy control group (p<0.01 in each VEMP by chi-square test). In the patient group, difference between the proportions of abnormal responses of cVEMP and oVEMP was not significant in both affected (p=0.37, chi-squared test) and non-affected (p=1.00) ears. The abnormalities were more likely reduced or absent responses rather than delayed ones; reduced or absent responses are 17.6% in cVEMPs (p=0.04, chi-square) and 21.6% in oVEMPs (p<0.01). The non-affected ear in the BPPV group also showed significantly higher abnormalities of cVEMP and oVEMP when compared to the control group. The follow-up VEMPs after repositioning maneuvers were not significantly different compared to the initial values from both stimulated affected and non-affected ears. Although most patients had unilateral BPPV, bilateral otolithic dysfunction was often shown by persistently reduced or absent cervical and ocular VEMPs, suggesting that BPPV may be caused by significant bilateral damage to the otolith organs. PMID:26371697

  20. Canalith repositioning in apogeotropic horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: Do we need faster maneuvering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Minho; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kang, Kyung-Wook; Lee, Dasom; Lee, Sae-Young; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Han

    2015-11-15

    A correct diagnosis and a proper treatment may yield a rapid and simple cure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Although the Gufoni maneuver is widely used to treat apogeotropic horizontal-canal BPPV (HC-BPPV), few studies have clarified the relationship between the speed and intensity of maneuver execution and successful canalith reposition. To evaluate the effect of accelerated execution of the Gufoni maneuver, a prospective randomized controlled study was conducted with HC-BPPV patients in a single dizziness clinic. The patients had been diagnosed with apogeotropic HC-BPPV and were undergoing treatment at the dizziness clinic of a tertiary university hospital from January 2013 to August 2014. Two groups were treated with the maneuver performed at different speeds and the resolution rate was compared. The accelerated maneuver group was subjected to faster position changing-within 1s-during the reposition maneuver, while the non-accelerated maneuver group underwent slower maneuvers. Therapeutic efficacy was defined as dizziness relief or resolution of nystagmus within 1h. Fifty patients with apogeotropic HC-BPPV were enrolled and treated with the Gufoni maneuver in two groups of 25 patients. The overall resolution rate was 48% (24 of 50; p=1.00), regardless of acceleration. Our results suggest that a faster, more intense execution of the Gufoni maneuver provides little benefit in treating apogeotropic HC-BPPV. Detachment of the otolith from the cupula or the gravitational force-when the otolith is in the anterior arm of the HC-may be more important contributors to treatment efficacy. PMID:26341154

  1. The efficacy of anterior repositioning splint therapy studied by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, D; Bantleon, H P; Steger, W

    2002-08-01

    Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were obtained of 52 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 30 patients with TMJ disease, before insertion of an anterior repositioning splint. Ten TMJs showed a normal disc-condyle relationship. Pathological findings were partial or complete anterior disc displacement with disc reduction (n = 18), without (n = 7), or with partial reduction (n = 4) or non-reducing joints combined with osteoarthrosis (n = 13). Associated clinical findings were joint clicking, painful TMJ movements with or without condyle limitation, deviation, or crepitus. The clinical evaluation when compared with the MRIs correlated in 75 per cent of cases. Immediate post-insertion MRIs showed recapture of discs with a protrusive splint in 15 out of 18 reducing displacements. Recapture of the disc was seen in only two out of four joints with anterior disc displacement with partial disc reduction. There was no recapture in non-reducing joints. In severe cases of internal derangement with a wide range of disc displacement combined with changes of the osseous joint surfaces, the recapturing of the articular disc with an anterior repositioning appliance was unsuccessful (0 of 13). The follow-up for pain relief after one week showed a significant reduction of symptoms, despite the fact that recapture of the dislocated disc occurred in only 17 of the 42 pathological TMJs. The possibility for disc recapture depends on the disc-condyle position and configuration, the integrity of the posterior attachment, and the degree of degenerative changes of the intra-articular structures, such as osteophytosis, condylar erosion, or flattening of the articular disc. This diagnostic information influences the method of treatment of TMJ disorders. In non-reducing joints or in the later stages of internal derangement of the TMJ, it is not possible to achieve a normal disc-condyle relationship using protrusive splints. PMID:12198864

  2. Does applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduce cervical spine radiography rates in alert patients with blunt trauma to the neck? A retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cautious outlook towards neck injuries has been the norm to avoid missing cervical spine injuries. Consequently there has been an increased use of cervical spine radiography. The Canadian Cervical Spine rule was proposed to reduce unnecessary use of cervical spine radiography in alert and stable patients. Our aim was to see whether applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduced the need for cervical spine radiography without missing significant cervical spine injuries. This was a retrospective study conducted in 2 hospitals. 114 alert and stable patients who had cervical spine radiographs for suspected neck injuries were included in the study. Data on patient demographics, high risk & low risk factors as per the Canadian Cervical Spine rule and cervical spine radiography results were collected and analysed. 28 patients were included in the high risk category according to the Canadian Cervical Spine rule. 86 patients fell into the low risk category. If the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied, there would have been a significant reduction in cervical spine radiographs as 86/114 patients (75.4%) would not have needed cervical spine radiograph. 2/114 patients who had significant cervical spine injuries would have been identified when the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied. Applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule for neck injuries in alert and stable patients would have reduced the use of cervical spine radiographs without missing out significant cervical spine injuries. This relates to reduction in radiation exposure to patients and health care costs

  3. Dendritic spine geometry can localize GTPase signaling in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Samuel A; Raghavachari, Sridhar; Lew, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic terminals of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. Learning and memory are associated with long-lasting structural remodeling of dendritic spines through an actin-mediated process regulated by the Rho-family GTPases RhoA, Rac, and Cdc42. These GTPases undergo sustained activation after synaptic stimulation, but whereas Rho activity can spread from the stimulated spine, Cdc42 activity remains localized to the stimulated spine. Because Cdc42 itself diffuses rapidly in and out of the spine, the basis for the retention of Cdc42 activity in the stimulated spine long after synaptic stimulation has ceased is unclear. Here we model the spread of Cdc42 activation at dendritic spines by means of reaction-diffusion equations solved on spine-like geometries. Excitable behavior arising from positive feedback in Cdc42 activation leads to spreading waves of Cdc42 activity. However, because of the very narrow neck of the dendritic spine, wave propagation is halted through a phenomenon we term geometrical wave-pinning. We show that this can account for the localization of Cdc42 activity in the stimulated spine, and, of interest, retention is enhanced by high diffusivity of Cdc42. Our findings are broadly applicable to other instances of signaling in extreme geometries, including filopodia and primary cilia. PMID:26337387

  4. Barriers in the Brain: Resolving Dendritic Spine Morphology and Compartmentalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Kusters

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are micron-sized protrusions that harbor the majority of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. The head of the spine is connected to the dendritic shaft by a 50-400 nm thin membrane tube, called the spine neck, which has been hypothesized to confine biochemical and electric signals within the spine compartment. Such compartmentalization could minimize interspinal crosstalk and thereby support spine-specific synapse plasticity. However, to what extent compartmentalization is governed by spine morphology, and in particular the diameter of the spine neck, has remained unresolved. Here, we review recent advances in tool development - both experimental and theoretical - that facilitate studying the role of the spine neck in compartmentalization. Special emphasis is given to recent advances in microscopy methods and quantitative modeling applications as we discuss compartmentalization of biochemical signals, membrane receptors and electrical signals in spines. Multidisciplinary approaches should help to answer how dendritic spine architecture affects the cellular and molecular processes required for synapse maintenance and modulation.

  5. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary spine metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sun Medical Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Mison [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Jo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Eulji Universtiy School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A clear consensus has not been established regarding the best treatment for solitary bone metastasis. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients with a controlled primary malignancy who had only solitary spine metastasis without metastasis to the extraspinal bone or viscera and underwent treatment between April 2007 and December 2012 with stereotactic body radiosurgery using CyberKnife, with a total dose of 24 Gy in three to four fractions. During that time, there were only four cases. This was effective in each case, and all the four patients had no local failure and remained alive at a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 64 to 80 months). Although our experience is limited, this study suggests that stereotactic body radiotherapy could be a feasible, safe, effective, and noninvasive alternative treatment for solitary spine metastasis in patients who are medically inoperable or unsuitable for surgery.

  6. Management of metastatic cervical spine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfin, Addisu; Buchowski, Jacob M; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bird, Justin E

    2015-01-01

    The skeletal system is the third most common site of metastases after the lung and liver. Within the skeletal system, the vertebral column is the most common site of metastases, and 8% to 15% of vertebral metastases are in the cervical spine, consisting, anatomically and biomechanically, of the occipitocervical junction, subaxial spine, and cervicothoracic junction. The vertebral body is more commonly affected than the posterior elements. Nonsurgical management techniques include radiation therapy (stereotactic and conventional), bracing, and chemotherapy. Surgical techniques include percutaneous methods, such as vertebroplasty, and palliative methods, such as decompression and stabilization. Surgical approach depends on the location of the tumor and the goals of the surgery. Appropriate patient selection can lead to successful surgical outcomes by restoring spinal stability and improving quality of life. PMID:25538129

  7. Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    Title Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire Authors & Affiliations Henrik Hein Lauridsen1, Lise Hestbæk1,2 1. Research Unit for Clinical Biomechanics, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Clinical Locomotion Network, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark 2. Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Clinical Locomotion Network, Forskerparken 10A, 5230 Odense M, Denmark Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Therefore preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific instruments to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for children aged 9-12 years which could fill this gap in the literature. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases – the conceptualisation, development and testing phase. We used the conceptual model of Wilson and Cleary (1995) and divided the YSQ into two parts: part one included spinal prevalence estimates (including pictures of spinal area) and part two questions regarding pain, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. During the developing phase we used an iterative process to carefully rephrase existing items used in prior questionnaires such as the Standardised Nordic Questionnaire. To measure pain the “Revised Faces Pain Scale” (rFPS) was included. The testing phase consisted of an iterative method assessing respondent understanding during two pilot tests. In the first pilot test 52 4th grade children filled in the draft version of the YSQ. This was followed by a semi-structured interview two days later designed to obtain the same information ascontained in the YSQ, however, using different semantics and open-ended questions. The revised questionnaire was tested and reviewed a second time at the end of the first pilot test. The second pilot test included 23 children from the 4th grade. It followed similar procedures as the first pilot test but focused mainly on revised versions of the drawings demarcating the spinal areas. Results Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). Correlations between the rFPS and the interview NRS score ranged between 0.71 (cervical spine) and 0.84 (thoracic spine). Agreement between the questionnaire drawings and the interviews of the upper and lower boundaries of the spinal areas were 91.8% for the cervical spine and 67.4% (lumbar spine) and 63.3% (thoracic spine). This resulted in alterations to the drawings. Lastly, as some questions in the second part of the YSQ had a high prevalence of non-responses, it was decided to change question semantics and response options. Conclusion The Young Spine Questionnaire is a novel self-report measure of spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for understanding of content among target respondents, and the results showed acceptable agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings. On the basis of these preliminary results we conclude that the YSQ is a feasible and valid instrument to be used in cross-sectional cohort studies of children aged 9 to 12 years.

  8. Retropharyngeal cold abscess without Pott's spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Singh; H, Velankar; D, Shinde; N, Chordia; S, Budhwani.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Retropharyngeal abscesses are infections deep in the neck space that can pose an immediate life-threatening emergency, with potential for airway compromise and other catastrophic complications. In adults these abscesses can develop as a result of vertebral pyogenic osteomyelitis, tube Reculosis of t [...] he spine, or external injuries caused by endoscopes or foreign bodies (e.g. fish bones). Tuberculosis of the retropharyngeal space is one of the rare forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent the serious complications of the disease. We present a case of tuberculous retropharyngeal abscess in an adult woman without tuberculosis of the cervical spine who was managed surgically by aspirating the retropharyngeal abscess transorally, together with antituberculosis treatment.

  9. Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson ?2 test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

  10. Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT--Experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wu; Qian Jianguo; Hancock, Steven L.; Xing, Lei; Luxton, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States) and Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate clinic-ready adaptive imaging protocols for online patient repositioning (motion tracking) during prostate IMRT using treatment beam imaging supplemented by minimal, as-needed use of on-board kV. Methods: The authors examine the two-step decision-making strategy: (1) Use cine-MV imaging and online-updated characterization of prostate motion to detect target motion that is potentially beyond a predefined threshold and (2) use paired MV-kV 3D localization to determine overthreshold displacement and, if needed, reposition the patient. Two levels of clinical implementation were evaluated: (1) Field-by-field based motion correction for present-day linacs and (2) instantaneous repositioning for new-generation linacs with capabilities of simultaneous MV-kV imaging and remote automatic couch control during treatment delivery. Experiments were performed on a Varian Trilogy linac in clinical mode using a 4D motion phantom programed with prostate motion trajectories taken from patient data. Dosimetric impact was examined using a 2D ion chamber array. Simulations were done for 536 trajectories from 17 patients. Results: Despite the loss of marker detection efficiency caused by the MLC leaves sometimes obscuring the field at the marker's projected position on the MV imager, the field-by-field correction halved (from 23% to 10%) the mean percentage of time that target displacement exceeded a 3 mm threshold, as compared to no intervention. This was achieved at minimal cost in additional imaging (average of one MV-kV pair per two to three treatment fractions) and with a very small number of repositionings (once every four to five fractions). Also with low kV usage ({approx}2/fraction), the instantaneous repositioning approach reduced overthreshold time by more than 75% (23% to 5%) even with severe MLC blockage as often encountered in current IMRT and could reduce the overthreshold time tenfold (to <2%) if the MLC blockage problem were relieved. The information acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. Conclusions: This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques.

  11. Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT--Experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate clinic-ready adaptive imaging protocols for online patient repositioning (motion tracking) during prostate IMRT using treatment beam imaging supplemented by minimal, as-needed use of on-board kV. Methods: The authors examine the two-step decision-making strategy: (1) Use cine-MV imaging and online-updated characterization of prostate motion to detect target motion that is potentially beyond a predefined threshold and (2) use paired MV-kV 3D localization to determine overthreshold displacement and, if needed, reposition the patient. Two levels of clinical implementation were evaluated: (1) Field-by-field based motion correction for present-day linacs and (2) instantaneous repositioning for new-generation linacs with capabilities of simultaneous MV-kV imaging and remote automatic couch control during treatment delivery. Experiments were performed on a Varian Trilogy linac in clinical mode using a 4D motion phantom programed with prostate motion trajectories taken from patient data. Dosimetric impact was examined using a 2D ion chamber array. Simulations were done for 536 trajectories from 17 patients. Results: Despite the loss of marker detection efficiency caused by the MLC leaves sometimes obscuring the field at the marker's projected position on the MV imager, the field-by-field correction halved (from 23% to 10%) the mean percentage of time that target displacement exceeded a 3 mm threshold, as compared to no intervention. This was achieved at minimal cost in additional imaging (average of one MV-kV pair per two to three treatment fractions) and with a very small number of repositionings (once every four to five fractions). Also with low kV usage (?2/fraction), the instantaneous repositioning approach reduced overthreshold time by more than 75% (23% to 5%) even with severe MLC blockage as often encountered in current IMRT and could reduce the overthreshold time tenfold (to <2%) if the MLC blockage problem were relieved. The information acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. Conclusions: This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques.

  12. Extraspinal abnormalities identified on lumbar spine CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frager, D.H.; Elkin, C.M.; Kansler, F.; Mendelsohn, S.L.; Leeds, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    Retrospective review of 1517 lumbar CT examinations revealed extraspinal pathology in 22 (1.45%). Retroperitoneal tumors and lymphadenopathy as well as vascular, urinary tract and gynecologic abnormalities were identified. This study demonstrates the need to carefully evaluate the visualized portions of the abdomen and pelvis on all lumbar spine CT examinations even when the patient's symptomatology is suggestive of spinal abnormalities. (orig.).

  13. Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Title Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire Authors & Affiliations Henrik Hein Lauridsen1, Lise Hestbæk1,2 1. Research Unit for Clinical Biomechanics, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Clinical Locomotion Network, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark 2. Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Clinical Locomotion Network, Forskerparken 10A, 5230 Odense M, Denmark Background Back pain in children is common and early...

  14. Insufficient pain management after spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Dahl, Jørgen Berg; Mathiesen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A prospective observational quality assurance study was performed at Glostrup Hospital, Denmark, to describe patients undergoing spine surgery with regard to perioperative analgesic management, post-operative pain, opioid consumption and side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients eligible for the study were identified consecutively from the operation chart. The following data were registered: post-operative visual analogue (VAS) pain score at rest and during mobilisation, opioid ...

  15. Screening of the spine in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Degerfalk, Anna; Kentsdotter, Linn; Hestbaek, Lise

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on the reliability of clinical tests used for the spinal screening of children and adolescents is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability and measurement error of clinical tests commonly used when screening young spines. METHODS: Two experienced chiropractors independently assessed 111 adolescents aged 12-14 years who were recruited from a primary school in Denmark. A standardised examination protocol was used to test ...

  16. Sports-related injuries of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.)

  17. Imaging guideline 1: blunt cervical spine trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical question: when do patients with blunt cervical spine trauma need imaging and which imaging modality should be used first? Purpose and scope: to assist clinicians in determining (i) the requirement for imaging in patients with acute blunt neck trauma and (ii) whether computed tomography or plain radiography is the more appropriate first test in those patients who need imaging. The details of guideline development are described fully in reference. The risk of clinically significant cervical spine injury being present if all five National X-radiography Utilization Study Group (NEXUS) criteria are negative is less than 0.1% and it is appropriate that these patients be managed without imaging. In contrast, patients with head injury requiring CT scanning are at substantially increased risk of cervical spine injury. Hanson et al. have determined that it may be a cost-effective procedure to image this group of patients initially with helical CT instead of plain radiographs if a high-energy mechanism of trauma was involved. Coronal and sagittal reformatted images should be viewed with axial images in order to maximize detection of fracture and dislocation, especially if plain radiographs are omitted as the first step. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  18. Comparison of two repositioning devices used during radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Reproducible patient positioning is fundamental to the success of fractionated radiation therapy in all patients. In patients with a radio curable disease and a long life expectancy, such as those with Hodgkin's disease, accurate repositioning is crucial to maximize the likelihood of cure and to minimize incidental irradiation of non-target normal tissues. In the late 1980s, we replaced an upper torso positioning cradle with an extended near-total body cradle which also includes the lower torso and thighs. This study was performed to assess the impact of the extended cradle on the reproducibility of patient repositioning during irradiation of Hodgkin's disease. Methods and Materials: Patients treated from 1990-1992 were positioned in the short cradle while those treated from 1992 - 1995 were positioned in the extended cradle. All treatments were delivered via anterior and posterior fields. Treatment areas above and below the diaphragm were considered separately. All fields were simulated and beam-shaping blocks designed on anterior and posterior radiographs. Discrepancies in isocenter placement between the simulation radiographs and subsequent port films were noted by a radiation oncologist and requests for isocenter shifts were indicated. The number, magnitude, and direction of any physician-requested isocenter shifts on port films were retrospectively reviewed. For the purpose of scoring the frequency of isocenter misplacements, when a shift was noted on two port films taken during the same treatment session (i.e., a left shift on both an anterior and a posterior port film), it was scored as only one event. A two-tailed chi-square test was used to compare the differences in requested shifts in the two patient groups. Results: The study population consisted of 57 patients (32 short and 25 extended cradle). A total of 815 port films representing 459 isocenter placements were analyzed (288 above and 170 below the diaphragm). When all port films above the diaphragm (mostly mantle fields) are considered, isocenter shifts were requested in 15.6% ((24(154))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 6.7% ((9(134))) of isocenter placements with the extended cradle (p = 0.035). When all port films below the diaphragm (mostly paraaortic/spleen and pelvic fields) are considered, isocenter shifts were requested in 30.1% ((28(93))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 16.7% ((13(78))) of isocenter placements with the extended cradle (p = 0.106). When both treatment sites are combined, isocenter shifts were requested in 21.1% ((52(247))) of isocenter placements with the upper torso cradle and in 10.4% ((22(212))) of isocenter placements when the extended cradle was used (p 0.008). Conclusions: The extended cradle provides superior repositioning of patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. Differences observed in setup accuracy in this study underscore the importance of aggressive immobilization of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Increased accuracy of daily setup provides an opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio both by increased likelihood of tumor control and decreased risk of normal tissue complications

  19. Comparison of two repositioning devices used during radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patients irradiated for Hodgkin's disease are fixed in an immobilization cradle to improve repositioning. In the early 1990s, we changed our cradle system from a 'short' upper torso cradle to an extended near-total body cradle that also includes the lower torso and thighs. In this study, we assess the impact of the extended cradle on the reproducibility of patient repositioning during irradiation of Hodgkin's disease. Methods and Materials: A total of 782 port films of 56 patients treated immediately before and after the change-over were studied to assess positioning reproducibility. Patients treated prior to 1993 were positioned in the short cradle, while those treated 1993 and later were positioned in the extended cradle. All treatment were delivered via anterior and posterior fields and treatment areas above and below the diaphragm were considered separately and together. All treatment fields were simulated and the field shape was designed on anterior and posterior radiographs. Discrepancies in field placement between the simulation radiographs and subsequent port films were noted by a radiation oncologist and requests for position adjustment (both translational and rotational shifts) were noted. The number, magnitude, and direction of any physician-requested position adjustment on port films were retrospectively reviewed. For the purpose of scoring the frequency of field misplacements, when an adjustment was noted on two port films taken during the same treatment session (i.e., a left shift on both an anterior and a posterior port film), it was scored as only one event. A two-tailed chi-square test was used to compare the differences in requested shifts in the two patient groups. Results: The study population consisted of 56 patients (31 short and 25 extended cradle) representing 92 treatment sites. A total of 782 port films representing 450 treatment setups were analyzed (292 above and 158 below the diaphragm). When all port films above the diaphragm (mostly mantle fields) are considered, position adjustments were requested in 13.4% 921 out of 157) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 5.9% (8 out of 135) of treatment setups with the extended cradle (p = 0.054). When all port films below the diaphragm (mostly paraaortic/spleen and pelvic fields) are considered, position adjustments were requested in 33.8% (27 out of 80) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 16.7% (13 out of 78) of treatment setups with the extended cradle (p = 0.056). A reduction in the frequency of both translational and rotational adjustments were seen. When both treatment sites are combined, position adjustments were requested in 20.3% (48 out of 237) of treatment setups with the upper torso cradle and in 9.9% (21 out of 213) of treatment setups when the extended cradle was used (p = 0.0086). Conclusions: The extended cradle provides superior repositioning of patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. Differences observed in setup accuracy in this study underscore the importance of aggressive immobilization of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Increased accuracy of daily setup may provide an opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio both by increased likelihood of tumor control and decreased risk of normal tissue complications

  20. ApoE4 delays dendritic spine formation during neuron development and accelerates loss of mature spines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Nwabuisi?Heath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ?4 allele of the gene that encodes apolipoprotein E (APOE4 is the greatest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD, while APOE2 reduces AD risk, compared to APOE3. The mechanism(s underlying the effects of APOE on AD pathology remains unclear. In vivo, dendritic spine density is lower in APOE4-targeted replacement (APOE-TR mice compared with APOE2- and APOE3-TR mice. To investigate whether this apoE4-induced decrease in spine density results from alterations in the formation or the loss of dendritic spines, the effects of neuron age and apoE isoform on the total number and subclasses of spines were examined in long-term wild-type neurons co-cultured with glia from APOE2-, APOE3- and APOE4-TR mice. Dendritic spine density and maturation were evaluated by immunocytochemistry via the presence of drebrin (an actin-binding protein with GluN1 (NMDA receptor subunit and GluA2 (AMPA receptor subunit clusters. ApoE isoform effects were analyzed via a method previously established that identifies phases of spine formation (day-in-vitro, DIV10–18, maintenance (DIV18–21 and loss (DIV21–26. In the formation phase, apoE4 delayed total spine formation. During the maintenance phase, the density of GluN1+GluA2 spines did not change with apoE2, while the density of these spines decreased with apoE4 compared to apoE3, primarily due to the loss of GluA2 in spines. During the loss phase, total spine density was lower in neurons with apoE4 compared to apoE3. Thus, apoE4 delays total spine formation and may induce early synaptic dysfunction via impaired regulation of GluA2 in spines.

  1. U-shaped Osteotomy Around the Descending Palatine Artery to Prevent Posterior Osseous Interference for Superior/Posterior Repositioning of the Maxilla in Le Fort I Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Susumu; Iwai, Toshinori; Honda, Koji; Shibutani, Naoki; Fujita, Koichi; Yamashita, Yosuke; Takasu, Hikaru; Murata, Shogo; Tohnai, Iwai

    2015-07-01

    In maxillary orthognathic surgery, superior repositioning of the maxilla is sometimes difficult, and removal of bony interference, especially around the descending palatine artery (DPA), is very time-consuming in cases of severe maxillary impaction. Posterior repositioning of the maxilla for removal of bony interference between the posterior maxilla and the pterygoid process is also technically difficult. Because the most common site of hemorrhage in Le Fort I osteotomy is the posterior maxilla, this bone removal is a source of frustration for surgeons in DPA injury. When the DPA is injured during bone removal and ligation is performed, aseptic necrosis of the maxilla may occur. Therefore, a simple and safe method for maxillary superior/posterior repositioning is required to remove osseous interference around the DPA. The authors describe here U-shaped osteotomy around the DPA to prevent posterior osseous interference for superior/posterior repositioning of the maxilla in Le Fort I osteotomy. PMID:26106994

  2. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars. PMID:26309385

  3. Repositioning the patient: patient organizations, consumerism, and autonomy in Britain during the 1960s and 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how and why the patient came to be repositioned as a political actor within British health care during the 1960s and 1970s. Focusing on the role played by patient organizations, it is suggested that the repositioning of the patient needs to be seen in the light of growing demands for greater patient autonomy and the application of consumerist principles to health. Examining the activities of two patient groups-the National Association for the Welfare of Children in Hospital (NAWCH) and the Patients Association (PA)-indicates that while such groups undoubtedly placed more emphasis on individual autonomy, collective concerns did not entirely fall away. The voices of patients, as well as the patient, continued to matter within British health care. PMID:23811711

  4. Balancing Structure and Function at Hippocampal Dendritic Spines

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, Jennifer N.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic spines are the primary recipients of excitatory input in the central nervous system. They provide biochemical compartments that control locally the mechanisms of signaling at individual synapses. Hippocampal spines show structural plasticity as the basis for physiological changes in synaptic efficacy that underlie learning and memory. Spine structure is regulated by molecular mechanisms that are fine-tuned and adjusted according to developmental age, level and direction of synaptic ...

  5. Automatic dendrite spines detection from X-ray tomography volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Descombes, Xavier; Malandain, Grégoire; Fonta, Caroline; Negyessy, Lazlo; Mosko, Rajmund

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of dendritic spine detection from X-ray micro-tomographic volumes that allow huge volume of tissue visualization. To compensate for the noise in data that induces false positives in the spine detection process, we first segment the dendrites. This segmentation is obtained by computing the medial axis and approximating the results by segments obtained with a 3D Hough transform. Dendrites are then reconstructed and a spine mask is obtained using the typical diameter of d...

  6. Actin in dendritic spines: connecting dynamics to function

    OpenAIRE

    Hotulainen, P.; C. C. Hoogenraad

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic spines are small actin-rich protrusions from neuronal dendrites that form the postsynaptic part of most excitatory synapses and are major sites of information processing and storage in the brain. Changes in the shape and size of dendritic spines are correlated with the strength of excitatory synaptic connections and heavily depend on remodeling of its underlying actin cytoskeleton. Emerging evidence suggests that most signaling pathways linking synaptic activity to spine morphology ...

  7. Epac2-mediated dendritic spine remodeling: implications for disease

    OpenAIRE

    Penzes, Peter; Woolfrey, Kevin M; Srivastava, Deepak P.

    2010-01-01

    In the mammalian forebrain, most glutamatergic excitatory synapses occur on small dendritic protrusions called dendritic spines. Dendritic spines are highly plastic and can rapidly change morphology in response to numerous stimuli. This dynamic remodeling of dendritic spines is thought to be critical for information processing, memory and cognition. Conversely, multiple studies have revealed that neuropathologies such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are linked with alterations in dendriti...

  8. Paget's disease of the spine: Unusual features and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paget's disease of bone is a common disorder, with the spine being involved in over 50% of cases. This pictorial review illustrates unusual features and complications of the disease as related to the spine. Unusual features include location in the atlanto-axial region, lytic vertebral Paget's disease and Pagetic ankylosis. Complications related to the spine are mainly neurological due to spinal stenosis, compression fractures and sarcomatous degeneration

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics of dendritic spines in the living brain

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zuo; Ju Lu

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic spines are ubiquitous postsynaptic sites of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, and thus may serve as structural indicators of functional synapses. Recent works have suggested that neuronal coding of memories may be associated with rapid alterations in spine formation and elimination. Technological advances have enabled researchers to study spine dynamics in vivo during development as well as under various physiological and pathological conditions. We believe that bette...

  10. Cervical Spine Involvement: A Rare Manifestation of Reiter's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rastegar, Khodakaram; Ghalaenovi, Hossein; Babashahi, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Jafari, Mohammad; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Fattahi, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Spine involvement is less common in Reiter's syndrome than in other seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Also, cervical spine involvement rarely occurs in Reiter's syndrome and other spondyloarthropathies. This paper reports a rare case of Reiter's syndrome in which there was cervical spine involvement that presented clinically as an atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation. Reiter's Syndrome (RS) is one of the most common types of seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSAs) that presents clinically w...

  11. Imaging of primary bone tumors of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevelegas, Antonios; Sofroniadis, Ioannis [Ahepa University Hospital, S. Kyraikidi 1, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chourmouzi, Danai; Boulogianni, Glikeria [Asklipios Aristotelio Diagnostic Center, Papanastasiou 207, 54236 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2003-08-01

    Primary tumors of the spine are relatively infrequent lesions compared with metastatic disease, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. A wide variety of benign and malignant neoplasms can involve the spine. The imaging features of these lesions are often characteristic. We present an overview of the imaging modalities in primary tumors of the spine in order to provide a useful tool in current radiologic practice. The role of CT and MRI is discussed. (orig.)

  12. The illness trajectory experienced by patients having spine fusion surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long and uncoordinated trajectories. The patients describe a feeling of being mistrusted and thrown around in the system. It is the aim of this study to examine how spine fusion patients experience their illness trajectory and hospitalisati...

  13. A compartmental model for activity-dependent dendritic spine branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzi, D W; Noris, O Y

    2009-07-01

    Dendritic spines are small, mushroom-like protrusions from the arbor of a neuron in the central nervous system. Interdependent changes in the morphology, biochemistry, and activity of spines have been associated with learning and memory. Moreover, post-mortem cortices from patients with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease exhibit biochemical and physical alterations within their dendritic arbors and a reduction in the number of dendritic spines. For over a decade, experimentalists have observed perforations in postsynaptic densities on dendritic spines after induction of long-term potentiation, a sustained enhancement of response to a brief electrical or chemical stimulus, associated with learning and memory. In more recent work, some suggest that activity-dependent intraspine calcium may regulate the surface area of the spine head, and reorganization of postsynaptic densities on the surface. In this paper, we develop a model of a dendritic spine with the ability to partition its transmission and receptor zones, as well as the entire spine head. Simulations are initially performed with fixed parameters for morphology to study electrical properties and identify parameters that increase efficacy of the synaptic connection. Equations are then introduced to incorporate calcium as a second messenger in regulating continuous changes in morphology. In the model, activity affects compartmental calcium, which regulates spine head morphology. Conversely, spine head morphology affects the level of local activity, whether the spines are modeled with passive membrane properties, or excitable membrane using Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics. Results indicate that merely separating the postsynaptic receptors on the surface of the spine may add to the diversity of circuitry, but does not change the efficacy of the synapse. However, when the surface area of the spine is a dynamic variable, efficacy of the synapse may vary continuously over time. PMID:19172359

  14. Room-temperature repositioning of individual C60 molecules at Cu steps: Operation of a molecular counting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuberes, M. T.; Schlittler, R. R.; Gimzewski, J. K.

    1996-11-01

    C60 molecules absorbed on a monoatomic Cu step have been reversibly repositioned at room temperature with the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope by performing controlled displacements along the step direction. We demonstrate the feasibility of building an abacus on the nanometer scale using single molecules as ``counters,'' Cu monoatomic steps as ``rods'' that constrain the molecular motion to one dimension, and the scanning tunneling microscope as an ``actuator'' for counting operations.

  15. Predictors of Success in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance: A Systematic Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda, Saffer; José Faibes Lubianca, Lubianca; Cassiano, Rösing; Caroline, Dias; Luciane, Closs.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects up to 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of adult women. It is associated with obesity. Objective The objective of this article is to review the literature to determine which factors best correlate with treatment success in patients with obstructive s [...] leep apnea syndrome treated with a mandibular repositioning appliance. Data Synthesis A search was performed of the PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scielo, and Web of Science databases of articles published from January 1988 to January 2012. Two review authors independently collected data and assessed trial quality. Sixty-nine articles were selected from PubMed and 1 from Cochrane library. Of these, 42 were excluded based on the title and abstract, and 27 were retrieved for complete reading. A total of 13 articles and 1 systematic review were considered eligible for further review and inclusion in this study: 6 studies evaluated anthropomorphic and physiologic factors, 3 articles addressed cephalometric and anatomic factors, and 4 studies evaluated variables related to mandibular repositioning appliance design and activation. All the studies evaluated had low to moderate methodologic quality and were not able to support evidence on prediction of treatment success. Conclusion Based on this systematic review on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treatment, it remains unclear which predictive factors can be used with confidence to select patients suitable for treatment with a mandibular repositioning appliance.

  16. Predictors of success in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with mandibular repositioning appliance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Fernanda; Lubianca, José Faibes Lubianca; Rösing, Cassiano; Dias, Caroline; Closs, Luciane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects up to 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of adult women. It is associated with obesity. Objective?The objective of this article is to review the literature to determine which factors best correlate with treatment success in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treated with a mandibular repositioning appliance. Data Synthesis?A search was performed of the PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scielo, and Web of Science databases of articles published from January 1988 to January 2012. Two review authors independently collected data and assessed trial quality. Sixty-nine articles were selected from PubMed and 1 from Cochrane library. Of these, 42 were excluded based on the title and abstract, and 27 were retrieved for complete reading. A total of 13 articles and 1 systematic review were considered eligible for further review and inclusion in this study: 6 studies evaluated anthropomorphic and physiologic factors, 3 articles addressed cephalometric and anatomic factors, and 4 studies evaluated variables related to mandibular repositioning appliance design and activation. All the studies evaluated had low to moderate methodologic quality and were not able to support evidence on prediction of treatment success. Conclusion?Based on this systematic review on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treatment, it remains unclear which predictive factors can be used with confidence to select patients suitable for treatment with a mandibular repositioning appliance. PMID:25992156

  17. Target and peripheral dose from radiation sector motions accompanying couch repositioning of patient coordinates with the Gamma Knife® Perfexion™

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GammaPlan™ treatment planning system (TPS) does not fully account for shutter dose when multiple shots are required to deliver a patient’s treatment. The unaccounted exposures to the target site and its periphery are measured in this study. The collected data are compared to a similar effect from the Gamma Knife® model 4C. A stereotactic head frame was attached to a Leksell® 16 cm diameter spherical phantom; using a fiducial-box, CT images of the phantom were acquired and registered in the TPS. Measurements give the relationship of measured dose to the number of repositions with the patient positioning system (PPS) and to the collimator size. An absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the 50% isodose line was prescribed to the target site and all measurements were acquired with an ionization chamber. Measured dose increases with frequency of repositioning and with collimator size. As the radiation sectors transition between the beam on and beam off states, the target receives more shutter dose than the periphery. Shutter doses of 3.53±0.04 and 1.59±0.04 cGy/reposition to the target site are observed for the 16 and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The target periphery receives additional dose that varies depending on its position relative to the target. The radiation sector motions for the Gamma Knife® Perfexion™ result in an additional dose due to the shutter effect. The magnitude of this exposure is comparable to that measured for the model 4C

  18. A miRNA-driven inference model to construct potential drug-disease associations for drug repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hailin; Zhang, Zuping

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence discovered that the inappropriate expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) will lead to many kinds of complex diseases and drugs can regulate the expression level of miRNAs. Therefore human diseases may be treated by targeting some specific miRNAs with drugs, which provides a new perspective for drug repositioning. However, few studies have attempted to computationally predict associations between drugs and diseases via miRNAs for drug repositioning. In this paper, we developed an inference model to achieve this aim by combining experimentally supported drug-miRNA associations and miRNA-disease associations with the assumption that drugs will form associations with diseases when they share some significant miRNA partners. Experimental results showed excellent performance of our model. Case studies demonstrated that some of the strongly predicted drug-disease associations can be confirmed by the publicly accessible database CTD (www.ctdbase.org), which indicated the usefulness of our inference model. Moreover, candidate miRNAs as molecular hypotheses underpinning the associations were listed to guide future experiments. The predicted results were released for further studies. We expect that this study will provide help in our understanding of drug-disease association prediction and in the roles of miRNAs in drug repositioning. PMID:25789319

  19. The Effectiveness of a Modified Type of the Mandibular Repositioning Device on the Elimination of Snoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ebadian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Snoring is the most common sleep disorder which in itself may only be viewed as an obnoxious disturbance in human society; however it must be considered a potential indicator of significant medical problems such as: hypertension,obstructive sleep apnea, cerebrovascular infarction and ischemic heart disease.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified type of Mandibular Repositioning Device (MRD splint on the treatment of snoring.Materials and Methods: This before and after interventional study was carried out on 15 patients (4 females and 11 males who suffered from snoring. All subjects had no upper airway obstruction. Maxillary and mandibular splints were made by clear heatcuredacrylic resin. A special screw connected to the anterior portion of the maxillary splint and an orthodontic wire No 1 positioned on the lower splint. The devices were tried in the mouth and relined with a softliner. This appliance was designed to protrude the mandible by use of a screw system. Snoring grades were detemined before, and 3weeks after treatment with the MRD. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test.Results: A significant difference was observed between the snoring severity, before and after using the splints (P = 0.001.Conclusion: The present study showed this modified type of splint can be effective in decreasing or eliminating snoring. The effectiveness of the splint in the treatment of snoring could be related to its role of widening the upper airway.

  20. Posture and re-positioning considerations of a complete torso topographic analysis system for assessing scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajemba, Peter O.; Durdle, Nelson G.; Hill, Doug L.; Raso, V. J.

    2006-02-01

    The influence of posture and re-positioning (sway and breathing) on the accuracy of a torso imaging system for assessing scoliosis was evaluated. The system comprised of a rotating positioning platform and one or two laser digitizers. It required four partial-scans taken at 90 ° intervals over 10 seconds to generate two complete torso scans. Its accuracy was previously determined to be 1.1+/-0.9mm. Ten evenly spaced cross-sections obtained from forty scans of five volunteers in four postures (free-standing, holding side supports, holding front supports and with their hands on their shoulders) were used to assess the variability due to posture. Twenty cross-sections from twenty scans of two volunteers holding side supports were used to assess the variability due to positioning. The variability due to posture was less than 4mm at each cross-section for all volunteers. Variability due to sway ranged from 0-3.5mm while that due to breathing ranged from 0-3mm for both volunteers. Holding side supports was the best posture. Taking the four shots within 10 seconds was optimal. As major torso features that are indicative of scoliosis are larger than 4mm in size, the system could be used in obtaining complete torso images used in assessing and managing scoliosis.

  1. Drug Repositioning and Pharmacophore Identification in the Discovery of Hookworm MIF Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Cho; J Vermeire; J Merkel; L Leng; X Du; R Bucala; M Cappello; E Lolis

    2011-12-31

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a 'proof-of-concept' for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

  2. Repositioning the use of the Bible towards a mission-oriented theological education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adekunle O., Dada.

    Full Text Available It is an undeniable fact that mission remains the cardinal essence of the Church. However, in Africa and in Nigeria, the Church seems to have lost focus regarding the main reason for its existence, namely mission. One of the factors responsible for this may be the form of theological education in vo [...] gue. In view of this anomaly, this paper reflects on how the study of the Bible, which serves as the primary basis for theological education in some institutions, can be repositioned to enhance a mission-oriented theological education. The importance of proper interpretation of the Bible in enhancing missions can be premised on the fact that a sound biblical hermeneutics is prerequisite to the formulation of an effective and functional theology of missions. If our theology of mission is faulty, the practice cannot be anything but flawed. In view of this, the paper explores ways in which the Bible can be meaningfully studied in order to promote a mission-oriented theological education.

  3. Repositioning the use of the Bible towards a mission-oriented theological education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle O. Dada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is an undeniable fact that mission remains the cardinal essence of the Church. However, in Africa and in Nigeria, the Church seems to have lost focus regarding the main reason for its existence, namely mission. One of the factors responsible for this may be the form of theological education in vogue. In view of this anomaly, this paper reflects on how the study of the Bible, which serves as the primary basis for theological education in some institutions, can be repositioned to enhance a mission-oriented theological education. The importance of proper interpretation of the Bible in enhancing missions can be premised on the fact that a sound biblical hermeneutics is prerequisite to the formulation of an effective and functional theology of missions. If our theology of mission is faulty, the practice cannot be anything but flawed. In view of this, the paper explores ways in which the Bible can be meaningfully studied in order to promote a mission-oriented theological education.

  4. Tubular foreign body or stent: safe retrieval or repositioning using the coaxial snare technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Yong Joo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Hyun Beom; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the utility and advantages of the coaxial snare technique in the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies. Using the coaxial snare technique, we attempted to retrieve tubular foreign bodies present in seven patients. The bodies were either stents which were malpositioned or had migrated from their correct position in the vascular system (n=2), a fragmented venous introducer sheath (n=1), fragmented drainage catheters in the biliary tree (n=2), or fractured external drainage catheters in the urinary tract (n=2). After passing a guidewire and/or a dilator through the lumina of these foreign bodies, we introduced a loop snare over the guidewire or dilator, thus capturing and retrieving them. In all cases, it was possible to retrieve or reposition the various items, using a minimum-sized introducer sheath or a tract. No folding was involved. In no case were surgical procedures required, and no complications were encountered. The coaxial snare technique, an application of the loop snare technique, is a useful and safe method for the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies, and one which involves minimal injury to the patient.

  5. Reubicación del ombligo al realizar un colgajo TRAM / Umbillical repositioning in TRAM flap

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Fuente del Campo; T., Raveh; C.B., Gordon.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Describimos un método simple para reubicar el ombligo en los casos de plicatura abdominal unilateral consecutiva a la rotación de un colgajo TRAM. El ombligo se desplaza a lo largo de una incisión hecha en la aponeurosis anterior del músculo recto abdominal contralateral. Este procedimiento no debil [...] ita la musculatura abdominal contralateral, mantiene el ombligo estable, sin estenosis, y evita la formación de cicatrices hipertróficas a su alrededor. Tras este procedimiento los pacientes conservan una resistencia abdominal normal, pudiendo realizar esfuerzo y ejercicio sin manifestar áreas de debilidad. Abstract in english A new method of umbilical repositioning by incising the anterior rectus sheath and rectus abdominis muscle is reported for cases of unilateral abdominal wall plication during the TRAM flap operation. This method does not weaken the contralateral abdominal muscles, keeps the umbilicus stable and nons [...] tenotic, and it avoids hypertrophic scars. With this technique, patients have normal abdominal strength, performing abdominal strain and general exercise without areas of weakness in the abdominal wall.

  6. Argus II retinal prosthesis malrotation and repositioning with intraoperative optical coherence tomography in a posterior staphyloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Michael I; Hahn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Argus II retinal prosthesis may improve visual function in patients with severe vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa. Optimal centration of the electrode array over the macula is important to achieve optimal visual results. Argus tack malrotation is a novel entity that may be encountered during placement, especially in patients with posterior staphyloma. Methods Retrospective case review. Results During tacking of the electronics array a clockwise rotation occurred resulting in malposition. We hypothesize this was secondary to undue rotation or posterior pressure applied during tack insertion in conjunction with placement over a previously unrecognized posterior staphyloma. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography, because of the cross-sectional images provided, was helpful in visualizing the distance between the electronics array and the retina, which was difficult to assess using the surgical microscope alone. Repositioning was achieved by adjusting the tack without removal. The patient experienced an improvement in vision as a result of the surgery. Conclusion Malrotation may occur when tacking the Argus II prosthesis, and the presence of a posterior staphyloma may increase this risk. It is important to differentiate malrotation from tack misplacement – the former may be addressed with array unrotation or partial tack withdrawal and the latter may require tack removal and reinsertion. Also, intraoperative optical coherence tomography may be helpful in characterizing electronics array position during surgery. PMID:26648688

  7. Cheaper faster drug development validated by the repositioning of drugs against neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kevin; Bilsland, Elizabeth; Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Young, Michael; Soldatova, Larisa N; De Grave, Kurt; Ramon, Jan; de Clare, Michaela; Sirawaraporn, Worachart; Oliver, Stephen G; King, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent need to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. This will enable the development of treatments for diseases currently neglected for economic reasons, such as tropical and orphan diseases, and generally increase the supply of new drugs. Here, we report the Robot Scientist 'Eve' designed to make drug discovery more economical. A Robot Scientist is a laboratory automation system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to discover scientific knowledge through cycles of experimentation. Eve integrates and automates library-screening, hit-confirmation, and lead generation through cycles of quantitative structure activity relationship learning and testing. Using econometric modelling we demonstrate that the use of AI to select compounds economically outperforms standard drug screening. For further efficiency Eve uses a standardized form of assay to compute Boolean functions of compound properties. These assays can be quickly and cheaply engineered using synthetic biology, enabling more targets to be assayed for a given budget. Eve has repositioned several drugs against specific targets in parasites that cause tropical diseases. One validated discovery is that the anti-cancer compound TNP-470 is a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase from the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium vivax. PMID:25652463

  8. Variables Affecting Canalith Repositioning Maneuver (CRM Trend for Treating Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Entezari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to identify variables affecting outcome in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV treated with canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM. Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 58 patients (14 males, 44 females, mean age 48.12+13.22 referred to the Vertigo Rehabilitation Clinic of the Rehabilitation School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from 2002 to 2004. All patients were treated with CRM. According to the treatment efficacy the patients were allocated in three groups: completely treated, partially treated, and not treated. The effect of factors including age, sex, etiology, duration of BPPV, unilateral or bilateral disease, number of maneuvers, and number of sessions on outcome in patients was evaluated. Results: Forty-nine patients (84.5% were completely cured. Age, sex, etiology, and duration did not significantly affect the treatment outcome. Unilateral BPPV can be treated significantly better than bilateral BPPV. Forty-seven patients who were completely treated needed 1 session and thirty-seven of them required 2 maneuvers. Conclusion: CRM is significantly effective for BPPV treatment. Treating unilateral BPPV is expected to be easier. As most of the patients will be cured by 1 or 2 maneuvers or in 1 session, patients who required more sessions or more maneuvers may not be completely treated.

  9. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-salem (United States)

    2001-04-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm{sup 2} in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm{sup 2} and 0.765g/cm{sup 2}. Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures.

  10. Morphometric study of distance between posterior inferior iliac spine and ischial spine of the human hip bone for sex determination

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Prasad Sinha; Anamika Kumari; Sadakat Ali; S L Jethani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Objective of current study was to study the distance between Posterior Inferior Iliac Spine and Ischial Spine (PIIS-IS) of human hip bone for determination of sex. Methods: The study comprised unpaired 149 adult human hip bones of known sex. The posterior inferior iliac spine and ischial spine were identified in all the hip bones and a vernier calliper was used to measure the distance between the PIIS-IS. Results: It was observed that the mean distance of PIIS-IS in males a...

  11. Traumatic thoracolumbar spine injuries: what the spine surgeon wants to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Bharti; Sheehan, Scott E; Sodickson, Aaron; Bono, Christopher M; Harris, Mitchel B

    2013-01-01

    The Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) is a scoring and classification system developed by the Spine Trauma Study Group in response to the recognition that previous classification systems have limited prognostic value and generally do not suggest treatment pathways. The TLICS provides a spine injury severity score based on three components: injury morphology, integrity of the posterior ligamentous complex (PLC), and neurologic status of the patient. A numerical score is calculated for each category, with a lower point value assigned to a less severe or less urgent injury and a higher point value assigned to a more severe injury requiring urgent management. The total score helps guide decision making about surgical versus nonsurgical management. The TLICS also emphasizes the importance of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating PLC injury and acknowledges that the primary driver of surgical intervention is the patient's neurologic status. Knowledge of PLC anatomy and its significance is essential in recognizing unstable injuries. Signs of PLC injury at computed tomography include interspinous distance widening, facet joint widening, spinous process fracture, and vertebral subluxation or dislocation. Familiarity with the TLICS will help radiologists who interpret spine trauma imaging studies to effectively communicate findings to spine trauma surgeons. The complete article is available online . PMID:24224597

  12. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G

    2015-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2-4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7-10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7-10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed - hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in the thoracic spine. PMID:26308707

  13. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  14. Automated 4D analysis of dendritic spine morphology: applications to stimulus-induced spine remodeling and pharmacological rescue in a disease model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanger Sharon A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncovering the mechanisms that regulate dendritic spine morphology has been limited, in part, by the lack of efficient and unbiased methods for analyzing spines. Here, we describe an automated 3D spine morphometry method and its application to spine remodeling in live neurons and spine abnormalities in a disease model. We anticipate that this approach will advance studies of synapse structure and function in brain development, plasticity, and disease.

  15. Automated 4D analysis of dendritic spine morphology: applications to stimulus-induced spine remodeling and pharmacological rescue in a disease model

    OpenAIRE

    Swanger Sharon A; Yao Xiaodi; Gross Christina; Bassell Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Uncovering the mechanisms that regulate dendritic spine morphology has been limited, in part, by the lack of efficient and unbiased methods for analyzing spines. Here, we describe an automated 3D spine morphometry method and its application to spine remodeling in live neurons and spine abnormalities in a disease model. We anticipate that this approach will advance studies of synapse structure and function in brain development, plasticity, and disease.

  16. Operative stabilization of the cervical spine in cases of metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of intraspinal space requirement or instability of the cervical spine, metastases may lead to a compression of the spinal cord and/or the nerve roots. Early decompression and stabilization prevents unavoidable tetraparesis. In most cases quality of life can be maintained. The indication and methodology of cervical spine stabilization as well as the results of treatment in 18 patients are demonstrated. (orig.)

  17. The Robotic Lumbar Spine: Dynamics and Feedback Linearization Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadogan, Ernur; Williams, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The robotic lumbar spine (RLS) is a 15 degree-of-freedom, fully cable-actuated robotic lumbar spine which can mimic in vivo human lumbar spine movements to provide better hands-on training for medical students. The design incorporates five active lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum, with dimensions of an average adult human spine. It is actuated by 20 cables connected to electric motors. Every vertebra is connected to the neighboring vertebrae by spherical joints. Medical schools can benefit from a tool, system, or method that will help instructors train students and assess their tactile proficiency throughout their education. The robotic lumbar spine has the potential to satisfy these needs in palpatory diagnosis. Medical students will be given the opportunity to examine their own patient that can be programmed with many dysfunctions related to the lumbar spine before they start their professional lives as doctors. The robotic lumbar spine can be used to teach and test medical students in their capacity to be able to recognize normal and abnormal movement patterns of the human lumbar spine under flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial torsion. This paper presents the dynamics and nonlinear control of the RLS. A new approach to solve for positive and nonzero cable tensions that are also continuous in time is introduced. PMID:24151527

  18. Micromechanics of Minor Cervical Spine Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Peter F.; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H.; Walz, Felix H.

    Minor soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine are of increasing significance in public health. They may in particular be associated with long-term impairment. Such injuries are observed primarily in rear-end automobile collisions at low impact speeds and are attributed to a “whiplash”-type event. The question with respect to injury mechanisms of the cervical spine in cases of impacts of a low severity have raised controversial views in the past. Among proposed injury mechanisms, interactions between fluid and solid structures have been postulated: Viscous shear stresses or pressure gradients which arise in the deforming anatomical structures may have an adverse influence, e. g., on cellular membranes. In this communication, mathematical modeling approaches are presented which allow for a quantification of fluid/solid interactions under typical loading conditions of interest here. It is found, that the shear stresses caused by fluids and acting on accelerated surfaces of fluid-filled bodies depend largely on the size of the fluid space under consideration. Accelerations exhibit a stronger influence than their duration. It cannot be excluded that critical levels are reached even in a low speed impact scenario.

  19. [Imaging strategy for cervical spine injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbeaux, Patrick; Portier, François

    2003-12-13

    MAKING THE DIAGNOSIS: Exploration strategies when faced with a suspected spine injury have improved with the recent development of new imaging techniques (notably the helical CT scan). A selection must be made between the techniques available in order to optimise diagnostic habits. THE FUNDAMENTAL POINTS: The clinical examination identifies the small group of patients that does not require radiographic exploration. When cervical lesions exist, they are often multiple and layered. This justifies the fact that, if an exploration of the cervical spine is proposed, it should be complete and include the upper and lower hinges. The quality of the standard images (face, profile, mouth open) varies greatly. Their negative quality and predictive value decreases when the severity of the injury increases. PARTICULAR EXAMINATIONS: Scanning is the most efficient technique for not only detecting but also formally eliminating an injury. Its indications should therefore be extended but also limited to a selected population. The MRI is currently a second line examination, indicated for any suspicion of a neurological lesion, notably of the bone marrow. Lesions of the ligaments are often missed and should be systematically searched for using dynamic imaging. These can be done at distance from the injury. PMID:14713882

  20. Electrical behaviour of dendritic spines as revealed by voltage imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Marko A; Carnevale, Nicholas; Rozsa, Balazs; Zecevic, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of dendritic spines on individual neurons process information and mediate plasticity by generating electrical input signals using a sophisticated assembly of transmitter receptors and voltage-sensitive ion channel molecules. Our understanding, however, of the electrical behaviour of spines is limited because it has not been possible to record input signals from these structures with adequate sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution. Current interpretation of indirect data and speculations based on theoretical considerations are inconclusive. Here we use an electrochromic voltage-sensitive dye which acts as a transmembrane optical voltmeter with a linear scale to directly monitor electrical signals from individual spines on thin basal dendrites. The results show that synapses on these spines are not electrically isolated by the spine neck to a significant extent. Electrically, they behave as if they are located directly on dendrites. PMID:26436431

  1. Nucleosome repositioning links DNA (de)methylation and differential CTCF binding during stem cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teif, Vladimir B; Beshnova, Daria A; Vainshtein, Yevhen; Marth, Caroline; Mallm, Jan-Philipp; Höfer, Thomas; Rippe, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    During differentiation of embryonic stem cells, chromatin reorganizes to establish cell type-specific expression programs. Here, we have dissected the linkages between DNA methylation (5mC), hydroxymethylation (5hmC), nucleosome repositioning, and binding of the transcription factor CTCF during this process. By integrating MNase-seq and ChIP-seq experiments in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and their differentiated counterparts with biophysical modeling, we found that the interplay between these factors depends on their genomic context. The mostly unmethylated CpG islands have reduced nucleosome occupancy and are enriched in cell type-independent binding sites for CTCF. The few remaining methylated CpG dinucleotides are preferentially associated with nucleosomes. In contrast, outside of CpG islands most CpGs are methylated, and the average methylation density oscillates so that it is highest in the linker region between nucleosomes. Outside CpG islands, binding of TET1, an enzyme that converts 5mC to 5hmC, is associated with labile, MNase-sensitive nucleosomes. Such nucleosomes are poised for eviction in ESCs and become stably bound in differentiated cells where the TET1 and 5hmC levels go down. This process regulates a class of CTCF binding sites outside CpG islands that are occupied by CTCF in ESCs but lose the protein during differentiation. We rationalize this cell type-dependent targeting of CTCF with a quantitative biophysical model of competitive binding with the histone octamer, depending on the TET1, 5hmC, and 5mC state. PMID:24812327

  2. Subliminal Reorientation and Repositioning in Immersive Virtual Environments using Saccadic Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Benjamin; Lappe, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Virtual reality strives to provide a user with an experience of a simulated world that feels as natural as the real world. Yet, to induce this feeling, sometimes it becomes necessary for technical reasons to deviate from a one-to-one correspondence between the real and the virtual world, and to reorient or reposition the user's viewpoint. Ideally, users should not notice the change of the viewpoint to avoid breaks in perceptual continuity. Saccades, the fast eye movements that we make in order to switch gaze from one object to another, produce a visual discontinuity on the retina, but this is not perceived because the visual system suppresses perception during saccades. As a consequence, our perception fails to detect rotations of the visual scene during saccades. We investigated whether saccadic suppression of image displacement (SSID) can be used in an immersive virtual environment (VE) to unconsciously rotate and translate the observer's viewpoint. To do this, the scene changes have to be precisely time-locked to the saccade onset. We used electrooculography (EOG) for eye movement tracking and assessed the performance of two modified eye movement classification algorithms for the challenging task of online saccade detection that is fast enough for SSID. We investigated the sensitivity of participants to translations (forward/backward) and rotations (in the transverse plane) during trans-saccadic scene changes. We found that participants were unable to detect approximately ±0.5m translations along the line of gaze and ±5° rotations in the transverse plane during saccades with an amplitude of 15°. If the user stands still, our approach exploiting SSID thus provides the means to unconsciously change the user's virtual position and/or orientation. For future research and applications, exploiting SSID has the potential to improve existing redirected walking and change blindness techniques for unlimited navigation through arbitrarily-sized VEs by real walking. PMID:26357105

  3. A Semi-Supervised Approach for Refining Transcriptional Signatures of Drug Response and Repositioning Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Francesco; Shrestha, Roshan L; Levin, Nicolas; Boilot, Viviane; Garnett, Mathew J; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Draviam, Viji M

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy to identify drug-repositioning opportunities. The starting point of our method is the generation of a signature summarising the consensual transcriptional response of multiple human cell lines to a compound of interest (namely the seed compound). This signature can be derived from data in existing databases, such as the connectivity-map, and it is used at first instance to query a network interlinking all the connectivity-map compounds, based on the similarity of their transcriptional responses. This provides a drug neighbourhood, composed of compounds predicted to share some effects with the seed one. The original signature is then refined by systematically reducing its overlap with the transcriptional responses induced by drugs in this neighbourhood that are known to share a secondary effect with the seed compound. Finally, the drug network is queried again with the resulting refined signatures and the whole process is carried on for a number of iterations. Drugs in the final refined neighbourhood are then predicted to exert the principal mode of action of the seed compound. We illustrate our approach using paclitaxel (a microtubule stabilising agent) as seed compound. Our method predicts that glipizide and splitomicin perturb microtubule function in human cells: a result that could not be obtained through standard signature matching methods. In agreement, we find that glipizide and splitomicin reduce interphase microtubule growth rates and transiently increase the percentage of mitotic cells-consistent with our prediction. Finally, we validated the refined signatures of paclitaxel response by mining a large drug screening dataset, showing that human cancer cell lines whose basal transcriptional profile is anti-correlated to them are significantly more sensitive to paclitaxel and docetaxel. PMID:26452147

  4. [Results of using Spine Assist Mazor in surgical treatment of spine disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreval', O N; Rynkov, I P; Kasparova, K A; Bruskin, A; Aleksandrovski?, V; Zil'bernshte?n, V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the possibility of using a bone-mounted miniature robot based on the experience of different surgeries performed in 77 patients divided into four groups according to the general pathology (degenerative stenosis of the vertebral canal, fractures of vertebral bodies, spondylolisthesis, hemangiomas, and tumors). All the patients underwent surgical intervention using Spine Assist Mazor, such as stabilization using the Go-Lif system, transpedicular systems, vertebroplasty, and vertebral body biopsy. The new method and the technology of stabilizing surgeries using Spine Assist Mazor allow one to perform preoperative virtual planning based on CT images and to identify an ideal and safe trajectory of placing screws or needles for vertebroplasty or biopsy. PMID:25146652

  5. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements

  6. Self-repositioning of an embolized patent ductus arteriosus device--a nightmare turned into sweet dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Venkateshwaran; Kavassery Mahadevan, Krishnamoorthy; Sivasubramonian, Sivasankaran

    2015-05-01

    A 7-month-old boy was admitted for the device closure of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with moderate pulmonary hypertension. The PDA measured 4.2 mm with adequate ampulla. It was closed with an 8-6 mm Heart R device from pulmonary artery (PA) end. Post extubation, the device embolized to proximal descending thoracic aorta just distal to PDA ampulla. While attempting to snare from the venous side, the device self-repositioned to PDA. It was stable thereafter and patient was discharged after 2 days. We report a complication, which got self-corrected. PMID:25381681

  7. Strategic positioning and repositioning of oil companies in the upstream business: understanding the historical evolution of firms' strategic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second article of a series whose objective is to use the analytical framework proposed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, to study the global oil competition game and the competitive advantages of oil companies. The paper focuses on the historical changes in the positioning and behavior of various actors in the upstream oil industry. The authors start by describing the main oil actors and their initial strategic positioning before 1973. Then, the changes and the firm's strategic repositioning during the oil crisis in the 1970's and 1980's are analyzed. (author)

  8. Dendritic spine morphology and dynamics in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stacey Lee,1 Huaye Zhang,2 Donna J Webb1,3,4 1Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 2Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, 3Department of Cancer Biology, 4Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Dendritic spines are actin-rich structures that form the postsynaptic terminals of excitatory synapses in the brain. The development and plasticity of spines are essential for cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, and defects in their density, morphology, and size underlie a number of neurological disorders. In this review, we discuss the contribution and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in spine formation and plasticity as well as learning and memory. We also highlight the role of key receptors and intracellular signaling pathways in modulating the development and morphology of spines and cognitive function. Moreover, we provide insight into spine/synapse defects associated with several neurological disorders and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these spine defects. Keywords: dendritic spines, synapses, synaptic plasticity, actin cytoskeleton, glutamate receptors, neurological disorders

  9. Spine loading at different lumbar levels during pushing and pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Gregory G; Marras, William S

    2009-01-01

    As the nature of many materials handling tasks have begun to change from lifting to pushing and pulling, it is important that one understands the biomechanical nature of the risk to which the lumbar spine is exposed. Most previous assessments of push-pull tasks have employed models that may not be sensitive enough to consider the effects of the antagonistic cocontraction occurring during complex pushing and pulling motions in understanding the risk to the spine and the few that have considered the impact of cocontraction only consider spine load at one lumbar level. This study used an electromyography-assisted biomechanical model sensitive to complex motions to assess spine loadings throughout the lumbar spine as 10 males and 10 females pushed and pulled loads at three different handle heights and of three different load magnitudes. Pulling induced greater spine compressive loads than pushing, whereas the reverse was true for shear loads at the different lumbar levels. The results indicate that, under these conditions, anterior-posterior (A/P) shear loads were of sufficient magnitude to be of concern especially at the upper lumbar levels. Pushing and pulling loads equivalent to 20% of body weight appeared to be the limit of acceptable exertions, while pulling at low and medium handle heights (50% and 65% of stature) minimised A/P shear. These findings provide insight to the nature of spine loads and their potential risk to the low back during modern exertions. PMID:19308819

  10. N-cadherin, spine dynamics, and synaptic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreesh P Mysore

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are one half (the postsynaptic half of most excitatory synapses. Ever since the direct observation over a decade ago that spines can continually change size and shape, spine dynamics has been of great research interest, especially as a mechanism for structural synaptic plasticity. In concert with this ongoing spine dynamics, the stability of the synapse is also needed to allow continued, reliable synaptic communication. Various cell-adhesion molecules help to structurally stabilize a synapse and its proteins. Here, we review the effects of disrupting N-cadherin, a prominent trans-synaptic adhesion molecule, on spine dynamics, as reported in Mysore et al., (2007. We highlight the novel method adopted therein to reliably detect even subtle changes in fast and slow spine dynamics. We summarize the structural, functional, and molecular consequences of acute N-cadherin disruption, and tie them in, in a working model, with longer-term effects on spines and synapses reported in the literature.

  11. MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-09-15

    The objective was to study characteristic MRI findings in cervical spine fractures complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Technical issues related to MRI are also addressed. A review of 6,774 consecutive cervical spine multidetector CT (MDCT) scans obtained during 6.2 years revealed 33 ankylosed spines studied for suspected acute cervical spine injury complicating AS. Of these, 20 patients also underwent MRI. On MRI, of these 20 patients, 19 had a total of 29 cervical and upper thoracic spine fractures. Of 20 transverse fractures traversing both anterior and posterior columns, 7 were transdiskal and exhibited less bone marrow edema than did those traversing vertebral bodies. One Jefferson's, 1 atlas posterior arch (Jefferson's on MDCT), 2 odontoid process, and 5 non-contiguous spinous process fractures were detectable. MRI showed 2 fractures that were undetected by MDCT, and conversely, MDCT detected 6 fractures not seen on MRI; 16 patients had spinal cord findings ranging from impingement and contusion to complete transection. Magnetic resonance imaging can visualize unstable fractures of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. Paravertebral hemorrhages and any ligamentous injuries should alert radiologists to seek transverse fractures. Multiple fractures are common and often complicated by spinal cord injuries. Diagnostic images can be obtained with a flexible multipurpose coil if the use of standard spine array coil is impossible due to a rigid collar or excessive kyphosis. (orig.)

  12. MIM-Induced Membrane Bending Promotes Dendritic Spine Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikangas, Juha; Kourdougli, Nazim; Senju, Yosuke; Chazal, Genevieve; Segerstråle, Mikael; Minkeviciene, Rimante; Kuurne, Jaakko; Mattila, Pieta K; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M; Becker, Lore; Racz, Ildikó; Hans, Wolfgang; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin; von Ossowski, Lotta; Taira, Tomi; Lappalainen, Pekka; Rivera, Claudio; Hotulainen, Pirta

    2015-06-22

    Proper morphogenesis of neuronal dendritic spines is essential for the formation of functional synaptic networks. However, it is not known how spines are initiated. Here, we identify the inverse-BAR (I-BAR) protein MIM/MTSS1 as a nucleator of dendritic spines. MIM accumulated to future spine initiation sites in a PIP2-dependent manner and deformed the plasma membrane outward into a proto-protrusion via its I-BAR domain. Unexpectedly, the initial protrusion formation did not involve actin polymerization. However, PIP2-dependent activation of Arp2/3-mediated actin assembly was required for protrusion elongation. Overexpression of MIM increased the density of dendritic protrusions and suppressed spine maturation. In contrast, MIM deficiency led to decreased density of dendritic protrusions and larger spine heads. Moreover, MIM-deficient mice displayed altered glutamatergic synaptic transmission and compatible behavioral defects. Collectively, our data identify an important morphogenetic pathway, which initiates spine protrusions by coupling phosphoinositide signaling, direct membrane bending, and actin assembly to ensure proper synaptogenesis. PMID:26051541

  13. Treatment of subacute thoracic spine fracture-dislocation by total vertebrectomy and spine shortening: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Alecio C E S; Botelho, Ricardo V

    2013-02-01

    Vertebral resection with spine shortening has been primarily reported for the treatment of demanding cases of nontraumatic disorders. Recently, this technique has been applied to the treatment of traumatic disorders. The current treatment of vertebral fracture-dislocation when there is partial or total telescoping of the involved vertebrae is a combined anterior-posterior approach with corpectomy, anterior support implant, and further posterior instrumentation. These procedures usually require 2 surgical teams, involve longer operating times and greater risk of surgical complications related to the anterior approach, and commonly entail longer postoperative care before discharge. The authors report on 2 patients with high thoracic fracture-dislocations with telescoping (T-2 and T-4) who were treated in the subacute phase with total spondylectomy (T-3 and T-5, respectively) and spine shortening by using only a posterior approach. Complete recovery of the sagittal balance was achieved with this technique and the postoperative periods were clinically uneventful. One patient presented with asymptomatic hemothorax that did not require drainage. In paraplegic patients with anterior thoracic dislocation fractures in which one vertebral body blocks the reduction of the other, total spondylectomy and spine shortening seem to be a reasonably safe and effective technique. PMID:23176187

  14. NMR in the SPINE Structural Proteomics project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab, E; Atkinson, A R; Banci, L; Bertini, I; Ciofi-Baffoni, S; Brunner, K; Diercks, T; Dötsch, V; Engelke, F; Folkers, G E; Griesinger, C; Gronwald, W; Günther, U; Habeck, M; de Jong, R N; Kalbitzer, H R; Kieffer, B; Leeflang, B R; Loss, S; Luchinat, C; Marquardsen, T; Moskau, D; Neidig, K P; Nilges, M; Piccioli, M; Pierattelli, R; Rieping, W; Schippmann, T; Schwalbe, H; Travé, G; Trenner, J; Wöhnert, J; Zweckstetter, M; Kaptein, R

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the developments, role and contributions of the NMR spectroscopy groups in the Structural Proteomics In Europe (SPINE) consortium. Focusing on the development of high-throughput (HTP) pipelines for NMR structure determinations of proteins, all aspects from sample preparation, data acquisition, data processing, data analysis to structure determination have been improved with respect to sensitivity, automation, speed, robustness and validation. Specific highlights are protonless (13)C-direct detection methods and inferential structure determinations (ISD). In addition to technological improvements, these methods have been applied to deliver over 60 NMR structures of proteins, among which are five that failed to crystallize. The inclusion of NMR spectroscopy in structural proteomics pipelines improves the success rate for protein structure determinations. PMID:17001092

  15. Introduction: minimally invasive spine surgery video supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2013-07-01

    This video supplement of Neurosurgery Focus is devoted to minimally invasive spine surgery. Minimally invasive spine surgery has gained popularity amongst patients and physicians over the past decade because it has been shown in select instances to lower blood loss and reduce length of hospital stay for appropriately selected candidates. This supplement includes videos from many of the leaders in the field. Pioneers like Frank LaMarca, Paul Park, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Juan Uribe, and Mike Wang have all sent in videos depicting minimally invasive spinal deformity surgery options. The supplement also includes videos from several different countries, demonstrating how widespread and nuanced minimally invasive spinal procedures have become. Drs. Barbagallo, Certo, Sciacca, and Albanese from Italy; Drs. Gragnaniello and Seex from Australia; and Drs. Liao, Wu, Huang, Wang, Chang, Cheng, and Shih from Taiwan have all sent in nuanced surgical videos that will be of interest to many viewers. I personally enjoyed viewing videos on lumbar degenerative disease surgery depicting unique surgical nuances to treat common problems. Dr. Beejal Amin, Dr. Harel Deutsch, Dr. Daniel Lu, and Dr. Adam Kanter have each submitted videos depicting lumbar decompression and/or fusion for lumbar degenerative stenosis and spondylosis. This supplement also included videos depicting the minimally invasive treatment of uncommon spinal pathologies as well. Videos from Dr. Fred Geisler, Dr. John O'Toole, and Dr. Noel Perin covered topics as varied as sacroiliac joint dysfunction, spinal arteriovenous malformations, and sympathetic chain surgery. I hope that you enjoy this issue of Neurosurgical Focus devoted to videos depicting the surgical nuances of minimally invasive spinal surgery. This video supplement has international appeal, and it has been an honor to be a guest editor on this superb supplement. PMID:23829838

  16. Dosimetric implications of changes in patient repositioning and organ motion in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the influence of patient repositioning and organ motion on dose distribution within the prostate and the seminal vesicles (clinical target volume, (CTV)). Material and methods: Nine patients were simulated and treated in the supine position, with an empty bladder, and without immobilization devices. While on treatment, patients underwent weekly pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans under conditions identical to those at simulation. Patients were aligned using lasers on anterior and lateral skin tattoos, onto which lead markers were placed. After each CT scan (n=53) the CTV was redefined by contouring, and a new isocenter was obtained. A six-field technique was used. The field margins around the CTV were 20 mm in the cranio-caudal axis, and 13 mm in the other axes, except in the lateral fields where a 10 mm posterior margin was used. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for each organ were compared with those determined at simulation, using the notion of the proportional change in the area under the CTV-DVH curve resulting from a change in treatment plan (cDVH). Results: The reproducibility of the dose distribution was good for the prostate (%cDVH, mean±SD: -0.97±2.11%) and less than optimal for the seminal vesicles (%cDVH, mean±SD: -4.66±10.45%). When correlating prostate %cDVH variations with displacements of the isocenter in the Y axis (antero-posterior) the %cDVH exceeded (-)5% in only two dosimetries, both with an isocenter shift of >10 mm. For the seminal vesicles, however, ten out of 53 dosimetries showed a %cDVH exceeding (-) 5%. In nine of these ten dose distribution studies the posterior shift of the isocenter exceeded 8 mm. Conclusions: Precise targeting of prostate radiotherapy is primarily dependent on careful daily set-up and on random changes in rectal geometry. Margins no less than 10 mm around the prostate and at least 15 mm around the seminal vesicles are probably necessary to insure adequate target coverage with a six-field technique

  17. Theoretical Exploration of Barrel-Shaped Drops on Cactus Spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To survive an arid environment, desert cacti are capable of harvesting water from fog by transporting condensed water drops using their spines. Cactus spines have a conical shape. In this work, on the basis of the difference of liquid pressure, a new theoretical model has been developed for a barrel-shaped liquid drop on a conical wire. This model is further simplified to interpret the effects of contact angles, conical angle, surface microgrooves, and gravity on the drop movement along a cactus spine. PMID:26473466

  18. Reconstitution of lost cervical spine function: management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Arne; Niedeggen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The cervical spine (CS) is the most vulnerable part of the whole spine because it has least protection. This is due to its high mobility (few bone, but largely muscle and joint support) which is associated with a high injury risk. The anatomical characteristics are based on evolutionary biological reasons, i.e. humans had to be able to freely controlling the surrounding space with their eyes and to have permanent postural control by an upright position of the head. The cervical spine, its jo...

  19. Osteoid Osteoma of Cervical Spine in two adjacent Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor, mainly seen in 10-30 years male. Spine is a relatively common site and almost always, posterior elements are involved. Plain X-Ray-, CT scan and Isotope scan help to identify and localize spine lesions. We described one 18 years old boy with 3 years low neck pain. Isotope scan, MRI and CT scan showed two lesions in C7 and T1. Gross inspection and histopathology examination confirmed osteoid osteoma in two adjacent vertebrae which has not been reported elsewhere in the literature. Key words: Osteoid Osteoma, Spine, Multifocal

  20. Combined injuries in the upper cervical spine: clinical and epidemiological data over a 14-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Gleizes, V.; Jacquot, F. P.; Signoret, F.; Féron, J.-M. G.

    2000-01-01

    Concomitant traumatic injuries in the upper cervical spine are often encountered and rarely reported. We examined the data concerning 784 patients with cervical spine injuries following trauma, including 116 patients with upper cervical spine injuries. Twenty-six percent of patients with upper cervical spine injuries (31 cases) were found to have combined injuries involving either the upper or the upper and lower cervical spine. The frequent patterns were combined type I bipedicular fracture ...

  1. Ghrelin promotes reorganization of dendritic spines in cultured rat hippocampal slices

    OpenAIRE

    Berrout, Liza; Isokawa, Masako

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests ghrelin may up-regulate the number of spine synapses. However, it is not completely understood whether an increased number of synapses are expressed on existing spines or accommodated in newly generated spines. We examined if ghrelin might have promoted the generation of new dendritic spines. Localization of polymerized actin (F-actin), highly expressed in dendritic spines, was assayed using phalloidin, a mushroom toxin that has a high affinity to F-actin. Alexa 488-c...

  2. Repositioning of Barcelona’s Image in the Light of a Redefinition of the Urban Tourism Planning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-Francesc Valls

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barcelona’s city tourism model over the last fifteen years has chalked up many successes in terms of soaring tourist numbers, overnight stays, cruise liner passengers, hotel beds and visits to priced sights. Growth in city breaks has soared to the point where Barcelona has become one of Europe’s most visited cities. But this growth has come at a heavy price: mass tourism, concentration in certain neighbourhoods, competition for space between tourists and residents, lack of adequate inter-modal transport. All of these problems threaten Barcelona’s competitive position. The paper reviews the city’s competitiveness, comparing Barcelona to ten other European cities. Starting out from a qualitative analysis of internal players and a Delphi Study with external players, we find thecity’s tourism model needs correcting. We also identify the vectors and most important factors for achieving this repositioning. The vectors reinforce the competitiveness concerning the model’s sustainability, integrated management and governance, and client orientation. The proposed strategic repositioning will allow Barcelona to continue competing with Europe’s main cities.

  3. A cost-outcome analysis of Image-Guided Patient Repositioning in the radiation treatment of cancer of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: With Image-Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) rapidly gaining acceptance in the clinic it is timely to commence an assessment of its potential outcome benefit versus costs. Materials and methods: Using Activity-Based Costing we have calculated the incremental cost of adding Image-Guided Patient Repositioning (IGPR), a significant component of IGRT, to both Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3DCRT) for prostate cancer. The dosimetric outcome benefit resulting from the implementation of IGPR is estimated from a publication describing the improvement in set-up accuracy using each of four correction protocols. In our study outcome is quantified using a metric based on the Equivalent Uniform Dose. Our discussion is limited to image-guided corrective translations of the patient and does not specifically address margin reduction, rotations, organ deformation or major equipment failure modes, all of which are significant additional justifications for implementing an IGRT program. Results: Image guidance used solely for translational patient repositioning for prostate cancer adds costs with relatively little improvement in dosimetric quality. Full exploitation of the potential of IGRT, particularly through margin reduction, can be expected to result in a reduction in the cost-outcome ratios reported here. Conclusions: IMRT benefits more than 3DCRT from IGPR with the Weekly Shrinking Action Level approach yielding the lowest cost-outcome ratio.

  4. Fractionated stereotactic irradiation by Cyberknife of choroid melanomas: repositioning validation, closed eyelids; Irradiation stereotaxique fractionnee par Cyberknife des melanomes choroidiens: validation du repositionnement, paupieres fermees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, S.; Rezvoy, N.; Lacornerie, T.; Mirabel, X.; Labalette, P.; Lartigau, E. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Service de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2009-10-15

    The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife is an option in the treatment of eyes tumors. The advantages of the Cyberknife in the choroid melanomas are in its infra-millimetric precision, to the automated repositioning on the skull bones and to the conformity brought by the stereotaxy. The objective of this study was to validate the quality of repositioning and the immobility of the eyes with closed eyelids. Conclusion: the reproducibility of the eye positioning with closed eyelids seems enough to consider the conservative treatment of choroid melanomas by fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife without implementation of fiducials nor retrobulbar anaesthesia. (N.C.)

  5. Balancing structure and function at hippocampal dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Jennifer N; Harris, Kristen M

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic spines are the primary recipients of excitatory input in the central nervous system. They provide biochemical compartments that locally control the signaling mechanisms at individual synapses. Hippocampal spines show structural plasticity as the basis for the physiological changes in synaptic efficacy that underlie learning and memory. Spine structure is regulated by molecular mechanisms that are fine-tuned and adjusted according to developmental age, level and direction of synaptic activity, specific brain region, and exact behavioral or experimental conditions. Reciprocal changes between the structure and function of spines impact both local and global integration of signals within dendrites. Advances in imaging and computing technologies may provide the resources needed to reconstruct entire neural circuits. Key to this endeavor is having sufficient resolution to determine the extrinsic factors (such as perisynaptic astroglia) and the intrinsic factors (such as core subcellular organelles) that are required to build and maintain synapses. PMID:18284372

  6. [Double location of breast and spine tuberculosis. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A; Mnif, N; Karray, M; Kribi, L; Ellouze, T; Hamza, R

    2004-04-01

    We describe the case of a 38-year-old woman with breast tuberculosis associated with a second localization in the lumber spine. These features simulated breast cancer with vertebral metastasis. Clinical and imaging findings are described herein. PMID:15052182

  7. Arthroscopic Absorbable Suture Fixation for Tibial Spine Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Pellegrini, Andrea; Lunini, Enricomaria; Tonino, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this technical note and accompanying video is to describe a modified arthroscopic suture fixation technique to treat tibial spine avulsion fractures. Twenty-one patients underwent arthroscopic treatment for tibial spine avulsion with our technique; they were clinically and biomechanically evaluated at 2 years' follow-up and showed optimal clinical and radiographic outcomes. Repair with this arthroscopic technique provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and...

  8. Minimally invasive spine surgery: Hurdles to be crossed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Bijjawara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MISS as a concept is noble and all surgeons need to address and minimize the surgical morbidity for better results. However, we need to be cautions and not fall prey into accepting that minimally invasive spine surgery can be done only when certain metal access systems are used. Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS has come a long way since the description of endoscopic discectomy in 1997 and minimally invasive TLIF (mTLIF in 2003. Today there is credible evidence (though not level-I that MISS has comparable results to open spine surgery with the advantage of early postoperative recovery and decreased blood loss and infection rates. However, apart from decreasing the muscle trauma and decreasing the muscle dissection during multilevel open spinal instrumentation, there has been little contribution to address the other morbidity parameters like operative time , blood loss , access to decompression and atraumatic neural tissue handling with the existing MISS technologies. Since all these parameters contribute to a greater degree than posterior muscle trauma for the overall surgical morbidity, we as surgeons need to introspect before we accept the concept of minimally invasive spine surgery being reduced to surgeries performed with a few tubular retractors. A spine surgeon needs to constantly improve his skills and techniques so that he can minimize blood loss, minimize traumatic neural tissue handling and minimizing operative time without compromising on the surgical goals. These measures actually contribute far more, to decrease the morbidity than approach related muscle damage alone. Minimally invasine spine surgery , though has come a long way, needs to provide technical solutions to minimize all the morbidity parameters involved in spine surgery, before it can replace most of the open spine surgeries, as in the case of laparoscopic surgery or arthroscopic surgery.

  9. Musical Representation of Dendritic Spine Distribution: A New Exploratory Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Toharia, Pablo; Morales, Juan de (O. Minim.); de Juan, Octavio; Fernaud, Isabel; Rodríguez, Angel; DeFelipe, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic spines are small protrusions along the dendrites of many types of neurons in the central nervous system and represent the major target of excitatory synapses. For this reason, numerous anatomical, physiological and computational studies have focused on these structures. In the cerebral cortex the most abundant and characteristic neuronal type are pyramidal cells (about 85 % of all neurons) and their dendritic spines are the main postsynaptic target of excitatory glutamatergic synaps...

  10. Analysis of Dendritic Spine Morphology in Cultured CNS Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Deepak P.; Woolfrey, Kevin M; Penzes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic spines are the sites of the majority of excitatory connections within the brain, and form the post-synaptic compartment of synapses. These structures are rich in actin and have been shown to be highly dynamic. In response to classical Hebbian plasticity as well as neuromodulatory signals, dendritic spines can change shape and number, which is thought to be critical for the refinement of neural circuits and the processing and storage of information within the brain. Withi...

  11. The lumbar spine in Neanderthals shows natural kyphosis

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Jochen; Pusch, Carsten Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, lumbar spondylosis is one of the most frequent causes of lower back pain. In order to improve our understanding of the lumbar spine anatomy and functionality over time, we compared the lumbar vertebrae of Neanderthals with those of anatomically modern humans. The fossil record reports on only two Neanderthal skeletons (i.e., Kebara 2 and Shanidar 3, both predating the appearance of modern humans) with full preservation of the entire lumbar spine. Examination of these early hominids ...

  12. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. The complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. This exhibit illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT reconstructed images of spinal abnormalities in children

  13. Spine Expansion and Stabilization Associated with Long-term Potentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yunlei; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Frerking, Matthew; Zhou, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Stable expression of long-term synaptic plasticity is critical for the developmental refinement of neural circuits and for some forms of learning and memory. Although structural remodeling of dendritic spines is associated with the stable expression of long term potentiation (LTP), the relationship between structural and physiological plasticity remains unclear. To define whether these two processes are related or distinct, we simultaneously monitored EPSPs and dendritic spines, using combine...

  14. Pediatric cervical spine trauma imaging: a practical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Alexia M.; Kadom, Nadja; Vezina, Gilbert; Bulas, Dorothy [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Cervical spine trauma in children is rare and the diagnosis can be challenging due to anatomical and biomechanical differences as compared to adults. A variety of algorithms have been used in adults to accurately diagnose injuries, but have not been fully studied in pediatric patients. In this article we review suggested imaging protocols and the general characteristics, types of injuries, and measurements used to diagnose cervical spine injuries in children. (orig.)

  15. Synovial osteochondromatosis of the cervical spine: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Choong Guen; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Guen Young; Yeom, Jin S.; Choe, Ghee Young; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare, benign condition characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules within the synovium. It rarely occurs at cervical spine, and only six cases have been previously reported in the English literature. We describe another case of synovial osteochondromatosis in the cervical spine in a 77-year-old man who presented with compressive myelopathy. Here we briefly review the literature and discuss the differential diagnosis based on CT and MR findings.

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis: Radiological changes in the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to describe the radiographic cervical spine changes in rheumatoid arthritis patients.Forty-nine patients (37 females and 12 males ) diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between June 1998 and December 2000, were studied for their radiographic cervical spine changes . Their mean age at disease onset was 41.4+ 13.4 years (range of 18-73)and mean duration of disease was 9.1+-6.28 years (range of 2-34). Their demographic data including rheumatoid factor status was obtained. Standard conventional radiographs cervical spine were obtained to study the cervical spine changes. Cervical radiographic changes were found in 34 patients (27 females and 7 males) 10 had subluxation (7 with atlanto-axial subluxation,2 with sub-axial subluxation,and one with lateral subluxation ). No vertical impaction was seen. Erosion of odontoid process was seen in one patient .All were rheumatoid seropositive Cervical spine changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are common, in particular subluxation in the upper cervical spine. Our study showed somewhat lesser prevalence of these changes. These were clinically correlated with disease duration, female sex, and rheumatoid factor, but were not clinically significant. (author)

  17. Villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motamedi, Kambiz [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Radiologic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology), 200 UCLA Medical Plaza, Suite 165-59, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Murphey, Mark D. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Radiologic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States); University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fetsch, John F.; Furlong, Mary A. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Soft Tissue Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Vinh, Tinhoa N.; Sweet, Donald E. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Laskin, William B. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgical Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2005-04-01

    To describe the imaging features of spinal pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pathologically proven spinal PVNS. Patient demographics and clinical presentation were reviewed. Radiologic studies were evaluated by consensus of two musculoskeletal radiologists for spinal location, spinal segments affected, lesion center, detection of facet origin and intrinsic characteristics on radiography (n =11), myelography (n =7), CT (n =6) and MR imaging (n =6). Women (64%) were more commonly affected than men (36%) with an average age of 28 years. Clinical symptoms were pain (45%), neurologic (9%) or both (36%). Lesions most frequently affected the cervical spine (53%) followed by the thoracic (27%) and lumbar regions (20%). The majority of lesions (93%) were centered in the posterior elements with frequent involvement of the pedicle (67%), neural foramina (73%), lamina (67%) and facets (93%). No lesions showed calcification. Determination of a facet origin by imaging was dependent on imaging modality and lesion size. A facet origin could be determined in 45% of cases by radiography vs 67% of patients by CT (n=6) and MR (n=6). Large lesions (greater than 3 cm in at least one dimension) obscured the facet origin in all cases with CT and/or MR imaging (44%,n=4). Small lesions (less than 3 cm in any dimension) demonstrated an obvious facet origin in all cases by CT and/or MR imaging (56%,n=5). Low-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen in all cases on T2-weighted MR images resulting from hemosiderin deposition with ''blooming effect'' in one case with gradient echo MR images. PVNS of the spine is rare. Large lesions obscure the facet origin and simulate an aggressive intraosseous neoplasm. Patient age, a solitary noncystic lesion centered in the posterior elements, lack of mineralization and low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR pulse sequences may suggest the diagnosis in these cases. Small lesions demonstrate a facet origin on CT or MR imaging. This limits differential considerations to synovial-based lesions and additional features of a solitary focus, lack of underlying disease or systemic arthropathy, no calcification as well as low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR images should allow spinal PVNS to be suggested as the likely diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  19. L-methionine decreases dendritic spine density in mouse frontal cortex [Spine density downregulation by L-methionine

    OpenAIRE

    Tueting, Patricia; Davis, John M.; Veldic, Marin; Pibiri, Fabio; Kadriu, Bashkim; Guidotti, Alessandro; Costa, Erminio

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia postmortem brain is characterized by GABAergic downregulation and by decreased dendritic spine density in frontal cortex. Protracted L-methionine treatment exacerbates schizophrenia symptoms, and our previous work (Tremolizzo et al. and Dong et al.) has shown that L-methionine decreases reelin and GAD67 transcription in mice which is prevented by co-administration of valproate. In this study, we observed a decrease in spine density following L-methionine treatment, which was pre...

  20. Peribrachiocephalic approaches to the anterior cervicothoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattarov, Kamran V; Fard, Salman Abbasi; Patel, Apar S; Alkadhim, Mustafa; Avila, Mauricio J; Walter, Christina M; Baaj, Ali A

    2015-11-01

    This cadaveric study aims to reexamine the corridors to the anterior cervicothoracic junction, relative to the left brachiocephalic vein, and to present these working corridors as either supra- or infra-brachiocephalic. The anterior cervicothoracic junction incorporates the seventh cervical vertebrae through the fourth thoracic vertebrae (C7-T4) and involves critical anatomical structures. Operative approaches to this area are well described in the literature, with the predominant implementation of three surgical corridors. We used three embalmed, human, cadaveric specimens for this study. No pathology involving the cervicothoracic junction was noted. While dissecting, we tried to imitate the actual surgery. For each surgical step, photographs were taken, drawing attention to the critical structures and highlighting the different corridors to the spine relative to the left brachiocephalic vein. It is possible to access the cervicothoracic junction relative to the brachiocephalic vein from the left. The supra-brachiocephalic approach gives access to the C7-T4 vertebrae, whereas if T4-T5 is the goal, the infra-brachiocephalic approach may be utilized. In the supra-brachiocephalic approach, the brachiocephalic artery can be either medialized or lateralized as needed. A re-examination of the anterior cervicothoracic junction anatomy has allowed us to classify approaches relative to the left brachiocephalic vein. Identifying and understanding the approaches relative to this structure will assist in safe and effective spinal surgery in this area. PMID:26165469

  1. Instrumentation of the paediatric cervical spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RN, Dunn; AH, Botha.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paediatric cervical fusion surgery is challenging. Traditional techniques such as external stabilisation, onlay fusions and wiring techniques resulted in unsatisfactory outcomes due to inferior biomechanical stability. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of paediatric patients [...] who underwent instrumented cervical fusion surgery under 16 years of age. Fusion rates, blood loss, levels fused, theatre time, technique and complications were assessed. RESULTS: An average of 2.5 levels was fused, with an estimated blood loss of 428 ml and surgical duration of 159 min. Anterior procedures had an average of one level fused with blood loss of 117 ml and surgical duration of 98 min. Posterior procedures had an average number of 1.9 levels fused, blood loss of 306 ml and surgical time of 131 min. Combined procedures had an average of 5.5 levels fused, blood loss 810 ml and surgical duration of 241 min. Four surgery-related complications were encountered. These consisted of dural leaks and wound sepsis which were all treated effectively. All patients achieved radiological fusion. CONCLUSION: The use of modern segmental spinal instrumentation in the paediatric cervical spine is a viable option. Although the study sample was small we are able to demonstrate that no major surgical complications were encountered due to the use of adult cervical spinal instrumentation techniques in the paediatric group.

  2. Short Communication Elucidation of bacterial community structure on thin-spined porcupine (Chaetomys subspinosus) spines by denaturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, R A; Giné, G A F; Marques, E L S; Abreu-Tarazi, M F; Rezende, R P; Gaiotto, F A

    2015-01-01

    Thin-spined porcupines (Chaetomys subspinosus) are threatened with extinction and are categorized as vulnerable. This is because of alteration to and loss of their habitat and possible hunting activities in their distribution area. Their spines constitute one of their defense mechanisms, which can be fomites for pathogens to humans. However, little is known about such pathogens. The present study aimed to detect bacteria on spines of C. subspinosus, from the Una Biological Reserve, South of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, by analyzing metagenomic DNA, isolating bacterial culture, using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique, and sequencing. Six anatomical points were selected for withdrawing spine samples from an individual C. subspinosus. At all sample points, bacteria were detected by bacteriological culture and/or DGGE and sequencing of excised bands. When all samples were combined, standard PCR-DGGE analysis of bacteria present in the spines identified 15 distinct bands, thereby revealing a distinct bacterial community. The main pathogens identified through sequencing were Bacillus cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. pumilus. The present study demonstrated the isolation and identification of non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria on the spines of C. subspinosus. PMID:26436511

  3. Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmitGefen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patient repositioning when the skin is moist e.g. due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitatively describe the effects of repositioning on the pathomechanics of moisture-related tissue damage. We designed a finite element model to analyze skin stresses under a weight-bearing bony prominence while this region of interest slides frictionally over the support surface, as occurs during repositioning. Our results show, expectedly, that maximal effective stresses in the skin increase as the moisture-contents-related COF between the skin and the mattress rises. Interestingly however, the rise in stresses for a wet interface became more prominent when the skin tissue was stiffer - which represented aging or diabetes. This finding demonstrates how the aged/diabetic skin is more fragile than a young-adult skin when repositioning in a moist environment. The modeling used herein can now be extended to test effects of different moisturizers, creams, lubricants or possibly other interventions at the skin-support interface for testing their potential in protecting the skin from superficial pressure ulcers in a standard, objective and quantitative manner.

  4. Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Eliav; Gefen, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Patient repositioning when the skin is moist, e.g., due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF) and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitatively describe the effects of repositioning on the pathomechanics of moisture-related tissue damage. We designed a finite element model to analyze skin stresses under a weight-bearing bony prominence while this region of interest slides frictionally over the support surface, as occurs during repositioning. Our results show, expectedly, that maximal effective stresses in the skin increase as the moisture-contents-related COF between the skin and the mattress rises. Interestingly however, the rise in stresses for a wet interface became more prominent when the skin tissue was stiffer - which represented aging or diabetes. This finding demonstrates how the aged/diabetic skin is more fragile than a young-adult skin when repositioning in a moist environment. The modeling used herein can now be extended to test effects of different moisturizers, creams, lubricants, or possibly other interventions at the skin-support interface for testing their potential in protecting the skin from superficial pressure ulcers in a standard, objective, and quantitative manner. PMID:25022867

  5. Maniobra de reposición canalítica para el tratamiento del vértigo postural paroxístico benigno Canalith reposition procedure for the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Valenzuela P

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paroxysmal positional vertigo is a frequent and handicapping disease. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of physical therapies using particle reposition procedures in the treatment of paroxysmal positional vertigo. Patients and methods: Fifty nine patients (13 male with paroxysmal positional vertigo were studied. Clinical data was gathered, the affected channel was identified. In the same session, the corresponding canalith reposition procedure was performed (Epley maneuver for posterior channel and Lempert maneuver for lateral channel and the immediate response was recorded. Results: Twenty seven percent of patients had recurring episodes of vertigo and 60% had more than two weeks of evolution. In 49% of patients, vertigo was considered idiopathic and in 92%, the posterior channel was affected. One patient had a combined lesion of posterior and lateral channels and two patients had isolated lateral channel lesions. Seventy percent of patients recovered after two sessions of canalith reposition procedure. Conclusions: Canalith reposition maneuvers were highly effective for the treatment of paroxysmal positional vertigo. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 619-26.

  6. Helical tomotherapy for spine oligometastases from gastrointestinal malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Seon; Kim, Jun Won; Lee, Ik Jae; Han, Hee Ji; Baek, Jong Geal; Seong, Jin Sil [Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This study evaluated the treatment effectiveness and proper radiation dose of helical tomotherapy (HT) in spine oligometastases from gastrointestinal cancers. From 2006 to 2010, 20 gastrointestinal cancer patients were treated with HT for spine oligometastases (31 spine lesions). The gross tumor volume (GTV) was the tumor evident from magnetic resonance imaging images fused with simulation computed tomography images. Clinical target volume (CTV) encompassed involved vertebral bodies or dorsal elements. We assumed that the planning target volume was equal to the CTV. We assessed local control rate after HT for 31 spine metastases. Pain response was scored by using a numeric pain intensity scale (NPIS, from 0 to 10). Spine metastatic lesions were treated with median dose of 40 Gy (range, 24 to 51 Gy) and median 5 Gy per fraction (range, 2.5 to 8 Gy) to GTV with median 8 fractions (range, 3 to 20 fraction). Median biologically equivalent dose (BED, {alpha}/{beta} = 10 Gy) was 52 Gy10 (range, 37.5 to 76.8 Gy10) to GTV. Six month local control rate for spine metastasis was 90.3%. Overall infield failure rate was 15% and outfield failure rate was 75%. Most patients showed pain relief after HT (93.8%). Median local recurrence free survival was 3 months. BED over 57 Gy10 and oligometastases were identified as prognostic factors associated with improved local progression free survival (p = 0.012, p = 0.041). HT was capable of delivering higher BED to metastatic lesions in close proximity of the spinal cord. Spine metastases from gastrointestinal tumors were sensitive to high dose radiation, and BED ({alpha}/{beta} = 10 Gy) higher than 57 Gy10 could improve local control.

  7. Spine formation and maturation in the developing rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtele, Scott J; Losh, Joe; Dailey, Michael E; Green, Steven H

    2011-11-01

    The rat auditory cortex is organized as a tonotopic map of sound frequency. This map is broadly tuned at birth and is refined during the first 3 weeks postnatal. The structural correlates underlying tonotopic map maturation and reorganization during development are poorly understood. We employed fluorescent dye ballistic labeling ("DiOlistics") alone, or in conjunction with immunohistochemistry, to quantify synaptogenesis in the auditory cortex of normal hearing rats. We show that the developmental appearance of dendritic protrusions, which include both immature filopodia and mature spines, on layers 2/3, 4, and 5 pyramidal and layer 4 spiny nonpyramidal neurons occurs in three phases: slow addition of dendritic protrusions from postnatal day 4 (P4) to P9, rapid addition of dendritic protrusions from P9 to P19, and a final phase where mature protrusion density is achieved (>P21). Next, we combined DiOlistics with immunohistochemical labeling of bassoon, a presynaptic scaffolding protein, as a novel method to categorize dendritic protrusions as either filopodia or mature spines in cortex fixed in vivo. Using this method we observed an increase in the spine-to-filopodium ratio from P9-P16, indicating a period of rapid spine maturation. Previous studies report mature spines as being shorter in length compared to filopodia. We similarly observed a reduction in protrusion length between P9 and P16, corroborating our immunohistochemical spine maturation data. These studies show that dendritic protrusion formation and spine maturation occur rapidly at a time previously shown to correspond to auditory cortical tonotopic map refinement (P11-P14), providing a structural correlate of physiological maturation. PMID:21800311

  8. Flexion/extension cervical spine views in blunt cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Sadaf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ?Abstract?Objective: To examine the contribution of flexion and extension radiographs in the evaluation of ligamentous injury in awake adults with acute blunt cervical spine trauma, who show loss of cervical lordosis and neck pain. Methods: All patients who presented to our emer-gency department following blunt trauma were enrolled in this study, except those with schiwora, neurological defi-cits or fracture demonstrated on cross-table cervical spine X-rays, and those who were either obtunded or presented after cervical spine surgery. Adequacy of flexion and exten-sion views was checked by the neurosurgery and radiology team members. All these patients underwent cross-table cervical spine view followed by flexion/extension views based on the loss of lordosis on cross-table imaging and the presence of neck pain. Results: A total of 200 cases were reviewed, of whom 90 (45% underwent repeat X-rays because of either inadequate exposure or limited motion. None of the patients with loss of lordosis on cross-table view had positive flexion and extension views of cervical spine for instability. Conclusions: Our results show that in patients who underwent acute radiographic evaluation of blunt cervical spine trauma, flexion and extension views of the cervical spine are unlikely to yield positive results in the presence of axial neck pain and/or loss of cervical lordosis. We can also hypothesize that performing flexion and extension views will be more useful once the acute neck pain has settled. Key words: X-rays; Cervical vertebrae; Lordosis

  9. Spine synapse remodeling in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Catharine H; Duman, Ronald S

    2015-08-01

    Clinical brain imaging and postmortem studies provide evidence of structural and functional abnormalities of key limbic and cortical structures in depressed patients, suggesting that spine synapse connectivity is altered in depression. Characterization of the cellular determinants underlying these changes in patients are limited, but studies in rodent models demonstrate alterations of dendrite complexity and spine density and function that could contribute to the morphological and functional alterations observed in humans. Rodent studies demonstrate region specific effects in chronic stress models of depression, including reductions in dendrite complexity and spine density in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) but increases in the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens. Alterations of spine synapse connectivity in these regions are thought to contribute to the behavioral symptoms of depression, including disruption of cognition, mood, emotion, motivation, and reward. Studies of the mechanisms underlying these effects demonstrate a role for altered brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling that regulates synaptic protein synthesis. In contrast, there is evidence that chronic antidepressant treatment can block or reverse the spine synapse alterations caused by stress. Notably, the new fast acting antidepressant ketamine, which produces rapid therapeutic actions in treatment resistant MDD patients, rapidly increases spine synapse number in the PFC of rodents and reverses the effects of chronic stress. The rapid synaptic and behavioral actions of ketamine occur via increased BDNF regulation of synaptic protein synthesis. Together these studies provide evidence for a neurotophic and synaptogenic hypothesis of depression and treatment response and indicate that spine synapse connectivity in key cortical and limbic brain regions is critical for control of mood and emotion. PMID:25582786

  10. Practical Way to Measure Large-Scale 2D Surfaces Using Repositioning on Coordinate-Measuring Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kosarevsky, Sergey

    2009-01-01

    In many situations it is required to perform an inspection of large at parts on a coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) when it is impossible to probe all necessary surfaces from one position of the part. Or it is necessary to measure a large part which dimensions exceed the volume of an available CMM. For this purpose one needs to merge the data measured in two different positions of the workpiece into one coordinate system. Though most of geodesic software has out-of-the-box functionality to do that, a lot of popular CMM software lacks it. In this paper a practical approach is described to bring a repositioning functionality into a CMM software. The Calypso metrology software was studied. The proposed inspection method can be used both for the measurements of linear dimensions and location tolerances as common practice in Calypso.

  11. Becoming independent through au pair migration : Self-making and social re-positioning among young Filipinas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, growing numbers of young Filipinas have entered Denmark on the au pair scheme. While its official aim is to broaden the cultural horizons of youth, researchers generally view Filipina au pairing as a form of labor migration using au pairs as inexpensive domestic workers. This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognized as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence in terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad to re-position themselves vis-à-vis family and friends at home.

  12. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  13. Bone Mineral Density Measurement of Rats Using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry: Precision of In Vivo Measurements for Various Skeletal Sites with or without Repositioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong Hyun; Jung, Jae Ho; Woo, Sang Keun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byung Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements need to be precise enough to be capable of detecting small changes in bone mass of rats. Using a regular dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), we measured many BMD of various skeletal sites in rats to examine precision of DXA in relation to the repositioning on the bones of rats. Using DXA and small animal software, scans were performed 4 times in all 12 male rats without repositioning (Group 1a). Another four scans for 6 of 12 rats were done with repositioning between scans (Group 2). Customized regions of interest (ROIs), encapsulate the right hind limb, L1-4, skull and pelvic bones were drawn at each measurement. The precision of the measurements was evaluated by measuring the coefficient of variation (CV) of four measurements of BMD at each skeletal site of all rats with or without repositioning. Significance of differences between group 1b (six rats out of group 1a, which were come under group 2) and group2 were evaluated with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test. CVs obtained at different skeletal sites of all measurements in Group 1b and 2. It was 3.51{+-}1.20, 2.62{+-}1.20 for the hindlimb (p=0.173), 3.83{+-}2.02, 4.59{+-}2.02 for L1-4 (p=0.600), 3.73{+-}1.87, 1.53{+-}0.89 for skull (p=0.046), and 2.92{+-}0.60, 1.45{+-}0.60 for pelvic bones (p=0.075). Our study demonstrates that the DXA technique has the precision necessary when used to assess BMD for various skeletal sites in rats regardless of repositioning.

  14. Manobras de reposicionamento no tratamento da vertigem paroxística posicional benigna Treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with repositioning manevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Maia

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Vertigem paroxística posicional benigna (VPPB é uma das mais freqüentes patologias do sistema vestibular. Caracteriza-se clinicamente pela presença de episódios recorrentes de tonturas rotatórias, tipicamente desencadeados por determinados movimentos cefálicos, realizados pelo paciente. A confirmação diagnóstica é obtida exclusivamente pela manobra de Dix-Hallpike. Nessa manobra, observa-se sistematicamente o desencadeamento de nistagmo. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Material e método: No total, sete pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de VPPB são submetidos a tratamento pela manobra de reposicionamento de Epley. Resultado: Desses sete pacientes avaliados, cinco apresentaram ótima recuperação; dois, com resultado bom; e um, com mau resultado; para este último caso, outras formas de tratamento são apresentadas. Conclusão: O exame otoneurológico, realizado em todos os pacientes, demonstrou ser de interessante valor prognóstico quanto ao resultado do tratamento proposto. A manobra de reposicionamento de Epley demonstrou ser um método de tratamento da VPPB simples, e eficaz na grande maioria dos pacientes aqui relatados.Introduction: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV is among the most common vestibular disorders. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo induced by changes in head position. The condition is readly diagnosed by performing the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. Nystagmus is always present by this way. Study design: Prospective results clinical not randomized. Material and method: A total of seven patients diagnosed with BPPV received the repositioning maneuver of Epley. Five out of seven patients had excellent recovery, two patients had good results and one had a bad result. For this last one different treatments are discussed. Conclusion: We performed otoneurological examination in all patients; this test seems to be an intersting prognosis method for seeking the results of treatment. The repositioning maneuver of Epley is an excellent treatment for BPPV. Most of the patients of our series were successfuly treated by this method.

  15. Computertomographic examinations of the canine lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) documentation of cross-sectional anatomy of the lumbosacral area, 2) to obtain and describe abnormalities and finally 3)to develop a CT technique for the diagnosis of a L7/S1 spondylolisthesis. In a 3 year retrospective study 61 large breed dogs with history of suspected cauda equina-syndrome were examined using flexion-extension radiography and flexion-extension computed tomography. 25 out of 60 dogs were German shepherd dogs, 3 shepherd-cross, 7 mongrels, 4 Rottweilers and 22 other breeds. 27 dogs of the flexion/extension group were also morphometrically examined. CT studies regarding morphology of the lumbosacral joint showed differences between flexed and extended position: The intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed position, the intervertebral disc, segmental spinal nerves and contrast enhanced blood vessels were more easily to evaluate. In flexion the lumbosacral foramen was 'open' in all cases, while it was 'closed' in most of the extension slices. The cranial articular processes of the sacrum appeared earlier in extension, they seemed to 'slip' beneath the caudal articular processes of the last lumbar vertebra, the articular surfaces got incongruent, and therefore the intervertebral foramina were narrowed. The most common pathologic findings were disk protrusion (28 dogs) and spondylosis (24 dogs). Rare diagnoses were neoplasia (1 case), transitional vertebra (1 case), shortened L7 (2 cases) and osteochondrosis dissecans of the L7 or sacral endplate (5 cases). Morphometrical examinations showed that the intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed positions, not only in length (craniocaudal dimension) but also in their dorsoventral diameter. There was no difference in the dorsoventral diameter of the spinal canal between flexion and extension CT. This study showed that computed tomography is superior to common ways of imaging of the lumbosacral spine like radiography or myelography. It was possible to identify pathologic changes as morphologic and morphometric differences between flexed and extended positions. A technique for diagnosis of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis could not be obtained. (author)

  16. Insufficient pain management after spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A prospective observational quality assurance study was performed at Glostrup Hospital, Denmark, to describe patients undergoing spine surgery with regard to perioperative analgesic management, post-operative pain, opioid consumption and side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients eligible for the study were identified consecutively from the operation chart. The following data were registered: post-operative visual analogue (VAS) pain score at rest and during mobilisation, opioid consumption for the first 24 h, other analgesics administered and side effects. RESULTS: A total of 87 patients were included. For instrumented lumbar fusion patients (n = 24), the VAS pain scores at 1, 4 and 24 h after surgery were (median (interquartile range)) 5 (0-7), 2.5 (0-8) and 5.5 (0-9) at rest and 5 (0-8), 3 (0-9) and 7 (3-9) during mobilisation, respectively. The other surgical subgroups generally experienced VAS ? 3. For instrumented lumbar fusion, the total 0-24 h consumption of intravenous morphine equivalents was 39.1 (27.5-62.7) mg. Only eight of 87 patients received the entire scheduled standard post-operative pain treatment. Adverse events were rare. CONCLUSION: Most patients experienced acceptable pain levels, but instrumented lumbar fusion leads to moderate to severe pain levels and a relatively high opioid consumption. The scheduled standard pain management protocols were sparsely followed. Challenges exist in post-operative pain management as observed in previous surveys, especially for instrumented lumbar fusion surgery. Future work should focus on optimising treatment plans. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

  17. Gota axial / Gout in the spine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Massato, Hasegawa; Filipe Martins de, Mello; Cláudia, Goldenstein-Schainberg; Ricardo, Fuller.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A gota axial pode afetar todos os segmentos da coluna vertebral. Ela se manifesta como dor nas costas, dor associada com sintomas neurológicos, e como comprometimento neurológico sem dor em 17,9%, 75,8% e 4,2% dos casos, respectivamente. Essas manifestações foram a primeira apresentação da gota em m [...] uitos pacientes. Embora radiografias, bem como tomografia computadorizada e especialmente ressonância magnética, possam ser muito sugestivos, análises histopatológicas, citológicas e pesquisa de cristais são o padrão ouro de diagnóstico. Na maioria dos casos que envolveram manifestações neurológicas, o paciente foi submetido à cirurgia, levando a resultados satisfatórios. Há, no entanto, alguns relatos de recuperação total após o tratamento clínico habitual para gota, o que sugere que esse tratamento pode ser a opção inicial para os indivíduos com histórico de gota e sinais radiológicos de envolvimento axial. Abstract in english Axial gout can affect all segments of the spine. It is manifested as back pain, as pain associated with neurological symptoms, and as neurological impairment without pain in 17.9%, 75.8% and 4.2% of cases, respectively. These manifestations were the first presentation of gout in many patients. Altho [...] ugh x-rays as well as computed tomography and especially magnetic resonance scans can be very suggestive, histopathological, cytological and crystal analyses are the diagnostic gold standard. In most cases involving neurological manifestations, the patient underwent surgery, leading to satisfactory results. There are, however, some reports of full recovery following the usual clinical treatment for gout, suggesting that such treatment may be the initial option for those subjects with a history of gout and radiological findings of axial involvement

  18. Diagnostic value of high resolutional computed tomography of spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S. M.; Im, S. K.; Sohn, M. H.; Lim, K. Y.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, K. C. [Jeonbug National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Non-enhanced high resolution computed tomography provide clear visualization of soft tissue in the canal and bony details of spine, particularly of the lumbar spine. We observed 70 cases of spine CT using GE CT/T 8800 scanner during the period from Dec. 1982 to Sep. 1983 at Jeonbug National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 55 males and 15 females : age was from 17 years to 67 years; sites were 11 cervical spine, 5 thoracic spine and 54 lumbosacral spine. 2. CT diagnosis showed 44 cases of lumbar disc herniation, 7 cases of degenerative disease, 3 cases of spine fracture and each 1 cases of cord tumor, metastatic tumor, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, epidural abscess, spine tbc., meningocele with diastematomyelia. 3. Sites of herniated nucleus pulposus were 34 cases (59.6%) between L4-5 interspace and 20 cases (35.1%) between L5-S1 interspace. 13 cases (29.5%) of lumbar disc herniation disclosed multiple lesions. Location of herniation were central type in 28 cases(49.1%), right-central type in 12 cases(21.2%), left-central type in 11 cases (19.2%) and far lateral type in 6 cases(10.5%). 4. CT findings of herniated nucleus pulposus were as follows : focal protrusion of posterior disc margin and obliteration of anterior epidural fat in all cases, dural sac indentation in 26 cases(45.6%), soft tissue mass in epidural fat in 21 cases(36.8%), displacement or compression of nerve root sheath in 12 cases(21%). 5. Multiplanar reformatted images and Blink mode provide more effective evaluation about definite level and longitudinal dimension of lesion, such as obscure disc herniation, spine fracture, cord tumor and epidural abscess. 6. Non-enhanced and enhanced high resolutional computed tomography were effectively useful in demonstrating compression or displacement of spinal cord and nerve root, examing congenital anomaly such as meningocele and primary or metastatic spinal lesions.

  19. Prevention of spine deforimities in adoloscents due to inaduquate posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazovi? Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The spine deformities tend to increase, and in 90% of children they change the quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the percents of spinal deformity in our population of adolescents, and long bad posture in and out of school as a factor for its increase. Material and methods. The study included 124 adolescents attending High Musical School in Bitola and Skopje, who underwent four standard spine tests and an interview. Results. According to the test 3, 50% of the examined adolescents in Bitola and 69% in Skopje had the postural spine deformity, the average being 59.5%. The results obtained by the questionnaire showed that 50% of adolescents did not have any physical activity out of school, the longest daily activity, lasting four hours, in 48% of the examinees was practising their musical instruments; 40% of the examinees spent two hours watching TV or using the computer, whereas 18% did not use any of them at all. Conclusion. The bad spine posture tends to deteriorate in adolescents and the factor influencing this result should be established by studies aimed at determining the effects of physical activity on reducing such deformities, since the specific type of their education induces the risk of developing pain and early degenerative changes of the spine, which are predominant in the professionals.

  20. Cervical spine trauma: Radiologic manifestations and imaging algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical spine trauma is very critical injury that is incurred most frequently in automobile accidents, mining incidents, and war. Injuries of the cervical spine produce neurologic damage in approximately 40% of cases, whereas injuries of the thoracolumbar junction produce neurologic damage in 4% and injuries of the thoracic spine do so in 10%. Radiology has a fundamental role in the recognition and follow-up of patients. Radiologists should be quite familiar with the imaging algorithms and various radiologic manifestations of cervical spine injuries. In this paper, techniques of examining severely injured patients as well as those with slight or questionable injuries are demonstrated. Indications and limitations of various diagnostic procedures (plain film radiography, tomography, CT, and MR imaging) are discussed. A systematic plan for the study of the cervical spine with an emphasis on joints, bones, ligaments and soft tissues (JO-B-LI-ST) is introduced. Mechanisms of injury and the stability or instability of the injuries are presented. Plain radiography as well as other imaging modalities are used to demonstrate the most important forms of injuries at various levels. Follow-up of some of the treated cases is shown. The late complications of spinal cord damage in closed injuries and open wounds (urinary stones, myositis, ossificans, contractures, fractures, disuse atrophy, and bone infections) are presented at the end

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the ovine lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisolle, J F; Wang, X Q; Squélart, M; Hontoir, F; Kirschvink, N; Clegg, P; Vandeweerd, J M

    2014-06-01

    Although the ovine spine is a useful research model for intervertebral disc pathology and vertebral surgery, there is little peer-reviewed information regarding the MRI anatomy of the ovine spine. To describe the lumbar spine MRI anatomy, 10 lumbar segments of cadaver ewes were imaged by 1.5-Tesla MR. Sagittal and transverse sequences were performed in T1 and T2 weighting (T1W, T2W), and the images were compared to gross anatomic sagittal and transverse sections performed through frozen spines. MRI was able to define most anatomic structures of the ovine spine in a similar way as can be imaged in humans. In both T1W and T2W, the signals of ovine IVDs were similar to those observed in humans. Salient anatomic features were identified: (1) a 2- to 3-mm linear zone of hypersignal was noticed on both extremities of the vertebral body parallel to the vertebral plates in sagittal planes; (2) the tendon of the crura of the diaphragm appeared as a hypointense circular structure between hypaxial muscles and the aorta and caudal vena cava; (3) dorsal and ventral longitudinal ligaments and ligamentum flavum were poorly imaged; (4) no ilio-lumbar ligament was present; (5) the spinal cord ended between S1-S2 level, and the peripheral white matter and central grey matter were easily distinguished on T1W and T2W images. This study provides useful reference images to researchers working with ovine models. PMID:23668479

  2. An Algorithmic Approach to Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Scott M; Moll, Stephan; Lim, Moe R

    2015-10-01

    Venous thromboembolic embolism (VTE) is a potentially serious and life-threatening complication in spine surgery. However, VTE incidence and prophylaxis in spine surgery remains controversial. Current recommendations for VTE prophylaxis address "spine surgery" as a single broad category and mainly consider patient factors when determining risk. We performed a literature review to determine the varying VTE and bleeding risks within spine surgery to develop an individualized prophylactic algorithm. Our review suggests that the current guidelines on VTE prophylaxis for spine surgery from NASS and ACCP are suboptimal. Consideration of (1) patient-related VTE risks, (2) procedure-related VTE risks, and (3) the risk of neurological compromise from bleeding complications will more appropriately balance safety and effectiveness when choosing a VTE prophylaxis method. To better individualize VTE prophylaxis, we have developed the VTE Prophylaxis Risk/Benefit Score that considers this currently available best evidence to arrive at a recommendation for the most appropriate form of VTE prophylaxis. This algorithm informs the surgeon to help make a more nuanced and individualized determination of prophylaxis. PMID:26327600

  3. Functional diagnostics of the cervical spine by using computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, J.; Hayek, J.; Grob, D.; Penning, L.; Panjabi, M.M.; Zehnder, R.

    1988-04-01

    35 healthy adults and 137 patients after cervical spine injury were examined by functional CT. The range of axial rotation at the level occiput/atlas, atlas/axis and the segment below were measured in all subjects. A rotation occiput/atlas of more than 7/sup 0/, and C1/C2 more than 54/sup 0/ could refer to segmental hypermobility, a rotation at the segment C1/C2 less than 29/sup 0/ to hypomobility. According to the postulated normal values based upon a 98% confidence level, out of 137 patients examined after cervical spine injury and with therapy-resistant neck pain, 45 showed signs of segmental hypermobility of the upper cervical spine, 17 showed hyper- or hypomobility at different levels, 10 patients presented segmental hypomobility at C1/C2 level alone. In all patients, according to the clinical assessment, functional pathology was suspected in the upper cervical spine. Surgical correction of rotatory instability should be considered as a possible therapeutic procedure after successful diagnostic stabilisation of the cervical spine by minerva cast.

  4. Granuloma formation induced by spines of the cactus, Opuntia acanthocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerke, D G; Spoerke, S E

    1991-08-01

    Embedded cactus spines may cause immediate pain due to mechanical damage, be a source of infection, or result in foreign body granulomas. The cholla cacti are particularly tenacious in the manner in which the spines stay embedded in the skin. Pulling away from the cactus may result in a portion breaking away from the main plant and embedding other spines. Granuloma formation has been seen with plant material embedded in the dermis. Onset is generally within a few days, and duration may be as long as 9 mo. Treatment is generally best accomplished with a topical corticosteroid. We present a case of granuloma caused by the cactus Opuntia acanthocarpa which persisted for 8 w despite topical treatment with 0.05% fluocinonide. PMID:1897129

  5. A spine-sheath model for strong-line blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a quasi-analytical model for the production of radiation in strong-line blazars, assuming a spine-sheath jet structure. The model allows us to study how the spine and sheath spectral components depend on parameters describing the geometrical and physical structure of "the blazar zone". We show that typical broad-band spectra of strong-line blazars can be reproduced by assuming the magnetization parameter to be of order unity and reconnection to be the dominant dissipation mechanism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spine-sheath model can explain why gamma-ray variations are often observed to have much larger amplitudes than the corresponding optical variations. The model is also less demanding of jet power than one-zone models, and can reproduce the basic features of extreme gamma-ray events.

  6. Benign compression fractures of the spine: signal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen patients with 38 compression fractures of the spine underwent magnetic resonance(MR) imaging. We retrospectively evaluated MR images in those benign compression fractures. MR images showed four patterns in T1-weighted images. MR imaging patterns were normal signal(21), band like low signal(8), low signal with preservation of peripheral portion of the body(8), and diffuse low signal through the vertebral body(1). The low signal portions were changed to high signal intensities in T2-weighted images. In 7 of 15 patients (11 compression fractures), there was a history of trauma, and the remaining 8 patients (27 compression fractures) had no history of trauma. Benign compression fractures of trauma, remained 8 patients (27 compression fractures) were non-traumatic. Benign compression fractures of the spine reveal variable signal intensities in MR imagings. These patterns of benign compression fractures may be useful in interpretation of MR imagings of the spine

  7. If the knee hurts, don't forget the spine!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmer, Tobias; Ingerl, Dominik; Heemann, Uwe; Thürmel, Klaus

    2011-03-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal-deposits (CPPD) at the spine are rare but the lesions detected with CT scans or MRI are often interpreted as a spondylodiscitis or osteitis. CPPD is a disease of the elderly without major sex predominance. The diagnosis of CPPD requires typical manifestations on a radiograph and/or detection of positively birefringent crystals in the synovial fluid of (peripheral) joints by compensated polarized light microscopy. CPPD crystal deposition at the spine has been associated with clinical manifestations, typically spine stiffness, and is sometimes associated with bony ankylosis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. The preferred treatment of CPPD in the acute phase is oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication or alternatively oral or intravenous glucocorticoids. CPPD should be considered in patients with non-specific spinal lesions. PMID:21050766

  8. Region-based enhancement of chest and cervical spine radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyh-Shyan; Steller Artz, Dorothy E.; Li, Huai; Legendre, Kevin; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a region-based image processing method to enhance selective radiodense regions on digital radiographs. We employ a wavelet filtering technique to locate the radiodense regions-of-interest and then apply different degrees of enhancement procedure to them. The enhancement procedure is based on an unsharp masking technique controlled by a set of sigmoidal functions. The method was tested on computed chest radiographs to improve the visualization of the mediastinum and radiodense spine areas. The enhanced chest images showed improved visualization in the mediastinum area, and the visibility of vascular structures which were obscured by the diaphragm and mediastinum was improved. To demonstrate the method's potential in other medical image processing tasks, we applied it to cervical spine images. The processed cervical spine images also showed better visualization of the seventh cervical vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebrae in the high radiodense area caused by the superimposition of the patient's shoulder tissue over these regions of interest.

  9. Cervical spine tuberculosis and retropharyngeal abscess in an adult Nigerian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okechukwu S Ogah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there has been an increase in the incidence of tuberculosis by 2.2 million from 1997 to 2005 and 95% of this is occurring in developing countries. Tuberculosis of the cervical spine is rare. To present our experience with a case of cervical spine tuberculosis. We present a case report of tuberculosis of the C3/C4 cervical spine associated with retropharyngeal abscess in a 36-year-old Nigerian woman. The disease was also associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Neck pain, neck stiffness, radicular pain, especially to the left shoulder and wasting of the muscles of the hand, were the main features. Our patient improved on anti-tuberculous therapy and conservative supportive care. This case stresses the usefulness of simple pain cervical X-radiograph, especially in environments like ours where sophisticated investigations are either not available or beyond the reach of most patients. Conservative management in our patient resulted in remarkable improvement.

  10. Recurrent spine surgery patients in hospital administrative database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sami Walid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital patient databases are typically used by administrative staff to estimate loss-profit ratios and to help with the allocation of hospital resources. These databases can also be very useful in following rehospitalization. This paper studies the recurrence of spine surgery patients in our hospital population based on administrative data analysis. Methods: Hospital data on 4,958 spine surgery patients operated between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. After sorting the cohort per ascending discharge date, the patient official name, consisting of first, middle and last names, was used as the variable determining duplicate cases in the SPSS statistical program, designating the first case in each group as primary. Yearly recurrence rate and change in procedure distribution were studied. In addition, hospital charges and length of stay were compared using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of 4,958 spine surgery patients 364 (7.3% were categorized as duplicate cases by SPSS. The number of primary cases from which duplicate cases emerged was 327 meaning that some patients had more than two spine surgeries. Among primary patients (N=327 the percentage of excision of intervertebral disk procedures was 33.3% and decreased to 15.1% in recurrent admissions of the same patients (N=364. This decrease was compensated by an increase in lumbar fusion procedures. On the other hand, the rate of cervical fusion remained the same. The difference in hospital charges between primary and duplicate patients was $2,234 for diskectomy, $6,319 for anterior cervical fusion, $8,942 for lumbar fusion – lateral technique, and $12,525 for lumbar fusion – posterior technique. Recurrent patients also stayed longer in hospital, up to 0.9 day in lumbar fusion – posterior technique patients. Conclusion: Spine surgery is associated with an increasing possibility of additional spine surgery with rising invasiveness and cost.

  11. Injuries of the spine sustained during rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, J R; Gill, S

    1988-05-01

    In 1984 JR Silver reported on 63 patients who had sustained serious injuries of their cervical spine as a result of games of rugby between the years 1952 and 1982. In this paper his results have been brought up to date. A further 19 players who were treated personally are reported, sustaining their injuries between 1983 and 1987. The mechanism of injury was still blows to the head or the head being driven into the ground. Seven injuries occurred in the scrums all were front row forwards. One was injured when the players charged, two players were inexperienced and the other cases all followed a collapse of the scrum after which the second rows continued to push. Five players were injured while tackling, six players were injured in a ruck and maul situation--in each case they were pushed to the ground while stooping to pick up the ball, other players piled on top of them (one player broke from the scrum and he endeavoured to retrieve a low ball and then fell striking his head). Further research was carried out by circularising all the spinal units in the United Kingdom to obtain the overall figures. It has been found that there has been a reduction in the number of injuries from ten in 1983 to five in 1986/7, presumably from a change in the laws. In order to determine whether a further change in the laws was necessary or whether the existing laws were adequate, research was carried out by video recording several games of rugby and analysing the games later in slow motion and determining how injuries occurred. Most of the injuries in these small number of games occurred in the ruck and maul situation. It was concluded that the majority of such injuries were not due to bad luck but were caused by irresponsible actions. The laws were still being broken and not being enforced. The existing laws were adequate since there has been a reduction in the number of injuries overall, particularly at first class and schoolboy levels, but were not enforced at junior levels-they were the main source of injury. PMID:3387737

  12. Spine Shape Predicts Vertebral Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, P.C.; A. Ghosh; M. G. Sorensen; Nielsen, Mads

    2008-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of patients at high risk of developing fragility fractures is crucial in the management of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the shape of the spine as can be observed from lateral X-rays is indicative for the risk of future development of fragility fractures in the spine. The study included 568 elderly women of whom 455 maintained skeletal integrity during the mean observation period of 4.8 years and 113 sustained at least one verteb...

  13. Delayed stabilization of dendritic spines in fragile X mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Martín, Alberto; Crespo, Michelle; Portera-Cailliau, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) causes mental impairment and autism through transcriptional silencing of the Fmr1 gene, resulting in the loss of the RNA-binding protein FMRP. Cortical pyramidal neurons in affected individuals and Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice have an increased density of dendritic spines. The mutant mice also show defects in synaptic and experience-dependent circuit plasticity, which are known to be mediated in part by dendritic spine dynamics. We used in vivo time-lapse imaging with 2-ph...

  14. Osteoid Osteoma of Cervical Spine in two adjacent Vertebrae

    OpenAIRE

    MR Etemadifar; AR Ebrahimzadeh; M Karimian

    2005-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor, mainly seen in 10-30 years male. Spine is a relatively common site and almost always, posterior elements are involved. Plain X-Ray-, CT scan and Isotope scan help to identify and localize spine lesions. We described one 18 years old boy with 3 years low neck pain. Isotope scan, MRI and CT scan showed two lesions in C7 and T1. Gross inspection and histopathology examination confirmed osteoid osteoma in two adjacent vertebrae which has not been reported e...

  15. Postsynaptic PDLIM5 / Enigma Homolog binds SPAR and causes dendritic spine shrinkage

    OpenAIRE

    Herrick, Scott; Evers, Danielle M.; Lee, Ji-Yun; Udagawa, Noriko; Pak, Daniel T. S.

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic spine morphology is thought to play important roles in synaptic development and plasticity, and morphological derangements in spines are correlated with several neurological disorders. Here, we identified an interaction between Spine-Associated RapGAP (SPAR), a postsynaptic protein that reorganizes actin cytoskeleton and drives dendritic spine head growth, and PDLIM5 / Enigma Homolog (ENH), a PDZ-LIM (postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens 1-Lin11/Isl-1/Mec3) family memb...

  16. Release of calcium from stores alters the morphology of dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Korkotian, E; SEGAL, M

    1999-01-01

    The ability to monitor ongoing changes in the shape of dendritic spines has important implications for the understanding of the functional correlates of the great variety of shapes and sizes of dendritic spines in central neurons. We have monitored and three-dimensionally reconstructed dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons over several hours of observation in a confocal laser scanning microscope. In the absence of extrinsic stimulation, the dimensions of dendritic spines of 3-week-...

  17. The neural EGF family member CALEB/NGC mediates dendritic tree and spine complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Nicola; Franke, Kristin; Rašin, Mladen-Roko; Baumgart, Jan; Vogt, Johannes; Khrulev, Sergey; Hassel, Burkhard; Pohl, Elena E.; Šestan, Nenad; Nitsch, Robert; Schumacher, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The development of dendritic arborizations and spines is essential for neuronal information processing, and abnormal dendritic structures and/or alterations in spine morphology are consistent features of neurons in patients with mental retardation. We identify the neural EGF family member CALEB/NGC as a critical mediator of dendritic tree complexity and spine formation. Overexpression of CALEB/NGC enhances dendritic branching and increases the complexity of dendritic spines and filopodia. Gen...

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 disrupts dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons through NMDA receptor activation

    OpenAIRE

    Bilousova, Tina V.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Ethell, Douglas W; Ethell, Iryna M.

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic spines are protrusions from the dendritic shaft that host most excitatory synapses in the brain. Although they first emerge during neuronal maturation, dendritic spines remain plastic through adulthood, and recent advances in the molecular mechanisms governing spine morphology have shown them to be exquisitely sensitive to changes in the micro-environment. Among the many factors affecting spine morphology are components and regulators of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Modification ...

  19. Essential Role for Synaptopodin in Dendritic Spine Plasticity of the Developing Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Pöschel, Beatrice; Faul, Christian; Upreti, Chirag; Stanton, Patric K; MUNDEL, PETER

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic spines are a major substrate of brain plasticity. Although many studies have focused on Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated regulation of spine dynamics and synaptic function in adult brain, much less is know about protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent regulation of spine shape dynamics during postnatal brain development. Synaptopodin is a dendritic spine associated modulator of actin dynamics and a substrate of PKA. Here we show that NMDA and cAMP-induced dendr...

  20. A stress fracture of the lumbar spine in a professional rugby player

    OpenAIRE

    Castinel, Bernard H; Adam, Philippe; Prat, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    In modern rugby, the spine is subjected to great physical pressure, with an increased number of impacts, on both the cervical and the lumbar spine. This case report illustrates overuse injuries of the lumbar spine in international professional rugby players. A 32?year?old sportsman had been practising rugby for 24 years and was playing for a championship level French team when he started suffering from a right lateral pain in the lumbosacral spine. A CT scan showed a unilateral isthmolysis an...

  1. Osteochondroma of the cervical spine: Report of two cases in preadolescent males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although considered to be rare in the spine, osteochondromas are in fact found there as often as other benign bone tumors. Three percent of all osteochondromas occur in the spine, while forty percent of osteoblastomas are to be found there. Yet, because osteochondromas are so much more common overall than osteoblastomas, their actual occurrences in the spine can be expected to be equal. Two cases of osteochondroma of the cervical spine, one of which was diagnosed by computed tomography, are reported. (orig.)

  2. Osteochondroma of the cervical spine: Report of two cases in preadolescent males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, G.S.; Pavlov, H.; Bullough, P.G.

    1982-03-01

    Although considered to be rare in the spine, osteochondromas are in fact found there as often as other benign bone tumors. Three percent of all osteochondromas occur in the spine, while forty percent of osteoblastomas are to be found there. Yet, because osteochondromas are so much more common overall than osteoblastomas, their actual occurrences in the spine can be expected to be equal. Two cases of osteochondroma of the cervical spine, one of which was diagnosed by computed tomography, are reported.

  3. [Tactics of surgical treatment of degenerative-dystrophic lesions of the lumbosacral spine in case of HIP-SPINE-syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalerski?, G M; Korkunov, A L; Lychagin, A V; Sereda, A P; Cherepanov, V G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is definition of surgical treatment tactics of multilevel degenerative-dystrophic lesions of the lumbosacral spine in case of HIP-SPINE-syndrome. It was presented the experience of surgical treatment of multilevel degenerative-dystrophic lesions of the lumbosacral spine in 52 patients aged from 48 to 81 years. Lumbar stenosis prevailed in 38 (73.1%) cases. There was degenerative spondylolisthesis in 9 (17.3%) cases, and degenerative scoliosis was detected in 5 (9.6%) patients. Different types of decompressive-stabilizing interventions according to direction of compression and the presence of degenerative instability were performed in all patients. Evaluation of surgical treatment was done by using of visual analog scale and questionnaire Oswestry Disability Index. It was revealed significant improvement of life quality by reducing of pain and increasing of daily activity. Maximal time of observation was 36 months. PMID:24874225

  4. A non-proteinaceous toxin from the venomous spines of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M S; Cheung, P; Leong, I; Ruggieri, G D

    1985-01-01

    The venomous spines of P. volitans contain a non-proteinaceous ichthyotoxin of low molecular weight. This toxin could be isolated only from spines excised from the living fish; the toxin is apparently destroyed following death, as the extracts of the spines of the dead fish were non-toxic. PMID:4024148

  5. DISH of the cervical spine causing epiglottis impingement

    OpenAIRE

    Bartalena, Tommaso; Buia, Francesco; Borgonovi, Alberto; Rinaldi, Maria Francesca; Modolon, Cecilia; BASSI, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition characterized by calcification and ossification of ligaments and entheses; it mainly affects the vertebral column. We report the case of a patient with pharyngeal dysphagia and episodic aspiration secondary to DISH involvement of the cervical spine, which had caused alteration in the epiglottic tilt mechanism during deglutition.

  6. The examination of mechanical properties of spine unit with Norian.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Florian, Z.; Wendsche, P.; Reinish, M.; Kotek, Vladimír

    Vol. 3. Praha : ÚTAM AV ?R, 2000 - (Náprstek, J.; Minster, J.), s. 111-114 ISBN 80-86246-06-X. [International conference Engineering mechanics 2000. Svratka (CZ), 15.05.2000-18.05.2000] R&D Projects: GA MZd ND5191 Keywords : mechanical properties of spine unit * biocompatible ceramic material Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  7. Computer aided measurement of biomechanical characteristics of cadaverous lumbar spines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barton?k, L.; Keprt, Ji?í; Charamza, J.; Hrabálek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 3 (2004), s. 504-510. ISSN 1644-3608 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : lumbar spine * force gauges * specle interferometry * fast Fourier transform PACS Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.375, year: 2004

  8. Three-dimensional static modeling of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadogan, Ernur; Williams, Robert L

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional static modeling of the human lumbar spine to be used in the formation of anatomically-correct movement patterns for a fully cable-actuated robotic lumbar spine which can mimic in vivo human lumbar spine movements to provide better hands-on training for medical students. The mathematical model incorporates five lumbar vertebrae between the first lumbar vertebra and the sacrum, with dimensions of an average adult human spine. The vertebrae are connected to each other by elastic elements, torsional springs and a spherical joint located at the inferoposterior corner in the mid-sagittal plane of the vertebral body. Elastic elements represent the ligaments that surround the facet joints and the torsional springs represent the collective effect of intervertebral disc which plays a major role in balancing torsional load during upper body motion and the remaining ligaments that support the spinal column. The elastic elements and torsional springs are considered to be nonlinear. The nonlinear stiffness constants for six motion types were solved using a multiobjective optimization technique. The quantitative comparison between the angles of rotations predicted by the proposed model and in the experimental data confirmed that the model yields angles of rotation close to the experimental data. The main contribution is that the new model can be used for all motions while the experimental data was only obtained at discrete measurement points. PMID:22938364

  9. Haptically assisted connection procedure for the reconstruction of dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenthy, Loic; Garcia, Marcos; Bayona, Sofia; Santuy, Andrea; Martin, Jose San; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Pastor, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic spines are thin protrusions that cover the dendritic surface of numerous neurons in the brain and whose function seems to play a key role in neural circuits. The correct segmentation of those structures is difficult due to their small size and the resulting spines can appear incomplete. This paper presents a four-step procedure for the complete reconstruction of dendritic spines. The haptically driven procedure is intended to work as an image processing stage before the automatic segmentation step giving the final representation of the dendritic spines. The procedure is designed to allow both the navigation and the volume image editing to be carried out using a haptic device. A use case employing our procedure together with a commercial software package for the segmentation stage is illustrated. Finally, the haptic editing is evaluated in two experiments; the first experiment concerns the benefits of the force feedback and the second checks the suitability of the use of a haptic device as input. In both cases, the results shows that the procedure improves the editing accuracy. PMID:25203994

  10. Intra-abdominal pressure increases stiffness of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Paul W; Eriksson, A E Martin; Shirley, Debra; Gandevia, Simon C

    2005-09-01

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) increases during many tasks and has been argued to increase stability and stiffness of the spine. Although several studies have shown a relationship between the IAP increase and spinal stability, it has been impossible to determine whether this augmentation of mechanical support for the spine is due to the increase in IAP or the abdominal muscle activity which contributes to it. The present study determined whether spinal stiffness increased when IAP increased without concurrent activity of the abdominal and back extensor muscles. A sustained increase in IAP was evoked by tetanic stimulation of the phrenic nerves either unilaterally or bilaterally at 20 Hz (for 5 s) via percutaneous electrodes in three subjects. Spinal stiffness was measured as the force required to displace an indentor over the L4 or L2 spinous process with the subjects lying prone. Stiffness was measured as the slope of the regression line fitted to the linear region of the force-displacement curve. Tetanic stimulation of the diaphragm increased IAP by 27-61% of a maximal voluntary pressure increase and increased the stiffness of the spine by 8-31% of resting levels. The increase in spinal stiffness was positively correlated with the size of the IAP increase. IAP increased stiffness at L2 and L4 level. The results of this study provide evidence that the stiffness of the lumbar spine is increased when IAP is elevated. PMID:16023475

  11. Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, Michael; Schneider, Karl [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology - Paediatric Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

  12. The effect of breast shielding during lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of lead shielding on the dose to female breasts in conventional x-ray lumbar spine imaging. The correlation between the body mass index and the dose received by the breast was also investigated. Breast surface dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In the first phase measurements of breast dose with and without shielding from lumbar spine imaging in two projections were conducted on an anthropomorphic phantom. In the second stage measurements were performed on 100 female patients, randomly divided into two groups of 50, with breast shielding only used in one group. On average, breast exposure dose in lumbar spine imaging in both projections (anteroposterior (AP) and lateral) was found reduced by approximately 80% (p < 0,001) when shielding with 0.5 mm lead equivalent was used (from 0.45±0.25 mGy to 0.09±0.07 mGy on the right and from 0.26±0.14 mGy to 0.06±0.04 mGy on the left breast). No correlation between the body mass index (BMI) and the breast surface radiation dose was observed. Although during the lumbar spine imaging breasts receive low-dose exposure even when shielding is not used, the dose can be reduced up to 80% by breast shielding with no influence on the image quality

  13. Reconstitution of lost cervical spine function: management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst, Arne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The cervical spine (CS is the most vulnerable part of the whole spine because it has least protection. This is due to its high mobility (few bone, but largely muscle and joint support which is associated with a high injury risk. The anatomical characteristics are based on evolutionary biological reasons, i.e. humans had to be able to freely controlling the surrounding space with their eyes and to have permanent postural control by an upright position of the head. The cervical spine, its joint and the surrounding muscles are highly interconnected (e.g. direct neuronal projections into the brain stem, connections to the TMJ, Head's zones with projections to the skin surface. Moreover, the spinal pain memory store can lead to a variets of multi-facette clinical pictures. In addition to reversible disorders of the cervical spine, posttraumatic disorders play a major role. The therapy options available include physiotherapy, drug therapy and surgical measures. However, a multidisciplinary approach is most favourable.

  14. Internal fixation for stress fractures of the ankylosed spine.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    Three cases of stress fractures affecting the rigid spine of ankylosing spondylitis are reported. Even without the typical destructive features of the Romanus lesion, symptoms may be very prolonged and disabling and the diagnosis difficult. Internal fixation produces immediate pain relief and rapid fracture union.

  15. Importance of lateral spine view in DEXA bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement is a very useful technique in the assessment of risks of fracture in suspected cases of osteoporosis. The procedure is routinely carried out in antero-posterior (AP) view of the spine and the hip. But very often discordant results have been reported using the above cited views. Bone mineral concentration (BMC) obtained in the AP view of spine appears higher than that obtained in the hip views. The present study was conducted to establish the importance of lateral view of spine. The lateral view would provide better scope to draw the ROI perfectly thereby resulting in more precise measurement of BMC. In a prospective study a total of 60 consecutive patients (48F, 12M) were evaluated for bone densitometric measurements. The age of the patients ranged from 35-80 years with a mean age of 59 years. None of the patients received ooestrogen, biphosphonates or steroid therapy. Bone densities of the hip and lumbar spine were measured with a Norland XR 36 bone densitometer equipment. The Tscore, which measures the difference between patient's BMD and young-normal, was computed and age-matched Z-score were calculated. X-ray correlation was also done in most of the cases. Analyses of the values obtained over femoral neck revealed 30 cases with osteoporosis and 23 cases with osteopaenia. While on the other hand analyses of AP spine views revealed osteoporosis in 20 and osteopaenia in 30 patients. Hence, it became evident that significant number of patients who were actually suffering from osteoporosis were in fact interpreted as osteopaenic (P0.05). Significant differences (P>0.05) in the values of BMC in the same vertebra measured in AP and lateral views were also observed in this study. Based on the results of this study it was concluded that the lateral view of the spine is an important factor in the accurate measurement of BMC. This view excludes the posterior element of the vertebra as well as the aorta anteriorly, where high incidence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques is present. Since AP view cannot exclude these areas from the region of interest, the BMC values obtained using this view are falsely higher than the actual value. It is therefore recommend that a lateral view of the spine should be included in the determination of BMC as a matter of routine in day to day clinical practice of bone densitometry. (author)

  16. Use of a personalized hybrid biomechanical model to assess change in lumbar spine function with a TDR compared to an intact spine

    OpenAIRE

    Knapik, Gregory G.; Mendel, Ehud; Marras, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Total disc replacements (TDRs) have been employed with increasing frequency in recent years with the intention of restoring natural motion to the spine and reducing adjacent level trauma. Previous assessments of the TDRs have subjectively measured patient satisfaction, evaluated sagittal range of motion via static imaging, or examined biomechanical loading in vitro. This study examined the kinematics and biomechanical loading of the lumbar spine with an intact spine compared to a TDR inserted...

  17. Spine Shape Predicts Vertebral Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of patients at high risk of developing fragility fractures is crucial in the management of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the shape of the spine as can be observed from lateral X-rays is indicative for the risk of future development of fragility fractures in the spine. The study included 568 elderly women of whom 455 maintained skeletal integrity during the mean observation period of 4.8 years and 113 sustained at least one vertebral fracture in the same period. At baseline, none of the women had experienced a previous osteoporotic fracture, and the two groups were not significantly different in terms of age (66.2 ± 0.2 vs. 66.1 ± 0.4), spine BMD (0.77 ± 0.004 vs. 0.76 ± 0.008), body weight (64.7 ± 0.4 vs. 64.6 ± 0.8), height (160.6 ± 0.3 vs. 161 ± 0.5), and number of years since menopause. A radiologist annotated the corner points and mid points of the vertebral end plates of each vertebra from L5 to T4 on digitized lateral radiographs taken at the baseline visit. These points together describe a combination of factors characterizing the spinal shape, including the shape and the size of individual vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks, alignment of vertebrae, and spinal curvature. The positions of the points were subsequently used as the input features to train a pattern classification system to discriminate between spines of women maintaining skeletal health and spines sustaining a fracture in the near future (regularized linear discriminant analysis). Applied to an annotated X-ray image of an unfractured spine, this classification model then provides a measure of the probability that the spine will develop a fracture. In a leave-one-out experiment, in which the classification models were constructed from a training set excluding any images of the patient under study, fracture probability measures were significantly different between the two groups at baseline (0.26 ± 0.02 vs. 0.18 ± 0.006, p < 10-6). Incident fractures could be predicted from the baseline image with 80% accuracy; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65, and the odds ratio (OR) for fracture 5.2 [95% CI 2.3, 11.6]. Significant predictive value remained after adjustment for age and spine BMD (p < 10-6, AUC=0.66, OR=2.0 [1.0, 3.9]).Measures of spine shape can predict vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women, independent of age and spine BMD. The herein presented computer based diagnostic tool could be a useful supplement to existing approaches to fracture risk assessment.

  18. Method of estimating risk of future fracture in vertebrae of spine used in medical field, involves computing different curvature values to obtain value representative of degree of irregularity of curvature of spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NOVELTY - The curvature (L1-L4) of spine at two neighboring vertebrae is calculated. The different curvature values are computed to obtain a value representative of the degree of irregularity in curvature of spine. The risk of future fracture in vertebrae of spine is estimated using the degree of irregularity in curvature of spine.

  19. Role of early minimal-invasive spine fixation in acute thoracic and lumbar spine trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Polytraumatized patients following a severe trauma suffer from substantial disturbances of the immune system. Secondary organ dysfunction syndromes due to early hyperinflammation and late immunparalysis contribute to adverse outcome. Consequently the principle of damage control surgery / orthopedics developed in the last two decades to limit secondary iatrogenic insult in these patients. New percutaneous internal fixators provide implants for a damage control approach of spinal trauma in polytraumatized patients. The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of minimal-invasive instrumentation in the setting of minor and major trauma and to discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks of this procedure. Materials and Methods: The present study is a prospective analysis of 76 consecutive patients (mean age 53.3 years with thoracolumbar spine fractures following major or minor trauma from August 2003 to January 2007 who were subjected to minimal-invasive dorsal instrumentation using CD Horizon ® Sextant TM Rod Insertion System and Longitude TM Rod Insertion System (Medtronic ® Sofamor Danek. Perioperative and postoperative outcome measures including e.g. local and systemic complications were assessed and discussed. Results: Forty-nine patients (64.5% suffered from minor trauma (Injury Severity Score < 16. Polytraumatized patients (n=27; 35.5% had associated chest (n=20 and traumatic brain injuries (n=22. For mono- and bisegmental dorsal instrumentation the Sextant TM was used in 60 patients, whereas in 16 longer ranging instrumentations the (prototype Longitude TM system was implanted. Operation time was substantially lower than in conventional approach at minimum 22.5 min for Sextant and 36.2 min for Longitude TM , respectively. Geriatric patients with high perioperative risk according to ASA classification benefited from the less invasive approach and lack of approach-related complications including no substantial blood loss. Conclusion: Low rate of approach-related complications in association with short operation time and virtually no blood loss is beneficial in the setting of polytraumatized patients regarding damage control orthopedics, as well as in geriatric patients with high perioperative risk. The minimal-invasive instrumentation of the spine is associated with beneficial outcome in a selected patient population.

  20. Creating A Sustainable Model of Spine Care in Underserved Communities : The World Spine Care (WSC) Charity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The world lacks sustainable models of care to manage spinal disorders in poor and underserved communities. The purpose of this article is to: (1) review the rationale and importance of developing a sustainable evidence-based model of care at low cost for people with spinal disorders in underserved and poor communities, and (2) describe the process and challenges of establishing such a program in these communities. Given that burden of disease studies rank spinal disorders among the leading causes of disability and the finding that low-income countries have much need but few resources for delivering adequate care, World Spine Care (WSC) was established to "improve lives in underserved communities through sustainable, integrated, evidence-based, spinal care." WSC is comprised of volunteers and institutions from 6 continents and several countries, and incorporates a Board of Directors, an executive committee, a clinical team and a research committee. WSC opened its first clinic in 2012 in Botswana, and now has aclinic in the Dominican Republic and a memorandum of understanding to open a clinic in Tanzania. Clinical programs, research projects, and education-based capacity-building initiatives are adapted to and integrated within each community in collaboration with local decision makers, existing health care workers and traditional healers. Cornerstones of WSC's emphasis on long-term sustainability are (1) education of community partners, governments and local health professionals, and (2) facilitation of opportunities for training graduate students in a variety of health-related fields. World Spine Care has (a) recognized the enormous need to establish clinical programs aimed at easing the suffering and disability associated with spinal disorders in resource-poor communities, (b) shown widespread support for an organization devoted to reducing the global burden of disease caused by spinal disorders, and (c) shown that establishing successful evidence-based, culturally appropriate programs in cooperation with localgovernments and communities are possible. Challenges remain, but with sound leadership, research and a model of care, there is an opportunity to help reduce the burden of the leading cause of disability in the world.

  1. Risk factors and visual results in cases of LASIK flap repositioning due to folds or dislocation: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Guerra, Alfredo R; Rey, Juan J; Camacho, Paul A

    2014-02-01

    The presence of a corneal flap is a hallmark of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), which offers advantages in terms of speed of visual recovery; however, it also carries the risk of postoperative flap displacement. We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive eyes on which LASIK was performed by one single surgeon at an ophthalmological institute in Colombia between May 2005 and January 2011, looking for eyes that required flap repositioning. Demographic data, preoperative refraction, hinge position, and visual outcomes following flap repositioning were evaluated. A literature review on the subject was also conducted. We found 37 eyes on which flap repositioning was performed-12 eyes (32.4 %) with subluxation and 25 eyes (67.6 %) with folds; 21 eyes (56.8 %) had a temporal hinge and 16 eyes (43.2 %) had a superior hinge. With regard to the total number of eyes on which LASIK was performed (2,595), the overall incidence was 1.4 %. Sixteen out of 2,093 eyes (0.8 %) with a superior hinge and 21 out of 502 eyes (4.2 %) with a temporal hinge had flap-related postoperative complications (p < 0.00). A final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between 20/20 and 20/25 was found in 75.7 % and a final BCVA between 20/30 and 20/40 was found in 21.6 %. Only one eye had less than 20/40 (previous amblyopia). From the eight eyes with a BCVA between 20/30 and 20/40, three had residual microstriae and one had corneal haze. Six eyes (16.2 %) lost two or more lines of BCVA. Flap subluxation or folds requiring flap repositioning were significantly more frequent when a temporal hinge was used. PMID:23605593

  2. Chandra/ACIS Subpixel Event Repositioning. II. Further Refinements and Comparison between Backside and Front-side Illuminated X-ray CCDs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingqiang; Kastner, Joel H.; Prigozhin, Gregory Y.; Norbert S. Schulz; Feigelson, Eric D; Getman, Konstantin V.

    2004-01-01

    We further investigate subpixel event repositioning (SER) algorithms in application to Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) CCD imaging. SER algorithms have been applied to backside illuminated (BI) Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) devices, and demonstrate spatial resolution improvements in Chandra/ACIS observations. Here a new SER algorithm that is charge split dependent is added to the SER family. We describe the application of SER algorithms to frontside illuminated (F...

  3. Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed

    OpenAIRE

    Shaked, Eliav; Gefen, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Patient repositioning when the skin is moist, e.g., due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF) and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitativel...

  4. Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed

    OpenAIRE

    AmitGefen

    2013-01-01

    Patient repositioning when the skin is moist e.g. due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF) and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitatively...

  5. Frameless linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases: analysis of patient repositioning using a mask fixation system and clinical outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Minniti Giuseppe; Scaringi Claudia; Clarke Enrico; Valeriani Maurizio; Osti Mattia; Enrici Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To assess the accuracy of patient repositioning and clinical outcomes of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases using a stereotactic mask fixation system. Patients and Methods One hundred two patients treated consecutively with frameless SRS as primary treatment at University of Rome Sapienza Sant'Andrea Hospital between October 2008 and April 2010 and followed prospectively were involved in the study. A commercial stereotactic mask fixation system (Br...

  6. MR Imaging Findings of Paget's Disease of the Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, H

    2015-09-01

    Paget's disease (PD) is a common bone disorder of the aging population where the spine is the second most common involved location after the pelvis. Though imaging findings are well described on CT and radiographs, recognition on MRI can be challenging. We reviewed 16 cases with radiologic or histologic confirmation of uncomplicated PD of the spine. In most cases, MRI showed a mixed pattern of increased/ decreased T1 signal (fine trabecular or coarse) of the vertebral bodies. There was also associated band-like decreased T1 and T2 signal of the endplates. This correlates with the mixed osteolytic and blastic phase of the disease, the most common phase in the spine. Subtle or conspicuous "picture-frame" appearance may also be identified. Present in most cases, but frequently overlooked manifestation on MRI, was the expansion of the vertebral body and/or posterior elements/ spinous process. We identified a subtle diffuse decreased T1 and T2 bone marrow signal, not corresponding to sclerosis on CT or radiographs, in two cases. We proposed this, as an earliest sign on MRI, likely representing early fibro-vascular bone marrow transformation and to our knowledge not previously described. Less commonly, sclerotic PD was also found which is perhaps the most difficult to evaluate given its broad differential. Most cases of PD of the spine were overlooked or confused with other entities by the radiologists. Interpretation of MR images of the spine in the absence of prior imaging is not uncommon. Thus, recognition of MRI manifestations is important to allow appropriate management, to avoid misinterpretations and in most cases to avoid biopsy. PMID:25690837

  7. Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, Roberto, E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guarnieri, Gianluigi, E-mail: gianluigiguarnieri@hotmail.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guglielmi, Giuseppe, E-mail: g.gugliemi@unifg.it [Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability.

  8. Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability

  9. Irradiation spine deformity in children treated for neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective long-term follow-up review of 56 children with neuroblastoma surviving five years and longer following treatment since 1946 revealed that 57% had developed spine deformity (S.D.) following treatment with 250 kilovolt irradiation at the time of review. The average age at diagnosis was 17 months. Irradiation therapy was delivered to most children before 24 months of age. Follow-up averaged 12.9 years with a range of 5-31 years. Eighty-five per cent of the children had developed structural spine deformity at skeletal maturity and 54% of these children had scoliosis greater than 20 degrees. Sixteen per cent of irradiated children developed structural kyphosis. Non-midline opposing anterior and posterior ports were used most frequently. Mean dosage in patients who developed scoliosis of 20 degrees or more was 3588 rads (spine dosage) and 3746 rads in patients who developed kyphosis. Irradiation through opposing anterior and posterior ports was more commonly associated with the development of S.D. Sixty-six per cent of children who had more than 2000 rads developed S.D. The adolescent growth spurt was associated with an increase in the frequency and severity of spine deformity. This study indicated that moderate to severe S.D. was produced by irradiation in excess of 2000 rads administered with a 250-kilovoltage machine. This study would also suggest that children with neuroblastoma treated with orthovoltage irradiation should be followed closely by the orthopaedic surgeon, the oncologist, the radiotherapist and the paediatrician until the completion of skeletal growth for the development of unsightly structural spine deformity. Early bracing and surgery may be helpful in controlling these deformities in the pre-adolescent to early adolescent years. Continued observation is necessary to determine if current irradiation techniques will minimize or eradicate the incidence and severity of these complications. (author)

  10. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multiple myeloma of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mont' Alverne, Francisco [Universite Paris VI, Department of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Sao Paulo University, Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Vallee, Jean-Noel; Guillevin, Remy; Cormier, Evelyne; Jean, Betty; Rose, Michelle; Chiras, Jacques [Universite Paris VI, Department of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Caldas, Jose Guilherme [Sao Paulo University, Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    Spinal involvement is a common presentation of multiple myeloma (MM); however, the cervical spine is the least common site of myelomatous involvement. Few studies evaluate the results of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) in the treatment of MM of the spine. The purpose of this series is to report on the use of PV in the treatment of MM of the cervical spine and to review the literature. From January 1994 to October 2007, four patients (three men and one woman; mean age, 45 years) who underwent five PV for painful MM in the cervical spine were retrospectively reviewed. The pain was estimated by the patient on a verbal analogic scale. Clinical follow-up was available for all patients (mean, 27.5 months; range, 1-96 months). The mean volume of cement injected per vertebral body was 2.3 {+-} 0.8 mL (range, 1.0-4.0 mL) with a mean vertebral filling of 55.0 {+-} 12.0% (range, 40.0-75.0%). Analgesic efficacy was achieved in all patients. One patient had a spinal instability due to a progression of spinal deformity noted on follow-up radiographs, without clinical symptoms. Cement leakage was detected in three (60%) of the five treated vertebrae. There was no clinical complication. The present series suggests that PV for MM of the cervical spine is safe and effective for pain control; nonetheless, the detrimental impact of the disease on bone quality should prompt close radiological follow-up after PV owing to the risk of spinal instability. (orig.)

  11. Changes in temporomandibular joint morphology in class II patients treated with fixed mandibular repositioning and evaluated through 3D imaging: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, M A Q; Alsufyani, N; Flores-Mir, C; Nebbe, B; Major, P W

    2015-11-01

    To estimate the effects of skeletal class II malocclusion treatment using fixed mandibular repositioning appliances on the position and morphology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Two independent reviewers performed comprehensive electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM reviews and Scopus (until May 5, 2015). The references of the identified articles were also manually searched. All studies investigating morphological changes of the TMJ articular disc, condyle and glenoid fossa with 3D imaging following non-surgical fixed mandibular repositioning appliances in growing individuals with class II malocclusions were included in the analysis. Of the 269 articles initially reviewed, only 12 articles used magnetic resonance imaging and two articles used computed tomography (CT) or cone-beam CT images. Treatment effect on condyle and glenoid fossa was discussed in eight articles. Treatment effect on TMJ articular disc position and morphology was discussed in seven articles. All articles showed a high risk of bias due to deficient methodology: inadequate consideration of confounding variables, blinding of image assessment, selection or absence of control group and outcome measurement. Reported changes in osseous remodelling, condylar and disc position were contradictory. The selected articles failed to establish conclusive evidence of the exact nature of TMJ tissue response to fixed mandibular repositioning appliances. PMID:26260422

  12. Student apathy for classroom learning and need of repositioning in present andragogy in Indian dental schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dable Rajani A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the world of technology, when today's student is approaching the on-line /distance learning in the open universities and doing on-line self-assessment, the classroom learning is vanishing slowly. Globally, teachers are taking efforts to improve the pedagogy by implementing effective methods to retain the classroom teaching and student attendance. The present study aims at shedding some light on the need of changing the adult education strategies (andragogy, which can effectively improve the student attendance for lectures. Methods It is an observational study, and the conceptual framework of it is based on beliefs, opinions and personal experiences of the respondents. Triangulation method is used for collecting the data. The data is achieved from three groups of concerned population who could provide valid results to support the study. It is collected by interviewing 10 senior faculty members who are/were the 'education experts' in the universities, while the main concerned groups of present educational stream, i.e. 'institution-teachers' and the 'students', were given questionnaires. 570 teacher respondents and 200 student respondents are the main participants of this study. Results As per data, it has been observed that senior faculty (90% and students (93.25% feel need of student motivation more than the institutional teachers (52.44%. P-values were obtained using Chi-Square test for testing the significance of difference between agreement and disagreement for a specific question. Conclusions In India, Universities have already sensed the need of 'teacher development programmes'. But teachers in dental colleges, demand more efforts to be taken by universities and managements in this regard and expect better educational policies to give them accessibility to prove themselves.

  13. A novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique for repositioning an embolized stent in the pulmonary conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Gowda, Srinath T; Forbes, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    A 9-year-old male, with history of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, status post complete repair with a 16 mm pulmonary homograft in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) underwent 3110 Palmaz stent placement for conduit stenosis. Following deployment the stent embolized proximally into the right ventricle (RV). We undertook the choice of repositioning the embolized stent into the conduit with a transcatheter approach. Using a second venous access, the embolized stent was carefully maneuvered into the proximal part of conduit with an inflated Tyshak balloon catheter. A second Palmaz 4010 stent was deployed in the distal conduit telescoping through the embolized stent. The Tyshak balloon catheter was kept inflated in the RV to stabilize the embolized stent in the proximal conduit until it was successfully latched up against the conduit with the deployment of the overlapping second stent. One year later, he underwent Melody valve implantation in the pre-stented conduit relieving conduit insufficiency. This novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique is a feasible transcatheter option to secure an embolized stent from the RV to the RVOT. PMID:24402732

  14. Barbed reposition pharyngoplasty (BRP) for OSAHS: a feasibility, safety, efficacy and teachability pilot study. "We are on the giant's shoulders".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicini, Claudio; Hendawy, Ehsan; Campanini, Aldo; Eesa, Mohamed; Bahgat, Ahmed; AlGhamdi, Saleh; Meccariello, Giuseppe; DeVito, Andrea; Montevecchi, Filippo; Mantovani, Mario

    2015-10-01

    A new palatal procedure for snoring/obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is described. The procedure was named as barbed reposition pharyngoplasty (BRP). The technique is described step by step. The new surgical technique was carried out in ten adult OSA patients with mean age of 53.4 ± 12.4 years (average 30-70) with confirmed retropalatal obstruction. In this pilot study; we assessed the feasibility by calculating the number of cases that failed to be operated and converted to other palatal technique during the same surgical setting, safety was assessed by evaluating both intra-operative and post-operative complications, teachability measured by the learning curve of our team members (the time of surgical procedure). In this study, the technique is proved to be feasible in all cases. There were no significant intra-operative or post-operative complications. Objective clinical improvement was confirmed by polysomnography 6 months post-operative with significant decrease in mean AHI from 43.65 ± 26.83 to 13.57 ± 15.41 (P = 0.007), daytime sleepiness assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale from 11.6 ± 4.86 to 4.3 ± 2 (P safe and effective in management of OSA patients. Moreover, it is easy to learn even for not experienced surgeons, less time consuming and with no significant complications. PMID:25864183

  15. Use of a personalized hybrid biomechanical model to assess change in lumbar spine function with a TDR compared to an intact spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Gregory G; Mendel, Ehud; Marras, William S

    2012-06-01

    Total disc replacements (TDRs) have been employed with increasing frequency in recent years with the intention of restoring natural motion to the spine and reducing adjacent level trauma. Previous assessments of the TDRs have subjectively measured patient satisfaction, evaluated sagittal range of motion via static imaging, or examined biomechanical loading in vitro. This study examined the kinematics and biomechanical loading of the lumbar spine with an intact spine compared to a TDR inserted at L5/S1 in the same spine. A validated biologically driven personalized dynamic biomechanical model was used to assess range of motion (ROM) and lumbar spine tissue forces while a subject performed a series of bending and lifting exertions representative of normal life activities. This analysis concluded that with the insertion of a TDR, forces are of much greater magnitude in all three directions of loading and are concentrated at both the endplates and the posterior element structures compared to an intact spine. A significant difference is seen between the intact spine and the TDR spine at levels above the TDR insertion level as a function of supporting an external load (lifting). While ROM within the TDR joint was larger than in the intact spine (yet within the normal ranges under the unloaded bending conditions), the differences between spines were far greater in all three planes of motion under loaded lifting conditions. At levels above the TDR insertion, larger ROM was present during the lifting conditions. Sagittal motions were often greater at the higher lumbar levels, but there appeared to be less lateral and twisting motion. Collectively, this analysis indicates that the insertion of a TDR significantly alters the function of the spine. PMID:21445618

  16. Imaging fusion (SPECT/CT) in degenerative disease of spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To determine the utility of Fusion Imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of the spine and to establish the impact of the use of fusion imaging in spinal pain due to degenerative changes of the spine. Materials and methods: 44 Patients (M=21, F=23) average age of 63 years and with degenerative pathology of spine were sent to Diagnosis Imaging department in FSFB. Bone scintigraphy (SPECT), CT of spine (cervical: 30%, Lumbar 70%) and fusion imaging were performed in all of them. Bone scintigraphy was carried out in a gamma camera Siemens Diacam double head attached to ESOFT computer. The images were acquired in matrix 128 x 128, 20 seg/imag, 64 images. CT of spine was performed same day or two days after in Helycoidal Siemens somatom emotion CT. The fusion was done in a Dicom workstation in sagital, axial and coronal reconstruction. The findings were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians and 2 radiologists of the staff of FSFB in an independent way. Results: Bone scan (SPECT) and CT of 44 patients were evaluated. CT showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 27 (61.3%) patients, uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 7 (15.9%), bulging disc in 9(20.4%), spinal nucleus lesion in 7(15.9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%), spinal foraminal stenosis in 7 (15.9%), spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis in 4 (9%). Bone scan showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 29 (65.9%), uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 4 (9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%) and normal 3 (6.8%). The imaging fusion showed coincidence findings (main lesion in CT with high uptake in scintigraphy) in 34 patients (77.2%) and no coincidence in 10 (22.8%). In 15 (34.09%) patients the fusion provided additional information. The analysis of the findings of CT and SPECT showed similar results in most of the cases and the fusion didn't provide additional information but it allowed to confirm the findings but when the findings didn't match where the CT showed several findings and SPECT only one area with high uptake which allowed us to address the treatment. In all cases, CT provided exact anatomical localization. Conclusion; Fusion imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of spine allows an integration of the anatomical detail with the functional information. It improves the diagnostic accuracy: Determining sites of greater metabolic activity in patients with multiple degenerative changes and improving the spatial localization in injuries detected by scintigraphy. Image fusion by SPECT/CT could have a clinical impact (34% of our series) in that the treatment was modified. (author)

  17. The use of radiological guidelines to achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To determine if the use of request guidelines can achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee joints performed for general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: GPs referring to three community hospitals and a district general hospital were circulated with referral guidelines for radiography of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee, and all requests for these three examinations were checked. Requests that did not fit the guidelines were returned to the GP with an explanatory letter and a further copy of the guidelines. Where applicable, a large-joint replacement algorithm was also enclosed. If the GP maintained the opinion that the examination was indicated, she or he had the option of supplying further justifying information in writing or speaking to a consultant radiologist. RESULTS: Overall the number of radiographic examinations fell by 68% in the first year, achieving a 79% reduction in the second year. For knees, lumbar spine and cervical spine radiographs the total reductions were 77%, 78% and 86%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of referral guidelines, reinforced by request checking and clinical management algorithms, can produce a dramatic and sustained reduction in the number of radiographs of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

  18. Antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities of the spine of stingray Himantura imbricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyamoorthy Kalidasan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the spine structure of stingray Himantura imbricata (H. imbricata and to evaluate the anticoagulant properties of the spine extract obtained through various solvents extracts followed by antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Methods: Spines of H. imbricata were collected from Nagappattinam coast, Tamil Nadu, India and their spines were observed under the light microscope. The grounded spines were subjected to extraction of metabolites using methanol, ethanol, chloroform and acetone. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion technique against 10 human pathogens. Similarly, anticoagulant activity was also assessed by following United States Pharmacopeia method. Results: Light microscopic observation of spine revealed that the venom apparatus of the stingray H. imbricata consisted of two to three spines, glandular tissue and a sheath. The spine extract showed potent antibacterial activity against all tested pathogen. Maximum activity (14 mm was found against Staphylococcus aureus. Crude extract showed 91.50 USP units/mg of anticoagulant activity. Conclusions: Microscopic observations gave new insight about the spine structure of the stingray. The spine extracts of H. imbricate showed potent activity against human pathogens revealed by the good zone of inhibition. Chloroform extracts conferred the most prominent antibacterial activity. The anticoagulant activity was also comparable with that of standard heparin.

  19. Mass flows in a prominence spine as observed in EUV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gilbert, H. R. [NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Karpen, J. T. [NASA/GSFC, Code 674, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We analyze a quiescent prominence observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) with a focus on mass and energy flux in the spine, measured using Lyman continuum absorption. This is the first time this type of analysis has been applied with an emphasis on individual features and fluxes in a quiescent prominence. The prominence, observed on 2010 September 28, is detectable in most AIA wavebands in absorption and/or emission. Flows along the spine exhibit horizontal bands 5''-10'' wide and kinetic energy fluxes on the order of a few times 10{sup 5} erg s{sup –1}cm{sup –2}, consistent with quiet sun coronal heating estimates. For a discrete moving feature we estimate a mass of a few times 10{sup 11} g. We discuss the implications of our derived properties for a model of prominence dynamics, the thermal non-equilibrium model.

  20. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. However, the complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. The principal advantage of three-dimensional CT is its ability to display the surface relationships of complicated objects. The complexity of the spinal axis makes it ideal for study with three-dimensional CT. This presentation illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT in spinal abnormalities in children

  1. Chiropractors as Primary Spine Care Providers: precedents and essential measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, W Mark; Korpela, A Pauliina; Jones, Robert C

    2013-12-01

    Chiropractors have the potential to address a substantial portion of spinal disorders; however the utilization rate of chiropractic services has remained low and largely unchanged for decades. Other health care professions such as podiatry/chiropody, physiotherapy and naturopathy have successfully gained public and professional trust, increases in scope of practice and distinct niche positions within mainstream health care. Due to the overwhelming burden of spine care upon the health care system, the establishment of a 'primary spine care provider' may be a worthwhile niche position to create for society's needs. Chiropractors could fulfill this role, but not without first reviewing and improving its approach to the management of spinal disorders. Such changes have already been achieved by the chiropractic profession in Switzerland, Denmark, and New Mexico, whose examples may serve as important templates for renewal here in Canada. PMID:24302774

  2. Beyond the spine : a new clinical research priority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, clinical research within the chiropractic profession has focused on the spine and spinal conditions, specifically neck and low back pain. However, there is now a small group of chiropractors with clinical research training that are shifting their focus away from traditional research pursuits towards new and innovative areas. Specifically, these researchers are now delving into areas such as brain injury, work disability prevention, undifferentiated chest pain, hip osteoarthritis, and prevention of pain in children and adolescents to name a few. In this paper, we highlight recent research in these new areas and discuss how clinical research efforts in musculoskeletal areas beyond the spine can benefit patient care and the future of the chiropractic profession.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of canine degenerative lumbar spine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenerative lumbar spine diseases, i.e., sacrolumbar stenosis, intervertebral disk degeneration and protrusion and spondylosis deformans of the canine lumbar spine were studied in eleven canine patients and three healthy controls using radiography and 0.02 T and 0.04 T low field magnetic resonance imaging. The T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained in sagittal and transverse planes. The loss of hydration of nucleus pulposus, taken as a sign of degeneration in the intervertebral disks, could be evaluated in both T1 and T2 weighted images. As a noninvasive method magnetic resonance imaging gave more exact information about the condition of intervertebral disks than did radiography. Sacrolumbar stenosis and compression of the spinal cord or cauda equina and surrounding tissue could be evaluated without contrast medium

  4. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description of the anatomy and pathoanatomical status of the osteo-cartilagenous structures, including the facet joints from where a major portion of chronic whiplash patients experience their pain symptoms.

  5. Diseases of the spine, spinal cord, and extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the following topics: acupuncture needle in the spinal canal of the neck; thoracic tuberculous spondylitis: cold abscess; comminuted fracture of the fifth cervical vertebra; lumbar spondylolysis; lumbar spondylosis; ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament; disk herniation of the cervical spine: narrowing of the root tunnel; ankylosing spondylitis: narrowing of the root tunnel; ossification of the ligamentum flavum; narrow spinal canal syndrome; syringomyelia; epidural neurinoma of the cervical spine; neurofibromatosis; spinal arteriovenous malformation; atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord; osteomyelitis tuberculosa of the rib; osteomyelitis tuberculosa of the left femur; chronic osteomyelitis of the left humerus; malignant giant cell tumor of the left femur; rheumatoid arthritis of the left hip joint; arthrosis deformans of the left hip joint; and enchondroma of the left index finger: Proximal Phalanx

  6. Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Kover, Allan W.

    1978-01-01

    The steady growth of the Landsat image data base continues to make this kind of remotely sensed data second only to aerial photographs in use by geoscientists who employ image data in their research. Article reviews data uses, meetings and symposia, publications, problems, and future trends. (Author/MA)

  7. Pervasive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2000-11-01

    The coordinated exploitation of modern communication, micro- sensor and computer technologies makes it possible to give global reach to our senses. Web-cameras for vision, web- microphones for hearing and web-'noses' for smelling, plus the abilities to sense many factors we cannot ordinarily perceive, are either available or will be soon. Applications include (1) determination of weather and environmental conditions on dense grids or over large areas, (2) monitoring of energy usage in buildings, (3) sensing the condition of hardware in electrical power distribution and information systems, (4) improving process control and other manufacturing, (5) development of intelligent terrestrial, marine, aeronautical and space transportation systems, (6) managing the continuum of routine security monitoring, diverse crises and military actions, and (7) medicine, notably the monitoring of the physiology and living conditions of individuals. Some of the emerging capabilities, such as the ability to measure remotely the conditions inside of people in real time, raise interesting social concerns centered on privacy issues. Methods for sensor data fusion and designs for human-computer interfaces are both crucial for the full realization of the potential of pervasive sensing. Computer-generated virtual reality, augmented with real-time sensor data, should be an effective means for presenting information from distributed sensors.

  8. Epithelioid sarcoma of the spine: a case report and review

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Hyun Yoo

    2011-01-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare malignant soft tissue neoplasm commonly involving extremities of young adults and rarely occurring in the trunk area. It re-sembles a chronic inflammatory process and mimics benign reactive granuloma or other benign diseases. Despite its indolence and slow growth, the prognosis is poor with high recurrence and early lymph node spreading and hematogeneous distant metastasis. Involvement of the spine is extremely rare and diffi-cult to diagnose correctly in clinica...

  9. The patient’s perspective on complications after spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, Dieter; Mannion, Anne F

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a paradigm shift in relation to the assessment of outcome in spine surgery: multidimensional patient-centred questionnaires have superseded traditional surgeon-based ratings of outcome, and surgical registries have been developed to capitalise on the principle of “strength in numbers.” However, the assessment of complications has not enjoyed this same enlightened patient-centred approach. The present study investigated post-surgical complications from the patient’s...

  10. Influence of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9 on dendritic spine morphology

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of data has shown that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an extracellularly acting, Zn(2+)-dependent endopeptidase, is important not only for pathologies of the central nervous system but also for neuronal plasticity. Here, we use three independent experimental models to show that enzymatic activity of MMP-9 causes elongation and thinning of dendritic spines in the hippocampal neurons. These models are: a recently developed transgenic rat overexpressing autoactivating MMP...

  11. Allogeneic Transfusion after Predonation of Blood for Elective Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Brookfield, Kathleen F.; Brown, Mark D.; Henriques, Steven M.; Buttacavoli, Frank A.; Seitz, Alison P.

    2008-01-01

    The literature suggests preoperative autologous blood donation in total joint arthroplasty is associated with increased overall transfusion rates compared with nondonation and is not cost-effective for all patients. We asked whether the amount of intraoperative blood loss and blood replacement differs between autologous donors and nondonors in elective spine surgery and whether the rates of allogeneic blood transfusions differ between the two groups; we then determined the cost of wasted pred...

  12. Clinical investigation of lumber spine MRI in LCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the lumbar spine MRI results of 76 elderly people and assessed any nerve symptoms in their lower extremities. We found high rates of unusual forms of spinal canal cross section, brightness changes in the end-plate and degeneration of discs in LCS. However, at present it is difficult to believe that there is any connection between these high rates and nerve symptoms. (author)

  13. Huge Retroperitoneal Germinoma Presenting with Pathological Fracture of the Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ching Tzaan; Chin-Yew Lin; Shu-Hang Ng; Jen-Seng Huang

    2002-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumors are extremely rare neoplasms. The most commonpresenting features are abdominal pain and palpable abdominal masses. Pathologicalfractures of the spine presenting as bilateral lower leg weakness are exceptionally rare. Wedescribe a 16-year-old girl who developed progressive paraplegia after a minor fallinginjury. Radiological study demonstrated a huge retroperitoneal tumor with invasion of theT12 vertebral body and spinal canal. A posterior surgical appr...

  14. Scheuermann’s Disease –Apprentice’s Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Keshkar S; Equebal A; Kumar R,; Singh NJ

    2007-01-01

    An uncommon case of Scheuermann’s Disease (apprentice’s spine) is being reported for two simple reasons (1) to show that it is a self limiting disease which needs only proper observation, extension exercises & extension spinal brace, (2) it becomes a diagnostic riddle when osteolytic lesion is seen in epiphyseal plates of adjacent vertebral bodies in an adolescent. Hence it stressed the need to publish this condition not only for its rarity but also for its diagnostic puzzle to differentiate ...

  15. A Computational Investigation Of Minimal Invasive Spine Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sten; Rasmussen, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: MISS has been used for more than a decade. The reasoning is the perception that a gentle surgery is more beneficial for the patient. Especially since traditional open spine surgery (TOSS) has several reported limitations including blood loss, muscle pain and infection. Minimal invasive insertion systems are designed to minimize the approach-related morbidity of traditional lumbar pedicle fixation. A major part of reducing morbidity might be the preservation of the tendon attachment...

  16. Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema Associated with Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Yoneda, Masana; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    We report a very rare case of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) that occurred immediately after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The patient was a 25-year-old man who sustained a facet fracture-dislocation of C5 during a traffic accident. After ACDF, he developed NPPE and needed mechanical ventilation. Fortunately, he recovered fully within 24 hours. NPPE is a rare postoperative complication that may occur after cervical spine surgery. The aims of this report are to pres...

  17. Chiropractors as Primary Spine Care Providers: precedents and essential measures

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin, W Mark; Korpela, A. Pauliina; Jones, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Chiropractors have the potential to address a substantial portion of spinal disorders; however the utilization rate of chiropractic services has remained low and largely unchanged for decades. Other health care professions such as podiatry/chiropody, physiotherapy and naturopathy have successfully gained public and professional trust, increases in scope of practice and distinct niche positions within mainstream health care. Due to the overwhelming burden of spine care upon the health care sys...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of diagnostic imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma were examined. Twenty-one patients with stage II-III multiple myeloma (male=12, female=9, mean age=64) underwent MRI of the spine. Other diagnostic imaging modalities used in these patients included, CT bone scintigraphy, and radiography. All images of the spine were assessed and compared with the MRI images. The type of progression was evaluated based on the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki. T1-weighted images of all 21 patients showed low signals in vertebral bodies, including 14 cases with a focal low signal intensity and 7 cases with diffuse low signal intensity. On the T2-weighted images, 15 of the 21 cases (71%) showed equivalent signals, while T2*-weighted images obtained by the field-echo method yielded high signals in 10 out of 11 cases. It was difficult to differentiate between senile osteoporosis and multiple myeloma by MRI, but CT images clearly distinguished between them. The results suggested that fat-suppressive T1-contrast images and T2*-weighted images are useful in detecting lesions, especially focal low signal intensity lesions. Patients with the multiple-lesion-tumor type of disease were more likely to develop paralysis more than those with the diffuse myeloproliferative type. Thus, the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki was useful in considering radiotherapy for the treatment of patients at risk of paralysis. Bone scintigraphy revealed accumulation only in spinal lesions caused by compression fractures, while CT appeared to be useful in localizing the diffuse myeloproliferative type of lesions. The problems associated with diagnosis by MRI are differentiation of multiple myeloma from senile osteoporosis and metastatic bone tumors of the spine. There are few specific findings in multiple myeloma. (K.H.)

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Koura, Hiroshi; Kai, Nobuo; Asaumi, Koji; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Sezaki, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Shunichi; Sunami, Kazutaka [National Okayama Hospital (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    The characteristics of diagnostic imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma were examined. Twenty-one patients with stage II-III multiple myeloma (male=12, female=9, mean age=64) underwent MRI of the spine. Other diagnostic imaging modalities used in these patients included, CT bone scintigraphy, and radiography. All images of the spine were assessed and compared with the MRI images. The type of progression was evaluated based on the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki. T1-weighted images of all 21 patients showed low signals in vertebral bodies, including 14 cases with a focal low signal intensity and 7 cases with diffuse low signal intensity. On the T2-weighted images, 15 of the 21 cases (71%) showed equivalent signals, while T2*-weighted images obtained by the field-echo method yielded high signals in 10 out of 11 cases. It was difficult to differentiate between senile osteoporosis and multiple myeloma by MRI, but CT images clearly distinguished between them. The results suggested that fat-suppressive T1-contrast images and T2*-weighted images are useful in detecting lesions, especially focal low signal intensity lesions. Patients with the multiple-lesion-tumor type of disease were more likely to develop paralysis more than those with the diffuse myeloproliferative type. Thus, the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki was useful in considering radiotherapy for the treatment of patients at risk of paralysis. Bone scintigraphy revealed accumulation only in spinal lesions caused by compression fractures, while CT appeared to be useful in localizing the diffuse myeloproliferative type of lesions. The problems associated with diagnosis by MRI are differentiation of multiple myeloma from senile osteoporosis and metastatic bone tumors of the spine. There are few specific findings in multiple myeloma. (K.H.)

  20. Efficacy and safety of instrumentation in caries spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Saumyajit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal instrumentation may be used in tuberculosis of spine for prevention or correction of deformity. Methods: Thirty eight patients of caries spine underwent surgery with spinal instrumentation in the last 3 years. Out of these patients, 30 cases have completed a minimum follow-up of 9 months (Range 9 to 39 months, mean 12.8 months. The regional distribution was 1 in the craniocervical junction, 7 in the subaxial cervical spine, 3 in the cervicothoracic junction, 3 in the thoracic region, 4 in the thoracolumbar junction and 8 in the lumbar region and 1 in the lumbosacral junction. All the cases had anterior lesions except one, which had both anterior and posterior lesions. All of them had decompression, debridement of the lesion and instrumented fusion. Indication of surgery was caries spine with neurodeficit and /or osseous destruction and deformity, which was not responding to conservative treatment of one month. Results: Results were analyzed keeping in mind the clinical and radiological criteria. The former included recovery of pain, and neural deficit with a feeling of general well being. The latter included correction of deformity and evidence of fusion. There was no case which had wound healing/infection related problems. Complications included one case of implant failure and one case of transient neurological deterioration. Results were excellent in 20, good in 5, fair in one and poor in one patient. Majority of the patients were very satisfied with the surgery and all the patients had full anti-tubercular chemotherapy for one year. Conclusions: In properly selected patients, spinal instrumentation is justified because of its safety and efficacy in achieving deformity correction and solid fusion.

  1. Volumetric growth of the different regions of the fetal spine.

    OpenAIRE

    PANATTONI, Gian Luigi

    1990-01-01

    The Author analysed the volumetric growth of the spine ('centra' + intervertebral discs) from the 13th week to term of prenatal life. The data were obtained from the osteological collection of the Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology (University of Turin), by means of a geometric procedure. The growth rate was compared with the observations of other Authors on the growth of the linear measures and with the results of previous works on the anteroposterior curvatures of the developing spi...

  2. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Modifications Induced by Perinatal Asphyxia

    OpenAIRE

    Capani, F; R. A. Kölliker-Frers; Gonzalez, J. (J.); Barreto, G. E.; R. Castilla; Saraceno, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) affects the synaptic function and morphological organization. In previous works, we have shown neuronal and synaptic changes in rat neostriatum subjected to hypoxia leading to long-term ubi-protein accumulation. Since F-actin is highly concentrated in dendritic spines, modifications in its organization could be related with alterations induced by hypoxia in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we investigate the effects of PA on the actin cytoskeleto...

  3. Imaging evaluation of traumatic thoracolumbar spine injuries: Radiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Rathinam, Deepak; Rangarajan, Krithika; Kumar, Atin; Farooque, Kamran; Sharma, Vijay

    2015-09-28

    Spine fractures account for a large portion of musculoskeletal injuries worldwide. A classi?cation of spine fractures is necessary in order to develop a common language for treatment indications and outcomes. Several classification systems have been developed based on injury anatomy or mechanisms of action, but they have demonstrated poor reliability, have yielded little prognostic information, and have not been widely used. For this reason, the Arbeitsgemeinschaftfür Osteosynthesefragen (AO) committee has classified thorocolumbar spine injuries based on the pathomorphological criteria into3 types (A: Compression; B: Distraction; C: Axial torque and rotational deformity). Each of these types is further divided into 3 groups and 3 subgroups re?ecting progressive scale of morphological damage and the degree of instability. Because of its highly detailed sub classifications, the AO system has shown limited interobserver variability. It is similar to its predecessors in that it does not incorporate the patient's neurologic status.The need for a reliable, reproducible, clinically relevant, prognostic classification system with an optimal balance of ease of use and detail of injury description contributed to the development of a new classification system, the thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS). The TLICS de?nes injury based on three clinical characteristics: injury morphology, integrity of the posterior ligamentous complex, and neurologic status of the patient. The severity score offers prognostic information and is helpful in decision making about surgical vs nonsurgical management. PMID:26435776

  4. Posterior longitudinal ligament status in cervical spine bilateral facet dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that cervical spine bilateral facet dislocation results in complete disruption of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The goal of this study was to evaluate the integrity of numerous spine-stabilizing structures by MRI, and to determine if any associations between injury patterns exist with respect to the posterior longitudinal ligament status. Retrospective case series. A retrospective review was performed of 30 cervical spine injury subjects with bilateral facet dislocation. Assessment of 1.5T MRI images was carried out for: intervertebral disc disruption, facet fracture, and ligamentous disruption. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate for associations between various injury patterns and posterior longitudinal ligament status. The frequency of MRI abnormalities was: anterior longitudinal ligament disruption (26.7%), disc herniation or disruption (90%), posterior longitudinal ligament disruption (40%), facet fracture (63.3%) and disruption of the posterior column ligament complex (97%). There were no significant associations between injury to the posterior longitudinal ligament and other structures. Compared to surgical reports, MRI was accurate for determining the status for 24 of 26 ligaments (three of three anterior longitudinal ligament, seven of nine posterior longitudinal ligament, and 14 of 14 posterior column ligament complex) but generated false negatives in two instances (in both MRI showed an intact posterior longitudinal ligament that was torn at surgery). (orig.)

  5. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  6. Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

  7. Left handedness and spine deformities in early adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between laterality and spine deformities in early adolescence, with special reference to sex differences. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and clinical examinations of body posture were carried out on a sample of 2546 schoolchildren, aged from 11 to 14 years, in seven elementary schools in the centre of Belgrade. Possible confounding factors (age, sex, body weight and body height) were controlled for. The overall prevalence of spine deformities (scoliosis and/or thoracic hyperkyphosis) in the investigated population was 11.8%, out of which there were 7.8% adolescents with scoliosis, 4.0% with thoracic hyperkyphosis, and 0.3% with both spine deformities. The prevalence of scoliosis was 2.7 times higher in girls compared to boys (11.7% vs. 4.3%) while the prevalence of thoracic hyperkyphosis was 1,6 higher among boys (5.0% vs. 3.2%). We found 7.6% of the schoolchildren examined to be left-handed. Left handedness was significantly related to scoliosis in girls (crude OR=1.60 and 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.54). Multivariate analysis showed that significant independent factors for scoliosis were female sex (p < 0.001), age (p=0.01) and left handedness (p=0.02). We did not find any appreciable relation between left handedness and thoracic hyperkyphosis in both sexes

  8. Access related complications during anterior exposure of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A Fantini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new millennium has witnessed the emergence of minimally invasive, non-posterior based surgery of the lumbar spine, in particular via lateral based methodologies to discectomy and fusion. In contrast, and perhaps for a variety of reasons, anterior motion preservation (non-fusion technologies are playing a comparatively lesser, though incompletely defined, role at present. Lateral based motion preservation technologies await definition of their eventual role in the armamentarium of minimally invasive surgical therapies of the lumbar spine. While injury to the major vascular structures remains the most serious and feared complication of the anterior approach, this occurrence has been nearly eliminated by the use of lateral based approaches for discectomy and fusion cephalad to L5-S1. Whether anterior or lateral based, non-posterior approaches to the lumbar spine share certain access related pitfalls and complications, including damage to the urologic and neurologic structures, as well as gastrointestinal and abdominal wall issues. This review will focus on the recognition, management and prevention of these anterior and lateral access related complications.

  9. Mandibular-Lingual Repositioning Device - MLRD: preliminary results of 8 patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome - OSAS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Castro, Barbosa; Flávio, Aloe; Stella, Tavares; Ademir Baptista, Silva.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os aparelhos bucais têm sido usados principalmente para o tratamento de roncos primários e síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono (SÃOS) leve-moderada. Os autores relatam resultados clínicos preliminares em 8 pacientes com síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono diagnosticada clínica e poli [...] ssonograficamente. Foram tratados com o Aparelho Reposicionador Mandíbulo-Lingual (ARML), desenvolvido por um dos autores (RCB). MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram realizados: cefalometria pré-ARML; escala de sonolência de Epworth (ESE) pré e pós-ARML e questionário que quantifica uma melhora global subjetiva (MGS) do paciente. Controles foram obtidos 4 semanas pós-ARML. RESULTADOS: A melhora global subjetiva foi de 73,75% em média e a escala de sonolência de Epwoeth variou de 13,88 (pré-ARML) para 6,63 (pósARML) apresentando significância estatística (p=0,05). Os autores discutem os prováveis fatores envolvidos na melhora da medida subjetiva de sonolência excessiva diurna. Abstract in english Dental devices have been employed in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) of mild to moderate degrees. The authors disclose the preliminary results in 8 patients with clinically diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea polisomnographically confirmed and treated with a dental [...] device (Mandibular-Lingual Repositioning Device - MLRD) developed by one of the authors (RCB). Cephalometrics was performed before usage of MLRD, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) tests were conducted before and after the MLRD and a questionnaire that subjectively qualified the Overall Subjective Improvement of the patient (OSI) was filled out. The tests were repeated 4 weeks after the application of the MLRD. The average subjective overall improvement was 73.75% and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was 13.88 (pre - MLRD) and 6.63 (post - MLRD) representing a significant statistical variation (p=0.05). The authors discuss probable factors involved in the improvement of the subjective measurements of excessive sleepiness.

  10. Semilunar Coronally Repositioned Flap for the Treatment of Gingival Recession with and without Tissue Adhesives: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahangirnezhad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: One of the main goals in periodontal therapy is the correction of recession defects; therefore the efficacy and predictability of the various techniques are important considerations for clinicians.Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the outcomes of gingival recession therapy using the semilunar coronally repositioned flap (SCRF alone and in conjunction with a tissue adhesive (EPIGLU.Materials and Methods: Thirty-two anterior and premolar teeth with class I and II Miller gingival recessions were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The test group received SCRF followed by EPIGLU application and the control group was managed with SCRF alone. Clinical parameters measured at baseline and 7, 14, 30 and90 days after surgery included vertical and horizontal recession depths, width of keratinized tissue, probing depth, clinical attachment level, percentage of root coverage,and sensitivity of root surface to air flow.Results: The recession depths decreased significantly in both groups (P<0.05. Three months after surgery, the mean root coverage in the test and control groups was 1.86mm (77.96% and 1.57mm (69.1%, respectively. The width of keratinized tissue along with all the other tested parameters except for probing depth, increased significantly in both groups, during the study period (p<0.05. Sensitivity of root surface to air flow was not observed in either group.Conclusion: The SCRF alone or with EPIGLU is an effective procedure for root coverage in anterior and premolar teeth. The addition of EPIGLU improves the amount of root coverage, especially in relatively shallow defects.

  11. The effect of forward head posture on cervical joint position sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Sajjadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have investigated the effect of age, trauma, disease and fatigue on cervical joint position sense. However, there is an absence in data regarding the role of posture on proprioception. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of Forward Head Posture (FHP on cervical joint position sense. Twenty Forward Head Posture volunteers (14 women, 6 men, with the mean age of 23.94 (SD=3.26 years, and 17 normal head posture volunteers (8 women, 9 men with the mean age of 23.50 (SD=2.68 years were asked to perform the Cervicocephalic relocation test (CRT to the neutral head position (NHP. The aim of this test was to evaluate the participants' ability to relocate the head to neutral position after they actively rotated it to left and right sides. Three trials were performed for each rotation to the left and right. In order to assess cervical joint repositioning accuracy, Absolute, Constant and Variable errors were used. No significant difference in repositioning errors was observed between experimental and control group in absolute and constant errors (P>0.05; however, compared to normal group, Forward Head Posture subjects manifested significantly higher levels of variable errors (P<0.05. Forward Head Posture can significantly affect the positioning consistency of cervical proprioception. Nonetheless, further investigation on the effect of Forward Head Posture on cervical proprioception in altered situations is recommended.

  12. A new instrument for recording the spine contourograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Hein

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The lysosomal enzymes activities in the athletes urine were designated and presented in this work: N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, ß-glucuronidase (GSR, arylsulfatase A (ASA. The brush border enzymes activities: leucyloaminopeptidase (LAP, alanine aminopeptidase (AAP, ?-glutamyltransferaze (GGT, the trypsin inhibitor activity (UTI and the total protein and creatinine concentrations were determined as well. Values of examined parameters are presented after its conversion to mmol creatinine units. Nine athletes subjected to physical effort in the frame of the training unit with the speed endurance accent were taken under the examination. The urine was taken before, immediately after and 24 h after effort. 9-fold increase of the protein/creatinine index was observed in the postexercise urine. In the urine taken after next 24h this index decreased to over 2-fold higher value than it presented itself before effort. Almost 3-fold increase of the NAG activity and 4-fold decrease of the ASA activity were noticed in the after effort urine. The brush border enzymes values were higher for over 2-3-fold in the postexercise urine but after next 24h they went down below values observed before effort. The correlation between NAG and brush border enzymes was observes at the level of r=0.7. All changes of examined parameters point at the passing glomerular-tubular troubles of nephrons. It may also be suggested that various forms of changes in the lysosomal enzymes activity are connected with their functions in organism and not with the degree of the renal cells structure damage. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the acceptability of a new instrument for recording the contourograph of spine curvature. The instrument based on distance measurements from the points of the spine curvature to the vertical line by the infrared optical sensor. The acceptability of measurements was assessed. The agreement of the test-retest measurements recorded using the designed instrument was analysed by the limits of agreement techniques. The validation of the lumbarsacrum angle calculated on the spine contourograph was evaluated against the measurements of the inclinometer. The amount of disagreement between test-retest values of the measured points on the spine contourograph calculated using the limits of agreement technique statistics ranged from 4.9% to 6.2%. The results of this study allowed to suggest that the designed instrument was a sensitive tool in assessing a different impact on the spine curvature.

  13. The effects of cactus inspired spines on the aerodynamics of a cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Benjamin; Liu, Yingzheng

    2013-05-01

    The effect of cactus-like spines on the topology and the dynamics of the flow past a stationary or pivoted cylinder are experimentally studied. The experiments are performed either in a water channel or a wind tunnel at low to moderate Reynolds number (390-12 500). The instantaneous velocity field is recorded using TR-PIV and investigated for three different configurations: no spines, short spines (0.1D) and long spines (0.2D). The results show how the spines are able to slow the flow past the cylinder and then increase the recirculation area by up to 128% while the maximum fluctuating kinetic energy intensity is decreased by up to 35%. Moreover, the spines have a significant effect on the vortex shedding and the dynamic pressure at the surface of the cylinder, thus significantly reducing both the amplitude and the frequency at which a pivoted cylinder oscillates.

  14. Local postsynaptic voltage-gated sodium channel activation in dendritic spines of olfactory bulb granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywalez, Wolfgang G; Patirniche, Dinu; Rupprecht, Vanessa; Stemmler, Martin; Herz, Andreas V M; Pálfi, Dénes; Rózsa, Balázs; Egger, Veronica

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal dendritic spines have been speculated to function as independent computational units, yet evidence for active electrical computation in spines is scarce. Here we show that strictly local voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) activation can occur during excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the spines of olfactory bulb granule cells, which we mimic and detect via combined two-photon uncaging of glutamate and calcium imaging in conjunction with whole-cell recordings. We find that local Nav activation boosts calcium entry into spines through high-voltage-activated calcium channels and accelerates postsynaptic somatic depolarization, without affecting NMDA receptor-mediated signaling. Hence, Nav-mediated boosting promotes rapid output from the reciprocal granule cell spine onto the lateral mitral cell dendrite and thus can speed up recurrent inhibition. This striking example of electrical compartmentalization both adds to the understanding of olfactory network processing and broadens the general view of spine function. PMID:25619656

  15. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,; Jozef Keckes

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpec...

  16. Interobserver agreement for the spine instability neoplastic score varies according to the experience of the evaluator

    OpenAIRE

    William Gemio Jacobsen Teixeira; Pedro Ricardo de Mesquita Coutinho; Luiz Delboni Marchese; Douglas Kenji Narazaki; Alexandre Fogaça Cristante; Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira; Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros Filho; Olavo Pires de Camargo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interobserver agreement for the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS) among spine surgeons with or without experience in vertebral metastasis treatment and physicians in other specialties. METHODS: Case descriptions were produced based on the medical records of 40 patients with vertebral metastases. The descriptions were then published online. Physicians were invited to evaluate the descriptions by answering questions according to the Neoplastic Spine Instabili...

  17. Transient increases in dendritic spine density contribute to dentate gyrus long-term potentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wosiski-Kuhn, Marlena; Stranahan, Alexis M

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic spines are the primary sites for excitatory neurotransmission in the adult brain and exhibit changes in their number and morphology with experience. The relationship between spine formation and synaptic activity has been best characterized along the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. However, less is known about the structural mechanisms at the spine that mediate plasticity in other hippocampal subfields. The dentate gyrus is the predominant point...

  18. Nonmetastatic Ewing's Sarcoma of the Lumbar Spine in an Adult Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Iacoangeli; Mauro Dobran; Alessandro Di Rienzo; Lucia Giovanna Maria di Somma; Lorenzo Alvaro; Elisa Moriconi; Niccolò Nocchi; Maurizio Gladi; Massimo Scerrati

    2012-01-01

    Although the spine is frequently involved in metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, primary involvement of the spine, beside sacrum, is much less frequent, especially in adult patients. Because of the low incidence of these tumors, there are currently no clinical guidelines outlining their management and a multitude of therapeutic strategies have been employed with varying success. The definitive management of Ewing's sarcoma of the spine, as in other locations, could include the combination of three ma...

  19. Musculoskeletal simulations to investigate the influence of vertebral geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putzer, Michael; Rasmussen, John; Penzkofer, Rainer; Ehrlich, Ingo; Gebbeken, Norbert; Dendorfer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal simulations of subject-specific loads in the lumbar spine are computed by using subject-specific geometrical data. However this data has an inherent inaccuracy. This study evaluates the influence of defined geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading utilizing the AnyBody Modeling System and a parameterized musculoskeletal lumbar spine model for four different postures: upright standing, flexion (50°), torsion (10°) and lateral bending (15°). The linear dimensions of the verte...

  20. Method to geometrically personalize a detailed finite element model of the spine

    OpenAIRE

    LALONDE, Nadine; Petit, Yvan; AUBIN, Carl-Eric; WAGNAC, Eric; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean

    2013-01-01

    To date, developing geometrically personalized and detailed solid finite element models of the spine remains a challenge, notably due to multiple articulations and complex geometries. To answer this problem, a methodology based on a free form deformation technique (kriging) was developed to deform a detailed reference finite element mesh of the spine (including discs and ligaments) to the patient-specific geometry of 10 and 82-year old asymptomatic spines. Different kriging configurations wer...

  1. Analysis of activity-dependent morphological plasticity of dendritic spines on hippocampal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Rösch, Jan Harald

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic spines are the main sites of synaptic input onto excitatory neurons. As recent experiments showed that synaptic activity and especially long-term potentiation (LTP) can modify spine morphology and number, I studied the effect of long-term depression (LTD) on these parameters. I used a local stimulation approach in combination with intracellular recordings and 2-photon-laser-microscopy to spatially restrict the area of induced synaptic activity. My experiments indicate that spine mor...

  2. Paralemmin-1, a Modulator of Filopodia Induction Is Required for Spine Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Arstikaitis, Pamela; Gauthier-Campbell, Catherine; Carolina Gutierrez Herrera, Rosario; Huang, Kun; Levinson, Joshua N; Murphy, Timothy H.; Kilimann, Manfred W.; Sala, Carlo; Michael A. Colicos; El-Husseini, Alaa

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic filopodia are thought to participate in neuronal contact formation and development of dendritic spines; however, molecules that regulate filopodia extension and their maturation to spines remain largely unknown. Here we identify paralemmin-1 as a regulator of filopodia induction and spine maturation. Paralemmin-1 localizes to dendritic membranes, and its ability to induce filopodia and recruit synaptic elements to contact sites requires protein acylation. Effects of paralemmin-1 on ...

  3. The influence of muscle forces on the stress distribution in the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, C; Rasmussen, J; Simonsen, Erik B.; Hansen, Lone; de Zee, M; Dendorfer, S

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies of bone stresses in the human lumbar spine have relied on simplified models when modeling the spinal musculature, even though muscle forces are likely major contributors to the stresses in the vertebral bones. Detailed musculoskeletal spine models have recently become available and show good correlation with experimental findings. A combined inverse dynamics and finite element analysis study was conducted in the lumbar spine to investigate the effects of muscle for...

  4. Activation of CaMKII in single dendritic spines during long-term potentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seok-Jin R.; Escobedo-Lozoya, Yasmin; Szatmari, Erzsebet M.; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2009-01-01

    Ca2+ / Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) plays a central role in long-term potentiation (LTP), which underlies some forms of learning and memory. Here we monitored the spatiotemporal dynamics of CaMKII activation in individual dendritic spines during LTP using 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in combination with 2-photon glutamate uncaging. Induction of LTP and associated spine enlargement in single spines triggered transient (? 1 min) CaMKII activation restricted to th...

  5. Injury Mechanisms in the Pediatric Cervical Spine During Out-of-Position Airbag Deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, Roger W.; Winkelstein, Beth A.; Van Ee, Chris A.; Myers, Barry S.

    1998-01-01

    The pediatric cervical spine differs considerably from the adult in both its geometry and its constitutive properties. Therefore, it is susceptible to a different set of injuries, some of which are particularly severe. Recent data from the NHTSA on cervical spine injuries in low speed out-of-position airbag deployments shows that the spectrum of injuries in children is different from that of the adult. Almost all of the children (98%) sustained head or cervical spine injuries, as compared to ...

  6. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  7. Attenuation of dendritic spine density in the perirhinal cortex following 17?-Estradiol replacement in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Nicole J; Mumby, Dave G; Brake, Wayne G

    2015-11-01

    Intraperirhinal cortex infusion of 17-? estradiol (E2) impairs object-recognition memory. However, it is not currently known whether this hormone modulates synaptic plasticity in this structure. Most excitatory synapses in the central nervous system are located on dendritic spines, and elevated E2 levels influence the density of these spines in several brain areas. The goal of the present study was to determine whether differences in dendritic spine density in the perirhinal cortex are observed following high E2 replacement in ovariectomized rats. The density of total spines, and mushroom-shaped (i.e. mature) spines were compared between a high E2 replacement (10 µg/kg/day, s.c.) and a no replacement condition. The perirhinal cortex is subdivided into Broadmann's area 35 and 36 and so group comparisons were made within each sub-region separately. High E2 replacement resulted in lower density of mushroom-shaped spines in area 35 relative to no replacement. There was no effect of high E2 replacement on dendritic spine density in area 36. These findings are consistent with the idea that higher E2 levels reduce dendritic spine density in area 35, which may result from spine shrinkage, or reduced synapse formation. This study provides preliminary evidence for a mechanism through which E2 may impair object-recognition memory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26104963

  8. Interobserver agreement for the spine instability neoplastic score varies according to the experience of the evaluator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gemio Jacobsen Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interobserver agreement for the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS among spine surgeons with or without experience in vertebral metastasis treatment and physicians in other specialties. METHODS: Case descriptions were produced based on the medical records of 40 patients with vertebral metastases. The descriptions were then published online. Physicians were invited to evaluate the descriptions by answering questions according to the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS. The agreement among physicians was calculated using the kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Seventeen physicians agreed to participate: three highly experienced spine surgeons, seven less-experienced spine surgeons, three surgeons of other specialties, and four general practitioners (n = 17. The agreement for the final SINS score among all participants was fair, and it varied according to the SINS component. The agreement was substantial for the spine location only. The agreement was higher among experienced surgeons. The agreement was nearly perfect for spinal location among the spine surgeons who were highly experienced in vertebral metastases. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the experience of the evaluator has an impact on SINS scale classification. The interobserver agreement was only fair among physicians who were not spine surgeons and among spine surgeons who were not experienced in the treatment of vertebral metastases, which may limit the use of the SINS scale for the screening of unstable lesions by less-experienced evaluators.

  9. Interobserver agreement for the spine instability neoplastic score varies according to the experience of the evaluator

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    William Gemio Jacobsen, Teixeira; Pedro Ricardo de Mesquita, Coutinho; Luiz Delboni, Marchese; Douglas Kenji, Narazaki; Alexandre Fogaça, Cristante; Manoel Jacobsen, Teixeira; Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de, Barros Filho; Olavo Pires de, Camargo.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interobserver agreement for the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS) among spine surgeons with or without experience in vertebral metastasis treatment and physicians in other specialties. METHODS: Case descriptions were produced based on the medical records of 40 pat [...] ients with vertebral metastases. The descriptions were then published online. Physicians were invited to evaluate the descriptions by answering questions according to the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS). The agreement among physicians was calculated using the kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Seventeen physicians agreed to participate: three highly experienced spine surgeons, seven less-experienced spine surgeons, three surgeons of other specialties, and four general practitioners (n = 17). The agreement for the final SINS score among all participants was fair, and it varied according to the SINS component. The agreement was substantial for the spine location only. The agreement was higher among experienced surgeons. The agreement was nearly perfect for spinal location among the spine surgeons who were highly experienced in vertebral metastases. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the experience of the evaluator has an impact on SINS scale classification. The interobserver agreement was only fair among physicians who were not spine surgeons and among spine surgeons who were not experienced in the treatment of vertebral metastases, which may limit the use of the SINS scale for the screening of unstable lesions by less-experienced evaluators.

  10. Pectoral spine size in Synodontis schall (Teleostei: Mochokidae from Asa Lake, Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A Araoye

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The pectoral spines of Synodontis schall (n = 813 were examined for 24 months. Mean length for the right (3.2 cm and left (3.1 cm pectoral spines were not significantly different [P 0.05];. However, the male and female pectoral spine lengths were significantly different (P < 0.05. A fractured pectoral spine in one of the specimens was shorter than the other. The fracture which could be deleterious to balancing, feeding and reproductive activities was attributed to an injury rather than to genetic or epigenetic defects.

  11. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpectedly high both in absolute and in specific terms. The unique cellulose-arabinan composite structure of cactus spines, together with high cellulose crystallinity, may explain this finding.

  12. Extracellular matrix control of dendritic spine and synapse structure and plasticity in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Levy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are the receptive contacts at most excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. Spines are dynamic in the developing brain, changing shape as they mature as well as appearing and disappearing as they make and break connections. Spines become much more stable in adulthood, and spine structure must be actively maintained to support established circuit function. At the same time, adult spines must retain some plasticity so their structure can be modified by activity and experience. As such, the regulation of spine stability and remodeling in the adult animal is critical for normal function, and disruption of these processes is associated with a variety of late onset diseases including schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. The extracellular matrix (ECM, composed of a meshwork of proteins and proteoglycans, is a critical regulator of spine and synapse stability and plasticity. While the role of ECM receptors in spine regulation has been extensively studied, considerably less research has focused directly on the role of specific ECM ligands. Here, we review the evidence for a role of several brain ECM ligands and remodeling proteases in the regulation of dendritic spine and synapse formation, plasticity, and stability in adults.

  13. Repositioning accuracy of two different mask systems-3D revisited: Comparison using true 3D/3D matching with cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The repositioning accuracy of mask-based fixation systems has been assessed with two-dimensional/two-dimensional or two-dimensional/three-dimensional (3D) matching. We analyzed the accuracy of commercially available head mask systems, using true 3D/3D matching, with X-ray volume imaging and cone-beam CT. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiotherapy (intracranial/head-and-neck tumors) were evaluated (14 patients with rigid and 7 with thermoplastic masks). X-ray volume imaging was analyzed online and offline separately for the skull and neck regions. Translation/rotation errors of the target isocenter were analyzed. Four patients were treated to neck sites. For these patients, repositioning was aided by additional body tattoos. A separate analysis of the setup error on the basis of the registration of the cervical vertebra was performed. The residual error after correction and intrafractional motility were calculated. Results: The mean length of the displacement vector for rigid masks was 0.312 ± 0.152 cm (intracranial) and 0.586 ± 0.294 cm (neck). For the thermoplastic masks, the value was 0.472 ± 0.174 cm (intracranial) and 0.726 ± 0.445 cm (neck). Rigid masks with body tattoos had a displacement vector length in the neck region of 0.35 ± 0.197 cm. The intracranial residual error and intrafractional motility after X-ray volume imaging correction for rigid masks was 0.188 ± 0.074 cm, and was 0.134 ± 0.14 cm for thermoplastic masks. Conclusions: The results of our study have demonstrated that rigid masks have a high intracranial repositioning accuracy per se. Given the small residual error and intrafractional movement, thermoplastic masks may also be used for high-precision treatments when combined with cone-beam CT. The neck region repositioning accuracy was worse than the intracranial accuracy in both cases. However, body tattoos and image guidance improved the accuracy. Finally, the combination of both mask systems with 3D image guidance has the potential to replace therapy simulation and intracranial stereotaxy

  14. X-ray imaging dose due to the digital imaging devices used in radiation therapy for patient positioning and repositioning: How to take it into account?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patient positioning and repositioning control in radiation therapy all along the treatment can be conducted using a variety of X-ray sources and imaging detector devices. The development of image guided radiation therapy techniques leads to more frequent use of this imaging control. In this article we summarize the current methods for measuring the dose delivered by X-ray imaging devices used in radiation therapy, as well as basic proposals to take account of these imaging doses for prescribing, recording and reporting radiation therapy treatment. (authors)

  15. HORIZON SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

  16. Reliability assessment of a novel cervical spine deformity classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Christopher P; Smith, Justin S; Eastlack, Robert; Blaskiewicz, Donald J; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Bess, Shay; Kim, Han Jo; Mundis, Gregory M; Klineberg, Eric; Gupta, Munish; O'Brien, Michael; Hostin, Richard; Scheer, Justin K; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Fu, Kai-Ming G; Hart, Robert; Albert, Todd J; Riew, K Daniel; Fehlings, Michael G; Deviren, Vedat; Lafage, Virginie

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Despite the complexity of cervical spine deformity (CSD) and its significant impact on patient quality of life, there exists no comprehensive classification system. The objective of this study was to develop a novel classification system based on a modified Delphi approach and to characterize the intra- and interobserver reliability of this classification. METHODS Based on an extensive literature review and a modified Delphi approach with an expert panel, a CSD classification system was generated. The classification system included a deformity descriptor and 5 modifiers that incorporated sagittal, regional, and global spinopelvic alignment and neurological status. The descriptors included: "C," "CT," and "T" for primary cervical kyphotic deformities with an apex in the cervical spine, cervicothoracic junction, or thoracic spine, respectively; "S" for primary coronal deformity with a coronal Cobb angle ? 15°; and "CVJ" for primary craniovertebral junction deformity. The modifiers included C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), horizontal gaze (chin-brow to vertical angle [CBVA]), T1 slope (TS) minus C2-7 lordosis (TS-CL), myelopathy (modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association [mJOA] scale score), and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-Schwab classification for thoracolumbar deformity. Application of the classification system requires the following: 1) full-length standing posteroanterior (PA) and lateral spine radiographs that include the cervical spine and femoral heads; 2) standing PA and lateral cervical spine radiographs; 3) completed and scored mJOA questionnaire; and 4) a clinical photograph or radiograph that includes the skull for measurement of the CBVA. A series of 10 CSD cases, broadly representative of the classification system, were selected and sufficient radiographic and clinical history to enable classification were assembled. A panel of spinal deformity surgeons was queried to classify each case twice, with a minimum of 1 intervening week. Inter- and intrarater reliability measures were based on calculations of Fleiss k coefficient values. RESULTS Twenty spinal deformity surgeons participated in this study. Interrater reliability (Fleiss k coefficients) for the deformity descriptor rounds 1 and 2 were 0.489 and 0.280, respectively, and mean intrarater reliability was 0.584. For the modifiers, including the SRS-Schwab components, the interrater (round 1/round 2) and intrarater reliabilities (Fleiss k coefficients) were: C2-7 SVA (0.338/0.412, 0.584), horizontal gaze (0.779/0.430, 0.768), TS-CL (0.721/0.567, 0.720), myelopathy (0.602/0.477, 0.746), SRS-Schwab curve type (0.590/0.433, 0.564), pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (0.554/0.386, 0.826), pelvic tilt (0.714/0.627, 0.633), and C7-S1 SVA (0.071/0.064, 0.233), respectively. The parameter with the poorest reliability was the C7-S1 SVA, which may have resulted from differences in interpretation of positive and negative measurements. CONCLUSIONS The proposed classification provides a mechanism to assess CSD within the framework of global spinopelvic malalignment and clinically relevant parameters. The intra- and interobserver reliabilities suggest moderate agreement and serve as the basis for subsequent improvement and study of the proposed classification. PMID:26273762

  17. Repetitive motor learning induces coordinated formation of clustered dendritic spines in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Min; Yu, Xinzhu; Lu, Ju; Zuo, Yi

    2012-03-01

    Many lines of evidence suggest that memory in the mammalian brain is stored with distinct spatiotemporal patterns. Despite recent progresses in identifying neuronal populations involved in memory coding, the synapse-level mechanism is still poorly understood. Computational models and electrophysiological data have shown that functional clustering of synapses along dendritic branches leads to nonlinear summation of synaptic inputs and greatly expands the computing power of a neural network. However, whether neighbouring synapses are involved in encoding similar memory and how task-specific cortical networks develop during learning remain elusive. Using transcranial two-photon microscopy, we followed apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the motor cortex while mice practised novel forelimb skills. Here we show that a third of new dendritic spines (postsynaptic structures of most excitatory synapses) formed during the acquisition phase of learning emerge in clusters, and that most such clusters are neighbouring spine pairs. These clustered new spines are more likely to persist throughout prolonged learning sessions, and even long after training stops, than non-clustered counterparts. Moreover, formation of new spine clusters requires repetition of the same motor task, and the emergence of succedent new spine(s) accompanies the strengthening of the first new spine in the cluster. We also show that under control conditions new spines appear to avoid existing stable spines, rather than being uniformly added along dendrites. However, succedent new spines in clusters overcome such a spatial constraint and form in close vicinity to neighbouring stable spines. Our findings suggest that clustering of new synapses along dendrites is induced by repetitive activation of the cortical circuitry during learning, providing a structural basis for spatial coding of motor memory in the mammalian brain. PMID:22343892

  18. The role of dendritic spine morphology in the compartmentalization and delivery of surface receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory M; Hepburn, Iain; Chen, Weiliang; De Schutter, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Since AMPA receptors are major molecular players in both short- and long-term plasticity, it is important to identify the time-scales of and factors affecting the lateral diffusion of AMPARs on the dendrite surface. Using a mathematical model, we study how the dendritic spine morphology affects two processes: (1) compartmentalization of the surface receptors in a single spine to retain local chemistry and (2) the delivery of receptors to the post-synaptic density (PSD) of spines via lateral diffusion following insertion onto the dendrite shaft. Computing the mean first passage time (MFPT) of surface receptors on a sample of real spine morphologies revealed that a constricted neck and bulbous head serve to compartmentalize receptors, consistent with previous works. The residence time of a Brownian diffusing receptor on the membrane of a single spine was computed to be ? 5 s. We found that the location of the PSD corresponds to the location at which the maximum MFPT occurs, the position that maximizes the residence time of a diffusing receptor. Meanwhile, the same geometric features of the spine that compartmentalize receptors inhibit the recruitment of AMPARs via lateral diffusion from dendrite insertion sites. Spines with narrow necks will trap a smaller fraction of diffusing receptors in the their PSD when considering competition for receptors between the spines, suggesting that ideal geometrical features involve a tradeoff depending on the intent of compartmentalizing the current receptor pool or recruiting new AMPARs in the PSD. The ultimate distribution of receptors among the spine PSDs by lateral diffusion from the dendrite shaft is an interplay between the insertion location and the shape and locations of both the spines and their PSDs. The time-scale for delivery of receptors to the PSD of spines via lateral diffusion was computed to be ? 60 s. PMID:24113809

  19. The human medial amygdala: structure, diversity, and complexity of dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Aline; Dutra, Ana Carolina L; Moreira, Jorge E; Rasia-Filho, Alberto A

    2015-10-01

    The medial nucleus of the amygdala (Me) is a component of the neural circuit for the interpretation of multimodal sensory stimuli and the elaboration of emotions and social behaviors in primates. We studied the presence, distribution, diverse shape, and connectivity of dendritic spines in the human Me of adult postmortem men. Data were obtained from the five types of multipolar neurons found in the Me using an adapted Golgi method and light microscopy, the carbocyanine DiI fluorescent dye and confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstruction of spines showed a continuum of shapes and sizes, with the spines either lying isolated or forming clusters. These dendritic spines were classified as stubby/wide, thin, mushroom-like, ramified or with an atypical morphology including intermediate shapes, double spines, and thorny excrescences. Pleomorphic spines were found from proximal to distal dendritic branches suggesting potential differences for synaptic processing, strength, and plasticity in the Me neurons. Furthermore, the human Me has large and thin spines with a gemmule appearance, spinules, and filopodium. The ultrastructural data showed dendritic spines forming monosynaptic or multisynaptic contacts at the spine head and neck, and with asymmetric or symmetric characteristics. Additional findings included en passant, reciprocal, and serial synapses in the Me. Complex long-necked thin spines were observed in this subcortical area. These new data reveal the diversity of the dendritic spines in the human Me likely involved with the integration and processing of local synaptic inputs and with functional implications in physiological and various neuropathological conditions. PMID:26218827

  20. Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafrullah Arifin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management. Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, sixty seven percent involve cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA impairment score is used as an initial assessment but not enough attention prognostic outcome of these patients was paid to. The objective of this study is to analyze the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and its correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical abnormalities, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury treated inNeurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung that fullfiled the inclusion criteria. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute /chronic, cervical abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion and ASIA impairment score. The FIM examination was performed in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test was done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients is 4+ 1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma and cervical abnormalities. Significant correlations were found between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score in cervical spine patients. Type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 6 months after cervical injury.

  1. In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging of Dendritic Spines in Marmoset Neocortex1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakane, Osamu; Watakabe, Akiya; Ohtsuka, Masanari; Takaji, Masafumi; Sasaki, Tetsuya; Kasai, Masatoshi; Isa, Tadashi; Kato, Go; Nabekura, Junichi; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Keiya; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two-photon microscopy in combination with a technique involving the artificial expression of fluorescent protein has enabled the direct observation of dendritic spines in living brains. However, the application of this method to primate brains has been hindered by the lack of appropriate labeling techniques for visualizing dendritic spines. Here, we developed an adeno-associated virus vector-based fluorescent protein expression system for visualizing dendritic spines in vivo in the marmoset neocortex. For the clear visualization of each spine, the expression of reporter fluorescent protein should be both sparse and strong. To fulfill these requirements, we amplified fluorescent signals using the tetracycline transactivator (tTA)–tetracycline-responsive element system and by titrating down the amount of Thy1S promoter-driven tTA for sparse expression. By this method, we were able to visualize dendritic spines in the marmoset cortex by two-photon microscopy in vivo and analyze the turnover of spines in the prefrontal cortex. Our results demonstrated that short spines in the marmoset cortex tend to change more frequently than long spines. The comparison of in vivo samples with fixed samples showed that we did not detect all existing spines by our method. Although we found glial cell proliferation, the damage of tissues caused by window construction was relatively small, judging from the comparison of spine length between samples with or without window construction. Our new labeling technique for two-photon imaging to visualize in vivo dendritic spines of the marmoset neocortex can be applicable to examining circuit reorganization and synaptic plasticity in primates. PMID:26465000

  2. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  3. Spine growth and seismogenic faulting at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian J.; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lamb, Oliver D.; Hirose, Takehiro; De Angelis, Silvio; Aulock, Felix W.; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.; Lavallée, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The concluding episode of activity during the recent eruption of Mt. Unzen (October 1994 to February 1995) was characterized by incremental spine extrusion, accompanied by seismicity. Analysis of the seismic record reveals the occurrence of two dominant long-period event families associated with a repeating, nondestructive source mechanism, which we attribute to magma failure and fault-controlled ascent. We obtain constraints on the slip rate and distance of faulting events within these families. That analysis is complemented by an experimental thermomechanical investigation of fault friction in Mt. Unzen dacitic dome rock using a rotary-shear apparatus at variable slip rates and normal stresses. A power density threshold is found at 0.3 MW m-2, above which frictional melt forms and controls the shear resistance to slip, inducing a deviation from Byerlee's frictional law. Homogenized experimentally generated pseudotachylytes have a similar final chemistry, thickness, and crystal content, facilitating the construction of a rheological model for particle suspensions. This is compared to the viscosity constrained from the experimental data, to assess the viscous control on fault dynamics. The onset of frictional melt formation during spine growth is constrained to depths below 300 m for an average slip event. This combination of experimental data, viscosity modeling, and seismic analysis offers a new description of material response during conduit plug flow and spine growth, showing that volcanic pseudotachylyte may commonly form and modify fault friction during faulting of dome rock. This model furthers our understanding of faulting and seismicity during lava dome formation and is applicable to other eruption modes.

  4. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gefen, Ron [Cooper University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Candem, NJ (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Shabshin, Nogah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  5. Radiologic abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiologic study of the thoraco-lumbar spine was performed in 143 (117 male and 26 female) athletes (wrestlers, gymnasts, soccer players and tennis players), aged 14 to 25 years and 30 male nonathletes, aged 19 to 25 years. Film interpretation was made after mixing the films from all groups and without knowledge of the individual's identity. Various types of radiologic abnormalities occured in both athletes and non-athletes but were more common among athletes, especially male-gymnasts and wrestlers. Abnormalities of the vertebral ring apophysis occurred exclusively in athletes. Combinations of different types of abnormalities were most common in male gymnasts and wrestlers. (orig.)

  6. Primary intradural mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the spine in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Hua [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Radiology, Xin Hua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Yao, Xiao-Hong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Pathology, Xin Hua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2007-11-15

    We report a primary intradural mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the spine in a 3-year-old girl. MRI revealed a markedly enhancing oval mass associated with focal areas of low signal intensity extending from T11 to L1. The lesion was located posterolateral to the right side of the spinal cord, pushing the conus medullaris and cauda equina anteriorly and to the left. The adjacent spinal cord also showed serpiginous areas of flow void. The mass was completely removed. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. The patient was free of symptoms after surgery. (orig.)

  7. Computed tomography (CT) of traumatic injuries of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32 patients with traumatic injuries of the cervical spine were investigated by CT. All patients were initially examined by plain films. CT was definitely superior to conventional radiology in compressive fractures of vertebral bodies. In flexion-extension injuries CT was useful showing fractures of the posterior elements in great detail. Conventional tomography was superior to CT in patients with complex dislocations of vertebral bodies. In the absence of fracture CT failed to detect disruptions of ligaments, which were readily shown by functional examination. (orig.)

  8. Radiologic abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Swaerd, L.; Peterson, L. (Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopedics King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-03-01

    A radiologic study of the thoraco-lumbar spine was performed in 143 (117 male and 26 female) athletes (wrestlers, gymnasts, soccer players and tennis players), aged 14 to 25 years and 30 male nonathletes, aged 19 to 25 years. Film interpretation was made after mixing the films from all groups and without knowledge of the individual's identity. Various types of radiologic abnormalities occured in both athletes and non-athletes but were more common among athletes, especially male-gymnasts and wrestlers. Abnormalities of the vertebral ring apophysis occurred exclusively in athletes. Combinations of different types of abnormalities were most common in male gymnasts and wrestlers. (orig.).

  9. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  10. A Mathematical Model of the Cervical Spine Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Tascau, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Menyhardt, Karoly; Rosu, Serban; Rusu, Lucian; Vigaru, Cosmina

    2011-09-01

    The general purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable laboratory tool to evaluate the cervical spine mobility in normal conditions. The paper proposes an approximation function to model the variation in time of movement angles and angular velocities. The measurements have been performed using a Zebris ultrasound-based measuring system in Motion Laboratory of the "Politehnica" University of Timisoara. The approximation functions were compared with the recorded data series and graphically plotted as both time and phase diagram representation.

  11. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc [Hopital Cochin, Service de Radiologie B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Liote, Frederic [Hopital Lariboisiere, Federation de Rhumatologie, Paris (France); Carlier, Robert [Hopital Raymond Poincare, Radiologie, Garches (France)

    2006-02-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  12. A generic detailed rigid-body lumbar spine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Zee, Mark; Hansen, Lone; Wong, Christian; Rasmussen, John; Simonsen, Erik B

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present a musculo-skeletal model of the lumbar spine, which can be shared and lends itself to investigation in many locations by different researchers. This has the potential for greater reproducibility and subsequent improvement of its quality from the combined effort of different research groups. The model is defined in a text-based, declarative, object-oriented language in the AnyBody Modelling System software. Text-based models will facilitate sharing of the ...

  13. Repositioning Information Science.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibekwe-SanJuan, Fidelia; Buckland, Michael; Latham, Kiersten

    2010-01-01

    During the twentieth century there was a strong desire for information studies to become scientific, to move from librarianship, bibliography, and documentation to an information science. In 1968 the American Documentation Institute was renamed American Society for Information Science. By the twenty-first century, however, departments of (library and) information science had turned instead towards the social sciences, but have not been successful in providing a coherent explanation of the nat...

  14. Reposição cirúrgico-ortopédica de implante mal posicionado: relato de caso / Surgical-orthopedic repositioning of malpositioned implant: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Carlos Ferreira da, Silva; Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito, Vasconcelos; Ricardo José de Holanda, Vasconcellos; Edvaldo Dorea dos, Anjos.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A reabilitação bucal por meio da colocação de implantes dentários tem se tornado um procedimento freqüente da clínica odontológica. Falhas no planejamento ou na execução da técnica podem levar a casos onde, apesar de osseointegrado, o implante não apresenta condições de restauração satisfatória devi [...] do ao seu mal posicionamento. Diversos autores têm relatado a possibilidade de se utilizar osteotomias segmentares de maxila ou mandíbula para reposicionar um segmento alveolar com implante, mostrando que esta pode ser uma técnica efetiva e previsível para restaurar implantes em posição anatômica comprometida. O presente trabalho apresenta o caso clínico de uma paciente de 20 anos de idade onde foi realizada osteotomia segmentar de maxila associada à distração osteogênica para correção de um implante mal posicionado. Abstract in english Oral rehabilitation through dental implants has become a common procedure at dental practice. However, if the implant is placed in an inappropriate position either because of inadequate presurgical planning or poor surgical technique, it may be unrestorable in spite of osseointegrated. Many authors [...] have reported the possibility of using segmental maxillary or mandibular osteotomies to reposition an alveolar segment with its implants. This can be an effective, predictable technique for restoring implants in a compromised anatomic position. This paper presents a case report describing the use of this procedure associated to distraction osteogeneis to reposition one malpositioned implant in a 20 years old girl.

  15. Clinical practice of image-guided spine radiosurgery - results from an international research consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guckenberger Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal radiosurgery is a quickly evolving technique in the radiotherapy and neurosurgical communities. However, the methods of spine radiosurgery have not been standardized. This article describes the results of a survey about the methods of spine radiosurgery at five international institutions. Methods All institutions are members of the Elekta Spine Radiosurgery Research Consortium and have a dedicated research and clinical focus on image-guided radiosurgery. The questionnaire consisted of 75 items covering all major steps of spine radiosurgery. Results Strong agreement in the methods of spine radiosurgery was observed. In particular, similarities were observed with safety and quality assurance playing an important role in the methods of all institutions, cooperation between neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists in case selection, dedicated imaging for target- and organ-at-risk delineation, application of proper safety margins for the target volume and organs-at-risk, conformal planning and precise image-guided treatment delivery, and close clinical and radiological follow-up. In contrast, three major areas of uncertainty and disagreement were identified: 1 Indications and contra-indications for spine radiosurgery; 2 treatment dose and fractionation and 3 tolerance dose of the spinal cord. Conclusions Results of this study reflect the current practice of spine radiosurgery in large academic centers. Despite close agreement was observed in many steps of spine radiosurgery, further research in form of retrospective and especially prospective studies is required to refine the details of spinal radiosurgery in terms of safety and efficacy.

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIMARY TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS AND CERVICAL SPINE DYSFUNCTION: A Summary and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Reggars, John W

    1994-01-01

    The co-existence of primary temporomandibular disorders and cervical spine dysfunction is well documented. This paper reviews the anatomy and function of the temporomandibular joint and its primary disorders with particular reference to their possible effects an the cervical spine.

  17. Brown tumor of the spine with compression fracture: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown tumor of bone is a severe form of skeletal complication in patients with hyperparathyroidism. The main sites of involvement are the mandible, sternum ribs, pelvis and femur. Involvement of the spine is less common. We report here a case of brown tumor of the spine that developed in a patient with right parathyroid adenoma

  18. Passively morphing ornithopter wings constructed using a novel compliant spine: design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornithopters or flapping wing uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAVs) have potential applications in civil and military sectors. Amongst the UAVs, ornithopters have a unique ability to fly in low Reynolds number flight regimes and also have the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft. In nature, birds achieve such performance by exploiting various wing kinematics known as gaits. The objective of this work is to improve the steady level flight performance of an ornithopter by implementing a continuous vortex gait using a novel passive compliant spine inserted in the ornithopter’s wings. This paper presents an optimal compliant spine concept for ornithopter applications. A quasi-static design optimization procedure was formulated to design the compliant spine. Finite element analysis was performed on a first generation spine and the spine was fabricated. This prototype was then tested by inserting it into an ornithopter’s wing leading edge spar. The effect of inserting the compliant spine into the wings on the electric power required, the aerodynamic loads and the wing kinematics was studied. The ornithopter with the compliant spines inserted in its wings consumed 45% less power and produced an additional 16% of its weight in mean lift compared to the same ornithopter without the compliant spine. The results indicate that this passive morphing approach is promising for improved steady level flight performance. (paper)

  19. Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

  20. BDNF over-expression increases olfactory bulb granule cell dendritic spine density in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole, B; Isgor, C; Pare, C; Guthrie, K

    2015-09-24

    Olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are axon-less, inhibitory interneurons that regulate the activity of the excitatory output neurons, the mitral and tufted cells, through reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses located on GC spines. These contacts are established in the distal apical dendritic compartment, while GC basal dendrites and more proximal apical segments bear spines that receive glutamatergic inputs from the olfactory cortices. This synaptic connectivity is vital to olfactory circuit function and is remodeled during development, and in response to changes in sensory activity and lifelong GC neurogenesis. Manipulations that alter levels of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in vivo have significant effects on dendritic spine morphology, maintenance and activity-dependent plasticity for a variety of CNS neurons, yet little is known regarding BDNF effects on bulb GC spine maturation or maintenance. Here we show that, in vivo, sustained bulbar over-expression of BDNF in transgenic mice produces a marked increase in GC spine density that includes an increase in mature spines on their apical dendrites. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that changes in spine density were most notable in the distal and proximal apical domains, indicating that multiple excitatory inputs are potentially modified by BDNF. Our results indicate that increased levels of endogenous BDNF can promote the maturation and/or maintenance of dendritic spines on GCs, suggesting a role for this factor in modulating GC functional connectivity within adult olfactory circuitry. PMID:26211445

  1. Congenital Absence of a Cervical Spine Pedicle : Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Young-Min; Eun, Jong-pil

    2008-01-01

    Congenital absence of a cervical spine pedicle is a rare clinical entity, and it is usually found incidentally on radiological studies performed after trauma in patients with cervical pain. We report two cases of congenital absence of a cervical spine pedicle and present a review of the literature.

  2. How predation shaped fish: the impact of fin spines on body form evolution across teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, S A; Friedman, S T; Wainwright, P C

    2015-11-22

    It is well known that predators can induce morphological changes in some fish: individuals exposed to predation cues increase body depth and the length of spines. We hypothesize that these structures may evolve synergistically, as together, these traits will further enlarge the body dimensions of the fish that gape-limited predators must overcome. We therefore expect that the orientation of the spines will predict which body dimension increases in the presence of predators. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested this prediction on the macroevolutionary scale across 347 teleost families, which display considerable variation in fin spines, body depth and width. Consistent with our predictions, we demonstrate that fin spines on the vertical plane (dorsal and anal fins) are associated with a deeper-bodied optimum. Lineages with spines on the horizontal plane (pectoral fins) are associated with a wider-bodied optimum. Optimal body dimensions across lineages without spines paralleling the body dimension match the allometric expectation. Additionally, lineages with longer spines have deeper and wider body dimensions. This evolutionary relationship between fin spines and body dimensions across teleosts reveals functional synergy between these two traits and a potential macroevolutionary signature of predation on the evolutionary dynamics of body shape. PMID:26559954

  3. Eps8 controls dendritic spine density and synaptic plasticity through its actin-capping activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Elisabetta; Zambetti, Stefania; Morini, Raffaella; Donzelli, Andrea; Disanza, Andrea; Calvigioni, Daniela; Braida, Daniela; Nicolini, Chiara; Orlando, Marta; Fossati, Giuliana; Cristina Regondi, Maria; Pattini, Linda; Frassoni, Carolina; Francolini, Maura; Scita, Giorgio; Sala, Mariaelvina; Fahnestock, Margaret; Matteoli, Michela

    2013-06-12

    Actin-based remodelling underlies spine structural changes occurring during synaptic plasticity, the process that constantly reshapes the circuitry of the adult brain in response to external stimuli, leading to learning and memory formation. A positive correlation exists between spine shape and synaptic strength and, consistently, abnormalities in spine number and morphology have been described in a number of neurological disorders. In the present study, we demonstrate that the actin-regulating protein, Eps8, is recruited to the spine head during chemically induced long-term potentiation in culture and that inhibition of its actin-capping activity impairs spine enlargement and plasticity. Accordingly, mice lacking Eps8 display immature spines, which are unable to undergo potentiation, and are impaired in cognitive functions. Additionally, we found that reduction in the levels of Eps8 occurs in brains of patients affected by autism compared to controls. Our data reveal the key role of Eps8 actin-capping activity in spine morphogenesis and plasticity and indicate that reductions in actin-capping proteins may characterize forms of intellectual disabilities associated with spine defects. PMID:23685357

  4. Patient-reported outcome measures unbiased by loss of follow-up. Single-center study based on DaneSpine, the Danish spine surgery registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjmark, Karen; StØttrup, C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine if there are any demographic and reporting differences between patients who respond and those who refuse to respond to postal questionnaires from the Danish national spine database, DaneSpine. METHODS: DaneSpine collects patient-reported data, completed before surgery and at 3 months, and at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years postoperatively. The database was launched at the Center for Spine Surgery and Research at Lillebaelt Hospital on June 1st, 2010. We performed a 1-year follow-up on non-responders during a 6-month period between the 1st of August 2013 until the 31st of January 2014 using a structured phone interview to collect patient-reported outcomes, some health information and reasons for non-response. RESULTS: Of the 506 patients who were 1-year post-operative, three did not have baseline data and six had died before the 1-year follow-up. Twenty-four patients had a second spine surgery and were re-enrolled in the database. These cases had not reached the 1-year follow-up period for the second spine surgery and were excluded from the analysis. Thus, 473 patients had reached 1-year follow-up. Of these, 57 (12 %) did not respond to postal questionnaires. A structured phone interview was performed on these 57 non-responders. Non-responders were in general, a decade younger than responders, a greater proportion were males and smokers. Apart from EQ-5D, there was no difference in patient satisfaction, improvement in back pain or leg pain between the responders and non-responders. CONCLUSIONS: Missing data from 12 % of patients do not seem to bias conclusions that can be drawn from the DaneSpine database at the Center for Spine Surgery and Research at Lillebaelt Hospital.

  5. Physiological variability in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression predicts dendritic spine density in the mouse dentate gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Stranahan, Alexis M

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic spines are the predominant sites of excitatory neurotransmission in the adult brain, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a well-characterized determinant of dendritic spine number and morphology. The relationship between BDNF expression and dendritic spine number is particularly evident in the hippocampus, where environmental conditions that enhance hippocampal BDNF levels also promote local increases in dendritic spine density. However, the relationship between physiolo...

  6. CT evaluation of the pattern of odontoid fractures in the elderly—relationship to upper cervical spine osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmanan, Palaniappan; Jones, Alwyn; Howes, John; Lyons,Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Odontoid fractures are common in the elderly following minor falls. Almost all of them have osteoarthritis of the cervical spine below the axis vertebra. As a result, there is increased stress on the spared upper cervical spine, resulting in a higher incidence of injuries. As movement in the upper cervical spine involves participation of five joints, degeneration in any one particular joint may affect the biomechanics of loading of the upper cervical spine. We aimed to analyse the relationshi...

  7. A generic detailed rigid-body lumbar spine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Zee, Mark; Hansen, Lone

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present a musculo-skeletal model of the lumbar spine, which can be shared and lends itself to investigation in many locations by different researchers. This has the potential for greater reproducibility and subsequent improvement of its quality from the combined effort of different research groups. The model is defined in a text-based, declarative, object-oriented language in the AnyBody Modelling System software. Text-based models will facilitate sharing of the models between different research groups. The necessary data for the model has been taken from the literature. The work resulted in a detailed lumbar spine model with seven rigid segments with 18 degrees-of-freedom and 154 muscles. The model is able to produce a maximum extension moment of 238 Nm around L5/S1. Moreover, a comparison was made with in vivo intradiscal pressure measurements of the L4-5 disc available from the literature. The model is based on inverse dynamics, where the redundancy problem is solved using optimization in order to compute the individual muscle forces and joint reactions. With the presented model it is possible to investigate a range of research questions, because the model is relatively easy to share and modify due to the use of a well-defined and self-contained scripting language. Validation is though still necessary for specific cases.

  8. Biomechanical analysis of plate stabilization on cervical part of spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of the work was determination of biomechanical analysis of cervical spine – stabilizer system made of stainless steel (Cr-Ni-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.Design/methodology/approach: To define biomechanical characteristic of the system the finite elements method (FEM was applied. Geometric model of part of spine C5-C7 and stabilizer were discretized by SOLID95 element. Appropriate boundary conditions imitating phenomena in real system with appropriate accuracy were established.Findings: The result of biomechanical analysis was calculation of displacements and stresses in the vertebras and the stabilizer in a function of the applied loading: 50-300 N for the stabilizer made of stainless steel (Cr-Ni-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.Research limitations/implications: The result of biomechanical analysis for plate stabilizer obtained by FEM can be use to determine a construction features of the stabilizer, and to select mechanical properties of metallic biomaterial and estimation of stabilization quality. The calculation of displacements for part C5-C7 show that the proposed type of stabilizer enables correct stabilization used to clinical apply.Practical implications: The results of biomechanical analysis showed correct mechanical properties used to made the plate stabilizer.Originality/value: The obtained numerical results should be verified in “in vitro” tests.

  9. Test particle acceleration in torsional spine magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, M.

    2014-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection is taking place commonly in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares which are rich sources of highly energetic particles. One of the proposed mechanisms for steady-state 3D magnetic reconnection is "torsional spine reconnection". By using the magnetic and electric fields for "torsional spine reconnection", we numerically investigate the features of test particle acceleration with input parameters for the solar corona. We show that efficient acceleration of a relativistic proton is possible near the null point where it can gain up to 100 MeV of kinetic energy within a few milliseconds. However, varying the injection position results in different scenarios for proton acceleration. A proton is most efficiently accelerated when it is injected at the point where the magnetic field lines change their curvature in the fan plane. Moreover, a proton injected far away from the null point cannot be accelerated and, even in some cases, it is trapped in the magnetic field. In addition, adopting either spatially uniform or non-uniform localized plasma resistivity does not much influence the features of trajectory.

  10. Cervical spine mobility analysis on radiographs: a fully automatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecron, Fabian; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd

    2012-12-01

    Conventional X-ray radiography remains nowadays the most common method to analyze spinal mobility in two dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a framework dedicated to the fully automatic cervical spine mobility analysis on X-ray images. To this aim, we propose an approach based on three main steps: fully automatic vertebra detection, vertebra segmentation and angular measurement. The accuracy of the method was assessed for a total of 245 vertebræ. For the vertebra detection, we proposed an adapted version of two descriptors, namely Scale-invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded-up Robust Features (SURF), coupled with a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Vertebræ are successfully detected in 89.8% of cases and it is demonstrated that SURF slightly outperforms SIFT. The Active Shape Model approach was considered as a segmentation procedure. We observed that a statistical shape model specific to the vertebral level improves the results. Angular errors of cervical spine mobility are presented. We showed that these errors remain within the inter-operator variability of the reference method. PMID:22981777

  11. Imaging the spine in arthritis-a pictorial review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2011-01-01

    Spinal involvement is frequent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and seronegative spondyloarthritides (SpA), and its diagnosis is important. Thus, MRI and CT are increasingly used, although radiography is the recommended initial examination. The purpose of this review is to present the typical radiographic features of spinal changes in RA and SpA in addition to the advantages of MRI and CT, respectively. RA changes are usually located in the cervical spine and can result in serious joint instability. Subluxation is diagnosed by radiography, but supplementary MRI and/or CT is always indicated to visualise the spinal cord and canal in patients with vertical subluxation, neck pain and/or neurological symptoms. SpA may involve all parts of the spine. Ankylosing spondylitis is the most frequent form of SpA and has rather characteristic radiographic features. In early stages it is characterised by vertebral squaring and condensation of vertebral corners, in later stages by slim ossifications between vertebral bodies, vertebral fusion, arthritis/ankylosis of apophyseal joints and ligamentous ossification causing spinal stiffness. The imaging features of the other forms of SpA can vary, but voluminous paravertebral ossifications often occur in psoriatic SpA. MRI can detect signs of active inflammation as well as chronic structural changes; CT is valuable for detecting fracture.

  12. Three Dimensional Movements Of The Upper Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjabi, Manohar M.; Dvorak, Jiri; Duranceau, Joanne; Yamamoto, Isao

    1989-04-01

    Ten fresh cadaveric whole cervical spine specimens (occiput to C7) were studied using well established techniques to document the movements in flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending and left and right axial rotation. Pure moments of maximum 1.5 newton meters were applied incrementally and three dimensional movements of the bones were recorded using stereophotogrammetry. Each moment was applied individually and in a three load/unload cycles. The motion measurements were made on the third load cycle. Parameters of neutral zone, elastic zone and range of motion were computed. Neutral zones for flexion/extension, right/left lateral bending and right/left axial rotation were respectively: 1.1, 1.5 and 1.6 (occiput-C1); and 3.2, 1.2 and 29.6 degrees (C1-C2). Ranges of motion for flexion, extension, lateral bending (one side) and axial rotation (one side) were respectively: 3.5, 21.0, 5.5 and 7.2 degrees (occiput-Cl joint) and 11.5, 10.9, 6.7 and 38.9 degrees (CI-CZ joint). The highest intervertebral motion in the spine was the axial rotation at the Cl-C2 joint, neutral zone constituting 75% of this motion.

  13. MR distinction between multiple myeloma and metastasis involving the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To differentiate multiple myeloma from metastasis involving the spine at MR imaging. Twenty-five patients with multiple myeloma and 37 with vertebral metastasis were included in this study. MR images were retrospectively analyzed with regard to imfiltration and enhancement patterns, signa. intensity, the involvement of three consecutive vertebrae, the number of lesions within one vertebra, and paraspinal and epidural masses. Using a 1.5-T imager, we obtained sagittal and axial, unenhanced and enhanced T1-weighted images, and fast spin-echo images. For statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test was used. All cases of multiple myeloma and metastasis showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and there were no significant differences in signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and there were no significant differences in signal intensities or enhancement patterns.Infilration and enhancement patterns were classified as focal (52% in multiple myeloma vs 68% in metastasis, p>0.05), diffuse (32% vs 32%, p>0.05) or salt and pepper (16% vs 0%, p0.05), isointensity (36% vs 3%. p0.05). Paraspinal and epidural masses played little part. The salt and pepper infiltration pattern, the presence of more than five lesions within one vertebra, and the involvement of more than three consecutive vertebrae were useful MR findings for differentiation between multiple myeloma and metastasis involving the spine. In most cases, hjowever, it is difficult to distinguish between the two conditions

  14. Crash Simulator: Brain-and-Spine Injury Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the first author has proposed a new coupled loading-rate hypothesis as a unique cause of both brain and spinal injuries, which states that they are both caused by a Euclidean jolt, an impulsive loading that strikes head and spine (or, any other part of the human body)- in several coupled degrees-of-freedom simultaneously. Injury never happens in a single direction only, nor is it ever caused by a static force. It is always an impulsive translational plus rotational force. The Euclidean jolt causes two basic forms of brain, spine and other musculo-skeletal injuries: (i) localized translational dislocations; and (ii) localized rotational disclinations. In the present Chapter, we first review this unique mechanics of a general human mechanical injury, and then describe how it can be predicted and controlled by a crash simulator toolbox. This rigorous Matlab toolbox has been developed using an existing thirdparty toolbox DiffMan, for accurately solving differential equations on smooth manifolds and mechanical Lie groups. The present crash simulator toolbox performs prediction/control of brain and spinal injuries within the framework of the Euclidean group SE(3) of rigid motions in our natural 3-dimensional space.

  15. MRI findings in the upper cervical spine of rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaida, Hidefumi; Sakou, Takashi; Morizono, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikuni, Nagatoshi; Taketomi, Eiji; Hashiguchi, Masanao

    1989-04-01

    In 55 patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated with upper cervical spine abnormality, the presence or absence of medullary and upper cervical pressures was examined on sagittal MRI scans. Atlanto-dental anterior incomplete dislocation and horizontal dislocation were imaged concurrently with X-rays. For horizontal dislocation, an abnormal Redlund-Johnell value and a Ranawat value of 7 mm or less were always associated with medullary pressure as seen on MRI. For anterior incomplete dislocation, upper cervical pressure was always associated when a space available for the spinal cord was 13 mm or less or frequently associated when the atlanto-dental interval was 8 mm or more. Many of the patients with the upper cervical abnormalities complained of occipital or cervical pain. The pain was always encountered in patients with an abnormal Redlund-Johnell value. Roentgenography of the cervical spine confirmed MRI-proven medullary or upper cervical pressure, suggesting the potential of MRI in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (Namekawa, K).

  16. Diffraction-enhanced imaging of the rat spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, M.E. [Cleveland Clinic, Dept. of Neurosurgery, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)]. E-mail: mebkelly@gmail.com; Beavis, R.C. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Div. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Fourney, D.R. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Div. of Neurosurgery, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Schultke, E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Parham, C. [Univ. of North Carolina, Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Juurlink, B.H. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Zhong, Z. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source, Upton, New York (United States); Chapman, L.D. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2006-10-15

    Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) uses monochromatic synchrotron X-rays to image tissue. This technique has been shown to produce superior bony and soft tissue characterization when compared with conventional absorption radiography. Application of this imaging modality is under investigation, and this study represents the first DEI analysis of the vertebral column. Four male Wistar rats were studied. Spine muscle blocks were imaged in 3 of the rats after thoracic laminectomy (n = 1), after lumbar laminectomy (n = 1), and in a control condition (n = 1). The fourth rat was imaged as a whole animal control. Conventional radiography and synchrotron-supported DEI at 40 keV were performed on all specimens. We compared images side by side, using a nonvalidated subjective assessment technique. DEI produced superior visualization of the vertebral anatomy, compared with conventional absorption radiography for all specimens. Greater bony and soft tissue detail was noted, with improved image contrast. In addition to imaging the anatomical structures, DEI showed the polyglactin suture material used for fascial closure in the 2 animals that underwent surgery. Artifact from air bubbles was present on DEI images but not on plain radiographs. This represents the first use of DEI, a novel imaging modality, to image the vertebral column. It provides excellent anatomic detail with superior contrast and visualization of both bone and soft tissue when compared with conventional radiography. Future applications of this investigational technique may include analysis of spinal fusion as well as degenerative and neoplastic conditions of the spine. (author)

  17. Comparison study on CNR and SNR of thoracic spine lateral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was proven for the T-spine breathing technique in lateral projection, using computer radiography (CR), charge coupled device (CCD), indirect digital radiography (IDR) and direct digital radiography (DDR). All images were evaluated and compared with CNR and SNR measured with the mean pixels and the standard deviation as setting ROI of spinous process, pedicle, vertebral body, intervertebral foramen and intervertebral disk using Image J. In experiment results of 4 type detectors, T-spine breathing technique was indicated as excellent in ROI of spinous process, pedicle, vertebral body, intervertebral foramen and intervertebral disk. As T-spine breathing technique indicated excellent images compared to the existing T-spine lateral radiography, this method would be useful for elderly patients who have difficulty in deep exhalation. This study was indicated the application possibility of T-spine breathing technique by presenting contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) with quantitative value in 4 type detectors

  18. Helical CT in the primary trauma evaluation of the cervical spine: an evidence-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmore, C.C. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Center for Cost and Outcomes Research, Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Mann, F.A. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Wilson, A.J. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-11-01

    This review provides a summary of the cost-effectiveness, clinical utility, performance, and interpretation of screening helical cervical spine CT for trauma patients. Recent evidence supports the use of helical CT as a cost-effective method for screening the cervical spine in high-risk trauma patients. Screening cervical spine CT can be performed at the time of head CT to lower the cost of the evaluation, and when all short- and long-term costs are considered, CT may actually save money when compared with traditional radiographic screening. In addition to having higher sensitivity and specificity for cervical spine injury, CT screening also allows more rapid radiological clearance of the cervical spine than radiography. Patients who are involved in high-energy trauma, who sustain head injury, or who have neurological deficits are candidates for CT screening. Screening with CT may enhance detection of other potentially important injuries of the cervical region. (orig.)

  19. Contemporary treatment with radiosurgery for spine metastasis and spinal cord compression in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sam Uel; Yoon, Han Hah; Stessin, Alexander; Gutman, Fred; Rosiello, Arthur; Davis, Raphael [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook (United States)

    2015-03-15

    With the progress of image-guided localization, body immobilization system, and computerized delivery of intensity-modulated radiation delivery, it became possible to perform spine radiosurgery. The next question is how to translate the high technology treatment to the clinical application. Clinical trials have been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of spine radiosurgery and efficacy of the treatment in the setting of spine metastasis, leading to the randomized trials by a cooperative group. Radiosurgery has also demonstrated its efficacy to decompress the spinal cord compression in selected group of patients. The experience indicates that spine radiosurgery has a potential to change the clinical practice in the management of spine metastasis and spinal cord compression.

  20. Activation of CaMKII in single dendritic spines during long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Jin R; Escobedo-Lozoya, Yasmin; Szatmari, Erzsebet M; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2009-03-19

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) plays a central part in long-term potentiation (LTP), which underlies some forms of learning and memory. Here we monitored the spatiotemporal dynamics of CaMKII activation in individual dendritic spines during LTP using two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, in combination with two-photon glutamate uncaging. Induction of LTP and associated spine enlargement in single spines triggered transient ( approximately 1 min) CaMKII activation restricted to the stimulated spines. CaMKII in spines was specifically activated by NMDA receptors and L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, presumably by nanodomain Ca(2+) near the channels, in response to glutamate uncaging and depolarization, respectively. The high degree of compartmentalization and channel specificity of CaMKII signalling allow stimuli-specific spatiotemporal patterns of CaMKII signalling and may be important for synapse-specificity of synaptic plasticity. PMID:19295602

  1. Helical CT in the primary trauma evaluation of the cervical spine: an evidence-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review provides a summary of the cost-effectiveness, clinical utility, performance, and interpretation of screening helical cervical spine CT for trauma patients. Recent evidence supports the use of helical CT as a cost-effective method for screening the cervical spine in high-risk trauma patients. Screening cervical spine CT can be performed at the time of head CT to lower the cost of the evaluation, and when all short- and long-term costs are considered, CT may actually save money when compared with traditional radiographic screening. In addition to having higher sensitivity and specificity for cervical spine injury, CT screening also allows more rapid radiological clearance of the cervical spine than radiography. Patients who are involved in high-energy trauma, who sustain head injury, or who have neurological deficits are candidates for CT screening. Screening with CT may enhance detection of other potentially important injuries of the cervical region. (orig.)

  2. Comparison study on CNR and SNR of thoracic spine lateral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan; Lyu, Kwang Yeul [Dept. of Radiology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hei Woun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Beakseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Ah [Dept. of Oncology, Catholic University of Korea Incheon St.Mary,s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Oncology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Dong Chan [Dept. of Radiology, Dong Guk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soon Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Kang Dong Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was proven for the T-spine breathing technique in lateral projection, using computer radiography (CR), charge coupled device (CCD), indirect digital radiography (IDR) and direct digital radiography (DDR). All images were evaluated and compared with CNR and SNR measured with the mean pixels and the standard deviation as setting ROI of spinous process, pedicle, vertebral body, intervertebral foramen and intervertebral disk using Image J. In experiment results of 4 type detectors, T-spine breathing technique was indicated as excellent in ROI of spinous process, pedicle, vertebral body, intervertebral foramen and intervertebral disk. As T-spine breathing technique indicated excellent images compared to the existing T-spine lateral radiography, this method would be useful for elderly patients who have difficulty in deep exhalation. This study was indicated the application possibility of T-spine breathing technique by presenting contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) with quantitative value in 4 type detectors.

  3. Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is measuring something without touching it. Most methods measure a portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum using energy reflected from or emitted by a material. Moving the instrument away makes it easier to see more at one time. Airplanes are good but satellites are much better. Many things can not be easily measured on the scale of an individual person. Example - measuring all the vegetation growing at one time in even the smallest country. A satellite can see things over large areas repeatedly and in a consistent way. Data from the detector is reported as digital values for a grid that covers some portion of the Earth. Because it is digital and consistent a computer can extract information or enhance the data for a specific purpose.

  4. Sensing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Piali; Garrity, Paul

    2013-04-22

    Temperature is an omnipresent physical variable reflecting the rotational, vibrational and translational motion of matter, what Richard Feynman called the "jiggling" of atoms. Temperature varies across space and time, and this variation has dramatic effects on the physiology of living cells. It changes the rate and nature of chemical reactions, and it alters the configuration of the atoms that make up nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules, significantly affecting their activity. While life may have started in a "warm little pond", as Charles Darwin mused, the organisms that surround us today have only made it this far by devising sophisticated systems for sensing and responding to variations in temperature, and by using these systems in ways that allow them to persist and thrive in the face of thermal fluctuation. PMID:23618661

  5. Does ice immersion influence ankle joint position sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, D; Whittington, D; Davies, J; Chartier, J D

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a fifteen minute ice immersion treatment influenced the normal ankle joint position sense at 40% and 80% range of inversion and to establish the length of treatment effect through monitoring the rewarming process. Forty nine healthy volunteers between the ages of 17 and 28 were tested. Subjects were screened to exclude those with a history of ankle injuries. The subject's skin temperature over antero-lateral aspect of the ankle was measured using a thermocouple device during the fifteen minutes ice intervention and thirty minutes post-intervention. Testing of ankle joint position sense using the pedal goniometer was performed before and after a clinical application of ice immersion. The testing required the subject to actively reposition their ankle at 40% and 80% of their total range of inversion. The majority of subjects experienced numbness of the foot and ankle by the fifth or sixth minute during ice immersion. One minute after immersion skin temperatures averaged 15 degrees C + 1.7 degrees C. Skin temperature was seen to rise relatively rapidly for the first ten minutes and then slowed considerably. Subjects had not returned to the pre-test skin temperatures by thirty minutes. A significant difference in ankle joint position sense (p degree) would not be deemed significant in clinical practice. The research found no significant difference in joint position sense between 40% and 80% of the range of inversion both before and after cryotherapy. These findings suggest that the clinical application of cryotherapy is not deleterious to joint position sense and assuming normal joint integrity patients may resume exercise without increased risk of injury. PMID:9408933

  6. Alterations in dendrite and spine morphology of cortical pyramidal neurons in DISC1-binding zinc finger protein (DBZ Knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hattori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrite and dendritic spine formation are crucial for proper brain function. DISC1-binding zinc finger protein (DBZ was first identified as a Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia1 (DISC1 binding partner. DBZ is highly expressed in the cerebral cortex of developing and adult rodents and is involved in neurite formation, cell positioning, and the development of interneurons and oligodendrocytes. The functional roles of DBZ in postnatal brain remain unknown; thus we investigated cortical pyramidal neuron morphology in DBZ knockout (KO mice. Morphological analyses by Golgi staining alone in DBZ KO mice revealed decreased dendritic arborization, increased spine density. A morphological analysis of the spines revealed markedly increased numbers of thin spines. To investigate whole spine structure in detail, electron tomographic analysis using ultra-high voltage electron microscopy combined with Golgi staining was performed. Tomograms and three-dimensional models of spines revealed that the spines of DBZ KO mice exhibited two types of characteristic morphology, filopodia-like spines and abnormal thin-necked spines having an extremely thin spine neck. Moreover, conventional electron microscopy revealed significantly decreased number of postsynaptic densities (PSDs in spines of DBZ KO mice. In conclusion, DBZ deficiency impairs the morphogenesis of dendrites and spines in cortical pyramidal neurons.

  7. Volumetric Image Guidance Using Carina vs Spine as Registration Landmarks for Conventionally Fractionated Lung Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Caroline; Higgins, Jane; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Sun, Alexander; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.bezjak@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative accuracy of 2 image guided radiation therapy methods using carina vs spine as landmarks and then to identify which landmark is superior relative to tumor coverage. Methods and Materials: For 98 lung patients, 2596 daily image-guidance cone-beam computed tomography scans were analyzed. Tattoos were used for initial patient alignment; then, spine and carina registrations were performed independently. A separate analysis assessed the adequacy of gross tumor volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume coverage on cone-beam computed tomography using the initial, middle, and final fractions of radiation therapy. Coverage was recorded for primary tumor (T), nodes (N), and combined target (T+N). Three scenarios were compared: tattoos alignment, spine registration, and carina registration. Results: Spine and carina registrations identified setup errors {>=}5 mm in 35% and 46% of fractions, respectively. The mean vector difference between spine and carina matching had a magnitude of 3.3 mm. Spine and carina improved combined target coverage, compared with tattoos, in 50% and 34% (spine) to 54% and 46% (carina) of the first and final fractions, respectively. Carina matching showed greater combined target coverage in 17% and 23% of fractions for the first and final fractions, respectively; with spine matching, this was only observed in 4% (first) and 6% (final) of fractions. Carina matching provided superior nodes coverage at the end of radiation compared with spine matching (P=.0006), without compromising primary tumor coverage. Conclusion: Frequent patient setup errors occur in locally advanced lung cancer patients. Spine and carina registrations improved combined target coverage throughout the treatment course, but carina matching provided superior combined target coverage.

  8. Volumetric Image Guidance Using Carina vs Spine as Registration Landmarks for Conventionally Fractionated Lung Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the relative accuracy of 2 image guided radiation therapy methods using carina vs spine as landmarks and then to identify which landmark is superior relative to tumor coverage. Methods and Materials: For 98 lung patients, 2596 daily image-guidance cone-beam computed tomography scans were analyzed. Tattoos were used for initial patient alignment; then, spine and carina registrations were performed independently. A separate analysis assessed the adequacy of gross tumor volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume coverage on cone-beam computed tomography using the initial, middle, and final fractions of radiation therapy. Coverage was recorded for primary tumor (T), nodes (N), and combined target (T+N). Three scenarios were compared: tattoos alignment, spine registration, and carina registration. Results: Spine and carina registrations identified setup errors ?5 mm in 35% and 46% of fractions, respectively. The mean vector difference between spine and carina matching had a magnitude of 3.3 mm. Spine and carina improved combined target coverage, compared with tattoos, in 50% and 34% (spine) to 54% and 46% (carina) of the first and final fractions, respectively. Carina matching showed greater combined target coverage in 17% and 23% of fractions for the first and final fractions, respectively; with spine matching, this was only observed in 4% (first) and 6% (final) of fractions. Carina matching provided superior nodes coverage at the end of radiation compared with spine matching (P=.0006), without compromising primary tumor coverage. Conclusion: Frequent patient setup errors occur in locally advanced lung cancer patients. Spine and carina registrations improved combined target coverage throughout the treatment course, but carina matching provided superior combined target coverage.

  9. METHOD OF PREVENTING DORSAL PAIN BY MEANS OF MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS IN THE SPINE’S DEGENERATIVE DISEASES OF DISCAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Pâncotan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to emphasize the therapeutic value of mechanical vibrations. It is known that the Health Service, after studying their effect on the health of operators, incriminates the effect of vibrations and imposes a series of rules regarding the limitation of their pathogen effect on people’s health and also on the environment. In these cases the mechanical vibrations are considered to be noxae because of long-term exposure. From the studies on people exposed to vibrations also results that these have also benefic effects, depending on the control of their parameters: frequency, amplitude, time and the particular way of applying them on the human body.There are well known vibration-producing appliances on the market which are addressed to the muscle tonifiation or relaxation, in body-building or even in medical treatment as bronchial drainage, osteoporosis etc. The use of mechanical vibrations for the optimization of the intervertebral disc’s functions in the pathology of the degenerative diseases of the spine is a new idea and has become a wide research field on the different mobile areas of the spine. In order to do so we have tested the input of low and medium frequency mechanical vibrations for pain management in dorsal rheumatic affections as compared to the kinetic treatment in order to quantify the separate role of each form of treatment to find out their exact input.

  10. Mobile Sensing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Macias; Alvaro Suarez; Jaime Lloret

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance o...

  11. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ruth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of primary care physicians in Scotland and north England. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (referral rates for lumbar spine x-rays, behavioural simulation (lumbar spine x-ray referral decisions based upon scenarios, and behavioural intention (general intention to refer for lumbar spine x-rays in patients with low back pain. Explanatory variables were the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Weinstein's Stage Model termed the Precaution Adoption Process (PAP, and knowledge. For each of the outcome measures, a generalised linear model was used to examine the predictive value of each theory individually. Linear regression was used for the intention and simulation outcomes, and negative binomial regression was used for the behaviour outcome. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross-theoretical construct' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all individual constructs across theories. Results Constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT predicted behaviour; however, the theoretical models did not fit the data well. When predicting behavioural simulation, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 11.6%, SCT 12.1%, OLT 8.1%, and II 1.5% of the variance, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, CS-SRM and II explained 16.5% of the variance in simulated behaviours. When predicting intention, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 25.0%, SCT 21.5%, CS-SRM 11.3%, OLT 26.3%, PAP 2.6%, and knowledge 2.3%, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT explained 33.5% variance in intention. Together these results suggest that physicians' beliefs about consequences and beliefs about capabilities are likely determinants of lumbar spine x-ray referrals. Conclusions The study provides evidence that taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain.

  12. Frameless linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS for brain metastases: analysis of patient repositioning using a mask fixation system and clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minniti Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To assess the accuracy of patient repositioning and clinical outcomes of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS for brain metastases using a stereotactic mask fixation system. Patients and Methods One hundred two patients treated consecutively with frameless SRS as primary treatment at University of Rome Sapienza Sant'Andrea Hospital between October 2008 and April 2010 and followed prospectively were involved in the study. A commercial stereotactic mask fixation system (BrainLab was used for patient immobilization. A computerized tomography (CT scan obtained immediately before SRS was used to evaluate the accuracy of patient repositioning in the mask by comparing the isocenter position to the isocenter position established in the planning CT. Deviations of isocenter coordinates in each direction and 3D displacement were calculated. Overall survival, brain control, and local control were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method calculated from the time of SRS. Results The mean measured isocenter displacements were 0.12 mm (SD 0.35 mm in the lateral direction, 0.2 mm (SD 0.4 mm in the anteroposterior, and 0.4 mm (SD 0.6 mm in craniocaudal direction. The maximum displacement of 2.1 mm was seen in craniocaudal direction. The mean 3D displacement was 0.5 mm (SD 0.7 mm, being maximum 2.9 mm. The median survival was 15.5 months, and 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 58% and 24%, respectively. Nine patients recurred locally after SRS, with 1-year and 2-year local control rates of 91% and 82%, respectively. Stable extracranial disease (P = 0.001 and KPS > 70 (P = 0.01 were independent predictors of survival. Conclusions Frameless SRS is an effective treatment in the management of patients with brain metastases. The presented non-invasive mask-based fixation stereotactic system is associated with a high degree of patient repositioning accuracy; however, a careful evaluation is essential since occasional errors up to 3 mm may occur.

  13. Reposicionamento de Marcas: estudo de casos brasileirosBrands Repositioning: Brazilian case studiesReposicionamiento de Marcas: estudio de casos brasileños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURRIER, Marcio Tadeu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste trabalho teve por objetivo aprofundar o conhecimento existente sobre o processo de reposicionamento de marcas, partindo da premissa da relevância crescente do posicionamento e do patrimônio da marca no contexto da gestão do marketing em ambientes competitivos. A verificação empírica constou da análise de seis relatos (casos de reposicionamento de marcas brasileiras vencedoras do Prêmio Top de Marketing das edições de 1999 a 2003, com o emprego da metodologia da análise de conteúdo, tomando por base a estrutura de quatro referenciais teóricos, obtidos na revisão da literatura pertinente. Este texto conclui pela existência de três blocos constituintes de um programa de reposicionamento, formados pelas fases de diagnóstico, decisão e implantação, predominando os dois primeiros nos modelos teóricos, enquanto nas experiências verificadas (casos a fase de implantação foi dominante.ABSTRACTBased on the assumption of the increasing relevance of both brand positioning and equity in the context of marketing management in competitive environments, the objective of this work was to deepen the existing knowledge on the brand repositioning process. Four theoretical models of reference obtained after literature review supported the empiric verification represented by content analysis of six reports (cases of Brazilian brands repositioning experiences awarded with the “Top of Marketing” prize in the period 1999-2003. Results conclude for the existence of three constituent blocks of a repositioning program, formed for the phases of diagnosis, decision and implementation, with the predomination of the two first ones in the theoretical models, while in the practical experiences the implementation phase was dominant.RESUMENEl trabajo tuvo por finalidad profundizar el conocimiento existente sobre el proceso de reposicionamiento de marcas, considerando como premisa la creciente relevancia del posicionamiento y del valor de la marca en el contexto de la gestión del marketing en ambientes competitivos. La verificación empírica consistió en el análisis de seis relatos (casos de reposicionamiento de marcas brasileñas vencedoras del Premio “Top de Marketing” de las ediciones de 1999 a 2003, mediante la metodología del análisis de contenido, tomando por base la estructura de cuatro referenciales teóricos, obtenidos en la revisión de la literatura pertinente. Los resultados demuestran que hay tres bloques que constituyen un programa de reposicionamiento, formados por las fases de diagnóstico, decisión e implantación, predominando los dos primeros en los modelos teóricos, mientras en las experiencias verificadas (casos, la fase de implantación fue dominante.

  14. Dietary cholesterol concentration affects synaptic plasticity and dendrite spine morphology of rabbit hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Desheng; Zheng, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown dietary cholesterol can enhance learning but retard memory which may be partly due to increased cholesterol levels in hippocampus and reduced afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude of hippocampal CA1 neurons. This study explored the dose-dependent effect of dietary cholesterol on synaptic plasticity of rabbit hippocampal CA1 neurons and spine morphology, the postsynaptic structures responsible for synaptic plasticity. Field potential recordings revealed a low concentration of dietary cholesterol increased long-term potentiation (LTP) expression while high concentrations produced a pronounced reduction in LTP expression. Dietary cholesterol facilitated basal synaptic transmission but did not influence presynaptic function. DiI staining showed dietary cholesterol induced alterations in dendrite spine morphology characterized by increased mushroom spine density and decreased thin spine density, two kinds of dendritic spines that may be linked to memory consolidation and learning acquisition. Dietary cholesterol also modulated the geometric measures of mushroom spines. Therefore, dietary cholesterol dose-dependently modulated both synaptic plasticity and dendrite spine morphologies of hippocampal CA1 neurons that could mediate learning and memory changes previously seen to result from feeding a cholesterol diet. PMID:26188241

  15. Dose conformation to the spine during palliative treatments using dynamic wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormsby, Matthew A., E-mail: Matthew.Ormsby@usoncology.com [West Texas Cancer Center at Medical Center Hospital, Odessa, TX (United States); Herndon, R. Craig; Kaczor, Joseph G. [West Texas Cancer Center at Medical Center Hospital, Odessa, TX (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy is commonly used to alleviate pain associated with metastatic disease of the spine. Often, isodose lines are manipulated using dynamic or physical wedges to encompass the section of spine needing treatment while minimizing dose to normal tissue. We will compare 2 methods used to treat the entire thoracic spine. The first method treats the thoracic spine with a single, nonwedged posterior-anterior (PA) field. Dose is prescribed to include the entire spine. Isodose lines tightly conform to the top and bottom vertebrae, but vertebrae between these 2 received more than enough coverage. The second method uses a combination of wedges to create an isodose line that mimics the curvature of the thoracic spine. This “C”-shaped curvature is created by overlapping 2 fields with opposing dynamic wedges. Machine constraints limit the treatment length and therefore 2 isocenters are used. Each of the 2 PA fields contributes a portion of the total daily dose. This technique creates a “C”-shaped isodose line that tightly conforms to the thoracic spine, minimizing normal tissue dose. Spinal cord maximum dose is reduced, as well as mean dose to the liver, esophagus, and heart.

  16. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the spine. Report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, Kristian

    2012-02-03

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EH) is a rare tumor of vascular origin. The authors describe two cases of spinal EH, one involving the T-10 vertebra and the second involving the upper cervical spine. In the first case the patient underwent resection of the tumor; this case represents the longest reported follow-up period for spinal EH. In the second case, extensive involvement of C-2, C-3, and C-4 as well as encasement of both vertebral arteries precluded safe tumor resection, and posterior occipitocervical stabilization was performed. The patient subsequently died of metastatic disease. The findings in these two cases underscore the difficulty in predicting the clinical behavior of spinal EH based solely on histological and clinical features as well as the uncertainty of the roles of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in the oncological management of a spinal tumor for which clinical data are very limited.

  17. Gout in the Spine: Imaging, Diagnosis, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprover, Michael; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Pillinger, Michael H

    2015-12-01

    Gout is characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals and by acute and chronic inflammation in response to crystals so deposited. Multiple case reports and series describe the deposition of monosodium urate in the spine as a rare manifestation of gout, but the actual prevalence of spinal involvement is unknown and likely to be higher than generally anticipated. Here we review the characteristics of 131 previously reported cases of spinal involvement in gout. We focus in particular on the use of imaging modalities and the extent to which they correlate with presenting symptoms and tissue diagnoses. The recent innovation of using dual-energy computerized tomography to identify urate crystal deposition holds promise for reducing the need for surgical intervention and for establishing a true prevalence rate for spinal gout. PMID:26490179

  18. Maintenance of graft compression in the adult cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Ciaran; Bourlion, Maurice; Leroy, Xavier; Petit, Dominique; Vanacker, Gerard; McEvoy, Linda; Nagaria, Jabir

    2006-08-01

    It is generally advised that the graft inserted in adult cervical spine should be pre-loaded with a compressive force or that the screws are inserted in a divergent orientation, in order to maximise compression and the chance of graft incorporation (Truumees et al. in Spine 28:1097-1102, 2003). However, there is little evidence that a compressive force is maintained once the force applicator has been removed, or that the divergent screws enhance compression. This study compared the maintenance of applied pre-load force, across cervical spine graft, between standard anterior plating technique with pre-load and divergent screws and a novel plate technique, which allows its application prior to removal of the force applicator. Six intact adult cadaveric human cervical spines were exposed by standard surgical technique. A Casper type distracter was inserted across the disc space of interest, the disc was removed. In 14 experiments, following the disc removal, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was inserted under distraction, together with a strain gauge pressure transducer. A resting output from the transducer was recorded. The voltage output has a linear relationship with compressive force. A standardised compressive force was applied across the graft through the "Casper type" distracter/compressor (7.5 kg, torque). The pre-load compressive force was measured using a torque drill. Then two different procedures were used in order to compare the final applied strain on the bone graft. In eight experiments (procedure 1), the "Casper type" distracter/compressor was removed and a standard anterior cervical plate with four divergent screws was inserted. In six experiments (procedure 2), a novel plate design was inserted prior to removal of the distracter/compressor, which is not possible with the standard plate design. A final compressive force across the graft was measured. For the standard plate construct (procedure 1), the applied compression force is significantly greater than resting (SO/SC)--P=0.01, but the compression force is not maintained once the compressor is removed (SO/SR)--P=0.27. Final bone graft compression after plate insertion is not significantly different to the resting state (SO/SF)--P=0.16 (Wilcoxon's sign test for paired observation). Application of the plate tended to offload the graft; the final compressive force is 170+/-100% less than the resting force. None of the applied force was maintained (mean 9.5+/-8.8%). For the new plate (procedure 2), the end compressive force (SF) measured across the graft was greater than the resting force (SO) (Pscrews with a plate do not compress graft and rather tend to offload it. (3) Compressive force may be maintained if the plate is applied prior to the force applicator removal. PMID:16421744

  19. Learning from history: Adaptive calibration of 'tilting spine' fiber positioners

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach for determining the calibration parameters of independently-actuated optical fibers in multi-object astronomical fiber positioning systems. This work comes from the development of a new type of piezoelectric motor intended to enhance the 'tilting spine' fiber positioning technology originally created by the Australian Astronomical Observatory. Testing has shown that the motor's performance can vary depending on the fiber's location within its accessible field, meaning that an individual fiber is difficult calibrate with a one-time routine. Better performance has resulted from constantly updating calibration parameters based on the observed movements of the fiber during normal closed-loop positioning. Over time, location-specific historical data is amassed that can be used to better predict the results of a future fiber movement. This is similar to a technique previously proposed by the Australian Astronomical Observatory, but with the addition of location-specific learning....

  20. Effective dose for scoliosis patients undergoing full spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoliotic patients underwent many radiological examinations during their control and treatment periods. Nowadays, few studies have calculated effective dose which is the primary indicator of radiation risk. In this study, the PCXMC program is used to calculate the effective doses associated with scoliosis radiography. Five age groups of patients, proposed by the National Radiological Protection Board, have been chosen: <1, 1-4, 5-9, 10-15 and ?16 y (adult patients). Patient and radiographic data were collected from 99 patient examinations for both anteroposterior and lateral full spine X-ray projections. Results showed the effective dose ranged from 118 to 1596 ?Sv for the frontal projection and from 97 to 1370 ?Sv for the lateral projection, with patient age varying from 3 months to 22 y. This study presents the effective dose against patient age and demonstrates the necessity to optimise patient protection for this type of examination. (authors)

  1. Anterior surgical approaches to the sub-axial cervical spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosla V

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cervical spine surgery has come of age, as a golden route for treating anteriorly placed cervical compressions ranging from simple prolapsed disc to long segment pathologies like ossification of posterior longitudinal ligaments and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Numerous technical modifications of the procedure are described. The role of stabilisation established for several pathologies, is still debateable in surgery for cervical disc. Bone is the ideal tissue for fusion. Hydroxyapetite implants are goods, but costly for our set up. Methylmethacrylate has a limited role in elderly patients with malignancy and a short life expectancy. Anterior cervical instrumentation has mushroomed over the last decade. Acceptable as methods of immediate stabilisation, the choice of the system varies with the surgeon. The authors use simple titanium plates with locking screws for the purpose.

  2. Plastic optical fibre sensor for spine bending monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study on the application of plastic optical fibre for spine bending monitoring based on an intensity modulation. The bending angle is measured as the angle between the emitting and receiving fibres is changed. The measured light attenuation is compared with a theoretical evaluation and the differences between these values are discussed. It was found that the light attenuation for the light intensity agreed well (margin of error < 15%) with the theoretical value for the range between 180° (representing no bend) and 200° and it was significantly increased for the bending angle beyond that value due to the effect of fibre gap increment which resulted in a less reliable experimental estimation.

  3. Developmental stenosis of the cervical spine in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental stenosis of the cervical spine results in a reduction of the caliber of the cervical spinal canal that is greatest in the anteroposterior dimensions. This usually becomes symptomatic in adults when a myelopathy may result from compression of the cervical cord by small osteophytes or by hyperextension injury without fracture or dislocation. Although incidence and prevalence data are not available, this condition does occur in the pediatric population since we have encountered three adolescents with this condition. The diagnosis of cervical spinal stenosis can be suggested when narrowing of the sagittal diameter of the spinal canal on a lateral cervical radiograph is identified. Subsequent corroboration can be obtained with myelography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  4. Review Article: MRI of the postoperative lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Parizel, P.M. [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, Edegem 2650 (Belgium); Jinkins, J.R. [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Pennsylvania-Hahnemann University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Imaging assessment of the lumbosacral spine following surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including the anatomy of the patient, the surgical procedure and the disease process for which it was performed, the age of the patient, the biomechanical condition of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone, intervertebral disc and musculoligamentous tissues, the time since surgery procedure and the duration and nature of the postsurgical syndrome. Depending upon these factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities may be required to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality, to assist the surgeon in deciding if repeat surgery is necessary, its nature and at which vertebral level(s) it should be directed. This review stresses the important role of MRI following lumbar discectomy, intervertebral fusion and/or instrumentation in achieving the most beneficial and timely outcome in the patient presenting with an acute, subacute or chronic failed back surgery syndrome. (orig.)

  5. An evaluation of agreement between pectoral spines and otoliths for estimating ages of catfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, J.A.; Schramm, Harold, Jr.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Irwin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths have been shown to provide more accurate ages than pectoral spine sections for several catfish populations; but sampling otoliths requires euthanizing the specimen, whereas spines can be sampled non-lethally. To evaluate whether, and under what conditions, spines provide the same or similar age estimates as otoliths, we examined data sets of individual fish aged from pectoral spines and otoliths for six blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus populations (n=420), 14 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations (n=997), and 10 flathead catfish Pylodictus olivaris populations (n=947) from lotic and lentic waters throughout the central and eastern U.S. Logistic regression determined that agreement between ages estimated from otoliths and spines was consistently related to age, but inconsistently related to growth rate. When modeled at mean growth rate, we found at least 80% probability of no difference in spine- and otolith-assigned ages up to ages 4 and 5 for blue and channel catfish, respectively. For flathead catfish, an 80% probability of agreement between spine- and otolith-assigned ages did not occur at any age due to high incidence of differences in assigned ages even for age-1 fish. Logistic regression models predicted at least 80% probability that spine and otolith ages differed by ?1 year up to ages 13, 16, and 9 for blue, channel, and flathead catfish, respectively. Age-bias assessment found mean spine-assigned age differed by less than 1 year from otolith-assigned age up to ages 19, 9, and 17 for blue catfish, channel catfish, and flathead catfish, respectively. These results can be used to help guide decisions about which structure is most appropriate for estimating catfish ages for particular populations and management objectives.

  6. MR distinction between multiple myeloma and metastasis involving the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Joon; Jee, Won Hee; Lee, Bae Young; Kim, Yeon Shil; Kim, Bum Soo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Ha, Kee Yong [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    To differentiate multiple myeloma from metastasis involving the spine at MR imaging. Twenty-five patients with multiple myeloma and 37 with vertebral metastasis were included in this study. MR images were retrospectively analyzed with regard to imfiltration and enhancement patterns, signa. intensity, the involvement of three consecutive vertebrae, the number of lesions within one vertebra, and paraspinal and epidural masses. Using a 1.5-T imager, we obtained sagittal and axial, unenhanced and enhanced T1-weighted images, and fast spin-echo images. For statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test was used. All cases of multiple myeloma and metastasis showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and there were no significant differences in signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and there were no significant differences in signal intensities or enhancement patterns.Infilration and enhancement patterns were classified as focal (52% in multiple myeloma vs 68% in metastasis, p>0.05), diffuse (32% vs 32%, p>0.05) or salt and pepper (16% vs 0%, p<0.05) pattern. Differentiation between multiple myeloma and metastasis was based on two criteria; the involvement of three consecutive vertebrae (80% vs 43%, p<0.01), and the presence of more than five lesions within one vertebra (59% vs 8%, p<0.05). On fast spin-echo T2-weighted images, signal intensity was as follows; hyperintensity (12% vs 32%, p>0.05), isointensity (36% vs 3%. p<0.05), and hypointensity (52% vs 65%, p>0.05). Paraspinal and epidural masses played little part. The salt and pepper infiltration pattern, the presence of more than five lesions within one vertebra, and the involvement of more than three consecutive vertebrae were useful MR findings for differentiation between multiple myeloma and metastasis involving the spine. In most cases, hjowever, it is difficult to distinguish between the two conditions.

  7. The influences of bowel condition with lumbar spine BMD measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon; Lee, Hoo Min; Lee, Jung Min; Kwon, Soon Mu; Cho, Hyung Wook [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Min; Kang, Yeong Han; Kim, Boo Soon; Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Diagonostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Bone density measurement use of diagnosis of osteoporosis and it is an important indicator for treatment as well as prevention. But errors in degree of precision of BMD can be occurred by status of patient, bone densitometer and radiological technologist. Therefore the author evaluated that how BMD changes according to the condition of the patient. As Lumbar region, which could lead to substantial effects on bone density by diverse factors such as the water, food, intentional bowels. We recognized a change of bone mineral density in accordance with the height of the water tank and in the presence or absence of the gas using the Aluminum Spine Phantom. We also figured out the influence of bone mineral density by increasing the water and food into a target on the volunteers. Measured bone mineral density through Aluminum Spine Phantom had statistically significant difference accordance with increasing the height of water tank(p=0.026). There was no significant difference in BMD according to the existence of the bowl gas(p=0.587). There was no significant difference in a study of six people targeted volunteers in the presence or absence of the food(p=0.812). And also there was no significant difference according to the existence of water(p=0.618). If it is not difficult to recognize the surround of bone in measuring BMD of lumbar bone, it is not the factor which has the great effect on bone mineral density whether the test is after endoscopic examination of large intestine and patient’s fast or not.

  8. Biomechanics of the spine. Part II: Spinal instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, Roberto, E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A.Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guarnieri, Gianluigi, E-mail: gianluigiguarnieri@hotmail.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A.Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guglielmi, Giuseppe, E-mail: g.gugliemi@unifg.it [Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A.Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early deterioration of spinal components. All bony and soft spinal components contribute to stability, so any degenerative, traumatic or destructive lesion to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Degenerative instability is considered a major cause of axial and radicular pain and is a frequent indication for surgery. Nevertheless the assessment of instability remains difficult in both clinical and imaging settings. All static imaging modalities, even conventional MR, the most accurate technique, are unreliable in assessing instability and chronic pain due to degenerative spine. Dynamic-positional MR is considered the most sophisticated imaging modality to evaluate abnormal spinal motion and instability. In spinal traumas, as multi-detector CT yields high-resolution reconstructions in every spatial plane, it will detect even the tiniest fractures revealing potentially unstable lesions, often avoid the routine use of MR. Nevertheless, MR remains the only modality that will directly and routinely assess soft tissue changes. Unfortunately the objectivity of MR in assessing the integrity of ligaments is not rigorously defined and its use in routine protocols to clear blunt spinal injuries remains controversial. There are no evidence-based guidelines currently available to assess the risk of spinal instability in the setting of neoplastic spinal disease, so predicting the risk of a pathological fracture or the timing of a collapse remains challenging even when the lesions are well-characterized by neuroimaging. Diagnostic difficulties lead to controversy in the choice of the best treatment in all forms of spinal instability.

  9. MR imaging of epidural hematoma in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To bring attention to the MR imaging appearance of epidural hematoma (EDH) in the lumbar spine as a small mass often associated with disk herniation or an acute event. This paper will show our experience with this entity and describe criteria for its MR imaging appearance. Design and patients. Thirteen cases of prospectively diagnosed EDH of the lumbar spine were compared with 12 cases of prospectively diagnosed prominent epidural extrusion. Our criteria were retrospectively evaluated by the two authors for their presence or absence in each case. The chi-square test for nominal data was applied. MR imaging criteria utilized to distinguish EDH from disk herniation at our institution include: (1) signal different from disk, (2) high signal on T1-weighted images, either centrally or peripherally, (3) teardrop- or egg-shaped mass, in the sagittal plane, (4) size greater than half the vertebral body height in a craniocaudal dimension, (5) primarily retrosomatic epidural location, (6) plasticity - the mass is seen to conform closely to the contours of bone (e.g., in the lateral recess), (7) little or no disk space narrowing unless associated with disc herniation. Chi-square analysis demonstrated each criterion to significantly differentiate between EDH and extrusion. Only six of 13 EDH cases went to surgery in spite of their relatively large size. Two of six patients were diagnosed as having epidural clot consistent with hematoma at the time of surgery. The four patients who were not diagnosed at surgery revealed only small disk herniations or fragments of disk. The occurrence of EDH is more frequent than previously suspected. Spontaneous EDH is frequently associated with disk herniation and acute events such as sneezing or coughing. Most cases of spontaneous EDH will resolve prior to surgery with only the minority becoming chronic in order to be seen at surgery as an encapsulated mass. MR imaging can reliably identify EDH and distinguish between EDH and large disk extrusions. (orig.)

  10. Performance of a Novel Repositioning Head Frame for Gamma Knife Perfexion and Image-Guided Linac-Based Intracranial Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the geometric positioning and immobilization performance of a vacuum bite-block repositioning head frame (RHF) system for Perfexion (PFX-SRT) and linac-based intracranial image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with intracranial tumors received linac-based image-guided SRT using the RHF for setup and immobilization. Three hundred thirty-three fractions of radiation were delivered in 12 patients. The accuracy of the RHF was estimated for linac-based SRT with online cone-beam CT (CBCT) and for PFX-SRT with a repositioning check tool (RCT) and offline CBCT. The RCT's ability to act as a surrogate for anatomic position was estimated through comparison to CBCT image matching. Immobilization performance was evaluated daily with pre- and postdose delivery CBCT scans and RCT measurements. Results: The correlation coefficient between RCT- and CBCT-reported displacements was 0.59, 0.75, 0.79 (Right, Superior, and Anterior, respectively). For image-guided linac-based SRT, the mean three-dimensional (3D) setup error was 0.8 mm with interpatient (?) and interfraction (?) variations of 0.1 and 0.4 mm, respectively. For PFX-SRT, the initial, uncorrected mean 3D positioning displacement in stereotactic coordinates was 2.0 mm, with ? = 1.1 mm and ? = 0.8 mm. Considering only RCT setups o in pitch. The mean 3D intrafraction motion was 0.4 ± 0.3 mm. Conclusion: The RHF provides excellent immobilization for intracranial SRT and PFX-SRT. Some small systematic uncertainties in stereotactic positioning exist and must be considered when generating PFX-SRT treatment plans. The RCT provides reasonable surrogacy for internal anatomic displacement.

  11. Fatal outcome after insufficient spine fixation for pyogenic thoracic spondylodiscitis: an imperative for 360° fusion of the infected spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Ernest E

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyogenic spondylodiscitis represents a potentially life-threatening condition. Due to the low incidence, evidence-based surgical recommendations in the literature are equivocal, and the treatment modalities remain controversial. Case presentation A 59 year-old patient presented with a history of thoracic spondylodiscitis resistant to antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks, progressive severe back pain, and a new onset of bilateral lower extremity weakness. Clinically, the patient showed a deteriorating spastic paraparesis of her lower extremities. An emergent MRI revealed a kyphotic wedge compression fracture at T7/T8 with significant spinal cord compression, paravertebral and epidural abscess, and signs of myelopathy. The patient underwent surgical debridement with stabilization of the anterior column from T6–T9 using an expandable titanium cage, autologous bone graft, and an anterolateral locking plate. The patient recovered well under adjunctive antibiotic treatment. She presented again to the emergency department 6 months later, secondary to a repeat fall, with acute paraplegia of the lower extremities and radiographic evidence of failure of fixation of the anterior T-spine. She underwent antero-posterior revision fixation with hardware removal, correction of kyphotic malunion, evacuation of a recurrent epidural abscess, decompression of the spinal canal, and 360° fusion from T2–T11. Despite the successful salvage procedure, the patient deteriorated in the postoperative phase, when she developed multiple complications including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, bacterial meningitis, abdominal compartment syndrome, followed by septic shock with multiple organ failure and a lethal outcome within two weeks after revision surgery. Conclusion This catastrophic example of a lethal outcome secondary to failure of anterior column fixation for pyogenic thoracic spondylodiscitis underlines the notion that surgical strategies for the infected spine must be aimed at achieving absolute stability by a 360° fusion. This aggressive – albeit controversial – concept allows for an adequate infection control by adjunctive antibiotics and reduces the imminent risk of a secondary loss of fixation due to compromises in initial fixation techniques.

  12. Chemical senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoshuk, L M; Beauchamp, G K

    1994-01-01

    In the last decade, studies using approaches from molecular biology have substantially advanced our understanding of the early events in olfaction and taste. The many odorants that we can recognize may well interact with many distinct receptor proteins. Of the four taste qualities that we recognize, studies on salty and sour suggest that these tastes involve ion channels in the membrane of receptor cells while sweets and bitters bind to receptor proteins. Some volatiles (pheromones) play special roles in reproductive behavior via the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the accessory olfactory system. Initial belief that humans lack a VNO has been questioned recently, thus raising the fascinating possibility of human pheromones. The roles that taste and smell play in the world of the newborn are very different. Acceptance of sweet and rejection of bitter appear to be hard-wired while the affect associated with odors depends much more on experience. Genetic variation may produce total losses (Kallman's syndrome produces anosmia and familial dysautonomia produces ageusia) or losses specific to certain stimuli. The best known of the specific anosmias is that for androstenone, which has no smell to some, a urinous smell to others, and a smell like sandalwood to still others. Analogous to the specific anosmias, some individuals are unable to taste PROP while others, supertasters, perceive PROP to be exceedingly bitter. Clinical studies reveal pathologies responsible for total or partial losses. The olfactory system, dependent on one cranial nerve, is more vulnerable than taste, and total anosmia is a relatively common clinical problem. Three cranial nerves carry taste and two of those nerves inhibit one another such that damage to one disinhibits the other and preserves over-all taste function. Total ageusia is very rare. Throughout these studies we see that taste and olfaction have different properties and often different functions (e.g. odor and reproduction). Yet taste and smell can also be integrated to determine what does or does not enter the body. In Adrian's words, "we are dealing with the sense organs which signal the quality of the air we breathe and that of the food and drink we propose to swallow." PMID:8135507

  13. The Actions of BDNF on Dendritic Spine Density and Morphology in Organotypic Slice Cultures Depend on the Presence of Serum in Culture Media

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher A. Chapleau; Carlo, Maria E.; Larimore, Jennifer L.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) increases dendritic spine density and the proportion of stubby spines in apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampal slice cultures maintained in serum-free media. We show here that serum withdrawal causes an increase in the proportion of thin spines and a decrease in the fraction of stubby spines, without changing the overall density of dendritic spines. When slices are maintained in serum-containing media, B...

  14. Improved MR imaging of the cervical spine, 2; Study of disk protrusion in the cervical spine in flexion-versus-extension views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanno, Munehiko; Kyomasu, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Masafumi (Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-12-01

    Comparative study of incidence of disk protrusion was performed on the basis of MR imaging in a state of flexion versus extension. The results showed that the incidnece of disk protrusion at each disk level was generally higher on the extension images than on the flexion images at the corresponding levels. The degree of difference in the incidence of the disk protrusion on flexion and extension was the greatest at the mid-cervical level spine. Based on the results with respect to features of the cervical spine in extension and flexion, it appears that the difference in incidence of disk protrusion is probably caused by movement in response to bending of the cervical spine. These results may provide information concerning the dynamic of cervical disks and may partly explain cases in which patients have symptoms of cervical myelopathy and/or radiculopathy but have no disk protrusion on images in the neutral position. (author).

  15. Wound infiltration with local anesthetics for post-operative pain relief in lumbar spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, M; Møiniche, S; Olsen, K S

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we evaluated double-blind, randomized and controlled trials on the effect of wound infiltration with local anesthetics compared with the effect of placebo on post-operative pain after lumbar spine surgery.

  16. Cervical Spine Functional Anatomy and the Biomechanics of Injury Due to Compressive Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Erik E.; Floyd, R. T.; Cendoma, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide a foundation of knowledge concerning the functional anatomy, kinematic response, and mechanisms involved in axial-compression cervical spine injury as they relate to sport injury.

  17. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI study of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the thoracic spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in the diagnosis and differentiation of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in the thoracic spine. Methods: The dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of 2 patients (3 times) with PNET in the thoracic spine proved by surgery and pathology were prospectively studied. Results: In the curves of SI-time and CER-time, PNET in the thoracic spine showed a rapid rise to the peak between 60 s and 120 s, then the flat level was kept and no obvious decline was detected after about 3.5 minute. Conclusion: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI can help to make the diagnosis and differential diagnosis for PNET in the thoracic spine, offer reliable information for the choice of clinical management, and predict the prognosis

  18. Endotracheal intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilization: a comparison of macintosh and airtraq laryngoscopes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2007-07-01

    The Airtraq laryngoscope (Prodol Ltd., Vizcaya, Spain) is a novel single-use tracheal intubation device. The authors compared ease of intubation with the Airtraq and Macintosh laryngoscopes in patients with cervical spine immobilization in a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

  19. The rheumatoid cervical spine: Signs of instability on plain cervical radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Clare J.; Eyes, Brian E.; Whitehouse, Graham H

    2002-04-01

    The cervical spine is a common focus of destruction from rheumatoid arthritis, second only to the metacarpophalangeal joints. Joint, bone and ligament damage in the cervical spine leads to subluxations which can cause cervical cord compression resulting in paralysis and even sudden death. Because many patients with significant subluxations are asymptomatic, the radiologist plays a key role in recognizing the clinically important clues to instability on plain radiographs of the cervical spine-often difficult in rheumatoid arthritis when the bony landmarks are osteoporotic or eroded. This review focuses on the signs of instability on plain radiographs of the cervical spine, using diagrams and clinical examples to illustrate methods of identifying significant subluxations in rheumatoid arthritis. Roche, C.J., Eyes, B.E. and Whitehouse, G.H. (2002)

  20. Non-Spine Bone Metastasis as an Initial Manifestation of Cancer in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wanlim; Han, Ilkyu; Kang, Seungcheol; Lee, Sang A.; Kim, Han-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Non-spine bone metastasis accounts for approximately 20% of all skeletal metastases, but little data have been published that focused on bone metastasis to the pelvis and extremities as an initial manifestation of cancer. We determined 1) clinicopathologic characteristics of patients who presented with non-spine bone metastasis of unknown primary malignancy, and 2) process by which the diagnosis of primary cancer was made. We retrospectively reviewed 84 patients with bone metastasis of unknow...