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1

A new measurement method for spine reposition sense.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A cost effective tool for the measurement of trunk reposition sense is needed clinically. This study evaluates the reliability and validity of a new clinical spine reposition sense device. METHODS: The first part of this three part investigation included 45 asymptomatic subjects examined in the first 20 repeated trials portion assessing spine reposition sense. The second portion, test-retest, examined 57 asymptomatic subjects. Initial testing consisted of subjects sitting on the device and performing 20 trials of a self-determined 2/3 trunk flexion position. The second portion of the study involved 7 trials of trunk flexion performed twice. The angular position for each trial was calculated and the mean reposition error from the initial 2/3 position was determined. For the third portion, the new device was compared to the Skill Technologies 6D (ST6D) Imperial Motion Capture and Analysis System. RESULTS: ICC (3,1) for trials 4-7 was 0.79 and 0.76 for time one and time two, respectively and the test-retest ICC (3,k) was 0.38. Due to the poor test-retest ICC, the Bland Altman method was used to compare test and retest absolute errors. Most measurement differences were small and fell within the 95% confidence interval. Comparable measures between the two methods were found using the Bland Altman method to compare the reposition sense device to the ST6D system. CONCLUSION: The device may be a cost effective clinical technique for sagittal trunk reposition sense measurement.

Petersen CM; Zimmermann CL; Cope S; Bulow ME; Ewers-Panveno E

2008-01-01

2

Lumbar spine repositioning sense in adolescents with and without non-specific chronic low back pain - An analysis based on sub-classification and spinal regions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in repositioning error in adolescents with and without non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP), sub-groups of NSCLBP and in different spinal regions. METHODS: Spinal repositioning error was measured during a seated task. Variables were constant error (CE), absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) for lower lumbar, upper lumbar and lumbar angles. 28 subjects with NSCLBP were sub-classified using O'Sullivans system and compared to 28 healthy controls. RESULTS: Significant differences were noted for AE between adolescents with and without NSCLBP, but no differences were found for CE or VE. When sub-grouped there was a pattern for lower AE and higher VE in the flexion sub-group. This group also displayed a tendency to undershoot the criterion position in the lower lumbar spine. Greater VE was noted in the extension sub-group and those with no NSCLBP in the upper lumbar compared to the lower lumbar spine. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in spinal repositioning errors were noted between adolescents with and without NSCLBP and sub-groups of NSCLBP. Those with flexion-pattern NSCLBP had the lowest levels of spinal repositioning ability. Individuals with no-LBP (low-back pain) or extension-pattern NSCLBP displayed greater variability in the upper lumbar spine.

Astfalck RG; O'Sullivan PB; Smith AJ; Straker LM; Burnett AF

2013-10-01

3

Extradural injections and manual repositioning of spine in treatment of megalgia caused by cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain if it is effective to use extradural injections and manual repositioning of the spine to treat megalgia caused by cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). METHODS: Patients with megalgia caused by CSR were divided into a treatment group (n = 46) treated by extradural injection and manual repositioning of the spine and a control group (n = 46) treated by a conventional method. RESULTS: The prevalence of cure was 58.69% and the total prevalence of effective cure in the treatment group was 97.83% and was 23.91% and 78.26%, respectively, in the control group: this difference between the two groups was significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Treatment of megalgia caused by CSR by extradural injections and manual repositioning of the spine has a good curative effect with rapid analgesia and short therapeutic course.

Liu Y; Liu X; Zhang X; Zhang H

2013-02-01

4

Creativity Repositioned  

Science.gov (United States)

|Creativity is the cultural capital of the twenty-first century. This article presents an argument for the arts to lead a new wave of education reform that repositions creativity as the centerpiece of an education that prepares a generation of change agents for doing good.|

Sheridan-Rabideau, Mark

2010-01-01

5

Compressed-sensing multispectral imaging of the postoperative spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To apply compressed sensing (CS) to in vivo multispectral imaging (MSI), which uses additional encoding to avoid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) artifacts near metal, and demonstrate the feasibility of CS-MSI in postoperative spinal imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen subjects referred for spinal MRI were examined using T2-weighted MSI. A CS undersampling factor was first determined using a structural similarity index as a metric for image quality. Next, these fully sampled datasets were retrospectively undersampled using a variable-density random sampling scheme and reconstructed using an iterative soft-thresholding method. The fully and undersampled images were compared using a 5-point scale. Prospectively undersampled CS-MSI data were also acquired from two subjects to ensure that the prospective random sampling did not affect the image quality. RESULTS: A two-fold outer reduction factor was deemed feasible for the spinal datasets. CS-MSI images were shown to be equivalent or better than the original MSI images in all categories: nerve visualization: P = 0.00018; image artifact: P = 0.00031; image quality: P = 0.0030. No alteration of image quality and T2 contrast was observed from prospectively undersampled CS-MSI. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the inherently sparse nature of MSI data allows modest undersampling followed by CS reconstruction with no loss of diagnostic quality.

Worters PW; Sung K; Stevens KJ; Koch KM; Hargreaves BA

2013-01-01

6

[Baumann shoulder reposition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An untraumatic method for the reposition of dislocated shoulders without any analgesia is presented. That the way of this method must be right, is proved by a short historical view and by case reports; On one side by the inventor of this method and on the other side by a retrospective study from the orthopedic department of the Kantonsspital of St. Gallen. How to do this reposition is clearly described by words and pictures.

Herkert F; Ruflin G

1992-01-01

7

Centromere repositioning in mammals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The evolutionary history of chromosomes can be tracked by the comparative hybridization of large panels of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. This approach has disclosed an unprecedented phenomenon: 'centromere repositioning', that is, the movement of the centromere along the chromosome without marker order variation. The occurrence of evolutionary new centromeres (ENCs) is relatively frequent. In macaque, for instance, 9 out of 20 autosomal centromeres are evolutionarily new; in donkey at least 5 such neocentromeres originated after divergence from the zebra, in less than 1 million years. Recently, orangutan chromosome 9, considered to be heterozygous for a complex rearrangement, was discovered to be an ENC. In humans, in addition to neocentromeres that arise in acentric fragments and result in clinical phenotypes, 8 centromere-repositioning events have been reported. These 'real-time' repositioned centromere-seeding events provide clues to ENC birth and progression. In the present paper, we provide a review of the centromere repositioning. We add new data on the population genetics of the ENC of the orangutan, and describe for the first time an ENC on the X chromosome of squirrel monkeys. Next-generation sequencing technologies have started an unprecedented, flourishing period of rapid whole-genome sequencing. In this context, it is worth noting that these technologies, uncoupled from cytogenetics, would miss all the biological data on evolutionary centromere repositioning. Therefore, we can anticipate that classical and molecular cytogenetics will continue to have a crucial role in the identification of centromere movements. Indeed, all ENCs and human neocentromeres were found following classical and molecular cytogenetic investigations.

Rocchi M; Archidiacono N; Schempp W; Capozzi O; Stanyon R

2012-01-01

8

STRATEGICALLY REPOSITIONING RUSSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Positioning is a very important marketing concept. Its importance was strongly emphasized and implemented in the case of companies, but is somehow neglected when it comes to states. A country acquires a position in the mind of a person very much like any other product does, which is very important especially when that person exerts an executive role. Nowadays Russia has a poor image or no image at all, both internationally and in Romania. In order to regain an important position in the Balkans region, Russia must set aside any political agenda and reposition itself as a business partner on equal terms. The first goal of this article is to clarify Russias position in the minds of future Romanian executives. The second goal is to outline a recommended course of actions for Russias repositioning.

Popescu Andrei; Caescu Stefan Claudiu; Brandabur Raluca Ecaterina

2011-01-01

9

[Two-stage reposition and fixation of spondyloptosis with Harrington instrumentation and anterior intercorporal spondylodesis (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On the basis of 3 cases of true spondyloptosis, a two-step operation for repositioning and stabilisation using Harrington's instrumentation with anterior intercorporeal spine fusion is recommended. The first operation involves repositioning with the help of Harrington's rod through a dorsal approach. Approximately 2 weeks later, the distraction is increased by tightening the rod again. Reposition is then completed through an anterior transabdominal approach and an intercorporeal lumbar sacral fusion performed.

Morscher E

1975-12-01

10

Orthodontic Repositioning Applicance  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An invisible removable orthodontic repositioning appliance with a lower modulus inner lining for systematically aligning teeth from an initial tooth arrangement to a final tooth arrangement while minimizing propensity for root and bone resorption due to the lower modulus is disclosed. The aligning of the teeth may be accomplished by taking impressions at various intervals for greater accuracy in the event of a distorted impression. Patient impression and/or model may then be digitally scanned. Using 3D software, tooth position may be incrementally modified toward idealized position and associated stress analyzed. Final modified model and associated appliance may be fabricated for orthodontic movement using 3D printing. Each appliance may be numerically identified to maintain uniformity of application from start of treatment to completion. The forces required for the alignment may be from polymeric material used to fabricate the orthodontic appliances, the shape memory alloy, and/or micro-implants to accomplish optimal tooth movement.

KALILI THOMAS

11

ORTHODONTIC REPOSITIONING APPLIANCE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an invisible removable orthodontic repositioning appliance with a lower modulus inner lining for systematically aligning teeth from an initial tooth arrangement to a final tooth arrangement while minimizing propensity for root and bone resorption due to the lower modulus. The aligning of the teeth may be accomplished by taking impressions at various intervals for greater accuracy in the event of a distorted impression. Patient impression and/or model may then be digitally scanned. Using 3D software, tooth position may be incrementally modified toward idealized position and associated stress analyzed. Final modified model and associated appliance may be fabricated with for orthodontic movement using 3D printer. Each appliance may be numerically identified to maintain uniformity of application from start of , treatment to completion.The forces required for the alignment may be from polymeric material used to fabricate the orthodontic appliances, the shape memory alloy, and/or micro-implants with various attachments, including magnetic attachments to allow for three potential types of cooperating forces toward optimal tooth movement.

KALILI THOMAS

12

ORTHODONTIC REPOSITIONING APPLIANCE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an invisible removable orthodontic repositioning appliance with a lower modulus inner lining for systematically aligning tee th from an initial tooth arrangement to a final tooth arrangement while mini mizing propensity for root and bone resorption due to the lower modulus. The aligning of the teeth may be accomplished by taking impressions at various intervals for greater accuracy in the event of a distorted impression. Patie nt impression and/or model may then be digitally scanned. Using 3D software, tooth position may be incrementally modified toward idealized position and associated stress analyzed. Final modified model and associated appliance ma y be fabricated with for orthodontic movement using 3D printer. Each applian ce may be numerically identified to maintain uniformity of application from start of , treatment to completion. The forces required for the alignment ma y be from polymeric material used to fabricate the orthodontic appliances, t he shape memory alloy, and/or micro-implants with various attachments, inclu ding magnetic attachments to allow for three potential types of cooperating forces toward optimal tooth movement.

KALILI THOMAS

13

Orthodontic repositioning appliance  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an invisible removable orthodontic repositioning appliance with a lower modulus inner lining for systematically aligning teeth from an initial tooth arrangement to a final tooth arrangement while minimizing propensity for root and bone resorption due to the lower modulus. The aligning of the teeth may be accomplished by taking impressions at various intervals for greater accuracy in the event of a distorted impression. Patient impression and/or model may then be digitally scanned. Using 3D software, tooth position may be incrementally modified toward idealized position and associated stress analyzed. Final modified model and associated appliance may be fabricated with for orthodontic movement using 3D printer. Each appliance may be numerically identified to maintain uniformity of application from start of treatment to completion.The forces required for the alignment may be from polymeric material used to fabricate the orthodontic appliances, the shape memory alloy, and/or micro-implants with various attachments, including magnetic attachments to allow for three potential types of cooperating forces toward optimal tooth movement.

KALILI TOM

14

Network-based drug repositioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Network-based computational biology, with the emphasis on biomolecular interactions and omics-data integration, has had success in drug development and created new directions such as drug repositioning and drug combination. Drug repositioning, i.e., revealing a drug's new roles, is increasingly attracting much attention from the pharmaceutical community to tackle the problems of high failure rate and long-term development in drug discovery. While drug combination or drug cocktails, i.e., combining multiple drugs against diseases, mainly aims to alleviate the problems of the recurrent emergence of drug resistance and also reveal their synergistic effects. In this paper, we unify the two topics to reveal new roles of drug interactions from a network perspective by treating drug combination as another form of drug repositioning. In particular, first, we emphasize that rationally repositioning drugs in the large scale is driven by the accumulation of various high-throughput genome-wide data. These data can be utilized to capture the interplay among targets and biological molecules, uncover the resulting network structures, and further bridge molecular profiles and phenotypes. This motivates many network-based computational methods on these topics. Second, we organize these existing methods into two categories, i.e., single drug repositioning and drug combination, and further depict their main features by three data sources. Finally, we discuss the merits and shortcomings of these methods and pinpoint some future topics in this promising field.

Wu Z; Wang Y; Chen L

2013-06-01

15

Challenges and opportunities of drug repositioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drug repositioning is an innovation stream of pharmaceutical development that offers advantages for drug developers along with safer medicines for patients. Several drugs have been successfully repositioned to a new indication, with the most prominent of them being viagra and thalidomide, which have generated historically high revenues. In line with these developments, most of the recent articles and reviews on repositioning are focused on success stories, leaving behind the challenges that repositioned compounds have on the way to the clinic. Here, I analyze repositioning as a business opportunity for pharmaceutical companies, weighing both challenges and opportunities of repositioning. In addition, I suggest extended profiling as a lower-risk cost-effective repositioning model for pharmaceutical companies and elucidate the novel collaborative business opportunities that help to realize repositioning of shelved and marketed compounds.

Novac N

2013-05-01

16

An economic analysis of repositioning for the prevention of pressure ulcers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare pressure ulcer incidence and costs associated with repositioning older individuals in long-term care using two different repositioning regimes. BACKGROUND: Repositioning has not always been integrated into pressure ulcer preventative methods, with arguments that it is an expensive procedure in terms of personnel and time. DESIGN: Participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n = 99; repositioned every 3 hours, using the 30° tilt) and the control group (n = 114 standard care, repositioned every 6 hours, using the 90° lateral rotation). The analysis explored the incidence of pressure ulcer development and the cost difference between the two repositioning schedules, over a 4-week period. RESULTS: The mean daily nurse time for repositioning was 18·5 minutes (experimental) and 24·5 minutes (control). Nurse time cost per patient over the study period was €206·6 (experimental) and €253·1 (control), 96·6% of participants (experimental) remained free of pressure ulcers, compared with 88·1% (control). The cost per patient free of ulcer was €213·9 (experimental) and €287·3 (control). Projected annual costs were estimated for the 588 (53·5%) residents in the 12 study sites requiring repositioning. The cost would be €1·59 m (experimental) and €2·10 m (control), a cost difference of €510,000. This represents a difference of 58·8 hours of nurse time, equivalent to approximately 12 full time nurses across the 12 sites. CONCLUSION: Repositioning every 3 hours, using 30° tilt, has been shown to be more effective in less costly in terms of nurse time compared with standard care. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Repositioning individuals at risk of pressure ulcer development makes both economic and clinical sense, thereby supporting the EPUAP/NPUAP 2009 guidelines.

Moore Z; Cowman S; Posnett J

2013-08-01

17

Polymer reptation and nucleosome repositioning  

CERN Multimedia

We consider how beads can diffuse along a chain that wraps them, without becoming displaced from the chain; our proposed mechanism is analogous to the reptation of "stored length" in more familiar situations of polymer dynamics. The problem arises in the case of globular aggregates of proteins (histones) that are wound by DNA in the chromosomes of plants and animals; these beads (nucleosomes) are multiply wrapped and yet are able to reposition themselves over long distances, while remaining bound by the DNA chain.

Schiessel, H; Bruinsma, R F; Gelbart, W M

2001-01-01

18

Lumbar position sense and the risk of low back injuries in college athletes: a prospective cohort study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired proprioception in the lumbar spine has often been reported in people with low back pain. However, no prospective studies exist to assert the cause and effect of this association. We hypothesized that athletes with a history of low back injury (LBI) would demonstrate poorer lumbar position sense (PS) than athletes without a history of LBI, and that this deficit would be a risk factor for future LBI. Methods This was a prospective cohort study with 2–3 year follow-up. Lumbar spine PS in the transverse plane was evaluated in 292 athletes using three tests: 1) passive and 2) active trunk repositioning, and 3) motion perception threshold. Mean absolute (accuracy) and variable (precision) errors were computed. Results There were no significant differences in the repositioning errors or motion perception threshold between athletes with and without a history of LBI or between those who did and did not get injured during the follow-up. Active trunk repositioning resulted in smaller errors than passive repositioning (1.6°± 0.8°) versus 2.1°± 1.0°) and 1.7°± 0.8°) versus 2.3°± 1.1°) for the absolute and relative errors, respectively). Conclusion Poor trunk PS in transverse plane is not associated with LBI in athletes, nor does it appear that poor trunk PS predisposes athletes to LBI.

Silfies Sheri P; Cholewicki Jacek; Reeves N Peter; Greene Hunter S

2007-01-01

19

Aging Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Family > The Aging Spine PREVIOUS | NEXT > The Aging Spine The aging process causes changes to the spine, which may ... Others are caused by the natural process of aging which can be superimposed on a pre-existing ...

20

Skeletal stability after inferior maxillary repositioning without interpositional graft.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

True vertical maxillary deficiency is a characteristic of short face syndrome. In these patients, inferior repositioning of the maxilla (IRM) is indicated to improve facial aesthetics and function, but this procedure has been described as the most unstable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term, post surgical stability of IRM, fixed with four 2.0mm L-shaped miniplates, without any type of graft. A cephalometric study was performed, analysing linear measurements (anterior nasal spine, the A point, top of the incisor, top of the buccal-mesial cusp of the first molar, and posterior nasal spine on an X-Y coordinate system) traced immediately preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and at least 6 months post operatively. Eight young adult patients who underwent IRM were studied. The average results of this study were: surgical movement of 4.65 mm at I point, 5.32 mm at anterior nasal spine (ANS) point, and 4.70 mm at A point and relapses of 1.60 mm (35%), 2.23 mm (43%) and 2.10 mm (46%), respectively. It was concluded, that IRM using this type of internal rigid fixation without graft is unstable.

Santos SE; Moreira RW; de Moraes M; Asprino L; Araujo MM

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
21

Micromechanics of Sea Urchin Spines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model...

Tsafnat, Naomi; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Le, Hai N.; Stachurski, Zbigniew H.

22

Cervical Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

... style'); } } Share with AANS Connect Tweet Patient Information Cervical Spine February, 2006 Your neck is part of a ... which extends through most of your body. The cervical spine (neck region) consists of seven bones (C1-C7 ...

23

Human experience with canalith repositioning maneuvers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three distinct pathological conditions, related to different means by which dense intralabyrinthine particles interfere with the function of a semicircular canal and cause nystagmus and vertigo, are amenable to treatment with repositioning maneuvers. Known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and variants, these conditions are better designated collectively by the term "vestibular lithiasis." Each form requires a different treatment strategy of head maneuvers and application of other modalities to restore normal semicircular function and thereby eliminate the positional nystagmus and vertigo. Real-time observation of the nystagmus induced by the particles during the maneuvers can greatly facilitate the repositioning process. PMID:11710460

Epley, J M

2001-10-01

24

Human experience with canalith repositioning maneuvers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three distinct pathological conditions, related to different means by which dense intralabyrinthine particles interfere with the function of a semicircular canal and cause nystagmus and vertigo, are amenable to treatment with repositioning maneuvers. Known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and variants, these conditions are better designated collectively by the term "vestibular lithiasis." Each form requires a different treatment strategy of head maneuvers and application of other modalities to restore normal semicircular function and thereby eliminate the positional nystagmus and vertigo. Real-time observation of the nystagmus induced by the particles during the maneuvers can greatly facilitate the repositioning process.

Epley JM

2001-10-01

25

Canalith repositioning for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of canalith repositioning maneuvers (Semont, Epley, and modified maneuvers) in the treatment of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in comparison to the rate of resolution in the untreated control cohort. DATA SOURCES: Source articles were identified by a MEDLINE search of English language sources before 2004 plus manual crosschecks of bibliographies from identified articles, selected national meeting abstracts, review article references, and textbook chapters. STUDY SELECTION: Each controlled trial that compared canalith repositioning patients to untreated control subjects in posterior canal benign positional vertigo (blinded and unblinded) was reviewed for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were abstracted systematically, scaled on validity and comparability, and cross-checked independently by another author. DATA SYNTHESIS: Studies were combined with fixed effects meta-analysis to estimate spontaneous resolution, 95% confidence intervals (CI) of effect size, and heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Canalith repositioning is more effective than observation alone for the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, despite spontaneous resolution rates of one in three at 3 weeks. Public health implications are discussed, based on the high frequency of unrecognized BPPV reported in elderly patients, and the improvements after canalith repositioning in postural control and health-related quality of life (SF 36 Health Survey) documented in the literature.

White J; Savvides P; Cherian N; Oas J

2005-07-01

26

In silico drug repositioning: what we need to know.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drug repositioning, exemplified by sildenafil and thalidomide, is a promising way to explore alternative indications for existing drugs. Recent research has shown that bioinformatics-based approaches have the potential to offer systematic insights into the complex relationships among drugs, targets and diseases necessary for successful repositioning. In this article, we propose the key bioinformatics steps essential for discovering valuable repositioning methods. The proposed steps (repurposing with a purpose, repurposing with a strategy and repurposing with confidence) are aimed at providing a repurposing pipeline, with particular focus on the proposed Drugs of New Indications (DNI) database, which can be used alongside currently available resources to improve in silico drug repositioning.

Liu Z; Fang H; Reagan K; Xu X; Mendrick DL; Slikker W Jr; Tong W

2013-02-01

27

South American policy: a sign for Argentine international repositioning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper summarises some comments and preliminary conclusions of a research project on the Argentine role in South American policy. The starting point is the importance the South American space has gained within the international context, in spite of the fact that it is excluded from the world agenda. One of the fundamental problems of the evolution within this context since the 80s has been the frustration due to the lack of institutionalisation of the different integr (more) ationist schemes. In spite of rivalries, differences and mutual distrust, South American countries have organised a co-operation matrix, tightly-knit and significant. This proves that beyond interstate structures and their crises, the idea of South American integration is always in vogue. In this sense, a response based on the preservation of this idea can be given by Argentina by encouraging initiatives and strategies tending to improve co-operation through consensus in intraregional interdependence matters. This would contribute to reducing the influence of foreign factors as well as setting limits to possible hegemonic roles deriving from regional leaderships. In this way, Argentine participation in South American policy can be an effective possible path way towards international repositioning.

Miranda, Roberto; Rio, Andrea Assenti del

2006-01-01

28

Repositioning free laser in situ keratomileusis flaps.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a protocol for adequate repositioning of free laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) corneal flaps created by a Moria M2 microkeratome even in the absence of fiduciary marks. In an enucleated porcine globe, a free flap was created by initially placing a longitudinal incision at the proposed hinge site followed by activating the forward pass of the automated microkeratome. A protocol was devised based on placement of a positioning dot on the free flap before the flap is retrieved from the microkeratome head. Preplaced surgical landmarks were used as a guide to determine the correct alignment of the free flap. Adequate orientation of the free flap to the stromal bed was achieved in 9 porcine eyes using the positioning dot method. The technique is applicable to the Moria M2 microkeratome only and must be validated for other types of keratomes.

Todani A; Al-Arfaj K; Melki SA

2010-02-01

29

Mechanical oscillopsia after lower eyelid blepharoplasty with fat repositioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Blepharoplasty with fat repositioning is a technique used to fill the tear trough in the aging lower eyelid. We describe a patient who underwent transcutaneous lower eyelid blepharoplasty with fat repositioning who subsequently developed mechanical oscillopsia in the right eye exacerbated by facial movement. Surgical exploration revealed cicatrix between the inferior oblique muscle and the anterior superficial musculoaponeurotic system. Excision of the scar bands led to immediate amelioration of symptoms. When performing blepharoplasty with fat repositioning, it is essential to be aware of the anatomic location of the inferior oblique in the anterior inferomedial orbit to avoid incarceration of this muscle.

Thinda S; Vaphiades MS; Mawn LA

2013-03-01

30

Repositioning and follow-up of intralenticular dexamethasone implant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the case of a 54-year-old man who attended our emergency department complaining of severe floaters and decreased vision in his right eye. Seven days earlier, a dexamethasone intravitreal implant (Oxurdex) had been placed for a noninfectious posterior uveitis. Slitlamp examination showed the implant had penetrated the posterior lens capsule and was lodged in the posterior cortex of the lens; a posterior cortical cataract developed subsequently. Removal of the cataract, repositioning of the implant to the posterior segment, and the postoperative course are described. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the repositioning of an intralenticular dexamethasone intravitreal implant.

Munteanu M; Rosca C

2013-08-01

31

CAMIF, an SME Repositioning Its Line as Sustainable Development Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review the application of Sustainable Development (SD) in the marketing strategies of French firms, and to show how one SME, CAMIF, has repositioned its product line around SD. Although SD policies in France are now driven by rising demands from lawmakers and consumers alike, their application has not yet become a central feature of the strategies of major companies and SMEs. In this regard, the innovative repositioning of CAMIF around fair and responsible value is found to be consistent with the firm’s values, and permeates its marketing mix.

Leïla Loussaïef; Bénédicte Bourcier-Bequaert

2012-01-01

32

A simple technique for head repositioning in CT scanning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With conventional CT scans, alterations of morphology on repeated examinations can only be appreciated if significant, because identical slice positions are impossible to achieve. The authors have developed a simple and accurate method of repositioning the head not requiring conventional stereotactic head fixation and suitable for the outpatient situation. (orig.).

Kingsley, D.P.E.; Dale, G.; Wallis, A. (Institute of Neurology, London (UK) National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (UK))

1991-06-01

33

Epley's canalith-repositioning manoeuvre for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of the Epley's canalith-repositioning manoeuvre in the treatment of BPPV was assessed in this prospective study of 62 patients. Patients were selected based on symptoms of positional vertigo and positive Dix-Hallpike's positional test. Patients were divided into two groups; first group ...

Khatri, M.; Raizada, R. M.; Puttewar, M. P.

34

Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

Brookfield, Stephen

2001-01-01

35

Lumbosacral spine CT  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal CT; CT - lumbosacral spine ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. You will need to lie on your ... creates a clearer image. In other cases, a CT of the lumbosacral spine may be done after ...

36

Locally Unknotted Spines of Heegaard Splittings  

CERN Multimedia

We show that under reasonable conditions, the spines of the handlebodies of a strongly reducible Heegaard splitting will intersect a closed ball in a graph which is isotopic into the boundary of the ball. This is in some sense a generalization of the results by Scharlemann on how a strongly irreducible Heegaard splitting surface can intersect a ball.

Johnson, J

2004-01-01

37

Laparoscopic repositioning of Heliogast gastric band after anterior slippage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Gastric slippage is a well-described complication of gastric banding. The Heliogast band is equipped with a locking mechanism that enables its straightforward reopening and repositioning. Our experience with Heliogast band salvage after anterior slippage is reported. METHODS: The study sample comprised 418 consecutive patients who underwent 2-step laparoscopic gastric banding with the Lap-Band first (n=235) followed with the Heliogast band (n=183). Gastric slippage was diagnosed by symptoms of dysphagia and vomiting and was confirmed with Gastrografin swallow. Patients who did not respond to conservative treatment were laparoscopically reoperated. In the Heliogast group, the band was dissected free, unlocked, and repositioned. In the Lap-Band group, when reopening proved impossible, the band was removed with or without replacement. RESULTS: 10 patients (2.4%) underwent reoperation for anterior slippage, 5 with a Lap-Band (2.1%) and 5 with a Heliogast band (2.7%). Band repositioning was feasible in all 5 patients in the Heliogast group, but in only one of the patients in the Lap-Band group; in the others, the band was removed. Band repositioning was confirmed radiologically. No postoperative complications were recorded, and all patients were discharged on the first day after surgery. At a median 10 months' follow-up after Heliogast repositioning, all patients had satisfactory weight loss. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic Heliogast band salvage after anterior slippage is comparatively simple and safe, with excellent postoperative results and no interference with continued weight loss. This constitutes an important means of management for the bariatric surgeon.

Wasserberg N; Nudelman I; Fuko Z; Rubin M

2003-10-01

38

Therapeutic efficacy of the Epley canalith repositioning maneuver.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESES: The hypotheses of the current study are as follows: 1) That if the Epley canalith repositioning maneuver is an effective treatment for benign positional vertigo (BPV), relief from the vertigo should occur virtually immediately after the performance of the maneuver; 2) that the Epley canalith repositioning maneuver does provide almost immediate relief in BPV and should be the established treatment of choice for this disorder in both primary and tertiary care settings; and 3) that residual symptoms of lightheadedness and imbalance do persist after the resolution of the vertigo. The distinction of these symptoms from the vertigo is required for the accurate evaluation of the efficacy of positional maneuvers. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in a tertiary care balance center. METHODS: Eighty-six patients (95 cases) with a history and physical examination consistent with active BPV were entered in the study. Patients were treated with a modified Epley canalith repositioning maneuver. A modified 360 degrees roll was used to treat those patients with horizontal canal BPV. Patients were provided with a preprinted diary in which they were to circle the answer most relevant to their symptoms for 14 days after the maneuver. Patients were then re-evaluated in the office at 2 weeks after the maneuver. RESULTS: The mean duration of the BPV before treatment was 9 weeks. Seventy-four percent of cases that were treated with one or two canalith repositioning maneuvers had a resolution of vertigo as a direct result of the maneuver. A resolution attributable to the first intervention was obtained in 70% of cases within 48 hours of the maneuver. An additional 14% of cases that were treated had a resolution of vertigo; however, it is not possible to say that these patients definitely benefited from the canalith repositioning maneuver. Only 4% of cases (three patients) manifested BPV that persisted after four treatments. Residual symptoms of lightheadedness or imbalance, or both, were frequent (47% of cases) but rarely required formal intervention with vestibular rehabilitation physical therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The Epley canalith repositioning maneuver results in a resolution of vertigo in the majority of patients (70% of cases) immediately after one treatment. It is safe and requires no special equipment or investigations. It should be established as the treatment of choice for BPV in both primary and tertiary care settings.

Ruckenstein MJ

2001-06-01

39

Condylar repositioning using centric relation bite in bimaxillary surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate displacement of the mandibular condyle after orthognathic surgery using a condylar-repositioning device. Methods The patient group comprised 20 adults who underwent bimaxillary surgery between August 2008 and July 2011. The degree of condylar displacement was measured by pre- and postoperative tomographic analysis using centric relation bite and a wire during surgery. A survey assessing temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sound, pain, and locking was performed. The 20 tomographs and surveys were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and McNemar's test, respectively. Results No significant changes were observed in the anterior, superior, or posterior joint space of the TMJ (p > 0.05). In addition, no significant change was observed in TMJ sound (p > 0.05). However, TMJ pain and locking both decreased significantly after surgery (p < 0.05). Conclusions Due to its simplicity, this method may be feasible and useful for repositioning condyles.

Lee, Chang-Youn; Jang, Chang-Su; Kim, Ju-Won; Kim, Jwa-Young

2013-01-01

40

Condylar repositioning using centric relation bite in bimaxillary surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate displacement of the mandibular condyle after orthognathic surgery using a condylar-repositioning device. METHODS: The patient group comprised 20 adults who underwent bimaxillary surgery between August 2008 and July 2011. The degree of condylar displacement was measured by pre- and postoperative tomographic analysis using centric relation bite and a wire during surgery. A survey assessing temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sound, pain, and locking was performed. The 20 tomographs and surveys were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and McNemar's test, respectively. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in the anterior, superior, or posterior joint space of the TMJ (p > 0.05). In addition, no significant change was observed in TMJ sound (p > 0.05). However, TMJ pain and locking both decreased significantly after surgery (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Due to its simplicity, this method may be feasible and useful for repositioning condyles.

Lee CY; Jang CS; Kim JW; Kim JY; Yang BE

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Garter spring repositioning in Pickering and Bruce reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several garter springs are strategically located in each fuel channel of a CANDU reactor to prevent the hot pressure tube from contacting the surrounding colder calandria tube. Many of the garter springs, though, are not in their design locations. This paper discusses the results of Ontario Hydro investigations into the movement of garter springs in CANDU reactors and presents the strategies the utility has adopted to reposition the springs in its Bruce and Pickering reactors

1985-01-01

42

Laryngeal dislocation after ventral fusion of the cervical spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on a 70-year-old patient who underwent ventral fusion of the cervical spine (C3/4 and C4/5) for spinal canal stenosis performed by the neurosurgery department. The patient suffered an exceedingly rare complication of the surgery - laryngeal dislocation. Had the deformed laryngeal structures been overlooked and the patient extubated as usual after surgery, reintubation would have been impossible due to the associated swelling, which might have had disastrous consequences. Leftward dislocation of the larynx became apparent post-operatively, but prior to extubation. Extubation was therefore postponed and a subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan revealed entrapment of laryngeal structures within the osteosynthesis. A trial of repositioning using microlaryngoscopy performed by otolaryngology (ears, nose and throat) specialists failed, making open surgical revision necessary. At surgery, the entrapped laryngeal tissue was successfully mobilised. Laryngeal oedema developed despite prompt repositioning; thus, necessitating tracheotomy and long-term ventilation. Laryngeal dislocation may be an unusual cause of post-operative neck swelling after anterior cervical spine surgery and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if surgical site haematoma and other causes have been ruled out. Imaging studies including CT of the neck may be needed before extubation to confirm the suspicion and should be promptly obtained to facilitate specific treatment.

Krauel J; Winkler D; Münscher A; Tank S

2013-05-01

43

Cactus spine injuries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cactus spines produce injuries whose clinical significance is loosely in inverse proportion to the dimensions of the spine. Long and medium spines of saguaro and barrel cacti seldom result in embedded fragments, but when they do they are difficult to locate and remove. Other medium spines, those of prickly pear and cholla, are a nuisance but they can be removed readily by traction, as can the smaller spines (glochids) of the prickly pear. The very small spines (also glochids) of the polka dot or bunny's ear cactus (Opuntia microdasys) and the beavertail cactus (Opuntia basilaris) offer the most frustrating problem of all, but can be peeled off with a dried film of a professional facial gel.

Lindsey D; Lindsey WE

1988-07-01

44

Dynamic and selective nucleosome repositioning during endotoxin tolerance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sepsis is encoded by a sequel of transcription activation and repression events that initiate, sustain, and resolve severe systemic inflammation. The repression/silencing phase occurs in blood leukocytes of animals and humans following the initiation of systemic inflammation due to developing endotoxin tolerance. We previously reported that NF-kappaB transcription factor RelB and histone H3 lysine methyltransferase G9a directly interact to induce facultative heterochromatin assembly and regulate epigenetic silencing during endotoxin tolerance, which is a major feature of sepsis. The general objective of this study was to assess whether dynamic temporal, structural, and positional changes of nucleosomes influence the sepsis phenotype. We used the THP-1 sepsis cell model to isolate mononucleosomes by rapid cell permeabilization and digestion of chromatin with micrococcal nuclease and then compared tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) proximal promoter nucleosome alignment in endotoxin-responsive and -tolerant phenotypes. We found differential and dynamic repositioning of nucleosomes from permissive to repressive locations during the activation and silencing phases of transcription reprogramming and identified the following mechanisms that may participate in the process. 1) Two proximal nucleosomes repositioned to expose the primary NF-kappaB DNA binding site in endotoxin-responsive cells, and this "promoter opening" required the ATP-independent chaperone NAP1 to replace the core histone H2A with the H2A.Z variant. 2) During RelB-dependent endotoxin tolerance, the two nucleosomes repositioned and masked the primary NF-kappaB DNA binding site. 3) Small interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of RelB expression prevented repressive nucleosome repositioning and tolerance induction, but the "open" promoter required endotoxin-induced NF-kappaB p65 promoter binding to initiate transcription, supporting the known requirement of p65 posttranslational modifications for transactivation. 4) Sustaining the permissive promoter state after RelB knockdown required ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeler BAF complex. Moreover, we found that forced expression of RelB in responsive cells induced repressive nucleosome positioning and silenced TNFalpha transcription, demonstrating the plasticity of nucleosome remodeling and its dependence on RelB. Our data suggest that nucleosome repositioning controls both the induction and epigenetic silencing phases of TNFalpha transcription associated with sepsis.

El Gazzar M; Liu T; Yoza BK; McCall CE

2010-01-01

45

Dynamic and selective nucleosome repositioning during endotoxin tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sepsis is encoded by a sequel of transcription activation and repression events that initiate, sustain, and resolve severe systemic inflammation. The repression/silencing phase occurs in blood leukocytes of animals and humans following the initiation of systemic inflammation due to developing endotoxin tolerance. We previously reported that NF-kappaB transcription factor RelB and histone H3 lysine methyltransferase G9a directly interact to induce facultative heterochromatin assembly and regulate epigenetic silencing during endotoxin tolerance, which is a major feature of sepsis. The general objective of this study was to assess whether dynamic temporal, structural, and positional changes of nucleosomes influence the sepsis phenotype. We used the THP-1 sepsis cell model to isolate mononucleosomes by rapid cell permeabilization and digestion of chromatin with micrococcal nuclease and then compared tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) proximal promoter nucleosome alignment in endotoxin-responsive and -tolerant phenotypes. We found differential and dynamic repositioning of nucleosomes from permissive to repressive locations during the activation and silencing phases of transcription reprogramming and identified the following mechanisms that may participate in the process. 1) Two proximal nucleosomes repositioned to expose the primary NF-kappaB DNA binding site in endotoxin-responsive cells, and this "promoter opening" required the ATP-independent chaperone NAP1 to replace the core histone H2A with the H2A.Z variant. 2) During RelB-dependent endotoxin tolerance, the two nucleosomes repositioned and masked the primary NF-kappaB DNA binding site. 3) Small interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of RelB expression prevented repressive nucleosome repositioning and tolerance induction, but the "open" promoter required endotoxin-induced NF-kappaB p65 promoter binding to initiate transcription, supporting the known requirement of p65 posttranslational modifications for transactivation. 4) Sustaining the permissive promoter state after RelB knockdown required ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeler BAF complex. Moreover, we found that forced expression of RelB in responsive cells induced repressive nucleosome positioning and silenced TNFalpha transcription, demonstrating the plasticity of nucleosome remodeling and its dependence on RelB. Our data suggest that nucleosome repositioning controls both the induction and epigenetic silencing phases of TNFalpha transcription associated with sepsis. PMID:19901031

El Gazzar, Mohamed; Liu, Tiefu; Yoza, Barbara K; McCall, Charles E

2009-11-09

46

Ultrastructure of Dendritic Spines: Correlation Between Synaptic and Spine Morphologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendritic spines are critical elements of cortical circuits, since they establish most excitatory synapses. Recent studies have reported correlations between morphological and functional parameters of spines. Specifically, the spine head volume is correlated with the area of the postsynaptic density...

Arellano, Jon I.; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Yuste, Rafael

47

Imaging the postoperative spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Imaging assessment of the postoperative spine is complex and depends on many factors. Postoperative imaging studies evaluate the position of implants, adequacy of decompression, fusion status, and potential complications. This article provides a review of various imaging techniques, with their advantages and disadvantages, for the evaluation of the postoperative spine. It also gives an overview of normal and abnormal postoperative appearances of the spine as seen via various modalities, with an emphasis on postoperative complications.

Thakkar RS; Malloy JP 4th; Thakkar SC; Carrino JA; Khanna AJ

2012-07-01

48

Anesthesia for Spine Surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patient presenting for surgical procedures of the spine are a diverse population undergoing a wide variety of operative procedures and present diverse challenge to the anesthesiologists. The anesthetic management depends on the operative site; spine pathology; surgical approach and the anesthesiologists experience & expertise.

Dr. Aloka Samantaray

2006-01-01

49

The ageing spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contain 15 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of age on the appearance of magnetic resonance images of the spine; Potential for image analysis in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the aging spine; Potential of x-ray diffraction computed tomography for discriminating between normal and osteoporotic bone; and Spinal fusion in the elderly.

Hukins, D.W.L. Nelson, M.A.

1987-01-01

50

Pediatric cervical spine instability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical spine instability in children is rare but not exceptional and may be due to many factors. Although it mostly occurs at the upper cervical spine, all vertebrae from the occiput to T1 may be involved. It may be acute or chronic, occurring secondary to trauma or due to congenital anomaly, skel...

Ghanem, Ismat; El Hage, Samer; Rachkidi, Rami; Kharrat, Khalil; Dagher, Fernand; Kreichati, Gabi

51

Development of transducers for integrated garter spring repositioning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to reposition the dislocated garter springs in active channels of 235 MW Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs), a tool named as Integrated Garter Spring Repositioning System (INGRES) has been developed. The tool consists of transducers to detect the concentricity between the Pressure Tube (P/T) and Calandria Tube (C/T) and also to detect garter springs in the channel besides different modules for correcting the eccentricity between P/T and C/T and garter spring repositioning. The transducers used in the system namely Concentricity Detection Probe (CDP) and Garter Spring Detection Probe (GSDP) are based on the eddy current techniques. The CDP makes use of four eddy current bobbin probes separated 90 degrees apart in cross sectional plane of channel assembly. The transducer gives output signal in proportional to the air gap between P/T and C/T in two axes (X and Y) which are designed for the purpose. The output of the unit is obtained on the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) screen in the form of illuminated dot. The dot position on the CRO screen gives the information about mismatch in concentricity between P/T and C/T of the channel. The GSDP meant for detecting garter springs in PHWR channel uses two sets of primary and secondary coils connected in differential mode. The output signals from the transducers are processed through a signal processing unit devised for the purpose to obtain output from it as a horizontal beam on the CRO screen. The garter spring presence in the channel is indicated by a change in the voltage level of beam and also by audio-visual indication in the form of buzzer and LED illumination on the processing unit. This paper gives general design and development aspects of the CDP and GSDP transducers of the INGRES tool. (author). 3 figs

1994-01-01

52

3-D repositioning and differential images of volumetric CT measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In quantitative computed tomography (QCT), time serial measurements are performed to detect a global bone density loss or to identify localized bone density changes. A prerequisite for an unambiguous analysis is the comparison of identical bone volumes. Usually, manual repositioning is too coarse. The authors therefore developed a mathematical procedure that allows matching two three-dimensional image volumes. The algorithm is based on correlation techniques. The procedure has been optimized and applied to computer-tomographic 3-D images of the human knee. It has been tested with both artificially created and in vivo measured image data. Furthermore, typical results of differential images calculated from real bone measurements are presented.

Muench, B.; Rueegsegger, P. (Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. for Biomedical Engineering)

1993-09-01

53

Canalith Repositioning Variations for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To determine if variations in common treatments for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) affected efficacy. Study Design Prospective, pseudo-randomized study. Setting Out-patient practice in a tertiary care facility Subjects and Methods Patients (n=118) with unilateral BPPV of the posterior canal, including 13 patients with BPPV of the lateral canal were tested at a tertiary care center on one of five interventions: canalith repositioning maneuver (CRP), CRP plus home exercise, modified CRP, CRP for patients with involvement of two semicircular canals, self-CRP home exercise. Self-CRP was also compared to previously published data on efficacy of the Brandt Daroff exercise. Main outcome measures were vertigo intensity and frequency, presence/ absence of Dix-Hallpike responses, Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL), computerized dynamic posturography. Results Vertigo intensity and frequency and Dix-Hallpike responses decreased significantly and posturography and VADL improved significantly from pre- to post tests. No other significant changes were found. The groups did not differ significantly. Vertigo intensity and frequency were not strongly related at pre-test but were related at post-test. Length of illness and age did not influence the results. Conclusions However the head is moved, as long as it is moved rapidly enough and through the correct planes in space repositioning treatments are likely to be effective. Therefore clinicians have a range of choices in selecting the treatment best suited for each patient’s unique needs.

Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh

2010-01-01

54

Spine pain in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spine pain in children as an isolated symptom is infrequently seen in clinical practice. However, as opposed to spine pain in adults, it is accompanied by a relatively higher frequency of pathology. Diagnostic imaging is a necessary follow up to the physical examination and laboratory studies. Standard radiography is usually the initial imaging study. Frequently, however, additional imaging with bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to add sensitivity and specificity to the clinical presentation. We describe the disease entities, pathophysiology, and imaging characteristics of the varied pathologies responsible for spine pain in children.

Sty JR; Wells RG; Conway JJ

1993-10-01

55

Revision cervical spine surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Principles of revision cervical spine surgery are based on adequate decompression of neural elements and mechanical stability via appropriate selection of surgical approach and constructs producing long-term stability with arthrodesis. When planning revision surgery, the surgeon must consider the cause of the underlying problem (eg, biological, mechanical), the potential for complications, and clinical outcomes that can reasonably be expected. This information should be clearly explained to the patient during the informed consent process. This article provides the spine care provider with an understanding of how to appropriately evaluate and manage the most common cervical conditions that require revision cervical spine surgery.

Rihn JA; Harrod C; Albert TJ

2012-01-01

56

Cervical Spine Injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Once a child is determined to be at risk of having a cervical spine injury, clinicians must take appropriate precautions to avoid potential worsening of neurologic deficits. Occasionally these decisions are made in the absence of adequate cervical spine imaging when dealing with a child's unstable airway or other life-threatening injuries. Furthermore, clinicians have to make decisions regarding appropriate diagnostic testing to evaluate for potential injury. Decisions regarding testing should take into consideration the clinical presentation of the patient, aiming to order appropriate testing for those at risk and avoid unnecessary testing for those without signs of cervical spine injury.

Leonard JC

2013-10-01

57

Drug repositioning for treatment of movement disorders: from serendipity to rational discovery strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Movement disorders are a heterogeneous group of both common and rare neurological conditions characterized by abnormalities of motor functions and movement patterns. This work overviews recent successes and ongoing studies of repositioning relating to this disease group, which underscores the challenge of integrating the voluminous and heterogeneous findings required for making suitable drug repositioning decisions. In silico drug repositioning methods hold the promise of automated fusion of heterogeneous information sources, but the controllable, flexible and transparent incorporation of the expertise of medicinal chemists throughout the repositioning process remains an open challenge. In support of a more systematic approach toward repositioning, we summarize the application of a computational repurposing method based on statistically rooted knowledge fusion. To foster the spread of this technique, we provide a step-by-step guide to the complete workflow, together with a case study in Parkinson's disease.

Bolgár B; Arany A; Temesi G; Balogh B; Antal P; Mátyus P

2013-01-01

58

Spine problems in adolescent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adolescent’s idiopathic scoliosis, Scheuermann kyphosis, spondylolysis and spondylolistesis are the most common spine problems of adolescence which needs orthopaedic treatment and follow-up. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 65-7)

Önder

2011-01-01

59

Cervical spine in psoriasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

X-rays of the cervical spines from patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis were compared with similar films from a control population. Apophyseal narrowing, sclerosis, and calcification of anterior ligamants were found more commonly in patients than in controls

Banerjee Kalyan; Banerjee Raghubir; Biswas T

60

CT of the Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

Computed Tomography (CT) - Spine • Overview Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test ... body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and ...

 
 
 
 
61

The effect of early canalith repositioning on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo on recurrence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) can be treated using a simple repositioning maneuver. This study demonstrates the effects of early repositioning therapy in patients with BPPV, especially with regard to recurrence. METHODS: We enrolled 138 consecutive patients who had been diagnosed with BPPV in the emergency rooms and ENT out-patient clinics of Chung-Ang University Hospital and Samyook Medical Center from January to June 2009. All patients immediately underwent appropriate canalith repositioning procedures (CRPs) depending on canalith type and location. The CRPs were performed daily until the patient's symptoms were resolved. The patients were classified into two groups according to the duration between symptom onset and initial treatment: less than 24 hours (early repositioning group, n=66) and greater 24 hours (delayed repositioning group, n=72). We prospectively compared the numbers of treatments received and the recurrence rates between the two groups. RESULTS: Follow-up periods ranged from 8 to 14 months, 77 cases involved posterior canal BPPV, 48 cases were lateral canal BPPV (of which 20 cases were cupulolithiasis), and 13 cases were multiple canal BPPV. BPPV recurrence was found in a total of 46 patients (33.3%). The necessary numbers of CRPs were 2.3 for the early repositioning group and 2.5 for the late repositioning group, a difference that was not statistically significant (P=0.582). The early repositioning group showed a recurrence rate of 19.7%, and the delayed repositioning group showed a recurrence rate of 45.8% (P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Performing repositioning treatments as soon as possible after symptom onset may be an important factor in the prevention of BPVV recurrence.

Do YK; Kim J; Park CY; Chung MH; Moon IS; Yang HS

2011-09-01

62

The Effect of Early Canalith Repositioning on Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo on Recurrence  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) can be treated using a simple repositioning maneuver. This study demonstrates the effects of early repositioning therapy in patients with BPPV, especially with regard to recurrence. Methods We enrolled 138 consecutive patients who had been diagnosed with BPPV in the emergency rooms and ENT out-patient clinics of Chung-Ang University Hospital and Samyook Medical Center from January to June 2009. All patients immediately underwent appropriate canalith repositioning procedures (CRPs) depending on canalith type and location. The CRPs were performed daily until the patient's symptoms were resolved. The patients were classified into two groups according to the duration between symptom onset and initial treatment: less than 24 hours (early repositioning group, n=66) and greater 24 hours (delayed repositioning group, n=72). We prospectively compared the numbers of treatments received and the recurrence rates between the two groups. Results Follow-up periods ranged from 8 to 14 months, 77 cases involved posterior canal BPPV, 48 cases were lateral canal BPPV (of which 20 cases were cupulolithiasis), and 13 cases were multiple canal BPPV. BPPV recurrence was found in a total of 46 patients (33.3%). The necessary numbers of CRPs were 2.3 for the early repositioning group and 2.5 for the late repositioning group, a difference that was not statistically significant (P=0.582). The early repositioning group showed a recurrence rate of 19.7%, and the delayed repositioning group showed a recurrence rate of 45.8% (P=0.002). Conclusion Performing repositioning treatments as soon as possible after symptom onset may be an important factor in the prevention of BPVV recurrence.

Do, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Jin; Park, Chong Yoon; Chung, Myung-Hyun; Moon, In Seok

2011-01-01

63

Repositioning accuracy of a commercially available thermoplastic mask system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the repositioning accuracy of a commercially available thermoplastic mask system for single dose radiosurgery treatments and fractionated treatment courses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The repositioning accuracy of the Raycast-HP mask system (Orfit Industries, Wijnegem, Belgium) was analyzed. Twenty-two patients that were treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or intensity modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) for 43 intracranial lesions, underwent repeated CT imaging during their course of treatment, or as a positional control immediately before radiosurgery. We evaluated multiple anatomical landmark coordinates and their respective shifts in consecutive repeated CT-controls. An iterative optimization algorithm allowed for the calculation of the x, y and z-components of translation of the target isocenter(s) for each repeated CT, as well as rotation in the respective CT data sets. In addition to absolute target isocenter translation, the total magnitude vector (i.e. sum-vector) of isocenter motion was calculated along with patient rotations about the three principle axes. RESULTS: Fifty-five control CT datasets were analyzed for the target isocenter's respective position relative to the original treatment planning CT simulation. Mean target isocenter translation was 0.74+/-0.53, 0.75+/-0.60 and 0.93+/-0.78 mm in x, y and z-directions, respectively. Mean rotation about the x, y and z-axes was 0.67+/-0.66, 0.61+/-0.63 and 0.67+/-0.61 degrees, respectively. The respective median and mean magnitude vectors of isocenter translation were 1.28 and 1.59+/-0.84 mm. Analysis of the accuracy of the first setup control, representative of setup accuracy for radiosurgery treatments, compared with setup accuracy throughout a fractionated radiation treatment course were statistically equivalent (P= 0.15) thus indicating no measurable deterioration of setup accuracy throughout the treatment course. CONCLUSIONS: The analyzed Orfit thermoplastic mask system performed favorably compared with other mask immobilization systems for which peer-reviewed repositioning data exist. While the performance of the system for fractionated treatment courses was considered to be excellent, use of this mask system for radiosurgery immobilization in our clinic is subject to additional quality assurance measures to prohibit the delivery of treatments with target dislocations larger than 2 mm. The measured data in the present study should enable the users of this system to assign appropriate margins for the generation of planning target volumes.

Fuss M; Salter BJ; Cheek D; Sadeghi A; Hevezi JM; Herman TS

2004-06-01

64

siRNA Genome Screening Approaches to Therapeutic Drug Repositioning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bridging high-throughput screening (HTS) with RNA interference (RNAi) has allowed for rapid discovery of the molecular basis of many diseases, and identification of potential pathways for developing safe and effective treatments. These features have identified new host gene targets for existing drugs paving the pathway for therapeutic drug repositioning. Using RNAi to discover and help validate new drug targets has also provided a means to filter and prioritize promising therapeutics. This review summarizes these approaches across a spectrum of methods and targets in the host response to pathogens. Particular attention is given to the utility of drug repurposing utilizing the promiscuous nature of some drugs that affect multiple molecules or pathways, and how these biological pathways can be targeted to regulate disease outcome.

Olivia Perwitasari; Abhijeet Bakre; S. Mark Tompkins; Ralph A. Tripp

2013-01-01

65

Transcriptional data: a new gateway to drug repositioning?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent advances in computational biology suggest that any perturbation to the transcriptional programme of the cell can be summarised by a proper 'signature': a set of genes combined with a pattern of expression. Therefore, it should be possible to generate proxies of clinicopathological phenotypes and drug effects through signatures acquired via DNA microarray technology. Gene expression signatures have recently been assembled and compared through genome-wide metrics, unveiling unexpected drug-disease and drug-drug 'connections' by matching corresponding signatures. Consequently, novel applications for existing drugs have been predicted and experimentally validated. Here, we describe related methods, case studies and resources while discussing challenges and benefits of exploiting existing repositories of microarray data that could serve as a search space for systematic drug repositioning.

Iorio F; Rittman T; Ge H; Menden M; Saez-Rodriguez J

2013-04-01

66

A simple maneuver to reposit a subluxed globe.  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients with thyroid orbitopathy, severe lid retraction and proptosis may produce spontaneous axial globe subluxation. This acute event is characterized by anterior displacement of the globe beyond the orbital rim, retraction of both upper and lower eyelids behind the globe, and tethering of the optic nerve. This frightening occurrence causes severe pain because of exposure keratopathy and forward displacement of the globe, as the retracted eyelids are squeezing the retrobulbar tissues. Spontaneous globe subluxation frequently occurs at home or at work, and patients experiencing this for the first time often panic because they have never been forewarned of this possibility nor received any instruction on how to attend to such an emergency. The lack of concise patient instruction for a quick and safe method of self-administered globe reposition is the main impetus for the design of current technique. PMID:10721966

Tse, D T

2000-03-01

67

A simple maneuver to reposit a subluxed globe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In patients with thyroid orbitopathy, severe lid retraction and proptosis may produce spontaneous axial globe subluxation. This acute event is characterized by anterior displacement of the globe beyond the orbital rim, retraction of both upper and lower eyelids behind the globe, and tethering of the optic nerve. This frightening occurrence causes severe pain because of exposure keratopathy and forward displacement of the globe, as the retracted eyelids are squeezing the retrobulbar tissues. Spontaneous globe subluxation frequently occurs at home or at work, and patients experiencing this for the first time often panic because they have never been forewarned of this possibility nor received any instruction on how to attend to such an emergency. The lack of concise patient instruction for a quick and safe method of self-administered globe reposition is the main impetus for the design of current technique.

Tse DT

2000-03-01

68

Patient repositioning and pressure ulcer risk--monitoring interface pressures of at-risk patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Repositioning patients regularly to prevent pressure ulcers and reduce interface pressures is the standard of care, yet prior work has found that standard repositioning does not relieve all areas of at-risk tissue in nondisabled subjects. To determine whether this holds true for high-risk patients, we assessed the effectiveness of routine repositioning in relieving at-risk tissue of the perisacral area using interface pressure mapping. Bedridden patients at risk for pressure ulcer formation (n = 23, Braden score <18) had their perisacral skin-bed interface pressures recorded every 30 s while they received routine repositioning care for 4-6 h. All participants had specific skin areas (206 +/- 182 cm(2)) that exceeded elevated pressure thresholds for >95% of the observation period. Thirteen participants were observed in three distinct positions (supine, turned left, turned right), and all had specific skin areas (166 +/- 184 cm(2)) that exceeded pressure thresholds for >95% of the observation period. At-risk patients have skin areas that are likely always at risk throughout their hospital stay despite repositioning. Healthcare providers are unaware of the actual tissue-relieving effectiveness (or lack thereof) of their repositioning interventions, which may partially explain why pressure ulcer mitigation strategies are not always successful. Relieving at-risk tissue is a necessary part of pressure ulcer prevention, but the repositioning practice itself needs improvement.

Peterson MJ; Gravenstein N; Schwab WK; van Oostrom JH; Caruso LJ

2013-07-01

69

Cervical spine trauma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cervical spine trauma is a common problem with a wide range of severity from minor ligamentous injury to frank osteo-ligamentous instability with spinal cord injury. The emergent evaluation of patients at risk relies on standardized clinical and radiographic protocols to identify injuries; elucidate associated pathology; classify injuries; and predict instability, treatment and outcomes. The unique anatomy of each region of the cervical spine demands a review of each segment individually. This article examines both upper cervical spine injuries, as well as subaxial spine trauma. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the broad topic of cervical spine trauma with reference to the classic literature, as well as to summarize all recently available literature on each topic. Identification of References for Inclusion: A Pubmed and Ovid search was performed for each topic in the review to identify recently published articles relevant to the review. In addition prior reviews and classic references were evaluated individually for inclusion of classic papers, classifications and previously unidentified references.

Torretti Joel; Sengupta Dilip

2007-01-01

70

Simultaneous premaxillary repositioning and cheiloplasty in adult patients with unrepaired bilateral cleft lip and palate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary cheiloplasty in adult patients with unrepaired complete bilateral cleft lip and palate is quite challenging due to severe premaxillary anterior projection. To get the best repair results, the author carried out repositioning of the premaxilla and repair of the lip deformity in a single stage. Positive results for the primary lip repair and appropriate repositioning of the premaxilla were achieved. No avascular necrosis of the premaxilla was observed. Repositioning of the premaxilla and repair of the lip deformity in a single operation appears to be a reliable method for treating adult patients with previously unrepaired or poorly repaired bilateral cleft lip and palate.

Lee UL; Cho JB; Choung PH

2013-03-01

71

Observation of curative effect of modified canalith reposition on 48 cases with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the canalith repositioning maneuver in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Methods The modified Epley procedure, Semont maneuver and Barbecue maneuver were applied in 48 cases of BPPV. Followed for one year, the curative effects were observed. Results After treatment in modified canalith reposition, the recovery rate was 89.58% , and effective rate was 100% . Followed for one year, the recurrence rate was 6.25% . Conclusion Modified canalith reposition for BPPV has no contraindications, and no special adverse reactions. It is simple and can fastly relieve symptoms. The cost and recurrence rate are low. It is suitable for clinical application.

LAN Jun

2012-01-01

72

On optimum spines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents the optimum dimensions and heat transfer characteristics of spines for cylindrical, convex parabolic, conical, and concave parabolic profiles. With a derived solution form, the optimum base diameter, length, heat dissipation, temperature profile, and efficiency of spines are obtained by fin parameter and tip temperature. The temperature-dependent heat transfer coefficient is assumed to be a power-law type. It is found that the optimum dimensions of a spine are functions of fin volume, heat transfer coefficient at fin base, and thermal conductivity. For a fin with least material, the optimum conditions are also obtained. It shows that the results are solely related to the heat transfer mode on the fin surface. To facilitate the thermal design of heat transfer components, simple mathematical expressions as well as design charts are presented. 15 refs.

Yeh, R.H. [Natl Taiwan Ocean Univ, Keelung, Taiwan (China)

1995-04-01

73

Gorham's Disease of Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

Gorham's disease is a rare disorder characterized by clinical and radiological disappearance of bone by proliferation of non-neoplastic vascular tissue. The disease was first reported by Jackson in 1838 in a boneless arm. The disease was then described in detail in 1955 by Gorham and Stout. Since then, about 200 cases have been reported in the literature, with only about 28 cases involving the spine. We report 2 cases of Gorham's disease involving the spine and review related literature to gain more understanding about this rare disease.

Arockiaraj, Justin; Amritanand, Rohit; Krishnan, Venkatesh; David, Kenny Samuel; David, Sundararaj Gabriel

2013-01-01

74

[Thoracolumbar spine injuries].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traumatic injuries of the thoracolumbar spine are often complex and affect the bony structures and disco-ligamentous structures of the spine. In addition to adequate primary therapy, the appropriate choice of diagnostic procedures and treatment methods, which take the particular biomechanical characteristics of the individual fracture type into consideration, is essential for successful outcome and thereby the restoration of patient quality of life. In the case of a surgical indication, the procedure can be performed either in one or two sessions and can include dorsal, ventral or combined dorso-ventral spondylodesis. With minimally invasive and computer-assisted techniques becoming routine procedures, safe and sparing treatment of these fractures is possible.

Maier B; Ploss C; Marzi I

2010-03-01

75

Cervical spine chordoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chordomas are neoplasms that arise from notochord embryonic remnants, been the sacrococcygeal spine the main site of involvement; the cervical spine site is uncommon and it account for less than 10% of chordomas. Because of their slow growth, the diagnosis is delayed until they reach a large size, despite which they are locally aggressive tumours due to their relation to critical neurovascular structures and present a high rate of local recurrence. Radical surgery is the elective treatment and proton radiotherapy is used when residual tumour tissue and recurrences.Because of the uncommonness of this pathology, we report a case of a patient with cervical chordoma.

Díez-González L; Brañanova-López P; Pomar-Blanco P; Martín-Villares C; Valérdiz-Casasola S; San Román-Carbajo J

2012-01-01

76

Spine Involvement in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis affecting the cervical spine has been well described. In contrast with the neck, thoracic and lumbar spine involvement has not been widely investigated. In this paper, pathophysiology, clinical findings and radiological imaging methods of spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis was reviewed with the current reports. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008; 54 Suppl 1: 15-9

Ömer Faruk ?ENDUR; Yasemin TURAN

2008-01-01

77

An inexpensive video patient repositioning system for use with transmission and emission computed tomographs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have designed and constructed a portable video system from commercially available components (total cost $5,000) to facilitate accurate patient repositioning for sequential computed tomographic (CT) and positron emission tomographic studies and for therapeutic radiation therapy. The repositioning accuracy of the video system, employed in conjunction with a Delta-Scan 2020 CT scanner, was compared qualitatively (skull phantom and patient subjects) and quantitatively (precision cone phantom) with that of a GE 8800 CT scanner equipped with ScoutView and crossed Gammex lasers (SVL system). Although the SVL and video systems both facilitated accurate repositioning, the video system proved slightly superior. With experience, Z-axis repositioning accuracy of better than 1 mm could be achieved.

Conti J; Deck MD; Rottenberg DA

1982-04-01

78

An inexpensive video patient repositioning system for use with transmission and emission computed tomographs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have designed and constructed a portable video system from commercially available components (total cost $5,000) to facilitate accurate patient repositioning for sequential computed tomographic (CT) and positron emission tomographic studies and for therapeutic radiation therapy. The repositioning accuracy of the video system, employed in conjunction with a Delta-Scan 2020 CT scanner, was compared qualitatively (skull phantom and patient subjects) and quantitatively (precision cone phantom) with that of a GE 8800 CT scanner equipped with ScoutView and crossed Gammex lasers (SVL system). Although the SVL and video systems both facilitated accurate repositioning, the video system proved slightly superior. With experience, Z-axis repositioning accuracy of better than 1 mm could be achieved. PMID:6978897

Conti, J; Deck, M D; Rottenberg, D A

1982-04-01

79

Canal switch after canalith repositioning procedure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Canal switch is a complication following canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Instead of being returned to the utricle, the loose otoconia migrate into the superior or horizontal semicircular canal. Patients remain symptomatic, and treatment can be ineffective unless the switch is recognized and additional repositioning maneuvers directed toward the appropriate semicircular canal are performed. This report provides the first videographic documentation of canal switch involving conversion of unilateral posterior semicircular canal BPPV to geotropic horizontal canalithiasis.

Lin GC; Basura GJ; Wong HT; Heidenreich KD

2012-09-01

80

Tuberculosis of the spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two surgically proven cases of turberculous psoas abscess are presented. The common findings on CT were low-density paraspinal masses and extension of the lesions which followed the typical distribution of iliopsoas muscle in both cases. The skeletal findings from the spine are also discussed. Our cases indicate the complementary use of plain radiography and CT in the investigation of tuberculous spondylitis.

Psarras, H.; Faraj, J.; Gouliamos, A.; Kalovidouris, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavassiliou, C.

1985-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Cervical spine in psoriasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available X-rays of the cervical spines from patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis were compared with similar films from a control population. Apophyseal narrowing, sclerosis, and calcification of anterior ligamants were found more commonly in patients than in controls

Banerjee Kalyan; Banerjee Raghubir; Biswas T

1995-01-01

82

Cervical spine trauma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical spine trauma is a common problem with a wide range of severity from minor ligamentous injury to frank osteo-ligamentous instability with spinal cord injury. The emergent evaluation of patients at risk relies on standardized clinical and radiographic protocols to identify injuries; elucidate...

Torretti Joel; Sengupta Dilip

83

PROMISCUOUS: a database for network-based drug-repositioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The procedure of drug approval is time-consuming, costly and risky. Accidental findings regarding multi-specificity of approved drugs led to block-busters in new indication areas. Therefore, the interest in systematically elucidating new areas of application for known drugs is rising. Furthermore, the knowledge, understanding and prediction of so-called off-target effects allow a rational approach to the understanding of side-effects. With PROMISCUOUS we provide an exhaustive set of drugs (25,000), including withdrawn or experimental drugs, annotated with drug-protein and protein-protein relationships (21,500/104,000) compiled from public resources via text and data mining including manual curation. Measures of structural similarity for drugs as well as known side-effects can be easily connected to protein-protein interactions to establish and analyse networks responsible for multi-pharmacology. This network-based approach can provide a starting point for drug-repositioning. PROMISCUOUS is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/promiscuous.

von Eichborn J; Murgueitio MS; Dunkel M; Koerner S; Bourne PE; Preissner R

2011-01-01

84

PROMISCUOUS: a database for network-based drug-repositioning  

Science.gov (United States)

The procedure of drug approval is time-consuming, costly and risky. Accidental findings regarding multi-specificity of approved drugs led to block-busters in new indication areas. Therefore, the interest in systematically elucidating new areas of application for known drugs is rising. Furthermore, the knowledge, understanding and prediction of so-called off-target effects allow a rational approach to the understanding of side-effects. With PROMISCUOUS we provide an exhaustive set of drugs (25?000), including withdrawn or experimental drugs, annotated with drug–protein and protein–protein relationships (21?500/104?000) compiled from public resources via text and data mining including manual curation. Measures of structural similarity for drugs as well as known side-effects can be easily connected to protein–protein interactions to establish and analyse networks responsible for multi-pharmacology. This network-based approach can provide a starting point for drug-repositioning. PROMISCUOUS is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/promiscuous.

von Eichborn, Joachim; Murgueitio, Manuela S.; Dunkel, Mathias; Koerner, Soeren; Bourne, Philip E.; Preissner, Robert

2011-01-01

85

Patient repositioning and pressure ulcer risk—Monitoring interface pressures of at-risk patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Repositioning patients regularly to prevent pressure ulcers and reduce interface pressures is the standard of care, yet prior work has found that standard repositioning does not relieve all areas of at-risk tissue in nondisabled subjects. To determine whether this holds true for high-risk patients, we assessed the effectiveness of routine repositioning in relieving at-risk tissue of the perisacral area using interface pressure mapping. Bedridden patients at risk for pressure ulcer formation (n = 23, Braden score 95% of the observation period. Thirteen participants were observed in three distinct positions (supine, turned left, turned right), and all had specific skin areas (166 +/– 184 cm2) that exceeded pressure thresholds for >95% of the observation period. At-risk patients have skin areas that are likely always at risk throughout their hospital stay despite repositioning. Healthcare providers are unaware of the actual tissue-relieving effectiveness (or lack thereof) of their repositioning interventions, which may partially explain why pressure ulcer mitigation strategies are not always successful. Relieving at-risk tissue is a necessary part of pressure ulcer prevention, but the repositioning practice itself needs improvement.

Matthew J. Peterson, PhD; Nikolaus Gravenstein, MD; Wilhelm K. Schwab, PhD; Johannes H. van Oostrom, PhD; Lawrence J. Caruso, MD

2013-01-01

86

Neck strength, position sense, and motion in military helicopter crew with and without neck pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Neck pain in military helicopter pilots and rear aircrew is an occupational health problem that may interfere with flying performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in the physical abilities of the cervical spines of helicopter pilots and rear aircrew with and without neck pain during the previous year. METHODS: The study included 61 male helicopter pilots and 22 rear aircrew without neck pain (Sx-) and 17 pilots and 17 rear aircrew with neck pain (Sx+). Active cervical range of motion (flexion-extension, right-left rotation, and right-left lateral flexion), neck position sense (reposition error back to neutral and defined positions after submaximal cervical movement), and maximum isometric neck muscle strength (flexion, extension, and right and left lateral flexion) were measured. Two-way factorial analyses of variance were performed, in which the fixed factors were occupation (pilot or rear aircrew) and neck pain state (Sx+ or Sx-). RESULTS: On average, there was a trend toward lower values in strength [extension: 55 (19) Nm vs. 58 (20) Nm; flexion 22 (8) Nm vs. 24 (12) Nm] and smaller cervical range of motion [flexion-extension: 132 degrees (19 degrees) vs. 137 degrees (15 degrees); rotation: 156 degrees (14 degrees) vs. 160 degrees (14 degrees)] in the total Sx+ crew, compared to their Sx- colleagues. However, the two-way factorial ANOVA revealed neither significant main effects nor significant interaction effects in any of the measured physical abilities. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that having experienced neck pain was not significantly associated with differences in the physical abilities of the cervical spines of helicopter crew, as assessed in this study.

Van den Oord MH; De Loose V; Sluiter JK; Frings-Dresen MH

2010-01-01

87

Orthodontic microsurgery for rapid dental repositioning in dental malpositions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Malposition of dental elements can be easily corrected when the patient is young; however, the opposite is true for adults. Middle-age patients normally request a rapid solution, but they usually also have associated pathologic features, such as advanced periodontal disease, dental migration, and ankylosis. Shortening the orthodontic treatment time is possible but not easy to achieve. We applied piezosurgical bone cuts to 10 patients affected by different dental malformations to determine the effects of a shorter treatment time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 patients (8 women and 2 men) were treated using the monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament distraction technique. We included 5 patients with dental ankylosis (group A, with a range of 4 to 5 mm of dental intrusion into the bone), who presented with at least 4 elements included in the mandible, and 5 preoperative patients affected by maxillary hypoplasia and transverse maxillary diameter reduction (group B, with a range of 6 to 8 mm measured at the first molar palatal cusp). RESULTS: Dental repositioning was achieved within 18 to 25 days for the dental intrusion group (group A) and within 68 to 150 days for the preoperative group (group B). The average period was 20 days for group A and 100 days for both dental arches in group B. The decrease in orthodontic treatment time was 70% for the ankylotic teeth and 65% for the preoperative group. We observed no periodontal or gingival damage, although all 10 patients experienced moderate edema and pain. CONCLUSIONS: This method of shortening the orthodontic treatment time is simple, and performing osteotomic lines laterally and apically to the tooth radix on the bone has proved useful in reducing the treatment time. In addition, the technique is very easy to use and has a low incidence of side effects.

Bertossi D; Vercellotti T; Podesta A; Nocini PF

2011-03-01

88

Primary cilia and dendritic spines: Different but similar signaling compartments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary non-motile cilia and dendritic spines are cellular compartments that are specialized to sense and transduce environmental cues and presynaptic signals, respectively. Despite their unique cellular roles, both compartments exhibit remarkable parallels in the general principles, as well as molecular mechanisms, by which their protein composition, membrane domain architecture, cellular interactions, and structural and functional plasticity are regulated. We compare and contrast the pathways required for the generation and function of cilia and dendritic spines, and suggest that insights from the study of one may inform investigations into the other of these critically important signaling structures.

Nechipurenko IV; Doroquez DB; Sengupta P

2013-09-01

89

[Thoracolumbar spine injuries].  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic injuries of the thoracolumbar spine are often complex and affect the bony structures and disco-ligamentous structures of the spine. In addition to adequate primary therapy, the appropriate choice of diagnostic procedures and treatment methods, which take the particular biomechanical characteristics of the individual fracture type into consideration, is essential for successful outcome and thereby the restoration of patient quality of life. In the case of a surgical indication, the procedure can be performed either in one or two sessions and can include dorsal, ventral or combined dorso-ventral spondylodesis. With minimally invasive and computer-assisted techniques becoming routine procedures, safe and sparing treatment of these fractures is possible. PMID:20177878

Maier, B; Ploss, C; Marzi, I

2010-03-01

90

Osteoblastoma of the spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A retrograde analysis of 64 spinal osteoblastomas treated by surgery during the period 1963 - 2005 has been made. Spinal osteoblastomas were presented in 36% of all skeletal localizations. There were 44 male and 20 female patients. The average age of patients at the time of surgery was14 years. Localizations of the osteoblastomas were cervical spine in 8 cases, dorsal spine in 16 cases, lumbar spine in 38 cases and sacrum in 2 cases. Osteoblastomas predominantly involved posterolateral vertebral elements, although in two cases a primary localization was in vertebral bodies. Neurological deficits were relatively moderate, but a paraplegia occurred in six patients. Scoliosis was present in 50% of cases, and their respective prognosis depended on the duration of the painful syndrome as well as on the age when the disease had set up. According to Enneking classification 30 patients were evaluated as stage 2 and 34 others as stage 3. Relapses were noticed in 8 (12.5%) patients. Clearly delineated lesions were treated by an intralesional procedure, but aggressive ones were treated by a marginal surgery followed by additional radiotherapy (6 patients). The average follow - up period was 13 years.

Poleksi? Z.R.; Laloševi? V.J.; Milinkovi? Z.B.

2010-01-01

91

[Combined posterior and anterior endoscopic supported instrumentation of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Arguments, concepts and first clinical results  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The operative therapeutic principles of thoracic and lumbar spine injuries are based on reposition, decompression and stabilization of the unstable area. Secondary loss of correction and consecutive deformation have negative impact on the long-term results after defect fractures of vertebral bodies and will be minimized only by the reconstruction of all involved spinal columns. With dissemination of thoracoscopic techniques at the thoracic spine and minimal invasive retroperitoneal approaches at the lumbar spine a decrease of the morbidity was achieved with equal effectivity for recalibration and fusion. Our experiences with the first consecutive 42 patients, treated minimal invasive are presented. Indications for anterior thoracoscopic and minimal invasive instrumentations after posterior transfixation are remaining osseous defects of the end plates of more than a quarter of the volume of the involved vertebra in case of migration of the vertebral disc, wedging of the vertebral body after posterior reposition of more than 10 degrees and persisting anterior encroachment of the spinal canal of more than 30 %. The decision is based on radiographs and CT-scans, performed after posterior stabilization.

Arand M; Kinzl L; Hartwig E

2002-06-01

92

Adaptive prostate IGRT combining online re-optimization and re-positioning: a feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In prostate radiation therapy, inter-fractional organ motion/deformation has posed significant challenges on reliable daily dose delivery. To correct for this issue, off-line re-optimization and online re-positioning have been used clinically. In this paper, we propose an adaptive images guided radiation therapy (AIGRT) scheme that combines these two correction methods in an anatomy-driven fashion. The AIGRT process first tries to find a best plan for the daily target from a plan pool, which consists of the original CT plan and all previous re-optimized plans. If successful, the selected plan is used for daily treatment with translational shifts. Otherwise, the AIGRT invokes the re-optimization process of the CT plan for the anatomy of the day, which is afterward added to the plan pool as a candidate for future fractions. The AIGRT scheme is evaluated by comparisons with daily re-optimization and online re-positioning techniques based on daily target coverage, organs at risk (OAR) sparing and implementation efficiency. Simulated treatment courses for 18 patients with re-optimization alone, re-positioning alone and AIGRT shows that AIGRT offers reliable daily target coverage that is highly comparable to daily re-optimization and significantly improves from re-positioning. AIGRT is also seen to provide improved OAR sparing compared to re-positioning. Apart from dosimetric benefits, AIGRT in addition offers an efficient scheme to integrate re-optimization to current re-positioning-based IGRT workflow.

2011-03-07

93

Long-term corneal endothelial cell changes in pediatric intraocular lens reposition and exchange cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term corneal endothelial cell changes of intraocular lens (IOL) reposition and exchange in children. SETTING: State key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060, China METHODS: In this retrospective study, all IOL reposition and exchange procedures performed in patients under 14 years old between January 1999 and April 2009 were included. Follow-up outcomes included corneal endothelial cell density, hexagonality, coefficient of variance, average cell size. RESULTS: IOL reposition procedures in 12 eyes (12 cases) (reposition group, RPG), and IOL exchanges in eight eyes (eight cases) (exchange group, EXG) were performed because of IOL pupillary capture or IOL dislocation. Median of follow-up was 44.5 months in RPG and 66.2 months in EXG. The density of corneal endothelial cells in RPG (2,053?±?493/mm(2)) and EXG (2,100?±?758/mm(2)) was significantly decreased in comparison to the control eyes (3,116?±?335/mm(2)). Hexagonality of corneal endothelial cells and coefficient of variance showed no difference among the control group, RPG and EXG (P?>?0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The density of corneal endothelial cells was conspicuously decreased after IOL reposition or exchange procedures in childhood cases. Longer follow-up must be conducted in these cases.

Wang Y; Wu M; Zhu L; Liu Y

2012-04-01

94

[Changes in the cervical spine in chronic polyarthritis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 93 patients with classical chronic polyarthritis (rheumatoid arthritis) (at least five ARA-criterias) there were inflammatory lesions of dens epistropheus in 48.4%, ventral atlantoaxial subluxations in 25.8%, lateral atlantoaxial dislocations in 14% and pseudobasilary invagination in 5.4%. Step-ladder-subluxation between C 2/C 7 was found in 31.2%, discitis in 12.5% and spondylarthritis in 38% of cases. Inflammatory signs of the cervical spine were correlated to the Steinbrocker-Grade IV, ANA level 1:40 and the degree of Waaler-Rose. The correlation between long standing steroid-therapy and signs of cervical involvement during c.p.--specially in C1/C2--is found to be proven. There are connections between the duration of c.p. (more than 10 years) and manifestation of cervical spine lesions, further, in a protective sense between longstanding gold therapy and cervical spine lesions.

Miehle W; Schattenkirchner M; Lattermann K

1985-02-01

95

Changes in the cervical spine in chronic polyarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 93 patients with classical chronic polyarthritis (rheumatoid arthritis) (at least five ARA-criterias) there were inflammatory lesions of dens epistropheus in 48.4%, ventral atlantoaxial subluxations in 25.8%, lateral atlantoaxial dislocations in 14% und pseudobasilary invagination in 5.4%. Step-ladder-subluxation between C 2/C 7 was found in 31.2%, discitis in 12.5% and spondylarthritis in 38% of cases. Inflammatory signs of the cervical spine were correlated to the Steinbrocker-Grade IV, ANA level 1 : 40 and the degree of Waaler-Rose. The correlation between long standing steroid-therapy and signs of cervical involvement during c.p. - specially in C1/C2 - is found to be proven. There are connections between the duration of c.p. (more than 10 years) and manifestation of cervical spine lesions, further, in a protective sense between longstanding gold therapy and cervical spine lesions. (orig.)

1985-01-01

96

Changes in the cervical spine in chronic polyarthritis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 93 patients with classical chronic polyarthritis (rheumatoid arthritis) (at least five ARA-criterias) there were inflammatory lesions of dens epistropheus in 48.4%, ventral atlantoaxial subluxations in 25.8%, lateral atlantoaxial dislocations in 14% and pseudobasilary invagination in 5.4%. Step-ladder-subluxation between C 2/C 7 was found in 31.2%, discitis in 12.5% and spondylarthritis in 38% of cases. Inflammatory signs of the cervical spine were correlated to the Steinbrocker-Grade IV, ANA level 1 : 40 and the degree of Waaler-Rose. The correlation between long standing steroid-therapy and signs of cervical involvement during c.p. - specially in C/sub 1//C/sub 2/ - is found to be proven. There are connections between the duration of c.p. (more than 10 years) and manifestation of cervical spine lesions, further, in a protective sense between longstanding gold therapy and cervical spine lesions.

Miehle, W.; Schattenkirchner, M.; Lattermann, K.

1985-02-01

97

Surgical results of anterior decompression for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the thoracic spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment procedure of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the thoracic spine (OPLL/TS), which spontaneously results in severe progressive thoracic myelopathy, has not been standardized yet and presently requires anterior decompression by open surgery via ventral approach, of which results obtained in authors' department are described herein. Patients are 20 cases with OPLL/TS (8 M/12 F, av. age 56 y) and are followed up for 6 mo-14 y (av. 6 y 4 mo). Results are evaluated by surgical matters, imaging findings, complication and efficacy. Images after operation in all patients present the finding of fusion of transplanted bone to stabilize spines. The actual CT, MRI and X-ray images of typical 2 cases before and after operation are presented to exhibit decompressed spine re-positioned normally by surgery. Despite some tasks of approaching and spine numbers to be operable, effective improvement is found to be as high as 60% in average and authors' procedure is concluded to be useful. (R.T.)

2008-01-01

98

Calcium Dynamics in Dendritic Spines and Spine Motility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A dendritic spine is an intracellular compartment in synapses of central neurons. The role of the fast twitching of spines, brought about by a transient rise of internal calcium concentration above that of the parent dendrite, has been hitherto unclear. We propose an explanation of the cause and eff...

Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.; Korkotian, E.

99

Long-Term Efficacy of Repositioning Maneuvers in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of 12 patients with a diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) treated by the repositioning maneuver during a 24-month follow-up period after the initial discharge a longitudinal clinical study was performed in which a questionnaire for the assessment of discomfort caused by dizziness was applied at the first visit, at the last visit after treatment and 2 years after the initial discharge. Repositioning treatment was again offered to patients who suffered relapses. In 10 cases (83.34%) there was no recurrence of symptoms and 2 patients (16.66%) presented symptoms exactly 2 years after the original discharge showing that treatment of BPPV by repositioning manuevers is effective in the long term, but new studies in larger populations are needed to determine the pattern of the rates of recurrence of BPPV.

Erika Barioni Mantello; Ana Paula do Rego André; Nathali Singaretti Moreno; Miguel Ângelo Hyppolito; Julio Cesar Moriguti

2011-01-01

100

Numerical and experimental analysis of spine’s transpedicular stabilizer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work was a numerical and experimental analysis of spine’s transpedicular stabilizer on lumbar part of spine. The result of the analysis was determination of displacements of the stabilizers’ elements.Design/methodology/approach: To define numerical characteristic of the lumbar spine – transpedicular spine stabilizer system, the finite element method was applied. Geometrical models of lumbar part of spine and transpedicular stabilizer were discretized by SOLID95 element. The boundary conditions imitating phenomena in real system with appropriate accuracy were established. The experimental analysis was carried out for spine’s transpedicular stabilizers which were implanted on lumbar part of pig spine. The analysis was realized by means of testing machine MTS Insight with the use of videoextensometer. Numerical and experimental analysis were carried out for stabilizer made of stainless steel Cr-Ni-Mo. System was loaded by uniaxial compression with forces from 50 N to 1600 N.Findings: The result of analysis was calculation of relative displacements of the transpedicular stabilizer in a function of the applied loading; F = 700 - 1600 N for numerical model and F = 50 - 1600 N for experimental model.Research limitations/implications: The results of numerical analysis for transpedicular stabilizer obtained by finite element method were used to determine a construction features of the stabilizer, and to select mechanical properties of metallic biomaterial. The calculation of displacements for stabilizer show that the proposed type of stabilizer enables correct stabilization of spine.Practical implications: Both results of numerical and experimental analysis showed correct selection of mechanical properties of metallic biomaterial which were used to made the proposed type of transpedicular stabilizer.Originality/value: Advantageous results of analysis showed that the type of stabilizer may be used in clinical practice.

M. Kiel; J. Marciniak; M. Basiaga; J. Szewczenko; W. Kus; G. Kokot; T. Wadek

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

De novo spine surgery as a predictor of additional spine surgery at the same or distant spine regions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Degenerative spine disorders are steadily increasing parallel to the aging of the population with considerable impact on cost and productivity. In this paper we study the prevalence and risk factors for multiple spine surgery and its impact on cost. Methods: Data on 1,153 spine surgery inpatients operated between October 2005 and September 2008 (index spine surgery) in regard to the number of previous spine surgeries and location of surgeries (cervical or lumbar) were retrospectively collected. Additionally, prospective follow-up over a period of 2-5 years was conducted. Results: Retrospectively, 365 (31.7%) patients were recurrent spine surgery patients while 788 (68.3%) were de novo spine surgery patients. Nearly half of those with previous spine surgery (51.5%) were on different regions of the spine. There were no significant differences in length of stay or hospital charges except in lumbar decompression and fusion (LDF) patients with multiple interventions on the same region of the spine. Significant differences (P<.05) in length of stay (5.4 days vs. 7.4 days) and hospital charges ($55,477 vs. $74,878) between LDF patients with one previous spine versus those with ?3 previous spine surgeries on the same region were noted. Prospectively, the overall reoperation rate was 10.4%. The risk of additional spine surgery increased from 8.0% in patients with one previous spine surgery (index surgery) to 25.6% in patients with ?4 previous spine surgeries on different regions of the spine (including index surgery). After excluding patients with previous spine surgeries on different regions of the spine, 17.2% of reoperated patients had additional spine surgery on a different spine region. The percentage of additional spine surgery on a distant spine region increased from 14.0% in patients with one spine surgery to 33.0% in patients with two spine surgeries on the same region. However, in patients with three or more spine surgeries on the same spine region there were no interventions on a distant spine region during the follow-up period. Conclusion: De novo spine surgery is associated with an increased incidence of additional spine surgery at the same or distant spine regions. Large prospective studies with extended follow-up periods and multifaceted cost-outcome analysis are needed to refine the appropriateness of spine surgery.

Walid, M. Sami; Robinson III, Joe Sam; Abbara, Moataz; Tolaymat, Abdullah; Robinson Jr, Joe Sam

2011-01-01

102

Canal switch after canalith repositioning procedure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canal switch is a complication following canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Instead of being returned to the utricle, the loose otoconia migrate into the superior or horizontal semicircular canal. Patients remain symptomatic, and treatment can be ineffective unless the switch is recognized and additional repositioning maneuvers directed toward the appropriate semicircular canal are performed. This report provides the first videographic documentation of canal switch involving conversion of unilateral posterior semicircular canal BPPV to geotropic horizontal canalithiasis. PMID:22549695

Lin, Giant C; Basura, Gregory J; Wong, Hiu Tung; Heidenreich, Katherine D

2012-05-01

103

Reposition osteotomy for fracture neck of femur - A simplified technique of surgery and assessment of results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Delayed presentation of femoral neck fracture poses problem of management. Methods: Sixteen patients of fracture neck femur were treated with repositioning osteotomy and osteosynthesis with a 120 o double angle blade plate. Ten patients had Pauwel?s type II and 6 had type III fracture. Results : The average period for fracture healing was 14.87 weeks. No patient developed avascular necrosis. The average duration of follow up was 25 months. A new scoring system has been described. The results were excellent in four; good in nine; satisfactory in two and poor in one case. Conclusion : Reposition osteotomy provides stability and union in femoral neck fractures.

Nath Rajendra; Rastogi Sanjay; Gupta A; Prasad N

2006-01-01

104

Electrical Advantages of Dendritic Spines  

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Many neurons receive excitatory glutamatergic input almost exclusively onto dendritic spines. In the absence of spines, the amplitudes and kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) at the site of synaptic input are highly variable and depend on dendritic location. We hypothesized that d...

Gulledge, Allan T.; Carnevale, Nicholas T.; Stuart, Greg J.

105

Electrical compartmentalization in dendritic spines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most excitatory inputs in the CNS contact dendritic spines, avoiding dendritic shafts, so spines must play a key role for neurons. Recent data suggest that, in addition to enhancing connectivity and isolating synaptic biochemistry, spines can behave as electrical compartments independent from their parent dendrites. It is becoming clear that, although spines experience voltages similar to those of dendrites during action potentials (APs), spines must sustain higher depolarizations than do dendritic shafts during excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). Synaptic potentials are likely amplified at the spine head and then reduced as they invade the dendrite through the spine neck. These electrical changes, probably due to a combination of passive and active mechanisms, may prevent the saturation of dendrites by the joint activation of many inputs, influence dendritic integration, and contribute to rapid synaptic plasticity. The electrical properties of spines could enable neural circuits to harness a high connectivity, implementing a "synaptic democracy," where each input can be individually integrated, tallied, and modified in order to generate emergent functional states.

Yuste R

2013-07-01

106

Prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with unilateral dislocated condyle fracture after treatment with a mandibular repositioning splint: a clinical report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This clinical report describes the use of a mandibular repositioning splint and the subsequent prosthodontic treatment of a unilateral dislocated condyle fracture for a patient whose injury resulted in significant mandibular deviation and malocclusion. The use of a mandibular repositioning splint considerably reduced the mandibular deviation, and a stable mandibular position was maintained with the definitive prosthesis.

Noh K; Choi W; Pae A; Kwon KR

2013-06-01

107

Dendritic spine pathology in schizophrenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder whose clinical features include impairments in perception, cognition and motivation. These impairments reflect alterations in neuronal circuitry within and across multiple brain regions that are due, at least in part, to deficits in dendritic spines, the site of most excitatory synaptic connections. Dendritic spine alterations have been identified in multiple brain regions in schizophrenia, but are best characterized in layer 3 of the neocortex, where pyramidal cell spine density is lower. These spine deficits appear to arise during development, and thus are likely the result of disturbances in the molecular mechanisms that underlie spine formation, pruning, and/or maintenance. Each of these mechanisms may provide insight into novel therapeutic targets for preventing or repairing the alterations in neural circuitry that mediate the debilitating symptoms of schizophrenia.

Glausier JR; Lewis DA

2013-10-01

108

C Spine Fracture on OPG.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maxillofacial injuries are common and they occur in a variety of situations. All patients who undergo maxillofacial or head trauma, are presumed to sustain cervical spine injuries. Identification of cervical spine injuries is essential in management of trauma, because a missed injury can result in a catastrophic spinal cord injury. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines have suggested that routine use of cervical spine radiographs may not be required in an asymptomatic patient. We are presenting here a case with a cervical spine injury with no clinical deficits, found incidentally on panoramic radiographs which were advised for evaluation of the mandibular fracture. We suggest that importance has to be given to examination of the cervical spine on the panoramic radiographs as well.

N S K; N S M; R S

2013-08-01

109

C Spine Fracture on OPG  

Science.gov (United States)

Maxillofacial injuries are common and they occur in a variety of situations. All patients who undergo maxillofacial or head trauma, are presumed to sustain cervical spine injuries. Identification of cervical spine injuries is essential in management of trauma, because a missed injury can result in a catastrophic spinal cord injury. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines have suggested that routine use of cervical spine radiographs may not be required in an asymptomatic patient. We are presenting here a case with a cervical spine injury with no clinical deficits, found incidentally on panoramic radiographs which were advised for evaluation of the mandibular fracture. We suggest that importance has to be given to examination of the cervical spine on the panoramic radiographs as well.

N.S., Kedarnath; N.S., Mamatha; R., Shruthi

2013-01-01

110

Asymmetric division of cyst stem cells in Drosophila testis is ensured by anaphase spindle repositioning  

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Many stem cells divide asymmetrically to balance self-renewal and differentiation. In Drosophila testes, two stem cell populations, germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs), cohere and regulate one another. Here, we report that CySCs divide asymmetrically through repositioning ...

Cheng, Jun; Tiyaboonchai, Amita; Yamashita, Yukiko M.; Hunt, Alan J.

111

Long-Term Efficacy of Repositioning Maneuvers in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo  

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To determine the characteristics of 12 patients with a diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) treated by the repositioning maneuver during a 24-month follow-up period after the initial discharge a longitudinal clinical study was performed in which a questionnaire for the assessment...

Erika Barioni Mantello; Ana Paula do Rego André; Nathali Singaretti Moreno; Miguel Ângelo Hyppolito; Julio Cesar Moriguti

112

Variables Affecting Canalith Repositioning Maneuver (CRM) Trend for Treating Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)  

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Background: The purpose of this study was to identify variables affecting outcome in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) treated with canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM). Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 58 patients (14 males, 44 females, mean age 48.12+13....

M. Adel Ghahraman; F. Hajiabolhassan; M. Naraghi; M. Sedaei; E. Entezari; M. Haddadi Avval; P. Kamali

113

Residual dizziness after successful repositioning maneuvers for idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To establish a possible causal factor for residual dizziness (RD) after successful repositioning maneuvers in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). MATERIALS AND METHOD: Ninety consecutive patients with idiopathic BPPV were treated with repositioning maneuvers, and the rate of RD was assessed as well as clinical data. Posturography and assessment of anxiety levels were performed on patients reporting RD. Results were compared with a control group of BPPV patients of the sample after repositioning maneuvers and without RD. RESULTS: Twenty-eight subjects (31.1%) reported RD on the second day after successful repositioning maneuvers. The mean duration of RD was 11.6 ± 3.9 days. Patients with RD presented a higher duration of BPPV (14.1 vs. 10.9 days, p = 0.01). A correlation was demonstrated between the duration of BPPV and duration of RD (p < 0.01). Subjects with RD presented increased body sways, above all in eyes-closed conditions. CONCLUSION: RD is mainly correlated with duration of vertigo in BPPV patients. Anxiety was demonstrated to play a role in increased body sways.

Teggi R; Quaglieri S; Gatti O; Benazzo M; Bussi M

2013-01-01

114

Immediate effect of scapular repositioning with active cervical rotation in acute spasmodic torticollis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the immediate effects on pain and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of a scapular repositioning technique in patients with acute spasmodic torticollis. METHODS: A randomized, single blind pilot study was conducted. The subjects were 23 individuals (age 20-40 years) with a clinical diagnosis of spasmodic torticollis. Visual analog scale pain score, cervical active ranges of motion, and PPT were assessed before and after the intervention. The comparison group was treated with only conventional physiotherapy (microwave diathermy, submaximal isometrics, and ergonomic advice). The intervention group was given scapular repositioning with active cervical rotation technique, in addition to conventional physiotherapy treatment. RESULTS: There were significant improvements in intensity of pain (P < .01), cervical rotation to the ipsilateral side (P < .01), cervical side flexion to the contralateral side (P < .01), and PPT (P < .01) immediately after the treatment of the scapular repositioning and conventional therapy compared with the conventional therapy alone. CONCLUSION: The present pilot study demonstrated that scapular repositioning may have an immediate hypoalgesic effect on individuals with spasmodic torticollis in terms of pain severity, PPT, and cervical range of motion. Therefore, further controlled trials are warranted.

Desai NA; Khatri SM; Agarwal AB

2013-09-01

115

Program management for spring location and repositioning (SLAR) operations at Pickering NGS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1988 a major project was planned for Units 5 and 6 of Pickering NGS (Nuclear Generating Station). The project involved remotely locating and repositioning the four spacer (garter) springs separating each pressure tube from the surrounding calandria tube. This paper describes the requirements for SLAR, and the work being undertaken at Pickering NGS to implement the project

1987-01-01

116

Gout in the spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Axial gout can affect all segments of the spine. It is manifested as back pain, as pain associated with neurological symptoms, and as neurological impairment without pain in 17.9%, 75.8% and 4.2% of cases, respectively. These manifestations were the first presentation of gout in many patients. Although x-rays as well as computed tomography and especially magnetic resonance scans can be very suggestive, histopathological, cytological and crystal analyses are the diagnostic gold standard. In most cases involving neurological manifestations, the patient underwent surgery, leading to satisfactory results. There are, however, some reports of full recovery following the usual clinical treatment for gout, suggesting that such treatment may be the initial option for those subjects with a history of gout and radiological findings of axial involvement.

Hasegawa EM; Mello FM; Goldenstein-Schainberg C; Fuller R

2013-06-01

117

Massive Pneumocephalus And Meiningitis Following Spine Instrumentation  

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Full Text Available Pneumocephalus with meningitis usually occurs as a complication of head injury or surgery. It is uncommon after procedures or traumatic injuries to spine. We report an adolescent presenting with features of Pott?s spine who developed pneumocephalus and meningitis following spine instrumentation (stabilization of thoracic spine). Early recognition and prompt treatment with parenteral antibiotics resulted in a favorable outcome.

Kumar S; Ravi Kumar P; Manasseh N

2005-01-01

118

[Cervical spine instability in the surgical patient.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many congenital and acquired diseases, including trauma, may result in cervical spine instability. Given that airway management is closely related to the movement of the cervical spine, it is important that the anesthesiologist has detailed knowledge of the anatomy, the mechanisms of cervical spine instability, and of the effects that the different airway maneuvers have on the cervical spine. We first review the normal anatomy and biomechanics of the cervical spine in the context of airway management and the concept of cervical spine instability. In the second part, we review the protocols for the management of cervical spine instability in trauma victims and some of the airway management options for these patients.

Barbeito A; Guerri-Guttenberg RA

2013-09-01

119

Spine Tango annual report 2012.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Since the Spine Tango registry was founded over a decade ago it has become established internationally. An annual report has been produced using the same format as the SWEspine group to allow for first data comparisons between the two registries. METHODS: Data was captured with the latest generation of surgery and follow-up forms. Also, the Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) from interventions performed in the year 2012 with follow-up to June 2013 was analyzed. Groups of patients with the most common degenerative lumbar spine diseases and a single group of patients with degenerative cervical spine diseases were created. The demographics, risk factors, previous treatments, current treatment, short-term outcomes, patient satisfaction and complications were analyzed. Pre- and postoperative pain and function scores were derived from the COMI. RESULTS: About 6,500 procedures were captured with Spine Tango in 2012. The definitions and composition of all the degenerative groups could not completely be matched between the two registries with the consequence that the age and sex distributions were partially different. Preoperative pain levels were similar. The short-term outcomes available did not allow for evaluation of the final result of surgical intervention. This will be possible with the longer term data in the next annual report. There was a distinct disparity in reported complication rates between surgeons and patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is a valuable first step in creating comparable reports for SWEspine and Spine Tango. The German spine registry may be able to collaborate in the future because of similar items and data structure as Spine Tango. There needs to be more work on understanding the harmonization of the different degenerative subgroups. The Spine Tango report is weakened by the short and incomplete follow-up. The visual presentation of data may be a useful model for aiding decision making for surgeons and patients in the future.

Neukamp M; Perler G; Pigott T; Munting E; Aebi M; Röder C

2013-08-01

120

[Hemangiopericytoma of the lumbar spine].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hemangiocytoma are rare malignant vascular tumor. Vertebral location is uncommun. They occur preferentially at the lumbo-sacrul spine with paravertebral extension. The features include spinal pains, para vertebral tumefaction and paresthesia. The CT and MRI scans can help to diagnosis which is histological. The treatment is surgical combined or no with radiotherapy. The pronostic is marqued by the recidive risk and metastases. We report a new case of vertebral hemangiopericytoma of the thoraco-lumbar spine with litteratur review.

Megdiche Bazarbacha H; Bouchriha M; Sebai R; Belghith L; Touibi S

2006-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Development of the young spine questionnaire.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. METHODS: The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases--a conceptualisation, development and testing phase. The conceptualisation phase followed the Wilson and Cleary model and included questions regarding spinal prevalence estimates, pain frequency and intensity, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. Items from existing questionnaires and the "Revised Faces Pain Scale" (rFPS) were included during the development phase. The testing phase consisted of a mixed quantitative and qualitative iterative method carried out in two pilot tests using 4th grade children and focusing on assessment of spinal area location and item validity. RESULTS: The testing phase resulted in omission of the pain drawings and the questions and answer categories were simplified in several questions. Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). CONCLUSIONS: The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings among target respondents. These preliminary results suggest that the YSQ is feasible, has content validity and is a well understood questionnaire to be used in studies of children aged 9 to 11 years.

Lauridsen HH; Hestbaek L

2013-01-01

122

Disruption of spine homeostasis causes depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Depression is one of the most burdensome diseases in the world. Although the exact pathogenesis remains unknown, stress is a well-known risk factor for the development of depression. Recently, stress has been known to induce loss of dendritic spines in neurons. Interestingly, also in human brains, higher levels of anxiety and depression scores are associated with decreased densities of spines in the hippocampus, supporting that the disturbance of spine homeostasis is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of depression. On the other hand, general serotonin vulnerability has been also proposed as a major risk factor in depression, where the paucity of available serotonin is involved in the pathogenesis of depression, indicating that the serotonergic system somehow possesses the ability to regulate spine homeostasis. However, the relationship between spine homeostasis and the serotonergic system is largely unknown. Thus, in this manuscript, I try to find the missing link between spine homeostasis and the serotonergic system. The hypothesis is as follows. First, stress reduces the number of spines. Since spine homeostasis is tightly regulated by the serotonergic system, the spine loss is compensated by activated serotonergic system in normal conditions. However, various factors, such as genetic predispositions and heavy stress, decrease the resilience of spine homeostasis. In such conditions, the serotonergic system cannot compensate spine homeostasis anymore, leading to disrupted spine homeostasis. Finally, disrupted spine homeostasis results in depression. The characteristic point of this hypothesis is that it can monistically explain the pathogenesis of depression, where disturbance of spine homeostasis is the main cause.

Sato K

2013-07-01

123

Alterations in nasal respiration and nasal airway size following superior repositioning of the maxilla.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty patients who underwent superior repositioning of the maxilla via Le Fort I down fracture had their respiratory mode and nasal cross-sectional area determined prior to and 6 months following surgery. Inductive plethysmography and nasal air flow techniques were used in the determination of these parameters. Prior to surgery, five patients were nasal breathers, five were predominantly nasal breathers, six were oral-nasal breathers, and four were predominantly oral breathers. Nine patients had inadequate nasal airways. Six months following surgery, 14 patients were nasal breathers and six were predominantly nasal breathers. Sixteen patients had adequate nasal airways, three had borderline nasal airways and one had an inadequate nasal airway postsurgically. These findings suggest that superior repositioning of the maxilla by Le Fort I down fracture does not adversely affect nasal respiration. Nasal function actually improved in 17 of the 20 subjects studied.

Walker DA; Turvey TA; Warren DW

1988-04-01

124

Ovarian conservation and repositioning in radical hysterectomy performed for cervical cancer: Experimental and clinical observations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author presented an experimental procedure of subperitoneal repositioning of the ovaries into the region of abdominal wall associated with conservation of infundibulopelvic ligament, in female dogs. Relaparatomy was performed a year later. There were no significant changes in ovaries displaced both subperitoneally and subcutaneously. In seven patients under 36 years of age, who underwent the surgical procedure of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer, ovaries were repositioned intraperiotoneally into the region of lower rim of the kidney associated with conservation of vascularization across the infundibulopelvic ligament. One patient presented with a cystic degeneration of the right ovary, whereas the others presented with normal ultrasonographic findings. Urinary estrogen values, estimated a year following the surgical procedure, ranged within normal values.

Dra?a Petar D.

2003-01-01

125

A cupulolith repositioning maneuver in the treatment of horizontal canal cupulolithiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated outcomes and their significance of a new treatment method for horizontal canal cupulolithiasis that could be applied regardless of the side of the cupula where otoliths are attached. METHODS: Consecutive 78 patients who showed persistent apogeotropic horizontal canal positional vertigo (horizontal canal cupulolithiasis) were enrolled, and they were treated with the new cupulolith repositioning maneuver. RESULTS: Horizontal semicircular canal cupulolithiasis was alleviated in 97.4% of patients, after an average of 2.1 repetitions of the maneuver. Otoliths were suspected to be attached to the canal side of the cupula in 30 cases and the utricular side in 44 cases. CONCLUSION: The cupulolith repositioning maneuver is an effective method for treating horizontal canal cupulolithiasis. It may also provide an insight into the side of the cupula where otoliths are attached.

Kim SH; Jo SW; Chung WK; Byeon HK; Lee WS

2012-04-01

126

Repositioning therapeutic cancer vaccines in the dawning era of potent immune interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on lessons learned with various immune interventions, this review aims to provide a constructive framework for repositioning therapeutic cancer vaccination. Intensive research throughout the past decade has identified key hurdles interfering with the efficacy of cancer vaccines. The vaccination concept still holds promise if positioned appropriately in minimal residual disease and select early disease stage cancer indications. However, in advanced cancer, it must be integrated with complementary immune interventions to ensure reconstruction of a functional immune repertoire and simultaneous blockade of immune inhibiting mechanisms. Vaccination could render complex and integrative immune interventions simpler, safer and more effective. The near future will witness an explosion of activities in the cancer immunotherapy arena, witnessing a rational repositioning of vaccines rather than their extinction.

Bot A; Marincola F; Smith KA

2013-10-01

127

Anterior interbody arthrodesis with percutaneous posterior pedicle fixation for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a retrospective case series to evaluate clinical variables, complications and outcome of 50 patients who underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) supplemented with posterior percutaneous pedicle screw fixation for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. Twenty-four patients underwent single-level fusion and 26 patients had a two-level fusion for a total of 76 levels fused. The mean lengths of the anterior and posterior (including repositioning) portions of the procedure were 131 and 102 min, respectively. The mean estimated blood loss for the entire procedure was 288 ml. The overall adverse event rate was 12%. The mean VAS score for leg pain, VAS score for back pain and mean ODI all improved postoperatively. This study found that ALIF using allograft bone and rhBMP-2 combined with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation had a high fusion rate and a low incidence of perioperative complications. Patient outcomes showed significant improvements in back and leg pain and physical functioning.

Anderson DG; Sayadipour A; Shelby K; Albert TJ; Vaccaro AR; Weinstein MS

2011-08-01

128

Neuroradiology of spine degenerative diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Degenerative disease of the spine is one of the most common clinical entities and affects the intervertebral discs, including opposing vertebral endplates, the intervertebral posterior joints and the ligaments. The most severe primary spinal degenerative changes are found in the lower cervical and lumbar spine regions. The spine contains three different types of joints, each of which presents its own pattern of degenerative disease: (i) cartilaginous joints, represented by the intervertebral disc or, more specifically, the functional unit defined as the 'vertebro-disc connection'; (ii) synovial joints, represented by the posterior intervertebral joints, sacro-iliac and costovertebral joints; (iii) fibrous joints, mainly found in the principal ligaments such as the posterior longitudinal ligament and the yellow ligaments. With regard to radicular pain, root compression alone does not fully account for root pain following disc-root conflict, but it is, nevertheless, considered to be the main cause of pain. We will try to explain that the origin of pain is multi-factorial and that inflammation probably predominates over merely mechanical mechanisms. To conclude, we will consider whether vertebral arthrosis can be construed as the body's decision to favour the spine's static function over its dynamic role when joint 'hypermobility' linked to chronic load in old age could cause severe structural damage to the bony vertebral structures. This hypothesis should also embrace a further concept: ageing of the spine is not merelychronological. Themostaccurate interpretation tha tcan account for similar degenerative phenomena encountered in the young is that of abnormal static and dynamic loading stress.

Leonardi M; Simonetti L; Agati R

2002-01-01

129

Multi-aspect candidates for repositioning: data fusion methods using heterogeneous information sources.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drug repositioning, an innovative therapeutic application of an old drug, has received much attention as a particularly costeffective strategy in drug R&D Recent work has indicated that repositioning can be promoted by utilizing a wide range of information sources, including medicinal chemical, target, mechanism, main and side-effect-related information, and also bibliometric and taxonomical fingerprints, signatures and knowledge bases. This article describes the adaptation of a conceptually novel, more efficient approach for the identification of new possible therapeutic applications of approved drugs and drug candidates, based on a kernel-based data fusion method. This strategy includes (1) the potentially multiple representation of information sources, (2) the automated weighting and statistically optimal combination of information sources, and (3) the automated weighting of parts of the query compounds. The performance was systematically evaluated by using Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System classes in a cross-validation framework. The results confirmed that kernel-based data fusion can integrate heterogeneous information sources significantly better than standard rank-based fusion can, and this method provides a unique solution for repositioning; it can also be utilized for de novo drug discovery. The advantages of kernel-based data fusion are illustrated with examples and open problems that are particularly relevant for pharmaceutical applications.

Arany Á; Bolgár B; Balogh B; Antal P; Mátyus P

2013-01-01

130

Process and structure wherein atoms are repositioned on a surface using a scanning tunnelling microscope.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method and structure in which an adsorbate atom or molecule is repositioned on a substrate surface by moving the tip of an STM to a position adjacent to the atom to be moved and causing the atom to be attracted to the tip. While the atom remains bound to the surface (or, alternatively, is lifted), the tip is moved laterally to drag (or carry) the atom to a desired position at which it is bound to the surface. The atom may be repositioned in close proximity to an atom of the same or another type on the same or a different substrate to create a desired multi-atom structure or synthesise a molecule, or an atom may be removed to cleave a multi-atom structure, or a change in state of a multi-atom structure may be effected.; Atoms may also be repositioned to write indicia on a storage medium by dragging or carrying atoms into the desired information-bearing pattern, for example, by dragging or carrying selected atoms out of a respective one of a plurality of parallel atom rows using the tip of an STM to thereby write indicia at locations denoted by the removed atoms.

EIGLER DONALD MARK

131

Calcium signaling in dendritic spines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule that accumulates in the cytoplasm in response to diverse classes of stimuli and, in turn, regulates many aspects of cell function. In neurons, Ca(2+) influx in response to action potentials or synaptic stimulation triggers neurotransmitter release, modulates ion channels, induces synaptic plasticity, and activates transcription. In this article, we discuss the factors that regulate Ca(2+) signaling in mammalian neurons with a particular focus on Ca(2+) signaling within dendritic spines. This includes consideration of the routes of entry and exit of Ca(2+), the cellular mechanisms that establish the temporal and spatial profile of Ca(2+) signaling, and the biophysical criteria that determine which downstream signals are activated when Ca(2+) accumulates in a spine. Furthermore, we also briefly discuss the technical advances that made possible the quantitative study of Ca(2+) signaling in dendritic spines.

Higley MJ; Sabatini BL

2012-04-01

132

Degenerative disease of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With few exceptions, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the modality of choice for the evaluation of degenerative disorders of the entire spine. With the implementation of surface coils and continued refinement and development of new pulse sequences, osseous and soft tissue structures of the spine can now be studied in great detail. The introduction of paramagnetic contrast agents has made it possible to differentiate epidural scar from recurrent disc herniation in the postoperative setting and to discern previously undetected degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc itself. This paper discusses the spectrum of degenerative diseases of the spine, including disc degeneration (intervertebral osteochondrosis), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylosis deformans, and osteoarthritis. A brief description of the MR techniques and strategies used to evaluate these disorders is also.

1991-01-01

133

Geometrical spines of lens manifolds  

CERN Multimedia

Geometrical spines are defined for 3-manifolds with natural metrics, in particular, for lens manifolds. We show that any spine of L(p,q) close enough to its geometrical spine (i.e., to the cut locus with respect to the standard metric) contains at least E(p,q)-3 vertices, which is exactly the conjectured value for Matveev's complexity of L(p,q); here E(p,q) stands for the sum of the elements of the continued fraction expansion of p/q. As a byproduct, we find the minimal (over all triangulations) rotation distance (the term coined by Sleator, Tarjan, and Thurston) between a triangulation of a regular p-gon and its image under (2Pi q/p)-rotation. This minimum is also equal to E(p,q)-3.

Anisov, S

2005-01-01

134

PA lumbar spines: a future concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents results of a comparison of two possible lumbar spine projections used in a sample of 20 male and 20 female patients, with regard to dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography. (UK)

1994-01-01

135

PA lumbar spines: a future concept  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article presents results of a comparison of two possible lumbar spine projections used in a sample of 20 male and 20 female patients, with regard to dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography. (UK).

Colleran, Clare (Norfolk and Norwich Hospital (United Kingdom))

1994-03-01

136

Blunt Traumatic Cervical Spine Fractures in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Blunt traumatic cervical spine fractures (TCSF) are serious injuries which may be associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. We describe the epidemiology of blunt traumatic cervical spine fracture in Iran over a definable time period. Methods

Soheil Saadat; Aliashraf Eghbali; Alexander R. Vaccaro; Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

137

Unintentional conversion of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo caused by repositioning procedures for canalithiasis: transitional BPPV.  

Science.gov (United States)

BPPV when diagnosed before any repositioning procedure is called primary BPPV. Primary BPPV canalithiasis treatment with repositioning procedures sometimes results in unintentional conversion of BPPV form: transitional BPPV. Objectives were to find transitional BPPV forms, how they influence relative rate of canal involvement and how to be treated. This study is a retrospective case review performed at an ambulatory, tertiary referral center. Participants were 189 consecutive BPPV patients. Main outcome measures were detection of transitional BPPV, outcome of repositioning procedures for transitional canalithiasis BPPV and spontaneous recovery for transitional cupulolithiasis BPPV. Canal distribution of primary BPPV was: posterior canal (Pc): 85.7 % (162/189), horizontal canal (Hc): 11.6 % (22/189), anterior canal (Ac): 2.6 % (5/189); taken together with transitional BPPV it was: Pc: 71.3 % (164/230), Hc: 26.5 % (61/230), Ac: 2.2 % (5/230). Transitional BPPV forms were: Hc canalithiasis 58 % (24/41), Hc cupulolithiasis 37 % (15/41) and common crux reentry 5 % (2/41). Treated with barbecue maneuver transitional Hc canalithiasis cases either resolved in 58 % (14/24) or transitioned further to transitional Hc cupulolithiasis in 42 % (10/24). In follow-up of transitional Hc cupulolithiasis we confirmed spontaneous recovery in 14/15 cases in less than 2 days. The most frequent transitional BPPV form was Hc canalithiasis so it raises importance of barbecue maneuver treatment. Second most frequent was transitional Hc cupulolithiasis which very quickly spontaneously recovers and does not require any intervention. The rarest found transitional BPPV form was common crux reentry which is treated by Canalith repositioning procedure. Transitional BPPV taken together with primary BPPV may decrease relative rate of Pc BPPV, considerably increase relative rate of Hc BPPV and negligibly influence relative rate of Ac BPPV. Transitional BPPV forms can be produced by repositioning maneuvers (transitional Hc cupulolithiasis) or by the subsequent controlling positional test (transitional Hc canalithiasis and common crux reentry); underlying mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23605245

Babic, Borivoj B; Jesic, Snezana D; Milovanovic, Jovica D; Arsovic, Nenad A

2013-04-19

138

Unintentional conversion of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo caused by repositioning procedures for canalithiasis: transitional BPPV.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BPPV when diagnosed before any repositioning procedure is called primary BPPV. Primary BPPV canalithiasis treatment with repositioning procedures sometimes results in unintentional conversion of BPPV form: transitional BPPV. Objectives were to find transitional BPPV forms, how they influence relative rate of canal involvement and how to be treated. This study is a retrospective case review performed at an ambulatory, tertiary referral center. Participants were 189 consecutive BPPV patients. Main outcome measures were detection of transitional BPPV, outcome of repositioning procedures for transitional canalithiasis BPPV and spontaneous recovery for transitional cupulolithiasis BPPV. Canal distribution of primary BPPV was: posterior canal (Pc): 85.7 % (162/189), horizontal canal (Hc): 11.6 % (22/189), anterior canal (Ac): 2.6 % (5/189); taken together with transitional BPPV it was: Pc: 71.3 % (164/230), Hc: 26.5 % (61/230), Ac: 2.2 % (5/230). Transitional BPPV forms were: Hc canalithiasis 58 % (24/41), Hc cupulolithiasis 37 % (15/41) and common crux reentry 5 % (2/41). Treated with barbecue maneuver transitional Hc canalithiasis cases either resolved in 58 % (14/24) or transitioned further to transitional Hc cupulolithiasis in 42 % (10/24). In follow-up of transitional Hc cupulolithiasis we confirmed spontaneous recovery in 14/15 cases in less than 2 days. The most frequent transitional BPPV form was Hc canalithiasis so it raises importance of barbecue maneuver treatment. Second most frequent was transitional Hc cupulolithiasis which very quickly spontaneously recovers and does not require any intervention. The rarest found transitional BPPV form was common crux reentry which is treated by Canalith repositioning procedure. Transitional BPPV taken together with primary BPPV may decrease relative rate of Pc BPPV, considerably increase relative rate of Hc BPPV and negligibly influence relative rate of Ac BPPV. Transitional BPPV forms can be produced by repositioning maneuvers (transitional Hc cupulolithiasis) or by the subsequent controlling positional test (transitional Hc canalithiasis and common crux reentry); underlying mechanisms are discussed.

Babic BB; Jesic SD; Milovanovic JD; Arsovic NA

2013-04-01

139

Investigating drug repositioning opportunities in FDA drug labels through topic modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug repositioning offers an opportunity to revitalize the slowing drug discovery pipeline by finding new uses for currently existing drugs. Our hypothesis is that drugs sharing similar side effect profiles are likely to be effective for the same disease, and thus repositioning opportunities can be identified by finding drug pairs with similar side effects documented in U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug labels. The safety information in the drug labels is usually obtained in the clinical trial and augmented with the observations in the post-market use of the drug. Therefore, our drug repositioning approach can take the advantage of more comprehensive safety information comparing with conventional de novo approach. Method A probabilistic topic model was constructed based on the terms in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) that appeared in the Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions, and Adverse Reactions sections of the labels of 870 drugs. Fifty-two unique topics, each containing a set of terms, were identified by using topic modeling. The resulting probabilistic topic associations were used to measure the distance (similarity) between drugs. The success of the proposed model was evaluated by comparing a drug and its nearest neighbor (i.e., a drug pair) for common indications found in the Indications and Usage Section of the drug labels. Results Given a drug with more than three indications, the model yielded a 75% recall, meaning 75% of drug pairs shared one or more common indications. This is significantly higher than the 22% recall rate achieved by random selection. Additionally, the recall rate grows rapidly as the number of drug indications increases and reaches 84% for drugs with 11 indications. The analysis also demonstrated that 65 drugs with a Boxed Warning, which indicates significant risk of serious and possibly life-threatening adverse effects, might be replaced with safer alternatives that do not have a Boxed Warning. In addition, we identified two therapeutic groups of drugs (Musculo-skeletal system and Anti-infective for systemic use) where over 80% of the drugs have a potential replacement with high significance. Conclusion Topic modeling can be a powerful tool for the identification of repositioning opportunities by examining the adverse event terms in FDA approved drug labels. The proposed framework not only suggests drugs that can be repurposed, but also provides insight into the safety of repositioned drugs.

Bisgin Halil; Liu Zhichao; Kelly Reagan; Fang Hong; Xu Xiaowei; Tong Weida

2012-01-01

140

Methods of estimation of spine density--are spines evenly distributed throughout the dendritic field?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendritic spines are small protrusions extending from the dendrites of nerve cells, which bear the majority of synapses. In the past, researchers quantified spine density as the number of visible spines per estimated micrometre of dendrite. This estimate ignores all those spines hidden from view due...

Horner, C H; Arbuthnott, E

 
 
 
 
141

Imaging membrane potential in dendritic spines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendritic spines mediate most excitatory inputs in the brain. Although it is clear that spines compartmentalize calcium, it is still unknown what role, if any, they play in integrating synaptic inputs. To investigate the electrical function of spines directly, we used second harmonic generation (SHG...

Nuriya, Mutsuo; Jiang, Jiang; Nemet, Boaz; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Yuste, Rafael

142

Of goats and spines :a feeding experiment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spines in plants have evolved to reduce mammalian herbivory, and their main function may be to protect twigs more than photosynthetic tissue. Type and frequency of spines vary in different scales. We hypothesised that different types of spines affect animal foraging through different mechanisms. We ...

Skarpe, Christina; Bergström, Roger; Danell, Kjell; Eriksson, Helena; Kunz, Camilla

143

Nonsurgical interventions for spine pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nonsurgical, conservative approaches to spine pain include medication and physical therapy. In addition, several invasive procedures have been developed to provide relief when conservative options fail. These include facet joint injection and radiofrequency ablation techniques, translaminar and transforaminal epidural corticosteroid injections, and intradiscal coagulation procedures. Controlled studies to assess the effectiveness of some of these therapeutic modalities have been performed.

Levin KH

2007-05-01

144

Missile injuries of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1995 and 2000, 22 cases with low velocity missile injuries of the spine and spinal cord were treated in three service hospitals. All were adult males, with a mean age of 30.7 years. The wounds were caused by splinters in 18 (82%) and bullets in 4 (18%). Twelve patients received more than one splinter. The cervical and thoracic spines were most frequently involved. In 7 cases, there were injuries to other organs. There was extensive initial deficit (quadriplegia, paraplegia) in 18 (82%) cases, while 4 (18%) had partial deficits. The patients were evaluated by spine radiographs. Myelography was done in 4, CT myelography in 11 and MRI in 4 patients. Two patients had intramedullary hematoma without any skeletal injury, and were treated conservatively. Seventeen patients were treated operatively, and associated injuries of other organs received priority management. Surgery was in the form of debridement, exploration of the spinal cord, hemostasis, decompression and dural repair. Steroids and antibiotics were given routinely. Three patients (2 with cervical and 1 with thoracic spine injury) died preoperatively, and 1 (with dorsolumbar injury) died in the postoperative period due to multi-organ injury. Patients with complete injury remained completely paralyzed, while those with an incomplete injury showed improvement in their neurological grades. The initial neurological grade is the best prognostic indicator, and these injuries are often accompanied by multi-organ injuries. There was no instance of postoperative meningitis or CSF leak. These injuries should be explored for debridement and dural repair. PMID:14742934

Bhatoe, H S; Singh, P

2003-12-01

145

Missile injuries of the spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between 1995 and 2000, 22 cases with low velocity missile injuries of the spine and spinal cord were treated in three service hospitals. All were adult males, with a mean age of 30.7 years. The wounds were caused by splinters in 18 (82%) and bullets in 4 (18%). Twelve patients received more than one splinter. The cervical and thoracic spines were most frequently involved. In 7 cases, there were injuries to other organs. There was extensive initial deficit (quadriplegia, paraplegia) in 18 (82%) cases, while 4 (18%) had partial deficits. The patients were evaluated by spine radiographs. Myelography was done in 4, CT myelography in 11 and MRI in 4 patients. Two patients had intramedullary hematoma without any skeletal injury, and were treated conservatively. Seventeen patients were treated operatively, and associated injuries of other organs received priority management. Surgery was in the form of debridement, exploration of the spinal cord, hemostasis, decompression and dural repair. Steroids and antibiotics were given routinely. Three patients (2 with cervical and 1 with thoracic spine injury) died preoperatively, and 1 (with dorsolumbar injury) died in the postoperative period due to multi-organ injury. Patients with complete injury remained completely paralyzed, while those with an incomplete injury showed improvement in their neurological grades. The initial neurological grade is the best prognostic indicator, and these injuries are often accompanied by multi-organ injuries. There was no instance of postoperative meningitis or CSF leak. These injuries should be explored for debridement and dural repair.

Bhatoe HS; Singh P

2003-12-01

146

Missile injuries of the spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Between 1995 and 2000, 22 cases with low velocity missile injuries of the spine and spinal cord were treated in three service hospitals. All were adult males, with a mean age of 30.7 years. The wounds were caused by splinters in 18 (82%) and bullets in 4 (18%). Twelve patients received more than one splinter. The cervical and thoracic spines were most frequently involved. In 7 cases, there were injuries to other organs. There was extensive initial deficit (quadriplegia, paraplegia) in 18 (82%) cases, while 4 (18%) had partial deficits. The patients were evaluated by spine radiographs. Myelography was done in 4, CT myelography in 11 and MRI in 4 patients. Two patients had intramedullary hematoma without any skeletal injury, and were treated conservatively. Seventeen patients were treated operatively, and associated injuries of other organs received priority management. Surgery was in the form of debridement, exploration of the spinal cord, hemostasis, decompression and dural repair. Steroids and antibiotics were given routinely. Three patients (2 with cervical and 1 with thoracic spine injury) died preoperatively, and 1 (with dorsolumbar injury) died in the postoperative period due to multi-organ injury. Patients with complete injury remained completely paralyzed, while those with an incomplete injury showed improvement in their neurological grades. The initial neurological grade is the best prognostic indicator, and these injuries are often accompanied by multi-organ injuries. There was no instance of postoperative meningitis or CSF leak. These injuries should be explored for debridement and dural repair.

Bhatoe H; Singh P

2003-01-01

147

Morphological Study of Dendritic Spines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reconstruction of the neuron structure and the characterisation of dendritic spines is nowadays a hot topic in neurobiology research. Dendrites are cellular structures whose main objective is to conduct the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body of the neuron f...

Baguear, Miguel Federico

148

Radiology of the cervical spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author describes some particularities seen in the abnormal or pathological image of the cervical spine: The osteolysis of the cortical bone in the spinous processes, the 'Y' shaped course of the corporeal veins, the notch in interspinous bursitis, and the main forms of constitutional stenosis of the cervical canal.

Wackenheim, A.

1989-04-01

149

Cervical spine in Treacher Collins syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital syndrome with characteristic craniofacial malformations, which are well described in the literature. However, the presence of cervical spine dysmorphology in this syndrome has been minimally described. This study reviews cervical spine radiographs of 40 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. In this sample, 7 of 40 patients displayed cervical spine anomalies, with 3 of these patients displaying multiple cervical spine anomalies. The patterns of spinal anomalies were variable, suggesting that the underlying genetic mutation has variable expressivity in cervical spine development as it does elsewhere in the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:22627438

Pun, Amy Hoi-Ying; Clark, Bruce Eric; David, David John; Anderson, Peter John

2012-05-01

150

Cervical spine in Treacher Collins syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital syndrome with characteristic craniofacial malformations, which are well described in the literature. However, the presence of cervical spine dysmorphology in this syndrome has been minimally described. This study reviews cervical spine radiographs of 40 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. In this sample, 7 of 40 patients displayed cervical spine anomalies, with 3 of these patients displaying multiple cervical spine anomalies. The patterns of spinal anomalies were variable, suggesting that the underlying genetic mutation has variable expressivity in cervical spine development as it does elsewhere in the craniofacial skeleton.

Pun AH; Clark BE; David DJ; Anderson PJ

2012-05-01

151

Microdomains in forebrain spines: an ultrastructural perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glutamatergic axons in the mammalian forebrain terminate predominantly onto dendritic spines. Long-term changes in the efficacy of these excitatory synapses are tightly coupled to changes in spine morphology. The reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton underlying this spine "morphing" involves numerous proteins that provide the machinery needed for adaptive cytoskeletal remodeling. Here, we review recent literature addressing the chemical architecture of the spine, focusing mainly on actin-binding proteins (ABPs). Accumulating evidence suggests that ABPs are organized into functionally distinct microdomains within the spine cytoplasm. This functional compartmentalization provides a structural basis for regulation of the spinoskeleton, offering a novel window into mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity.

Rácz B; Weinberg RJ

2013-02-01

152

Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

2007-06-15

153

Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

2007-01-01

154

Neuroradiology of spine degenerative diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degenerative disease of the spine is one of the most common clinical entities and affects the intervertebral discs, including opposing vertebral endplates, the intervertebral posterior joints and the ligaments. The most severe primary spinal degenerative changes are found in the lower cervical and lumbar spine regions. The spine contains three different types of joints, each of which presents its own pattern of degenerative disease: (i) cartilaginous joints, represented by the intervertebral disc or, more specifically, the functional unit defined as the 'vertebro-disc connection'; (ii) synovial joints, represented by the posterior intervertebral joints, sacro-iliac and costovertebral joints; (iii) fibrous joints, mainly found in the principal ligaments such as the posterior longitudinal ligament and the yellow ligaments. With regard to radicular pain, root compression alone does not fully account for root pain following disc-root conflict, but it is, nevertheless, considered to be the main cause of pain. We will try to explain that the origin of pain is multi-factorial and that inflammation probably predominates over merely mechanical mechanisms. To conclude, we will consider whether vertebral arthrosis can be construed as the body's decision to favour the spine's static function over its dynamic role when joint 'hypermobility' linked to chronic load in old age could cause severe structural damage to the bony vertebral structures. This hypothesis should also embrace a further concept: ageing of the spine is not merelychronological. Themostaccurate interpretation tha tcan account for similar degenerative phenomena encountered in the young is that of abnormal static and dynamic loading stress. PMID:11987932

Leonardi, M; Simonetti, L; Agati, R

2002-01-01

155

Cervical spine motion during swallowing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: There have been several studies regarding the relationship between deglutition and the cervical spine; however, the movement of the cervical spine during deglutition has not been specifically studied. The purpose of the present study was to clarify how the cervical spine moves during normal deglutition. METHODS: We conducted videofluorography in 39 healthy individuals (23 men; 16 women; mean age, 34.3 years) with no evidence of cervical spine disease and analyzed images of the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing using an image analysis technique. Analyzed sections included the occiput (C0) and the first to seventh cervical vertebrae (C1-C7). The degrees of change in angle and position were quantified in the oral and pharyngeal phases. RESULTS: In the pharyngeal phase, C1, C2, and C3 were flexed (the angle change in C2 was the most significant with a mean flexion angle of 1.42°), while C5 and C6 were extended (the angle change in C5 was the most significant with a mean extension angle of 0.74°) in reference to the oral phase. Angle changes in C0, C4, and C7 were not statistically significant. C3, C4, C5, and C6 moved posteriorly (the movement in C4 was the most significant, mean = 1.04 mm). C1, C2, and C3 moved superiorly (the movement in C2 was the largest, mean = 0.55 mm), and C5 and C6 moved inferiorly. Movements in C0 and C7 were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the cervical spine moves to reduce physiological lordosis during deglutition.

Mekata K; Takigawa T; Matsubayashi J; Hasegawa Y; Ito Y

2013-08-01

156

Centrosome repositioning in T cells is biphasic and driven by microtubule end-on capture-shrinkage.  

Science.gov (United States)

T cells rapidly reposition their centrosome to the center of the immunological synapse (IS) to drive polarized secretion in the direction of the bound target cell. Using an optical trap for spatial and temporal control over target presentation, we show that centrosome repositioning in Jurkat T cells exhibited kinetically distinct polarization and docking phases and required calcium flux and signaling through both the T cell receptor and integrin to be robust. In "frustrated" conjugates where the centrosome is stuck behind the nucleus, the center of the IS invaginated dramatically to approach the centrosome. Consistently, imaging of microtubules during normal repositioning revealed a microtubule end-on capture-shrinkage mechanism operating at the center of the IS. In agreement with this mechanism, centrosome repositioning was impaired by inhibiting microtubule depolymerization or dynein. We conclude that dynein drives centrosome repositioning in T cells via microtubule end-on capture-shrinkage operating at the center of the IS and not cortical sliding at the IS periphery, as previously thought. PMID:23979719

Yi, Jason; Wu, Xufeng; Chung, Andrew H; Chen, James K; Kapoor, Tarun M; Hammer, John A

2013-08-26

157

Inferior alveolar nerve transposition and reposition for dental implant placement in edentulous or partially edentulous mandibles: a multicenter retrospective study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the success and complications following inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) transposition/reposition for dental implant placement in edentulous or partially edentulous mandibles. This was a multicenter retrospective study; patients who had undergone IAN transposition/reposition at four surgical clinics were retrospectively evaluated. Adverse effects, especially neural disturbances, were recorded and followed. Overall, 68 IAN reposition and 11 nerve transposition procedures were performed in 57 patients (only three patients reported on smoking). The residual bone above the IAN was an average 3.88±1.98mm. A total of 232 dental implants were inserted in the area after transposition/reposition of the nerve. The average follow-up time was 20.62±9.79 months, ranging from 12 to 45 months. One implant loss was observed during the follow-up period. Four patients reported prolonged transient neural disturbances immediately following surgery (5% of the operations). The duration of neural disturbances after the surgery ranged from 1 to 6 months. No permanent neural damage was reported. Thus, within this study's limitations, it can be concluded that IAN transposition and reposition are useful adjunct techniques for managing severely atrophic edentulous or partially edentulous mandibles with dental implants. The risk of neural dysfunction appears to be low.

Lorean A; Kablan F; Mazor Z; Mijiritsky E; Russe P; Barbu H; Levin L

2013-05-01

158

Inferior alveolar nerve transposition and reposition for dental implant placement in edentulous or partially edentulous mandibles: a multicenter retrospective study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the success and complications following inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) transposition/reposition for dental implant placement in edentulous or partially edentulous mandibles. This was a multicenter retrospective study; patients who had undergone IAN transposition/reposition at four surgical clinics were retrospectively evaluated. Adverse effects, especially neural disturbances, were recorded and followed. Overall, 68 IAN reposition and 11 nerve transposition procedures were performed in 57 patients (only three patients reported on smoking). The residual bone above the IAN was an average 3.88±1.98mm. A total of 232 dental implants were inserted in the area after transposition/reposition of the nerve. The average follow-up time was 20.62±9.79 months, ranging from 12 to 45 months. One implant loss was observed during the follow-up period. Four patients reported prolonged transient neural disturbances immediately following surgery (5% of the operations). The duration of neural disturbances after the surgery ranged from 1 to 6 months. No permanent neural damage was reported. Thus, within this study's limitations, it can be concluded that IAN transposition and reposition are useful adjunct techniques for managing severely atrophic edentulous or partially edentulous mandibles with dental implants. The risk of neural dysfunction appears to be low. PMID:23481542

Lorean, A; Kablan, F; Mazor, Z; Mijiritsky, E; Russe, P; Barbu, H; Levin, L

2013-03-06

159

Misplacement of a femoral venous catheter into the ascending lumbar vein: repositioning using ultrasonographic guidance.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 5-week-old infant with congenital chylothorax required long-term intravenous access for parenteral nutrition. Cannulation of the inferior vena cava via the left femoral vein was attempted, but the catheter was misplaced into the left ascending lumbar vein. Catheter removal is advised when such malposition is identified. We were able successfully to redirect the catheter into the inferior vena cava using ultrasonographic guidance. This procedure has not been described previously in children. We propose that repositioning of incorrectly placed vascular catheters can be achieved using ultrasound guidance at the bedside. PMID:11280642

Carrion, E; Hertzog, J H; Gunter, A W; Lu, T; Ruff, C; Hauser, G J

2001-01-01

160

Misplacement of a femoral venous catheter into the ascending lumbar vein: repositioning using ultrasonographic guidance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 5-week-old infant with congenital chylothorax required long-term intravenous access for parenteral nutrition. Cannulation of the inferior vena cava via the left femoral vein was attempted, but the catheter was misplaced into the left ascending lumbar vein. Catheter removal is advised when such malposition is identified. We were able successfully to redirect the catheter into the inferior vena cava using ultrasonographic guidance. This procedure has not been described previously in children. We propose that repositioning of incorrectly placed vascular catheters can be achieved using ultrasound guidance at the bedside.

Carrion E; Hertzog JH; Gunter AW; Lu T; Ruff C; Hauser GJ

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Operations planning for axial repositioning of fuel channel assemblies in Bruce nuclear generating station 'A'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operations planning for the repositioning of fuel channel assemblies in Units 1 to 3 of the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A' is presented. The restrictions and limitations of the specialized tooling, equipment and reactor components are discussed in terms of the impact on overall reactor processing strategy. The use of a shifting simulation computer program permitted the the continual revision of daily plans to optimize operations based on the rate of processing for each of two shield cabinets. The procedures and methods of implementing the operations plans are finally presented

1987-01-01

162

Phrenic nerve stimulation in CRT patients and benefits of electronic lead repositioning: the ERACE trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Despite novel left ventricular (LV) lead technologies, phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) remains an adverse effect observed in many patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Beyond anatomic repositioning, modern CRT devices allow avoidance of PNS also by software-based adaption of the pacing configuration. The Electronic Repositioning With Acuity and Easytrak Leads study evaluated the incidence of PNS in a CRT population and examined how often LV lead relocation can be avoided by "electronic repositioning" (ER). METHODS: Patients who had an indication for implantation of a first CRT defibrillator with the option of ER were enrolled. Primary endpoint was the efficiency of ER determined by the frequency of PNS with the standard pacing configuration (LV tip to RV coil) avoidable by ER. PNS and pacing parameters were evaluated during implant, predischarge, and first routine follow-up (FU) using four different pacing configurations available by ER. RESULTS: In total, 292 patients were enrolled and provided with a transvenous LV lead (82.2 % male, 65.5 ± 9.2 years old). The majority of the population was in NYHA III (84.2 %) with a LV ejection fraction of 25.3 ± 6.8 % and mean QRS width of 155 ± 27 ms, ischemic cardiomyopathy was present in 43.6 %. Median FU was 116 days. In the standard pacing configuration, PNS was inducible in 19.0/25.6/24.6 % at implant/predischarge/FU, respectively, resulting in 32.2 % of the patients presenting at least once with PNS. The safety margin for the standard pacing configuration between LV and PNS threshold was <1.0 V at 0.5 ms in 5.6/7.0/5.0 % of the patients, corresponding with a total rate of 11.6 % during the FU. In the finally chosen configuration, clinically relevant PNS occurred in 1.0/2.2/1.3 %. The four vector configurations allowed all but 6 of 292 (2 %) patients to be reprogrammed using ER without reoperation. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of inducible PNS in CRT patients is considerable. In this study, PNS could be avoided in the majority of the patients by means of electronic repositioning. Thus, the use of ER should be considered for CRT patients.

Goetze S; Defaye P; Bauer A; Merkel M; Bizeau O; Treusch S; Contzen K; Juenger C; Winter J

2013-10-01

163

Repositioning endotracheal tubes in the intensive care unit: depth changes poorly correlate with postrepositioning radiographic location.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal positioning of endotracheal tubes (ETs) is often identified on routine chest radiographs prompting adjustment. The accuracy of ET adjustments based on tube measurement markings at the incisors has not been reported. METHODS: We performed a 1-year prospective observational study of all surgical intensive care unit patients requiring repositioning of their ET based on chest x-ray (CXR) study. The ET was repositioned by a respiratory therapist using tube markings at the incisors, and follow-up CXR images were obtained within 2 hours. ET tube locations were compared with the planned intervention. Mean, median, interquartile range (IQR) and [chi]2 results are reported. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients met inclusion criteria and had a complete set of data (80% male). ET advancement was the most commonly required intervention (80%). For advancement, the median starting position was 7.10 cm (IQR, 2.20 cm) from the carina, with a median planned advancement of 2.00 cm. The actual advancement was a median of 1.15 cm, achieving 57.5% of the goal. Patients requiring ET withdrawal were more likely female (8 of 11, p < 0.001). For the withdrawal group, the median starting position was 0.70 cm (IQR, 1.05 cm) from the carina with a planned median withdrawal of 2.00 cm (IQR, 0.75 cm). The actual withdrawal was a median of 1.00 cm, achieving 50.0% of the goal. Overall, the mean difference between the planned and actual intervention was 1.55 cm (95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.95 cm) differing by a mean of 40% from the planned intervention (95% confidence interval, 29.0-51.0%). There was no correlation between the original location or the planned intervention and the accuracy of the intervention. In three cases, the ET moved opposite of the planned intervention. CONCLUSION: ET repositioning based on measurement at the incisors is inaccurate and the magnitude of the intervention does not correlate with the degree of error. Repositioning of ETs based on measurements at the incisors should be abandoned, or follow-up CXR images should be obtained.

Wang ML; Schuster KM; Bhattacharya B; Maung AA; Kaplan LJ; Davis KA

2013-07-01

164

Thoracic spine CT, diagnostic efficacy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 67 patients the diagnostic efficacy of thoracic spine CT was assessed. Diagnoses suspected clinically or by other examination methods could be confirmed by CT in 81 % and excluded in 18 % of cases. In one per cent (one case) the diagnosis, myelopathia vascularis, could not be seen by CT nor by myelography. In 49 cases the results of thoracic spine CT and myelography were compared with each other. CT gave additional information to myelography in 27 % (13/49), but not in 73 % (36/49). In 27 % (18/67) of the whole material CT was able to replace myelography. It seems that CT is useless if myelography is normal, but CT may be useful in tumors, infections and medullary diseases. In traumas CT may replace myelography.

Myllylae, V.; Ilkko, E.; Pyktinen, M.; Koivukangas, J.

1987-05-01

165

MRI of the postoperative spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid technical development of magnetic resonance imaging has thrust it into the role of the premier imaging modality of CNS evaluation. A particularly difficult area of spinal imaging from both a clinical and radiologic standpoint is the postoperative lumbar spine patient. The areas which will be covered in this issue include some of the most common abnormalities encountered, as well as some of the most difficult to diagnosis including: scar versus recurrent disc herniation, arachnoiditis, bony stenosis, and postoperative fluid collections. (author)

1991-01-01

166

Heterogeneity of spine bone density  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This short communication investigates how accurate bone density measured in the lumbar spine (L1-L4 or L2-L4) reflects the bone density of vertebrae where many compression fractures occur (T12 and L1). The ability of two dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers (Lunar DPX and Hologic QDR-1000) to determine the bone density of T12 was also investigated. (Author)

1993-01-01

167

Heterogeneity of spine bone density  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This short communication investigates how accurate bone density measured in the lumbar spine (L1-L4 or L2-L4) reflects the bone density of vertebrae where many compression fractures occur (T12 and L1). The ability of two dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers (Lunar DPX and Hologic QDR-1000) to determine the bone density of T12 was also investigated. (Author).

Laskey, M.A.; Crisp, A.J.; Compston, J.E.; Khaw, K.-T. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom))

1993-05-01

168

Using Composite Resin Inclined Plane for the Repositioning of a Laterally Luxated Primary Incisor: A Case Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report describes the repositioning of a laterally luxated primary central incisor with occlusal interference, using a composite inclined plane. The patient was a 4-year-old girl who applied to our clinic three days after the injury. Because of the time delay between injury and presentation, it was not possible to reposition the tooth with pressure. Following a root-canal treatment, an inclined plane was prepared on the lower primary incisors, using composite resin. The tooth was repositioned in two weeks, and the inclined plane was then removed. After 1 year of follow-up, the treatment was found to be successful, both clinically and radiographically. The use of a composite inclined plane, accompanied by careful follow-up, is an effective alternative to extraction for laterally luxated primary incisors with occlusal interference.

Arikan, Volkan; Sari, Saziye

2011-01-01

169

DrugMap Central: an on-line query and visualization tool to facilitate drug repositioning studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY: Systematic studies of drug repositioning require the integration of multi-level drug data, including basic chemical information (such as SMILES), drug targets, target-related signaling pathways, clinical trial information and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approval information, to predict new potential indications of existing drugs. Currently available databases, however, lack query support for multi-level drug information and thus are not designed to support drug repositioning studies. DrugMap Central (DMC), an online tool, is developed to help fill the gap. DMC enables the users to integrate, query, visualize, interrogate, and download multi-level data of known drugs or compounds quickly for drug repositioning studies all within one system. Availability: DMC is accessible at http://r2d2drug.org/DMC.aspx. Contact: STWong@tmhs.org.

Fu C; Jin G; Gao J; Zhu R; Ballesteros-Villagrana E; Wong ST

2013-07-01

170

Network-based Drug Ranking and Repositioning with respect to DrugBank Therapeutic Categories.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drug repositioning is a challenging computational problem involving the integration of heterogeneous sources of biomolecular data and the design of label ranking algorithms able to exploit the overall topology of the underlying pharmacological network. In this context we propose a novel semi-supervised drug ranking problem: prioritizing drugs in integrated bio-chemical networks according to specific DrugBank therapeutic categories. Algorithms for drug repositioning usually perform the inference step into an inhomogeneous similarity space induced by the relationships existing between drugs and a second type of entity (e.g. disease, target, ligand set), thus making unfeasible a drug ranking within a homogeneous pharmacological space. To deal with this problem, we designed a general framework based on bipartite network projections by which homogeneous pharmacological networks can be constructed and integrated from heterogeneous and complementary sources of chemical, biomolecular and clinical information. Moreover, we present a novel algorithmic scheme based on kernelized score functions that adopts both local and global learning strategies to effectively rank drugs in the integrated pharmacological space using different network combination methods. Detailed experiments with more than $80$ DrugBank therapeutic categories involving about 1300 FDA approved drugs show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Re M; Valentini G

2013-05-01

171

Design of a robotic tool for percutaneous instrument distal tip repositioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Manually performed image-guided percutaneous procedures are limited by targeting errors due to instrument misalignment, deflection and an inability to reposition the distal tip of the instrument after it has been percutaneously inserted. These limitations result in suboptimal instrument positioning that limits diagnosis and treatment for a variety of procedures as well as excessive procedure time and radiation dose (in the case of x-ray based imaging). Hence we are developing a robotic tool capable of repositioning the distal tip of a percutaneous instrument after a single insertion into the body. It is based on the concept of deploying a super-elastic pre-curved stylet from a concentric straight cannula. The proximal end of the cannula is attached to the distal end of a screw-spline that enables it to be translated and rotated with respect to the casing. Translation of the stylet relative to the cannula is achieved with a second threaded screw with a splined groove. The device is made of mostly plastic components and actuation is achieved using micro-stepper motors. Measurements of the maximum axial force for the cannula screw-spline and stylet screw were found to match those from design calculations. Evaluation of the mechanism positioning capability demonstrated sub-millimeter and sub-degree translation and angular accuracy. We foresee this robotic tool having wide application across a range of procedures such as biopsy, thermal ablation and brachytherapy seed placement.

Walsh CJ; Franklin J; Slocum AH; Gupta R

2011-01-01

172

Reposition af næsefrakturer i lokal anæstesi versus generel anæstesi : En retrospektiv patienttilfredshedsundersøgelse  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: Nose fractures are the most common among facial fractures. A well-approved treatment of isolated nose fractures is closed reposition under local or general anaesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 150 patients who were treated with closed reposition for simple and isolated nose fracture at the Otorhinolaryngology Department of Odense University Hospital during the period 1 January 2003 until 31 December 2004. The case records were retrospectively examined and the patients were sent a questionnaire and were offered outpatient follow-up. RESULTS: The most frequent cause of damage was violence. The average interval from trauma to treatment was 4.1 days. 60% of the patients filed cosmetic results equal to or better than before fracturing the nose regardless of the anaesthetic procedure, while 69% of the patients experienced the function of the nose as equal to or better than before. CONCLUSION: The majority of nose fractures are treated under local anaesthesia. A follow-up at least 1 year later found no difference between patient satisfaction of cosmetic and functional results of the nose, regardless of whether they had local or general anaesthesia. In general, the patients were satisfied with the anaesthesia, whether it was local or general Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun-11

Koch, Klaus U; Gano, Lars

2007-01-01

173

Impacted maxillary canine on the position of the central incisor: surgical-orthodontic repositioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this article is to describe a case of a young orthodontic patient in which an impacted maxillary canine was repositioned in the central incisor position. A severe resorption of the root of the central right maxillary incisor by ectopic eruption of the impacted right maxillary canine is described. The canine was repositioned in the incisor's position to avoid resorption of the roots of the adjacent teeth during the disinclusion. The central incisor was extracted and the canine was extruded by a closed eruption technique. When the canine eruption was complete, the tip, the torque and the morphology of the canine were modified in order to make it look like an incisor. Nowadays the therapy with dental implants is the best choice, if the position of impacted teeth is difficult to reach. This case report describes a successful management of an impacted upper right canine aligned in the upper right central incisor position. Accurate diagnosis, conservative management of the soft tissues, anchorage unit and the direction of the orthodontic traction are important factors for the success treatment.

Farronato G; Giannini L; Folegatti C; Brotto E; Galbiati G; Maspero C

2013-04-01

174

Neuroradiology back to the future: spine imaging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although radiography of the spine began shortly after Roentgen's discovery in 1895, there was little written in the medical literature about spine imaging until nearly 25 years later with the development of myelography, first by using air and then a variety of positive contrast agents. The history of spine imaging before CT and MR imaging is, in large part, a history of the development of contrast agents for intrathecal use. The advent of CT and, more important, MR imaging revolutionized spine imaging. The spinal cord and its surrounding structures could now be noninvasively visualized in great detail. In situations in which myelography is still necessary, advances in contrast agents have made the procedure less painful with fewer side effects. In this historical review, we will trace the evolution of spine imaging that has led to less invasive techniques for the evaluation of the spine and its contents and has resulted in more rapid, more specific diagnosis, therapy, and improved outcomes.

Hoeffner EG; Mukherji SK; Srinivasan A; Quint DJ

2012-06-01

175

Ranked retrieval of segmented nuclei for objective assessment of cancer gene repositioning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct segmentation is critical to many applications within automated microscopy image analysis. Despite the availability of advanced segmentation algorithms, variations in cell morphology, sample preparation, and acquisition settings often lead to segmentation errors. This manuscript introduces a ranked-retrieval approach using logistic regression to automate selection of accurately segmented nuclei from a set of candidate segmentations. The methodology is validated on an application of spatial gene repositioning in breast cancer cell nuclei. Gene repositioning is analyzed in patient tissue sections by labeling sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), followed by measurement of the relative position of each gene from the nuclear center to the nuclear periphery. This technique requires hundreds of well-segmented nuclei per sample to achieve statistical significance. Although the tissue samples in this study contain a surplus of available nuclei, automatic identification of the well-segmented subset remains a challenging task. Results Logistic regression was applied to features extracted from candidate segmented nuclei, including nuclear shape, texture, context, and gene copy number, in order to rank objects according to the likelihood of being an accurately segmented nucleus. The method was demonstrated on a tissue microarray dataset of 43 breast cancer patients, comprising approximately 40,000 imaged nuclei in which the HES5 and FRA2 genes were labeled with FISH probes. Three trained reviewers independently classified nuclei into three classes of segmentation accuracy. In man vs. machine studies, the automated method outperformed the inter-observer agreement between reviewers, as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Robustness of gene position measurements to boundary inaccuracies was demonstrated by comparing 1086 manually and automatically segmented nuclei. Pearson correlation coefficients between the gene position measurements were above 0.9 (p Conclusions Accurate segmentation is necessary to automate quantitative image analysis for applications such as gene repositioning. However, due to heterogeneity within images and across different applications, no segmentation algorithm provides a satisfactory solution. Automated assessment of segmentations by ranked retrieval is capable of reducing or even eliminating the need to select segmented objects by hand and represents a significant improvement over binary classification. The method can be extended to other high-throughput applications requiring accurate detection of cells or nuclei across a range of biomedical applications.

Cukierski William J; Nandy Kaustav; Gudla Prabhakar; Meaburn Karen J; Misteli Tom; Foran David J; Lockett Stephen J

2012-01-01

176

Dendritic spines linearize the summation of excitatory potentials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In mammalian cortex, most excitatory inputs occur on dendritic spines, avoiding dendritic shafts. Although spines biochemically isolate inputs, nonspiny neurons can also implement biochemical compartmentalization; so, it is possible that spines have an additional function. We have recently shown tha...

Araya, Roberto; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Yuste, Rafael

177

Using Composite Resin Inclined Plane for the Repositioning of a Laterally Luxated Primary Incisor: A Case Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case report describes the repositioning of a laterally luxated primary central incisor with occlusal interference, using a composite inclined plane. The patient was a 4-year-old girl who applied to our clinic three days after the injury. Because of the time delay between injury and presentation...

Arikan, Volkan; Sari, Saziye

178

Horizontal canal paroxysmal positional vertigo (HCPPV) vs classical BPPV (new concepts about mechanism and domiciliary repositioning of particles)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some new modificutiont of existing diagnostic and therapeutic manoeuvres (repositioning of particles) have been proposed, basing an the applications of the principles of hydrodynamics, inertial and gravitational forces in the semicircular canals. The above has been tried successfully on patients wit...

Ghosh, P.

179

Hospital for joint diseases participates in international spine registry Spine Tango after successful pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spine Tango is currently the only international spine registry in existence. It was developed under the auspices of Eurospine, the Spine Society of Europe, and is hosted at the University of Bern, Switzerland. The HJD Spine Center successfully tested Spine Tango during a 3-month pilot study and has since expanded documentation activities to more surgeons. Workflow integration and dedicated research staff are key factors for such an endeavor. Participation enables benchmarking against national and international peers and outcome research and quality assurance of surgical and non-surgical treatments. PMID:23267451

Röder, Christoph; Errico, Thomas J; Spivak, Jeffrey M; Murray, M; Protopsaltis, T; Lis, A; Nordin, Margareta; Bendo, John

2012-01-01

180

Hospital for joint diseases participates in international spine registry Spine Tango after successful pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spine Tango is currently the only international spine registry in existence. It was developed under the auspices of Eurospine, the Spine Society of Europe, and is hosted at the University of Bern, Switzerland. The HJD Spine Center successfully tested Spine Tango during a 3-month pilot study and has since expanded documentation activities to more surgeons. Workflow integration and dedicated research staff are key factors for such an endeavor. Participation enables benchmarking against national and international peers and outcome research and quality assurance of surgical and non-surgical treatments.

Röder C; Errico TJ; Spivak JM; Murray M; Protopsaltis T; Lis A; Nordin M; Bendo J

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Refining Chandra/ACIS Subpixel Event Repositioning Using a Backside Illuminated CCD Model  

CERN Multimedia

Subpixel event repositioning (SER) techniques have been demonstrated to significantly improve the already unprecedented spatial resolution of Chandra X-ray imaging with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). Chandra CCD SER techniques are based on the premise that the impact position of events can be refined, based on the distribution of charge among affected CCD pixels. ACIS SER models proposed thus far are restricted to corner split (3- and 4-pixel) events, and assume that such events take place at the split pixel corners. To improve the event counting statistics, we modified the ACIS SER algorithms to include 2-pixel split events and single pixel events, using refined estimates for photon impact locations. Furthermore, simulations that make use of a high-fidelity CCD model demonstrate that mean photon impact positions for split events are energy dependent, leading to further modification of subpixel event locations, according to event type and energy. Testing on Chandra CCD X-ray observations of the...

Li, J; Prigozhin, G Y; Schulz, N S; Li, Jingqiang; Kastner, Joel H.; Prigozhin, Gregory Y.; Schulz, Norbert S.

2003-01-01

182

Automatic Thresholding for Frame-Repositioning Using External Tracking in PET Brain Imaging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Motion correction (MC) in positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging become of higher importance with increasing scanner resolution. Several motion correction methods have been suggested and so far the Polaris Vicra tracking system has been the preferred one for motion registration. We present an automated algorithm for dividing PET acquisitions into subframes based on the registered head motion to correct for intra-frame motion with the frame repositioning MC method. The method is tested on real patient data (five 11C-SB studies and five 11C-PIB studies) and compared with an image based registration method (AIR). Quantitative evaluation was done using a correlation measure. The study shows that MC improves the correlation of the PET images and that AIR performed slightly better than the Polaris Vicra. We found significant intra-frame motion of 1-5 mm in 9 frames but the correlation was not significantly improved using intra-frame MC.

Olesen, Oline Vinter; Keller, Sune

2010-01-01

183

Raziskovalni model strateškega repozicioniranja blagovne znamke = Research Model of Strategic Repositioning of the Brand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of the world food market has, in recent years, been markedby rapid, unexpected and complex changes. The world food industryis operating in an explicitly dynamic environment which demandsconstant adjustments and responses. Good familiarity with consumers,their habits, wishes, and motives for buying a certain product is becomingan increasingly important area and food companies have,therefore, devoted more attention to it. The paper uses case a studyof the brand Perutnina Ptuj to illustrate the importance of action elementsin repositioning a brand in competitive markets. The exampleis illustrated by using a research model of strategic repositioningof a brand. The results of the analysis of competitors, the analysis ofthe brand, the results of qualitative research, and the developmentand testing of possible concepts on international markets have offereda basic starting-point for a new positioning of the brand.

Tina Vukasovi?

2009-01-01

184

Thoracic spine injuries in victims of motorcycle accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal cord injury can be devastating. Cervical spine roentgenography has been recommended in all severe multisystem trauma patients but little attention has been given to the thoracic spine. In a series of 266 motorcycle accident victims, seen over a 42-month period, 13 cases of thoracic spine injury were identified. During this same time interval four cases of cervical spine injury were identified. Eleven of the 13 cases involved a catapulting ejection from the motorcycle and resultant axial loading to the thoracic spine. Thoracic spine injuries are more common in these patients and therefore the thoracic spine should be immobilized until full thoracic spine roentgenography can be carried out. PMID:2724376

Kupferschmid, J P; Weaver, M L; Raves, J J; Diamond, D L

1989-05-01

185

Thoracic spine injuries in victims of motorcycle accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spinal cord injury can be devastating. Cervical spine roentgenography has been recommended in all severe multisystem trauma patients but little attention has been given to the thoracic spine. In a series of 266 motorcycle accident victims, seen over a 42-month period, 13 cases of thoracic spine injury were identified. During this same time interval four cases of cervical spine injury were identified. Eleven of the 13 cases involved a catapulting ejection from the motorcycle and resultant axial loading to the thoracic spine. Thoracic spine injuries are more common in these patients and therefore the thoracic spine should be immobilized until full thoracic spine roentgenography can be carried out.

Kupferschmid JP; Weaver ML; Raves JJ; Diamond DL

1989-05-01

186

Examining Form and Function of Dendritic Spines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system takes place at protrusions along dendrites called spines. Dendritic spines are highly heterogeneous, both morphologically and functionally. Not surprisingly, there has been much speculation and debate on the relation...

Lee, Kevin F. H.; Soares, Cary; Béïque, Jean-Claude

187

Spine virtual traumas under multiple impact situations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cervical spine segment is a very complex and mobile structure of the human body. Once trauma situation occurs, the head-neck segment is highly loaded leading to severe trauma with a lethal or permanent incapacity risk. Cervical spine was largely studied from its mechanical properties to frontal ...

Sun, J.; Bertrand, P.; Kraenzler, R.; Arnoux, Pj

188

Gorham`s disease of the spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Massive osteolysis is a rare condition and is very uncommon in the spine. The MRI appearance of Gorham`s disease of the spine has not previously been reported. We present here a case of this condition with imaging details. (orig.)

Livesley, P.J. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Webb, P.J. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Mitchell, N. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Ramani, P. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

1996-05-01

189

Biomechanics of Upper Cervical Spine Injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical spine injuries continue to form a significant problem in the U.S.A., in spite of major advances in their medical management. The goal of the study was to produce clinical fractures experimentally, using fresh cadaveric cervical spine specimens. T...

M. Panjabi

1993-01-01

190

Tuberculosis of spine: neurological deficit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most dreaded neurological complications in TB spine occur in active stage of disease by mechanical compression, instability and inflammation changes, while in healed disease, these occur due to intrinsic changes in spinal cord secondary to internal salient in long standing kyphotic deformity. A judicious combination of conservative therapy and operative decompression when needed should form a comprehensive integrated course of treatment for TB spine with neurological complications. The patients showing relatively preserved cord with evidence of edema/myelitis with predominantly fluid collection in extradural space on MRI resolve on non-operative treatment, while the patients with extradural compression of mixed or granulomatous nature showing entrapment of spinal cord should be undertaken for early surgical decompression. The disease focus should be debrided with removal of pus caseous tissue and sequestra. The viable bone should only be removed to decompress the spinal cord and resultant gap should be bridged by bone graft. The preserved volume of spinal cord with edema/myelitis and wet lesion on MRI usually would show good neural recovery. The spinal cord showing myelomalacia with reduced cord volume and dry lesion likely to show a poor neural recovery. The internal kyphectomy is indicated for paraplegia with healed disease. These cases are bad risk for surgery and neural recovery. The best form of treatment of late onset paraplegia is the prevention of development of severe kyphosis in initial active stage of disease.

Jain AK; Kumar J

2013-06-01

191

INTERNAL FIXATION OF THE SPINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Internal fixation of spine is commonly performed in traumatic, tubercular, neoplastic and congenital spinallesions. OBJECTIVES: To find out an economical and simple method of spinal fixation for unstable andpainful spinal disorders. DESIGN: Case study. SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery Allied Hospital,Punjab Medical College Faisalabad. PERIOD: Jan 1991 to Dec 1994. SUBJECTS:: 45 patients (32 malesand 13 females) of age range between 20-62 years. METHOD: Surgical spinal fixation with Hartshill system.The Hartshill system is a modification of the luque posterior segmental wiring of the spine. RESULTS: 75%of patient had excellent pain relief and 50% of these patients could walk with or without support within nineweeks of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The cost of equipment is Rs.1500 only. The patients could be mobilizedwithin a short period following surgery. Imaging system is not required during the Hartshill fixation. A seriesof 45 cases with a minimum of one year follow up using the Hartshill system for the internal fixation of unstablespine (cervical 12, thoracic 6, thoracolumbar 22, and lumbar 5) is presented.

Tariq Salah Ud Din

1995-01-01

192

Accessory spine of the foramen ovale.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to provide morphometric analysis of an accessory spine that was found within the lumen of the foramen ovale, as well as to find out whether this structure could mechanically irritate the mandibular nerve. A bifid spine was perceived in the macerated skull of an adult individual. It was located in the anterior part of the left foramen ovale. The overall length of the spine was found to be 1.8 mm. The spine had a homogenous structure, and showed high levels of mineralisation. We conclude that the accessory spine did not compress the mandibular nerve, and that the foramen ovale provided enough space for passage of the nerve. In all likelihood, these structures remained in anatomical accordance without causing any neurological symptoms. PMID:23197146

Skrzat, J; Walocha, J; Zawili?ski, J

2012-11-01

193

Cervical spine anomalies in children and adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cervical spine anomalies in paediatric patients are difficult to recognize due to the unique anatomy of the developing spine as well as the rarity of their occurrence. RECENT FINDINGS: Radiographic interpretation is critical to arriving at the correct diagnosis for cervical spine abnormalities. Familiarity with the developmental anatomy and normal variants is critical to prevent the wrong diagnosis. SUMMARY: Due to the unique anatomy of the cervical spine in paediatric patients, radiographic interpretation can be difficult. The main types of cervical spine anomalies seen in paediatric patients are basilar invagination, C1-C2 instability, atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation, congenital occipitocervical synostosis, congenital unilateral absence of C1, odontoid anomalies and Klippel-Feil syndrome. Unstable anomalies that are symptomatic need surgical intervention to prevent neurologic injuries. For anomalies that are unstable but asymptomatic, consideration for surgical intervention is based on the cause, patient activity level and age.

Kim HJ

2013-02-01

194

Sport injuries of the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion. (orig.)

1981-01-01

195

Sport injuries of the cervical spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion.

Bargon, G.

1981-03-01

196

Benign tumors of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign tumors in the spine include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, osteochondroma, neurofibroma, giant cell tumor of bone, eosinophilic granuloma, and hemangioma. Although some are incidental findings, some cause local pain, radicular symptoms, neurologic compromise, spinal instability, and deformity. The evaluation of spinal tumors includes a thorough history and physical examination, imaging, sometimes laboratory evaluation, and biopsy when indicated. Appropriate treatment may be observational (eg, eosinophilic granuloma) or ablative (eg, osteoid osteoma, neurofibroma, hemangioma), but generally is surgical, depending on the level of pain, instability, neurologic compromise, and natural history of the lesion. Knowledge of the epidemiology, common presentation, imaging, and treatment of benign bone tumors is essential for successful management of these lesions. PMID:23118137

Thakur, Nikhil A; Daniels, Alan H; Schiller, Jonathan; Valdes, Mauricio A; Czerwein, John K; Schiller, Alan; Esmende, Sean; Terek, Richard M

2012-11-01

197

Benign tumors of the spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Benign tumors in the spine include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, osteochondroma, neurofibroma, giant cell tumor of bone, eosinophilic granuloma, and hemangioma. Although some are incidental findings, some cause local pain, radicular symptoms, neurologic compromise, spinal instability, and deformity. The evaluation of spinal tumors includes a thorough history and physical examination, imaging, sometimes laboratory evaluation, and biopsy when indicated. Appropriate treatment may be observational (eg, eosinophilic granuloma) or ablative (eg, osteoid osteoma, neurofibroma, hemangioma), but generally is surgical, depending on the level of pain, instability, neurologic compromise, and natural history of the lesion. Knowledge of the epidemiology, common presentation, imaging, and treatment of benign bone tumors is essential for successful management of these lesions.

Thakur NA; Daniels AH; Schiller J; Valdes MA; Czerwein JK; Schiller A; Esmende S; Terek RM

2012-11-01

198

Postoperative syndrome after spine surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Postoperative syndrome after spine surgery, i.e., symptoms or syndromes caused by complications or procedure-related consequences, is gaining more and more importance. Due to great improvements concerning imaging and operative techniques (microsurgery, instrumentation) the total number of spinal surgeries as well as their related complications are increasing. Procedure-related postoperative complications including neurological deficit syndromes can occur acutely or at a later date. Concerning imaging techniques for postoperative evaluation after spinal surgery there are several modalities available. Their indications depend on complex factors including initial pathology the surgery was performed for, kind of surgical technique (surgical approach, instrumentation), anatomy of the patient as well as the time between onset of symptoms and surgery. In cases of ambiguous findings, the combination of different imaging techniques can be instrumental. (orig.)

2006-01-01

199

Galen: a pioneer of spine research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Galen of Pergamum AD (2nd century), the most eminent Greek physician after Hippocrates, marked the history of medicine for more than 14 centuries. His doctrines, expressed in his voluminous work, combined the medical heritage of the Hippocratic, the Alexandrian, and some of the most important medical schools of antiquity. The strong influence of the Hippocratic tradition can characteristically be traced in orthopaedics and particularly in Galen's presentation of the spine. Based on his observations, derived from dissection and vivisection of animals, Galen established a pioneer model for the study of human spine. His research ended in an accurate description of the vertebral column and the spinal cord. He also described the course and the distribution of the nerves emerging from the spine. In addition, he dealt with the diseases affecting these structures focusing on spinal tuberculosis and the injuries of the spine and the spinal marrow. Galen was the first physician to demonstrate the neurological implications following transection of the spinal cord at several levels. The predominant feature in Galen's reference to spine is its teleological perspective; the great physician tended to attribute the prodigious structure of the spine to nature's providence. Despite the inevitable anatomical errors, Galen's inspired experiments remained the only thorough approach of spinal anatomy and pathology until the recent centuries, when the evolution of sophisticated technical aids opened new pathways to spine research. PMID:10586461

Marketos, S G; Skiadas, P K

1999-11-15

200

Galen: a pioneer of spine research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Galen of Pergamum AD (2nd century), the most eminent Greek physician after Hippocrates, marked the history of medicine for more than 14 centuries. His doctrines, expressed in his voluminous work, combined the medical heritage of the Hippocratic, the Alexandrian, and some of the most important medical schools of antiquity. The strong influence of the Hippocratic tradition can characteristically be traced in orthopaedics and particularly in Galen's presentation of the spine. Based on his observations, derived from dissection and vivisection of animals, Galen established a pioneer model for the study of human spine. His research ended in an accurate description of the vertebral column and the spinal cord. He also described the course and the distribution of the nerves emerging from the spine. In addition, he dealt with the diseases affecting these structures focusing on spinal tuberculosis and the injuries of the spine and the spinal marrow. Galen was the first physician to demonstrate the neurological implications following transection of the spinal cord at several levels. The predominant feature in Galen's reference to spine is its teleological perspective; the great physician tended to attribute the prodigious structure of the spine to nature's providence. Despite the inevitable anatomical errors, Galen's inspired experiments remained the only thorough approach of spinal anatomy and pathology until the recent centuries, when the evolution of sophisticated technical aids opened new pathways to spine research.

Marketos SG; Skiadas PK

1999-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Dendritic spine abnormalities in mental retardation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abnormalities in dendritic spine morphologies are often associated with mental retardation. Since dendritic spines are thought to represent a morphological correlate of neuronal plasticity, altered spine morphologies may underlie or contribute to cognitive deficits seen in mental retardation. Signaling cascades that are important for cytoskeletal regulation may have an impact upon spine morphologies. The Rho GTPase signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and to play fundamental roles in the structural plasticity of dendritic spines. Moreover, alterations in the Rho GTPase signaling pathway have been shown to contribute to mental retardation. Recently, different mental retardation-associated genes have been identified that encode modulators of the Rho GTPases. Disturbances in these genes can lead to mental retardation and-on the morphological level-to alterations in dendritic spines. Thus, getting more insight into the Rho GTPase signaling pathways, and the molecules involved, would not only help in understanding the basic mechanisms by which the morphologies of dendritic spines are modulated but may also allow the development of therapeutic strategies to counteract some aspects of mental retardation.

von Bohlen Und Halbach O

2010-12-01

202

Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT--Experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To implement and evaluate clinic-ready adaptive imaging protocols for online patient repositioning (motion tracking) during prostate IMRT using treatment beam imaging supplemented by minimal, as-needed use of on-board kV. Methods: The authors examine the two-step decision-making strategy: (1) Use cine-MV imaging and online-updated characterization of prostate motion to detect target motion that is potentially beyond a predefined threshold and (2) use paired MV-kV 3D localization to determine overthreshold displacement and, if needed, reposition the patient. Two levels of clinical implementation were evaluated: (1) Field-by-field based motion correction for present-day linacs and (2) instantaneous repositioning for new-generation linacs with capabilities of simultaneous MV-kV imaging and remote automatic couch control during treatment delivery. Experiments were performed on a Varian Trilogy linac in clinical mode using a 4D motion phantom programed with prostate motion trajectories taken from patient data. Dosimetric impact was examined using a 2D ion chamber array. Simulations were done for 536 trajectories from 17 patients. Results: Despite the loss of marker detection efficiency caused by the MLC leaves sometimes obscuring the field at the marker's projected position on the MV imager, the field-by-field correction halved (from 23% to 10%) the mean percentage of time that target displacement exceeded a 3 mm threshold, as compared to no intervention. This was achieved at minimal cost in additional imaging (average of one MV-kV pair per two to three treatment fractions) and with a very small number of repositionings (once every four to five fractions). Also with low kV usage ({approx}2/fraction), the instantaneous repositioning approach reduced overthreshold time by more than 75% (23% to 5%) even with severe MLC blockage as often encountered in current IMRT and could reduce the overthreshold time tenfold (to <2%) if the MLC blockage problem were relieved. The information acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. Conclusions: This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques.

Liu Wu; Qian Jianguo; Hancock, Steven L.; Xing, Lei; Luxton, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States) and Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States)

2010-10-15

203

Cervical spine pain in the competitive athlete.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical pain is a common complaint in both the well-conditioned athlete and the weekend warrior. Some injuries are mild in nature, responding to conservative treatment, including rest, medication, physical therapy, and time. However, more serious injuries, especially those involving the cervical spine, can have devastating consequences. Having a comprehensive understanding of the evaluation and management of cervical pain and cervical spine emergencies is crucial for physicians providing coverage for organized athletic events or for those who serve as team physicians. This article reviews the common causes of cervical spine pain in the competitive athlete. PMID:21824587

Krabak, Brian J; Kanarek, Samantha L

2011-06-08

204

Cervical spine pain in the competitive athlete.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cervical pain is a common complaint in both the well-conditioned athlete and the weekend warrior. Some injuries are mild in nature, responding to conservative treatment, including rest, medication, physical therapy, and time. However, more serious injuries, especially those involving the cervical spine, can have devastating consequences. Having a comprehensive understanding of the evaluation and management of cervical pain and cervical spine emergencies is crucial for physicians providing coverage for organized athletic events or for those who serve as team physicians. This article reviews the common causes of cervical spine pain in the competitive athlete.

Krabak BJ; Kanarek SL

2011-08-01

205

[Spine neuroimaging: computed tomography diagnostic signs].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography (CT) scans of the spine are among the most frequently performed neuroradiologic exams, studying several pathologies namely degenerative diseases. Specific signs in spine imaging initially described in conventional radiology can be applied to CT scans. The main goal of this work was their identification and characterization. METHODS: A review of the main imagiological signs in CT scans of the spine was performed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The authors described those imagiological signs and correlated them with their associated pathologies. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of these signs is extremely important to neuroradiologists as they often constitute important diagnostic clues in several pathologies.

Barata Tavares J; Santos CM; Cordeiro I; Reimão S; Campos JG

2012-01-01

206

Computed tomography of the postoperative lumbar spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the postoperative patient ordinary radiographs of the spine generally add very little information, revealing the usual postoperative bone changes and often postoperative narrowing of the intervertebral space. Myelography may sometimes be informative, showing evidence of focal arachnoiditis or a focal defect at the surgical site. However, the latter finding is difficult to interpret. As experience with high-resolution CT scanning of the lumbar spine has been increasing, it is becoming apparent that this noninvasive and easily performed study can give considerably more information about the postoperative spine than any of the other current imaging methods. About 750 patients with previous lumbar laminectomies had CT scanning within a 28 month period.

Teplick, J.G.; Haskin, M.E.

1983-11-01

207

Computed tomography of the postoperative lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the postoperative patient ordinary radiographs of the spine generally add very little information, revealing the usual postoperative bone changes and often postoperative narrowing of the intervertebral space. Myelography may sometimes be informative, showing evidence of focal arachnoiditis or a focal defect at the surgical site. However, the latter finding is difficult to interpret. As experience with high-resolution CT scanning of the lumbar spine has been increasing, it is becoming apparent that this noninvasive and easily performed study can give considerably more information about the postoperative spine than any of the other current imaging methods. About 750 patients with previous lumbar laminectomies had CT scanning within a 28 month period

1983-01-01

208

Chromatin repositioning activity and transcription machinery are both recruited by Ace1p in yeast CUP1 activation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship among transcriptional activators, nucleosome repositioning activity and transcription machinery at the yeast CUP1 gene was addressed. CUP1 encodes a cysteine-rich, copper-binding metallothionein that protects cells against copper toxicity through its ability to sequester copper. The induction of CUP1 requires the presence of Ace1p and the binding of Ace1p at the CUP1 promoter during activation provides evidence that Ace1p is directly involved in CUP1 induction. Furthermore, transcriptional activation of CUP1 resulted in nucleosome repositioning at the CUP1 promoter and sequences further downstream in the coding region, suggesting a gene-wide chromatin remodeling activity. Such remodeling activity depends on the presence of transcription activator Ace1p. The recruitment of RNA polymerase II also requires the presence of Ace1p. Therefore, these observations provide insight into the molecular mechanism of CUP1 activation.

Wimalarathna RN; Pan PY; Shen CH

2012-06-01

209

Repositioning the patient: patient organizations, consumerism, and autonomy in Britain during the 1960s and 1970s.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article explores how and why the patient came to be repositioned as a political actor within British health care during the 1960s and 1970s. Focusing on the role played by patient organizations, it is suggested that the repositioning of the patient needs to be seen in the light of growing demands for greater patient autonomy and the application of consumerist principles to health. Examining the activities of two patient groups-the National Association for the Welfare of Children in Hospital (NAWCH) and the Patients Association (PA)-indicates that while such groups undoubtedly placed more emphasis on individual autonomy, collective concerns did not entirely fall away. The voices of patients, as well as the patient, continued to matter within British health care.

Mold A

2013-01-01

210

A two-step drug repositioning method based on a protein-protein interaction network of genes shared by two diseases and the similarity of drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study proposed a two-step drug repositioning method based on a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of two diseases and the similarity of the drugs prescribed for one of the two. In the proposed method, first, lists of disease related genes were obtained from a meta-database called Genotator. Then genes shared by a pair of diseases were sought. At the first step of the method, if a drug having its target(s) in the PPI network, the drug was deemed a repositioning candidate. Because targets of many drugs are still unknown, the similarities between the prescribed drugs for a specific disease were used to infer repositioning candidates at the second step. As a first attempt, we applied the proposed method to four different types of diseases: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Crohn disease, and autism. Some repositioning candidates were found both at the first and second steps.

Yutaka Fukuoka; Daiki Takei; Hisamichi Ogawa

2013-01-01

211

A two-step drug repositioning method based on a protein-protein interaction network of genes shared by two diseases and the similarity of drugs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study proposed a two-step drug repositioning method based on a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of two diseases and the similarity of the drugs prescribed for one of the two. In the proposed method, first, lists of disease related genes were obtained from a meta-database called Genotator. Then genes shared by a pair of diseases were sought. At the first step of the method, if a drug having its target(s) in the PPI network, the drug was deemed a repositioning candidate. Because targets of many drugs are still unknown, the similarities between the prescribed drugs for a specific disease were used to infer repositioning candidates at the second step. As a first attempt, we applied the proposed method to four different types of diseases: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Crohn disease, and autism. Some repositioning candidates were found both at the first and second steps.

Fukuoka Y; Takei D; Ogawa H

2013-01-01

212

THE SPINE OF THE COSMIC WEB  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between the watershed basins to trace the critical points in the density field and the separatrices defined by them. The separatrices are classified into walls and the spine, the network of filaments and nodes in the matter distribution. Testing the method with a heuristic Voronoi model yields outstanding results. Following the discussion of the test results, we apply the SpineWeb method to a set of cosmological N-body simulations. The latter illustrates the potential for studying the structure and dynamics of the Cosmic Web.

2010-11-01

213

Biostratigraphy of Echinoid spines, Cretaceous of Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Echinoid (sea urchin) spines from Cretaceous strata have widely varying morphology. They are common, and most are small enough to be recovered from well cuttings. Many forms have restricted ranges; consequently, echinoid spine have substantial biostratigraphic utility. There have been established 115 form taxa of echinoid spines and 14 form taxa of ophiuroid-asteroid spines for the Cretaceous of Texas. The specimens used for establishing the form taxa were processed from 533 outcrop samples (78 localities) from 30 Cretaceous formations, each with a well-defined age based on faunal zones of ammonites and Foraminifera. A dichotomous key in 9 parts and a catalog of scanning electron micrographs (87 plates) have been set up to assist identification of the form taxa. Range charts for the echinoid and ophiuroid-asteroid form taxa have utility through the Cretaceous of much of the Gulf Coastal area. The most precise zonation has been possible for the Albian.

Kirkland, P.L.

1984-04-01

214

Thoracic herniation after lumbar spine fusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on a 65-year-old male patient with rapid onset of incomplete paraparesis, based on a massive thoracic herniation following adjacent instability of the thoracolumbar spine after lumbar fusions with transpedicular instrumentation.

Boudriot U; Schmitt J; Pfeiffer M

2005-09-01

215

Accountable disease management of spine pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health care landscape has changed with new legislation addressing the unsustainable rise in costs in the US system. Low-value service lines caring for expensive chronic conditions have been targeted for reform; for better or worse, the treatment of spine pain has been recognized as a representative example. Examining the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and existing pilot studies can offer a preview of how chronic care of spine pain will be sustained. Accountable care in an organization capable of collecting, analyzing, and reporting clinical data and operational compliance is forthcoming. Interdisciplinary spine pain centers integrating surgical and medical management, behavioral medicine, physical reconditioning, and societal reintegration represent the model of high-value care for patients with chronic spine pain.

Smith MJ

2011-09-01

216

Accountable disease management of spine pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health care landscape has changed with new legislation addressing the unsustainable rise in costs in the US system. Low-value service lines caring for expensive chronic conditions have been targeted for reform; for better or worse, the treatment of spine pain has been recognized as a representative example. Examining the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and existing pilot studies can offer a preview of how chronic care of spine pain will be sustained. Accountable care in an organization capable of collecting, analyzing, and reporting clinical data and operational compliance is forthcoming. Interdisciplinary spine pain centers integrating surgical and medical management, behavioral medicine, physical reconditioning, and societal reintegration represent the model of high-value care for patients with chronic spine pain. PMID:21840770

Smith, Matthew J

2011-08-15

217

Cactus Spines in Tongues of Slaughtered Cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The damage caused by cactus spines predisposes the tongue to bacterial infection, leading to focal suppurative granulomas. The microscopic findings in these granulomas, which contain rosettes, are not unlike those associated with infection by Actinobacill...

G. Migaki L. E. Hinson G. D. Imes F. M. Garner

1969-01-01

218

MR image appearance of the pediatric spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper compares MR images of the pediatric spine with anatomic sections. Five cadaver spines---including those of three full-term infants, a 3 mo old, and a 10 y old---were imaged with a 1.5-T MR imager and then sectioned with a cryomicrotome in the sagittal plane. The characteristics of the infant spine in anatomic sections are incomplete ossification of the vertebral bodies and relatively little collagen in the intervertebral disks. By 10 y of age, the ossification of the vertebral bodies and neural arch are nearly complete. The relationship and appearance of the ossification centers, hyaline cartilage, nucleus pulposus, basivertebral veins, and the anatomic structures in the neural foramen in the pediatric spines can be differentiated on T1-weighted for T2-weighted images

1990-01-01

219

Computed tomography of spine and spinal cord  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed methods of CT for spine and spinal cord lesions are delineated. Both plain and contrast enhancement methods are reviewed for congenital, vascular neoplastic and traumatic lesions with 20 figures.

Maehara, T. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

1981-08-01

220

Extracts from the Cochrane Library: modifications of the Epley (canalith repositioning) maneuver for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The "Cochrane Corner" is a quarterly section in the Journal that highlights systematic reviews relevant to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, with invited commentary to aid clinical decision making. This installment features a Cochrane review "Modifications of the Epley (Canalith Repositioning) Manoeuvre for Posterior Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)" that finds no evidence of benefit for mastoid oscillation applied during the Epley maneuver nor any clinically important benefit for post-Epley postural restrictions in comparison with the Epley maneuver alone.

Burton MJ; Eby TL; Rosenfeld RM

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Principles of long-term dynamics of dendritic spines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Long-term potentiation of synapse strength requires enlargement of dendritic spines on cerebral pyramidal neurons. Long-term depression is linked to spine shrinkage. Indeed, spines are dynamic structures: they form, change their shapes and volumes, or can disappear in the space of hours. Do all such changes result from synaptic activity, or do some changes result from intrinsic processes? How do enlargement and shrinkage of spines relate to elimination and generation of spines, and how do these processes contribute to the stationary distribution of spine volumes? To answer these questions, we recorded the volumes of many individual spines daily for several days using two-photon imaging of CA1 pyramidal neurons in cultured slices of rat hippocampus between postnatal days 17 and 23. With normal synaptic transmission, spines often changed volume or were created or eliminated, thereby showing activity-dependent plasticity. However, we found that spines changed volume even after we blocked synaptic activity, reflecting a native instability of these small structures over the long term. Such "intrinsic fluctuations" showed unique dependence on spine volume. A mathematical model constructed from these data and the theory of random fluctuations explains population behaviors of spines, such as rates of elimination and generation, stationary distribution of volumes, and the long-term persistence of large spines. Our study finds that generation and elimination of spines are more prevalent than previously believed, and spine volume shows significant correlation with its age and life expectancy. The population dynamics of spines also predict key psychological features of memory.

Yasumatsu N; Matsuzaki M; Miyazaki T; Noguchi J; Kasai H

2008-12-01

222

Advanced concepts in interventional spine care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review of interventional treatment of the spine emphasizes the need for aggressive pain control as a means of preventing persistent pain. The use and application of lumbar epidural injections, facet blocks/denervation, lysis of epidural adhesions, thermal annuloplasty, radiofrequency neurotomy, and nucleoplasty are the treatment options described. These descriptions are not all-inclusive of advanced treatment options for patients with spine pain.

Dworkin GE

2002-09-01

223

Advanced concepts in interventional spine care.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review of interventional treatment of the spine emphasizes the need for aggressive pain control as a means of preventing persistent pain. The use and application of lumbar epidural injections, facet blocks/denervation, lysis of epidural adhesions, thermal annuloplasty, radiofrequency neurotomy, and nucleoplasty are the treatment options described. These descriptions are not all-inclusive of advanced treatment options for patients with spine pain. PMID:12356040

Dworkin, Gerald E

2002-09-01

224

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Of The Spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two new cases of aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine are presented. In one of them only the spinous process was involved, and in the second case mthe neural arch and the body were involved. A brief review of the literature with clinical, radiological and pathilogical features of this benign lesion is made and its differential diagnosis, specially from giant cell tumor of the spine emphasised.

G.A. Teyrnoorian;  A. Slamdoust;  F.Bagheri

1972-01-01

225

Primary osteogenic sarcoma of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Primary osteogenic sarcoma of the spine is a rare tumor making up 0.85% to 2.0% of all osteogenic sarcomas. The majority (29/41) of previously reported cases have occurred in vertebrae affected by Paget disease or radiation exposure. Two cases of osteogenic sarcoma of the spine, one lumbar, the other thoracic, with no known predisposing factors are presented. (orig.)

1984-01-01

226

Posteroanterior versus anteroposterior lumbar spine radiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The posteroanterior view of the lumbar spine has important features including radiation protection and image quality; these have been studied by various investigators. Investigators have shown that sensitive tissues receive less radiation dosage in the posteroanterior view of the spine for scoliosis screening and intracranial tomography without altering the image quality. This paper emphasizes the importance of the radiation safety aspect of the posteroanterior view and shows the improvement in shape distortion in the lumbar vertebrae.

Tsuno, M.M.; Shu, G.J. (Cleveland Chiropractic College, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

1990-03-01

227

Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

2005-01-01

228

Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE SPINE thoroughly demonstrates the advantages of this new radiologic modality in diagnosing spinal disorders. The book begins with an introductory chapter on the basic physics and technical considerations of magnetic resonance in general and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in particular. The second chapter covers normal spinal anatomy, and features color photos of multi-planar sections of spinal anatomy.

Modic, M.

1988-01-01

229

The Spine of the Cosmic Web  

CERN Multimedia

We present a new concept, the Spine of the Cosmic Web, for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its filaments and walls. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the method invokes the local properties of the regions adjacent to the critical points, which define its separatrices. Our method allows their classification into walls and the spine of filaments and clusters. Tests on a heuristic Voronoi model yielded outstanding results.

Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; van de Weygaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S

2008-01-01

230

Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

Cabot, Jonathan [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Mosel, Leigh; Kong, Andrew; Hayward, Mike [Flinders Medical Centre, Department of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park, South Australia (Australia)

2005-12-01

231

Cervical spine injuries in rugby players.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nine patients with serious cervical spine injuries that occurred while they were playing rugby were seen in a British Columbia acute spinal cord injury unit during the period 1975-82. All the injuries had occurred during the "scrum" or the "tackle". Two of the patients were rendered permanently quadriplegic, and one patient died. There is a need for a central registry that would record all cervical spine injuries in rugby players as well as for changes in the rules of the game.

Sovio OM; Van Peteghem PK; Schweigel JF

1984-03-01

232

From periphery to the centre: towards repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to public health care  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The role of communities in health care has gained prominence in the last few years. Churches as community structures have been identified as instrumental in health-care delivery. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that churches provide important health services, particularly in countries where there are poorly-developed health sectors, the role of churches in health care is poorly understood and often overlooked. This article discusses some causes of this lacuna and makes s (more) uggestions for repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to health care. Firstly, the article provides a context by reviewing literature on the church and health care. Secondly, it clarifies the nature of interventions and the competencies of churches. Thirdly, it discusses the operational meaning of church and churches for assessing health-care contributions. Fourthly, it explores the health-care models that are discerned in church and health-care literature. Fifthly, it discusses the contribution of churches within a multidisciplinary health team. Sixthly, it proposes an appropriate motivation that should drive churches to be involved in health care and the ecclesiological design that underpins such health care interventions.

Magezi, Vhumani

2012-01-01

233

Lower leg neuromuscular changes following fibular reposition taping in individuals with chronic ankle instability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soleus and peroneus longus arthrogenic muscle inhibition has been reported in patients with chronic ankle instability. Fibular reposition taping (FRT) has been shown to improve outcomes however, the influence of FRT on neuromuscular function is unknown. The purpose was to determine the effects of FRT on soleus and peroneus longus h-reflex amplitude in patients with chronic ankle instability. This was a randomized, single blind, sham-controlled crossover laboratory experiment. Twelve young adults with chronic ankle instability (age: 21.5 ± 1.6, height: 173.8 ± 10.4, mass: 72.8 ± 16.3) participated in two testing sessions. We measured peak h-reflex and M-wave of the soleus and peroneus longus and v-wave of the soleus only. Measurements were recorded before and after the application of FRT or a sham tape intervention. Sessions were separated by a week and counterbalanced, h-reflex and v-wave were normalized to M-wave at each time point. Significant increase in h/M ratio was observed in the soleus following FRT compared to baseline, but not after the sham intervention. No difference in peroneus longus h/M ratio or soleus v/M ratio was observed in any session. FRT may be an effective modality for increasing soleus h-reflex for patients with chronic ankle instability. PMID:23302515

Chou, Esther; Kim, Kyung-Min; Baker, Andrew G; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

2013-01-07

234

Lower leg neuromuscular changes following fibular reposition taping in individuals with chronic ankle instability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soleus and peroneus longus arthrogenic muscle inhibition has been reported in patients with chronic ankle instability. Fibular reposition taping (FRT) has been shown to improve outcomes however, the influence of FRT on neuromuscular function is unknown. The purpose was to determine the effects of FRT on soleus and peroneus longus h-reflex amplitude in patients with chronic ankle instability. This was a randomized, single blind, sham-controlled crossover laboratory experiment. Twelve young adults with chronic ankle instability (age: 21.5 ± 1.6, height: 173.8 ± 10.4, mass: 72.8 ± 16.3) participated in two testing sessions. We measured peak h-reflex and M-wave of the soleus and peroneus longus and v-wave of the soleus only. Measurements were recorded before and after the application of FRT or a sham tape intervention. Sessions were separated by a week and counterbalanced, h-reflex and v-wave were normalized to M-wave at each time point. Significant increase in h/M ratio was observed in the soleus following FRT compared to baseline, but not after the sham intervention. No difference in peroneus longus h/M ratio or soleus v/M ratio was observed in any session. FRT may be an effective modality for increasing soleus h-reflex for patients with chronic ankle instability.

Chou E; Kim KM; Baker AG; Hertel J; Hart JM

2013-08-01

235

Particle repositioning manoeuvre in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: is it really safe?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: A prospective study to determine the safety of the particle repositioning manoeuvre (PRM) by analyzing the various complications of the procedure. SETTINGS: Outpatient Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nehru Hospital, Chandigarh, India. METHODS: Thirty patients with the classic findings of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) were included in the study. Clinical symptoms prior to the procedure were noted. Twenty-nine of them were subjected to PRM, and postprocedural instructions were given to all patients. Various side effects during and following the procedure were recorded. They were classified into early and late based on the period and into major and minor based on severity. All patients were reviewed after 3 days, 7 days, and 1 month. RESULTS: Of the 29 patients, 19 patients (65.52%) had heaviness in the head, with 11 each (37.93%) reporting nausea and imbalance and 9 (31.03%) reporting instability during the procedure. A major complication, asystole, was noted in one patient. The percentage of side effects remained more or less the same in the early phase following the procedure. Only 5 of 29 patients were entirely asymptomatic. Ninety percent were relieved of symptoms by the end of 7 days, with no major complication recorded. CONCLUSIONS: PRM is an easy, effective, and relatively safe procedure. The risk of major complications with PRM, such as arrhythmias and asystole, highlights the need to consider other management modalities for BPPV in certain medically unfit patients.

Sridhar S; Panda N

2005-02-01

236

Anxiolytics reduce residual dizziness after successful canalith repositioning maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that adjuvant anti-anxiety medication may be helpful for patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) even after a successful canalith repositioning procedure (CRP). OBJECTIVE: Although the CRP is an effective treatment for BPPV, many patients suffer from persistent dizziness despite successful CRPs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adjuvant anxiolytic medication on residual dizziness after successful CRP. METHODS: Between January 2011 and March 2011, 73 patients were diagnosed with BPPV and they underwent successful treatment with CRPs. The patients were randomly assigned to either the medication group or the control group. The patients in the medication group were prescribed low dose etizolam for 2 weeks whereas the patients in the control group were not prescribed any medication. All patients were scheduled to return 2 weeks after evaluation of subjective visual vertical. Subjective symptoms before and after CRP were measured using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale. RESULTS: Both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in DHI scores. However, the medication group showed significantly greater decrease in the functional (p = 0.018) and emotional (p = 0.030) subscale scores, as well as in the total DHI (p = 0.038) score.

Jung HJ; Koo JW; Kim CS; Kim JS; Song JJ

2012-03-01

237

Characterization of drug-induced transcriptional modules: towards drug repositioning and functional understanding  

Science.gov (United States)

In pharmacology, it is crucial to understand the complex biological responses that drugs elicit in the human organism and how well they can be inferred from model organisms. We therefore identified a large set of drug-induced transcriptional modules from genome-wide microarray data of drug-treated human cell lines and rat liver, and first characterized their conservation. Over 70% of these modules were common for multiple cell lines and 15% were conserved between the human in vitro and the rat in vivo system. We then illustrate the utility of conserved and cell-type-specific drug-induced modules by predicting and experimentally validating (i) gene functions, e.g., 10 novel regulators of cellular cholesterol homeostasis and (ii) new mechanisms of action for existing drugs, thereby providing a starting point for drug repositioning, e.g., novel cell cycle inhibitors and new modulators of ?-adrenergic receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and estrogen receptor. Taken together, the identified modules reveal the conservation of transcriptional responses towards drugs across cell types and organisms, and improve our understanding of both the molecular basis of drug action and human biology.

Iskar, Murat; Zeller, Georg; Blattmann, Peter; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Kaminska, Katarzyna H; Runz, Heiko; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Pepperkok, Rainer; van Noort, Vera; Bork, Peer

2013-01-01

238

Characterization of drug-induced transcriptional modules: towards drug repositioning and functional understanding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In pharmacology, it is crucial to understand the complex biological responses that drugs elicit in the human organism and how well they can be inferred from model organisms. We therefore identified a large set of drug-induced transcriptional modules from genome-wide microarray data of drug-treated human cell lines and rat liver, and first characterized their conservation. Over 70% of these modules were common for multiple cell lines and 15% were conserved between the human in vitro and the rat in vivo system. We then illustrate the utility of conserved and cell-type-specific drug-induced modules by predicting and experimentally validating (i) gene functions, e.g., 10 novel regulators of cellular cholesterol homeostasis and (ii) new mechanisms of action for existing drugs, thereby providing a starting point for drug repositioning, e.g., novel cell cycle inhibitors and new modulators of ?-adrenergic receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and estrogen receptor. Taken together, the identified modules reveal the conservation of transcriptional responses towards drugs across cell types and organisms, and improve our understanding of both the molecular basis of drug action and human biology.

Iskar M; Zeller G; Blattmann P; Campillos M; Kuhn M; Kaminska KH; Runz H; Gavin AC; Pepperkok R; van Noort V; Bork P

2013-01-01

239

Characterization of drug-induced transcriptional modules: towards drug repositioning and functional understanding.  

Science.gov (United States)

In pharmacology, it is crucial to understand the complex biological responses that drugs elicit in the human organism and how well they can be inferred from model organisms. We therefore identified a large set of drug-induced transcriptional modules from genome-wide microarray data of drug-treated human cell lines and rat liver, and first characterized their conservation. Over 70% of these modules were common for multiple cell lines and 15% were conserved between the human in vitro and the rat in vivo system. We then illustrate the utility of conserved and cell-type-specific drug-induced modules by predicting and experimentally validating (i) gene functions, e.g., 10 novel regulators of cellular cholesterol homeostasis and (ii) new mechanisms of action for existing drugs, thereby providing a starting point for drug repositioning, e.g., novel cell cycle inhibitors and new modulators of ?-adrenergic receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and estrogen receptor. Taken together, the identified modules reveal the conservation of transcriptional responses towards drugs across cell types and organisms, and improve our understanding of both the molecular basis of drug action and human biology. PMID:23632384

Iskar, Murat; Zeller, Georg; Blattmann, Peter; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Kaminska, Katarzyna H; Runz, Heiko; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Pepperkok, Rainer; van Noort, Vera; Bork, Peer

2013-01-01

240

Alveolar Nerve Repositioning with Rescue Implants for Management of Previous Treatment. A Clinical Report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The goal of modern implant dentistry is to return patients to oral health in a rapid and predictable fashion, following a diagnostically driven treatment plan. If only a limited number of implants can be placed, or some fail and the prosthetic phase of implant dentistry is chosen to complete the patient's treatment, the final outcome may result in partial patient satisfaction and is commonly referred to as a "compromise." Previous All-on-4 implant treatment for the patient presented here resulted in a compromise, with an inadequate support system for the mandibular prosthesis and a maxillary complete denture with poor esthetics. The patient was unable to function adequately and also was disappointed with the resulting appearance. Correction of the compromised treatment consisted of bilateral inferior alveolar nerve elevation and repositioning without bone removal for lateral transposition, to gain room for rescue implants for a totally implant-supported and stabilized prosthesis. Treatment time to return the patient to satisfactory comfort, function, facial esthetics, and speech was approximately 2 weeks. The definitive mandibular prosthesis was designed for total implant support and stability with patient retrievability. Adequate space between the mandibular bar system and the soft tissue created a high water bridge effect for self-cleansing. Following a short interim mandibular healing period, the maxillary sinuses were bilaterally grafted to compensate for bone inadequacies and deficiencies for future maxillary implant reconstruction.

Amet EM; Uehlein C

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

THE RE-POSITIONING OF COLONIAL SPACES IN A GLOBALIZING METROPOLITAN The Case of Jakarta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is dealing with the position of colonial space in a globalizing Metropolitan. Starting with the idea that Colonial space is a materialization of colonial system of production, It will investigate how are these colonial spaces responding to their actual context, with different system of production, needs and demands. Firstly, it will start by defining what is colonial space then it will continue by classifying colonial spaces based on their role in the colonial system of production, then grouping them based on their positions in the actual context either as built heritage or institutional heritage. It will be analysed based on two layers of analysis namely, economic and socio-cultural. By doing so it is expected that we could discover problems and potentials related to these spaces that could help reposition these spaces in their actual context and to some extent elaborate them in general urban strategic planning. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Artikel ini membahas tentang posisi ruang kolonial di dalam konteks metropolitan. Berangkat dari ide dasar bahwa ruang kolonial adalah materialisasi dari system produksi kolonial, artikel akan membahas bagaimana posisi ruang kolonial di dalam konteks yang aktual, dimana kolonialisme telah berakhir dan sistem produksi telah berubah seiring dengannya. Kata kunci: Kolonial, Warisan Budaya, Sistim produksi.

Devisari Tunas

2004-01-01

242

Normalizing facial ratios in apert syndrome patients with Le Fort II midface distraction and simultaneous zygomatic repositioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Le Fort III distraction advances the Apert midface but leaves the central concavity and vertical compression untreated. The authors propose that Le Fort II distraction and simultaneous zygomatic repositioning as a combined procedure can move the central midface and lateral orbits in independent vectors in order to improve the facial deformity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this segmental movement results in more normal facial proportions than Le Fort III distraction. METHODS: Computed tomographic scan analyses were performed before and after distraction in patients undergoing Le Fort III distraction (n = 5) and Le Fort II distraction with simultaneous zygomatic repositioning (n = 4). The calculated axial facial ratios and vertical facial ratios relative to the skull base were compared to those of unoperated Crouzon (n = 5) and normal (n = 6) controls. RESULTS: With Le Fort III distraction, facial ratios did not change with surgery and remained lower (p < 0.01; paired t test comparison) than normal and Crouzon controls. Although the face was advanced, its shape remained abnormal. With the Le Fort II segmental movement procedure, the central face advanced and lengthened more than the lateral orbit. This differential movement changed the abnormal facial ratios that were present before surgery into ratios that were not significantly different from normal controls (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with Le Fort III distraction, Le Fort II distraction with simultaneous zygomatic repositioning normalizes the position and the shape of the Apert face. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.

Hopper RA; Kapadia H; Morton T

2013-07-01

243

Malocclusion as a common occurrence in temporomandibular joint arthroscopic disc repositioning: outcomes at 49 days after surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestation, and prognosis of malocclusion after arthroscopic disc repositioning and suturing of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 211 patients (270 joints) with internal derangement of the TMJ who underwent arthroscopic disc repositioning and suturing from November 2005 to August 2006. The occlusion was checked and recorded preoperatively and at different intervals (0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days after surgery) for all patients. The incidence of malocclusion after surgery was determined for every follow-up period. The ?(2) test was applied to assess the statistical significance of the changes of the incidence of malocclusion. RESULTS: The incidences of malocclusion were 100%, 80.1%, 67.8%, 46.9%, 28.9%, 18.0%, 15.7%, 14.6%, and 14.2% at 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days after surgery, respectively. There was a significant difference between neighboring follow-up periods within 28 days after surgery, whereas there was no significant difference from 28 to 49 days after surgery (P > .05). The main clinical manifestations of malocclusion were posterior open bite on the surgery side, incisal prematurities, and mandible midline deviated or nondeviated. CONCLUSION: Malocclusion commonly occurs after TMJ arthroscopic disc repositioning and suturing. However, it will improve within 28 days after surgery in most patients. If malocclusion lasts over 28 days, appropriate treatments should be considered.

Wang BL; Yang C; Cai XY; Chen MJ; Zhang SY; Fang B; Yun B

2011-06-01

244

Effect of Repositioning Maneuver Type and Postmaneuver Restrictions on Vertigo and Dizziness in Benign Positional Paroxysmal Vertigo  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. To compare the efficiency of Epley (Ep) and Sémont-Toupet (ST) repositioning maneuvers and to evaluate postmaneuver restriction effect on short-term vertigo and dizziness after repositioning maneuvers by an analog visual scale (VAS) in benign positional paroxysmal vertigo (BPPV). Material and Methods. 226 consecutive adult patients with posterior canal BPPV were included. Patients were randomized into 2 different maneuver sequence groups (n = 113): 2 ST then 1 Ep or 2 Ep then 1 ST. Each group of sequence was randomized into 2 subgroups: with or without postmaneuver restrictions. Vertigo and dizziness were assessed from days 0 to 5 by VAS. Results. There was no difference between vertigo scores between Ep and ST groups. Dizziness scores were higher in Ep group during the first 3 days but became similar to those of ST group at days 4 and 5. ST maneuvers induced liberatory signs more frequently than Ep (58% versus 42% resp., P < 0.01, Fisher's test). After repositioning maneuvers, VAS scores decreased similarly in patients with and without liberatory signs. Postmaneuver restrictions did not influence VAS scores. Conclusion. Even if ST showed a higher rate of liberatory signs than Ep in this series, VAS scores were not influenced by these signs.

Toupet, Michel; Ferrary, Evelyne; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

2012-01-01

245

Comparison of repositioning maneuvers for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of posterior semicircular canal: advantages of hybrid maneuver.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is becoming more frequent in elderly population. The presence of comorbid factors has to be considered before assessment as well as before commencing any repositioning treatment. Our aims were evaluation of the maneuvers efficacy and evaluation of the applicability of hybrid maneuver (HM) in patients with physical limitation. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a randomized study in 2 tertiary referral centers. INTERVENTION: This is a therapeutic intervention. PATIENTS: All consecutive patients with diagnosis of BPPV of posterior canal matching the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Patients underwent treatment soon after the initial diagnosis in all cases with a repositioning maneuver. The maneuver was casually selected among Semont, Epley, and hybrid. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the maneuver adopted. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients with posterior canal BPPV were enrolled for treatment. Fisher exact test showed that no statistical differences exist between HM and other maneuvers in terms of efficacy. Latency of repositioning nystagmus appeared longer in HM in comparison with other maneuvers (P < .05). Efficacy of maneuvers used for BPPV decreases in case of cupulolithiasis (P < .0001). We found no relationship between age, sex, and length of disturbance on response to maneuvers. CONCLUSIONS: All maneuvers evaluated demonstrated similar efficacy. The HM, as our data showed, allows us to obtain a good percentage of success similar to most maneuvers used. It is also more comfortable for the patients with hip or neck functional limitation allowing an effective treatment of the posterior canal BPPV.

Dispenza F; Kulamarva G; De Stefano A

2012-09-01

246

Can sodium/hydrogen exchange inhibitors be repositioned for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? An in silico approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are only partially effective. Ideally, new treatment targets would derive from a known pathophysiology. Such data are not available for ADHD. We combine evidence for new etiologic pathways with bioinformatics data to assess the possibility that existing drugs might be repositioning for treating ADHD. We use this approach to determine if prior data implicating the sodium/hydrogen exchanger 9 gene (SLC9A9) in ADHD implicate sodium/hydrogen exchange (NHE) inhibitors as potential treatments. We assessed the potential for repositioning by assessing the similarity of drug-protein binding profiles between NHE inhibitors and drugs known to treat ADHD using the Drug Repositioning and Adverse Reaction via Chemical-Protein Interactome server. NHE9 shows a high degree of amino acid similarity between NHE inhibitor sensitive NHEs in the region of the NHE inhibitor recognition site defined for NHE1. We found high correlations in drug-protein binding profiles among most ADHD drugs. The drug-protein binding profiles of some NHE inhibitors were highly correlated with ADHD drugs whereas the profiles for a control set of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were not. Further experimental work should evaluate if NHE inhibitors are suitable for treating ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24132903

Faraone, Stephen V; Zhang-James, Yanli

2013-10-01

247

Cervical joint position sense in rugby players versus non-rugby players.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cervical joint position sense is modified by intensive rugby practice. DESIGN: A group-comparison study. SETTING: University Medical Bioengineering Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty young elite rugby players (10 forwards and 10 backs) and 10 young non-rugby elite sports players. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were asked to perform the cervicocephalic relocation test (CRT) to the neutral head position (NHP) that is, to reposition their head on their trunk, as accurately as possible, after full active left and right cervical rotation. Rugby players were asked to perform the CRT to NHP before and after a training session. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Absolute and variable errors were used to assess accuracy and consistency of the repositioning for the three groups of Forwards, Backs and Non-rugby players, respectively. RESULTS: The 2 groups of Forwards and Backs exhibited higher absolute and variable errors than the group of Non-rugby players. No difference was found between the two groups of Forwards and Backs and no difference was found between Before and After the training session. CONCLUSIONS: The cervical joint position sense of young elite rugby players is altered compared to that of non-rugby players. Furthermore, Forwards and Backs demonstrated comparable repositioning errors before and after a specific training session, suggesting that cervical proprioceptive alteration is mainly due to tackling and not the scrum.

Pinsault N; Anxionnaz M; Vuillerme N

2010-05-01

248

Dendritic spine instability leads to progressive neocortical spine loss in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Huntington's disease (HD), cognitive symptoms and cellular dysfunction precede the onset of classical motor symptoms and neuronal death in the striatum and cortex by almost a decade. This suggests that the early cognitive deficits may be due to a cellular dysfunction rather than being a consequence of neuronal loss. Abnormalities in dendritic spines are described in HD patients and in HD animal models. Available evidence indicates that altered spine and synaptic plasticity could underlie the motor as well as cognitive symptoms in HD. However, the exact kinetics of spine alterations and plasticity in HD remain unknown. We used long-term two-photon imaging through a cranial window, to track individual dendritic spines in a mouse model of HD (R6/2) as the disease progressed. In vivo imaging over a period of 6 weeks revealed a steady decrease in the density and survival of dendritic spines on cortical neurons of R6/2 mice compared with control littermates. Interestingly, we also observed increased spine formation in R6/2 mice throughout the disease. However, the probability that newly formed spines stabilized and transformed into persistent spines was greatly reduced compared with controls. In cultured neurons we found that mutant huntingtin causes a loss, in particular of mature spines. Furthermore, in R6/2 mice, aggregates of mutant huntingtin associate with dendritic spines. Alterations in dendritic spine dynamics, survival, and density in R6/2 mice were evident before the onset of motor symptoms, suggesting that decreased stability of the cortical synaptic circuitry underlies the early symptoms in HD.

Murmu RP; Li W; Holtmaat A; Li JY

2013-08-01

249

Anterior interbody arthrodesis with percutaneous posterior pedicle fixation for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a retrospective case series to evaluate clinical variables, complications and outcome of 50 patients who underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) supplemented with posterior percutaneous pedicle screw fixation for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. Twenty-four patients underwent single-level fusion and 26 patients had a two-level fusion for a total of 76 levels fused. The mean lengths of the anterior and posterior (including repositioning) portions of the procedure were 131 and 102 min, respectively. The mean estimated blood loss for the entire procedure was 288 ml. The overall adverse event rate was 12%. The mean VAS score for leg pain, VAS score for back pain and mean ODI all improved postoperatively. This study found that ALIF using allograft bone and rhBMP-2 combined with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation had a high fusion rate and a low incidence of perioperative complications. Patient outcomes showed significant improvements in back and leg pain and physical functioning. PMID:21484538

Anderson, D Greg; Sayadipour, Amirali; Shelby, Kevin; Albert, Todd J; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Weinstein, Michael S

2011-04-13

250

Neurotrophin and Wnt signaling cooperatively regulate dendritic spine formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dendritic spines are major sites of excitatory synaptic transmission and changes in their numbers and morphology have been associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a secreted growth factor that influences hippocampal, striatal and neocortical pyramidal neuron dendritic spine density. However, the mechanisms by which BDNF regulates dendritic spines, and how BDNF interacts with other regulators of spines remain unclear. We propose that one mechanism by which BDNF promotes dendritic spine formation is through an interaction with Wnt signaling. Here, we show that Wnt signaling inhibition in cultured cortical neurons disrupts dendritic spine development, reduces dendritic arbor size and complexity, and blocks BDNF-induced dendritic spine formation and maturation. Additionally, we show that BDNF regulates expression of Wnt2, and that Wnt2 is sufficient to promote cortical dendrite growth and dendritic spine formation. Together, these data suggest that BDNF and Wnt signaling cooperatively regulate dendritic spine formation.

Hiester BG; Galati DF; Salinas PC; Jones KR

2013-04-01

251

Effect of Laminectomy on Stability of Lumbar Spine Effect of Laminectomy on Stability of Lumbar Spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims at the presentation of the lumbar spine finite element model used in a study of segmental kinematics including the tissue loading. Lumbar spine FE-model consisting of the three lumbar vertebras, two disc (including annulus and nucleus) and vast variety of ligaments. The primary model objective is its verification by experimental test data obtained from cadaver spine segments. A confirmed model was used for a study of various range of laminectomy effect. On this model we simulate a various loading states witch can spine segment arrive at under physiologic conditions (compression, flexion, extension and lateral bending). FE-model could predict the laminectomy impact on the operation approach. The paper aims at the presentation of the lumbar spine finite element model used in a study of segmental kinematics including the tissue loading. Lumbar spine FE-model consisting of the three lumbar vertebras, two disc (including annulus and nucleus) and vast variety of ligaments. The primary model objective is its verification by experimental test data obtained from cadaver spine segments. A confirmed model was used for a study of various range of laminectomy effect. On this model we simulate a various loading states witch can spine segment arrive at under physiologic conditions (compression, flexion, extension and lateral bending). FE-model could predict the laminectomy impact on the operation approach.

Petr Tichy; Zdenek Horak; Jana Sindelarova

2009-01-01

252

Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine. Methods For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9), 400 adolescents (ages 10-19) and 400 adults (ages 20-29), with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree), right (> +1 degree), and left ( Results In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p Conclusions Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.

Doi Toshio; Harimaya Katsumi; Mitsuyasu Hiromichi; Matsumoto Yoshihiro; Masuda Keigo; Kobayakawa Kazu; Iwamoto Yukihide

2011-01-01

253

The dynamics of spine density changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous papers have been published describing the effects of learning and environmental changes on the wiring of brain areas in mammals and birds. The density of dendritic spines, which can be taken as a measure of the complexity of a given neuronal network, has been shown to increase or to decrease depending on the experiment and on the brain area involved. Almost no information is available concerning the speed with which a given network reacts to learning events or environmental changes. We therefore examined the time course of spine density changes in two areas of the zebra finch forebrain, which have been shown previously to be either involved in sexual imprinting (LNH, lateral part of the neo-hyperstriatum) or to react to environmental changes (ANC, archi-neostriatum caudale). The decrease of spine density in LNH of zebra finch males after sexual imprinting is very fast, the new level of spine density is reached after 2 days. In contrast, decrease of spine density within ANC as a consequence of transferring birds from a social condition into isolation is very slow, lasting about 3 weeks. The increase of spine density within ANC after transfer of the males from isolation to a social condition occurs within 3 days. The differences in adaptation times cannot be due to limitations in the growth speed of single spines, because this has been shown to be much faster (hours instead of days). Instead, the speed of adaptation may be dependent on the availability of information about the final wiring diagram and on functional aspects like the energy demands for maintenance or alteration of a given neuronal network, or the necessity of quick adaptation to enhance the fitness of the animal. PMID:12644282

Lieshoff, Carsten; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

2003-03-18

254

The dynamics of spine density changes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous papers have been published describing the effects of learning and environmental changes on the wiring of brain areas in mammals and birds. The density of dendritic spines, which can be taken as a measure of the complexity of a given neuronal network, has been shown to increase or to decrease depending on the experiment and on the brain area involved. Almost no information is available concerning the speed with which a given network reacts to learning events or environmental changes. We therefore examined the time course of spine density changes in two areas of the zebra finch forebrain, which have been shown previously to be either involved in sexual imprinting (LNH, lateral part of the neo-hyperstriatum) or to react to environmental changes (ANC, archi-neostriatum caudale). The decrease of spine density in LNH of zebra finch males after sexual imprinting is very fast, the new level of spine density is reached after 2 days. In contrast, decrease of spine density within ANC as a consequence of transferring birds from a social condition into isolation is very slow, lasting about 3 weeks. The increase of spine density within ANC after transfer of the males from isolation to a social condition occurs within 3 days. The differences in adaptation times cannot be due to limitations in the growth speed of single spines, because this has been shown to be much faster (hours instead of days). Instead, the speed of adaptation may be dependent on the availability of information about the final wiring diagram and on functional aspects like the energy demands for maintenance or alteration of a given neuronal network, or the necessity of quick adaptation to enhance the fitness of the animal.

Lieshoff C; Bischof HJ

2003-03-01

255

The talon removable head frame system for stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy: measurement of the repositioning accuracy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To present the TALON removable head frame system as an immobilization device for single-fraction intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMRS) and fractionated stereotactic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (FS-IMRT); and to evaluate the repositioning accuracy by measurement of anatomic landmark coordinates in repeated computed tomography (CT) examinations. Methods and materials: Nine patients treated by fractionated stereotactic intensity-modulated radiotherapy underwent repeated CTs during their treatment courses. We evaluated anatomic landmark coordinates in a total of 26 repeat CT data sets and respective x, y, and z shifts relative to their positions in the nine treatment-planning reference CTs. An iterative optimization algorithm was employed using a root mean square scoring function to determine the best-fit orientation of subsequent sets of anatomic landmark measurements relative to the original image set. This allowed for the calculation of the x, y, and z components of translation of the target isocenter for each repeat CT. In addition to absolute target isocenter translation, the magnitude (sum vector) of isocenter motion and the patient/target rotation about the three principal axes were calculated. Results: Anatomic landmark analysis over a treatment course of 6 weeks revealed a mean target isocenter translation of 0.95±0.55, 0.58±0.46, and 0.51±0.38 mm in x, y, and z directions, respectively. The mean magnitude of isocenter translation was 1.38±0.48 mm. The 95% confidence interval ([CI], mean translation plus two standard deviations) for repeated isocenter setup accuracy over the 6-week period was 2.34 mm. Average rotations about the x, y, and z axes were 0.41±0.36, 0.29±0.25, and 0.18±0.15 degrees, respectively. Analysis of the accuracy of the first repeated setup control, representative of single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery situations, resulted in a mean target isocenter translation in the x, y, and z directions of 0.52±0.38, 0.56±0.30, and 0.46±0.25 mm, respectively. The mean magnitude of isocenter translation was 0.99±0.28 mm. The 95% confidence interval for these radiosurgery situations was 1.55 mm. Average rotations at first repeated setup control about the x, y, and z axes were 0.24±0.19, 0.19±0.17, and 0.19±0.12 degrees, respectively. Conclusion: The TALON relocatable head frame was seen to be well suited for immobilization and repositioning of single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery treatments. Because of its unique removable design, the system was also seen to provide excellent repeat immobilization and alignment for fractionated stereotactic applications. The exceptional accuracy for the single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgical application of the system was seen to deteriorate only slightly over a 6-week fractionated stereotactic treatment course

2001-10-01

256

Canal conversion and reentry: a risk of Dix-Hallpike during canalith repositioning procedures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, cause, and prevention of horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (H-BPPV) and reentry into the common crus during canalith repositioning procedures (CRPs). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series. SETTING: Academic tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Forty-four patients with symptomatic posterior canalithiasis (P-BPPV) confirmed on Dix-Hallpike. INTERVENTION: Up to 5 CRP for initial P-BPPV and additional maneuvers for canal conversion or reentry in 1 session. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and timing of onset of H-BPPV or common crus reentry and the outcome of treatment maneuvers. RESULTS: H-BPPV or reentry occurred during the Dix-Hallpike after a canal-clearing CRP and affected 16% (7/44) of subjects. Approximately 87% (7/8) of reentry or conversion events occurred after the very first CRP. Geotropic H-BPPV occurred in 9% (4/44) overall but in 13% (4/30) whose P-BPPV was resolved by a single CRP. All were cleared with H-BPPV maneuvers, 3 of 4 resolving with a single Gufoni maneuver. Approximately 9% (4/44) of patients developed reentry of particles into the common crus. It was treated by raising the patient to the upright position. By waiting 15 minutes after treatment of reentry, a final normal Dix-Hallpike was obtained without causing reentry into any canal in all patients. CONCLUSION: If the first CRP clears the posterior canal, there is an elevated risk of reentry or canal conversion if another Dix-Hallpike is performed immediately. These complications can be treated by additional maneuvers; if unfamiliar with these techniques, the risk can be reduced by waiting at least 15 minutes between repetitions of CRP.

Foster CA; Zaccaro K; Strong D

2012-02-01

257

Canalith repositioning procedures among 965 patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) has increasingly been utilized for the last 15 years for the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). We assess the short- and long-term efficacy of CRP on the treatment of patients with BPPV. METHODS: Nine hundred sixty-five patients (481 men and 484 women, from 18 to 87 years of age) were enrolled in this prospective study during 1995-2010. Inclusion criteria were a patient history compatible with BPPV and a positive provocative maneuver (either Dix-Hallpike or Roll test). Reported duration of symptoms at the time of their first examination varied from 1 day to 18 months. Variants of the Epley and Barbeque maneuver were used for posterior and anterior canal involvement, and horizontal canal involvement, respectively. Short-term follow-up was obtained 48 h and 7 days after initial treatment, whereas long-term follow-up was obtained at repeated 6-month intervals. RESULTS: Symptoms subsided immediately in 819 patients (85%) by the first CRP. Only 19 patients (2%) required CRP more than 3 times. Patients' mean follow-up was 74 months; symptom recurrence was noted in 139 patients. A statistically significantly higher recurrence rate was noted in elderly people or those with head trauma or a history of vestibular neuropathy (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides class IV evidence that CRP remains an efficient and long-lasting noninvasive treatment for BPPV, especially for younger patients without a history of head trauma or vestibular neuropathy. Elderly people have a significantly higher recurrence rate requiring additional education to minimize potential morbidity of their falls.

Prokopakis E; Vlastos IM; Tsagournisakis M; Christodoulou P; Kawauchi H; Velegrakis G

2013-01-01

258

Measurement of bone mineral content in trabecular bone of the 3rd lumbar vertebra by computed tomography with phantom for spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to measure non-invasively bone mineral content in trabecular bone of the 3rd lumbar spine, CT densitometry simultaneously scanned with reference phantom (K2HPO4 as standard) was done, and parameters in scanning were determined. Slice thickness was 10 mm. ROI was taken as large as possible, avoiding regions of cortex and basivertebral vein entrance. Standards in a phantom were arranged as in 0, 200, 150, 100 and 250 mg/cm3 of K2HPO4 solution. The reproducibility was good in short-term repeated measurements, while slightly poor in long-term intervals. The bone mineral content in normal males tended to decrease with aging. It was shown that this method was convenient and reproducible, as re-positioned accurately, in evaluating bone mass. (author)

1986-01-01

259

Advancements in the management of spine disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal disorders and especially back and neck pain affect more people and have greater impact on work capacity and health-care costs than any other musculoskeletal condition. One of the difficulties in reducing the burden of spinal disorders is the wide and heterogeneous range of specific diseases and non-specific musculoskeletal disorders that can involve the spinal column, most of which manifest as pain. Despite, or perhaps because of its impact, spinal disorders remain one of the most controversial and difficult conditions for clinicians, patients and policymakers to manage. This paper provides a brief summary of advances in the understanding of back and neck pain over the past decade as evidenced in the current literature. This paper includes the following sections: a classification of spinal disorders; the epidemiology of spine pain in the developed and developing world; key advancements in biological and biomechanical sciences in spine pain; the current status of potential methods for the prevention of back and neck pain; rheumatological and systemic disorders that impact the spine; and evidence-based surgical and non-surgical management of spine pain. The final section of this paper looks to the future and proposes actions and strategies that may be considered by the international Bone and Joint Decade (BJD), by providers, institutions and by policymakers so that we may better address the burden of spine disorders at global and local levels. PMID:22794098

Haldeman, Scott; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah; Hurwitz, Eric L; Hoy, Damian; Mark Erwin, W; Dagenais, Simon; Kawchuk, Greg; Strömqvist, Björn; Walsh, Nicolas

2012-04-01

260

Advancements in the management of spine disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spinal disorders and especially back and neck pain affect more people and have greater impact on work capacity and health-care costs than any other musculoskeletal condition. One of the difficulties in reducing the burden of spinal disorders is the wide and heterogeneous range of specific diseases and non-specific musculoskeletal disorders that can involve the spinal column, most of which manifest as pain. Despite, or perhaps because of its impact, spinal disorders remain one of the most controversial and difficult conditions for clinicians, patients and policymakers to manage. This paper provides a brief summary of advances in the understanding of back and neck pain over the past decade as evidenced in the current literature. This paper includes the following sections: a classification of spinal disorders; the epidemiology of spine pain in the developed and developing world; key advancements in biological and biomechanical sciences in spine pain; the current status of potential methods for the prevention of back and neck pain; rheumatological and systemic disorders that impact the spine; and evidence-based surgical and non-surgical management of spine pain. The final section of this paper looks to the future and proposes actions and strategies that may be considered by the international Bone and Joint Decade (BJD), by providers, institutions and by policymakers so that we may better address the burden of spine disorders at global and local levels.

Haldeman S; Kopansky-Giles D; Hurwitz EL; Hoy D; Mark Erwin W; Dagenais S; Kawchuk G; Strömqvist B; Walsh N

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Cervical spine injury and airway management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cervical spine injuries occur in 2-5% of blunt trauma patients, and 1-5% of these injuries are initially missed. Data from the large National Emergency X-Radiography Utilisation Study have helped to define the problem in some detail. There is a consensus on how to clear the cervical spine in patients who are alert, but in patients with altered mental status the choice of strategy for spinal clearance is more controversial. Despite obtaining extensive radiological studies, some clinicians will not clear the patient's cervical spine until full recovery of consciousness. As long as manual in-line neck stabilization is applied, rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia, followed by direct laryngoscopy and oral intubation appears to be safe in the patient with a cervical spine injury. If intubation is not urgent, an awake fibreoptic technique is a useful option. If intubation of the patient with a potential cervical spine injury fails, or appropriate experienced personnel are unavailable, the laryngeal mask airway or one of its various modifications are useful alternatives.

Ford P; Nolan J

2002-04-01

262

Actin filaments and microtubules in dendritic spines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dendritic spines are small protrusions emerging from their parent dendrites, and their morphological changes are involved in synaptic plasticity. These tiny structures are composed of thousands of different proteins belonging to several subfamilies such as membrane receptors, scaffold proteins, signal transduction proteins, and cytoskeletal proteins. Actin filaments in dendritic spines consist of double helix of actin protomers decorated with drebrin and ADF/cofilin, and the balance of the two is closely related to the actin dynamics, which may govern morphological and functional synaptic plasticity. During development, the accumulation of drebrin-binding type actin filaments is one of the initial events occurring at the nascent excitatory postsynaptic site, and plays a pivotal role in spine formation as well as small GTPases. It has been recently reported that microtubules transiently appear in dendritic spines in correlation with synaptic activity. Interestingly, it is suggested that microtubule dynamics might couple with actin dynamics. In this review, we will summarize the contribution of both actin filaments and microtubules to the formation and regulation of dendritic spines, and further discuss the role of cytoskeletal deregulation in neurological disorders.

Shirao T; González-Billault C

2013-07-01

263

Statistical Analysis of Dendritic Spine Distributions in Rat Hippocampal Cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dendritic spines serve as key computational structures in brain plasticity. Much remains to be learned about their spatial and temporal distribution among neurons. Our aim in this study was to perform exploratory analyses based on the population distributions of dendritic spines with regard to their morphological characteristics and period of growth in dissociated hippocampal neurons. We fit a loglinear model to the contingency table of spine features such as spine type and distance from the soma to first determine which features were important in modeling the spines, as well as the relationships between such features. A multinomial logistic regression was then used to predict the spine types using the features suggested by the log-linear model, along with neighboring spine information. Finally, an important variant of Ripley's K-function applicable to linear networks was used to study the spatial distribution of spines along dendrites. RESULTS: Our study indicated that in the culture system, (i) dendritic spine densities were "completely spatially random", (ii) spine type and distance from the soma were independent quantities, and most importantly, (iii) spines had a tendency to cluster with other spines of the same type. CONCLUSIONS: Although these results may vary with other systems, our primary contribution is the set of statistical tools for morphological modeling of spines which can be used to assess neuronal cultures following gene manipulation such as RNAi, and to study induced pluripotent stem cells differentiated to neurons.

Jammalamadaka A; Banerjee S; Kosik KS; Manjunath BS

2013-10-01

264

Super-Brownian motion: Lp-convergence of martingales through the pathwise spine decomposition  

CERN Multimedia

Evans (1992) described the semi-group of a superprocess with quadratic branching mechanism under a martingale change of measure in terms of the semi-group of an immortal particle and the semigroup of the superprocess prior to the change of measure. This result, commonly referred to as the spine decomposition, alludes to a pathwise decomposition in which independent copies of the original process `immigrate' along the path of the immortal particle. For branching particle diffusions the analogue of this decomposition has already been demonstrated in the pathwise sense, see for example Hardy and Harris (2009). The purpose of this short note is to exemplify a new {\\it pathwise} spine decomposition for supercritical super-Brownian motion with general branching mechanism (cf. Kyprianou et al. (2010)) by studying $L^p$ convergence of naturally underlying additive martingales in the spirit of analogous arguments for branching particle diffusions due to Hardys and Harris (2009). Amongst other ingredients, the Dynkin-K...

Murillo-Salas, A E Kyprianou A

2011-01-01

265

Biomechanical comparison of intact lumbar lamb spine and endoscopic discectomized lamb spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to perform a biomechanical comparison of changes on motion segments after minimally invasive percutaneous endoscopically discectomized and intact spine and to investigate the effects of endoscopic discectomy on the lumbar spine of the lamb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten fresh-frozen lamb spines were used in this study. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy was performed on each spine at L4-L5 level. The biomechanical tests for both intact spine and endoscopically discectomized spine were performed by using axial compression testing machine. The axial compression was applied to all specimens with a loading speed of 5 mm/min. 8400 N/mm moment was applied to each specimen to achieve flexion and extension motions, right and left bending through a specially designed fixture. RESULTS: In axial compression and flexion tests, the specimens were more stable based on displacement values. The displacement values of discected spines were closer to the values of intact specimens. Comparing both groups, only displacement values of the left-bending anteroposterior test were significant (p?0.05). CONCLUSION: Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) has no biomechanical and clinical disadvantages. Endoscopic discectomy has also no stability disadvantages. Only anteroposterior displacement values of left bending test were statistically significant. We consider that the reason for such results were due to the fact that PTED was performed on the left side of all specimens.

Karaka?l? A; Y?ld?z DV; Kumtepe E; K?zmazo?lu C; Hav?tç?o?lu H

2013-04-01

266

Outcome assessment in lumbar spine surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus regarding outcomes assessment in spine patients. When using Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in assessing outcomes of treatment, normative data for different diagnoses are needed to allow comparisons between existing and future studies. The most used generic instrument for HRQoL evaluation in spine pathologies is SF-36. There is no standard definition of important differences in spine surgery patients and no standard reference for minimal clinically important difference. OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of this thesis was to increase understanding of some aspects of outcome measurement in patients operated on for lumbar spine problems using existing prospective data available at the spine section of the Orthopedics Department of the University of Lund, and, moreover, to explore potentials and weaknesses in the methodology of retrospectively analysis of prospectively collected observational data. METHODS: A systematic web-search and review of the literature and a retrospective analysis of prospective cohort data collected within the data collection protocol in use by the Swedish Spine Register. Since 1993 all persons undergoing elective lumbar surgery at the spine section of the Orthopedics Department of the University of Lund were included in the prospective registration protocol either in its first version (1993-1997), which was the source of data for paper III, or in its revised version after 1998. Initial information at baseline (the day before surgery) included age, sex, smoking habits, duration of preoperative back and leg pain in months, duration of preoperative sickleave in months, number of previous operations, patient's working status, diagnostic techniques pre- and postoperatively VAS scores analgesic intake, walking distance. Postoperatively, change in leg and back pain, respectively, was recorded on a 5-point Likert Scale as compared to preoperative status, patient satisfaction was recorded on a 3-point Likert Scale. RESULTS: The number of proposed outcomes, outcome scores, outcome instruments is incredibly high: no new HRQoL instruments specific for LBP are needed. The data collection protocol of the Swedish Spine Register studied can reliably detect postoperative improvements between large groups of patients such as in a Register. Pain intensity measured on the VAS correlates significantly to other indicators of perceived pain, but correlation is not as strong as it could be if they were all measuring the same construct. HRQoL as measured by SF-36 in patients scheduled for lumbar spine surgery showed a pronounced reduction compared to normal and LBP population. The use of norm-based scoring for SF-36 can help interpretation and simplify graphic representation of the findings. SF-36 outcomes 1-year after surgery for lumbar spine disorders are improved, although other factors or natural history could contribute to this improvement. The global effect of spine surgery in our sample is quite similar to effect sizes of very successful orthopedic interventions. The use of standardised outcome measures allows international comparisons, although caution should be used in the interpretation of differences. CONCLUSIONS: Without the need of additional expensive data collection and using limited economic resources an increased understanding of some aspects of outcome measurement in patients operated on for lumbar spine problems has been achieved. Reference values and more speculative data (such as effect sizes and MCIDs) have been presented. The ecological methodology has been presented and discussed: with a clear respect for its limitations, it could be used to obtain relevant information also in other clinical fields.

Zanoli G

2005-06-01

267

Imaging of the spine at 3 tesla.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3 T has proved superior to 1.5 T in the brain for detecting numerous pathologic entities including hemosiderin, tiny metastases, subtle demyelinating plaques, active demyelinating plaques, and some epileptogenic foci, as well as small aneurysms with MR angiography. 3 T is superior to most advanced imaging techniques including diffusion, diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion, spectroscopy and functional MR imaging. The increased signal/noise ratio at 3 T permits higher spatial resolution. Initially spine imaging at 3 T proved more difficult with less successful results. During the past 7 years, technological advances in magnet and surface coil design as well as improved radio frequency transmitters and pulse sequence design in combination with the large body of knowledge accrued by radiologists and physicists during a nine year experience with clinical imaging of the spine with the doubled B0, has resulted in 3 T MRI of the spine achieving a reputation similar to that for brain imaging.

Shapiro M

2012-05-01

268

Congenital block vertebrae in lumbar spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 34-year-old female visited our rheumatology clinic with the complaint of non-inflammatory back pain that usually occurred on bending down and radiated to bilateral lower limbs. A diagnosis of compressive neuropathy was suspected and an initially performed digital X-ray of lumbar spine revealed a rare congenital anomaly termed as ‘Congenital block vertebrae’ in the lumbar spine (Fig 1).Block vertebrae, a congenital anomaly, occurs due to improper segmentation of vertebral column during fetal development. Improper segmentation leads to fusion of adjacent vertebrae through their inter-vertebral disc. The most common site of this deformity is cervical spine and the lumbar vertebral involvement is rare. The disco-vertebral articulation is always involved and depending on the degree of involvement, the presenting complaints could be either neurological due to the compression of nerve roots or scoliosis due to the vertebral deformity.

Ankur Nandan Varshney; Nilesh Kumar; Nand Kumar Singh

2013-01-01

269

Multiple myeloma presenting as cervical spine compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells usually showing bone involvement with predilection of the spine. The cervical spine is the least common site of disease involvement. We report the case of 72-year-old man presenting with progressively increased cervical pain, associated with sciatica and disturb walking. In the neurological exam, there was a quadripyramidal syndrome, and superficial sensory disturbance. The X- ray examination of the cervical spine showed lytic lesions of C2. A tumoral process was found by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compressing the spinal cord at the level of C4 with osteolysis of the posterior arch. An open surgery was performed. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma of kappa subtype. Immunoelectrophoresis revealed the presence of immunoglobulin G kappa. The patient was diagnosed as having MM with cervical vertebra involvement and he has started chemo­therapy.

Makram Frigui; Faten Frikha; Hanen Haj Kacem; Zaher Boudawara; Tahia Boudawara; Zouhir Bahloul

2011-01-01

270

Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery

1997-01-01

271

Radiologic evaluation of cervical spine fractures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiological findings of various cervical spine fractures were analyzed on the basis of J. Harris classification. It appears to be important for the radiologist to be familiar with radiographic findings of cervical spine fractures, particularly those of unstable fractures which can result in serious medical problems if improperly handled in the department of radiology. 68 cases of cervical spine fractures were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. Stable and unstable fractures were about equal in incidence. 2. Anterior subluxation accounts for 43.4% of stable fractures, 19 % of all fractures. 3. Bilateral interfacetal dislocation accounts for 51.1% of unstable fractures, 25% of all fractures. 4. Associated fractures were involved in skull, scapula, mandible and femur. 5. About 80% of the patients is in third through fifth decade.

Suh, Kyung Jin; Rhee, Chang Bok; Park, In Kyu; Lee, Myung Za; Kang, Duk Sik [Kyung Pook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

1983-12-15

272

Radiologic evaluation of cervical spine fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological findings of various cervical spine fractures were analyzed on the basis of J. Harris classification. It appears to be important for the radiologist to be familiar with radiographic findings of cervical spine fractures, particularly those of unstable fractures which can result in serious medical problems if improperly handled in the department of radiology. 68 cases of cervical spine fractures were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. Stable and unstable fractures were about equal in incidence. 2. Anterior subluxation accounts for 43.4% of stable fractures, 19 % of all fractures. 3. Bilateral interfacetal dislocation accounts for 51.1% of unstable fractures, 25% of all fractures. 4. Associated fractures were involved in skull, scapula, mandible and femur. 5. About 80% of the patients is in third through fifth decade

1983-01-01

273

Developmental biomechanics of the human cervical spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Head and neck injuries, the leading cause of death for children in the U.S., are difficult to diagnose, treat, and prevent because of a critical void in our understanding of the biomechanical response of the immature cervical spine. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional and failure biomechanics of the cervical spine across multiple axes of loading throughout maturation. A correlational study design was used to examine the relationships governing spinal maturation and biomechanical flexibility curves and tolerance data using a cadaver human in vitro model. Eleven human cadaver cervical spines from across the developmental spectrum (2-28 years) were dissected into segments (C1-C2, C3-C5, and C6-C7) for biomechanical testing. Non-destructive flexibility tests were performed in tension, compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. After measuring their intact biomechanical responses, each segment group was failed in different modes to measure the tissue tolerance in tension (C1-C2), compression (C3-C5), and extension (C5-C6). Classical injury patterns were observed in all of the specimens tested. Both the functional (p<0.014) and failure (p<0.0001) mechanics exhibited significant relationships with age. Nonlinear flexibility curves described the functional response of the cervical spine throughout maturation and elucidated age, spinal level, and mode of loading specificity. These data support our understanding of the child cervical spine from a developmental perspective and facilitate the generation of injury prevention or management schema for the mitigation of child spine injuries and their deleterious effects.

Nuckley DJ; Linders DR; Ching RP

2013-04-01

274

Appropriate use of satisfaction scores in spine care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

COMMENTARY ON: Godil SS, Parker SL, Zuckerman SL, et al. Determining the quality and effectiveness of surgical spine care: patient satisfaction is not a valid proxy. Spine J 2013;13:1006-1012 (in this issue).

Truumees E

2013-09-01

275

[Esophageal injury in the anterior approach of the cervical spine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The esophageal injuries as complications of the anterior approach to the cervical spine are rare. The authors present a case of esophageal perforation with a screw employed in an anterior fixation of the cervical spine.

Barros Filho TE; Oliveira RP; Basile Júnior R; Dias MD

1994-05-01

276

Sampling issues in quantitative analysis of dendritic spines morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Quantitative analysis of changes in dendritic spine morphology has become an interesting issue in contemporary neuroscience. However, the diversity in dendritic spine population might seriously influence the result of measurements in which their morphology is stu...

Ruszczycki B?a?ej; Szepesi Zsuzsanna; Wilczynski Grzegorz M; Bijata Monika; Kalita Katarzyna; Kaczmarek Leszek

277

Electrical properties of dendritic spines with bulbous end terminals.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several suggestions have been made about the functional significance of dendritic spines in connection with synaptic plasticity. We investigated transient electrical behavior of spines with bulbous terminals in neurons with arbitrary dendritic geometries. It is shown that postsynaptic potential tran...

Kawato, M; Tsukahara, N

278

[Ischemic optic neuropathy after lumbar spine surgery].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ischemic optic neuropathy is the most common cause of visual complications after non-ophthalmic surgery. The incidence has varied in different case series, but prone-position spine surgery appears to be involved in most of the reports. We present the case of a 47-year-old woman who developed near total blindness in the left eye following lumbar spine fusion surgery involving the loss of 900 mL of blood. An ophthalmic examination including inspection of the ocular fundus, fluorescein angiography, and visual evoked potentials returned a diagnosis of retrolaminar optic neuropathy. Outcome was poor. PMID:18200998

Bermejo-Alvarez, M A; Carpintero, M; García-Carro, G; Acebal, G; Fervienza, P; Cosío, F

2007-12-01

279

Lumbar spine pain originating from vertebral osteophytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Axial spine pain originates from a number of structures. Putative pain generators include facet joints, intervertebral disks, sacroiliac joints, and myofascial structures. Osteophytes originating from lumbar vertebral bodies in the area of the intervertebral disks may be a source of nociceptive low back pain which may respond to local injection. METHODS: Five patients with axial low back pain unresponsive to traditional treatment modalities were treated with fluoroscopic guided injection of local anesthetic and corticosteroid near large intervertebral osteophytes. RESULTS: All 5 patients experienced relief. CONCLUSION: Vertebral osteophytes may be a source of axial spine pain. Injection of painful osteophytes with a local anesthetic and corticosteroid solution may produce pain relief.

Lamer TJ

1999-07-01

280

Periosteal chondroma of the pediatric cervical spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Periosteal chondromas located in the spine are rare. The authors document an even more infrequent occurrence of a recurrent periosteal chondroma in the cervical spine of a 6-year-old boy. During the operation, a giant (>7 cm in diameter) periosteal chondroma with involvement of the C-5 and C-6 vertebral bodies was resected. The vertebral column was reconstructed with anterior-posterior instrumentation. The pathological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of chondroid tissue with typical chondrocytes, confirming the diagnosis of periosteal chondroma.

Fahim DK; Johnson KK; Whitehead WE; Curry DJ; Luerssen TG; Jea A

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

[Hemothorax and fractures of the dorsal spine].  

Science.gov (United States)

The frequency of pleural complications was examined in 72 patients with recent fractures of the thoracic spine. 17 patients (24%) were found to have pleural hemorrhage. In 8 cases this was the result of isolated spinal fracture, without fracture of the ribs. In these cases, posterior mediastinal effusion, which was readily visible on chest films, always occurred prior to or concomitantly with the pleural effusion. Most of the spinal fractures were located between the fourth and eighth vertebrae. Bone lesions were always serious unstable fractures with vertebral collapse and kyphosis. Acute respiratory distress and/or cardiovascular collapse in a patient with thoracic spine injury should suggest pleural hemorrhage. PMID:6314507

Freysz, M; Adamon, O; Wilkening, M; Sautreaux, J L

1983-09-15

282

[Hemothorax and fractures of the dorsal spine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The frequency of pleural complications was examined in 72 patients with recent fractures of the thoracic spine. 17 patients (24%) were found to have pleural hemorrhage. In 8 cases this was the result of isolated spinal fracture, without fracture of the ribs. In these cases, posterior mediastinal effusion, which was readily visible on chest films, always occurred prior to or concomitantly with the pleural effusion. Most of the spinal fractures were located between the fourth and eighth vertebrae. Bone lesions were always serious unstable fractures with vertebral collapse and kyphosis. Acute respiratory distress and/or cardiovascular collapse in a patient with thoracic spine injury should suggest pleural hemorrhage.

Freysz M; Adamon O; Wilkening M; Sautreaux JL

1983-09-01

283

Cervical spine fractures and dislocations in children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A retrospectivce analysis of pediatric admissions over 10 years revealed 29 patients with cervical spine injuries. Eleven patients were below 12 years of age, and 10 of these had injuries involving C1, C2 or the occipitoatlantal articulation. Eighteen patients were between 12 and 16 years of age with injuries distributed throughout the cervical spine similar to injuries in the adult population. Our results suggest that teenagers with suspected cervical injuries are best evaluated by an adult radiographic series including trauma oblique views. In younger patients, careful evaluation of occipitoatlantoaxial alignment and the prevertebral soft tissues is required for diagnosis and selection of additional imaging evaluation.

Apple, J.S.; Kirks, D.R.; Merten, D.F.; Martinez, S.

1987-01-01

284

Cervical spine injuries in rugby players.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine patients with serious cervical spine injuries that occurred while they were playing rugby were seen in a British Columbia acute spinal cord injury unit during the period 1975-82. All the injuries had occurred during the "scrum" or the "tackle". Two of the patients were rendered permanently quadriplegic, and one patient died. There is a need for a central registry that would record all cervical spine injuries in rugby players as well as for changes in the rules of the game. PMID:6697282

Sovio, O M; Van Peteghem, P K; Schweigel, J F

1984-03-15

285

Evaluation of two noninvasive repositioning systems for computer-assisted oral implant surgery in oral cancer patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Reconstructive surgery in oral cancer patients uses thick flaps, which may render the placement of miniscrews for stabilizing radiosurgical templates difficult. The realization of noninvasive systems for the repositioning of surgical templates has been proposed. The present study aimed to assess the clinical usefulness of these noninvasive repositioning systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two noninvasive (ie, without osseous anchorage) repositioning systems (one intraoral, one intra- and extraoral) were tested. They were coupled with a computer-aided system for oral implantation. The criteria for evaluation were: accuracy, cost, time for placement and removal, and six additional subjective criteria (ease of use and production, bulk of the device, patient comfort, stability during surgery, and ergonomics). RESULTS: Nine edentulous patients undergoing surgery to the oral cavity, oropharynx, or pharynx; external radiotherapy of the mandible; or microvascular flap reconstruction were included. Twenty-seven implants were placed in the mandibles of seven patients. For the extraoral system, the angular deviation between planned and achieved position was 6.04 degrees, with differences of 2.14 mm at the tip and 2.16 mm at the base. For the intraoral system, deviations were 5.05 degrees, 1.13 mm, and 1.82 mm, respectively. Subjective criteria were consistent with expected values, especially ease of use, comfort, and ergonomics. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive systems remain less accurate than templates stabilized by miniscrews and should be reserved for treating arches in which miniscrews cannot be placed. These methods may be unacceptable in areas where vital structures may be damaged by a misguided implant, and further studies are required. More satisfactory results should be obtained in partially edentulous patients.

Bodard AG; Paris M; Salino S; Fortin T

2010-09-01

286

Extracts from the Cochrane Library: modifications of the Epley (canalith repositioning) maneuver for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Cochrane Corner" is a quarterly section in the Journal that highlights systematic reviews relevant to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, with invited commentary to aid clinical decision making. This installment features a Cochrane review "Modifications of the Epley (Canalith Repositioning) Manoeuvre for Posterior Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)" that finds no evidence of benefit for mastoid oscillation applied during the Epley maneuver nor any clinically important benefit for post-Epley postural restrictions in comparison with the Epley maneuver alone. PMID:22886077

Burton, Martin J; Eby, Thomas L; Rosenfeld, Richard M

2012-08-11

287

A randomized crossover study comparing two mandibular repositioning appliances for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment outcomes vary according to the design of the mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA). Two titratable MRA's were compared. The designs differ in advancement hardware and configuration of acrylic both in bulk and interocclusal contact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary treatment outcome was the Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI). Other outcomes that were compared included Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, oxygen saturation, and subjective feedback regarding experiences with the appliances. Twenty-four subjects were recruited from consecutive referrals for MRA therapy following diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by polysomnography. Subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment arm of the crossover study. Each subject underwent an initial sleep study with a type III home monitor to establish a baseline RDI. Subjects were then treated with one of the two MRAs determined by random assignment. The MRA self-titration phase was monitored until a treatment position was determined, and the home sleep study was repeated. After a 2-week period without any OSA treatment, subjects received the second MRA and the self-titration treatment protocol was repeated. At completion of treatment with each appliance, subjects answered questionnaires and underwent a sleep study with the type III monitor. The outcome data for each appliance were compared using analysis of variance. RESULTS: Eighteen subjects completed the treatment protocol. There were no significant statistical differences in treatment outcomes between the two appliances. There was a statistically significant (p???0.05) preference for a MRA design with minimal coverage of teeth and palate. The subjects' appliance selection was consistent with a corresponding reduction in SAQLI score for the selected appliance. CONCLUSION: Although no statistically significant difference was observed between the two appliances in the outcomes measured, there was a trend toward greater improvement with the appliance with less acrylic resin bulk and less interocclusal contact. MRA selection should favor titratable, unobtrusive designs with appropriate construction to promote acceptance and adherence to MRA therapy.

Bishop B; Verrett R; Girvan T

2013-05-01

288

Dosimetric implications of changes in patient repositioning and organ motion in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the influence of patient repositioning and organ motion on dose distribution within the prostate and the seminal vesicles (clinical target volume, (CTV)). Material and methods: Nine patients were simulated and treated in the supine position, with an empty bladder, and without immobilization devices. While on treatment, patients underwent weekly pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans under conditions identical to those at simulation. Patients were aligned using lasers on anterior and lateral skin tattoos, onto which lead markers were placed. After each CT scan (n=53) the CTV was redefined by contouring, and a new isocenter was obtained. A six-field technique was used. The field margins around the CTV were 20 mm in the cranio-caudal axis, and 13 mm in the other axes, except in the lateral fields where a 10 mm posterior margin was used. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for each organ were compared with those determined at simulation, using the notion of the proportional change in the area under the CTV-DVH curve resulting from a change in treatment plan (cDVH). Results: The reproducibility of the dose distribution was good for the prostate (%cDVH, mean±SD: -0.97±2.11%) and less than optimal for the seminal vesicles (%cDVH, mean±SD: -4.66±10.45%). When correlating prostate %cDVH variations with displacements of the isocenter in the Y axis (antero-posterior) the %cDVH exceeded (-)5% in only two dosimetries, both with an isocenter shift of >10 mm. For the seminal vesicles, however, ten out of 53 dosimetries showed a %cDVH exceeding (-) 5%. In nine of these ten dose distribution studies the posterior shift of the isocenter exceeded 8 mm. Conclusions: Precise targeting of prostate radiotherapy is primarily dependent on careful daily set-up and on random changes in rectal geometry. Margins no less than 10 mm around the prostate and at least 15 mm around the seminal vesicles are probably necessary to insure adequate target coverage with a six-field technique

2003-01-01

289

A simple reproducible and time saving method of semi-automatic dendrite spine density estimation compared to manual spine counting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Estimation of spine number and spine density by manual counting under the assumption that all dendrite protrusions equal spines are often used in studies on neuroplasticity occurring during health, brain diseases, and different experimental paradigms. Manual spine counting is, however, time consuming and biased by inter-observer variation. We present accordingly a quick, reproducible and simple non-stereological semi-automatic spine density estimation method based on the irregularity of the dendrite surface. Using the freeware ImageJ program, microphotographs of Golgi impregnated hippocampal dendrites derived from a previously performed study on the impact of chronic restrained stress were binarized, skeletonized, and the skeleton endings assumed to represent spine positions were counted and the spine densities calculated. The results based on 754 dendrite fragments were compared to manual spine counting of the same dendrite fragments using the Bland-Altman method. The results from both methods were correlated (r=0.79, p

Orlowski, Dariusz; Bjarkam, C R

2012-01-01

290

Low-grade osteosarcoma of the spine: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low-grade osteosarcoma is not typically found in the long bone and pelvis. Most primary osteosarcomas that arise in the spine are high-grade malignancies. A low-grade osteosarcoma arising in the spine has not been previously described. We report here the clinical, radiological, and histological findings of a case of low-grade osteosarcoma that arose in the spine.

Kim, Young Chul; Suh, Jin Suck; Kim, Myung In; Choo, Hye Jung; Huh, Yong Min [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2007-06-15

291

Low-grade osteosarcoma of the spine: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-grade osteosarcoma is not typically found in the long bone and pelvis. Most primary osteosarcomas that arise in the spine are high-grade malignancies. A low-grade osteosarcoma arising in the spine has not been previously described. We report here the clinical, radiological, and histological findings of a case of low-grade osteosarcoma that arose in the spine

2007-01-01

292

The roles of dendritic spine shapes in Purkinje cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Shapes of dendritic spines are changed by various physiological or pathological states. The high degree of spine shape heterogeneity suggests that they would be the morphological basis for synaptic plasticity. An increasing number of proteins and signal transduction pathways have recently been shown to be associated with structural modifications of spines. Here, we review the possible functional roles of spine shapes in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Several studies have suggested that spine shapes in Purkinje cells are regulated by both intrinsic and environmental factors, and different spine shapes could have significantly different consequences for brain function. Clearly constricted necks observed in thin, mushroom-shaped, and branched spines serve for compartmentalization of calcium and other second messenger molecules, influencing different signaling mechanisms and synaptic plasticity. Mushroom-shaped spines frequently have perforated postsynaptic density and the area of the spine head is much larger than simple spines, implying that membrane dynamics and receptor turnover are occurring. Branched spines might form additional synapses with afferent inputs resulting in the modification of neuronal circuits. Taken together, all these studies suggest that each spine shape is likely to have a distinct role in Purkinje cell function.

Lee KJ; Kim H; Rhyu IJ

2005-01-01

293

N-Cadherin, Spine Dynamics, and Synaptic Function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendritic spines are one-half (the postsynaptic half) of most excitatory synapses. Ever since the direct observation over a decade ago that spines can continually change size and shape, spine dynamics has been of great research interest, especially as a mechanism for structural synaptic plasticity. ...

Mysore, Shreesh P.; Tai, Chin-Yin; Schuman, Erin M.

294

Volatile anesthetics block actin-based motility in dendritic spines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendritic spines form the postsynaptic contact sites for most excitatory synapses in the brain. Spines occur in a wide range of different shapes that can vary depending on an animal’s experience or behavioral status. Recently we showed that spines on living neurons can change shape within seconds in...

Kaech, Stefanie; Brinkhaus, Heike; Matus, Andrew

295

Differential involvement of the dorsal and lumbar spine in osteoporosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of normal bone density values in the lumbar spine is often assumed to exclude osteoporosis. Eleven cases are reported in which normal lumbar spine bone density and radiology were associated with one or more dorsal spine fractures; the diagnosis was postmenopausal osteoporosis in eight p...

Bhambhani, M; Crisp, A J; Compston, J E

296

Pharyngocutaneous fistula after anterior cervical spine surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of anterior spine surgery occurring in less than 0.1% of all anterior surgery cases. We report a case of a 19 year old female who sustained a C6 burst fracture with complete quadriplegia. She was treated urgently with a C6 corpectomy with anterior ...

Sansur, Charles A.; Early, Stephen; Reibel, James; Arlet, Vincent

297

Scalp dysesthesia related to cervical spine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Scalp dysesthesia is characterized by abnormal sensations of the scalp in the absence of any other unusual physical examination findings. The pathogenesis of this condition is unknown but has been reported in the setting of underlying psychiatric disorders. Other localized pruritic syndromes, including brachioradial pruritus and notalgia paresthetica, have been associated with pathologic conditions of the spine and have been successfully treated with gabapentin. OBSERVATIONS: Among 15 women identified in a retrospective review of medical records as having been seen with scalp dysesthesia, 14 patients had cervical spine disease confirmed by imaging. The most common finding on imaging was degenerative disk disease, with 10 of 14 patients having these changes at C5-C6. Other abnormal imaging findings included anterolisthesis, osteophytic spurring, lordosis, kyphosis, and nerve root impingement. A gabapentin regimen (topical or oral) had been recommended to 14 patients; of 7 patients who were followed up, 4 patients noted improvement in symptoms when taking gabapentin. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with scalp dysesthesia also had abnormal cervical spine images. Chronic muscle tension placed on the pericranial muscles and scalp aponeurosis secondary to the underlying cervical spine disease may lead to the symptoms of scalp dysesthesia.

Thornsberry LA; English JC 3rd

2013-02-01

298

[Biometry of the lumbar spine using scanography  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biometry of one human lumbar spine was performed on a series of computed tomographic cross-sections every six millimetres. Linear and density measurements were multiplied on each level. Biometrical results confirm date of the litterature, but are more numerous by means of CT scan. Effectiveness on the living is acquired by whole body apparatus.

Le Floch-Prigent P

1983-12-01

299

X-Ray parameters of lumbar spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of anatomic spinal structures, especially its relation-ship to the functions performed, is necessary to form a correct diagnosis. The anatomical structure of the vertebrae varies de-pending on the level of the spinal segment. Normal anatomical parameters, derived from bone structures of the spine, are roughly determined by X-ray method.This paper presents the results of the survey radiography of the lumbar spine in a straight line and lateral projections in 30 individ-uals without pathology spine, aged 21-60 years with frequently observed lumbar spinal stenosis stenosis. Applying X-ray method there were studied shape, height, and the contours of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disc in the front (interpedicular) and sagittal planes; there were measured dimensions of the lumbar canal and foramen holes in the same planes. Using X-ray method can fully identify the bone parameters of vertebral column. How-ever, the informativity of the method depends on knowledge of radiologist about topographic anatomical features of spine.

Otabek Ablyazov

2012-01-01

300

Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

Hidetoshi Nojiri; Soichi Uta; Yoshio Sakuma

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Intravertebral pneumatocysts of the cervical spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of intravertebral pneumatocyst (IVP) of the cervical spine by age group, compared with that of intradiscal vacuum (IDV). METHODS: We investigated 500 consecutive patients who underwent cervical computed tomography (CT) from May 2012 to May2013 for various indications. CT datasets were assessed for the presence of IVPs and IDVs with stratification by age. RESULTS: IVPs of the cervical spine were detected in 8 % (7 of 86 subjects) of patients in their forties or below, 30 % (23 of 75) in their fifties, 49 % (67 of 136) in their sixties, 55 % (76 of 137) in their seventies, and 60 % (40 of 66) in their eighties or over. IDVs of the cervical spine were detected in 6, 25, 48, 54, and 57 %, respectively. Coexistence of both phenomena was identified in 4, 17, 33, 40, and 43 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: IVPs of the cervical spine are a common incidental finding, increasing in prevalence with age and more common than IDV in all age groups.

Matsukubo Y; Kashiwagi N; Uemura M; Tatsumi S; Takahashi H; Hyodo T; Tomiyama N; Ashikaga R; Ishii K; Murakami T

2013-10-01

302

Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decom...

Hidetoshi Nojiri; Soichi Uta; Yoshio Sakuma

303

X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

What It Is A cervical spine X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to take a picture of the bones in the back of the neck (cervical vertebrae). During the examination, an X-ray machine sends ...

304

Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed.

Schwartz, A.M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Landy, M.D.; Wetzner, S.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

1982-05-01

305

Titanium mesh cages (TMC) in spine surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The introduction of the titanium mesh cage (TMC) in spinal surgery has opened up a variety of applications that are realizable as a result of the versatility of the implant. Differing applications of TMCs in the whole spine are described in a series of 150 patients. Replacement and reinforcement of ...

Grob, Dieter; Daehn, Sylvia; Mannion, Anne F.

306

Neuregulin1 signaling promotes dendritic spine growth through kalirin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biological functions of the neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and ERBB4 genes have received much recent attention due to several studies showing associations between these genes and schizophrenia. Moreover, reduced forebrain dendritic spine density is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. It is thus important to understand the mechanisms whereby NRG1 and erbB4 modulate spine morphogenesis. Here, we show that long-term incubation with NRG1 increases both spine size and density in cortical pyramidal neurons. NRG1 also enhances the content of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors in spines. Knockdown of ERBB4 expression prevented the effects of NRG1 on spine size, but not on spine density. The effects of NRG1 and erbB4 on spines were mediated by the RacGEF kalirin, a well-characterized regulator of dendritic spines. Finally, we show that environmental enrichment, known to promote spine growth, robustly enhances the levels of erbB4 protein in the forebrain. These findings provide a mechanistic link between NRG1 signaling and spine morphogenesis. NRG1 and erbB4 increase spine size, while NRG1 activity, but not erbB4 activity, increases spine density. NRG1 also increases spine GluA1 content, and the GEF kalirin is necessary for the ability of NRG1 and erbB4 to regulate spine morphogenesis. We find that environmental enrichment, which is known to stimulate spine morphogenesis in the forebrain, increases cortical and hippocampal erbB4 expression.

Cahill ME; Remmers C; Jones KA; Xie Z; Sweet RA; Penzes P

2013-09-01

307

Principles of long-term dynamics of dendritic spines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term potentiation of synapse strength requires enlargement of dendritic spines on cerebral pyramidal neurons. Long-term depression is linked to spine shrinkage. Indeed, spines are dynamic structures: they form, change their shapes and volumes, or can disappear in the space of hours. Do all such changes result from synaptic activity, or do some changes result from intrinsic processes? How do enlargement and shrinkage of spines relate to elimination and generation of spines, and how do these processes contribute to the stationary distribution of spine volumes? To answer these questions, we recorded the volumes of many individual spines daily for several days using two-photon imaging of CA1 pyramidal neurons in cultured slices of rat hippocampus between postnatal days 17 and 23. With normal synaptic transmission, spines often changed volume or were created or eliminated, thereby showing activity-dependent plasticity. However, we found that spines changed volume even after we blocked synaptic activity, reflecting a native instability of these small structures over the long term. Such "intrinsic fluctuations" showed unique dependence on spine volume. A mathematical model constructed from these data and the theory of random fluctuations explains population behaviors of spines, such as rates of elimination and generation, stationary distribution of volumes, and the long-term persistence of large spines. Our study finds that generation and elimination of spines are more prevalent than previously believed, and spine volume shows significant correlation with its age and life expectancy. The population dynamics of spines also predict key psychological features of memory. PMID:19074033

Yasumatsu, Nobuaki; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Miyazaki, Takashi; Noguchi, Jun; Kasai, Haruo

2008-12-10

308

Neuregulin1 signaling promotes dendritic spine growth through kalirin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biological functions of the neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and ERBB4 genes have received much recent attention due to several studies showing associations between these genes and schizophrenia. Moreover, reduced forebrain dendritic spine density is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. It is thus important to understand the mechanisms whereby NRG1 and erbB4 modulate spine morphogenesis. Here, we show that long-term incubation with NRG1 increases both spine size and density in cortical pyramidal neurons. NRG1 also enhances the content of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors in spines. Knockdown of ERBB4 expression prevented the effects of NRG1 on spine size, but not on spine density. The effects of NRG1 and erbB4 on spines were mediated by the RacGEF kalirin, a well-characterized regulator of dendritic spines. Finally, we show that environmental enrichment, known to promote spine growth, robustly enhances the levels of erbB4 protein in the forebrain. These findings provide a mechanistic link between NRG1 signaling and spine morphogenesis. NRG1 and erbB4 increase spine size, while NRG1 activity, but not erbB4 activity, increases spine density. NRG1 also increases spine GluA1 content, and the GEF kalirin is necessary for the ability of NRG1 and erbB4 to regulate spine morphogenesis. We find that environmental enrichment, which is known to stimulate spine morphogenesis in the forebrain, increases cortical and hippocampal erbB4 expression. PMID:23742124

Cahill, Michael E; Remmers, Christine; Jones, Kelly A; Xie, Zhong; Sweet, Robert A; Penzes, Peter

2013-06-27

309

HORIZON SENSING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Real-time horizon sensing (HS) on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Oxbow Mining Company, Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (United States) and IEC (International) certification.

Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

2002-07-31

310

Repositioning of Barcelona’s Image in the Light of a Redefinition of the Urban Tourism Planning Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Barcelona’s city tourism model over the last fifteen years has chalked up many successes in terms of soaring tourist numbers, overnight stays, cruise liner passengers, hotel beds and visits to priced sights. Growth in city breaks has soared to the point where Barcelona has become one of Europe’s most visited cities. But this growth has come at a heavy price: mass tourism, concentration in certain neighbourhoods, competition for space between tourists and residents, lack of adequate inter-modal transport. All of these problems threaten Barcelona’s competitive position. The paper reviews the city’s competitiveness, comparing Barcelona to ten other European cities. Starting out from a qualitative analysis of internal players and a Delphi Study with external players, we find thecity’s tourism model needs correcting. We also identify the vectors and most important factors for achieving this repositioning. The vectors reinforce the competitiveness concerning the model’s sustainability, integrated management and governance, and client orientation. The proposed strategic repositioning will allow Barcelona to continue competing with Europe’s main cities.

Josep-Francesc Valls; Silvia Banchini; Luis Falcón; Gerard Valls Tuñon

2013-01-01

311

A study of factors for successful splint capture of anteriorly displaced temporomandibular joint disc with disc repositioning appliance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to analyse the factors which influenced the success of disc recapture by the insertion of a disc repositioning appliance. Fifty-one joints with joint clicking that occurred at both middle to late opening and late closing (near maximum cuspation) of the mandible were splinted with a mandibular full-coverage repositioning appliance. The clinical and MR findings were compared between the joints with successful and unsuccessful splint disc capture. Thirty-two clicking joints with reducibly displaced discs (DDWR) had successful disc recapture, while six of 19 joints with displaced disc without reduction (DDWOR). Unsuccessful joints with DDWOR had significantly higher prevalence of deformed disc and joint effusion, higher VAS quantitative pain score, and severe disc displacement especially in medial part of the joint (P < 0.05). From the results of this study joints with DDWR can be expected to have successful disc recapture with the insertion of the appliance. In joints with DDWOR, presence of inflammatory conditions, changed disc morphology and extensive disc displacement in medial part of the joint are negative factors. PMID:11422698

Kurita, H; Ohtsuka, A; Kurashina, K; Kopp, S

2001-07-01

312

Anatomical and functional changes in the upper airways of sleep apnea patients due to mandibular repositioning: a large scale study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a sleep related breathing disorder. A popular treatment is the use of a mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) which advances the mandibula during the sleep and decreases the collapsibility of the upper airway. The success rate of such a device is, however, limited and very variable within a population of patients. Previous studies using computational fluid dynamics have shown that there is a decrease in upper airway resistance in patients who improve clinically due to an MRA. In this article, correlations between patient-specific anatomical and functional parameters are studied to examine how MRA induced biomechanical changes will have an impact on the upper airway resistance. Low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans are made from 143 patients suffering from OSAHS. A baseline scan and a scan after mandibular repositioning (MR) are performed in order to study variations in parameters. It is found that MR using a simulation bite is able to induce resistance changes by changing the pharyngeal lumen. The change in minimal cross-sectional area is the best parameter to predict the change in upper airway resistance. Looking at baseline values, the ideal patients for MR induced resistance decrease seem to be women with short airways, high initial resistance and no baseline occlusion. PMID:20970801

Van Holsbeke, Cedric; De Backer, Jan; Vos, Wim; Verdonck, Pascal; Van Ransbeeck, Peter; Claessens, Tom; Braem, Marc; Vanderveken, Olivier; De Backer, Wilfried

2011-02-01

313

Anatomical and functional changes in the upper airways of sleep apnea patients due to mandibular repositioning: a large scale study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a sleep related breathing disorder. A popular treatment is the use of a mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) which advances the mandibula during the sleep and decreases the collapsibility of the upper airway. The success rate of such a device is, however, limited and very variable within a population of patients. Previous studies using computational fluid dynamics have shown that there is a decrease in upper airway resistance in patients who improve clinically due to an MRA. In this article, correlations between patient-specific anatomical and functional parameters are studied to examine how MRA induced biomechanical changes will have an impact on the upper airway resistance. Low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans are made from 143 patients suffering from OSAHS. A baseline scan and a scan after mandibular repositioning (MR) are performed in order to study variations in parameters. It is found that MR using a simulation bite is able to induce resistance changes by changing the pharyngeal lumen. The change in minimal cross-sectional area is the best parameter to predict the change in upper airway resistance. Looking at baseline values, the ideal patients for MR induced resistance decrease seem to be women with short airways, high initial resistance and no baseline occlusion.

Van Holsbeke C; De Backer J; Vos W; Verdonck P; Van Ransbeeck P; Claessens T; Braem M; Vanderveken O; De Backer W

2011-02-01

314

Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B. [Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

1998-03-01

315

GLass intact Assures Safe cervical Spine protocol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Selective cervical spine immobilization performed by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is being utilized with increasing frequency. These protocols, although very sensitive, still include subjective data such as "mild cervical discomfort." The aim of this study is to create an objective clinical decision rule that would enhance the selective approach for cervical spine immobilization in patients aged 16-60 years. STUDY OBJECTIVE: It is hypothesized that, in a motor vehicle crash, the integrity of the involved vehicle's glass window and airbag status is an excellent objective measure for the amount of energy a vehicle occupant has experienced during the crash. GLass intact Assures Safe Spine (GLASS) is an easy and objective method for evaluation of the need for prehospital cervical spine immobilization. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed with sample motor vehicle crash cases to evaluate the performance of the GLASS rule. The National Accident Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) was utilized to investigate tow-away motor vehicle crashes, including their glass damage characteristics and occupant injury outcomes, over an 11-year period (1998-2008). Sample occupant cases selected for this study were patients aged 16-60 years, who were belt-restrained front seat occupants involved in a crash with no airbag deployment, and no glass damage before the crash. RESULTS: A total of 14,191 occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes were evaluated in this analysis. The results showed that the sensitivity of the GLASS rule was 95.20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91.45-98.95%), the specificity was 54.27% (95% CI 53.44-55.09%), and the negative predictive value was 99.92% (95% CI 99.86-99.98%). CONCLUSION: The GLASS rule presents the possibility of a novel, more objective tool for cervical spine clearance. Prospective evaluation is required to further evaluate the validity of this clinical decision rule.

Sochor M; Althoff S; Bose D; Maio R; Deflorio P

2013-03-01

316

Effect of daily localization and correction on the setup uncertainty: dependences on the measurement uncertainty, re-positioning uncertainty and action level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the advent of commercial image-guided radiotherapy, daily correction of the setup uncertainty is feasible. It is beneficial to understand the dependence of the probability density function (pdf) of the corrected setup variation on the action level, localization uncertainty and re-positioning uncertainty so that an appropriate action level is used. Also, that pdf can be used in treatment planning to incorporate setup variation directly in the planning process to generate treatment plans more robust to setup variations. We have found an analytical expression of the pdf of the corrected setup variation assuming normal distributions for the uncertainties. Using the second moment of that pdf as a metric, we have explored the dependence of the metric on the action level for the following cases: (1) the uncertainties in measurement and re-positioning are less than the initial setup uncertainty, (2) the uncertainties in measurement and re-positioning are on the order of the initial setup uncertainty, (3) the uncertainty in measurement is the least and (4) the uncertainty in re-positioning is the least. An optimal action level exists in case 3. We have also found that an action level of ??p2 + ?p2 + ?m2 works well in practice where ?p is the mean of the re-positioning uncertainty, ?p is the standard deviation of the re-positioning uncertainty and ?m is the standard deviation of the localization uncertainty. In typical clinical situations, the distribution of the corrected setup variation can be closely approximated by a normal distribution.

2007-11-21

317

Evaluation and management of acute cervical spine trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaluation and management of cervical spine injuries is a core component of the practice of emergency medicine. This article focuses on evaluation and management of blunt cervical spine trauma by the emergency physician. Pertinent anatomy of the cervical spine and specific cervical spine fractures are discussed, with an emphasis on unstable injuries and associated spinal cord pathology. The association of vertebral artery injury with cervical spine fracture is addressed, followed by a review of the most recent literature on prehospital care. Initial considerations in the emergency department, including cervical spine stabilization and airway management, are reviewed. The most current recommendations for cervical spine imaging with regard to indications and modalities are covered. Finally, emergency department management and disposition of patients with spinal cord injuries are reviewed. PMID:20971389

Pimentel, Laura; Diegelmann, Laura

2010-11-01

318

Structure and function of dendritic spines within the hippocampus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most excitatory input in the hippocampus impinges on dendritic spines. Therefore, the dendritic spines are likely to be of major importance for neural processing. The morphology of dendritic spines is very diverse and changes in spine size as well as in their density are thought to reflect changes in the strength of synaptic transmission. Thus, alterations in dendritic spine densities or shape are suspected to be morphological manifestations of psychopathological, pathophysiological, physiological and/or behavioural changes. However, in spite of a long history of research, the specific function of dendritic spines within the hippocampal formation is still not well understood. This review will shed light on the hippocampal dendritic spines, their ultrastructure and morphology, as well as their supposed roles in neuronal plasticity and in certain mental illnesses.

von Bohlen Und Halbach O

2009-12-01

319

Evaluation and management of 2 ferocactus spines in the orbit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 49-year-old woman, who had fallen face first in a cactus 1 week earlier, presented with a small, mobile, noninflamed subcutaneous nodule at the rim of her right lateral orbit with no other functional deficits. A CT scan was obtained, which revealed a 4-cm intraorbital tubular-shaped foreign body resembling a large cactus spine. A second preoperative CT scan, obtained for an intraoperative guidance system, demonstrated a second cactus spine, which was initially not seen on the first CT scan. Both spines were removed surgically without complication. The authors discuss factors that can cause diagnosis delay, review the radiographic features of cactus spines, and discuss the often times benign clinical course of retained cactus spine foreign bodies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of cactus spines in the orbit. Health-care professionals should have a low threshold for imaging in cases of traumatic injuries involving cactus spines.

Russell DJ; Kim TI; Kubis K

2013-09-01

320

HORIZON SENSING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

Larry G. Stolarczyk

2003-03-18

 
 
 
 
321

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LOCALIZED MUSCLE FATIGUE ON KNEE POSITION SENSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS) prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02) and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02). Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue.

William S. Gear

2011-01-01

322

[Tumours of the upper cervical spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Vertebral tumours arising in the upper cervical spine are rare. We present our experience in managing these neoplasms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of patients treated at our institution between January 2000 and June 2011. RESULTS: There were 9 patients with tumours in C1-C2-C3: 2metastases, 3chordomas, 2plasmocytomas, 1chondrosarcoma and 1osteochondroma. All patients complained of neck pain at the time of diagnosis. Three patients underwent an anterior and posterior approach, 3 an exclusively posterior approach and 3 an exclusively anterior surgical approach. Tumour resection was intralesional in 7cases. Chemo-radiotherapy was used as adjuvant therapy in patients with malignant tumours. CONCLUSIONS: Vertebral tumours in the upper cervical spine are usually malignant. Achieving en bloc resection is particularly challenging and is technically unfeasible in many cases. This worsens the prognosis and makes adjuvant treatment very important.

Hernández García BJ; Isla Guerrero A; Castaño A; Alvarez Ruiz F; Gómez de la Riva A

2013-07-01

323

Optimal control of the spine system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The goal of this work is to present methodology to first evaluate the performance of an in vivo spine system and then to synthesize optimal neuromuscular control for rehabilitation interventions. This is achieved (1) by determining control system parameters such as static feedback gains and delays from experimental data, (2) by synthesizing the optimal feedback gains to attenuate the effect of disturbances to the system using modern control theory, and (3) by evaluating the robustness of the optimized closed-loop system. We also apply these methods to a postural control task, with two different control strategies, and evaluate the robustness of the spine system with respect to longer latencies found in the low back pain population. This framework could be used for rehabilitation design. To this end, we discuss several future research needs necessary to implement our framework in practice.

Xu Y; Choi J; Reeves NP; Cholewicki J

2010-05-01

324

Sampling issues in quantitative analysis of dendritic spines morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative analysis of changes in dendritic spine morphology has become an interesting issue in contemporary neuroscience. However, the diversity in dendritic spine population might seriously influence the result of measurements in which their morphology is studied. The detection of differences in spine morphology between control and test group is often compromised by the number of dendritic spines taken for analysis. In order to estimate the impact of dendritic spine diversity we performed Monte Carlo simulations examining various experimental setups and statistical approaches. The confocal images of dendritic spines from hippocampal dissociated cultures have been used to create a set of variables exploited as the simulation resources. Results The tabulated results of simulations given in this article, provide the number of dendritic spines required for the detection of hidden morphological differences between control and test groups in terms of spine head-width, length and area. It turns out that this is the head-width among these three variables, where the changes are most easily detected. Simulation of changes occurring in a subpopulation of spines reveal the strong dependence of detectability on the statistical approach applied. The analysis based on comparison of percentage of spines in subclasses is less sensitive than the direct comparison of relevant variables describing spines morphology. Conclusions We evaluated the sampling aspect and effect of systematic morphological variation on detecting the differences in spine morphology. The results provided here may serve as a guideline in selecting the number of samples to be studied in a planned experiment. Our simulations might be a step towards the development of a standardized method of quantitative comparison of dendritic spines morphology, in which different sources of errors are considered.

Ruszczycki B?a?ej; Szepesi Zsuzsanna; Wilczynski Grzegorz M; Bijata Monika; Kalita Katarzyna; Kaczmarek Leszek; Wlodarczyk Jakub

2012-01-01

325

Pedicular stress fracture in the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spondylolisthesis with or without spondylolysis is common in the lumbar spine. Associated fracture in the pedicle ('pediculolysis') is unusual. The margins of pedicular stress fractures, like spondylolysis, usually appear sclerotic. A patient with a pedicular stress fracture with minimal marginal sclerosis suggesting an injury of recent onset is presented here. There was associated bilateral spondylolysis. The findings in this patient suggest that established pediculolysis probably represents a stress fracture that has failed to heal. (authors).

1997-01-01

326

MRI of the spine in endemic fluorosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate role of MRI in the diagnosis of the spinal lesions in endemic fluorosis. Methods: MRI of the spine in 81 patients with endemic fluorosis, including the cervical spine in 57 patients, thoracic spine in 10, and lumbar spine in 14, were analyzed and compared with X-ray plain films. Results: Fat-containing marrow in the vertebral bodies with endemic fluorosis was decreased and unevenly distributed. Signal intensity of the vertebral bodies was homogeneously or inhomogeneously decreased on T1- and T2- weighted images. The mean values of signal intensity of the cervical vertebral bodies from 3rd to 7th were lower in 32 patients with fluorosis than those in 100 patients of the control group on T1-weighted image (P1-weighted images, the signal intensity similar to yellow bone marrow within OPLL in 63 patients and within OYL in 36 patients was observed in 32 patients (50%) and in 31 patients (86%), respectively. Of the 81 patients, herniation of the intervertebral disk was found in 68 patients (84%), degeneration of the intervertebral disk was observed in 57 patients (70%), and spinal canal narrowing was found in 75 patients (93%), in which compression of the spinal cord was showed in 63 patients (78%) and pathologic changes within the cord were noted in 28 patients (35%). In 57 patients with fluorosis, MR showed compression of the cervical spinal cord in 48 patients (84.21%), the anterioposterior diameter of the cervical spinal canal on X-ray plain film was either 9 mm or less at any level of the vertebra (indicating the compression of the cervical spinal cord) in 41(71.92%) patients (P=0.115). In 57 patients with fluorosis and 100 patients of control group, intervertebral herniation was observed in 51 patients (89.47%) and 62 patients (62%), respectively (P

2004-01-01

327

Adamantinoma of the spine: case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We report a patient with a cervicothoracic spinal and a mandibular adamantinoma. Adamantinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of bone and, to our knowledge, there have been only five cases of spinal adamantinoma reported. The pathogenesis of the adamantinoma, as well as the management of this extremely rare spinal tumor, is reviewed. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old man was admitted to our service with cervical pain and signs of C8 and T1 radiculopathy. On physical examination, cervical spine deformity, swelling in the left mandible region, and signs of C8 and T1 radiculopathy were observed. Neuroradiology examinations showed an osteolytic mass of the C6, C7, and T1 vertebral bodies, extending into the lateral masses and transverse processes. After surgical procedures, the patient had clinical improvement. INTERVENTION: Corpectomy of C6, C7, and T1 was performed through a cervicothoracic anterior approach. Anterior stabilization of the spine was obtained using an autologous iliac crest graft and osteosynthesis with an anterior plate. On a second procedure, posterior tumor resection and spinal stabilization were performed. After the 1-year follow-up examination, a new anterior procedure was performed because of tumor recidivity and spine instability. CONCLUSION: Adamantinoma, an extremely rare lesion, is a locally aggressive tumor with slow growth and the potential to metastasize. Although it is an extremely rare occurrence in the spine, adamantinoma should be considered on the diagnosis of tumors of the vertebrae. Neuroradiological examinations are not specific in the differentiation of this tumor from other conditions. This fact, coupled with the limited experience that most physicians in general have in dealing with this tumor, makes the diagnosis and treatment of adamantinoma challenging.

Dini LI; Mendonça R; Adamy CA; Saraiva GA

2006-08-01

328

Warming-up before sporting activity improves knee position sense.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a warm-up program on knee joint position sense in karatekas. DESIGN: Repeated measures design. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Ten young amateur karatekas (17.6 +/- 4.0 years of age). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Knee joint position sense evaluated before and immediately after a warm-up program through active repositioning in open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC). RESULTS: At baseline testing no differences were observed between OKC and CKC in absolute (4.1 +/- 1.6 degrees vs. 3.4 +/- 2.0 degrees) and relative angular errors (2.4 +/- 3.4 degrees vs. 2.1 +/- 3.5 degrees). After the warm-up program, a significant decrease in absolute angular error was observed only in CKC (from 3.4 +/- 2.0 degrees to 1.8 +/- 0.5, p < 0.05). Additionally, in CKC the subjects reduced the relative angular error to approximately zero (from 2.1 +/- 3.5 degrees to -0.01 +/- 1.6 degrees) and decreased the variability of the responses, expressed by the decrease in standard deviation of the relative errors. CONCLUSIONS: The warm-up program enhanced knee joint position sense only in CKC. Since no effects were detected in OKC, the evaluation of the effects of warm-up on knee joint position sense using merely an OKC technique would underestimate the valuable role of warm-up.

Magalhães T; Ribeiro F; Pinheiro A; Oliveira J

2010-08-01

329

Spine mineral change during osteoporosis therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Osteoporosis therapy has been handicapped by lack of means to quantitate the process. Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) offers accurate (4%) and precise (2%) estimation of lumbar spine mineral. The authors followed 42 osteoporotics to determine response to therapy. There were 17 patients with normal menopause (NM), 4 with surgical menopause (SM), 3 with premature menopause (PM), and 18 with idiopathic osteoporoses (10). Intervals between DPA spine mineral estimation were 16.5 +- 5.2 mo. for NM, 14.3 +- 8.4 mo. for SM, 14.0 +- 7.5 mo. for PM and 16.7 +- 5.8 mo. for 10. Observed average percent change of spine mineral under therapy for those intervals was 5.2 +- 7.9% for NM, +7.3 +- 1.7% for SM, -2.4 +- 6.3% for PM and +1.8 +- 12.3% for 10. Therapy invariably was with Ca, low dose Premarin in NM and PM, often with phosphates in IO, sometimes with thiazides, often with Vitamin D and with occasional other modalities, including NaF. The authors find DPA is a cost-effective way to measure osteopenia in the osteoporeses, document response to therapy, identify need for therapy change when there is continued bone loss under therapy, and to encourage the patient's compliance with long-term, complex therapies.

Powell, M.R.; Kolb, F.O.; Meier, K.A.; Schafer, S.A.

1985-05-01

330

Pharyngocutaneous fistula after anterior cervical spine surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of anterior spine surgery occurring in less than 0.1% of all anterior surgery cases. We report a case of a 19 year old female who sustained a C6 burst fracture with complete quadriplegia. She was treated urgently with a C6 corpectomy with anterior cage and plating followed by posterior cervical stabilization at another institution. Post operatively she developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula that failed to heal despite several attempts of closure and esophageal exclusion with a Jpeg tube. The patient was eventually successfully treated with a three-stage procedure consisting of firstly a posterior approach to reinforce the posterior stabilization of the cervical spine that was felt to be inadequate, secondly an anterior approach with removal of all the anterior instrumentation followed by iliac crest bone graft and thirdly a superior based sternocleidomastoid flap that was interposed between the esophagus and the anterior cervical spine. The patient's fistula healed successfully. However, yet asymptomatic, the anterior iliac crest bone graft resorbed almost completely at 16 months follow up. In light of this complication, we discuss the surgical options for the treatment of pharyngocutaneous fistulae and the closure of this fistula using a superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle flap.

Sansur CA; Early S; Reibel J; Arlet V

2009-05-01

331

Findings in osteosarcoma of the dorsal spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 60-year-old male had a left pneumonectomy four-and-a-half-years ago to remove a carcinoma of the lung; the surgery was followed by radiation therapy. In September 1997, he complained of back pain. When the back pain was investigated, a malignant tumor was found in the upper dorsal spine. Tumor decompression was performed in November 1997. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of radiation bone sarcoma and he was treated with postoperative chemotherapy. In April 1998, the patient had another surgery in which three ribs were removed from the upper left chest wall posteriorly and most of the tumor was removed from the left side of the spine. A second surgery was planned to remove tumor from the right side of the spine. An 18FDG study was requested to determine the extent of the tumor prior to the second operation. It is concluded that adding attenuation correction to the ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) gamma-camera, markedly improved the quality of the 18FDG images and the accuracy of the anatomical distribution of uptake

1998-01-01

332

Findings in osteosarcoma of the dorsal spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 60-year-old male had a left pneumonectomy four-and-a-half-years ago to remove a carcinoma of the lung; the surgery was followed by radiation therapy. In September 1997, he complained of back pain. When the back pain was investigated, a malignant tumor was found in the upper dorsal spine. Tumor decompression was performed in November 1997. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of radiation bone sarcoma and he was treated with postoperative chemotherapy. In April 1998, the patient had another surgery in which three ribs were removed from the upper left chest wall posteriorly and most of the tumor was removed from the left side of the spine. A second surgery was planned to remove tumor from the right side of the spine. An {sup 18}FDG study was requested to determine the extent of the tumor prior to the second operation. It is concluded that adding attenuation correction to the ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) gamma-camera, markedly improved the quality of the {sup 18}FDG images and the accuracy of the anatomical distribution of uptake

Abdel-Dayem, H. [Saint Vincents Hospital and Medical Centre, New York (United States)

1998-09-01

333

Tumors of the spine and spinal cord  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors review their personal experience in tumors of the spine and the spinal cord, based on 30 cases evaluated with plain x-ray film of the spine, plain Computed Tomography (CT), myelography and myelo-CT. The value of both plain film of the spine and CT in tumoral lesions involving the skeleton is assessed; however, as far as nervous structures are concerned myelography and myelo-CT are necessary. Both myelography and myelo-CT showed high sensitivity (96%), thus allowing the definition of intra- extra-thecal extension of the tumor and its relationships with the spinal cord and surrounding structures. Myelo-CT turned out to be extremely useful in myelographic stop: the upper extention of the lesion could be difined in 85% of cases. However, the contribution of myelography and myelo-CT was relatively limited when positive findings were present at CT. The evaluation of the density of the lesions proved to be of limited value since no significant differences could be recognized in different tumors. Finally, a diagnostic protocol is proposed for patients with spinal neurologic, based upon the clinical level of the lesion

1988-01-01

334

Totally cystic schwannoma of the lumbar spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A schwannoma is a benign tumor arising from a schwann cell and occurs mainly in the nerve sheath in the intradural extramedullary region. Schwannomas have been well described as occurring in the lumbar spine, but total cystic degeneration of schwannomas is rarely reported. The authors describe the clinical and radiographic evaluations and treatment of a rare case of an intraextradural totally cystic schwannoma on the lumbar spine.Two patients reported a history of 6 to 12 months of pain accompanied by weakness in the lower extremities. On examination, 1 patient had bilateral lower-extremity muscle strength graded at 4/5, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic schwannoma (1.5 × 2.0 cm in the sagittal dimension) at L2-L3. The other patient had a right lower-extremity muscle strength graded at 3/5, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic schwannoma (2.0 × 3.0 cm in the sagittal dimension) at L4-L5. The patients underwent operative treatment, and the tumors were completely removed, as were the filum terminale adhered to the tumor. Pedicle screws were used to maintain stability of the lumbar spine. Gross examination of the tumors showed yellowish-white soft contents. Histologic examination confirmed that they were benign totally cystic schwannomas. Postoperatively, the patients' neurologic symptoms completely resolved.Cystic schwannomas can be diagnosed using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The filum terminale cut off the tumor walls did not cause the clinical symptoms in the 2 patients.

Wu D; Ba Z; Huang Y; Zhao W; Shen B; Kan H

2013-05-01

335

Imaging guideline 1: blunt cervical spine trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical question: when do patients with blunt cervical spine trauma need imaging and which imaging modality should be used first? Purpose and scope: to assist clinicians in determining (i) the requirement for imaging in patients with acute blunt neck trauma and (ii) whether computed tomography or plain radiography is the more appropriate first test in those patients who need imaging. The details of guideline development are described fully in reference. The risk of clinically significant cervical spine injury being present if all five National X-radiography Utilization Study Group (NEXUS) criteria are negative is less than 0.1% and it is appropriate that these patients be managed without imaging. In contrast, patients with head injury requiring CT scanning are at substantially increased risk of cervical spine injury. Hanson et al. have determined that it may be a cost-effective procedure to image this group of patients initially with helical CT instead of plain radiographs if a high-energy mechanism of trauma was involved. Coronal and sagittal reformatted images should be viewed with axial images in order to maximize detection of fracture and dislocation, especially if plain radiographs are omitted as the first step. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

2004-01-01

336

Giant cell tumor of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six patients with giant cell tumor of the spine had surgery between 1981 and 1995. Three lesions were located in the scrum, two lesions were in the thoracic spine, and one lesion was in the lumbar spine. Preoperatively, all patients had local pain and neurologic symptoms. Two patients had cement implanted after curettage or intralesional excision of the sacral tumor; one patient had a local relapse. After the second curettage and cement implantation, the tumor was controlled. One patient with a sacral lesion had marginal excision and spondylodesis; no relapse developed. Two patients with thoracic lesions had planned marginal excision and spondylodesis; the margins finally became intralesional, but no relapse developed. One patient with a lumbar lesion had incomplete removal of the tumor and received postoperative irradiation. At the final followup (median, 69 months), five of six patients were disease-free and one patient died of disease progression. Two of the five surviving patients had pain after standing or neurologic problems. Although some contamination occurred, planning a marginal excision of the lesion seems beneficial for vertebral lesions above the sacrum. Total sacrectomy of a sacral lesion seems to be too invasive when cement implantation can control the lesion. PMID:12151896

Ozaki, Toshifumi; Liljenqvist, Ulf; Halm, Henry; Hillmann, Axel; Gosheger, Georg; Winkelmann, Winfried

2002-08-01

337

Giant cell tumor of the spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six patients with giant cell tumor of the spine had surgery between 1981 and 1995. Three lesions were located in the scrum, two lesions were in the thoracic spine, and one lesion was in the lumbar spine. Preoperatively, all patients had local pain and neurologic symptoms. Two patients had cement implanted after curettage or intralesional excision of the sacral tumor; one patient had a local relapse. After the second curettage and cement implantation, the tumor was controlled. One patient with a sacral lesion had marginal excision and spondylodesis; no relapse developed. Two patients with thoracic lesions had planned marginal excision and spondylodesis; the margins finally became intralesional, but no relapse developed. One patient with a lumbar lesion had incomplete removal of the tumor and received postoperative irradiation. At the final followup (median, 69 months), five of six patients were disease-free and one patient died of disease progression. Two of the five surviving patients had pain after standing or neurologic problems. Although some contamination occurred, planning a marginal excision of the lesion seems beneficial for vertebral lesions above the sacrum. Total sacrectomy of a sacral lesion seems to be too invasive when cement implantation can control the lesion.

Ozaki T; Liljenqvist U; Halm H; Hillmann A; Gosheger G; Winkelmann W

2002-08-01

338

Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereo observation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc.

Yoshinaga, Haruhiko (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

1984-05-01

339

Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereoobservation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc. (J.P.N.).

1984-01-01

340

Sensing temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature is an omnipresent physical variable reflecting the rotational, vibrational and translational motion of matter, what Richard Feynman called the "jiggling" of atoms. Temperature varies across space and time, and this variation has dramatic effects on the physiology of living cells. It changes the rate and nature of chemical reactions, and it alters the configuration of the atoms that make up nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules, significantly affecting their activity. While life may have started in a "warm little pond", as Charles Darwin mused, the organisms that surround us today have only made it this far by devising sophisticated systems for sensing and responding to variations in temperature, and by using these systems in ways that allow them to persist and thrive in the face of thermal fluctuation. PMID:23618661

Sengupta, Piali; Garrity, Paul

2013-04-22

 
 
 
 
341

Sensing temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Temperature is an omnipresent physical variable reflecting the rotational, vibrational and translational motion of matter, what Richard Feynman called the "jiggling" of atoms. Temperature varies across space and time, and this variation has dramatic effects on the physiology of living cells. It changes the rate and nature of chemical reactions, and it alters the configuration of the atoms that make up nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules, significantly affecting their activity. While life may have started in a "warm little pond", as Charles Darwin mused, the organisms that surround us today have only made it this far by devising sophisticated systems for sensing and responding to variations in temperature, and by using these systems in ways that allow them to persist and thrive in the face of thermal fluctuation.

Sengupta P; Garrity P

2013-04-01

342

Manobras de reposicionamento no tratamento da vertigem paroxística posicional benigna Treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with repositioning manevers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introdução: Vertigem paroxística posicional benigna (VPPB) é uma das mais freqüentes patologias do sistema vestibular. Caracteriza-se clinicamente pela presença de episódios recorrentes de tonturas rotatórias, tipicamente desencadeados por determinados movimentos cefálicos, realizados pelo paciente. A confirmação diagnóstica é obtida exclusivamente pela manobra de Dix-Hallpike. Nessa manobra, observa-se sistematicamente o desencadeamento de nistagmo. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Material e método: No total, sete pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de VPPB são submetidos a tratamento pela manobra de reposicionamento de Epley. Resultado: Desses sete pacientes avaliados, cinco apresentaram ótima recuperação; dois, com resultado bom; e um, com mau resultado; para este último caso, outras formas de tratamento são apresentadas. Conclusão: O exame otoneurológico, realizado em todos os pacientes, demonstrou ser de interessante valor prognóstico quanto ao resultado do tratamento proposto. A manobra de reposicionamento de Epley demonstrou ser um método de tratamento da VPPB simples, e eficaz na grande maioria dos pacientes aqui relatados.Introduction: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is among the most common vestibular disorders. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo induced by changes in head position. The condition is readly diagnosed by performing the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. Nystagmus is always present by this way. Study design: Prospective results clinical not randomized. Material and method: A total of seven patients diagnosed with BPPV received the repositioning maneuver of Epley. Five out of seven patients had excellent recovery, two patients had good results and one had a bad result. For this last one different treatments are discussed. Conclusion: We performed otoneurological examination in all patients; this test seems to be an intersting prognosis method for seeking the results of treatment. The repositioning maneuver of Epley is an excellent treatment for BPPV. Most of the patients of our series were successfuly treated by this method.

Roberto A. Maia; Flávia L. Diniz; Agnaldo Carlesse

2001-01-01

343

Manobras de reposicionamento no tratamento da vertigem paroxística posicional benigna/ Treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with repositioning manevers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Introdução: Vertigem paroxística posicional benigna (VPPB) é uma das mais freqüentes patologias do sistema vestibular. Caracteriza-se clinicamente pela presença de episódios recorrentes de tonturas rotatórias, tipicamente desencadeados por determinados movimentos cefálicos, realizados pelo paciente. A confirmação diagnóstica é obtida exclusivamente pela manobra de Dix-Hallpike. Nessa manobra, observa-se sistematicamente o desencadeamento de nistagmo. Forma de (more) estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Material e método: No total, sete pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de VPPB são submetidos a tratamento pela manobra de reposicionamento de Epley. Resultado: Desses sete pacientes avaliados, cinco apresentaram ótima recuperação; dois, com resultado bom; e um, com mau resultado; para este último caso, outras formas de tratamento são apresentadas. Conclusão: O exame otoneurológico, realizado em todos os pacientes, demonstrou ser de interessante valor prognóstico quanto ao resultado do tratamento proposto. A manobra de reposicionamento de Epley demonstrou ser um método de tratamento da VPPB simples, e eficaz na grande maioria dos pacientes aqui relatados. Abstract in english Introduction: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is among the most common vestibular disorders. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo induced by changes in head position. The condition is readly diagnosed by performing the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. Nystagmus is always present by this way. Study design: Prospective results clinical not randomized. Material and method: A total of seven patients diagnosed with BPPV received the repositioning maneuver of (more) Epley. Five out of seven patients had excellent recovery, two patients had good results and one had a bad result. For this last one different treatments are discussed. Conclusion: We performed otoneurological examination in all patients; this test seems to be an intersting prognosis method for seeking the results of treatment. The repositioning maneuver of Epley is an excellent treatment for BPPV. Most of the patients of our series were successfuly treated by this method.

Maia, Roberto A.; Diniz, Flávia L.; Carlesse, Agnaldo

2001-09-01

344

Cervical spine injuries in American football.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of catastrophic injury is felt to be the result of changes in the rules in the mid-1970s that prohibited the use of the head as the initial contact point when blocking and tackling. Evaluation of patients with suspected cervical spine injury includes a complete neurological examination while on the field or the sidelines. Immobilization on a hard board may also be necessary. The decision to obtain radiographs can be made on the basis of the history and physical examination. Treatment depends on severity of diagnosed injury and can range from an individualized cervical spine rehabilitation programme for a 'stinger' to cervical spine decompression and fusion for more serious bony or ligamentous injury. Still under constant debate is the decision to return to play for the athlete.

Rihn JA; Anderson DT; Lamb K; Deluca PF; Bata A; Marchetto PA; Neves N; Vaccaro AR

2009-01-01

345

Structural modulation of dendritic spines during synaptic plasticity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The majority of excitatory synaptic input in the brain is received by small bulbous actin-rich protrusions residing on the dendrites of glutamatergic neurons. These dendritic spines are the major sites of information processing in the brain. This conclusion is reinforced by the observation that many higher cognitive disorders, such as mental retardation, Rett syndrome, and autism, are associated with aberrant spine morphology. Mechanisms that regulate the maturation and plasticity of dendritic spines are therefore fundamental to understanding higher brain functions including learning and memory. It is well known that activity-driven changes in synaptic efficacy modulate spine morphology due to alterations in the underlying actin cytoskeleton. Recent studies have elucidated numerous molecular regulators that directly alter actin dynamics within dendritic spines. This review will emphasize activity-dependent changes in spine morphology and highlight likely roles of these actin-binding proteins.

Fortin DA; Srivastava T; Soderling TR

2012-08-01

346

Structural dynamics of dendritic spines in memory and cognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies show that dendritic spines are dynamic structures. Their rapid creation, destruction and shape-changing are essential for short- and long-term plasticity at excitatory synapses on pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex. The onset of long-term potentiation, spine-volume growth and an increase in receptor trafficking are coincident, enabling a 'functional readout' of spine structure that links the age, size, strength and lifetime of a synapse. Spine dynamics are also implicated in long-term memory and cognition: intrinsic fluctuations in volume can explain synapse maintenance over long periods, and rapid, activity-triggered plasticity can relate directly to cognitive processes. Thus, spine dynamics are cellular phenomena with important implications for cognition and memory. Furthermore, impaired spine dynamics can cause psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Kasai H; Fukuda M; Watanabe S; Hayashi-Takagi A; Noguchi J

2010-03-01

347

Videolaryngoscopy with glidescope reduces cervical spine movement in patients with unsecured cervical spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Unconscious patients with severe trauma often require urgent endotracheal intubation. In trauma victims with possible cervical spine injury, any movement of the head and neck should be avoided. STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of GlideScope videolaryngoscopy on cervical spine movement compared with conventional laryngoscopy in anesthetized patients with unsecured cervical spines. METHODS: Sixty patients scheduled for elective surgery with general anesthesia and without anticipated airway problems were enrolled in the study after ethics committee approval and written informed consent. Intubation was performed with videolaryngoscopy (GlideScope(®), Verathon Inc., Bothell, WA) or conventional laryngoscopy (MacIntosh). Using video motion analysis with a lateral view, the maximum extension angle ? was measured with reference to anatomical points (baseline and line drawn from processus mastoideus to os frontale [glabella]). Values were analyzed using Mann Whitney U-tests. RESULTS: The deviation of ? was a median 11.8° in the videolaryngoscope group and 14.3° in the conventional group (p = 0.045), with a maximum of 19.2° (videolaryngoscopy) vs. 29.3° (conventional). Intubation by physicians with some experience in videolaryngoscopy was associated with a reduced angle deviation (? = 10.3°) compared to inexperienced physicians (12.8°, p = 0.019). Intubation time was a median 24 s (min/max 12/75 s) in the MacIntosh group and 53 s (min/max 28/210 s) in the GlideScope group. In 3 patients randomized to the conventional group in whom conventional intubation failed, intubation could be successfully performed using videolaryngoscopy. CONCLUSION: GlideScope videolaryngoscopy reduces movements of the cervical spine in patients with unsecured cervical spines and therefore might reduce the risk of secondary damage during emergency intubation of patients with cervical spine trauma.

Kill C; Risse J; Wallot P; Seidl P; Steinfeldt T; Wulf H

2013-04-01

348

Bone Mineral Density Measurement of Rats Using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry: Precision of In Vivo Measurements for Various Skeletal Sites with or without Repositioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements need to be precise enough to be capable of detecting small changes in bone mass of rats. Using a regular dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), we measured many BMD of various skeletal sites in rats to examine precision of DXA in relation to the repositioning on the bones of rats. Using DXA and small animal software, scans were performed 4 times in all 12 male rats without repositioning (Group 1a). Another four scans for 6 of 12 rats were done with repositioning between scans (Group 2). Customized regions of interest (ROIs), encapsulate the right hind limb, L1-4, skull and pelvic bones were drawn at each measurement. The precision of the measurements was evaluated by measuring the coefficient of variation (CV) of four measurements of BMD at each skeletal site of all rats with or without repositioning. Significance of differences between group 1b (six rats out of group 1a, which were come under group 2) and group2 were evaluated with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test. CVs obtained at different skeletal sites of all measurements in Group 1b and 2. It was 3.51±1.20, 2.62±1.20 for the hindlimb (p=0.173), 3.83±2.02, 4.59±2.02 for L1-4 (p=0.600), 3.73±1.87, 1.53±0.89 for skull (p=0.046), and 2.92±0.60, 1.45±0.60 for pelvic bones (p=0.075). Our study demonstrates that the DXA technique has the precision necessary when used to assess BMD for various skeletal sites in rats regardless of repositioning

2009-01-01

349

Spines of 3-Manifolds as Polyhedra with Identified Faces  

CERN Multimedia

In this article we establish the relation between the spines of 3-manifolds and the polyhedra with identified faces. We do this by showing that the spines of the closed, connected, orientable 3-manifolds can be presented through polyhedra with identified faces in a very natural way. We also prove the equivalence between the special spines and a certain type of polyhedra, and other related results.

Isaza, Simón

2012-01-01

350

Imaging of primary bone tumors of the spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary tumors of the spine are relatively infrequent lesions compared with metastatic disease, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. A wide variety of benign and malignant neoplasms can involve the spine. The imaging features of these lesions are often characteristic. We present an overview of the imaging modalities in primary tumors of the spine in order to provide a useful tool in current radiologic practice. The role of CT and MRI is discussed. PMID:12942286

Drevelegas, Antonios; Chourmouzi, Danai; Boulogianni, Glikeria; Sofroniadis, Ioannis

2002-09-25

351

Imaging of primary bone tumors of the spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary tumors of the spine are relatively infrequent lesions compared with metastatic disease, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. A wide variety of benign and malignant neoplasms can involve the spine. The imaging features of these lesions are often characteristic. We present an overview of the imaging modalities in primary tumors of the spine in order to provide a useful tool in current radiologic practice. The role of CT and MRI is discussed.

Drevelegas A; Chourmouzi D; Boulogianni G; Sofroniadis I

2003-08-01

352

Imaging of primary bone tumors of the spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Primary tumors of the spine are relatively infrequent lesions compared with metastatic disease, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. A wide variety of benign and malignant neoplasms can involve the spine. The imaging features of these lesions are often characteristic. We present an overview of the imaging modalities in primary tumors of the spine in order to provide a useful tool in current radiologic practice. The role of CT and MRI is discussed. (orig.)

Drevelegas, Antonios; Sofroniadis, Ioannis [Ahepa University Hospital, S. Kyraikidi 1, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chourmouzi, Danai; Boulogianni, Glikeria [Asklipios Aristotelio Diagnostic Center, Papanastasiou 207, 54236 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2003-08-01

353

Function of Dendritic Spines on Hippocampal Inhibitory Neurons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The majority of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons have smooth dendrites with no or only few dendritic spines, but certain types of spiny GABAergic interneurons do actually contain substantial numbers of spines. The explanation for such spines has so far been purely structural: They increase the dendritic surface area and thus provide the opportunity to accommodate larger numbers of synapses. We reasoned that there may be specific functional properties for these spines and therefore, undertook to characterize interneuron spines functionally. We find a remarkable similarity to pyramidal cell spines: They receive excitatory synapses with calcium impermeable ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, compartmentalize biochemical signals, and display activity-dependent morphological plasticity. Nevertheless, notable differences in spine density, neck length, and spine-dendrite coupling exist. Thus, dendritic spines on inhibitory interneurons have a number of important functional properties that go substantially beyond simply expanding the dendritic surface area. It therefore seems likely that spiny and aspiny interneurons may have very different roles in neural circuit function and plasticity.

Scheuss V; Bonhoeffer T

2013-07-01

354

Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm{sup 2} in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm{sup 2} and 0.765g/cm{sup 2}. Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures.

Juhng, Seon Kwan [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-salem (United States)

2001-04-01

355

78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...a claimant's diagnosis of a cervical spine condition. DATES: Written comments...Control No. 2900--NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability...

2013-06-17

356

Anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine: Part III: the “unstable” cervical spine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this, the last of the three part series on the anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine, the clinical entity-instability-is addressed. A summative definition of instability, addressing both the clinical and radiographic issues, is presented based on current available literatur...

McGregor, Marion

357

Anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine: Part I: the “normal” cervical spine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the first of a three part series describing the clinical issues surrounding the radiographic assessment of the cervical spine. Defined in this literature review is the working definition of cervical stability. Described are the “normal” anatomical relationships between the cervical vertebrae...

McGregor, Marion; Mior, Silvano

358

Totally cystic schwannoma of the lumbar spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A schwannoma is a benign tumor arising from a schwann cell and occurs mainly in the nerve sheath in the intradural extramedullary region. Schwannomas have been well described as occurring in the lumbar spine, but total cystic degeneration of schwannomas is rarely reported. The authors describe the clinical and radiographic evaluations and treatment of a rare case of an intraextradural totally cystic schwannoma on the lumbar spine.Two patients reported a history of 6 to 12 months of pain accompanied by weakness in the lower extremities. On examination, 1 patient had bilateral lower-extremity muscle strength graded at 4/5, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic schwannoma (1.5 × 2.0 cm in the sagittal dimension) at L2-L3. The other patient had a right lower-extremity muscle strength graded at 3/5, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic schwannoma (2.0 × 3.0 cm in the sagittal dimension) at L4-L5. The patients underwent operative treatment, and the tumors were completely removed, as were the filum terminale adhered to the tumor. Pedicle screws were used to maintain stability of the lumbar spine. Gross examination of the tumors showed yellowish-white soft contents. Histologic examination confirmed that they were benign totally cystic schwannomas. Postoperatively, the patients' neurologic symptoms completely resolved.Cystic schwannomas can be diagnosed using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The filum terminale cut off the tumor walls did not cause the clinical symptoms in the 2 patients. PMID:23672923

Wu, Desheng; Ba, Zhaoyu; Huang, Yufeng; Zhao, Weidong; Shen, Bin; Kan, Heng

2013-05-01

359

Blunt Traumatic Cervical Spine Fractures in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Blunt traumatic cervical spine fractures (TCSF) are serious injuries which may be associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. We describe the epidemiology of blunt traumatic cervical spine fracture in Iran over a definable time period. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the data including the distribution of TCSF, demographics, mechanisms, abbreviated injury scale (AIS), spinal cord associated injuries and final outcome of patients, was extracted from the Iranian national trauma registry database in target hospitals in eight major cities of Iran from 1999 to 2004. The Chi square test was used to compare mortality and one-way ANOVA was used to compare ISS amongst the categories of TCSF. Results: TCSF was identified in 120 cases, of these 70.8% were male. Their mean age was 36.6 ± 17.2 years. The overall incidence of TCSF among all trauma patients was 0.7% (95%CI: 0.61% - 0.88%). The TCSF incidence among all spine fractured patients was 19.38% (95%CI: 16.34% - 22.72%). The most common mechanism of TCSF was a motor vehicle collision (66.7%). The overall percentage of in-hospital death for TCSF was 12.6%. There were no statistically significant difference in death and injury severity scores (ISS) among TCSF categories (p > 0.05). Spinal cord and root injuries occurred in 34.9% and 2.4% of TCSF, respectively. Conclusions: Preventive strategies need to be developed in order to reduce the number and severity of TCSF in the general Iranian population.

Soheil Saadat; Aliashraf Eghbali; Alexander R. Vaccaro; Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

2011-01-01

360

Epidemiology and risk factors for spine pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low back and neck pain is a common problem and one of enormous social, psychologic, and economic burden. It is estimated that 15% to 20% of adults have back pain during a single year and 50% to 80% experience at least one episode of back pain during a lifetime. Low back pain afflicts all ages, from adolescents to the elderly, and is a major cause of disability in the adult working population. Risk factors for developing spine pain are multidimensional; physical attributes, socioeconomic status, general medical health and psychologic state, and occupational environmental factors all contribute to the risk for experiencing pain.

Rubin DI

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

2008-01-01

362

Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Koh, Yoon-Woo [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Kim, Hee-Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jung-Mi [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea)

2008-04-15

363

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intraspinal synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are rare and commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the facet joints, particularly at level L4-L5. Symptoms are uncommon and may include low-back pain or sciatica. These cysts are accurately diagnosed by using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis is essential for the correct management of the cysts. Several treatment options are available including rest and immobilization, computed tomography guided corticosteroid injection, and surgery in patients that are nonresponsive to other treatment methods. (author)

2002-01-01

364

Diffuse demineralization of the lumbar spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On plain radiographs, diffuse infiltration of the spine in multiple myeloma may present as diffuse demineralization. Differentiation from osteoporotic changes is then difficult. 15 patients with multiple myeloma and 15 patients with osteoporosis were prospectively examined by MRI using plain and contrast enhanced gradient echo techniques. Examinations were evaluated for lesions and diagnosis was made by two independent observers. Contrast enhancement was visible in lesions detected in myeloma patients and in compression fractures. Fractures could be diffentiated from malignant lesions by the fact that there was no multiplicity of enhancing lesions. Contrast enhanced opposed phase gradient echo sequences seem suited for the detection of vertebral envolvement in myeloma. (orig.).

1993-01-01

365

CT in pyogenic osteomyelitis of the spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six patients with bacteriologically proven pyogenic osteomyelitis of the spine were followed serially with computed tomography (CT). Initial evaluation of the involved vertebral bodies and adjacent soft tissues showed a drop in CT numbers when compared to normal cancellous bone and soft tissues. A soft-tissue mass was seen in all cases. After appropriate antibiotic therapy, all six patients showed an increase in bone density and a diminution of the soft-tissue mass (p < 0.05). Five of the six patients showed a further decrease in soft-tissue CT numbers.

Kattapuram, S.V.; Phillips, W.C.; Boyd, R.

1983-06-01

366

Surgical approaches to metastatic spine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of many types of cancers have prolonged and improved the quality of life for cancer patients. With increased survival, metastatic spinal lesions are becoming much more of a functional and clinical problem. RECENT FINDINGS: Percutaneous vertebral augmentation techniques and image-guided focused beam radiotherapy have recently evolved and show promising results in the treatment of metastatic spinal lesion. SUMMARY: Vertebral augmentation and radiosurgery are minimally invasive options for the treatment of metastatic lesions of the spine. When combined, these treatment modalities offer predictable pain control and limit deformity progression.

Siemionow K; Lieberman IH

2008-09-01

367

MR-myelography of the cervical spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of MR-myelography (MRM) in comparison with the conventional myelography. MRM examinations were performed in 22 patients with stenoses of the cervical spinal canal using peripheral pulse-gated 3D fast spin-echo sequences. The images of satisfying quality were obtained in 19 patients. The diagnostic efficacy of MRM in delineating defects in the subarachnoid space was equal to contrast myelography in 11 patients and even superior in 10 patients. In conclusion, MRM has the potential to accurately diagnose diseases of the cervical spine and replace conventional myelography in considerable number of patients. (author)

Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Kohno, Toru [Shizuoka Red Cross Hospital (Japan); Kubo, Atsushi

1997-02-01

368

Computational repositioning and experimental validation of approved drugs for HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HIF stability and activation are governed by a family of dioxygenases called HIF prolyl-4-hydroxylases (PHDs). It has been identified as a new target to augment the adaptive machinery that governs cytoprotection in disorders associated with ischemia/reperfusion, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In this sense, PHD inhibition has been proposed to mimic, at least in part, the protective effects of exposure to hypoxia. Exploiting drug polypharmacology to identify novel modes of actions for drug repurposing has gained significant attention in the current era of weak drug pipelines. The present work plan aims at giving new purpose to some well-established FDA-approved drugs. Here, we propose that by combining the literature survey, docking, and manual interpretation altogether, we were able to perform virtual screening on FDA-approved drugs to identify potential PHD inhibitors. Upon screening of 1537 marketed drugs, a final set of six hits were selected for experimental testing. All six drugs were divers, and immuno blotting was carried out to evaluate their ability to upregulate HIF in order to validate our hypothesis. Out of the six, three drugs showed significant upregulation of HIF possibly by inhibiting the PHD. It is believed that the appropriate use of the literature survey, docking, manual interpretation, and experimental validation strategy in the drug design process should improve the ability to identify hits and confirm their potential to serve as basis for drug repurposing.

Teli MK; G K R

2013-07-01

369

Computational repositioning and experimental validation of approved drugs for HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIF stability and activation are governed by a family of dioxygenases called HIF prolyl-4-hydroxylases (PHDs). It has been identified as a new target to augment the adaptive machinery that governs cytoprotection in disorders associated with ischemia/reperfusion, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In this sense, PHD inhibition has been proposed to mimic, at least in part, the protective effects of exposure to hypoxia. Exploiting drug polypharmacology to identify novel modes of actions for drug repurposing has gained significant attention in the current era of weak drug pipelines. The present work plan aims at giving new purpose to some well-established FDA-approved drugs. Here, we propose that by combining the literature survey, docking, and manual interpretation altogether, we were able to perform virtual screening on FDA-approved drugs to identify potential PHD inhibitors. Upon screening of 1537 marketed drugs, a final set of six hits were selected for experimental testing. All six drugs were divers, and immuno blotting was carried out to evaluate their ability to upregulate HIF in order to validate our hypothesis. Out of the six, three drugs showed significant upregulation of HIF possibly by inhibiting the PHD. It is believed that the appropriate use of the literature survey, docking, manual interpretation, and experimental validation strategy in the drug design process should improve the ability to identify hits and confirm their potential to serve as basis for drug repurposing. PMID:23795595

Teli, Mahesh Kumar; G K, Rajanikant

2013-07-02

370

Magnetic resonance imaging of degenerative disk disease of the spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MRI has undergone an incredibly rapid evolution, and technical advances are continually occurring. MRI allows for high resolution imaging that can clearly demonstrate a variety of degenerative processes of the spine. High-resolution MRI that gives detailed anatomic information, coupled with the use of MR contrast agents, promises to change our diagnostic approach significantly for degenerative disk disease of the spine.

Lee SH; Coleman PE; Hahn FJ

1988-09-01

371

Management of difficult airway in penetrating cervical spine injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Management of airway in trauma victim with penetrating cervical/thoracic spine injury has always been a challenge to the anaesthesiologist. Stabilisation of spine during airway manipulation, to prevent any further neural damage, is of obvious concern to the anaesthesiologist. Most anaesthesiologists...

Prasad, Mukesh Kumar; Sinha, Ajay Kumar; Bhadani, Umesh Kumar; Chabra, Balbir; Rani, Kanchan; Srivastava, Bhavana

372

SPINE PROSTHESIS HAVING AT LEAST ONE DIAMOND ARTICULATION SURFACE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spine prosthesis (2050) having at least one diamond articulation surface (2052 a & b). The spine prosthesis (2050) may include one or more components that utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact, such as a diamond table on a substrate, or a solid diamond component.

373

SPIN90 phosphorylation modulates spine structure and synaptic function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The correct rearrangement of postsynaptic components in dendritic spines is important for driving changes of spine structure and synaptic function. SPIN90 plays an essential role in many cellular processes including actin polymerization, endocytosis, growth cone formation and dendritic spine morphogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that SPIN90, which is a binding partner of PSD95 and Shank in spines, is targeted to synapses and leads to enhanced synaptic activity in neurons. We show, using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays, that SPIN90 is tyrosine phosphorylated by Src kinase. SPIN90 that was tyrosine-phosphorylated by Src was targeted to dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons. Moreover, a SPIN90 phospho-deficient mutant was unable to accumulate at dendritic spines whereas SPIN90 WT and a phospho-mimicking mutant were localized at spines and bound PSD95 and Shank with increased efficiency. Consistent with these findings, hippocampal neurons that overexpressed SPIN90 WT or a phospho-mimicking mutant had enlarged spine heads, leading to enhanced postsynaptic function in terms of both amplitude and frequency. Together, our findings show that SPIN90 modulates synaptic activity in neurons as a result of its phosphorylation.

Cho IH; Kim DH; Lee MJ; Bae J; Lee KH; Song WK

2013-01-01

374

Actin in dendritic spines: Connecting dynamics to function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendritic spines are small actin-rich protrusions from neuronal dendrites that form the postsynaptic part of most excitatory synapses and are major sites of information processing and storage in the brain. Changes in the shape and size of dendritic spines are correlated with the strength of excitato...

Hotulainen, P.; Hoogenraad, C.C.

375

Paravertebral muscles in disease of the cervical spine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: Cervical spine disorders are common in the older population. The paravertebral muscles are essential to the support and stabilisation of the cervical spine but have been little studied. The aim was to determine whether pathological changes develop in these muscles in patients with severe...

Wharton, S B; Chan, K K; Pickard, J D; Anderson, J R

376

Operative stabilization of the cervical spine in cases of metastases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of intraspinal space requirement or instability of the cervical spine, metastases may lead to a compression of the spinal cord and/or the nerve roots. Early decompression and stabilization prevents unavoidable tetraparesis. In most cases quality of life can be maintained. The indication and methodology of cervical spine stabilization as well as the results of treatment in 18 patients are demonstrated.

Kalff, R.; Roosen, K.; Kocks, W.; Grote, W.; Schmit-Neuerburg, K.P.

1988-08-01

377

Some borderlands of the cervical spine. Pt. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The normal cervical spine may appear abnormal due to several factors, namely: The complexity of the cervical vertebra, the normal variation, the superimposition of the adjacent vertebrae, and the superimposition of structures outside the spine such as the craniofacial and laryngeal structures.

Kattan, K.R.; Pais, M.J.

1982-03-01

378

A Dynamic Model of the Cervical Spine and Head.  

Science.gov (United States)

A data base of the head and cervical spine structure for a three-dimensional mathematical model of the human head-spine system has been developed on the basis of recently obtained geometric and stiffness data. The model was developed for predicting detail...

J. Williams T. Belytschko

1981-01-01

379

MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine.

Kim, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Jung Hyung; Joo, Yang Goo [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

1995-01-15

380

Dendritic spine changes associated with normal aging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Given the rapid rate of population aging and the increased incidence of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases with advanced age, it is important to ascertain the determinants that result in cognitive impairment. It is also important to note that much of the aged population exhibit 'successful' cognitive aging, in which cognitive impairment is minimal. One main goal of normal aging studies is to distinguish the neural changes that occur in unsuccessful (functionally impaired) subjects from those of successful (functionally unimpaired) subjects. In this review, we present some of the structural adaptations that neurons and spines undergo throughout normal aging and discuss their likely contributions to electrophysiological properties and cognition. Structural changes of neurons and dendritic spines during aging, and the functional consequences of such changes, remain poorly understood. Elucidating the structural and functional synaptic age-related changes that lead to cognitive impairment may lead to the development of drug treatments that can restore or protect neural circuits and mediate cognition and successful aging.

Dickstein DL; Weaver CM; Luebke JI; Hof PR

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Dendritic spine changes associated with normal aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the rapid rate of population aging and the increased incidence of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases with advanced age, it is important to ascertain the determinants that result in cognitive impairment. It is also important to note that much of the aged population exhibit 'successful' cognitive aging, in which cognitive impairment is minimal. One main goal of normal aging studies is to distinguish the neural changes that occur in unsuccessful (functionally impaired) subjects from those of successful (functionally unimpaired) subjects. In this review, we present some of the structural adaptations that neurons and spines undergo throughout normal aging and discuss their likely contributions to electrophysiological properties and cognition. Structural changes of neurons and dendritic spines during aging, and the functional consequences of such changes, remain poorly understood. Elucidating the structural and functional synaptic age-related changes that lead to cognitive impairment may lead to the development of drug treatments that can restore or protect neural circuits and mediate cognition and successful aging. PMID:23069756

Dickstein, D L; Weaver, C M; Luebke, J I; Hof, P R

2012-10-13

382

Micromechanics of Minor Cervical Spine Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

Minor soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine are of increasing significance in public health. They may in particular be associated with long-term impairment. Such injuries are observed primarily in rear-end automobile collisions at low impact speeds and are attributed to a “whiplash”-type event. The question with respect to injury mechanisms of the cervical spine in cases of impacts of a low severity have raised controversial views in the past. Among proposed injury mechanisms, interactions between fluid and solid structures have been postulated: Viscous shear stresses or pressure gradients which arise in the deforming anatomical structures may have an adverse influence, e. g., on cellular membranes. In this communication, mathematical modeling approaches are presented which allow for a quantification of fluid/solid interactions under typical loading conditions of interest here. It is found, that the shear stresses caused by fluids and acting on accelerated surfaces of fluid-filled bodies depend largely on the size of the fluid space under consideration. Accelerations exhibit a stronger influence than their duration. It cannot be excluded that critical levels are reached even in a low speed impact scenario.

Niederer, Peter F.; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H.; Walz, Felix H.

383

The function of dendritic spines: a theoretical study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A modeling procedure is proposed which introduces the cable equivalent of dendritic spines into the Rall model of spiny interneurons in the spinal cord. At this point combined morphological and physiological works have given some insight into the possible role of a single spine and the function of a single spine has been studied by theoretical computations [Jack, Noble and Tsien (1975) Electric Current Flow in Excitable Cells, pp. 218-223. Oxford University Press, Oxford; Koch and Poggio (1983) Trends Neurosci. 6, 80-83; Perkel (1983) J. Physiol., Paris 78, 695-699]. The goal of the present paper is two-fold: (a) to stress the gross function of the spine system in the excitability of dendrites; and (b) to emphasize the role of spines in the dynamic input/output function of neurons. The simulation procedure is based on the well-known compartmental method. (1) The kinetics of active somatic and dendritic compartments are taken from a currently available spinal interneuron model to match the physiological data of large dorsal horn neurons carrying spines. (2) Beside the prolongation of the somatic excitatory postsynaptic potential, the model suggests that the spiny neuron increases the differences in the latency and height of excitatory postsynaptic potential as a function of the electrotonic position of input. The characteristics of the excitatory postsynaptic potential can be modified by the changes in spine geometry and the ratio of cytoplasmic resistances of spine stalk to that of main dendritic shaft. (3) Dendritic electroresponsiveness, which was already postulated for dorsal horn neurons, is analysed by the model including calcium and slow potassium systems. It is concluded that the participation of the spine stalk in active processes can highly modify the input dependence of response pattern. Depolarization-dependent Ca2+ accumulation in spines may reflect the interaction of spine stalks. (4) Passive antidromic spread of action potential can be suppressed in spiny cells. Analysis of active antidromic spread shows the probable importance of spines located near the soma. Centripetal vs centrifugal conduction of dendritic action potential may depend on the spine distribution along the tree and change in electrical parameters of spines.

Pongrácz F

1985-08-01

384

The study of digital image technology in standing spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the digital imaging technology in standing spine. Methods: 88 (56 AP and 32 lateral) original spine images were collected in 22 cases on the digital X-ray equipment, and 44 total spine image (28 AP and 16 lateral) were composed by image workstation. By choosing the images of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae at the same position as the control, the transverse displacement and the deviation of Cobb angle were measured for comparing the efficacy. Results: There was no significant displacement on the same position for thoracic vertebrae and lumbar vertebrae plain films (P>0.05). Body obliquity ? changed ±1 degree when displacement increased every 1.7 cm, which showed little affect on Cobb angle and could be ignored. Conclusion: The technique of digital spine imaging achieved in image workstation, which had special meaning for the popularization of total standing spine X-ray examination

2004-01-01

385

Dysphagia Associated with Cervical Spine and Postural Disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Difficulties with swallowing may be both persistent and life threatening for the majority of those who experience it irrespective of age, gender, and race. The purpose of this review is to define oropharyngeal dysphagia and describe its relationship to cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances due to either congenital or acquired disorders. The etiology and diagnosis of dysphagia are analyzed, focusing on cervical spine pathology associated with dysphagia as severe cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances largely have been held accountable for deglutition disorders. Scoliosis, kyphosis-lordosis, and osteophytes are the primary focus of this review in an attempt to elucidate the link between cervical spine disorders and dysphagia. It is important for physicians to be knowledgeable about what triggers oropharyngeal dysphagia in cases of cervical spine and postural disorders. Moreover, the optimum treatment for dysphagia, including the use of therapeutic maneuvers during deglutition, neck exercises, and surgical treatment, is discussed.

Papadopoulou S; Exarchakos G; Beris A; Ploumis A

2013-08-01

386

Posterior cervicothoracic instrumentation in spine tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively review 32 patients who underwent posterior fixation for cervicothoracic junctional tumors. All patients possessed unstable or potential after surgery unstable spines as a result of either their tumors or the surgery performed. We examined cervicothoracic spine stability, maintenance of alignment, and associated complications. OBJECTIVES: To review our experience with 3 different posterior osteosynthesis systems applied to the cervico-thoracic junction for spinal tumors. Our review includes surgical outcomes and complications. The evolution through 3 different systems between 1994 and 1997 reflects our attempts to improve accuracy in light of variable facet and pedicle interspaces. Our goal is not to compare the efficacy of the systems but to assess the efficiency of cervicothoracic facet and transpedicular screw and plate or rod fixation. However, we will comment on why the evolution occurred. The 3 different systems share a similar characteristic. Each system employs posterior cervical facet screw fixation and thoracic trans-pedicular screw fixation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal disorders involving the cervicothoracic junction and specific instrumentation to this region have been sparsely described in the literature. METHODS: Between June 1994 and June 2000, 32 patients underwent surgery for spinal tumors involving the cervicothoracic junction at our institution. There were 27 males and 5 females. The ages ranged from 17 to 72 years with a mean age of 52 years. A total of 32 cervicothoracic instrumentations were performed. We used the R. Roy-Camille thoracolumbar plate in 20 patients, the cervico-thoracic plate in 8, and the Agora rod system in 4. In all, 96 lateral mass screws were implanted from C4 to C6, 54 into C7, and 180 pedicle screws from T1 to T8. Nineteen patients had lung cancer with vertebral body invasion (Pancoast tumors), 11 had metastasis to the cervicothoracic junction, 1 had a chondrosarcoma, and 1 had myeloma. In a first group consisting of 19 patients, a combination of anterior and extended posterior surgical approaches allowed complete en bloc resection of the tumors, including all invaded vertebrae. Four total vertebrectomies and 15 partial vertebrectomies were performed. A second group of 13 patients had only posterior palliative stabilizing procedures with laminectomy and cervicothoracic fixation. RESULTS: The follow-up period varied from 3 to 54 months, average 15 months. The average duration of survival for patients who underwent partial or total vertebrectomy was 16 months (range 3-54 months). The average duration of survival for patients who underwent palliative decompression and stabilization was 11 months (range 5-19 months). No changes in the sagittal alignment occurred during the immediate postoperative period for 30 patients. However, 2 mechanical failures occurred. Two patients experienced a clinically significant early increase in thoracic kyphosis and required revision of the posterior instrumentation. A 21-month minimum follow-up was available for 6 patients, in whom all implants were stable. We noted no screw, plate, or rod breakage in this series. No neurologic complications, including root impingement or spinal cord injury, or vertebral artery injury occurred related to screw insertion into either the thoracic pedicles (180 screws) or the cervical lateral masses (96 screws in C4-C5-C6 and 54 screws in C7). CONCLUSIONS: Posterior plate or rod and screw fixation is a good method of treatment for cervicothoracic instability in spine tumors. Facet screw fixation in the cervical spine with Roy-Camille drilling technique and transpedicular screw fixation in the thoracic spine provides an efficacious means by which to stabilize the cervicothoracic junction. This stabilization technique was effective even in cases of high postoperative instability, such as with partial or total vertebrectomy. This screw-type stabilization is clinically effective and well documented. The evolution through 3 different systems reflects our attempts to improve accuracy i

Mazel C; Hoffmann E; Antonietti P; Grunenwald D; Henry M; Williams J

2004-06-01

387

Chemical senses.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decade, studies using approaches from molecular biology have substantially advanced our understanding of the early events in olfaction and taste. The many odorants that we can recognize may well interact with many distinct receptor proteins. Of the four taste qualities that we recognize, studies on salty and sour suggest that these tastes involve ion channels in the membrane of receptor cells while sweets and bitters bind to receptor proteins. Some volatiles (pheromones) play special roles in reproductive behavior via the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the accessory olfactory system. Initial belief that humans lack a VNO has been questioned recently, thus raising the fascinating possibility of human pheromones. The roles that taste and smell play in the world of the newborn are very different. Acceptance of sweet and rejection of bitter appear to be hard-wired while the affect associated with odors depends much more on experience. Genetic variation may produce total losses (Kallman's syndrome produces anosmia and familial dysautonomia produces ageusia) or losses specific to certain stimuli. The best known of the specific anosmias is that for androstenone, which has no smell to some, a urinous smell to others, and a smell like sandalwood to still others. Analogous to the specific anosmias, some individuals are unable to taste PROP while others, supertasters, perceive PROP to be exceedingly bitter. Clinical studies reveal pathologies responsible for total or partial losses. The olfactory system, dependent on one cranial nerve, is more vulnerable than taste, and total anosmia is a relatively common clinical problem. Three cranial nerves carry taste and two of those nerves inhibit one another such that damage to one disinhibits the other and preserves over-all taste function. Total ageusia is very rare. Throughout these studies we see that taste and olfaction have different properties and often different functions (e.g. odor and reproduction). Yet taste and smell can also be integrated to determine what does or does not enter the body. In Adrian's words, "we are dealing with the sense organs which signal the quality of the air we breathe and that of the food and drink we propose to swallow." PMID:8135507

Bartoshuk, L M; Beauchamp, G K

1994-01-01

388

Chemical senses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last decade, studies using approaches from molecular biology have substantially advanced our understanding of the early events in olfaction and taste. The many odorants that we can recognize may well interact with many distinct receptor proteins. Of the four taste qualities that we recognize, studies on salty and sour suggest that these tastes involve ion channels in the membrane of receptor cells while sweets and bitters bind to receptor proteins. Some volatiles (pheromones) play special roles in reproductive behavior via the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the accessory olfactory system. Initial belief that humans lack a VNO has been questioned recently, thus raising the fascinating possibility of human pheromones. The roles that taste and smell play in the world of the newborn are very different. Acceptance of sweet and rejection of bitter appear to be hard-wired while the affect associated with odors depends much more on experience. Genetic variation may produce total losses (Kallman's syndrome produces anosmia and familial dysautonomia produces ageusia) or losses specific to certain stimuli. The best known of the specific anosmias is that for androstenone, which has no smell to some, a urinous smell to others, and a smell like sandalwood to still others. Analogous to the specific anosmias, some individuals are unable to taste PROP while others, supertasters, perceive PROP to be exceedingly bitter. Clinical studies reveal pathologies responsible for total or partial losses. The olfactory system, dependent on one cranial nerve, is more vulnerable than taste, and total anosmia is a relatively common clinical problem. Three cranial nerves carry taste and two of those nerves inhibit one another such that damage to one disinhibits the other and preserves over-all taste function. Total ageusia is very rare. Throughout these studies we see that taste and olfaction have different properties and often different functions (e.g. odor and reproduction). Yet taste and smell can also be integrated to determine what does or does not enter the body. In Adrian's words, "we are dealing with the sense organs which signal the quality of the air we breathe and that of the food and drink we propose to swallow."

Bartoshuk LM; Beauchamp GK

1994-01-01

389

Student apathy for classroom learning and need of repositioning in present andragogy in Indian dental schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the world of technology, when today's student is approaching the on-line /distance learning in the open universities and doing on-line self-assessment, the classroom learning is vanishing slowly. Globally, teachers are taking efforts to improve the pedagogy by implementing effective methods to retain the classroom teaching and student attendance. The present study aims at shedding some light on the need of changing the adult education strategies (andragogy), which can effectively improve the student attendance for lectures. METHODS: It is an observational study, and the conceptual framework of it is based on beliefs, opinions and personal experiences of the respondents. Triangulation method is used for collecting the data. The data is achieved from three groups of concerned population who could provide valid results to support the study. It is collected by interviewing 10 senior faculty members who are/were the 'education experts' in the universities, while the main concerned groups of present educational stream, i.e. 'institution-teachers' and the 'students', were given questionnaires. 570 teacher respondents and 200 student respondents are the main participants of this study. RESULTS: As per data, it has been observed that senior faculty (90%) and students (93.25%) feel need of student motivation more than the institutional teachers (52.44%). P-values were obtained using Chi-Square test for testing the significance of difference between agreement and disagreement for a specific question. CONCLUSIONS: In India, Universities have already sensed the need of 'teacher development programmes'. But teachers in dental colleges, demand more efforts to be taken by universities and managements in this regard and expect better educational policies to give them accessibility to prove themselves.

Dable RA; Pawar BR; Gade JR; Anandan PM; Nazirkar GS; Karani JT

2012-01-01

390

Tensile properties of the human muscular and ligamentous cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tensile neck injuries are amongst the most serious cervical injuries. However, because neither reliable human cervical tensile tolerance data nor tensile structural data are currently available, the quantification of tensile injury risk is limited. The purpose of this study is to provide previously unavailable kinetic and tolerance data for the ligamentous cervical spine and determine the effect of neck muscle on tensile load response and tolerance. Using six male human cadaver specimens, isolated ligamentous cervical spine tests (occiput - T1) were conducted to quantify the significant differences in kinetics due to head end condition and anteroposterior eccentricity of the tensile load. The spine was then separated into motion segments for tension failure testing. The upper cervical spine tolerance of 2400 +/- 270 N (occiput-C2) was found to be significantly greater (p < 0.01) than the lower cervical spine tolerance of 1780 +/- 230 N (C4-C5 and C6-C7 segments). Data from these experiments were used to develop and validate a computational model of the ligamentous spine. The model predicted the end condition and eccentricity responses for the tensile force-displacement relationship. Cervical muscular geometry data derived from cadaver dissection and MRI imaging were used to incorporate a muscular response into the model. The cervical musculature under maximal stimulation increased the tolerance of the cervical spine from 1800 N to 4160 N. In addition, the cervical musculature resulted in a shift in the site of injury from the lower cervical spine to the upper cervical spine and offers an explanation for the mechanism of upper cervical spine tension injuries observed clinically. The results from this study predict a range in tensile tolerance from 1.8 - 4.2 kN based on the varying role of the cervical musculature. PMID:17458720

Van Ee, C A; Nightingale, R W; Camacho, D L; Chancey, V C; Knaub, K E; Sun, E A; Myers, B S

2000-11-01

391

Summary of theoretical and experimental development of a novel electromagnetic technique for remote repositioning of coolant tube spacers in CANDU nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes the experimental and theoretical development of a novel electromagnetic method to reposition the spacers used between the pressure and calandria tubes in a CANDU nuclear reactor without dismantling the fuel channels. The new method was successfully developed and implemented to reposition the dislocated spacers in five new CANDU reactors in Ontario. The savings in reactor repair cost, interest charges and replacement energy costs were in the order of hundreds of millions of dollars. Equally large benefits and savings will be realized if the need to use this technique in commissioned reactors becomes mandatory. There are a number of other applications of the electromagnetic technique which may also benefit from the analysis and experimental development, especially for pulse power, electromagnetic metal forming and fusion technologies

1988-01-01

392

Risk factors and visual results in cases of LASIK flap repositioning due to folds or dislocation: case series and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of a corneal flap is a hallmark of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), which offers advantages in terms of speed of visual recovery; however, it also carries the risk of postoperative flap displacement. We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive eyes on which LASIK was performed by one single surgeon at an ophthalmological institute in Colombia between May 2005 and January 2011, looking for eyes that required flap repositioning. Demographic data, preoperative refraction, hinge position, and visual outcomes following flap repositioning were evaluated. A literature review on the subject was also conducted. We found 37 eyes on which flap repositioning was performed-12 eyes (32.4 %) with subluxation and 25 eyes (67.6 %) with folds; 21 eyes (56.8 %) had a temporal hinge and 16 eyes (43.2 %) had a superior hinge. With regard to the total number of eyes on which LASIK was performed (2,595), the overall incidence was 1.4 %. Sixteen out of 2,093 eyes (0.8 %) with a superior hinge and 21 out of 502 eyes (4.2 %) with a temporal hinge had flap-related postoperative complications (p < 0.00). A final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between 20/20 and 20/25 was found in 75.7 % and a final BCVA between 20/30 and 20/40 was found in 21.6 %. Only one eye had less than 20/40 (previous amblyopia). From the eight eyes with a BCVA between 20/30 and 20/40, three had residual microstriae and one had corneal haze. Six eyes (16.2 %) lost two or more lines of BCVA. Flap subluxation or folds requiring flap repositioning were significantly more frequent when a temporal hinge was used.

Galvis V; Tello A; Guerra AR; Rey JJ; Camacho PA

2013-04-01

393

Risk factors and visual results in cases of LASIK flap repositioning due to folds or dislocation: case series and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of a corneal flap is a hallmark of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), which offers advantages in terms of speed of visual recovery; however, it also carries the risk of postoperative flap displacement. We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive eyes on which LASIK was performed by one single surgeon at an ophthalmological institute in Colombia between May 2005 and January 2011, looking for eyes that required flap repositioning. Demographic data, preoperative refraction, hinge position, and visual outcomes following flap repositioning were evaluated. A literature review on the subject was also conducted. We found 37 eyes on which flap repositioning was performed-12 eyes (32.4 %) with subluxation and 25 eyes (67.6 %) with folds; 21 eyes (56.8 %) had a temporal hinge and 16 eyes (43.2 %) had a superior hinge. With regard to the total number of eyes on which LASIK was performed (2,595), the overall incidence was 1.4 %. Sixteen out of 2,093 eyes (0.8 %) with a superior hinge and 21 out of 502 eyes (4.2 %) with a temporal hinge had flap-related postoperative complications (p < 0.00). A final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between 20/20 and 20/25 was found in 75.7 % and a final BCVA between 20/30 and 20/40 was found in 21.6 %. Only one eye had less than 20/40 (previous amblyopia). From the eight eyes with a BCVA between 20/30 and 20/40, three had residual microstriae and one had corneal haze. Six eyes (16.2 %) lost two or more lines of BCVA. Flap subluxation or folds requiring flap repositioning were significantly more frequent when a temporal hinge was used. PMID:23605593

Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Guerra, Alfredo R; Rey, Juan J; Camacho, Paul A

2013-04-19

394

Repositioning accuracy of fractionated stereotactic irradiation: assessment of isocentre alignment for different dental fixations by using sequential CT scanning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: To quantify the accuracy and reproducibility of patient repositioning in fractionated stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) using dental fixations in conjunction with a stereotactic head mask. Patients and methods: One hundred and fourteen verification CT scans were performed on 57 patients in order to check set-up alignment. The first scan was done immediately after the first treatment. Twelve patients were checked for alignment accuracy with weekly CT scans over a period of 3-6 weeks, all others had 1-2 scans. Two different dental fixations were used in combination with a non-invasive mask system: an upper jaw support (35 patients) and a customised bite-block (17 patients). Five patients were treated with no additional fixation. Co-registration to the planning CT was used to assess alignment of the isocentre to the reference markers. Additionally, the intra-operator variability of image co-registration was assessed. Results: There was a significant improvement of the overall alignment in using the bite-block instead of the upper jaw support (P

2005-01-01

395

Muscle repositioning: combining subjective and objective feedbacks in the teaching and practice of a reflex-based myofascial release technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Muscle Repositioning (MR) is a new style of myofascial release that elicits involuntary motor reactions detectable by electromyography. This article describes the principal theoretical and practical concepts of MR, and summarizes a workshop presented October 31, 2009, after the Second International Fascia Research Congress, held at Vrije Universitiet, Amsterdam.The manual mechanical input of MR integrates the client's body segments into a block, which is evident as a result of the diagnostic manual oscillations the practitioner imparts to the client's body. Segmental integration is achieved when the client's body responds as a unit to the oscillatory assessment. It appears that manually sustaining the condition of segmental integration evokes involuntary muscle reactions, which reactions might correspond to mechanisms that maintain homeostasis, such as pandiculation. It might be that these reactions are part of the MR mechanism of action and underlie its clinically observed efficacy in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.For the practitioner and the client alike, segmental integration provides unique sensations. In teaching MR, these paired sensations can be used as kinesthetic feedback resources, because quality of touch can be guided by the client's reported sensations, which should match the practitioner's sensations. Another form of feedback with respect to quality of touch is the visually discernable degree of segmental integration. Finally, because the involuntary motor activity elicited by the MR touch can be objectively monitored through electromyography and possibly other instrumented measurements, the MR approach might yield objectivity, precision, and reproducibility-features seldom found in manual therapies.

Bertolucci LF

2010-01-01

396

Balance in posterior and horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo before and after canalith repositioning maneuvers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by acute, brief and rotatory vertigo attacks provoked by changes in head position. Most patients complain of a loss of equilibrium and unstable gait during and between the vertigo attacks. Canalith repositioning maneuvers (CRM) relieve attacks and improve postural stability. In this study balance ability of 32 patients with PC BPPV and 12 patients with HC BPPV before and after treatment with CRM was investigated. 50 healthy volunteers served as the control group. Static balance was measured as mean center of gravity sway velocity recorded in four different conditions: on a static platform and on foam with eyes open and closed. Dynamic balance was measured in tandem walk test. PC BPPV patients demonstrated greater sway velocity in stance on foam with eyes closed. After CRM the velocity decreased significantly. The results of the HC BPPV patients were not different from the healthy volunteers all through the four test conditions. Walking speed of the patients both with PC BPPV and HC BPPV was significantly low. It increased after treatment in both groups. In conclusion, patients with PC BPPV had impaired static balance ability due to a clot in the affected canal. Dynamic balance ability measured by walking speed was impaired both in PC and HC BPPV patients. Static and dynamic deficits improved significantly after CRM.

Celebisoy N; Bayam E; Güleç F; Köse T; Akyürekli O

2009-04-01

397

Balance in posterior and horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo before and after canalith repositioning maneuvers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by acute, brief and rotatory vertigo attacks provoked by changes in head position. Most patients complain of a loss of equilibrium and unstable gait during and between the vertigo attacks. Canalith repositioning maneuvers (CRM) relieve attacks and improve postural stability. In this study balance ability of 32 patients with PC BPPV and 12 patients with HC BPPV before and after treatment with CRM was investigated. 50 healthy volunteers served as the control group. Static balance was measured as mean center of gravity sway velocity recorded in four different conditions: on a static platform and on foam with eyes open and closed. Dynamic balance was measured in tandem walk test. PC BPPV patients demonstrated greater sway velocity in stance on foam with eyes closed. After CRM the velocity decreased significantly. The results of the HC BPPV patients were not different from the healthy volunteers all through the four test conditions. Walking speed of the patients both with PC BPPV and HC BPPV was significantly low. It increased after treatment in both groups. In conclusion, patients with PC BPPV had impaired static balance ability due to a clot in the affected canal. Dynamic balance ability measured by walking speed was impaired both in PC and HC BPPV patients. Static and dynamic deficits improved significantly after CRM. PMID:19138524

Celebisoy, Ne?e; Bayam, Ece; Güleç, Feray; Köse, Timur; Akyürekli, Onder

2009-01-09

398

Robotic bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy in penile cancer, development of a technique without robot repositioning: a case report  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Inguinal lymphadenectomy is the treatment of choice for patients with penile cancer and inguinal lymph node metastases. We describe the performance of the robotic bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy technique without repositioning the robot in a patient with penile carcinoma and high risk for nodal metastases and no palpable lymph nodes. Materials and methods A 64-year-old male patient was diagnosed with penile cancer (TNM: T3 N 0 M 0) and underwent a total penectomy with perineal urethrostomy. We performed a robotic bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy four weeks after the penectomy. Results The entire procedure was performed with the robot-assisted technique. The operative time, median estimated blood loss, and hospital stay was 360 min, 100 ml (50 ml in the right side and 150 ml in the left side), and three days, respectively. Metastatic nodes were present in both inguinal regions, with a yield of 19 lymph nodes on the right and 14 on the left. The patient presented with a left-side lymphocele that was drained at follow-up. No other complications were reported. Conclusion Robotic bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy secondary to penile cancer is feasible, safe, and provides a good performance. Prospective studies are required to include a larger number of patients and long-term monitoring to assess the results of this procedure in comparison with open and laparoscopic techniques.

Sotelo, Rene; Cabrera, Marino; Carmona, Oswaldo; de Andrade, Robert; Martin, Oscar; Fernandez, Golena

2013-01-01

399

Repair of a submucous cleft palate by W-pushback and levator repositioning without incision to the nasal mucosa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The author created an innovative method of W-pushback and levator repositioning without having to make an incision to the nasal mucosa for submucous cleft palate repair.The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is outlined where the 2 peaks of W are the alveolar processes of both canine teeth and the midpoint of W is the anterior limit of the cleft notch of the hard palate. A short incision, medial to and behind the maxillary tuberosity and curved forward onto the palate and extended forward just medial to the alveolar process, is joined by a second incision from the apex of the cleft to the region of the canine tooth. The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is raised until the midline notch of the hard palate is exposed. The nasal mucosa and abnormally inserted levator veli palatini muscle to the posterior border of the hard palate bone are detached. By leaving the nasal mucosa intact, the detached levator veli palatini muscle is approximated at the midline and so the zona pellucida is obliterated. The cleft uvulas are cut in half and closed. The approximated W-flap is joined to the small anterior flap by 1 or more sutures (the W-pushback).Three patients were operated on with this technique without serious complications.The author believes that this method can make the levator sling and increase the length of the soft palate without making an incision to the nasal mucosa.

Hwang K

2012-03-01

400

Repair of a submucous cleft palate by W-pushback and levator repositioning without incision to the nasal mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author created an innovative method of W-pushback and levator repositioning without having to make an incision to the nasal mucosa for submucous cleft palate repair.The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is outlined where the 2 peaks of W are the alveolar processes of both canine teeth and the midpoint of W is the anterior limit of the cleft notch of the hard palate. A short incision, medial to and behind the maxillary tuberosity and curved forward onto the palate and extended forward just medial to the alveolar process, is joined by a second incision from the apex of the cleft to the region of the canine tooth. The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is raised until the midline notch of the hard palate is exposed. The nasal mucosa and abnormally inserted levator veli palatini muscle to the posterior border of the hard palate bone are detached. By leaving the nasal mucosa intact, the detached levator veli palatini muscle is approximated at the midline and so the zona pellucida is obliterated. The cleft uvulas are cut in half and closed. The approximated W-flap is joined to the small anterior flap by 1 or more sutures (the W-pushback).Three patients were operated on with this technique without serious complications.The author believes that this method can make the levator sling and increase the length of the soft palate without making an incision to the nasal mucosa. PMID:22421849

Hwang, Kun

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
401

Sports-related injuries of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.)[de] Die verschiedenen Sportarten weisen unterschiedliche Verletzungshaeufigkeiten und -muster auf, die im Rahmen dieser Uebersichtsarbeit diskutiert werden sollen. Circa 3% der Sportunfaelle betreffen die Wirbelsaeule. Diese Verletzungen sind haeufig von besonderer Tragweite fuer den Patienten. Eine fruehestmoegliche und umfassende Diagnose aller Veraenderungen ist dabei entscheidend fuer die Einleitung einer adaequaten Therapie und somit fuer die Prognose der Verletzung. Auch in der Dokumentation von Spaetschaeden und in der Frage der Rehabilitation kommt der radiologischen Diagnostik eine entscheidende Bedeutung zu. Ein besonderer Fokus wird dabei auf die Magnetresonanztomographie-(MRT-)und Computertomographie-(CT-)Diagnostik gelegt.Die gesunde Wirbelsaeule des Menschen ist in der Regel allen statischen und dynamischen Belastungen der ueblichen Sportarten gewachsen. Formanomalien und Funktionsstoerungen der Wirbelsaeule koennen die Belastbarkeit reduzieren. Die Empfehlung sportlicher Aktivitaeten richtet sich nach dem Ausmass der Verbiegung und dem noch zu erwartenden Wachstum. Auch hierbei wird der Stellenwert der Radiologie bei der Primaerdiagnostik und im Rahmen von Verlaufskontrolle bei typischen Veraenderungen wie Skoliosen, Morbus Scheuermann, Spondylolyse, Spondylolisthese, diskutiert. (orig.)

2002-01-01

402

Intradural extramedullary cysticercal abscess of spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common parasitic diseases affecting the central nervous system. Typically spinal NCC involvement has a concomitant cranial involvement. Spinal involvement by NCC, either intramedullary or extramedullary is very uncommon. The authors report a case of D12-L1 intradural extramedullary lesion in a 38-year-old female patient who presented with complaints of back pain and weakness of lower limbs. She underwent laminectomy and excision of the lesion. Histopathology revealed extramedullary cysticercal abscess. Post-operatively she was treated with albendazole. She had a successful recovery post-operatively and at 8 months follow up had no neurological deficits. This current case presents a very rare case of cysticercal abscess of dorsolumbar spine, without any evidence of cranial involvement. This report is to reemphasize the importance of including NCC as a differential diagnosis in intradural extramedullary lesion at the conus level in endemic areas like India.

Kapu R; Singh MK; Pande A; Vasudevan MC; Ramamurthi R

2012-07-01

403

Herpes myelitis after thoracic spine surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Herpes simplex or herpes zoster reactivation after spinal surgery is rarely reported. This case report and review of the literature describes patients in whom this reactivation occurs to clarify the diagnosis and management. In addition to reporting their case, the authors reviewed case reports and series published between 1980 and 2012 found through a PubMed search. Herpes reactivation is generally confined to a vesicular rash that can be treated with acyclovir. However, occasional dissemination has occurred and has led to myelitis or encephalitis. Atypical presentations led to delays in diagnosis, delayed treatment, and poor neurological outcome. While rare, herpes simplex or herpes zoster reactivation is a complication of spine surgery that must be considered in the face of new-onset focal neurological symptoms in a dermatome pattern without a structural cause, even without a rash.

Anderson MD; Tummala S

2013-05-01

404

Solitary lymphoblastic lymphoma of the thoracic spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma rarely originates from bone, and even more infrequently from a vertebral body. Lymphoblastic lymphoma is a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and results from an abnormality in adaptive immune cells. A 27-year-old man presented with a two-month history of night sweats, weight loss, and severe back pain. Radiological studies demonstrated an osteolytic lesion compressing the subarachnoid space at the T11 level. Posterolateral fusion with decompression was performed and a pathologic examination confirmed lymphoblastic lymphoma of the B-cell precursor type. To our knowledge, this is the first report of solitary lymphoblastic lymphoma from B-cell precursors in of the thoracic spine. Herein, we discuss the presenting symptoms and the management of this rare case of lymphoblastic lymphoma. PMID:23346332

Park, Dong Am; Park, Sang Gon; Kim, Seok Won

2012-12-31

405

Solitary lymphoblastic lymphoma of the thoracic spine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma rarely originates from bone, and even more infrequently from a vertebral body. Lymphoblastic lymphoma is a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and results from an abnormality in adaptive immune cells. A 27-year-old man presented with a two-month history of night sweats, weight loss, and severe back pain. Radiological studies demonstrated an osteolytic lesion compressing the subarachnoid space at the T11 level. Posterolateral fusion with decompression was performed and a pathologic examination confirmed lymphoblastic lymphoma of the B-cell precursor type. To our knowledge, this is the first report of solitary lymphoblastic lymphoma from B-cell precursors in of the thoracic spine. Herein, we discuss the presenting symptoms and the management of this rare case of lymphoblastic lymphoma.

Park DA; Park SG; Kim SW

2012-12-01

406

[Assessment of whiplash and cervical spine injury].  

Science.gov (United States)

Formulating an expert opinion on whiplash injuries requires that consideration be given to biomechanical, orthopedic, neurological, psychiatric and medicolegal aspects. The greatest difficulties are encountered in cases of mild whiplash where patients complain of constant pain without any physical correlative. Diverse assessments and principles for approving a claim are reflected in the fact that the prevalence of chronic spine pain after whiplash injuries (late whiplash syndrome) varies between 16% and 71% in different countries, and the proportion of whiplash injuries involved in petitions for compensation differs greatly across Europe (UK 75%, Germany 47%, Finland 8.5% and France 3% of all personal injuries).Important biomechanical, orthopedic, neurological, psychiatric and medicolegal aspects of expert testimony on whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are delineated. PMID:22105883

Marx, P

2011-12-01

407

[Assessment of whiplash and cervical spine injury].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Formulating an expert opinion on whiplash injuries requires that consideration be given to biomechanical, orthopedic, neurological, psychiatric and medicolegal aspects. The greatest difficulties are encountered in cases of mild whiplash where patients complain of constant pain without any physical correlative. Diverse assessments and principles for approving a claim are reflected in the fact that the prevalence of chronic spine pain after whiplash injuries (late whiplash syndrome) varies between 16% and 71% in different countries, and the proportion of whiplash injuries involved in petitions for compensation differs greatly across Europe (UK 75%, Germany 47%, Finland 8.5% and France 3% of all personal injuries).Important biomechanical, orthopedic, neurological, psychiatric and medicolegal aspects of expert testimony on whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are delineated.

Marx P

2011-12-01

408

Giant cells reparative granuloma of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG), was first described by Jaffe in 1953, which found it to be clinically and histopathologically different from the giant cell tumor. The GCRG accounts for 1.0 % of the osseous tumoral lesions, is more frequently found in females (68%) and in patients less than 30 years old (74%). It was believed that it only affected the jaw; it has been reported compromising other locations including the spine (7 cases). We report a case affecting the vertebral bodies of C2-C3 in a 10 years old, female patient, who was studied by plain film and MRI. The histological diagnosis was established at surgery, this report is the first one described in a cervical location and the second studied by MRI

1998-01-01

409

Testosterone modulation of dendritic spines of somatosensory cortical pyramidal neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain structures and functions are increasingly recognized to be directly affected by gonadal hormones, which classically determine reproductive functions and sexual phenotypes. In this regard, we found recently that ovariectomy trimmed the dendritic spines of female rat primary somatosensory cortical neurons and estradiol supplement reversed it. Here, we investigated whether in the male androgen also has a cortical modulatory effect. The dendritic arbors and spines of rat somatosensory cortical pyramidal neurons were studied following intracellular dye injection and three-dimensional reconstruction. Dendritic spines, but not length, of the layers III and V pyramidal neurons were found reduced at 2 weeks and rebounded slightly at 4 weeks and further at 8 and 24 weeks following castration, which, however, remained significantly fewer than those of the intact animals. Two weeks of osmotic pump-delivered testosterone treatment to animals castrated for 4 weeks replenished serum testosterone and reversed the densities of dendritic spines on these neurons to control animal levels. Androgen receptor appears to mediate this effect as its antagonist flutamide reduced the dendritic spines of normal adult rats while causing a mild feedback surge of serum testosterone. On the other hand, blocking the conversion of testosterone to estrogen with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole failed to alter the dendritic spine densities in male adult rats. In conclusion, these results support our hypothesis that testosterone acts directly on the androgen receptor in males to modulate the dendritic spines of somatosensory cortical output neurons. PMID:23340667

Chen, Jeng-Rung; Wang, Tsyr-Jiuan; Lim, Seh-Hong; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang

2013-01-23

410

MRI features of hydatid disease of the spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the typical MRI findings and to evaluate the value of MRI in the diagnosis of hydatid disease of the spine. Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 16 patients with hydatidosis of the spine evaluated with MRI. All patients had surgery with histological diagnosis. MR myelography (MRM) was done in 4 eases, contrast-enhanced scan in 2 cases and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in 1 case. X-ray was performed in 8 cases and CT in 5 cases. Results: All 16 cases were diagnosed as hydatid disease with multicysts. Hydatid disease involved thoracic spine in 5 cases, lumbar spine in 4 cases, sacrum in 3 eases, lumbosacral spine in 2 cases and a combination of thoracic, lumbar spine and sacrum in 2 cases. MR imaging showed bone destruction with wedge shaped compression of single or multiple vertebra. The lesions were round in contour with different sizes and involved the bony spinal canal, appendix of vertebra and neighboring soft tissues. Cystic lesions with multiple daughter cysts demonstrated long T1 and long T2 abnormal signal intensity on MR imaging. On T2-weighted images, a hypointense rim was seen. Cystic lesions were better seen on T2 SPIR and MRM. Mild contrast enhancement of these lesions were seen. A single case showed iso-perfusion on PWI. Conclusions: MRI can demonstrate hydatid cysts in vertebra, spinal canal, paravertebral and neighboring soft tissue. MRI is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment planning of hydatid disease of the spine. (authors)

2009-01-01

411

Testosterone modulation of dendritic spines of somatosensory cortical pyramidal neurons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brain structures and functions are increasingly recognized to be directly affected by gonadal hormones, which classically determine reproductive functions and sexual phenotypes. In this regard, we found recently that ovariectomy trimmed the dendritic spines of female rat primary somatosensory cortical neurons and estradiol supplement reversed it. Here, we investigated whether in the male androgen also has a cortical modulatory effect. The dendritic arbors and spines of rat somatosensory cortical pyramidal neurons were studied following intracellular dye injection and three-dimensional reconstruction. Dendritic spines, but not length, of the layers III and V pyramidal neurons were found reduced at 2 weeks and rebounded slightly at 4 weeks and further at 8 and 24 weeks following castration, which, however, remained significantly fewer than those of the intact animals. Two weeks of osmotic pump-delivered testosterone treatment to animals castrated for 4 weeks replenished serum testosterone and reversed the densities of dendritic spines on these neurons to control animal levels. Androgen receptor appears to mediate this effect as its antago