WorldWideScience
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Mechanism of simmondsin decomposition during sodium hydroxide treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jojoba seed meal shows appetite-suppressing activity due to the presence of simmondsin. This pharmacological activity disappears with treatment of the meal with sodium hydroxide. To elucidate this mechanism of inactivation, the reaction of simmondsin in 1 N NaOH at 20 degrees C was monitored as a function of time. The end products of the reaction as well as intermediates were isolated and identified. The half-life of simmondsin was approximately 60 min with d-glucose and 2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile as reaction end products. The reaction mechanism could be elucidated by the isolation of isosimmondsin and a simmondsin lactone derivative. Those compounds were isolated and purified by a combination of column chromatography and HPLC and identified mainly by HRMS and NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12590465

Van Boven, M; Laga, M; Leonard, S; Busson, R; Holser, R; Decuypere, E; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Cokelaere, M

2003-02-26

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Sodium hydroxide poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical that is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This is for information only and not ...

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Comparison of Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide Followed by Heat Treatment on Rice Straw for Cellulase Production under Solid State Fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rice straw is the major agricultural by-product in the world. Its low digestibility made it unsuitable as livestock feed which lead to the mass disposal and burning of rice straw. The main objective of this study were to optimise the alkali concentration and soaking time on rice straw for the alkali pretreatment followed by heat treatment for cellulose production and to compare the effectiveness of both alkali used. The rice straws were subjected to two treatments, which were Treatment A and Treatment B. In Treatment A, the rice straws were treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH followed by heat treatment (autoclaving at 121°C for an hour, whereas the rice straws were treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH followed by heat in Treatment B. Four different alkali concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% at four different soaking times (1, 2, 3 and 4 h were investigated. The treated rice straws were subjected to Solid State Fermentation (SSF with the condition of 1:1 moisture content, 1% ammonium sulphate and 1x107 spores mL-1 of locally isolated Aspergillus niger. The highest yield of filter paper enzyme (FPase and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase were obtained after 6 days of SSF, which were 7.85±0.18 U g-1 substrate and 11.73±0.27 U g-1 substrate, respectively; when the rice straw was pre-treated with 15% KOH with 1 h soaking time followed by heat. Conclusively, rice straw can be effectively bio-converted into valuable product such as cellulase in SSF.

A.L. Chew

2010-01-01

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Influence of roasting or sodium hydroxide treatment of barley on digestion in lactating cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three cannulated, lactating cows were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to determine the effect of roasting or NaOH treatment of barley on ruminal fermentation and site and extent of digestion of nutrients. Experimental treatments were rolled barley, roasted (exit temperature, 135 degrees C) and rolled barley, and treated with 4% NaOH and 220 L of H2O/tonne of barley. Diets also consisted of grass silage and soybean meal. Treatment with NaOH reduced concentrations of several AA, starch, and NDF in the barley. Starch digestibility in the rumen was lower for barley that was treated with NaOH but was unaffected for roasted barley. Digestibilities of N and starch in the small intestine were reduced for barley treated with NaOH, but values for rolled and roasted barley were similar. Apparent total tract digestibility of starch was reduced for the NaOH treated barley. Treatment of barley with NaOH tended to have a detrimental effect on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production. Roasting of barley did not appear to affect the site or extent of carbohydrate digestion, but roasting protected N from ruminal degradation. The protective effect on the carbohydrate fraction would be expected to be greater if the grain were cooled prior to rolling so that the protein matrix of the starch granule remained intact. PMID:7622721

McNiven, M A; Weisbjerg, M R; Hvelplund, T

1995-05-01

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Decomposition of danburite concentrate by sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leaching process of danburite concentrate with sodium hydroxide was studied in this article. The optimal conditions of leaching process of danburite concentrate by NaOH were found. The mineralogical composition of danburite concentrate by means of chemical and X-ray analysis were defined. The element analysis of danburite concentrate is presented. The standard thermodynamic quantities, including enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy were calculated. The leaching process of initial danburite and its concentrate was studied depending on temperature, process duration and sodium hydroxide concentration. The temperature dependence was studied at temperature range 30-90 deg C. The process duration of leaching of danburite concentrate with NaOH was studied in intervals 30-120 min.

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Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide

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Potential use of high-temperature and low-temperature steam treatment, sodium hydroxide and an enzyme mixture for improving the nutritional value of sugarcane pith  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The effectiveness of different treatment methods to improve the nutritional value of the sugarcane by-products (pith or bagasse) has been evaluated. The treatment methods included a high-pressure steam treatment (HPST; 19 bar, 3 min), treating the products with sodium hydroxide, sulphuric acid plus [...] an enzyme mixture, or low-temperature steam treatment (LTST) under different conditions. Gas production (GP), two-step in vitro digestibility (IVD) and in situ degradability (ISD) techniques were used to monitor the effectiveness of the treatments. HPST resulted in a significant increased in the total soluble sugar (TSS) content of unsteamed pith (USP), 20 vs. 123.75 mg/100 mL. Except for the enzyme treatment, the other treatments led to a significant improvement in the nutritional value of sugarcane by-products, as measured by the IVD method. LTST resulted in an increase in potential GP (B) at higher temperature, reaction time and amount of acid. The highest potential GP (110.92 mL/300 mg DM) was achieved under the conditions, 134 ºC, 18 g acid/kg DM, 120 min, and the lowest (72.4 mL/300 mg DM) under the conditions, 121 ºC, no acid, 40 min. In situ dry matter degradability (ISDMD) was unaffected by LTST. Dry matter digestibility results indicated that the optimal treatments for treating pith were HPST and NaOH, but that enzymes were ineffective. Furthermore, considering treatment cost (creating high-pressure are more expensive than low temperature treatments), potential environmental health problems and the relative improvement in the nutritional value of pith achieved by the LTST + acid method, compared to the HPST method (as measured using GP), these results suggested that the methods based on the use of LTST and acid (especially under harsher conditions), have the best potential to improve the nutritive value of sugarcane by-products.

M., Chaji; A.A., Naserian; R., Valizadeh; T., Mohammadabadi; Kh., Mirzadeh.

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Comparison of Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide Followed by Heat Treatment on Rice Straw for Cellulase Production under Solid State Fermentation  

OpenAIRE

Rice straw is the major agricultural by-product in the world. Its low digestibility made it unsuitable as livestock feed which lead to the mass disposal and burning of rice straw. The main objective of this study were to optimise the alkali concentration and soaking time on rice straw for the alkali pretreatment followed by heat treatment for cellulose production and to compare the effectiveness of both alkali used. The rice straws were subjected to two treatments, which were Treatment A and ...

Chew, A. L.; Chuah, C.; Ong, L. G. A.

2010-01-01

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Chemical demineralization/desulphurization of high sulphur coal using sodium hydroxide and acid solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Demineralization and desulphurization of high sulphur coal from Assam (Makum Coal fields), India was investigated using aqueous sodium hydroxide followed by hydrochloric acid treatment. Compared to the alkali and acid alone, successive treatments with the alkali and acid resulted in significant removal of mineral matters and sulphur from the coal. Demineralization and desulphurization were found to increase with the increase in alkali concentration. Alkali treatment resulted in formation and precipitation of sodium aluminosilicate, which subsequently undergoes decomposition and solubilization in presence of acid. It is possible to remove 43-50% of the ash, total inorganic sulphur and around 10% organic sulphur from the coal by treatment with 16% sodium hydroxide solution followed by 10% hydrochloric acid. 27 refs., 4 tabs.

Mukherjee, S.; Borthakur, P.C. [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jorhat (India). Material Science Division

2001-11-30

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Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

OpenAIRE

In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH)3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT) and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.; A?imovi?-Pavlovi? Zagorka; Andri? Ljubiša D.; Prsti? Aurel

2002-01-01

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Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.

2002-01-01

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Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct oxidation of sodium borohydride in concentrated sodium hydroxide medium has been studied by cyclic and linear voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry for silver and gold electrocatalysts, either bulk and polycrystalline or nanodispersed over high area carbon blacks. Gold and silver yield rather complete utilisation of the reducer: around 7.5 electrons are delivered on these materials, versus 4 at the most for platinum as a result of the BH4 - non-negligible hydrolysis taking place on this latter material. The kinetic parameters for the direct borohydride oxidation are better for gold than for silver. A strong influence of the ratio of sodium hydroxide versus sodium borohydride is found: whereas the theoretical stoichiometry does forecast that eight hydroxide ions are needed for each borohydride ion, our experimental results prove that a larger excess hydroxide ion is necessary in quasi-steady state conditions. When the above-mentioned ratio is unity (1 M NaOH and 1 M NaBH4), the tetrahydroborate ions direct oxidation is limited by the hydroxide concentration, and their hydrolysis is no longer negligible. The hydrolysis products are probably BH3OH- ions, for which gold displays a rather good oxidation activity. Additionally, silver, which is a weak BH4 - oxidation electrocatalyst, exhibits the best activity of all the studied materials towards the BH3OH3OH- direct oxidation. Finally, carbon-supported gold nanoparticles seem promising as anode material to be used in direct borohydride fuel cells

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Titration of Monoprotic Acids with Sodium Hydroxide Contaminated by Sodium Carbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the effects of using carbon dioxide contaminated sodium hydroxide solution as a titrant for a solution of a weak monoprotic acid and the resulting distortion of the titration curve in comparison to one obtained when an uncontaminated titrant is used. (CW)

Michalowski, Tadeusz

1988-01-01

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Two-compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis for splitting of sodium formate into formic acid and sodium hydroxide: Modelling  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work is to model the two-compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis for organic salts acidification. The salt studied is sodium formate which splits into formic acid and sodium hydroxide thanks to water splitting by bipolar membrane. The contamination of sodium hydroxide by formate ion is due to diffusion of molecular formic acid through the bipolar membrane and to leakage of formate ion through the same membrane under the applied current. The cation-exchange membrane does n...

Jaime-ferrer, Jesus Salvador; Couallier, Estelle; Viers, Philippe; Rakib, Mohammed

2008-01-01

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Laboratry evaluation of sodium hydroxide, sodium orthosilicate and sodium metasilicate as alkaline flooding agents for a western Canada reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of sodium hydroxide, sodium orthosilicate and sodium metasilicate solutions in oil recovery was evaluated in linear displacement tests using core samples and fluids from the Viking Kinsella Wainwright B Pool, Alberta. Emulsification and interfacial tension of the wellhead crude oil with alkaline solutions of varying concentrations were examined to select the alkaline formulation most suitable for linear displacement tests. These tests were carried out in rectangular core plugs cut from frozen core sample sections. Each plug was first waterflooded with formation (produced) brine and then resaturated with reservoir oil before a given alkaline solution was injected either continuously or as a slug. Results showed that, when up to 2 pore volumes (PV) of alkaline solution were injected, the largest amount of additional oil (14% initial oil saturation) was recovered by 0.3 wt% sodium hydroxide and 1.0 wt% sodium metasilicate. At higher pore volumes injected, the 0.3 wt% sodium hydroxide solution recovered much more additional oil (0.27% initial oil saturation) than any other solution. Oil recovery by 0.5 to 0.66 PV alkaline slugs of 0.3 wt% sodium hydroxide was poorer, suggesting that either the slug was too small or that the alkali concentration was too low. The results of the emulsification tests and interfacial tension measurements, in addition to alkali consumption data, suggest that all of the alkaline solutions used in the displacement tests would have performed in a similar manner. The differences observed in the oil recovery could be explained in terms of the mineral and/or structural heterogeneity of the reservoir rock. In addition, the effects of freezing of some of the samples in liquid nitrogen may have also played a role in the observed performance of the alkaline solutions. 23 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

Larrondo, L.E.; Urness, C.; Milosz, G.

1985-03-01

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Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Mechanical Property of Non Sodium Silicate Fly Ash Based Geopolymer  

OpenAIRE

Alkali activator and materials rich in Si and Al are the requirements for the geopolymer synthesis. The common activator use is sodium hydroxide with silicate solution. There is limited literature on the mechanical property of geopolymer in the absence of silicate solution. In this study, fly ash was used as the raw material to provide Si and Al and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the only activator for the synthesis of geopolymer. This study describes the effect of varying the sodium hydroxide co...

Abdul Rahim, R. H.; Azizli, K. A.; Man, Z.; Rahmiati, T.; Nuruddin, M. F.

2014-01-01

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Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1997-06-01

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ION RECOGNITION APPROACH TO VOLUME REDUCTION OF ALKALINE TANK WASTE BY SEPARATION AND RECYCLE OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM NITRATE  

Science.gov (United States)

A 3-year collaborative project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Bruce A. Moyer) and the University of North Texas (Prof. Alan P. Marchand) is proposed to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide and other predominant sodium salts such as sodium nitrate f...

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Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish  

OpenAIRE

The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provide...

Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

2012-01-01

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Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provided that the resulting total sodium concentration in feed does not compromise the overall electrolyte balance. Sodium hydroxide in solid form and in aqueous solution at concentrations > 8.0 % is corrosive. At lower concentrations it is irritant to skin and eyes (0.5 % and 0.2 %, respectively and the respiratory tract (0.5 %. Exposure via inhalation is likely to be minimal. Sodium hydroxide is not considered to be a skin sensitiser. As sodium hydroxide is used in food as an acidity regulator, and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2012-10-01

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Electrochemical behavior of lithium in lithium hydroxide solution with sodium nitrite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemical behavior of lithium in lithium hydroxide solution with sodium nitrite has been investigated in this paper. The results show that the hydrogen evolution rate decreases with increasing sodium nitrite concentration. Through potentiostatic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM), we found that the current efficiency keeps nearly unchanged with sodium nitrite introduction to the solutions. The porosity of the lithium surface film decreased due to the precipitation of LiOH promoted by sodium nitrite.

22

Recovery of sodium hydroxide and silica from zirconium oxide plant effluent of Nuclear Fuel Complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium hydroxide (lye) and silica can be recovered in pure form from the alkaline sodium silicate waste of Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Electrolytic method was used to amalgamate the sodium present in an electrolyser with flowing mercury as cathode and nickel as anode. The amalgam is then denuded with water in a graphite packed tower to recover mercury for recycling to the electrolyser and sodium hydroxide lye. Sodium hydroxide lye can be recycled in the zirconium oxide plant. Silica is recovered from the spent electrolyte by ion exchange method using cation exchange resin. Both the process details are described in this paper, with experimental data useful for the scale up. The process converts waste to value products. (author)

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Effect of sodium hydroxide on anionic surfactant distribution in a two-phase system based on TBP in n-dodecane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been made on the effects of sodium hydroxide on the distributions for the sodium salts of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA), di-n-butylphosphoric acid (DBPA), and lauric acid in a system composed of a 30% TBP solution in n-dodecane and aqueous sodium hydroxide. As the alkali concentration in the aqueous phase is reduced from 10 to 0.01 M, the distribution coefficients decrease for the anionic surfactants as well as TBP. Dilute sodium hydroxide solution thus enable one to remove extractant and diluent acid decomposition products from the organic phase, particularly ones having long alkyl chains, which tend to stabilize the emulsions in alkali-carbonate treatment. The distribution coefficients for these surfactants have appreciable effects on the type of stabilized emulsion. At 10 M alkali concentration, micellar aggregates are formed by sodium laurate in the organic phase

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Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina / Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitand [...] o seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3) tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm. Abstract in english The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to d [...] evelop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3) with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

Eduardo Rodrigues de, Lima; Ricardo Araújo, Oliveira; Miriam Carla Bonicontro, Ambrosio-Ugri; Sueli Teresa Davantel de, Barros; Carlos de, Barros Júnior.

2008-03-01

25

Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3 tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: press?o de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm.The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to develop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3 with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

Eduardo Rodrigues de Lima

2008-03-01

26

Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

27

The solubility of uranium(IV) hydrous oxide in sodium hydroxide solutions under reducing conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solubility of hydrous UO2 in sodium hydroxide solutions containing sodium dithionite and/or Zn metal powder as reductants has been measured. The results provide no firm evidence for any amphoteric behavior of U(IV) but do set an upper limit of K -23 for the hypothetical reaction: U4+(aq) + 5H2OU(OH)5- + 5H+. The results provide no evidence for such a reaction. (author)

28

Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Mechanical Property of Non Sodium Silicate Fly Ash Based Geopolymer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkali activator and materials rich in Si and Al are the requirements for the geopolymer synthesis. The common activator use is sodium hydroxide with silicate solution. There is limited literature on the mechanical property of geopolymer in the absence of silicate solution. In this study, fly ash was used as the raw material to provide Si and Al and sodium hydroxide (NaOH as the only activator for the synthesis of geopolymer. This study describes the effect of varying the sodium hydroxide concentration with respect to curing time and temperature on mechanical properties of non-sodium silicate fly ash based geopolymer. The samples were prepared by mixing fly ash with 8, 10 and 12 M of NaOH concentration and cured in room temperature and 60°C for 1, 7 and 28 days. The highest alkali concentration of 12 M showed the fastest setting time and the highest compressive strength regardless of days of curing. The highest compressive strength obtained for curing at 60°C was 59.81 MPa and 45 min was recorded for the setting time. Meanwhile, at room temperature, the highest strength obtained was 17.71 MPa and 248 min for setting time.

R.H. Abdul Rahim

2014-01-01

29

Effect of sodium hydroxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide on the composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wheat straw was treated with 5% sodium hydroxide, ozone, and 5% sulphur dioxide at 70 C for 72 h, and the effect of treatments on the composition and the in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) by rumen microorganisms was studied. Ozone and SO/sub 2/ solubilised most or all of the straw hemicellulose, converting it into cell solubles, whereas sodium hydroxide exerted a limited effect in this direction. The level of cell solubles increased from 31.8 to 48.2 and 52.2% and that of the reducing sugars from 2.2 to 15.6 and 24.3%, by ozone and SO/sub 2/ treatments, respectively. The IVOMD of straw was significantly increased by 80% (from 44 to 80%) with SO/sub 2/, whereas NaOH and ozone improved the IVOMD by only 50% (from 44 to 66%). The initial digestibility (ID at 6 h) suggested to represent substrate fermentability was significantly increased by SO/sub 2/ from 7.4 to 29.3%. In the present study, SO/sub 2/ was found to be the most efficient treatment for wheat straw in terms of overall degradability and fermentability. The technological advantage of the proposed treatment lies in the low moisture content (40%) and the moderate temperature required (70/sup 0/C), conditions which could be attained by solar systems. 19 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

Ben-Ghedalia, D.; Miron, J.

1981-01-01

30

Reactions of rare earth flourides with sodium carbonate and hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exchange interactions of sparingly soluble rare earth (RE) compounds such as fluorides, carbonates, and hydroxides in aqueous media are studied. The starting materials were fluorides of individual RE, obtained by precipitation with hydrofluoric acid from solutions of RE nitrates, which were prepared from the corresponding oxides of 99.9% and taken to the air-dry state, and also cp sodium carbonate and hydroxide. The solution compositions were determined by titration: NaOH and Na2CO3 with hydrochloric acid, and NaF with Th(NO3)4 solution. The equilibrium concentrations of NaF and naOH (or Na2CO3) in the systems studied at 90 degrees are given, which shows that in the La-Lu series the degree of conversion of RE fluorides into hydroxides increases, and into carbonates decreases

31

Potassium hydroxide 5% for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molluscum contagiosum is a common reason for consultation in primary care. The condition is normally benign and self-limiting1 and the standard advice is to wait for the lesions to resolve spontaneously.2 Recently, potassium hydroxide 5% (MolluDab-Alliance Pharmaceuticals Limited) has been marketed in the UK for the treatment of the condition.3 It is sold as a medical device rather than a licensed medicinal product. Here we consider the evidence for potassium hydroxide 5% in the management of molluscum contagiosum. PMID:25298120

2014-10-01

32

Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth  

OpenAIRE

Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root c...

Chawla H; Setia S; Gupta N; Gauba K; Goyal A

2008-01-01

33

Sodium oxide/hydroxide aerosol properties and behavior in a large vessel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two large-scale aerosol behavior tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) using sodium pool fires as the aerosol source. The purpose was to characterize the properties and behavior of sodium aerosol particles formed and aged in a large containment vessel. The results will be used as baseline data for comparison with follow-on air cleaning tests. The 20-m high, 850-m3 CSTF containment vessel is approximately half scale of a commercial reactor containment building for parameters which affect agglomeration and gravitational settling. Thus, the test air cleaning systems will be challenged with an aerosol closely representative of that postulated for LMFBR accidents. The results of these tests also offer an excellent opportunity to evaluate computer models which have been developed for the purpose of predicting aerosol behavior during hypothetical accidents in sodium cooled reactor containment spaces. The two tests differed only in that steam was injected in the second test to simulate the release of water vapor from heated concrete. The aerosol in the first test was a dry mixture of sodium peroxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. In the second test it was predominantly wet sodium hydroxide. The addition of water vapor caused more rapid fallout during the aerosol release period, but lower settling rates afterward. The net results was a 25% lower potential for aerosol leakage in the wet test. Detailed analyses of computer model test. Detailed analyses of computer model comparisons have not yet been performed, but preliminary HAA-3B code predictions were in good agreement with suspended mass concentration and the ratio of mass settled to plated on walls

34

Isotopic exchange between hydrogen-containing gases and melts of hydroxides and amides of potassium and sodium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coefficient of isotope separation between hydrogen and melts of potassium and sodium hydroxides, ammonia and melts of potassium and sodium amides (heterogeneous deuterium-prtium exchange). Experimental results agree well with theoretical calculations taking into account only intramolecular oscillations of OH- and NH2- ions. The isotopic exchange kinetics has been compared for various systems

35

Immobilization of heavy metals by asphalt-sulfur sodium hydroxide mixture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 50 million tons of municipal solid waste is incinerated annually in Japan. The resulting fly ash contains potentially toxic metals originally found in the wastes. A study was conducted to treat fly ash using an asphalt-sulphur-sodium hydroxide mixture. The main objective was to change the metals into metal sulfides to decrease their solubility and then to incorporate the dissoluble components into asphalt to repel water.Sodium sulfide, produced from the reaction, reacts with heavy metals to form metal sulfides insoluble in water. Adding dissoluble components in asphalt physically prevents the leaching of heavy metals from the treated ash. A biaxial kneader at 403 K was used to mix the samples before carrying out the dissolution test. Results indicate that the lead compounds present in the sample fly ash changed into lead sulfide. The amount of lead that was leached from the treated mixture passed Japan's standard for lead emissions which is 0.3 mg/L. It was concluded that this new immobilization method effectively stabilizes lead found in wastes such as fly ash. However, because sodium hydroxide is an expensive chemical, the amounts of additives will have to be optimized for practical use. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

Sawada, K.; Ozawa, S.; Matsuda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Research Center for Advanced Waste and Emission Management, Nagoya (Japan); Mizutani, M.; Matsubara, M.; Hidaka, S. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Central Research Laboratories, Chiba (Japan)

2000-07-01

36

The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.

Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran

2014-07-01

37

Simultaneous multiwavelength study of the reaction of phenolphthalein with sodium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

A photodiode array (PDA) spectrophotometer was used to study the fading reaction of phenolpthalein in dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The principal component analysis (PCA) method was employed to identify the number of light absorbing species in the kinetics system. The target factor analysis (TFA) procedure, coupled with the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfard-Shanno (BFGS) optimization method, was applied to the observed data to deduce the rate constants and the concentration-time profile of the reaction. The internal referencing method was shown to be essential in improving the quality of data obtained by a single beam PDA spectrophotomer. PMID:18924946

Tam, K Y; Chau, F T

1992-01-01

38

EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC. The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 hours and then kept in room temperature until the day of testing. Compressive strength test was carried out at the ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that concentration variation of sodium hydroxide had least effect on the fresh properties of SCGC. With the increase in sodium hydroxide concentration, the workability of fresh concrete was slightly reduced; however, the corresponding compressive strength was increased. Concrete samples with sodium hydroxide concentration of 12 M produced maximum compressive strength.

FAREED AHMED MEMON

2013-02-01

39

The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of sulfoaluminate compounds was investigated by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tricalcium aluminate/gypsum mixtures with a molar ratio of 1:1 sulfate-to-aluminate were hydrated at constant temperatures from 30 to 90°C; in de-ionized water, in 200mM and in 500mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Hydration in de-ionized water produced ettringite and monosulfate as the dominant crystalline phases, regardless of temperature. Complex assemblages of phases formed in 200mM and 500mM sodium hydroxide including ettringite, monosulfate and U-phase, at all temperatures. Hydration of monosulfate and gypsum was also carried out at constant temperatures from 30° to 80°C using de-ionized water and 0.2M, 0.5M, and 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Ettringite was found to be the dominant crystalline phase over the entire temperature range and at all sodium hydroxide concentrations. A sodium-substituted monosulfate phase was formed as a hydration product in the 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution regardless of temperature. Sulfoaluminate compounds formed by tricalcium aluminate hydration in magnesium sulfate solution were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydration was carried out in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions and isothermally at temperatures from 30 to 80°C. Monosulfate, ettringite, gypsum and a hydrogarnet phase (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O) were all observed as hydration products. Monosulfate and hydrogarnet were the only phases observed for hydration in 0.5 and 1.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Ettringite was the dominant crystalline phase after hydration in 3.0M solution, regardless of temperature. To investigate the rate of hydration, reactions at 60°C in 3.0M magnesium sulfate solution were quenched after 26 minutes, 73 minutes, 2.5 hours and 12 hours to establish the evolution of hydrated phases. Depending on hydration times ettringite, monosulfate, gypsum, hydrogarnet and residual tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80°C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50°C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (ettringite, and monosulfate were present at intermediate times. Monosulfate was the final crystalline hydration product. Amorphous solids produced include a calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

Clark, Boyd Arthur

40

Determination of trace amounts of tellurium in sodium hydroxide solution by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiochemical neutron activation analysis to determine tellurium in sodium hydroxide solution has been developed. Coprecipitation with Fe(OH)3 was applied to preconcentration of tellurium. After the irradiation the tellurium is separated by solvent extraction with 4-methyl-pentan-2-one (MIBK) and determined using 131Te isotope. The purification of iron carrier to be used for the coprecipitation and the separation efficiencies of principal elements in the chemical process of this method were studied. The result indicates that the method has a high sensitivity for the tellurium, and the detection limit is 0.04 ppb. The method is applicable to the non-radioactive tracer testing to measure the transfer of radiotellurium, a fission product, in the sodium coolant of the fast neutron reactor. (author)

41

Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident. PMID:25687345

Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

2015-05-01

42

EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC). The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48...

FAREED AHMED MEMON; MUHD FADHIL NURUDDIN; SADAQATULLAH KHAN; NASIR SHAFIQ; TEHMINA AYUB

2013-01-01

43

Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was characterised using Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established by mass and absorption spectroscopy. The sulphate form of green rust is composed of brucite-like layers with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in an ordered distribution. The interlayers contain sulphate, water and sodium in an arrangement characteristic for the nikischerite group. The crystal structure is highly disordered by slacking faults. The composition, formula and crystallographic parameters are: NaFe(II)(6)Fe(III)(3)(SO4)(2)(OH)(18)center dot 12H(2)O, space group P-3, a = 9.528(6) angstrom, c = 10.968(8) angstrom and Z = 1.Green rust sodium sulphate, GR(Na,SO4) crystallizes in thin, hexagonal plates. Particles range from less than 50 nm to 2 mu m in diameter and are 40 nm thick or less. The material is redox active and reaction rates are fast. Extremely small particle size and high surface area contribute to rapid oxidation, transforming green rust to an Fe(III)-phase within minutes.

Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.

2009-01-01

44

Sodium hydroxide-mediated hydrogel of citrus pectin for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots for bioimaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The citrus process industry produces annually a huge amount of pomace, which is a rich source of citrus pectin. Here, we report the hydrogel of citrus pectin mediated by sodium hydroxide can be used to prepare fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). The introduction of hydrogel can not only make the temperature of the hydrothermal reaction down to 100 °C, but also avoid visually carbonized precipitates in the synthesis process even up to 180 °C. The as-synthesized CDs are well dispersed in water with an average size of 2.7 nm and show cyan fluorescence with high photostability, good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the CDs can act as a potential fluorescent probe for cell imaging. Citrus pectin as a non-toxic carbonaceous precursor for preparation of fluorescent CDs provides a new approach for the efficient utilization of citrus germplasm in future. PMID:25448720

Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhang, Wen Lin; Zhou, Zhi Qin

2014-11-01

45

Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-06-01

46

Sodium hydroxide effect on anionic surfactants distribution in two-phase system based on TBP in n-dodecane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on distribution of sodium salts of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric (HDEMP), di-n-butyl phosphoric (DBP) and lauric acids in 30% TBP solution in the n-dodecane-sodium hydroxide aqueous solution system is investigated to improve tributyl phosphate (TBP) water washing technique during nuclear fuel extraction reprocessing. It is shown, that alkali concentration reduction in water phase from 10 to 0.01 mol/l results in decrease of distribution coefficients of the investigated anionic surfactants, and TBP as well. Thus, sodium hydroxide diluted solution usage allows to remove more effectively from the organic phase the decomposition products of extractant and deluent of acid nature with long alkyl chain, which are emulsion stabilizers at extractant alkali-carbonate processing. It is pointed out, that the investigated anionic surfactants distribution coefficients noticeably affect stabilized emulsion type. At 10 mol/l alkali concentration the formation of sodium salt of lauric acid micellar aggregates is noted in the organic phase

47

Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to evaluate neutralization capacity and buffering intensity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide; (3) to study the efficacy of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment processes; (4) to investigate whether and how the magnesium hydroxide influences the characteristics of the activated sludge floc; (5) to determine whether magnesium hydroxide improves the anaerobic sludge digestion process and associated mechanisms; and (6) to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the application of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide in wastewater treatment and the possibility of marketing this product. Research results to date show that the purity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide depends largely on the recovery hydroxide slurry. This product proved to be very effective for wastewater neutralization, compared with other commonly used chemicals, both for its neutralization capacity and its buffering intensity. Due to its relatively low solubility in water and its particle size distribution characteristics, magnesium hydroxide behaves like a weak base, which will be very beneficial for process control. The authors also found that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from the wastewater using magnesium hydroxide due to their complexation and precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Magnesium hydroxide also greatly enhanced the settleability of the activated sludge. Intensive research on the mechanisms associated with these phenomena reveals that sweep flocculation and magnesium ion bridging between exopolymeric substances (EPS) of the microorganisms are the major contributing factors. Extensive research on the effects of magnesium hydroxide on anaerobic sludge digestion is still underway.

Bishop, P.L.; Wu, Q.; Keener, T.; Zhuang, L.A.; Gurusamy, R.; Pehkonen, S.

1999-07-01

48

Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials  

OpenAIRE

This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

Efsa Panel On Food Contact Materials, Enzymes

2014-01-01

49

Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43 (Malaysia)

2014-09-03

50

Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

2014-09-01

51

Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber

52

Sodium Hydroxide (CAS No. 62-53-3 [Hidróxido de Sodio (CAS No. 62-53-3  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda, is an inorganic solid which provides an extremely important role for the manufacture of heavy chemical. This Arrhenius’ base is used for the production of textiles and paper, and participates as an input the manufacture of various products. This article presents a brief history of the production of caustic soda, describes in detail the electrolytic processes currently used for their production and, finally, shows how is the outlook for brazilian and worldwide production and consumption of this basis.

Illana Muniz Canto Brum da Silva

2012-03-01

53

SUCCESS RATE OF THE ENDODONTIC TREATMENT OF YOUNG PERMANENT TEETH WITH CALCIUM HYDROXIDE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of success rates of treatment of apical periodontitis with Calcium Hydroxide paste compared to the conventional method. The course of recovery was observed with 185 treated permanent teeth with either finished or unfinished root growth, of which 68 teeth fall within the control group. It is noted that the success rate of the group treated with Calcium Hydroxide is considerably higher (85% as opposed to 67%.

J. Vojinovi?

2010-08-01

54

SUCCESS RATE OF THE ENDODONTIC TREATMENT OF YOUNG PERMANENT TEETH WITH CALCIUM HYDROXIDE  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents a comparative analysis of success rates of treatment of apical periodontitis with Calcium Hydroxide paste compared to the conventional method. The course of recovery was observed with 185 treated permanent teeth with either finished or unfinished root growth, of which 68 teeth fall within the control group. It is noted that the success rate of the group treated with Calcium Hydroxide is considerably higher (85% as opposed to 67%).

Vojinovic?, J.; C?upic?, S.; Dolic?, O.; Mirjanic?, ?.; Sukara, S.; Obradovic?, M.

2010-01-01

55

Extração de amido em cavacos de bambu tratados com solução diluída de hidróxido de sódio / Starch extraction from bamboo chips treated with sodium hydroxide diluted solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Determinaram-se, em colmos de bambu (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.) de um e cinco anos, os teores de amido, a fração fibrosa e o resíduo parenquimatoso em função da concentração de hidróxido de sódio (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75%), do tempo de tratamento (5, 10 e 15 horas) e do tempo de desfibramento (30, 60 e 90 [...] segundos). 0 delineamento experimental utilizado foi um fatorial 3³. Pelos resultados, a concentração de hidróxido de sódio e o tempo de tratamento não influíram significativamente nos teores de amido, fração fibrosa e resíduo parenquimatoso. A maior quantidade de amido (75,22 g/kg) foi obtida em colmos de cinco anos no maior tempo de desfibramento (90 segundos). Com este estudo, demonstrou-se que a extração de amido é tecnicamente viável como um pré-tratamento de cavacos de Bambusa vuigaris, utilizados na produção de celulose e papel. Abstract in english In culms of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. (1 and 5 years old), the contents of starch fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were determined in function of sodium hydroxide solution concentration (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%), treatment time (5, 10 and 15 hours) and shredding time (30, 60 and 90 seconds). [...] The experimental trial was a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial. The results showed the contents of starch, fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were not affected by sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time. The highest starch quantity (75.22 g/kg) was obtained in the highest shredding time (90 seconds) from the 5 years bamboo culms. This study showed the starch extraction is feasible technically as a pre-treatment of the bamboo chips employed to produce pulp and paper.

Anisio, Azzini; Rose Marry Araújo, Gondim-Tomaz.

56

Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 ?g/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

2014-02-01

57

Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com hidróxido de sódio / Sugarcane bagasse treated with sodium hydroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (MS) do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar contendo 60% de MS submetido a doses crescentes de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) (0; 2,5; 5 e 7,5% de uma solução 2:1 de água:NaOH na MS) em diferentes [...] períodos de tratamento (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias). Foram utilizados baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10 L, mantidos em uma câmara climática à temperatura constante de 25ºC. Não foi verificado efeito dos tratamentos (dose de NaOH e dias de tratamento) sobre os teores de PB, que apresentaram valor médio de 1,6%. A MS aumentou com os dias de tratamento, não sendo observadas alterações para essa variável em relação às doses crescentes de NaOH. Foi observada redução das frações de FDN, FDA, celulose (CEL), hemicelulose (HEM) e lignina (LIG). A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) e o teor de sódio aumentaram quando o bagaço de cana foi submetido a doses crescentes de NaOH, mas não foi observado efeito do período de tratamento sobre essas variáveis. O valor nutritivo do bagaço de cana é melhorado com a adição de NaOH, comprovado pela redução nos constituintes da parede celular e pelo aumento na DIVMS. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sugar-cane bagasse containing 60% dry matter submited to increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% NaOH on a dry matter basis). NaOH was applied as a 2:1 [...] water:NaOH solution, over different treatment times (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). Plastic pails with 10 L capacity were utilized and stocked in climatic chamber at 25ºC constant temperature. The experimental treatments had no effect on the crude protein content of the sugar cane bagasse which averaged 1.6% CP. The dry matter content of the bagasse increased over of the days of treatment, without any effect of the NaOH solution concentration. Mean values for the bagasse neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents declined in response to NAOH solution concentration. NaOH treatment improved the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and sodium content of the bagasse. Time of treatment had no effect on these variables. The treatment of sugar cane bagasse with the NaOH solution improved its nutritive value in terms of its reduced cell wall constituents and increased IVDMD.

Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Ricardo Andrade, Reis; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Gustavo Rezende, Siqueira; Thiago Fernandes, Bernardes.

2006-06-01

58

Effects of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide of cell wall constituents and digestibility energy of some agricultural residues. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various doses of gamma irradiation (0,100,150,200 KGy) and different concentrations of sodium hydroxide on crude fibre (CF), Cell-wall constituents (NDF, ADF, ADL), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), gross energy (GE), in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (W.S) cotton seed shall (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (SB.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeeled seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that HaOH in the concentrations at (4 and 6%) had significant effects on the CF content of W.S and P.S, E.U.E, SB.S, C.S.S, O.C.E; respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaoH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the NDF level. Irradiation dose of 200 KGy decreased CF for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and SB.S. However, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S, P.S and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. The digestible energy values (kJ/Kg DM) increased by 1120,1 220, 2110 (W.S); 620, 830, 1000 for P.S; 240, 500, 580 for O.C.E; 500, 850, 870 for S.U.E; 550, 1060, 1200 for SB.S and 1260, 1710, 2070 for C.S.S using 100, 150, 200, KGy respectively, in comparison to unirradiated controls. Also, the IVDE values (Kj/Kg DM) increased by 560, 1050, 1590 for W.S; 310, 460, 650 for P.S; 170, 760, 1530 for C.S.S; 450, 990, 1190 for O.C.E using 2%, 4%, 6% NaOH respectively, in comparison to controls. No changes in the IVDE values for S.U.E and SB.S. Combined treatment resulted in an even better increase in the digestible energy, except S.U.E and SB.S. (Author). 37 refs., 22 tabs., 18 figs

59

Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions, was not different when comparing MCS, SHW and barley.

HymØller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

2014-01-01

60

Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions, was not different when comparing MCS, SHW and barley. PMID:24594308

Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

2014-05-01

61

SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

2011-09-20

62

Solidification Of The Hanford Law Waste Stream Produced As A Result Of Near-Tank Continuous Sludge Leaching And Sodium Hydroxide Recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) andsteam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of 2O7 also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Stone monolith

63

Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de soluções irrigadoras de canais radiculares contendo hidróxido de cálcio e lauril sulfato de sódio em linhagem de fibroblastos L929. Solução aquosa saturada de hidróxido de cálcio, lauril sulfato de sódio e HCT20 (lauril sulfato de sódio e hid [...] róxido de cálcio) foram diluídos em água destilada em concentrações de 50%, 20%, 10% e 5%. O grupo controle foi representado por meio de cultura de células (MEM - minimum essential medium). A citotoxicidade das soluções sobre os fibroblastos foi avaliada em 4 e 24 h de contato, pelo método do cromo radioativo. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Em todas as análises, o intervalo de confiança referente às médias entre os grupos foi estabelecido em 95%. As soluções saturadas de hidróxido de cálcio e o HCT20 apresentaram toxicidade nas concentrações de 50%. O lauril sulfato de sódio foi tóxico em todas as concentrações. As soluções de hidróxido de cálcio em concentrações menores que 50% apresentaram tolerância celular, assim como combinadas ao lauril sulfato de sódio. Tal comportamento não foi observado na solução pura de lauril sulfato de sódio em todas as concentrações. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calciu [...] m hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxicity of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution.

Sérgio Valmor, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Sodré, Barroso; Patrícia Alvarez, Ruiz.

64

Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology -- High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85 C and 60 C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100 C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85 C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

65

Doping magnesium hydroxide with sodium nitrate: a new approach to tune the dehydration reactivity of heat-storage materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermochemical energy storage (TES) provides a challenging approach for improving the efficiency of various energy systems. Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, is known as a suitable material for TES at temperature T>300 °C. In this work, the thermal decomposition of Mg(OH)2 in the absence and presence of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is investigated to adapt this material for TES at T300 °C in vapor atmosphere) than a pure Mg(OH)2; (3) the morphology of the dehydration product (MgO) dramatically changes. Differential scanning calorimetry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman) are used to study the observed effects and to elucidate possible ways the NaNO3 influences the Mg(OH)2 dehydration and morphology of the dehydration product. The mechanism involving a chemical interaction between the salt and the hydroxide accompanied by nitrate embedding into brucite layers is discussed. PMID:25333760

Shkatulov, Alexandr; Krieger, Tamara; Zaikovskii, Vladimir; Chesalov, Yurii; Aristov, Yuri

2014-11-26

66

Effects of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Aluminate on the Precipitation of Aluminum Containing Species in Tank Wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aluminisilicate deposit buildup experienced during the tank waste volume-reduction process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) required an evaporator to be shut down. Studies were conducted at 80 C to identify the insoluble aluminosilicate phase(s) and to determine the kinetics of their formation and transformation. These tests were carried out under conditions more similar to those that occur in HLW tanks and evaporators. Comparison of our results with those reported from the site show very similar trends. Initially, an amorphous phase precipitates followed by a zeolite phase that transforms to sodalite and which finally converts to cancrinite. Our results also show the expected trend of an increased rate of transformation into denser aluminosilicate phases (sodalite and cancrinite) with time and increasing hydroxide concentrations

67

Technology Readiness Evaluation For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regenration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

68

ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

2011-01-27

69

Root canal treatment of pulpless immature teeth using calcium hydroxide paste. Roentgenographic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcium hydroxide paste was used as a temporary dressing and the renewal was done each three months in the root treatment of immature teeth with open apex and necrotic pulps. Clinical and radiographic controls were made to observe foraminal closure. After that, the root canals were filled, employing the conventional technique with gutta-percha cones and zinc oxide eugenol cements. The calcium hydroxide paste was applied in the apical region before the root canal filling. The follow-up was done periodically and the cases have more than two years of control. (author)

70

Current Status on Development of Sodium Waste Treatment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of sodium as a coolant necessitates the development of special post-operation procedures for the treatment of waste sodium, sodium contaminated equipment, or other purposes. Only a few power and research reactors with sodium coolant have been constructed and operated worldwide. They are close to the end of their design lifetime and, in some cases, the decommissioning is in progress. Conducted by countries that have operational experience with sodium cooled fast reactor, R and D programmes are intended to provide a solid basis for design and operation of sodium waste processing facilities as well as for decommissioning planning. Sodium waste, which has been generated from the test facilities related to the sodium since the beginning of the 1990s, requires now the safe sodium treatment in Korea. Each work activity with sodium should be properly planned and managed to avoid potential chemical reactions or explosions with a high risk of consequent environmental contamination. Special procedures should be implemented for removing and processing bulk quantities of sodium and sodium residuals in internal spaces and on internal surfaces of equipment. The objective of the report is to provide researchers with technical information necessary for the design and construction of technological facilities for sodium waste treatment by reviewing the current state of technical developments for advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and hazards of a sodium waste treatment process. Based on these results, a future plan for development of a sodium waste treatment process can be established

71

Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root canal filling material from the root canals and the status of overpushed material, if any, as the tooth resorbed with the passage of time. At 6 months, endodontic treatment in 2 of the 25 teeth had failed and one tooth had exfoliated; the remaining 22 teeth were without any signs or symptoms. At the end of 2 years, 14 teeth could be evaluated; out of these 12 had physiologically exfoliated. It was observed that the rate of resorption of this new root canal obturating mixture was quite similar to the rate of physiologic root resorption in primary teeth. In three cases, where there was an overpush of the mixture, a gradual partial resorption was noted.

Chawla H

2008-06-01

72

Optimization of alkaline sulfite pretreatment and comparative study with sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of corn stover.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover was optimized. The influences of pretreatments on solid yield, delignification, and carbohydrate recovery under different pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of pretreatment was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and the total sugar yield. The optimum pretreatment conditions were obtained, as follows: the total titratable alkali (TTA) of 12%, liquid/solid ratio of 6:1, temperature of 140 °C, and holding time of 20 min. Under those conditions, the solid yield was 55.24%, and the removal of lignin was 82.68%. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan for pretreated corn stover were 85.38% and 70.36%, and the total sugar yield was 74.73% at cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g and ?-glucosidase loading of 10 IU/g for 48 h. Compared with sodium hydroxide pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 10.43%. Additionally, the corn stover pretreated under the optimum pretreatment conditions was beaten by PFI at 1500 revolutions. After beating, enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were 89.74% and 74.06%, and the total sugar yield was 78.58% at the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Compared with 1500 rpm of PFI beating after sodium pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 14.05%. PMID:25773993

Liu, Huan; Pang, Bo; Wang, Haisong; Li, Haiming; Lu, Jie; Niu, Meihong

2015-04-01

73

Split of sodium and sulfur in a Kraft mill and internal production of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide  

OpenAIRE

The removal of lignin in a Kraft pulp mill, with the aim to utilize the lignin as more value added green product than just firing lignin in black liquor, is possible with a LignoBoost plant. The LignoBoost plant uses sulfuric acid in the process and this results in an increased net input of sulfur to the pulp mills recovery cycle. The sodium/sulfur balance in a Kraft pulp mill is an important factor to be able to run a mill optimal. The increased input of sulfur into the mill when implementin...

Lundblad, Helena

2012-01-01

74

The possibilities of use of zeolite and hydroxide carrier in liquid radioactive waste treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The processes for treatment of liquid radioactive waste (ion exchange by resins, evaporation) presently used in nuclear power plants exhibit some disadvantages, like how exchange efficiency, production of large volume of solidified waste and poor physical integrity of the solidified waste. On the other hand, zeolite as ionic exchanger were believed to have some advantages in the radioactive waste treatment: high exchange capacity, high selectivity of particular zeolite to particular radioisotopes, good solidification with cement, good physical integrity of solidified waste products (zeolite/cement) etc. Therefore, the possibility of using zeolite and hydroxide carriers (scavengers) in the technology of liquid radioactive waste treatment has been investigated on the laboratory scale. For this purpose, real samples of primary coolant, liquid radioactive waste from waste hold-up tank, and evaporator bottom were treated in batch and/or continuously with zeolite and/or in different combinations with sorption on metallic hydroxides

75

Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with sodium lauryl sulfate as a sorbent for 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with nitrate anions (LDH-NO3) was synthesized, modified with the anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate, and applied for the removal of 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions. Modification of the as-synthesized Mg-Al layered double hydroxide was carried out at surfactant concentration of 0.01 M (the organo-LDH produced denoted LDH-NaLS). The as-synthesized and surfactant-intercalated LDHs were characterized by FT-IR and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The effect of some variables such as solution pH, contact time and sorbate concentration on removal of 152+154Eu was investigated. The kinetic data obtained were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model rather than the pseudo-first-order model. Intraparticle diffusion model showed that sorption of 152+154Eu proceed by intraparticle diffusion together with boundary layer diffusion. Experimental isotherm data were well described by Langmuir model. Organo-LDH was found to have higher capacity (156.45 mg g-1) for europium than the as-synthesized LDH-NO3 (119.56 mg g-1). Comparing LDHs capacities obtained for Eu(III) in the present work with other sorbents reported in literature indicated that LDHs have the highest capacities. Application of the developed process for removal of 152+154Eu(III) from radioactive process wastewaters was also studied ande process wastewaters was also studied and the obtained results revealed that these LDHs are promising materials for treatment of radioactive wastewaters. (author)

76

A basis for the development of new ammonia-water-sodium hydroxide absorption chillers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adding NaOH to ammonia/water improves the separation of ammonia in the generator and reduces both chiller driving temperature and rectification losses. In this paper the main disadvantages for the implementation of these new mixtures are addressed: a) few experimental data or reliable correlations of the fluid mixture properties exist; b) selection of an adequate system for separating the hydroxide; and c) evaluation of potential corrosion problems. Our results show that the separation of NaOH from an ammonia/water solution with a maximum approximate mass fraction of 0.05 (5% weight) is viable when reverse osmosis is used with membranes BW30 and SW30HR LE. Cycle simulation using experimental data to calculate the vapour-liquid equilibrium properties shows that the COP is approximately 20% higher than with a conventional ammonia/water chiller working under the same conditions and using a hydroxyl separation efficiency of 99% for NaOH, which is feasible according to the experimental tests. (author)

Steiu, Simona; Salavera, Daniel; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Mechanical Engineering, CREVER - Group of Applied Thermal Engineering, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

2009-06-15

77

Nonsurgical Treatment of Two Periapical Lesions with Calcium Hydroxide Using Two Different Vehicles  

OpenAIRE

Calcium hydroxide is used extensively as an intracanal medicament in endodontics for many years. It is used in various clinical situations such as to promote apexification, to repair perforation, to enhance healing of periapical lesions, to control root resorption, and to control exudation in teeth with persistent periapical inflammation. This paper presents a case report in which Ca(OH)2 was used as an intracanal medicament for treatment of periradicular lesions using two different vehicles ...

Dixit, Seema; Dixit, Ashutosh; Kumar, Pravin

2014-01-01

78

Experimental study of the crystallization of sodium hydroxide in a cold trap  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the crystallization mechanisms of sodium hydride, trapping efficiency measurements were made on an experimental cold trap, tubular in shape, containing a steel wool packing. For this purpose, the hydrogen content at the trap outlet was permanently measured using the pressure-gauge of a hydrogen-meter. The influence of various parameters on the purification mean efficiency was analysed. In particular, it would seem that the residence time has no influence, which would indicate a growth kinetics not limited by the diffusion stage. After being operated in selected operating conditions, the cold trap was dismantled. The direct inspection of the deposits as well as the scanning through samples using an electronic microscope made it possible to confirm that crystallization is dependent, in its initial phase, on a heterogeneous mechanism of nucleation on the packing threads. (orig.)

79

ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

2011-01-27

80

[Determination of total mass and morphology analysis of heavy metal in soil with potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide by ICP-AES].  

Science.gov (United States)

Blank soil was used as quality controlling samples, soil sample dealt by potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution was used as check sample, mixed acid HNO3-HF-HClO4 was chosen to nitrify soil samples, and plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) was used as detecting method. The authors determined the total metal mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the extracted and dealt soil samples, and determined the mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the three chemical morphologies, including acid extractable morphology, oxide associated morphology, and organics associated modality. The experimental results indicated that the different pH of potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution had obvious influence on the total mass of heavy metal and morphology transformation. Except for metal element Pb and Zn, the addition of different pH potassium dihydrogen phosphate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could accelerate the soil samples nitrification and the total mass determination of heavy metal in the soil samples. The potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could facilitate the acid extractable morphology of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb, oxidation associated morphology of As, Hg, Pb and Zn and the organic associated morphology transforming of As and Hg. At pH 5.8, the maximum acid extractable morphology contents of Cu and Hg were 2.180 and 0.632 mg x kg(-1), respectively; at pH 6.2, the maximal oxidation associated morphology content of Pb could achieve 27.792 mg x kg(-1); at pH 6.0, the maximum organic associated morphology content of heavy metal Hg was 4.715 mg x kg(-1). PMID:19271516

Qu, Jiao; Yuan, Xing; Cong, Qiao; Wang, Shuang

2008-11-01

81

Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

82

Effects of airborne-particle abrasion, sodium hydroxide anodization, and electrical discharge machining on porcelain adherence to cast commercially pure titanium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of airborne-particle abrasion (APA), sodium hydroxide anodization (SHA), and electrical discharge machining (EDM) on cast titanium surfaces and titanium-porcelain adhesion. Ninety titanium specimens were cast with pure titanium and the alpha-case layer was removed. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups. Ten specimens from each group were subjected to APA. SHA was applied to the second subgroups, and the remaining specimens were subjected to the EDM. For the control group, 10 specimens were cast using NiCr alloy and subjected to only APA. Surfaces were examined by using scanning electron microscope and a surface profilometer. Three titanium porcelains were fused on the titanium surfaces, whereas NiCr specimens were covered with conventional porcelain. Titanium-porcelain adhesion was characterized by a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed that the porcelain-metal bond strength of the control group was higher than that of the titanium-porcelain system (p EDM as surface treatment did not improve titanium-porcelain adhesion when compared to APA. PMID:17183560

Acar, Asli; Inan, Ozgür; Halkaci, Selçuk

2007-07-01

83

Electrodeposition of nano-structured nickel-21% tungsten alloy and evaluation of oxygen reduction reaction in a 1% sodium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nano-structured nickel-21 at.% tungsten alloys were electrodeposited onto the copper substrates from unstirred sulfate-citrate-chloride-bromide-sodium tungstate electrolyte at 60 deg. C. The maximum particle sizes of the deposits, as estimated from the atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively were 125, 75, and 100 nm. The Tafel plot for oxygen reduction reaction in oxygenated unstirred 1% sodium hydroxide solution showed a Tafel slope of 130 mV/decade. There were minor variations in the limiting current density with a change in the particle size

84

Multi-elemental determination of heavy elements in plastics using X-ray fluorescence after destruction of the polymer by molten sodium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper a method is proposed for the multielemental analysis of Sb(III), Ba, Cd, Cr(III), Hg, Pb and As(III) in plastics, using X-ray fluorescence after alkaline decomposition and preconcentration by (co)precipitation. The organic matrix is destroyed by decomposition with sodium hydroxide melted in a silver crucible by the open system technique, using sodium nitrate as auxiliary oxidant. The variables which influence preconcentration are optimized: Digestion time, pH, salinity, carrier and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and sodium rhodizonate (R) as precipitants. The calibration curves were linear up to 200 {mu}g of the element present, except for lead (150 {mu}g) antimony(III) (100 {mu}g) and barium (1000 {mu}g). The proposed method has been applied to several different industrial plastics. The procedure is quick and leads to results comparable with those obtained when using a recommended decomposition for each element separately. (orig.).

Peris Martinez, V.; Bosch Reig, F.; Gimeno Adelantado, J.V.; Domenech Carbo, M.T. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

1992-03-01

85

Multi-elemental determination of heavy elements in plastics using X-ray fluorescence after destruction of the polymer by molten sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a method is proposed for the multielemental analysis of Sb(III), Ba, Cd, Cr(III), Hg, Pb and As(III) in plastics, using X-ray fluorescence after alkaline decomposition and preconcentration by (co)precipitation. The organic matrix is destroyed by decomposition with sodium hydroxide melted in a silver crucible by the open system technique, using sodium nitrate as auxiliary oxidant. The variables which influence preconcentration are optimized: Digestion time, pH, salinity, carrier and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and sodium rhodizonate (R) as precipitants. The calibration curves were linear up to 200 ?g of the element present, except for lead (150 ?g) antimony(III) (100 ?g) and barium (1000 ?g). The proposed method has been applied to several different industrial plastics. The procedure is quick and leads to results comparable with those obtained when using a recommended decomposition for each element separately. (orig.)

86

Overextension of Nonsetting Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontic Treatment: Literature Review and Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: Premixed non-setting calcium hydroxide (CaOH2) paste in pressure syringe system is commonly used in root canal therapy. The aim of this paper is to present a case involving an iatrogenic extrusion of the medicament during endodontic treatment and a literature review of similar reports. The present case demonstrates severe tissue necrosis and other deleterious effects following the extrusion of CaOH2 paste beyond root apex. A 21-year old female was referred for endodontic treatment o...

Arash Shahravan; Shahrzad Jalali; Behrooz Mozaffari; Nasim Pourdamghan

2012-01-01

87

Accumulation of experiences and knowledge for sodium cleaning treatment technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In O-arai Research and Development Center/JAEA, lots of sodium test facilities had been constructed and lots of tests using sodium had been carried out for the development of sodium component systems, the evaluation of sodium environmental effect for structural materials and the development of sodium technologies for the experimental reactor JOYO and the prototype reactor MONJU. As the first stage of research and development came to an end for these reactors, those sodium test facilities were dismantled and attached sodium was cleaned. Thus lots of experiences and knowledge of sodium cleaning treatment technologies has accumulated. In order to use those experiences and knowledge effectively for future maintenance and repair sodium technology and research on the next generation fast reactors, those of sodium cleaning treatment technologies for typical systems and components have been evaluated and knowledge related important topics has been rearranged. Based on those evaluation and rearrangement, technical guidelines of sodium cleaning treatment are proposed for the purpose of effective reference of the past experiences and knowledge. (author)

88

Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs

89

Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

90

Heat capacities of aqueous sodium hydroxide/aluminate mixtures and prediction of the solubility constant of boehmite up to 300 °C  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified commercial (Setaram C80) calorimeter has been used to measure the isobaric volumetric heat capacities of concentrated alkaline sodium aluminate solutions at ionic strengths from 1 to 6 mol kg -1, with up to 40 mol.% substitution of hydroxide by aluminate, at temperatures from 50 to 300 °C and a pressure of 10 MPa. Apparent molar heat capacities for the mixtures, C p?, derived from these data were found to depend linearly on the aluminate substitution level, i.e., they followed Young's rule. These quantities were used to estimate the apparent molar heat capacities of pure, hypothetical sodium aluminate solutions, C p? ('NaAl(OH) 4'(aq)). Slopes of the Young's rule plots were invariant with ionic strength at a given temperature but depended linearly on temperature. The heat capacities of ternary aqueous sodium hydroxide/aluminate mixtures could therefore be modelled using only two parameters in addition to those needed for the correlation of C p? (NaOH(aq)) reported previously from these laboratories. An assessment of the standard thermodynamic quantities for boehmite, gibbsite and the aluminate ion yielded a set of recommended values that, together with the present heat capacity data, accurately predicts the solubility of gibbsite and boehmite at temperatures up to 300 °C.

Schrödle, Simon; Königsberger, Erich; May, Peter M.; Hefter, Glenn

2010-04-01

91

A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection [...] and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE: A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS: Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. Result: In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION: Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

Caio Lamunier de Abreu, Camargo; Walter, Belda Junior; Luiz Jorge, Fagundes; Ricardo, Romiti.

2014-04-01

92

Controlling the pH of acid cheese whey in a two-stage anaerobic digester with sodium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. The biogas, as an energy source, could be used to reduce the consumption of traditional fuels in the cheese plant. However, as a result of little or no buffering capacity of whey, the pH of the anaerobic digester drops drastically and the process is inhibited. In this study, the effect of controlling the pH of the second chamber of a two-stage, 150 L anaerobic digester operating on cheese whey on the quality and quantity of biogas and the pollution potential reduction, was investigated using sodium hydroxide. The digester was operated at a temperature of 35 C and a hydraulic retention time of 15 days for three runs (no pH control, pH control with no reseeding, and ph control with reseeding) each lasting 50 days. The results indicated that operating the digester without pH control resulted in a low pH (3.3) which inhibited the methanogenic bacteria. The inhibition was irreversible and the digester did not recover (no methane production) when the pH was restored to 7.0 without reseeding, as the observed increased gas production was a false indication of recovery because the gas was mainly carbon dioxide. The addition of base resulted in a total alkalinity of 12,000 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}. When the system was reseeded and the pH controlled, the total volatile acid concentration was 15,100 mg/L (as acetic acid), with acetic (28%), propionic (21%), butyric (25%), valeric (8%), and caproic (15%) acids as the major constituents. The biogas production was 62.6 L/d (0.84 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d) and the methane content was 60.7%. Reductions of 27.3, 30.4 and 23.3% in the total solids, chemical oxygen demand and total kjeldahl nitrogen were obtained, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen content increased significantly (140%).

Ghaly, A.E.; Ramkumar, D.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Biological Engineering Dept.

1999-07-01

93

Controlling the pH of acid cheese whey in a two-stage anaerobic digester with sodium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. The biogas, as an energy source, could be used to reduce the consumption of traditional fuels in the cheese plant. However, as a result of little or no buffering capacity of whey, the pH of the anaerobic digester drops drastically and the process is inhibited. In this study, the effect of controlling the pH of the second chamber of a two-stage, 150 L anaerobic digester operating on cheese whey on the quality and quantity of biogas and the pollution potential reduction, was investigated using sodium hydroxide. The digester was operated at a temperature of 35 C and a hydraulic retention time of 15 days for three runs (no pH control, pH control with no reseeding, and pH control with reseeding) each lasting 50 days. The results indicated that operating the digester without pH control resulted in a low pH (3.3) which inhibited the methanogenic bacteria. The inhibition was irreversible and the digester did not recover (no methane production) when the pH was restored to 7.0 without reseeding, as the observed increased gas production was a false indication of recovery because the gas was mainly carbon dioxide. The addition of base resulted in a total alkalinity of 12,000 mg L as CaCO{sub 3}. When the system was reseeded and the pH controlled, the total volatile acid concentration was 15,100 mg L (as acetic acid), with acetic (28 %), propionic (21%), butyric (25%), valeric (8%), and caproic (15%) acids as the major constituents. The biogas production was 62.6 L d (0.84m{sup 3}m{sup 3} d) and the methane content was 60.7%. Reductions of 27.3, 30.4 and 23.3 % in the total solids, chemical oxygen demand and total Kjeldahl nitrogen were obtained, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen content increased significantly (140%). (author)

Ghaly, A.E.; Ramkumar, D.R.

1999-07-01

94

Simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by sodium hydroxide solution in a packed bed and studying the effect of operating parameters on absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In this study. simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by Sodium Hydroxide solution in a packed bed has been investigated. At first, mass and energy balances were applied around a differential height of the bed. So, the governing equations were obtained. Surface renewal theory by Danckwerts was used to represent the mass transfer operation Finally, by changing the operating parameters like solvent temperature, inlet gas composition pressure and height of the bed, the effect of these parameters on the absorption and the composition of carbon dioxide in exit stream have been investigated. (authors)

95

Treatment of rheumatoid synovitis of the knee with intraarticular injection of dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred eight knees of 93 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and persistent synovitis of the knee were treated with an intraarticular injection of 270 mCi of dysprosium 165 bound to ferric hydroxide macroaggregate. Leakage of radioactivity from the injected joint was minimal. Mean leakage to the venous blood 3 hours after injection was 0.11% of the injected dose; this corresponds to a mean whole body dose of 0.2 rads. Mean leakage to the liver 24 hours after injection was 0.64% of the injected dose; this corresponds to a mean liver dose of 3.2 rads. In 7 additional patients examined, there was negligible or near negligible activity found in the draining inguinal lymph nodes. One-year followup was possible for 74 knees (63 patients). Sixty-one percent of the knees had good results, 23% had fair results, and 16% had poor results. There was a direct correlation between the radiographic stage and response to treatment. In knees with stage I radiographic changes, 72% showed good results; 93% showed improvement. In knees with stage II changes, 59% showed good results; 81% showed improvement. These preliminary results indicate that dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregate is an effective agent for radiation synovectomy. The low leakage rates observed offer a definite advantage over agents previously used

96

Loss of sight caused by calcium hydroxide paste accidentally splashed into the eye during endodontic treatment: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium hydroxide, widely used in endodontic treatment, is a strong base that may cause irreversible injury to vital tissue that comes into contact with this substance. We present the first case of a dentist who accidentally splashed endodontic calcium hydroxide into her own eye. After washing with copious amounts of water for several minutes, she was treated in the hospital within 30 minutes of the accident. Because of the burning caused by the base solution, the dentist lost vision in the affected eye. She returned to the hospital several times for treatment of a corneal abscess and corneal fungal infection. She had the keloid that formed between the eyeball and eyelid removed 3 times. Calcium hydroxide can cause blindness when it comes into contact with the eye. Clinicians should take adequate precautions to prevent this serious complication. In case of an accident, it is important to wash the eye efficiently. PMID:24195193

Lipski, Mariusz; Buczkowska-Radli?ska, Jadwiga; Góra, Monika

2013-06-01

97

Endodontic treatment for necrotic immature permanent teeth using MTA and calcium hydroxide. A retrospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic treatment of young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp has been a challenge for the dentist. It is necessary to induce the formation of apical barrier (apical plug, enabling the complete root canal filling. Objective: This retrospective clinical study compared the protocols for treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation, using calcium hydroxide (CH or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Material and methods: 28 patients with incomplete root formation have undergone root canal treatments in the period from 2000 to 2009 were selected. The procedures for cleaning, shaping and intracanal medication (CH paste were performed in a standardized manner. In 13 patients, after using the CH paste (14 days, apical plugs with MTA were made. In the remaining 15 teeth monthly exchanges with CH paste were executed until it was observed radiographically the formation of the apical barrier. In all cases the canals were filled conventionally with gutta-percha and sealer. Initially, follow-ups were made on a quarterly and semiannually at the end of first year. Results: All apical lesions showed apical healing between 4 and 13 months after starting treatment. There was not noted the continuing process of root formation. Conclusion: It was concluded that the treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp with the use of MTA as apical plug has the same clinical results compared with the use of CH, with the advantage of less clinical time.

Fabio de Almeida Gomes

2013-06-01

98

Radioactive sodium waste treatment and conditioning. Review of main aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication reviews the main aspects relating to the treatment and conditioning of radioactive sodium waste. This waste arises from the operation of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). In this type of reactor, sodium (Na) or sodium-potassium alloys (NaK) are used as a low-effect neutron moderating coolant medium for extracting and transferring thermal energy from the core and they represent a significant technical and safety challenge during operation and decommissioning. This publication provides the reader with technologically oriented information on the present status of sodium waste management approaches and recent achievements related to treatment and conditioning, with the objective of facilitating planning and preparatory work for the decommissioning of LMFRs. This publication provides a comprehensive review of the hazards associated with sodium waste management. Given the large quantities of sodium waste arising during decommissioning or reactor refurbishment, as well as the challenges and varied techniques associated with removal of 100% of all sodium and NaK bulk quantities and residues during decommissioning, a hazards review and analysis is a critical component in planning the dismantling and waste management activities. Roughly half of this publication focuses on sodium waste generating, handling and treatment processes. This includes draining sodium and NaK from plant systems; in situ treatment of residual sodium; cutting techniques for pumps, valves, piping and other components; cleaning of components; potential reuse of sodium; and removal of selected radionuclides from sodium waste with the objective of reducing the waste classification or converting it to exempt waste. The focus is on proven techniques and technologies, and each discussed method includes a review of the associated principle or theory, practical applications, advantages and disadvantages, limitations, industry experience, and final waste products. A review is provided of final management practices for treated sodium and NaK wastes, including conditioning of radioactive sodium waste and subsequent storage/disposal considerations. The review of conditioning practices includes those designed for the nuclear industry, as well as industrial conditioning technologies which are directly applicable or readily adaptable to nuclear applications. This review includes both successes, failures, and failure analysis. Throughout this publication, emphasis is placed on industry experience and application of sodium and NaK and industry experience with the techniques and technologies used to manage sodium waste. Reactor-specific examples are abundant and include both successes and failures. Throughout the publication, the emphasis is on proven methodologies, including their advantages, disadvantages, limitations and hazards. In fact, sodium-related hazards and associated safety considerations are extensively annotated throughout. This publication can be used most effectively during the planning stages for sodium and NaK removal and treatment activities, including in situ treatment for the purpose of conversion to non-reactive species (e.g. salts, acids). Once radioactive sodium waste or sodium-contaminated components are removed for disposition, this publication is best used as a review of conditioning and dispositioning options, as well as for developing the associated waste management plan. With regard to planning in general, this publication is especially useful in identifying the potential hazards and hazard mitigation considerations at each stage of the removal, treatment, handling and conditioning activities

99

3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT) on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic [...] techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr), and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp). It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

P.D. Reena, Kumari; Jagannath, Nayak; A. Nityananda, Shetty.

2011-11-01

100

Precipitation of the rare earth double sodium and rare earths from the sulfuric liquor and the conversion into rare earth hydroxides through meta ethic reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents the purification study of the rare earths through precipitation of rare earth and sodium (Na TR (SO4)2. x H2O)) double sulfate and his conversion to rare earths hydroxide TR(OH)3 by meta ethic reaction through the addition of sodium hydroxide solution to the solid double sulfate. The study used the sulfuric liquor as rare earth sample, generated in the chemical processing of the monazite with sulfuric acid by the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB, Brazil, after the thorium and uranium extraction. The work investigated the influence of the main variables involved in the precipitation of Na TR(SO4)2.xH2O and in the conversion for the TR(OH)3, as follows: type and excess of the precipitation agent, temperature and time reaction. The obtained solid composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared and chemical analysis. The double sulfate diffractogram indicated the Na TR(SO4)2 mono-hydrated. The characterization of the metatese products has shown that, for obtaining the complete conversion of NaTR(SO4)2.H2O into TR(OH)3, the reaction must be hot processed (?70 deg C) and with small excess of Na OH (? 5 percent). (author)

101

Treatment of gaseous hydrogen chloride using Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with carbonate ion.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is important to treat gaseous HCl from incineration streams efficiently to avoid adverse environmental consequences. In this paper, a new treatment method for gaseous HCl is presented-the application of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with CO(3)(2-) (CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH) to treat gaseous HCl continuously. The degree of HCl removal without water vapor is higher than that with water vapor; further, this reaction does not require H(2)O. In addition, the degree of HCl removal increases with increasing temperature, CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH quantity, HCl concentration, and improved contact between CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH and HCl gas. The treatment of HCl gas by CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH leads to the production of Mg-Al LDH intercalated with Cl(-). Further, HCl is also absorbed on the surface of CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH. Our proposed treatment method works effectively for the treatment of gaseous HCl from incinerator streams. PMID:20800264

Kameda, Tomohito; Uchiyama, Naoya; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

2010-10-01

102

[Effects of the treatment of coffee pulp, fresh or ensilaged, with calcium hydroxide, on its nutritive value].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to determine the effects of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the chemical composition and nutritive value of fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp. Fresh or ensilaged pulp were mixed with 1, 2 and 3% of calcium hydroxide. The process was carried out during 0 and 16 hr, after which time the treated pulp was sun-dried for 36 hr until moisture content reached 12%. These samples were then analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and for some minerals (Ca, P, Na, K), as well as for caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids content. Diets were then prepared from these materials, containing 15% protein and 15 or 30% fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp, and offered to weanling rats during six weeks. Information required on weight gain, food conversion, apparent digestibility and toxicity of the diets was recorded. Results of the chemical analysis revealed that the main changes found in both types of pulp as a result of the calcium hydroxide treatment were the following: a decrease in ether extract (from 4.0 to 2.5 g/100 g), crude fiber (from 18.3 to 11.9 g/100 g) and protein content (from 12.3 to 8.6 g/100 g) in an inverse relation to the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The amount of ash increased, fluctuated between 5.5 and 15.4%, depending on the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The latter affected the Ca:P ratio in the diets, where an average ratio of 7.2:1 was found in the control pulp (0% calcium hydroxide) and 59.0:1 in those treated with the highest amount of calcium hydroxide (3%). Regarding the caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids contents, calcium hydroxide was effective in decreasing only tannins, more so in the fresh than in the ensilaged pulp; the decrease was in direct proportion to the amount of calcium hydroxide added and to the length of the Ca(OH)2 treatment. The results of the biological assays showed that the addition of Ca(OH)2 in either of the two time periods used and at either of the concentrations studied, did not improve the nutritive value of coffee pulp. There was always a better performance in the animals that consumed ensilaged pulp than in those fed fresh pulp. The animals fed 15% coffee pulp either fresh or ensilaged performed better than those consuming 30% coffee pulp.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3256286

Gómez-Brenes, R; Bendaña, G; González, J M; Jarquín, R; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

1988-03-01

103

The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na2O and NaH. The most important contaminant is 137Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide

104

The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na{sub 2}O and NaH. The most important contaminant is {sup 137}Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide.

Van Alsenoy, V; Rahier, A.

1996-07-01

105

Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leaching tests, and extractions with oxalate and weak hydrochloric acid. It was found that at 600 and 900 °C the iron oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat treatment caused a part of the metals bound in the oxides to be released, thus increasing metals leachability by 1-2 orders of magnitude depending on the metal. Pb and Cd were released in particularly significant concentrations, suggesting less incorporation into the iron oxides after heat-induced transformation. For Pb, this transformation of the chemical state of the bound metal was clearly supported by the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies. A fraction of the bound Cr remained stable even after treatment at the highest temperature used in the study. It was concluded that the heat treatment of iron oxides may be advantageous to improve the thermodynamic stability of the product but that thermal treatment at both 600 and 900 °C significantly reduced the binding capacity for heavy metals.

SØrensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.

2000-01-01

106

Sodium valproate and clonazepam for treatment-resistant panic disorder.  

OpenAIRE

Sodium valproate (VA) and clonazepam (CLZ) were combined in the treatment of 4 patients with panic disorders (PD) who were resistant to several antipanic drug treatments. A significant improvement was found in the symptomatology of these patients, but relapses occurred when CLZ dosage was reduced. A potentiation of the GABAergic properties of VA and clonazepam is postulated. This combined treatment could be advantageous for some treatment-resistant PD patients but needs to be studied further.

Ontiveros, A.; Fontaine, R.

1992-01-01

107

Overextension of Nonsetting Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontic Treatment: Literature Review and Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Premixed non-setting calcium hydroxide (CaOH2 paste in pressure syringe system is commonly used in root canal therapy. The aim of this paper is to present a case involving an iatrogenic extrusion of the medicament during endodontic treatment and a literature review of similar reports. The present case demonstrates severe tissue necrosis and other deleterious effects following the extrusion of CaOH2 paste beyond root apex. A 21-year old female was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first premolar. After completion of the canal preparation, root canals were filled by premixed CaOH2 paste. In the second appointment, a gingival detachment and an irregular zone of necrosis adjacent to the tooth apex was observed. To treat this complication, a mucoperiosteal flap was raised and the extruded material and necrotic tissues were currettaged and the area sutured. The patient was prescribed antibiotics and followed up at 2 weeks, 6 months and 2 years. Two week follow up showed good soft tissue healing. Two years postoperatively, complete radiographic and clinical healing was observed. We can conclude that the application of CaOH2 should be carried out with care and preferably applied free hand or with a lentulo spiral rather than in a pressure syringe.

Arash Shahravan

2012-05-01

108

Treatment with coated layer double hydroxide clays decreases the toxicity of copper-contaminated water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper is a common pollutant found in watersheds that exerts toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are able to adsorb a wide range of contaminants through ion-exchange mechanisms. Coating LDH clays with various materials alters the aggregation of clay particles into the nano-size range, thus increasing relative surface area and offering great potential for contaminant remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment with coated LDH clays decreases the toxicity of copper-containing solutions to Daphnia magna. Four LDH clays with different coatings used to alter hydrophobicity were as follows: used: Na(+) montmorillonite, Zn-Al LDH-nitrate, Zn-Al LDH-stearate, and Zn-Al LDH-carbonate. It was determined that coated LDH clays decreased copper toxicity by decreasing bioavailability and that smaller aggregate sizes decreased bioavailability the most. 96 h LC50 values increased by as much as 4.2 times with the treatment of the solutions with 100 mg/L LDH clay. Copper analysis of the clay and solutions indicated that the clays work by decreasing copper bioavailability by way of a binding mechanism. Coated LDH clays hold promise as a small-scale remediation tool or as an innovative tool for toxicity identification and evaluation characterization of metals. PMID:24442186

Blake, Deanne; Nar, Mangesh; D'Souza, Nandika Anne; Glenn, J Brad; Klaine, Stephen J; Roberts, Aaron P

2014-05-01

109

The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated into a 35% improvement in growth rate (40, 36 g/day versus 26, 29 g/day). Calcium hydroxide alone did not improve the feeding value of Albizia. These data highlight the danger of assuming an assayable reduction in tannin, such as that observed in the calcium hydroxide treatment, will translate into an improvement in nutritive value and subsequent animal performance. Since the performance of the goats improved maximally when PEG was added to the calcium hydroxide-treated Albizia it was clear that the tannins were still as active as in the untreated Albizia. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide does not deactivate the tannins in Albizia. (author)

Alam, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)]. E-mail: mralam@royalten.net.bd; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh); McNeill, D.M. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)

2005-08-19

110

The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th wbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated into a 35% improvement in growth rate (40, 36 g/day versus 26, 29 g/day). Calcium hydroxide alone did not improve the feeding value of Albizia. These data highlight the danger of assuming an assayable reduction in tannin, such as that observed in the calcium hydroxide treatment, will translate into an improvement in nutritive value and subsequent animal performance. Since the performance of the goats improved maximally when PEG was added to the calcium hydroxide-treated Albizia it was clear that the tannins were still as active as in the untreated Albizia. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide does not deactivate the tannins in Albizia. (author)

111

Immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis and abscess treated by regenerative endodontic treatment using calcium hydroxide and MTA: a report of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regenerative endodontic techniques have been introduced to overcome the limits of the traditional apexification approach and allow continued root development after treatment of infected immature permanent teeth. The purpose of this report was to describe two cases with severe apical periodontitis and abscess that were successfully treated by regenerative endodontic treatment using calcium hydroxide. The report involves treatment of two patients who developed apical periodontitis and abscesses on their immature premolars affected by dens evaginatus. Regenerative endodontic treatment was performed using calcium hydroxide. The treatment procedures have been shown to result in increased thickening of root walls and encourage continued root development. Different outcomes were observed when calcium hydroxide was placed past and within the coronal half of the canal. Calcium hydroxide can be used as an effective medicament in regenerative endodontic technique, and successful regeneration can be expected even in severe cases of apical periodontitis or abscess. PMID:24960380

Park, Mirae; Ahn, Byung Duk

2014-01-01

112

Carboxylate-intercalated layered double hydroxides aged under microwave-hydrothermal treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carboxylate-intercalated (terephthalate, TA and oxalate, ox) layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are aged under a microwave-hydrothermal treatment. The influence of the nature of the interlayer anion during the ageing process is studied. Characterization results show that the microwave-hydrothermal method can be extended to synthesize LDHs with anions different than carbonate, like TA. LDH-TA compounds are stable under microwave irradiation for increasing periods of time and the solids show an improved order both in the layers and in the interlayer region as evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), 27Al MAS NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, cleaning of the surface through removal of some organic species adsorbed on the surface of the particles also occurs during the microwave-hydrothermal treatment. Conversely, although the expected increase in crystallinity is observed in LDH-ox samples, the side-reaction between Al3+ and ox is also enhanced under microwave irradiation, and a partial destruction of the structure takes place with an increase in the M2+/M3+ ratio and consequent modification of the cell parameters. - Graphical Abstract: The influence of the nature of the interlayer anion during the ageing process of carboxylate-intercalated (TA and ox) hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) is studied. Well crystallized for TA-containing compounds were obtained. However, the non-desired side-reaction of ox with the alumidesired side-reaction of ox with the aluminum of the layers is enhanced by the microwaves and a partial destruction of the structure takes place

113

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

2003-06-01

114

Magnesium Hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

115

Aluminum Hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

116

FINAL REPORT. ION RECOGNITION APPROACH TO VOLUME REDUCTION OF ALKALINE TANK WASTE BY SEPARATION AND RECYCLE OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM NITRATE  

Science.gov (United States)

This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk redu...

117

Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

Barnes, C.M.

2000-10-30

118

Sodium hyaluronate eyedrops in the treatment of dry eyes.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND--Several studies in the past have attempted to demonstrate the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eyes. However, results have been conflicting and a definite conclusion has not yet been reached. This study recruited a larger group of patients and has incorporated for the first time both fluorescein and rose bengal staining in the evaluation of the epithelium. METHODS--Eighteen albino rabbit corneas were used in a basic animal study to demonstrate the efficacy of...

Shimmura, S.; Ono, M.; Shinozaki, K.; Toda, I.; Takamura, E.; Mashima, Y.; Tsubota, K.

1995-01-01

119

Treatment of low-level radioactive liquid waste with uranium using sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes a decontamination method of acid solutions containing UO2Cl2. The precipitation of uranium is obtained with NaOH addition to the radwaste solution at ambient temperature. From the experimental data obtained it was observed that in the pH about 4,0 a greater quantify of uranium was precipitated and in pH above 4,0 the precitate was partially solubilized. Nowadays, we study the influence of pH and temperature on the precitation of uranium VI in radwaste solutions with NaOH as well as the compounds obtained in the various stages. This method showed a decontamination factor of about 94,7% and, as a whole, it is viable. (Author)

120

Nonsurgical treatment of periapical lesion associated with type III dens invaginatus using calcium hydroxide: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth, probably resulting from an infolding of the papilla during tooth development. It predisposes the tooth to develop caries and periapical pathosis. Root canal therapy may present many problems because of the complex anatomy of the teeth. The purpose of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of an Oehlers type III dens invaginatus that perforated into the apical area. Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with normal saline, was used as an intracanal medicament. This eradicated the pathogenic microorganisms in the invagination and preserved the vitality of the tooth, allowing gutta-percha obturation in the invagination.

Kalaskar R

2008-10-01

121

Comparison of the Sodium Hydroxide Specimen Processing Method with the C18-Carboxypropylbetaine Specimen Processing Method Using Independent Specimens with Auramine Smear, the MB/BacT Liquid Culture System, and the COBAS AMPLICOR MTB Test  

OpenAIRE

A study was performed to diagnose tuberculosis by smear, culture, and nucleic acid amplification. The study was comprised of two independent arms. Each arm used a different specimen processing method; in one arm, all specimens were processed with N-acetyl-l-cysteine-sodium hydroxide, and in the other arm, all specimens were processed with C18-carboxypropylbetaine and lytic enzymes. In each arm, all processed sediments were split for analysis by auramine smear, by culture using the MB/BacT liq...

Padilla, Eduardo; Manterola, Jose? M.; Gonza?lez, Victoria; Thornton, Charles G.; Quesada, M. Dolores; Sa?nchez, M. Dolores; Pe?rez, Miguel; Ausina, Vicente

2005-01-01

122

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

2004-07-01

123

[Use of calcium hydroxide in the treatment of pulpitis by extirpation under analgesia].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study included 48 cases of pulpitis grade II of one-root teeth in 42 patients of either sex aged 21-35 years treated by pulp extirpation under analgesia with immediate filling of canals. In 28 teeth Biopulp was used as an intercalated substance between the periapical tissues and the material filling the canal. The control group comprised 20 teeth filled only with Endomethasone paste. The observations made immediately after filling and clinical-radiological control examination after from 6 months to 3 years showed a high usefulness of calcium hydroxide. Good results were achieved in 100% of cases while in the control group in 70% of cases. PMID:2487838

Struzak-Wysoki?ska, M; Niedzielska, K

1989-01-01

124

Intracanal dressing paste composed by calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide for the treatment of immature and mature traumatized teeth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available AIM : To evaluate clinical and radiographic aspects before and after endodontic treatment with an intracanal dressing paste composed of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide in traumatized teeth followed-up for 1 year. METHODS : Patients (n=105) treated at the Dental Trauma Service of [...] Piracicaba School of Dentistry, Brazil were enrolled in the study. Two groups of teeth were formed: immature (G1) (n=28) and completely developed teeth (G2) (n=174). All teeth were endodontically treated and received an intracanal dressing with a paste composed by calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel and zinc oxide at a 2:1:2 rate. Clinical and radiographic aspects were evaluated initially, monthly and after 1-year. RESULTS : Most of the immature teeth suffered extrusive luxation (39.3%), whereas intrusive luxation (40.8%) was more common in completely developed teeth. There was a significant reduction in pain on percussion and mobility (p=0.0001) for immature teeth. Mature teeth showed reduction of spontaneous pain, fistula, mobility and pain on percussion (p

Adriana de Jesus, Soares; Thiago Farias Rocha, Lima; Juliana Yuri, Nagata; Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida, Gomes; Alexandre Augusto, Zaia; Francisco José de, Souza-Filho.

2014-03-01

125

Dosimetry of a (90)Y-hydroxide liquid brachytherapy treatment approach to canine osteosarcoma using PET/CT.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new treatment strategy based on direct injections of (90)Y-hydroxide into the tumor bed in dogs with osteosarcoma was studied. Direct injections of the radiopharmaceutical into the tumor bed were made according to a pretreatment plan established using (18)F-FDG images. Using a special drill, cannulas were inserted going through tissue, tumor and bone. Using these cannulas, direct injections of the radiopharmaceutical were made. The in vivo biodistribution of (90)Y-hydroxide and the anatomical tumor bed were imaged using a time-of-flight (TOF) PET/CT scanner. The material properties of the tissues were estimated from corresponding CT numbers using an electron-density calibration. Radiation absorbed dose estimates were calculated using Monte Carlo methods where the biodistribution of the pharmaceutical from PET images was sampled using a collapsing 3-D rejection technique. Dose distributions in the tumor bed and surrounding tissues were calculated, showing significant heterogeneity with multiple hot spots at injection sites. Dose volume histograms showed that approximately 33.9% of bone and tumor and 70.2% of bone marrow and trabecular bone received an absorbed dose over 200Gy; approximately 3.2% of bone and tumor and 31.0% of bone marrow and trabecular bone received a total dose of over 1000Gy. PMID:25638490

Zhou, Jien Jie; Gonzalez, Arnulfo; Lenox, Mark W; Fossum, Theresa W; Frank, R Keith; Simon, Jaime; Stearns, Stan; Ruoff, Catherine M; Wendt, Richard E; Akabani, Gamal

2015-03-01

126

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COBALT HYDROXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method from cobalt chloride and sodium hydroxide. Structural and compositional properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR and UV spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the preferential growth of cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles that width is 73.42nm. The SEM image shows the synthesized cobalt hydroxide show well crystallized particles with rod like morphology. The FTIR spectrum is used to study the stretching and bending frequencies of molecular functional groups in the sample. From UVspectrum, the band gap of cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles is found to be 2.7eV.

R Hepzi Pramila Devamani

2015-01-01

127

Efficacy and tolerance of the topical application of potassium hydroxide (10% and 15%) in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum: Randomized clinical trial: Research protocol  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Molluscum contagiosum is a non-severe pediatric viral infection. Because it is highly contagious and current treatments have negative aesthetic and psychological effects, we want to test an alternative treatment in the primary care setting, consisting of two different concentrations of potassium hydroxide solution. Methods/design The study design is a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, using three types of topical treatment. The treatment consist of daily application...

Galindo Gisela; Martinez Mireia; Diez Olga; Teixido Concepcio; Cruz Ines; Marsal Josep R; Real Jordi; Schoenenberger Joan A; Pera Helena

2011-01-01

128

Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja / Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade nutricional e as características fermentativas da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante microbiano (Lactobacillus plantarum nas doses 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 x 10(6) ufc/g MN) e hidróxido de sódio (solução 40% na base de 3% da MS) e acrescida de 10% [...] de resíduo da colheita de soja, com base no peso verde da cana. Foi utilizada a variedade RB855536, colhida em soca aos 11 e 13 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (duas idades e oito tratamentos da massa ensilada). Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de fatores. Para as variáveis de composição e cinética de degradação, foram obtidos três fatores: QN - qualidade nutritiva, incluindo MS, PB, DIVMS, FDN, FDA e LIG; MF - maturidade fisiológica, incluindo carboidratos solúveis, LIG e fração indegradável da FDN; e VDF - velocidade de degradação dos carboidratos fibrosos, contemplando o kdFDN. Às variáveis de características de fermentação atribuíram-se os fatores: PFS - perdas e fermentação secundária, incluindo perda de MS, concentração de ácido acético, ácido propiônico e etanol; PH - potencial hidrogeniônico, pH; e DP - degradação protéica, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal. O resíduo da colheita da soja na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade nutritiva e reduzir as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol das silagens. O tratamento com hidróxido de sódio diminuiu a produção de etanol, mas não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva e não reduziu as perdas de MS das silagens. A utilização de inoculante microbiano contendo L. plantarum também não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva da silagem nem reduziu as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol. Abstract in english The objective of this trial was to evaluate the nutritional quality and fermentation characteristics of sugarcane silages treated with inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6) cfu/g NM), 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis), or 10% of soybean crop residu [...] e added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment) with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments). For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1) "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2) "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3) "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1) "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2) "hydrogen potential" (pH); and 3) "protein degradation" (PD) that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

Acyr Wanderley de Paula, Freitas; José Carlos, Pereira; Fernanda Cipriano, Rocha; Edenio, Detmann; Marinaldo Divino, Ribeiro; Marcone Geraldo, Costa; Fernando de Paula, Leonel.

2006-02-01

129

RUMINAL DEGRADATION KINETIC PARAMETERS OF COFFEE HULLS (Coffea arabica, L. TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NAOH PARÂMETROS CINÉTICOS DA DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica, L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO (NAOH  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate dry matter ruminal degradation kinetics of coffee hulls treated with increasing sodium hydroxide quantities. Two rumen fistulated cows were used to incubate samples in nylon bags for 12. 24, 36. 48 and 72 hours. Four ruminal incubation periods were used, in a complete randomized block design. Coffee hulls were treated with 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% of sodium hydroxide (dry matter basis, corresponding to treatments T1 to t4 respectively. Experimental results were compared using Tukey test, at 5% probability level, as follows for treatments 1 to 4 respectively: soluble fraction (9.35d; 17.65c; 31.93b; 32.28a, de (34.40d; 40.50c; 43.28b; 50.35a, potential degradability (44.33d; 50.33c; 52.35b; 57.70a and lag time in hours (4.03a; 3.93a; 4.33a; 2.55a. The results indicate that increasing the levels of NaOH in the coffee hulls treatments increased significantly their ruminal solubility, as well as their effective and potential degradabilities. However that increase had no effect upon coffee hulls lag time in the rumen.KEY WORDS: by-product feedstuffs, rumen degradability, ruminant.

O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de determinar a cinética de degradação ruminal da matéria seca da casca de café, tratada com diferentes quantidades de hidróxido de sódio. Utilizaram-se duas vacas fistuladas no rúmen, incubando-se as amostras em sacolas de náilon por 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas, por quatro rodadas seqüenciais, sendo que cada uma destas representou um bloco, dentro de um delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados. Tratou-se a casca de café com 0%, 3%, 6% e 9 % de hidróxido de sódio (base seca constituindo assim os tratamentos t1  a t4. os resultados médios encontrados foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, como se segue para os tratamentos de 1 a 4, respectivamente: fração solúvel (9,35d; 17,65c; 31,93b; 32,28a, de (34,40d; 40,50c; 43,28b; 50,35a, degradabilidade potencial (44,33d; 50,33c; 52,35b; 57,70a e tempo de colonização em horas (4,03a; 3,93a; 4,33a; 2,55a. Os resultados indicam que o aumento dos níveis percentuais de NaOH utilizados nos tratamentos eleva a solubilidade ruminal, a degradabilidade potencial e efetiva da casca de café, não influenciando significativamente o tempo de colonização
PALAVRAS-CHAVES: degradabilidade ruminal, resíduos agrícolas, ruminante

Luciano Fernandes de Sousa

2008-04-01

130

Influence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide treatment on the electrical characteristics of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky barrier diode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes have been investigated by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) techniques. The barrier heights and ideality factors measured from I–V characteristics are found to be 0.70 eV and 1.32 for without TMAH treatment, and 0.78 eV and 1.14 for with TMAH treatment, respectively. Cheung method is used to measure the series resistance and barrier height of the Schottky diodes, and the barrier height consistency is checked using the Norde method. The magnitude of interface state density for the diodes without and with TMAH treatment are varied from 7.45 × 1013 eV?1 cm?2 to 6.09 × 1012 eV?1 cm?2 and 4.03 × 1013 eV?1 cm?2 to 1.79 × 1012 eV?1 cm?2 in the below the conduction band from EC-0.19 eV to EC-0.63 eV and EC-0.22 eV to EC-0.73 eV. Based on the results, the TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (GaxOy) layer, formed due to the incorporation of the residual oxygen with Ga atom at the GaN surface during the plasma etching. The decrease in interface state density at the Ni/Au/GaN interface could be the reason for the improvement in the electrical properties. - Highlights: • The effect of TMAH treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes is studied. • The magnitude of NSS for the diode with TMAH treatment is low compared to without treatment. • The TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (GaxOy) layer

131

Effects of Treatment of Sorghum Stover Residue With Ammonium Hydroxide on Cell Wall Composition and in vitro Digestibility  

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Full Text Available The study was undertaken to determine the effects of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH treatment of sorghum stover residue on composition and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD of two sorghum varieties, Dale (tall, sweet sorghum variety and Brown mid rib (BMR (Short, grain sorghum variety. The residue was treated with; water only (T00, 50 g NH4OH kg-1 residue dry matter (DM (T50, 100 g NH4OH kg-1 DM (T100, and untreated control (neither water nor NH4OH (TUN and allowed to react for one week before chemical analysis was performed. The fiber content (ADF and NDF were not affected by the levels of alkali treatment but the crude protein (CP and Soluble protein contents were both increased by alkali treatment. There was an increase (P < 0.05 in dry matter digestibility in vitro (IVDMD by NH4OH treatment from 529 g kg-1 to 651 g kg-1 in T50 and T100. The improvement in IVDMD may indicate that NH4OH helps disrupt the lignin–carbohydrate complexes. The development of more economical and safe procedures which improve digestibility of the structural cell wall components would be very beneficial for improving the use of crop residue as feedstock for livestock and bioethanol production.

Adnan B. Yousuf

2014-08-01

132

Sequential soil washing techniques using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in abandoned iron-ore mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sequential washing techniques using single or dual agents [sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions] were applied to arsenic-contaminated soils in an abandoned iron-ore mine area. We investigated the best remediation strategies to maximize arsenic removal efficiency for both soils and arsenic-containing washing solution through conducting a series of batch experiments. Based on the results of a sequential extraction procedure, most arsenic prevails in Fe-As precipitates or coprecipitates, and iron exists mostly in the crystalline forms of iron oxide. Soil washing by use of a single agent was not effective in remediating arsenic-contaminated soils because arsenic extractions determined by the Korean standard test (KST) methods for washed soils were not lower than 6mg kg(-1) in all experimental conditions. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that iron-ore fines produced mobile colloids through coagulation and flocculation in water contacting the soils, containing dissolved arsenic and fine particles of ferric arsenate-coprecipitated silicate. The first washing step using 0.2M HCl was mostly effective in increasing the cationic hydrolysis of amorphous ferrihydrite, inducing high removal of arsenic. Thus, the removal step of arsenic-containing flocs can lower arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. Among several washing trials, alternative sequential washing using 0.2M HCl followed by 1M HCl (second step) and 1M NaOH solution (third step) showed reliable and lower values of arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. This washing method can satisfy the arsenic regulation of washed soil for reuse or safe disposal application. The kinetic data of washing tests revealed that dissolved arsenic was easily readsorbed into remaining soils at a low pH. This result might have occurred due to dominant species of positively charged crystalline iron oxides characterized through the sequential extraction procedure. However, alkaline extraction using NaOH was effective in removing arsenic readsorbed onto the surface of crystalline minerals. This is because of the ligand displacement reaction of hydroxyl ions with arsenic species and high pH conditions that can prevent readsorption of arsenic. PMID:16831457

Jang, Min; Hwang, Jung Sung; Choi, Sang Il

2007-01-01

133

Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

2004-05-01

134

Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: a literature review - Part I. In vitro studies  

OpenAIRE

The goal of endodontic treatment is the prevention and control of pulpal and periradicular infections. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been widely used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament to eliminate the remaining microorganisms after chemomechanical preparation. The purpose of this article is to review the antimicrobial properties of Ca(OH)2 as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment. The first part of this review details the characteristics of Ca(OH)2 and summarizes the res...

Kim, Dohyun; Kim, Euiseong

2014-01-01

135

Influence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide treatment on the electrical characteristics of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky barrier diode  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes have been investigated by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) techniques. The barrier heights and ideality factors measured from I–V characteristics are found to be 0.70 eV and 1.32 for without TMAH treatment, and 0.78 eV and 1.14 for with TMAH treatment, respectively. Cheung method is used to measure the series resistance and barrier height of the Schottky diodes, and the barrier height consistency is checked using the Norde method. The magnitude of interface state density for the diodes without and with TMAH treatment are varied from 7.45 × 10{sup 13} eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?2} to 6.09 × 10{sup 12} eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?2} and 4.03 × 10{sup 13} eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?2} to 1.79 × 10{sup 12} eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?2} in the below the conduction band from E{sub C}-0.19 eV to E{sub C}-0.63 eV and E{sub C}-0.22 eV to E{sub C}-0.73 eV. Based on the results, the TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (Ga{sub x}O{sub y}) layer, formed due to the incorporation of the residual oxygen with Ga atom at the GaN surface during the plasma etching. The decrease in interface state density at the Ni/Au/GaN interface could be the reason for the improvement in the electrical properties. - Highlights: • The effect of TMAH treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes is studied. • The magnitude of N{sub SS} for the diode with TMAH treatment is low compared to without treatment. • The TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (Ga{sub x}O{sub y}) layer.

Siva Pratap Reddy, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, LED-IT Fusion Technology Research Center (LIFTRC), Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-Si 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Dong-Hyeok [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Hee, E-mail: jlee@ee.knu.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ja-Soon, E-mail: jsjang@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, LED-IT Fusion Technology Research Center (LIFTRC), Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-Si 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Rajagopal Reddy, V. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University (India)

2014-01-15

136

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

1984-09-01

137

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

138

Disassembly of SWAT-3 and treatment of the sodium-water reaction products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sodium-Water reaction test facility, SWAT-3, was disassembled at the O-arai Engineering Center of JNC. It was the first experience in Japan to disassemble the large-scale sodium facilities containing sodium-water reaction products. This report describes some special techniques (extracting the sodium from the damp tank, treatment of the sodium-water reaction products, disassembly of the damp tank) obtained through the disassembly work of the SWAT-3 dump tank, which contained a large amount of sodium-water reaction products deposits. Information is also presented on the corrosion of the structural material of the dump tank, whose inner surface had come into contact with the sodium-water reaction products over a long period. (author)

139

French sodium waste storage rules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the frame of Superphenix Plant decommissioning, CEA and EDF had to determine the rules to applied for safe sodium waste storage. Even if sodium waste storage has been monitored for some decades (but only during Operational Plant phases), some recent events showed that this item had to be secured before beginning large decommissioning operations. Of course, the best way would be an on-line treatment but operational constraints always imply a delay in this operation. Indeed, a number of sodium wastes will be produced during the period before the end of Superphenix sodium treatment (planned in 2013) and will have to wait for further treatment. The events to be avoided, or at least taken into account, are uncontrolled sodium reaction with air moisture (large hydrogen production, important overheating) and sodium reaction with liquid water (pressure waves, large hydrogen production, important overheating). Careful analysis of all abnormal events in sodium waste storage disposal was performed and led to rule evolution. In 2004, experimental studies were undertaken, in order to know how solid sodium at room temperature reacts with air humidity: the conditions of aqueous sodium hydroxide production (which is the main risk source in sodium waste storage) have been observed. On this basis, new general safe rules for sodium waste storage have been raised: - Waste classifying: pure sodium and soda to be separated, bulk and residues to be separated - Sodium waste containers: tibe separated - Sodium waste containers: tight, dry, easy to refill with gas, protected against overpressure effect, with specific marking and reference - Dedicated rooms: dry, with specific markings, with specific sodium fire extinguishers - Maximum duration: three months before next refill with inert dry gas, in an over-container if more than one year - Dry gas feeling: inert gas except for sodium film residues (dry air) 395 For Superphenix application, packaging and storage conditions of sodium wastes have been defined, in accordance with container fluxes to sodium waste treatment cell: it was decided to initially fill the containers (packaging phase) with dry air (dew point less than -10 deg C) whatever are the sodium waste types, because any gas in the container is rapidly and totally dried by sodium itself. Then, renewal of gas in the containers will be done with dry argon (storage phase), except for sodium film residues (dry air filling). On site feedback experience will confirm the efficiency of these recent rules which have to be adapted to each specific case (sodium waste type, containers) and which can evolve with on site feedback experience. (author)

140

Low temperature calcium hydroxide treatment enhances anaerobic methane production from (extruded) biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ca(OH)2 treatment was applied to enhance methane yield. Different alkali concentration, incubation temperature and duration were evaluated for their effect on methane production and COD conversion efficiency from (non-)extruded biomass during mesophilic anaerobic digestion at lab-scale. An optimum Ca(OH)2 pretreatment for grass is found at 7.5% lime loading at 10°C for 20h (37.3% surplus), while mild (50°C) and high temperatures perform sub-optimal. Ca(OH)2 post-treatment after fast extrusion gives an additional surplus compared to extruded material of 15.2% (grass), 11.2% (maize straw) and 8.2% (sprout stem) regarding methane production. COD conversion improves accordingly, with additional improvements of 10.3% (grass), 9.0% (maize straw) and 6.8% (sprout stem) by Ca(OH)2 post-treatment. Therefore, Ca(OH)2 pretreatment and post-treatment at low temperature generate an additional effect regarding methane production and COD conversion efficiency. Fast extrusion gives a higher energy efficiency ratio compared to slow extrusion. PMID:25461001

Khor, Way Cern; Rabaey, Korneel; Vervaeren, Han

2015-01-01

141

An open, nonrandomized, comparative study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum  

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Full Text Available Background: There are numerous therapeutic modalities available for treatment of molluscum contagiosum. However, the ablative modalities are painful and not suitable for children. Aim: We aimed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of 2 of the painless modalities, viz., 5% imiquimod cream and 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH solution, in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Methods: Out of a total of 40 patients of molluscum contagiosum in the study, 18 patients in the imiquimod group and 19 patients in the KOH group completed the study. The given medication was applied by the patient or a parent to mollusca at night, 3 days per week. Imiquimod was continued till clinical cure; and 10% KOH, till lesions showed signs of inflammation. Assessments of response and side effects were performed at the end of week 4, week 8, and week 12. Significance was tested by Student?s t test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: The mean lesion count decreased from 22.39 to 10.75 with imiquimod and from 20.79 to 4.31 with KOH at the end of 12 weeks. We found complete clearance of lesions in 8 (44% patients with imiquimod and in 8 (42.1% patients with 10% KOH. Minor side effects were seen in 15 (78.9% patients on KOH and 10 (55.5% patients on imiquimod. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that both 5% imiquimod cream and 10% KOH solution are equally effective in molluscum contagiosum though KOH has a faster onset of action. However, KOH solution is associated with a higher incidence of side effects.

Metkar Amol

2008-01-01

142

Efficacy and tolerance of the topical application of potassium hydroxide (10% and 15%) in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum: Randomized clinical trial: Research protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Molluscum contagiosum is a non-severe pediatric viral infection. Because it is highly contagious and current treatments have negative aesthetic and psychological effects, we want to test an alternative treatment in the primary care setting, consisting of two different concentrations of potassium hydroxide solution. Methods/design The study design is a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, using three types of topical treatment. The treatment consist of daily applications of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in aqueous solution at 10% and 15% concentration, and a placebo administered in the control group. Four follow-up visits (at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days) are planned to evaluate treatment effectiveness and patient tolerance. The main outcome measure of the trial will be the healing rate, defined as lesion disappearance in the affected zones after the topic application of the experimental treatment. Secondary measures will be the principal characteristics and evolution of the affected zone (surface area, number of lesions, size and density of lesions), treatment tolerance (hyperpigmentation, itching, burning, pain), recurrence rate and the natural evolution of lesions in the control group. Discussion KOH can potentially be an effective and safe treatment for MC in primary care, and can also reduce referrals to dermatologists and hospital pediatric departments. In addition, KOH may be a valid and less expensive alternative to current invasive treatments (surgical excision). Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348386 PMID:22011376

2011-01-01

143

Efficacy and tolerance of the topical application of potassium hydroxide (10% and 15% in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum: Randomized clinical trial: Research protocol  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Molluscum contagiosum is a non-severe pediatric viral infection. Because it is highly contagious and current treatments have negative aesthetic and psychological effects, we want to test an alternative treatment in the primary care setting, consisting of two different concentrations of potassium hydroxide solution. Methods/design The study design is a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, using three types of topical treatment. The treatment consist of daily applications of potassium hydroxide (KOH in aqueous solution at 10% and 15% concentration, and a placebo administered in the control group. Four follow-up visits (at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days are planned to evaluate treatment effectiveness and patient tolerance. The main outcome measure of the trial will be the healing rate, defined as lesion disappearance in the affected zones after the topic application of the experimental treatment. Secondary measures will be the principal characteristics and evolution of the affected zone (surface area, number of lesions, size and density of lesions, treatment tolerance (hyperpigmentation, itching, burning, pain, recurrence rate and the natural evolution of lesions in the control group. Discussion KOH can potentially be an effective and safe treatment for MC in primary care, and can also reduce referrals to dermatologists and hospital pediatric departments. In addition, KOH may be a valid and less expensive alternative to current invasive treatments (surgical excision. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348386

Galindo Gisela

2011-10-01

144

French sodium waste storage rules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the frame of Superphenix Plant decommissioning, CEA and EDF had to determine the rules to apply for safe sodium waste storage. Even if sodium waste storage has been monitored for some decades (but only during Operational Plant phases), some recent events showed that this item had to be secured before beginning large decommissioning operations. Of course, the best way would be an on-line treatment but operational constraints always imply a delay in this operation. Indeed, a number of sodium wastes will be produced during the period before the end of Superphenix sodium treatment (planned in 2013) and will have to wait for further treatment. The events to be avoided, or at least taken into account, are uncontrolled sodium reaction with air moisture (large hydrogen production, important overheating) and sodium reaction with liquid water (pressure waves, large hydrogen production, important overheating). Careful analysis of all abnormal events in sodium waste storage disposal was performed and led to rule evolution. In 2004, experimental studies were undertaken, in order to know how solid sodium at room temperature reacts with air humidity: the conditions of aqueous sodium hydroxide production (which is the main risk source in sodium waste storage) have been observed. Waste classifying: pure sodium and soda to be separated, bulk and residues to be separated; Sodium waste containers: tight, dry, easy to refill with gas, protected against overpressure effect, with specifi against overpressure effect, with specific marking and reference; Dedicated rooms: dry, with specific markings, with specific sodium fire extinguishers; Maximum duration: three months before next refill with inert dry gas, in an over-container if more than one year; Dry gas feeling: inert gas except for sodium film residues (dry air). For Superphenix application, packaging and storage conditions of sodium wastes have been defined, in accordance with container fluxes to sodium waste treatment cell: it was decided to initially fill the containers (packaging phase) with dry air (dew point less than -10 deg. C) whatever are the sodium waste types, because any gas in the container is rapidly ant totally dried by sodium itself. Then, renewal of gas in the containers will be done with dry argon (storage phase), except for sodium film residues (dry air filling). On site feedback experience will confirm the efficiency of these recent rules which have to be adapted to each specific case (sodium waste type, containers) and which can evolve with on site feedback experience. (author)

145

Dry matter and fiber fraction degradability of sugar cane treated with calcium oxide or sodium hydroxide Degradabilidade da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa da cana-de-açúcar tratada com hidróxido de sódio ou óxido de cálcio  

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Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the parameters of ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM and the constituents of the cell wall of sugar cane treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH or calcium oxide (CaO by in situ technique. Three crossbred steers were used, with rumen cannulas, which were incubated in nylon bags containing sugar cane treated with NaOH or CaO, in treatments: Sugar cane in natura; Sugar cane treated with 2.25% NaOH; Sugar cane treated with 2.25% of CaO. The doses of NaOH and CaO were applied based on natural material (weight/weight of sugar cane and corresponded to 8.5% based on DM, with constant homogenization within the polyethylene buckets. A great and effective potential degradability was observed for all components of the cell wall of sugar cane treated with 2.25% NaOH, compared to in natura treatment, with 2.25% of CaO. To degradability of dry matter and fiber fraction of sugar cane, we observed higher rates of degradation in the treatment with 2.25% NaOH, at all periods, followed by treatment with 2.25% of CaO and in nature. Therefore, the chemical treatment of sugar cane with 2.25% NaOH promotes more effective and potent degradability of dry matter and fiber fraction, suggesting the possibility of a better utilization of nutrients.Objetivou-se avaliar os parâmetros de degradação ruminal da matéria seca (MS e dos constituintes da parede celular da cana-de-açúcar tratada com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH ou óxido de cálcio (CaO pela técnica in situ. Foram utilizados três novilhos mestiços, canulados no rúmen, nos quais foram incubados sacos de náilon contendo cana-de-açúcar tratada com NaOH ou CaO, conforme os tratamentos: Cana-de-açúcar in natura; Cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2,25% de NaOH; Cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2,25% de CaO. As doses de NaOH e CaO foram aplicadas com base na matéria natural (peso/peso da cana-de-açúcar e correspondeu a 8,5% com base na MS, com homogeneização constante dentro dos baldes de polietileno. Verificou-se maior degradabilidade potencial e efetiva para todos os componentes da parede celular da cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2,25% de NaOH, em comparação ao tratamento in natura e com 2,25% de CaO. Para degradabilidade da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa da cana-de-açúcar, observaram-se maiores taxas de degradação no tratamento com 2,25% de NaOH, em todos os tempos, seguido do tratamento com 2,25% de CaO e do in natura. O tratamento químico da cana-de-açúcar, com 2,25% de NaOH, promove maior degradabilidade potencial e efetiva da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa, sugerindo a possibilidade de um melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes.

Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

2009-09-01

146

Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance. PMID:22456234

Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

2012-06-01

147

Complex formation of beryllium(II) with salicylate and hydroxide ions in 1 mol dm-3 sodium perchlorate aqueous solution at 250C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The complex formation of Be2+ with salicylate (L2-) and hydroxide ions was investigated at 25 0C in 1 mol dm-3 NaClO4 by potentiometry using a glass electrode. E.m.f. measurements were performed. The e.m.f. data were explained with the three major species [Be(HL)L]-, [BeL], and [BeL2]2- and at least one or even all of the four minor species [Be(HL)]+, [Be(HL)2], [Be(OH)L]-, and [Be3(OH)3L3]3-. The hydrolytic reactions of Be11 in 1 mol dm-3 NaClO4, data on which were used for the analysis of the above beryllium(ii)-salicylate-hydroxide system, were also studied by separate potentiometric titrations. It was found that [Be2(OH)]3+, [Be3(OH)3]3+, and [Be6(OH)8]4+ occur in 1 mol dm-3 NaClO4 aqueous solution. (author)

148

Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).  

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Drug products containing iron oxide and hydroxide nanoparticles (INPs) are important for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Pharmaceuticals prepared by the complexation of different kinds of INPs and carbohydrates have different physicochemical and biopharmaceutic characteristics. The increasing number of parenteral non-biological complex drugs (NBCD) containing iron requires physicochemical methods for characterization and enabling of cross comparisons. In this context the structure and the level of crystallinity of the iron phases may be connected to the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates, which etiologically determine the therapeutic and toxic effects. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and electron diffraction (ED) methods were used in order to investigate the nine different parenteral iron formulations Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)), sodium ferric gluconate sucrose (Ferrlecit(®)), iron sucrose (Venofer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (Infed(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Ironate(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Dexferrum(®)), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®)) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(®)). The iron phase in CosmoFer(®), Ferinject(®), Monofer(®), Infed(®), Ironate(®) and Dexferrum(®) was identified as Akaganéite/Akaganéite-like (?-FeOOH), with low amounts of chloride. By combining results of both methods the iron oxide in Feraheme(®) was identified as Magnetite (Fe3O4) with spinel-like structure. Ferrlecit(®) and Venofer(®) were difficult to analyze due to the low degree of crystallinity, but the iron phase seems to fit Lepidocrocite/Lepidocrocite-like (?-FeOOH) or an amorphous kind of structure. The structural information on the type of iron oxide or hydroxide together with the particle size allows predicting the stability of the different complexes including their labile iron content. The combination of ED and XRPD methods is a very helpful approach especially for structural analysis of nanoscopic or low crystalline materials. PMID:23998966

Fütterer, S; Andrusenko, I; Kolb, U; Hofmeister, W; Langguth, P

2013-12-01

149

Effectiveness of Intraarticular Sodium Hyaluronate in Synchronous Treatment of Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis  

OpenAIRE

Objective: We aimed to evaluate results of synchronous intraarticular sodium hyaluronate therapy in patients who have both hip and knee osteoarthritis.Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients (18 women, 7 men) with hip and knee osteoarthritis constituted the study group and 14 patients (9 women, 5 men) constituted the control group. In the treatment protocol, 2 ampules of sodium hyaluronate were injected into the hip joint using fluoroscopy guide in the operating room. After two weeks, the...

Aydeni?z, Ali; Gu?rsoy, Savas?; Yag?iz, Erman; Keven, Sema; Bu?yu?kbebeci?, Orhan

2008-01-01

150

The Use of Sodium Sulfacetamide 10%-Sulfur 5% Emollient Foam in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris  

OpenAIRE

Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder encountered in ambulatory clinical practice comprising 11.3 percent of office visits to dermatologists in 2005.1 By comparison, eczematous dermatoses, psoriasis, and skin cancer accounted for 6.2, 3.5, and 10 percent of office visits, respectively.1 A variety of topical therapeutic options are available for treatment of acne vulgaris, including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur.2,3 Sodium sulfaceta...

Del Rosso, James Q.

2009-01-01

151

Electrochemical, Photochemical, and Photoelectrochemical Treatment of Sodium p-Cumenesulfonate  

OpenAIRE

The degradation of sodium p-cumenesulfonate (SCS) by electrochemical, photochemical, and photoelectrochemical methods in aqueous solution of NaClO4, NaCl, and NaClO has been studied. It was found that as a result of NaClO4 electroreduction and photodecomposition, the ions Cl? and ClO3? are formed. These ions undergo transformations into radicals, mainly Cl•, Cl2•?, ClO•?, ClO2•?, and ClO3•?, due to electrochemical and photochemical reactions. It was shown that the interp...

Osiewa?a, Lidia; Socha, Adam; Perek, Aleksandra; Socha, Marek; Rynkowski, Jacek

2013-01-01

152

Electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For 20 years Argonne National Laboratory has been developing electrometallurgical technology for application to spent nuclear fuel. Progress has been rapid during the past 5 years as 1,6 tonnes spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II was treated and preparations were made for processing the remaining 25 tonnes of sodium-bonded fuel from the shutdown reactor. Two high level waste forms are being qualified for geologic disposal. Extension of the technology to oxide fuels or to actinide recycling has been on hold because of US policy on reprocessing. (author)

153

Gamma radiolysis of ceftriaxone sodium for water treatment: assessments of the activity.  

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As large quantities of antibiotics have been misused in human and veterinary medicine, many different classes of antibiotics with low concentration have been detected in the environmental water. This existence may cause severe ecosystem alterations. Ceftriaxone sodium was employed as the targeted antibiotic to evaluate gamma radiolysis of antibiotics based on the primary elimination test and activity assay. The decomposition percentage of ceftriaxone sodium (20 microg/ml) in purified water increases with increasing doses and reaches 98% under 5 kGy of gamma radiation. The residual activity after gamma radiation does not follow the corresponding decomposition percentage of ceftriaxone sodium. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was subsequently employed to analyze possible structures of radiolytic products relating to the activity. Different degrees of the residual activity may attribute to different cleavage pathways of ceftriaxone sodium produced by radiation with different doses. The results indicate that the radiolytic treatment is a highly-effective means for degradation of ceftriaxone sodium, and the activity status of ceftriaxone sodium after primary elimination should be taken into consideration for selecting a degrading dose. Three kGy is the appropriate dose for radiolysis of ceftriaxone sodium in purified water. PMID:22049697

Zhang, X H; Cao, D M; Zhao, S Y; Gong, P; Hei, D Q; Zhang, H Q

2011-01-01

154

Clinical benefits of cromolyn sodium aerosol (MDI) in the treatment of asthma in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to determine the efficacy and safety of cromolyn sodium (Intal) administered to children by metered dose inhaler (MDI). Prior to entry, subjects were well controlled on cromolyn sodium capsules by Spinhaler turbo-inhaler plus beta 2 agonists. An active control interval of 2 weeks on cromolyn sodium capsules was followed by a 4-week single-blind period on placebo capsules. Those subjects whose asthma worsened significantly on placebo entered a 10-week double-blind phase, randomized to receive either cromolyn sodium (2 mg per dose) or placebo by MDI. Diary data, physician evaluation, and pulmonary function tests were used to assess efficacy, and scores were compared with the baseline value at 2-week intervals. Forty children with asthma, 8 to 20 years of age, entered the study and 32 qualified for the randomized phase. No significant differences existed between the treatment groups at baseline. Most comparative data favored the cromolyn sodium group over the course of the study. Significant differences (p less than .05) were noted for diary scores of breathlessness and overall asthma severity. There was significant improvement at the final visit favoring the cromolyn sodium group in restriction on normal activity, FEV1, and PEFR. The cromolyn sodium group also experienced a decreasing need for concomitant bronchodilators. Both groups preferred pressurized aerosol by MDI over powdered capsules by Spinhaler. (Intal and Spinhaler are registered trademarks of Fisons Corporation.) PMID:2493756

Selcow, J E; Mendelson, L M; Rosen, J P

1989-03-01

155

Comparison of Decontamination Efficacy between the Rapid Hygrothermal Pasteurization and Sodium Hypochlorite Treatments  

OpenAIRE

We developed a novel rapid hygrothermal pasteurization (RHP) method using saturated water vapor with a dew point of 100?. The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of RHP treatment versus conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatments on inactivation of natural mesophilic bacteria and quality attributes on fruits and vegetables. The RHP treatment was performed within a second by free-falling samples (cabbage, cucumber, carrot, bell pepper, pineapple and melon) through cylindrical ...

Mitsuya Shimoda; Noriyuki Igura; Dusida Tirawat; Seiji Noma; Hiromizu Kunimoto

2013-01-01

156

Application of electrodialysis to waste minimization: Simplified spent chloride salt treatment and reagent recycle flow sheet -- demonstrated controlled precipitation of Nd(III) and Fe(II) as hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrodialysis is a widely used industrial technique for the removal of salts from aqueous solution. The process involves the conversion of salts into their corresponding acid and base components; e.g., sodium chloride becomes hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Many of the residues generated in plutonium recovery operations are in the form of chloride and nitrate salts. Using electrodialysis to convert these salts back into their corresponding acid and base components results in the production of a decreased amount of waste. Furthermore, with recycle of the acid and base generated, electrodialysis results in a decrease in the quantity of reagents necessary to recover and purify plutonium

157

Electrodialysis treatment of lithium chloride solutions generated in the intercalation method of highly dispersed aluminium hydroxide production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efficiency of the electrodialysis method for treating lithium chloride solutions formed when intercalation method is employed for preparation of highly dispersed aluminium hydroxide was studied. The optimal levels of the dialysate and concentrate content during desalination of lithium chloride washing solutions were determined experimentally. For preparation of highly desalinated (up to distillate level) dialysate and highly concentrated LiCl solution (approximately 200 g · l-1) for their repeated use a two-stage flowsheet using electrodialysis equipment of specialized design and highly intensive conditions of electrodialysis was suggested

158

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE  

OpenAIRE

Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF) wer...

Farhad Zeinaly; Jalal Shakhes; Mohammadreza Dehghani Firozabadi; Alireza Shakeri

2009-01-01

159

Treatment with 89SrCl and Sodium Ibandronate for pain relief of multiple bone metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the palliative effect on pain relief in patients with multiple bone metastases treated with 89SrCl2 together with Sodium Ibandronate,Sodium Ibandronate alone and 89SrCl2 alone. Methods: Eighty-four patients with bone pain secondary to bone metastases were divided into three groups. Thirty patients were treated with combined 89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate, 26 with 89SrCl2 alone and 28 with Sodium Ibandronate alone. The ?2 test was used in data analysis. Results: The overall palliative pain relief rate in the combined treatment group was 96.6 % (29/30). For the groups using Sodium Ibandronate or 89SrCl2 only, the palliative rates were 71.4% (20/28) and 73.1% (19/26), respectively. There are statistically significant differences between the combined treatment group and the other 2 groups with single treatment modalities in the overall palliative pain relief rate (?2=7.497), in terms of improvement in (1) whole body Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score (80.0% (24/30) vs 50.0% (14/28)/53.8% (14/26), ?2 =35.476) and (2) focal palliative rate (47.6% (50/105) vs 11.2% (11/98)/22.2% (20/90), ?2 =6. 564, all P89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate is more effective than single treatment modalities to relieve bone pain secondary to multiple bone metastases. (authors)

160

Demineralization and desulfurization of high-sulfur Assam coal with alkali treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Demineralization and desulfurization of high-sulfur coal from Assam (Makum coalfield), India, was investigated using aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and their mixtures (1:1) alone as well as followed by mild hydrochloric acid treatment. Compared to the alkali and acid alone, successive treatments with the alkali and acid resulted in significant removal of mineral matter and sulfur from the coal. Demineralization and desulfurization was found to increase with the increase in alkali concentration. Alkali treatment resulted in formation and precipitation of sodium/potassium aluminosilicates, which subsequently undergo decomposition and solubilization in the presence of acid-forming soluble salts. It is possible to remove 50-54% of the ash, total inorganic sulfur, and around 25% organic sulfur from the coal by treatment with mixtures (1:1) of 16% sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solution followed by 10% hydrochloric acid. 37 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

Samit Mukherjee [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jorhat (India). Material Science Division

2003-06-01

161

Ondansetron versus diclofenac sodium in the treatment of acute ureteral colic: a double blind controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the 5-HT3 antagonist, ondansetron and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, diclofenac sodium, as a pain reliever in the treatment of acute ureteral colic. Sixty four patients with severe or moderate pain who were clinically diagnosed as having ureteral colic associated with microscopic or gross hematuria were included in the study. Thirty three patients were administered ondansetron and 31 patients were administered diclofenac sodium. Exclusion critera were known kidney or liver disease causing dysfunction, known hypersensitivity to ondansetron or diclofenac sodium, pregnancy, lactation, duodenal ulcer or bleeding. After pain assessment with a verbal scale and a visual analog scale (VAS), we randomized patients and administered 8 mg ondansetron intravenously to 33 patients and 75 mg diclofenac sodium intramuscularly to 31 patients and pain scores were recorded every 15 minutes. If significant pain relief was not achieved within 60 minutes, i.v. meperidine was given as rescue pain medication. Ondansetron was effective as a primary pain reliever in 14 (42.4%) patients, whereas 19 patients required additional medication. Diclofenac sodium was effective as a primary pain reliever in 24 (77.4%) patients, whereas 7 patients required additional medication. Ondansetron was not superior to diclofenac sodium in relieving pain in patients with acute ureteral colic. PMID:12092646

Ergene, U; Pekdemir, M; Canda, E; Kirkali, Z; Fowler, J; Co?kun, F

2001-01-01

162

Exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride by molten hydroxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets are prepared by a novel and effective method, in which sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide molten salts are used to exfoliate h-BN to obtain nanosheets. BN nanoscrolls are also obtained. The as-prepared products can be readily dispersed in a wide range of solvents, including water and ethanol, and form stable dispersions. PMID:23436746

Li, Xianlei; Hao, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Mingwen; Wu, Yongzhong; Yang, Jiaxiang; Tian, Yupeng; Qian, Guodong

2013-04-18

163

Sodium thiosulfate for the treatment of calcinosis secondary to juvenile dermatomyositis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the successful use of sodium thiosulfate in a patient with juvenile dermatomyositis complicated by ulcerative skin disease and progressive calcinosis. This therapy may have a role in improving calcinosis, even if more studies are necessary to determine the safety and efficacy of this treatment in juvenile dermatomyositis-related calcinosis. PMID:24238152

Pagnini, I; Simonini, G; Giani, T; Marrani, E; Moretti, D; Vannucci, G; Cantarini, L; Cimaz, R

2014-01-01

164

Pegaptanib sodium treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: clinical experience in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nikolaus Feucht, Huebner Matthias, Chris P Lohmann, Mathias MaierAugenklinik rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, GermanyBackground: The VEGF Inhibition Study In Ocular Neovascularisation (VISION reported the efficacy of intravitreal (ITV vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibition with pegaptanib sodium (Macugen® for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. This paper reports clinical experience with pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of occult or minimally classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to AMD.Material and methods: The study included 50 eyes (in 49 patients with either occult CNV or minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD who were not eligible for photodynamic therapy (PDT. Study data were analyzed retrospectively. During the 6-month study, patients were administered an average 2.74 injections of 0.3 mg ITV pegaptanib sodium. Angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT examinations were carried out and intraocular pressure (IOP and visual acuity (VA were measured at baseline, at 3 months and at 6 months. An eye examination was performed and VA was measured the 2 days following treatment and then again at weeks 4–6, and at 3 and 6 months. OCT, VA, and IOP were also assessed at 1 month.Results: ITV pegaptanib sodium was well tolerated and no treatment complications arose. Mean VA was measured as: 0.37 ± 0.24 at baseline; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 1 month; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 3 months and 0.40 ± 0.26 at 6 months. VA was stabilized in approximately 90% of eyes treated with pegaptanib sodium. OCT examination showed a minimal change in central retinal thickness (CRT during the course of the study, from 251.19 µm at baseline to 251.63 µm at 6 months. No elevation in IOP was measured during treatment at 4–6 months in patients receiving pegaptanib sodium.Conclusions: ITV therapy with pegaptanib sodium for occult and minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD offered good efficacy with a favorable adverse events profile. The majority of patients showed stabilization in all assessed parameters. In clinical practice, careful consideration should be given to the use of nonselective VEGF inhibition in patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile or in those with a history of thromboembolic events.Keywords: Intravitreal (ITV injection, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, choroidal neovascularization (CNV, anti-VEGF therapy, pegaptanib sodium

Nikolaus Feucht

2008-06-01

165

Separation of strontium from calcium by the use of sodium hydroxide and its application for the determination of long-term background activity concentrations of 90Sr in 100 km area around Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (Bulgaria)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method for the determination of 90Sr which employs sodium hydroxide for the separation of strontium from calcium was further improved introducing the use of elevated temperatures. The results from 11-year study of background activity concentrations of 90Sr in different environmental objects in 100 km zone around Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (Bulgaria) are presented as an application of the analytical method. The measured mean values are as follows: air precipitation - 0.0015±0.0009 Bq/(m2 x d), tap water - 0.0017±0.0012 Bq/L, soil - 1.90±1.26 Bq/kg, grass - 1.54±0.80 Bq/kg, milk - 0.023±0.012 Bq/L and for the Danube river: water - 0.0046±0.0026 Bq/L, bottom sediments - 0.64±0.60 Bq/kg, algae - 1.99±1.56 Bq/kg. The calculated transfer coefficients (soil-grass) are in the range of 0.33-0.84. Between 2 and 5 times reduction in actual background activities of 90Sr is observed compared to 1972-1974. (author)

166

Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returnedr routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

167

Sodium Hyaluronate Injections Compared to Local Modalities for the Treatment of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine and compare the efficacies of sodium hyaluronate injections and local modalities in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.Materials and Methods: Patients (n=50 were treated with subacromial injections of sodium hyaluronate (n=25 once weekly for 3 weeks or a daily program of local modalities (n=25 for 2 weeks. Response to treatment was evaluated with the items of function in the Society of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Basic Shoulder Evaluation Form and pain, activities of daily living and ranges of motion in the Constant-Murley Scale. Patients were questioned about night pain and their global impressions of the treatment. All outcome measures were assessed at baseline and weeks 1 and 5 after treatment.Results: Society of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Basic Shoulder Evaluation Form and Constant-Murley Scale scores of both groups were significantly improved at week 1 and 5 compared to baseline (p0.05. Night pain was reduced effectively by both treatments, with no significant difference between the groups. The majority of patients reported that they benefited from the treatment and results were similar in both groups. No side effects were observed. Conclusion: Sodium hyaluronate injections and local modalities have been found to be similarly effective. Either one of these methods may be included in a treatment program for patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:138-42.

?lker ?ENGÜL

2008-12-01

168

Formation of transparent aluminum hydroxide film with mesoscopic surface roughness by hydrothermal treatment of incompletely-nitrided sputtered aluminum film  

Science.gov (United States)

Incompletely-nitrided Al films (Al-N film) are deposited on the glass substrate by rf sputtering with a metallic Al target and using Ar and N2 gas mixture. With increasing film thickness up to 300nm, the surface roughness increases. And the roughness is easily controlled. The size and the number density of surface protuberance are suitable to control diffusive optical properties in the visible and near infrared regions. The films become transparent with retained roughness by boiling in ultra pure water at 368K under atmospheric pressure. The films have been transformed from composite of Al and AlN to aluminum hydroxide (Boehmite). Total transmittance of the boiled specimens exceeded that of the glass substrate itself. These facts suggest that hydrothermally-treated Al-N films with the mesoscopic surface roughness have high potential to reduce the optical loss by reflection.

Hori, Toshiyuki; Qiu, Zhiyong; Ishiguro, Takashi

2010-06-01

169

Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

Barnes, Charles Marshall

2003-09-01

170

An Open, Randomized, Comparative Clinical and Histological Study of Imiquimod 5% Cream Versus 10% Potassium Hydroxide Solution in the Treatment of Molluscum Contagiosum  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Although molluscum contagiosum (MC) resolves spontaneously, there are several reasons to treat this dermatological disorder. Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 5% imiquimod cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution in treating MC, and to propose the mechanism of cure by observing the histological findings. Methods Imiquimod or KOH were applied by the patient or a parent 3 days per week until all lesions cleared. The number of MC lesions was counted and side effects were evaluated at 5 points during the treatment (the initial visit, week 2, week 4, week 8, and week 12). Histological changes were compared between 2 patients of each group, before and after the 2 weeks of application. Results In both group, the mean lesion counts decreased all through to week 12, and the reduction in number of lesions were statistically significant in both groups (p <0.005). Over 40% of each group developed local side effects, and no systemic side effects were noted in either group. Before treatment, histological findings showed little or no dermal infiltrates. After treatment, specimens showed dense lymphocytic infiltrates, especially T cells, around the lesions which had resolved. Conclusion Both 10% KOH solution and 5% imiquimod cream are effective and safe treatment of MC. PMID:20548905

Seo, Sang-Hee; Chin, Hyun-Woo; Sung, Hyun-Woo

2010-01-01

171

Composição química e perdas fermentativas de silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio / Chemical composition and fermentative losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química e as perdas fermentativas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio (NaOH). Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com duas variedades de cana-de [...] -açúcar (CB 45-3 e RB 72-454) e quatro aditivos (controle, NaOH, ureia ou NaOH + ureia), compondo as seguintes silagens: cana-de-açúcar sem aditivo; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 4% de ureia; cana-de-açúcar tratada 4% de NaOH; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2% de ureia + 2% de NaOH. Os procedimentos foram realizados em ambas as variedades e as doses aplicadas com base na matéria seca. A cana-de-açúcar foi picada e misturada, acescida dos aditivos e armazenada em silos de PVC com 50 cm de altura por 10 cm de diâmetro, providos de válvula de Bunsen. Adotou-se uma compactação de 750 kg de matéria natural/m³. Os silos foram pesados no início e ao final do período experimental para quantificar as perdas por gases e efluente. Não foi observado efeito de interação entre variedades de cana-de-açúcar e doses para perdas por efluente, pH, celulose, lignina e cinza. O hidróxido de sódio contribui para redução de perdas,manutenção do grau brixa e elevação do pH da silagem da cana-de-açúcar, independentemente da utilização da ureia, além de promover redução dos constituintes da parede celular, ocasionando melhoria na qualidade da silagem de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide (NaOH). It was used a completely randomized design with four replicates, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two varieties of cane sugar (CB 45-3, RB [...] 72-454) and four additives (Control, NaOH, urea or NaOH + urea), composing the following silages: sugar cane without additive; sugar cane treated with 4% urea; sugar cane treated with 4% NaOH; sugar cane treated with 2% urea + 2% NaOH. The procedures were performed in both varieties and the doses applied in the dry matter basis. The sugar cane was chopped and then mixed, added with additives and stored in PVC silos with 50 cm of height by 10 cm of diameter, provided with Bunsem valve. It was adopted a compression of 750 kg of natural matter/m³. The silos were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the trial period to quantify the losses by gases and effluent. There was no interaction effect among varieties of sugar cane and doses for effluent losses, pH, cellulose, lignin and ash. Sodium hydroxide contributes for the reduction of losses, maintenance of Brix and pH raising of the silage of sugar cane, regardless to the use of urea, in addition to promote reduction of the constituents of the cell wall causing improvement on the quality of silage from sugar cane.

Leandro Sampaio Oliveira, Ribeiro; Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Alana Batista dos, Santos; Antônio Roberto, Ferreira; Paulo, Bonomo; Fabiano Ferreira da, Silva.

1911-19-01

172

Composição química e perdas fermentativas de silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio Chemical composition and fermentative losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química e as perdas fermentativas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio (NaOH. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar (CB 45-3 e RB 72-454 e quatro aditivos (controle, NaOH, ureia ou NaOH + ureia, compondo as seguintes silagens: cana-de-açúcar sem aditivo; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 4% de ureia; cana-de-açúcar tratada 4% de NaOH; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2% de ureia + 2% de NaOH. Os procedimentos foram realizados em ambas as variedades e as doses aplicadas com base na matéria seca. A cana-de-açúcar foi picada e misturada, acescida dos aditivos e armazenada em silos de PVC com 50 cm de altura por 10 cm de diâmetro, providos de válvula de Bunsen. Adotou-se uma compactação de 750 kg de matéria natural/m³. Os silos foram pesados no início e ao final do período experimental para quantificar as perdas por gases e efluente. Não foi observado efeito de interação entre variedades de cana-de-açúcar e doses para perdas por efluente, pH, celulose, lignina e cinza. O hidróxido de sódio contribui para redução de perdas,manutenção do grau brixa e elevação do pH da silagem da cana-de-açúcar, independentemente da utilização da ureia, além de promover redução dos constituintes da parede celular, ocasionando melhoria na qualidade da silagem de cana-de-açúcar.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide (NaOH. It was used a completely randomized design with four replicates, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two varieties of cane sugar (CB 45-3, RB 72-454 and four additives (Control, NaOH, urea or NaOH + urea, composing the following silages: sugar cane without additive; sugar cane treated with 4% urea; sugar cane treated with 4% NaOH; sugar cane treated with 2% urea + 2% NaOH. The procedures were performed in both varieties and the doses applied in the dry matter basis. The sugar cane was chopped and then mixed, added with additives and stored in PVC silos with 50 cm of height by 10 cm of diameter, provided with Bunsem valve. It was adopted a compression of 750 kg of natural matter/m³. The silos were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the trial period to quantify the losses by gases and effluent. There was no interaction effect among varieties of sugar cane and doses for effluent losses, pH, cellulose, lignin and ash. Sodium hydroxide contributes for the reduction of losses, maintenance of Brix and pH raising of the silage of sugar cane, regardless to the use of urea, in addition to promote reduction of the constituents of the cell wall causing improvement on the quality of silage from sugar cane.

Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro

2010-09-01

173

Valor nutritivo de cana-de-açúcar tratada com hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de rolão-de-milho Nutritive value of sugarcane treated with sodium hydroxide and added of ground corn ears  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o valor nutritivo de cana-de-açúcar tratada com 1,0% de hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg de rolão-de-milho/t de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi conduzido no Instituto de Zootecnia, em Nova Odessa, SP, e o delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O teste de consumo e digestibilidade foi efetuado com ovelhas em períodos de 10, 10 e 5 dias, que corresponderam, respectivamente, aos períodos de adaptação, controle do consumo e coleta de fezes e urina. O consumo de matéria seca e o coeficiente de digestibilidade da matéria seca aumentaram linearmente com a adição de rolão-de-milho. A ingestão de nutrientes digestíveis totais não foi alterada com a adição de rolão-de-milho.The objective of this work was to determine the nutritive value of sugarcane treated with 1,0% of sodium hydroxide plus 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg of ground corn ears/ton of chopped sugarcane. The experiment was carried out at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, SP, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. Intake and digestibility trials were conducted in 10, 10 and 5 day periods, corresponding respectively to adaptation, intake and feces collection of female sheep. Dry matter intake and dry matter digestibility increased linearly with the addition of ground corn ears. Total digestible nutrients was not altered with the addition of ground corn ears.

João Batista de Andrade

2001-10-01

174

Efficiency of Fluid Treatments with Different Sodium Concentration in Children with Type 1 Diabetic Ketoacidosis  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The management of children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) continues to be a controversial issue with regard to amount of intravenous fluid to be given, rate of delivery of fluid, and type of fluid to be used. We aimed to analyze the results obtained by administration of rehydration fluids of two different sodium (Na) concentrations (75 mEq/L vs. 100 mEq/L ) in the treatment of children with DKA.

Savas?-erdeve, S?enay; Berberog?lu, Merih; Oygar, Pembe; S??klar, Zeynep; Kendirli, Tan?l

2011-01-01

175

Treatment of osteoporosis with human parathyroid peptide and observations on effect of sodium fluoride.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the need for a randomised study of treatment of spinal osteoporosis with human parathyroid peptide in the secondary prevention of crush fractures; to study the effect of human parathyroid hormone peptide 1-34 plus sex hormones on vertebral body cancellous bone; and, separately, to determine the effect of relatively low doses of sodium fluoride plus calcium on spinal bone mineral density. DESIGN--Open study of patients with primary or postmenopausal osteoporosis. All pat...

Reeve, J.; Davies, U. M.; Hesp, R.; Mcnally, E.; Katz, D.

1990-01-01

176

Sodium stibogluconate as first-line treatment for post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis  

OpenAIRE

An 18 year-old-girl, a resident of Buxar District of Bihar State, India, presented with hypopigmented rash on face of six months duration. Superficial sensations were intact. There was history of being treated for prolonged fever two years ago, for about three weeks. Based on history, clinical and microscopic examination, she was diagnosed to have post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Treatment with parenteral sodium stibogluconate was initiated, to which she responded satisfactorily. This cas...

Dhillon, K. S.; Varshney, Krati R.

2014-01-01

177

Effectiveness of Intraarticular Sodium Hyaluronate in Synchronous Treatment of Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis  

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Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate results of synchronous intraarticular sodium hyaluronate therapy in patients who have both hip and knee osteoarthritis.Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients (18 women, 7 men with hip and knee osteoarthritis constituted the study group and 14 patients (9 women, 5 men constituted the control group. In the treatment protocol, 2 ampules of sodium hyaluronate were injected into the hip joint using fluoroscopy guide in the operating room. After two weeks, the injection was performed in the affected knee joint. This protocol was repeated following a week without treatment. The clinical conditions of the groups before therapy and on the 30th and 60th days after therapy were evaluated by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC A, B, C indices and 15 m walking time.Results: There are significant differences between the two groups when WOMAC scores and the quantity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs administered were considered, but there was no difference between the groups concerning walking time. There are significant differences in all test parameters except for the WOMAC C index in group I before and after therapy.Conclusion: The treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis synchronously with sodium hyaluronate injection provides considerable reduction of pain and increase in joint range of motion and function. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:143-7.

Ali AYDEN?Z

2008-12-01

178

Comparison of Treatment Effect of Sodium Valprovate, Propranolol and Tricyclic Antidepressants in Migraine  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy and treatment effect of sodium valprovate with propranolol and tricyclic antidepressive drugs. This piece is a rarandomized clinical trial conducted on 126 migraine patients admitted to brain and nerves clinic in Arak, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups then randomized to study treatments. Data were gathered using a checklist and a complete examination. They were analyzed by Chi square and exact test. In patients with normal and abnormal encephalogram the effectiveness rate of two treatments were 35, 61.9, 95.6 and 28.6%, respectively. This difference between two treatments was statistically significant (p<0.001. But didn't observe significant differences between two sex groups (p>0.05. For treatment and control of the migraine, in patients with normal encephalogram, propranolol with tricyclic antidepressive drugs advised and for abnormal encephalogram sodium valprovate can be the better treatment for management and reduction of headache attacks.

Ghasami K.

2009-01-01

179

Determination of the biodistribution and biokinetics of radiopharmaca like 166Ho-ferric-hydroxide or 153Sm-EDTMP used for therapeutic treatment by energy dispersive measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity distribution of beta-emitting radionuclides in the human body and the respective therapeutic dose distribution in the target and the unwanted leakage in the other organs was determined by measurement of corresponding gamma-lines. The measurement was done by scanning in a whole-body counter in the General Hospital Vienna. It is possible to localize activity and dose distribution by means of the detected activity profiles of the four detectors. Two typical treatments are reported: the treatment of synovitis using radiation of 166Ho-Ferric-Hydroxide (characteristic gamma-line: 81 keV) and radionuclide therapy focused at the palliative treatment of bone metastases with 153Sm-EDTMP, a bone seeking beta-emitting radionuclide (characteristic gamma-line: 103 keV). For the determination of the applied dose, the leakage and the quality assurance spectroscopic data of a clinical whole-body counter can be a useful tool for controlling and monitoring in health care. (authors)

180

Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment  

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Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

Marina Mandryk

2012-08-01

181

Another Base, Another Solvent? Desalinating Iron Finds with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solution  

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Full Text Available The desalination processes commonly applied to improve the corrosion stability of archaeological iron artifacts are based on immersion treatments in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Faster and more efficient chloride extraction in solutions based on organic solvents with a lower surface tension can be expected. Furthermore, the danger of new corrosion forming during the subsequent washing out of residual chemicals from the desalinating solution could be minimised, if organic solvents would replace the water, commonly used for this process. Only alkali metal hydroxide (LiOH and NaOH solutions in organic solvents have been tested so far. Their comparatively low chloride extraction efficiency was ascribed to the low solubility of the alkali metal hydroxides and the corresponding chlorides in the solvents used. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH is readily soluble in alcohols and has been tested in aqueous and/or methanolic solutions as an alternative. Neither improved overall chloride extraction efficiency, nor a higher chloride extraction rate could be observed using methanolic solutions. However, aqueous TMAH showed a trend towards higher overall chloride extraction efficiency than the common alkaline treatments. These results could be explained by the different solubility of corrosion products, in particular akaganéite, ?-FeO(OH, in the tested solutions.

Charlotte Friederike Kuhn

2011-01-01

182

Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 ºC, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process.

Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

2008-05-01

183

Chronic Temporomandibular Pain Treatment Using Sodium Diclofenac / Tratamiento crónico del dolor temporomandibular con diclofenaco sódico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio evaluó el dolor espontáneo antes y después de la administración de diclofenaco sódico, aislado o asociado a carisoprodol, paracetamol y cafeína, en pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares crónicos (TTM). Se seleccionaron dieciocho voluntarios, hombres y mujeres, entre 35-70 años de [...] edad (edad media 50 años). Los criterios de inclusión fueron dolor muscular masticatorio, y los criterios diagnósticos para trastornos temporomandibulares (RDC / TMD) como diagnóstico. La selección del tratamiento para cada individuo se llevó a cabo mediante una metodología de cruce triple ciego completo al azar. Por lo tanto, todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a todos los tratamientos en diferentes momentos, en una secuencia no estandarizada, evitando los resultados tendenciosos. Los tratamientos fueron: A (diclofenaco sódico + carisoprodol + acetaminofen + cafeína), B (diclofenaco sódico) y C (placebo), todos asociados a una férula oclusal. Cada período de tratamiento fue seguido por once días. No se encontraron diferencias entre los valores inicial y final de los tratamientos. Sin embargo, hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los grupos de evaluación sensorial y después del tratamiento B, y en los grupos de calificación sensorial, afectivo, y el total después de los tratamientos B y C. Dentro de las limitaciones de esta investigación, se concluye que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico aislado en pacientes con TTM musculares promueve una mayor analgesia que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico más asociaciones o placebo, cuando se asocia a una férula oclusal. Abstract in english This study evaluate spontaneous pain after and before administration of sodium diclofenac, isolated or associated to carisoprodol, acetaminophen and caffeine, in chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. Were selected eighteen volunteers, both men and women, between 35-70 years of age (mea [...] n age 50 years). The inclusion criteria was masticatory muscle pain, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was used on the diagnose. The selection of treatment for each individual was done by a triple-blind full-randomized crossover methodology. Thus, all patients were submitted to all treatment at different moments, in a non standardized sequence, avoiding tendentious results. The treatments were: A (sodium diclofenac + carisoprodol + acetaminophen + caffeine), B (sodium diclofenac) and C (placebo), all associated with an occlusal splint. Each treatment period was followed by an eleven-day washout. There weren't observed differences between initial and final values of treatments. However, there were statistically significant differences in evaluative and miscellaneous sensorial groups after B treatment; and in sensorial, affective, and total score groups after B and C treatments. Within the limitations of this investigation, we conclude that treatment of muscular TMD patients with sodium diclofenac isolated promoted higher analgesia than treatment with sodium diclofenac more associations or placebo, when associated to an occlusal splint.

Fernando, Kurita Varoli; Sandra, Sato; Murillo, Sucena Pita; Cássio, do Nascimento; Vinícius, Pedrazzi.

2012-08-01

184

Modelo experimental de estenose traqueal mediante ressecção cirúrgica submucosa de anéis traqueais combinada com instilações de hidróxido de sódio Experimental model of tracheal stenosis with submucosal resection of cartilaginous rings combined with sodium hydroxide instillations  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, experimentalmente, malácia e estenose traqueal para testar novos modelos de órteses traqueais. MÉTODOS: Ressecamos três anéis cartilaginosos da traqueia cervical de cães no grupo A (n=5 e seis anéis no grupo B (n=4 para produzir malácia. Logo após, a mucosa da região com malácia recebeu aplicações de uma solução de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH a 23%, e os animais eram acompanhados com exames broncoscópicos para observar o desenvolvimento de estreitamento da luz da via aérea. Quando a estenose era de mais de 50% da luz, ou havia sinais mínimos de insuficiência ventilatória, os animais eram sacrificados. O segmento de via aérea estreitada foi então coletado para análise histológica e era calculada a área de luz residual do segmento traqueal com estenose e malácia. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica, foi constatada fibrose na submucosa e adventícia, associada a granulomas na mucosa. A luz residual média dos segmentos com estenose foi de 9% e 12% nos grupos A e B, respectivamente, (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A combinação da ressecção de anéis cartilaginosos e da aplicação de NaOH 23% na mucosa respiratória promoveu uma estenose traqueal intensa, porém esteve associada à perda de animais. Novos estudos são necessários para verificar se o emprego isolado de uma das técnicas seria mais seguro e eficaz para desenvolver estenose traqueal.OBJECTIVE: To experimentally develop tracheal stenosis and malacia to test new models of tracheal stents. METHODS: We resected three cartilaginous rings from the cervical trachea of dogs in group A (n = 5 and six rings in group B (n = 4 to produce malacia. The mucosa of the region with malacia then received applications of a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH at 23%, and the animals were accompanied with bronchoscopic examinations to observe the development of luminal narrowing of the airway. When the stenosis was of more than 50% or there were minimal signs of ventilatory failure, the animals were sacrificed. The segment of narrowed airway was then collected for histological analysis and calculation of the area of residual lumen in the tracheal segment with stenosis and malacia. RESULTS: In histological analysis, fibrosis was found in the submucosa and adventitia, associated with granulomas in the mucosa. The average residual lumen of the segments with stenosis was 9% and 12% in groups A and B, respectively (p> 0.05. CONCLUSION: The combination of resection of the cartilaginous rings and the application of 23% NaOH in the respiratory mucosa promoted severe tracheal stenosis, but was associated with loss of animals. Further studies are needed to verify that the isolated use of one of the techniques would be safer and more effective to develop tracheal stenosis.

Maurício Guidi Saueressig

2011-12-01

185

Comparison of Decontamination Efficacy between the Rapid Hygrothermal Pasteurization and Sodium Hypochlorite Treatments  

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Full Text Available We developed a novel rapid hygrothermal pasteurization (RHP method using saturated water vapor with a dew point of 100?. The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of RHP treatment versus conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaClO treatments on inactivation of natural mesophilic bacteria and quality attributes on fruits and vegetables. The RHP treatment was performed within a second by free-falling samples (cabbage, cucumber, carrot, bell pepper, pineapple and melon through cylindrical processing chamber filled with steam. NaClO treatment was performed by washing samples with NaClO solution (100 mg/mL of free chlorine (pH 7, for 1 min. The RHP treatment showed a significantly higher inactivation effect than NaClO treatment on all tested samples. The RHP treatment had a slightly larger influence on color and vitamin C content than NaClO treatment in cabbage. Furthermore, the effects of treatment time and operated temperature were also determined using microbial model system. Elongation of treatment time did not significantly increase the microbial inactivation effect. Lowering of operated temperature by mixing air into steam tended to decrease the inactivation effect. From these results, RHP treatment could be used as an alternative method for decontaminating microorganisms on fruits and vegetables, except on leafy vegetable. In addition, it is suggested that microbial inactivation by RHP treatment was achieved through the initial condensation stage of water vapor on sample surface. By contrast, interfusion of air disturbed the effective condensation of water vapor.

Mitsuya Shimoda

2013-06-01

186

Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

Nicholas R. Soelberg

2004-01-01

187

Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water. PMID:24355687

Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

2014-01-15

188

The effect of sodium hypochlorite and ginger extract on microorganisms and endotoxins in endodontic treatment of infected root canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This in vitro study sought to evaluate the biomechanical preparation action on microorganisms and endotoxins by using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and an intracanal medication containing Zingiber officinale, with or without calcium hydroxide. Single-rooted teeth were contaminated, and root canal instrumentation (using 2.5% NaOCl) was performed. Samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the intracanal medication employed. The root canal content was gathered 28 days after contamination (baseline), immediately after biomechanical preparation, 7 days after biomechanical preparation, 14 days after intracanal medication, and 7 days after intracanal medication was removed. The results (submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests) showed that the NaOCl eliminated 100% of root canal microorganisms and reduced 88.8% of endotoxins immediately after biomechanical preparation, and 83.2% at 7 days after biomechanical preparation. PMID:24784510

Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; Cardoso, Flavia Goulart Rosa; Oliveira, Luciane Dias de; Oliveira, Carolina Lima de; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge

2014-01-01

189

Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for the routine treatment of drinking water at the household level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Household water treatment using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been recognized as a cost-effective means of reducing the heavy burden of diarrhea and other waterborne diseases, especially among populations without access to improved water supplies. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), which is widely used in emergencies, is an alternative source of chlorine that may present certain advantages over NaOCl for household-based interventions in development settings. We summarize the basic chemistry and possible benefits of NaDCC, and review the available literature concerning its safety and regulatory treatment and microbiological effectiveness. We review the evidence concerning NaDCC in field studies, including microbiological performance and health outcomes. Finally, we examine studies and data to compare NaDCC with NaOCl in terms of compliance, acceptability, affordability and sustainability, and suggest areas for further research. PMID:16387550

Clasen, Thomas; Edmondson, Paul

2006-03-01

190

Treatment of Industrial Liquid Waste of Steel Plating by Coagulation-Flocculation Using Sodium Biphosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research about treatment of industrial liquid waste of steel plating by coagulation-flocculation using sodium biphosphate have been conducted. The purpose of the treatment was the content reduction of Cr, Ni, and Cu in the liquid waste, so that produced effluent with Cr, Ni, and Cu content until they laid under mutual standard. The variables studied in this process were the solution pH, the coagulant/waste volume comparison, the speed of the fast stirring, and the time of the fast stirring. Optimum separation efficiency on coagulation-flocculation process of liquid waste of steel plating using sodium biphosphate at the condition of solution ph 9, coagulant/waste volume comparation 1.50, the speed of the fast stirring 400 rpm, and the time of fast stirring is 5 minute. Low stirring was conducted at 60 rpm for 60 minute. The yields of optimum separation efficiency in this condition were 99.48 % for Cr, 99.51 % for Ni, and 99.03 % for Cu. (author)

191

[Immobilized forms of sodium hypochlorite in carboxymetilcellulose gel used in treatment of disseminated peritonitis].  

Science.gov (United States)

56 patients with disseminated purulent peritonitis were observed. All patients were divided into 2 groups. 30 patients treated according to traditional technique formed the first group. Surgical treatment included: laparotomy, elimination of the underlying condition that caused peritonitis, nasointestinal intubation of small intestine, abdominal cavity sanation with 0.02% furacillin solution till pure liquid, drainage. 200 ml of 0.03% aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite was infused into abdominal cavity before closure. 26 patients treated according to the similar technique formed the second group. In contrast to the first group, 200 ml of immobilized form of sodium hypochlorite in carboxymetilcellulose gel was infused to the patients from the second group before wound closure. In early postoperative period the indices of endotoxicosis were in 1.6 times lower in patients from the second group and motor-evacuatory function of the stomach--twice higher compared with the patients from the first group. It decreased the amount of complications in 2 times, and postoperative lethality--in 2.6 times. In long-term postoperative period perfect treatment results increased in 20.8%, well--in 4.1%, tolerable--decreased in 20.9% compared with the results in the control group. PMID:20032938

Sukovatykh, B S; Blinkov, Iu Iu; Eshotkin, S A; Frolova, O G

2009-01-01

192

A Comparative Assessment the Efficacy of Intravenous Infusion of Sodium Valproate and Phenytion in the Treatment of Status Epilepticus  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Status epilepticus (SE) is a type of persistent lasting seizure with high mortality and morbidity. Numerous medications are suggested for the treatment of SE, two of which are sodium valproate and phenytoin. The purpose of this study is to conduct a comparison between the efficiencies of intravenous sodium valproate and phenytoin in the treatment of this type of epilepsy. Methods: This is a clinical trial study conducted on SE-suffering patients admitted to the emergency departments of Al-Zahra and Ayatollah Kashani Medical Centers of Isfahan in 2009 and 2010. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups and taken under treatment, separately by intravenous infusion sodium valproate and phenytoin. Results: No significant difference was observed between the two groups (at P = 0.06). In terms of incidence of the clinical complications, the incidence of clinical complications in the two groups was significantly different (at P = 0.03). Conclusions: Based on the findings the efficiency of sodium valproate is larger than that of the phenytoin, and thus, the treatment by sodium valproate is preferred over the treatment by phenytoin. PMID:23776727

Chitsaz, Ahmad; Mehvari, Jafar; Salari, Mehri; Gholami, Fataneh; Najafi, Mohammad-reza

2013-01-01

193

Precipitation of the rare earth double sodium and rare earths from the sulfuric liquor and the conversion into rare earth hydroxides through meta ethic reaction; Precipitacao do sulfato duplo de terras raras e sodio a partir de licor sulfurico e sua conversao em hidroxido de terras raras mediante reacao metatetica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents the purification study of the rare earths through precipitation of rare earth and sodium (Na TR (SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. x H{sub 2}O)) double sulfate and his conversion to rare earths hydroxide TR(OH){sub 3} by meta ethic reaction through the addition of sodium hydroxide solution to the solid double sulfate. The study used the sulfuric liquor as rare earth sample, generated in the chemical processing of the monazite with sulfuric acid by the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB, Brazil, after the thorium and uranium extraction. The work investigated the influence of the main variables involved in the precipitation of Na TR(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O and in the conversion for the TR(OH){sub 3}, as follows: type and excess of the precipitation agent, temperature and time reaction. The obtained solid composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared and chemical analysis. The double sulfate diffractogram indicated the Na TR(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} mono-hydrated. The characterization of the metatese products has shown that, for obtaining the complete conversion of NaTR(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O into TR(OH){sub 3}, the reaction must be hot processed ({approx}70 deg C) and with small excess of Na OH ({<=} 5 percent). (author)

Abreu, Renata D.; Oliveira, Ester F.; Brito, Walter de; Morais, Carlos A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: rda@cdtn.br; esterfo@cdtn.br; britow@cdtn.br; cmorais@cdtn.br

2007-07-01

194

Growth responses of the halophyte selicornia herbacea l. (=S. europaea) under different treatments of sodium chloride and fertilizers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth respose of the halophyte Salicornia herbacea was examined under different treatments using sodium chloride, nitrogenous and phosphorous sources and irrigation in the field. The data revealed that the growth. in terms of dry weight and shoot length, of the plants was inhanced by sodium chloride and maximum growth was obtained at 1000 mol concentration. Plant growth was retarded under other treatments. However, growth was greatly reduced in nitrogen (urea) application. The major ions constituents of shoots was Na and Cl. The levels of these ions were highly affected by the treatments.Highest levels of Na and CI was found at 1000 mol sodium chloride and lowest at irrigated plants. (authors). 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

195

Potential and limits of sodium hydroxide as an additive to the binary system ammonia/water in absorption heat pumps; Potenzial und Grenzen von Natriumhydroxid als Zusatz zum Stoffpaar Ammoniak/Wasser in Absorptions-Waermepumpen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several authors proposed the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an additive to the ammonia/water working fluid mixture (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O), especially in solar air conditioners. Measured vapour-liquid equilibrium data of this tertiary mixture are found in the relevant literature. Thermodynamic calculations carried out with these data show that the efficiency (COP) will be enhanced in theory while the rectification time will decrease. To verify these theoretical considerations and to gain practical experience with the tertiary mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH, a test stand was constructed at the Institut fuer Waermetechnik, and measurements were carried out on the mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, i.e. without NaOH, and with 5% NaOH. The technical feasibility of the process was established, although NaOH depositions in the refrigerating circuit caused operational disturbances, so that the mixture had to be renewed regularly and the plant had to be flushed with water. The expected efficiency improvement was not observed. Analyses using ''ASPEN Plus'' showed that this was the result of lower absorber efficiency, which may be due to the higher circulation rate and higher viscosity of the working fluid mixture. Measurements showed a moderate improvements of heat transfer in the expeller after addition of NaOH; no effects were found in the evaporator, solvent heat exchanger and rectification column. The findings suggest that fast implementation of NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP is not realistic. Considerable research and development will still be required for optimisation of the absorber for operation with NaOH. [German] Die Verwendung von Natriumhydroxid (NaOH) als Zusatz zum Arbeitsstoffgemisch Ammoniak / Wasser (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O) wurde von verschiedenen Autoren insbesondere fuer das Anwendungsgebiet der solaren Klimatisierung vorgeschlagen. In der einschlaegigen Literatur wurden gemessene Dampf-Fluessig-Gleichgewichts-Daten von diesem Dreistoffgemisch publiziert. Die mit diesen Daten durchgefuehrten thermodynamischen Rechnungen zeigen, dass die Effizienz (COP) durch die Zugabe von Natriumhydroxid in einer Ammoniak / Wasser-Absorptionswaermepumpe theoretisch erhoeht werden kann und der Rektifikationsaufwand sinkt. Um diese theoretischen Berechnungen zu ueberpruefen und praktische Erfahrungen mit dem Dreistoffgemisch NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH zu sammeln, wurde am Institut fuer Waermetechnik ein Pruefstand aufgebaut. Mit diesem Pruefstand wurden Messungen mit dem Gemisch NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, d.h. ohne NaOH, und mit 5% NaOH durchgefuehrt. Dabei konnte die technische Machbarkeit dieses Prozesses gezeigt werden. Allerdings fuehrten Ablagerungen von NaOH im Kaeltekreis zu Betriebsstoerungen bzw. dazu, dass das Arbeitsgemisch regelmaessig gewechselt und die Anlage mit Wasser gespuelt werden musste. Die erwartete Verbesserung bezueglich der Prozess-Effizienz konnte bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden. Die Analyse der Messergebnisse mit dem Softwareprogram ''ASPEN Plus'' hat gezeigt, dass dies vor allem an einer geringeren Absorber-Effizienz lag, welche wahrscheinlich auf den bei gleicher Leistung notwendigen hoeheren Loesungsumlauf und die hoehere Viskositaet des Arbeitsgemisches zurueckzufuehren ist. In Bezug auf den Einfluss von NaOH auf die anderen Komponenten, fuehrt die NaOH-Zugabe laut Messungen zu einer moderaten Verbesserung des Waermeueberganges im Austreiber. Bei der Analyse des Einflusses von NaOH auf den Verdampfer, den Loesungsmittelwaermetauscher und die Rektifikationskolonne konnten keine signifikanten Veraenderungen zwischen den Betriebspunkten mit und ohne NaOH festgestellt werden. Aus heutiger Sicht scheint die rasche technische Umsetzung einer NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP aus den oben genannten Gruenden nicht realistisch zu sein. Es besteht noch erheblicher Forschungs- und Entwicklungsbedarf in Bezug auf die Optimierung des Absorbers fuer den Betrieb mit NaOH und die oben genannten Betriebsstoerungen.

Kotenko, Oleksandr; Moser, Harald; Fenzl, Thomas; Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik

2011-07-01

196

Modelo experimental de estenose traqueal mediante ressecção cirúrgica submucosa de anéis traqueais combinada com instilações de hidróxido de sódio / Experimental model of tracheal stenosis with submucosal resection of cartilaginous rings combined with sodium hydroxide instillations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, experimentalmente, malácia e estenose traqueal para testar novos modelos de órteses traqueais. MÉTODOS: Ressecamos três anéis cartilaginosos da traqueia cervical de cães no grupo A (n=5) e seis anéis no grupo B (n=4) para produzir malácia. Logo após, a mucosa da região com mal [...] ácia recebeu aplicações de uma solução de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) a 23%, e os animais eram acompanhados com exames broncoscópicos para observar o desenvolvimento de estreitamento da luz da via aérea. Quando a estenose era de mais de 50% da luz, ou havia sinais mínimos de insuficiência ventilatória, os animais eram sacrificados. O segmento de via aérea estreitada foi então coletado para análise histológica e era calculada a área de luz residual do segmento traqueal com estenose e malácia. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica, foi constatada fibrose na submucosa e adventícia, associada a granulomas na mucosa. A luz residual média dos segmentos com estenose foi de 9% e 12% nos grupos A e B, respectivamente, (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: A combinação da ressecção de anéis cartilaginosos e da aplicação de NaOH 23% na mucosa respiratória promoveu uma estenose traqueal intensa, porém esteve associada à perda de animais. Novos estudos são necessários para verificar se o emprego isolado de uma das técnicas seria mais seguro e eficaz para desenvolver estenose traqueal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To experimentally develop tracheal stenosis and malacia to test new models of tracheal stents. METHODS: We resected three cartilaginous rings from the cervical trachea of dogs in group A (n = 5) and six rings in group B (n = 4) to produce malacia. The mucosa of the region with malacia the [...] n received applications of a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 23%, and the animals were accompanied with bronchoscopic examinations to observe the development of luminal narrowing of the airway. When the stenosis was of more than 50% or there were minimal signs of ventilatory failure, the animals were sacrificed. The segment of narrowed airway was then collected for histological analysis and calculation of the area of residual lumen in the tracheal segment with stenosis and malacia. RESULTS: In histological analysis, fibrosis was found in the submucosa and adventitia, associated with granulomas in the mucosa. The average residual lumen of the segments with stenosis was 9% and 12% in groups A and B, respectively (p> 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of resection of the cartilaginous rings and the application of 23% NaOH in the respiratory mucosa promoted severe tracheal stenosis, but was associated with loss of animals. Further studies are needed to verify that the isolated use of one of the techniques would be safer and more effective to develop tracheal stenosis.

Maurício Guidi, Saueressig; Amarilio Vieira de, Macedo Neto; Julio de Oliveira, Espinel; Maria Isabel, Edelweiss; Paulo Roberto Stefani, Sanches; Rogério Gastal, Xavier.

2011-12-01

197

Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack

198

Pathophysiology and treatment of resistant hypertension: the role of aldosterone and amiloride-sensitive sodium channels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistant hypertension is a clinically distinct subgroup of hypertension defined by the failure to achieve blood pressure control on optimal dosing of at least 3 antihypertensive medications of different classes, including a diuretic. The pathophysiology of hypertension can be attributed to aldosterone excess in more than 20% of patients with resistant hypertension. Existing dogma attributes the increase in blood pressure seen with increases in aldosterone to its antinatriuretic effects in the distal nephron. However, emerging research, which has identified and has begun to define the function of amiloride-sensitive sodium channels and mineralocorticoid receptors in the systemic vasculature, challenges impaired natriuresis as the sole cause of aldosterone-mediated resistant hypertension. This review integrates these findings to better define the role of the vasculature and aldosterone in the pathophysiology of resistant hypertension. In addition, a brief guide to the treatment of resistant hypertension is presented. PMID:25416662

Judd, Eric K; Calhoun, David A; Warnock, David G

2014-01-01

199

Combined treatment of preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro with sodium nitrite and X-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Man takes up nitrite in a considerable amount. Effects of nitrite on DNA have been reported; therefore, interaction between nitride and radiation might be possible. Preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro were treated with a combination of sodium nitrite (1 mM or 2.5 mM) and X-rays (0.94 Gy) in order to obtain some information whether radiation risk is influenced by the presence of nitrite. The microscopic visible developement up to 144 h post conceptionem (h.p.c.), the number of cell nuclei, and the number of micronuclei were determined. None of the experimental results gives any indication that radiation risk is influenced by nitrite. All effects after combined treatment correspond to the sum of the single effects. (orig.)

200

Efficacy of intra-articular sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid in patients with knee osteoarthritis, sixty female patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomised to three weekly intra-articular injections of 30 mg sodium hyaluronate (Na HA) with a high molecular weight (1.0 to 2.9 million Da) or 40 mg 6-methylprednisolone acetate (6-MPA). The clinical assessments included pain at rest, at weight-bearing and on walking, Lequesne Index and active range of knee flexion. Assessments were done at baseline, at week 4, and at months 3 and 6. A significant decrease in VAS scores for pain at rest, at weight-bearing and pain on walking, and in Lequesne index was found in both groups at week 4 when compared to baseline and there was no significant differences between the two groups. However, at 3(rd) month improvement in all pain scores and Lequesne index was found in favour of hyaluronic acid. At 6(th), no significant difference was found between the treatment groups. Improvement in pain was accompanied by an increase in joint flexion at week 4 and at month 3 in both groups. Both treatments were well-tolerated. The results showed that both intra-articular hyaluronic acid and 6-MPA treatments provide clinically significant improvement and demonstrated that Na HA has a long-term beneficial effect in patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:12740675

Tasciotaoglu, F; Oner, C

2003-05-01

201

Intravitreal Combination of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate and Bevacizumab in The Treatment of Exudative AMD.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) combined with bevacizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this non comparative case study, 30 eyes of 27 patients with CNV due to AMD received intravitreal DSP (0.2?mg) and bevacizumab (1.25?mg) during a 6-month PRN (pro re nata) dosing regimen. Visual acuity, macular thickness and intraocular pressure (IOP) were monitored and recorded. After 6 months, mean retinal thickness decreased from 423.5 ± 75.3 to 228.2 ± 34.5 and mean visual acuity improved from 0.9 ± 0.39 logMAR to 0.53 ± 0.34 (p = 0.001) logMAR. During the trial period, 81 intravitreal injections were performed in 30 eyes, thus the mean number of injections per eye was 2.7 ± 1.1. 86.7% of the eyes required 3 or less injections while only 13.3% needed 4 or more injections. None of the patients, phakic or pseudophakic, manifested an elevation of IOP during the treatment, ranging between 12 and 22?mmHg. Combined DSP and bevacizumab offers encouraging results in the challenge of AMD treatment, providing immediate response of macular edema, reduced number of intravitreal injections and stabilization or improvement of visual acuity. PMID:25720826

Vakalis, N; Echiadis, G; Pervena, A; Deligiannis, I; Kavalarakis, E; Giannikakis, S; Papaefthymiou, I

2015-01-01

202

Average formation number n-barOH of colloid-type indium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indium perchlorate in perchloric acid solution was titrated with sodium hydroxide solution to various pH values. Indium hydroxide colloid was removed by ultracentrifugation and supernatant solution was titrated with base to neutral pH. The two-stage titration data were used to calculate the formation number of indium hydroxide colloid, which was found to equal n-barOH = 2.8. (author)

203

Simple Method for Simultaneous Determination of Carbonate, Sulfite and Hydroxide in Solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide in a complex matrices. The method involves salvation of the tow gases in Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by simultaneous determination of the three species (carbonate, sulfite and hydroxide using conductometric and potentiometric titration. What set this method apart from other determination methods it`s simplicity.

Hossam I. Al-Itawi

2007-01-01

204

A new treatment forInterdialytic hyperkalemia - the use of fosinopril sodium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fosinopril sodium is the first of the phosphinic acid class of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). It is used as an antihypertensive agent, but differs from other ACEI in its dual routes of excretion (liver and kidney), and less incidence of hyperkalemia and cough. We conducted a study in known chronic hemodialysis patients who developed interdialytic hyperkalemia in spite of other treatments to control hyperkalemia. We used fosinopril in this group of patients to assess the effect of fosinopril on serum potassium (K) levels. Twenty-four patients were given fosinopril 10 mg at 18:00 h daily for 8 weeks. K levels were measured before and after each dialysis treatment. Interdialytic weight gains were recorded. The average pretrial potassium level was 6.57 mmol/l (+/- 0.47), and the posttrial level was 5.34 (+/- 0.76); p

Mousa, D; Rassoul, Z; Popovich, W; Hassan, A; Margate, V; Hawas, F; Suleiman, M; Al Khader, A

1999-01-01

205

The use of sodium carbonate to improve curing treatments against green and blue moulds on citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of curing oranges and lemons at 33 degrees C for 65h followed by storage under ambient and cold-storage conditions was investigated. This treatment effectively reduced the incidence of Penicillium digitatum (Pers) Sacc and P italicum Wehmer decay on inoculated and naturally infected oranges and lemons stored at 20 degrees C for 7 days. However, it failed to control green and blue mould infections on fruits placed in long-term cold storage, except green mould on oranges, which was effectively controlled. Dipping fruits in a sodium carbonate solution (20 g litre(-1)) for 2.5 min following a curing treatment at 33 degrees C for 65 h satisfactorily reduced green and blue mould incidence during subsequent long-term storage at 4 degrees C on oranges and at 10 degrees C on lemons. The efficacy was greater on injured fruits inoculated after the combination of treatments was applied, achieving a 60-80% reduction in decay in comparison with the curing treatment alone in all cases. A significant reduction of blue mould was also observed on fruits inoculated both before the treatments and on those re-inoculated after the treatments, demonstrating both protectant and eradicant activity. Thus, combining curing at 33 degrees C for 65 h with sodium carbonate treatment effectively controlled these post-harvest diseases on artificially inoculated citrus fruits and protected against re-infection. With naturally inoculated lemons, curing followed by sodium carbonate significantly reduced both green and blue mould incidence, but was not superior to curing alone. With naturally infected oranges, curing significantly reduced blue mould, but decay was not reduced further when followed by sodium carbonate treatment. PMID:15307674

Plaza, Pilar; Usall, Josep; Torres, Rosario; Abadias, Maribel; Smilanick, Joseph L; Viñas, Immaculada

2004-08-01

206

Safety and efficacy of clobazam versus phenytoin-sodium in the antiepileptic drug treatment of solitary cysticercus granulomas  

OpenAIRE

Background: It is now agreed that the prognosis of seizure disorder due to solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG) is generally good. However, the choice antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) remain empirical, with no comparative trials of different AEDs being available. Aims: To determine the safety and efficacy (measured by the incidence of ?treatment failure?) of clobazam in comparison to standard treatment with phenytoin-sodium for prevention of seizures in persons with solitary cystic...

Kaushal Sandeep; Rani Asha; Chopra Sarvesh; Singh Gagandeep

2006-01-01

207

Effects of Aluminum Hydroxide and Famotidine on Bioavailability of Tosufloxacin in Healthy Volunteers  

OpenAIRE

This study was designed to determine the influence of aluminum hydroxide and famotidine on the bioavailability of tosufloxacin. Coadministration of aluminum hydroxide reduced the bioavailability of tosufloxacin by 31.6% (P < 0.05). Famotidine did not alter tosufloxacin absorption. To avoid potential treatment failures, the concurrent use of tosufloxacin and aluminum hydroxide should be avoided altogether.

Minami, Rumiko; Nakamura, Chizuko; Inotsume, Nobuo; Nakano, Masahiro

1998-01-01

208

Efficacy of Topical Sodium Sulfacetamide in the Treatment of Mild and Moderate Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized, Comparative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Design: Clindamycin and erythromycin are the most widely used topical antibiotics in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. The combination of topical antibiotics with benzoyl peroxide increases the efficacy of the treatment and reduces antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. Sodium sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic. Although it has been known for many years, it is not widely used in acne treatment. However, it has recently acquired currency again. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of sodium sulfacetamide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris and to compare with the other widely used topical antibiotics. Material and Method: In our comparative study, 60 patients with acne vulgaris were randomly assigned into 3 groups, wherein the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd groups were applied sodium sulfacetamide 10% lotion, clindamycin 1% lotion, and erythromycin 2% gel, respectively, twice daily for 12 weeks. Each group consisted of 20 subjects. The treatment was combined with benzoyl peroxide in all groups. The patients were assessed for noninflammatory (open and closed comedones and inflammatory (papules and pustules lesion counts at 4, 8, and 12 weeks and, adverse events were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for age, sex and acne duration (p>0.05. Statistically significant decrease was obtained with all 3 treatment regimens at the end of the study (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, topical sodium sulfacetamide was found to be as effective and safe as erythromycin and clindamycin when combined with benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. These results should be supported by studies with larger cohorts.

Ay?egül Turan

2012-03-01

209

Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats / Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Em reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste t [...] rabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extraído e mantido sobre bancada para ressecamento por 60 min. Posteriormente, os dentes do grupo I foram imersos em soro fisiológico por 2 min. No grupo II, os dentes tiveram a superfície radicular friccionada com gaze embebida em soro fisiológico por 2 min e no grupo III a fricção foi feita empregando-se solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Todos os dentes tiveram então a superfície radicular tratada com ácido fosfórico a 37% seguido de imersão em solução de fluoreto de sódio fosfato acidulado a 2%, pH 5,5. Os canais foram obturados com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e os dentes foram reimplantados. Os animais foram sacrificados 60 dias depois e as peças contendo os dentes foram processadas em laboratório. Cortes transversais semi-seriados do terço médio da raiz, foram obtidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina para análise histomorfométrica. Os dados obtidos foram confrontados pela análise de variância empregando-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis, quando este indicou diferença estatisticamente significante, utilizou-se o teste de Dunn para as comparações individuais. Os resultados demonstraram que a estrutura radicular e a extensão de cemento foram mais afetadas pela reabsorção no grupo III (p Abstract in english In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this s [...] tudy evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p

André Dotto, Sottovia; Celso Koogi, Sonoda; Wilson Roberto, Poi; Sônia Regina, Panzarini; José Roberto Pereira, Lauris.

2006-04-01

210

Effects of ferric hydroxid sludge dosage on sludge treatment/-disposal. Final report; Einfluesse einer Eisenschlammzugabe auf die Klaerschlammbehandlung/-entsorgung. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot plant consisting of two gravity thickeners, two sludge digesters and sludge dewatering by laboratory-frame filter press was operated on two different sewage water treatment plants. Ferric hydroxide sludge (FS) was treated together as with surplus sludge from enhanced biological removal of phosphorus (SS{sub EBPR}) as together with a mixture of primary and surplus sludge including precipitation sludge (PS+SS). One sludge treatment system was dosed with FS, the other serving as control unit operated without FS. In combined thickening in view of filterable solids, COD and P the quality of supernatant improved in most cases as well as the dried solid matter of the thickened sludge increased. In thickening of SS{sub EBPR} 45-70% P was refixed more than in the control system. Scum caused by hydrogen sulphide could be avoided in particular cases. There were no negative influences on the process of combined digestion with SS{sub EBPR} observed as well as with PS+SS. The degradation of organic solid matter was increased by FS-dosage>30 g Fe/kg TR{sub RS}. If present SS{sub EBPR}, hydrogen sulphide was reduced significantly; the content of methane in digester gas increased. Re-dissolved poly-P was refixed nearly completely. Sludge dewatering process was not influenced by FS, independent of the kind of post sludge conditioning. Nor was the sludge disposal restricted by FS. P-feedback from combined thickening, digestion and dewatering of SS{sub EBPR} decreased in comparison to the control unit with 16,8% (in relation to P{sub tot} influent) to 11,2 resp. 1,4% depending on the dosage of FS. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine halbtechnische Versuchsanlage mit Schwerkrafteindickern, Faulbehaeltern und Entwaesserung mit einer Labor-Rahmenfilterpresse wurde auf zwei kommunalen Klaeranlagen betrieben. Eisenhydroxidschlamm (ES) wurde zum einen mit Ueberschussschlamm aus der erhoehten biologischen P-Elimination (UeSS{sub BIO-P}) und zum anderen mit einem Gemisch aus Primaer- und Ueberschussschlamm mit Faellschlammanteilen (PRS+UeSS) gemeinsam behandelt. Eine Strasse wurde mit verschiedenen ES-Dosierungen beschickt. Die zweite Strasse diente zu Referenzzwecken. Bei der gemeinsamen Eindickung konnte zumeist eine Verbesserung der Ueberstandswasserqualitaet bezueglich der Parameter AFS, CSB und P durch die ES-Zugabe festgestellt werden. Gleichfalls wurden hoehere Feststoffgehalte nach der Eindickung erzielt. Bei der UeSS{sub BIO-P} Eindickung wurde zusaetzlich 45-70% P fixiert. Schwefelwasserstoffbedingte Schwimmschlammbildung konnte z.T. voellig unterbunden werden. Die gemeinsame Ausfaulung, sowohl mit UeSS{sub BIO-P} als auch mit PRS+UeSS wurde nicht negativ beeinflusst. Bei ES-Dosierungen >30 g Fe/kg TR{sub KS} war ein verbesserter oTR-Abbau festzustellen. Schwefelwasserstoff wurde, soweit vorhanden, deutlich reduziert; der Methangehalt des Faulgases wurde erhoeht. Rueckgeloestes Polyphosphat konnte fast vollstaendig refixiert werden. Die ES-Zugabe wirkte sich nur in geringem Masse auf das Entwaesserungverhalten aus. Dies gilt fuer die anorganische Konditionierung genauso, wie fuer die Konditionierung mit organischen FHM. Die Entsorgungsmoeglichkeiten wurden durch die ES-Dosierung nicht eingeschraenkt. Aus den Teilergebnissen der gemeinsamen Eindickung, Faulung Entwaesserung mit UeSS{sub BIO-P} laesst sich eine Abnahme der P-Rueckbelastung infolge Schlammwasserrueckfuehrung von 16,8% (bezogen auf P{sub ges} im Zulauf) in der Referenzanlage auf 11,2 bzw, 1,4% in Abhaengigkeit von der Eisendosierung errechnen. (orig.)

Dammann, E.; Benzinger, S.

1997-12-01

211

Selective synthesis of zeolitic phillipsite and hibschite hydrogarnet from lignite ash employing calcium hydroxide under mild conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

A selective synthesis of zeolitic material, phillipsite, employing calcium hydroxide under mild chemical conditions is reported. This is to provide a potential method in reducing the amount of the waste from lignite power plant and the addition of economical value to the material. The fly ash was first activated by calcination at high temperature, and then fused with calcium hydroxide. The water was then added to the solid mixture before curing under saturated water vapour at low temperature. The treatment of as-received fly ash with either calcium hydroxide or a mixture of calcium and sodium hydroxide following as-described preparative procedure of phillipsite, but without prior calcination was also conducted, and led to the formation of Hibschite hydrogarnet, which was also evidentially selective. The following parameters, i.e. type and amount of alkali reagent, the amount of added water, fusion temperature and reaction time were investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction was used to identify type of crystalline solid products, and scanning electron microscope was employed to follow the alteration of solid morphologies. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to trace the chemical composition of the solids. The heavy metal cation removal abilities toward lead ion of the prepared phillipsites were also investigated.

Rujiwatra, Apinpus; Phueadpho, Malinee; Grudpan, Kate

2005-06-01

212

Chondroitin sulfate and sodium hialuronate in treatment of the degenerative joint disease in dogs. Clinical and radiological aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate in the knee joint of dogs with experimentally induced degenerative joint disease (DJD). Fifteen mongrel dogs, weighing 18 to 25kg were used. DJD was induced by cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) arthroscopical transection. After three weeks, CCL was repaired by an intrarticular technique, which uses fascia lata. The dogs were then divided into three groups as follows: group I received no other treatment, but the CCL reconstitution, group II received 24mg/animal of chondroitin sulfate/IM every five days, totaling six injections, and group III received 20mg/animal of sodium hyaluronate /IV every five days, totaling three injections. All dogs were examined clinically and radiographically for 90 days after the repairment surgery. The clinical evaluation was performed by assessment of lameness, weight-bearing, limb muscle atrophy and range of motion. The results demonstrated that the group treated with sodium hyaluronate had lower degree of lameness in comparison with other groups. The radiographic evaluation showed marginal osteophytes and subchondral bone sclerosis. These changes were more severe in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate. The better clinical results observed in this group, compared with the others, was probably due to the greater action of the drug in the synovium, decreasing the pain and lameness. Radiographic findings correlated poorly with the clinical signs in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate

213

Sodium valproate for the treatment of Tourette?s syndrome in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims are to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium valproate for children with Tourette?s syndrome (TS). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, Cochrane Central, CBM, CNKI, VIP, WANG FANG database and relevant reference lists. Five RCTs (N=247) and five case series (N=163) studies were included. Only one RCT (93 patients) evaluated total YGTSS scores and there was significant difference in the reduction of total YGTSS scores between sodium valproate and the control group (3.50±4.59 vs 7.86±7.03, Ptics, and there was significant difference in the reduction of motor and vocal tics scores between sodium valproate and haloperidol (10.45±4.15 vs 14.92±3.01, Ptics between sodium valproate and the positive control group [Relative Risk (RR)=1.09, 95%CI (0.92, 1.30), P=0.30]. The pooled proportion in five case series studies which used tics symptom improvement self-defined by authors was 80.7% (95% CI: 73.7-86.2, I(2)=0). No fatal side effects were reported. In conclusion, based on the limited evidence, the routine use of sodium valproate for treatment of TS in children is not recommended. Further well-conducted trials that examine long-term outcomes are required. PMID:25724485

Yang, Chun-Song; Zhang, Ling-Li; Lin, Yun-Zhu; Guo, Qin

2015-04-30

214

Conversion of elemental sodium to sodium carbonate at Argonne National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integral part of the liquid-metal reactor program is to provide the safe and effective disposition of elemental sodium, previously used as a heat transfer medium in nuclear plants. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has constructed a sodium process facility (SPF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to convert elemental sodium into 50 wt% sodium hydroxide solution. The SPF will treat 175,000 gallons of sodium.

Herrmann, S.D.; Bushman, H.W.; Washburn, R.A. [Argonne National Lab, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

215

Conversion of elemental sodium to sodium carbonate at Argonne National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An integral part of the liquid-metal reactor program is to provide the safe and effective disposition of elemental sodium, previously used as a heat transfer medium in nuclear plants. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has constructed a sodium process facility (SPF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to convert elemental sodium into 50 wt% sodium hydroxide solution. The SPF will treat 175,000 gallons of sodium

216

Development of sodium disposal technology. Experiment of sodium compound solidification process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large amount of sodium containing radioactive waste will come up at the time of final shutdown/decommission of FBR plant. The radioactive waste is managed as solid state material in a closed can in Japan. As for the sodium, there is no established method to convert the radioactive sodium to solid waste. Further, the sodium is highly reactive. Thus, it is recommended to convert the sodium to a stable substance before the solidification process. One of the stabilizing methods is conversion of sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. These stabilization and solidification processes should be safe, economical, and efficient. In order to develop such sodium disposal technology, nonradioactive sodium was used and a basic experiment was performed. Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method was employed as the solidification process of sodium hydroxide solution. Experimental parameters were mixing ratio of the sodium hydroxide and the slag solidification material, temperature and concentration of the sodium hydroxide. The best parameters were obtained to achieve the maximum filling ratio of the sodium hydroxide under a condition of enough high compressive strength of the solidified waste. In a beaker level test, the solidified waste was kept in a long term and it was shown that there was no change of appearance, density, and also the compressive strength was kept at a target value. In a real scale test, homogeneous profiles of the density and the compressive strength were obtained. The compressive strength was higher than the target value. It was shown that the Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method can be applied to the solidification process of the sodium hydroxide solution, which was produced by the stabilization process. (author)

217

Accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite in periapical region during endodontic treatment: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors’ aim was to report a clinical case of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite 2,5% into periapical region during the root canaltreatment of the upper right first molar. It was demonstrated that sodium hypochlorite concentrate solutions injection induces tissular injuries, discomfort for the patient and doubts about the dentist’s ability.

Renata Grazziotin SOARES

2007-05-01

218

Disinfection of herbal spa pool using combined chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in public spa pools poses a serious threat to human health. The problem is particularly acute in herbal spas, in which the herbs and microorganisms may interact and produce undesirable consequences. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effectiveness of a combined disinfectant containing chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite in improving the water quality of a public herbal spa in Taiwan. Water samples were collected from the spa pool and laboratory tests were then performed to measure the variation over time of the microorganism content (total CFU and total coliforms) and residual disinfectant content given a single disinfection mode (SDM) with disinfectant concentrations of 5.2?×?10, 6.29?×?10, 7.4?×?10, and 11.4?×?10(-5) N, respectively. Utilizing the experience gained from the laboratory tests, a further series of on-site investigations was performed using three different disinfection modes, namely SDM, 3DM (once every 3 h disinfection mode), and 2DM (once every 2 h disinfection mode). The laboratory results showed that for all four disinfectant concentrations, the CFU concentration reduced for the first 6 h following SDM treatment, but then increased. Moreover, the ANOVA results showed that the sample treated with the highest disinfectant concentration (11.4?×?10(-5) N) exhibited the lowest rate of increase in the CFU concentration. In addition, the on-site test results showed that 3DM and 2DM treatments with disinfectant concentrations in excess of 9.3?×?10 and 5.5?×?10(-5) N, respectively, provided an effective reduction in the total CFU concentration. In conclusion, the experimental results presented in this study provide a useful source of reference for spa businesses seeking to improve the water quality of their spa pools. PMID:25632897

Hsu, Ching-Shan; Huang, Da-Ji

2015-02-01

219

Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

220

Analytical treatment of large leak sodium-water interaction in LMFBR steam generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytical model is developed to study the pressure transients due to large leak sodium-water reaction in the steam generator of an liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Expansion of hydrogen, generated due to sodium-water reaction, is modelled as spherical bubble during the initial periods. Columnar bubble model is used as second stage of expansion. The change in temperature of hydrogen due to work done by the bubble on sodium is taken into account in the model. This spherical bubble model compares well with the experimental results. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

221

Insight of the removal of nickel and copper ions in fixed bed through acid activation and treatment with sodium of clay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The bentonitic clays show good adsorptive characteristics, being used as alternative material for removing metals. This study evaluates several treatments (calcination, acid activation and treatment with sodium) of bentonite type Bofe in the removal of nickel and copper. Analyses were performed for [...] physicochemical characterization of clay using the techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermal analysis (TG and DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) method, N2 adsorption (BET) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Among the changes induced by acid activation and sodium transformations, the treatment with sodium chloride in fixed bed showed the highest performance in the monocomponent removal of nickel and copper.

A. F. de, Almeida Neto; M. G. A., Vieira; M. G. C. da, Silva.

1047-10-01

222

Nickel hydroxide electrode. 3: Thermogravimetric investigations of nickel (II) hydroxides  

Science.gov (United States)

Water contained in Ni hydroxide influences its electrochemical reactivity. The water content of alpha and beta Ni hydroxides is different with respect to the amount and bond strength. Thermogravimetric experiments show that the water of the beta Ni hydroxides exceeding the stoichiometric composition is completely removed at 160 deg. The water contained in the interlayers of the beta hydroxide, however, is removed only at higher temperatures, together with the water originating from the decomposition of the hydroxide. These differences are attributed to the formation of II bonds within the interlayers and between interlayers and adjacent main layers. An attempt is made to explain the relations between water content and the oxidizability of the Ni hydroxides.

Dennstedt, W.; Loeser, W.

1982-01-01

223

Genetically targeted radiotherapy using the sodium-iodide symporter for treatment of head and neck cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts at using gene therapy for cancer treatment have achieved limited success. Traditional in vivo gene therapy techniques are limited by relatively inefficient gene transfer, with only a small fraction of tumor cells transfected with the gene of interest. Gene therapy strategies yielding substantial bystander cytotoxicity are preferable and could yield significant clinical effect despite a lack of gene transfer to the entire tumor. We report the successful use of such a strategy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene, expressed primarily in the thyroid, is responsible for physiologic iodide accumulation. Expression of NIS in non-thyroid cell lines has been shown to confer iodide-concentrating ability. Using a recombinant adenovirus-NIS construct (Ad-NIS) delivered to HNSCC cell lines, we demonstrate radioiodide accumulation 15- to 30-fold higher than that of cell lines transduced with a control (Ad-Bgl II) adenovirus. Consistent with NIS-mediated uptake, this accumulation is inhibited by treatment with perchlorate. Using a clonogenic cell survival assay, we demonstrate a statistically significant, dose-dependent decrease in cell survival after delivery of Ad-NIS followed by administration of varying doses of I-131. Compared to a control, Ad-Bgl II-treated group, absolute survival was reduced by 80% at the highest dose of I-131 in Ad-NIS-treated cells. We also demonstrate the ability of NIS gene transfermonstrate the ability of NIS gene transfer followed by systemic administration of I-131 to dramatically attenuate tumor formation in nude mice. Three weeks after subcutaneous injection of tumor cells, tumors treated with Ad-NIS had decreased in size by 0.7±0.1 mm, whereas control tumors treated with Ad-Bgl II had increased in size by 7.4±1.7 mm. The relative accessibility of head and neck cancers make them attractive targets for gene therapy. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of genetically targeted radiotherapy using the NIS gene as a possible therapeutic intervention. Supported by NIH CA91709

224

Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji

2014-05-01

225

Influence of the chemical treatment in sodium clay on barrier property of propylene nanocomposites obtained by melt mixing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the influence of the chemical treatment in sodium clay on the barrier property of polypropylene nanocomposites was evaluated. Nanocomposites of PP/clay were obtained by melting intercalation using two different chemically treated clays and the original one was mixed to PP for comparison. The change in the clay structure caused by the chemical treatment was evaluated by X-ray diffractometry. The influence of this modification on the barrier property of the obtained PP nanocomposites was evaluated by analysis of oxygen permeability. (author)

226

WOOD PRE-TREATMENT INFLUENCE ON THE HYDRATION OF PORTLAND CEMENT IN COMBINATION WITH SOME TROPICAL WOOD SPECIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of three pre-treatment methods on the hydration characteristics of Portland cement in combination with three tropical hardwood species was investigated. The maximum hydration temperature and time to reach maximum hydration temperature were analysed for the wood-cement-water mixtures of the three species after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples by extraction with 5% Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, cold and hot water after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples. There were differences in the hydration reaction of the wood species with Portland cement using the different pre-treatment methods. The compatibility of the wood species with Portland cement improved following pre-treatment. Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment had the most significant effect followed by hot water. Terminalia ivorensis (Idigbo, and Antiaris africana (Oriro species showed considerable improvement in their compatibility with Portland cement at 5% Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment with maximum hydration temperature of 65oC where Arere had 60.5oC where both cold and hot water were unable to raise the hydration temperature beyond 55.5oC . This study shows that the wood species requires more than cold and hot water extraction to make them suitable for wood cement composite materials as extraction with sodium hydroxide (1% solution was found to be the most effective treatment for the wood species under investigation.

Nusirat Aderinsola SADIKU

2014-06-01

227

Comparison of the therapeutic effects of diclofenac sodium, prednisolone and an alpha blocker for the treatment of renal colic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we compare the efficacy of diclofenac sodium, methylprednisolone and alpha-blockers for the treatment of renal colic treatment.Material and methods: A total of 30 patients between the ages of 18-70 were included in this study. Patients were referred to the Meram Medical Faculty Urology Department or Department of Emergency Medicine at Selcuk University between October 2008 and January 2009. This prospective study was approved by the Selcuk University Meram Medical Faculty Ethics Committee. Patients were randomly divided into 3 cohorts of 10 patients each. The first group consisted of patients receiving diclofenac sodium and an alpha blocker, the second group of patients received diclofenac sodium and prednisolone, and the third group of patients received diclofenac sodium alone. Each patient was diagnosed and evaluated by the same clinician. Evaluation was based on the Numerical Classification Score (NCS and the Renal Colic Symptom Score (RCSS. Pain intensity was evaluated prior to medication administration and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 hours thereafter. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis test. P-value of ?0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Symptoms immediatiely prior to medication administration and after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 hours are evaluated. There are no significant differences between the groups (p>0.05. In group 1, stone expulsion occured in 4 patients (40%, a finding that is statistically significant (p=0.01. No adverse events occurred in any group during this study.Conclusion: Comparison of the therapeutic response among the 3 groups revealed no statistically significant difference. The most important aspects to consider in regard to a treatment modality include diminishing pain, dissolving blockage, a preservation of renal function and minimizing the side effects.

Alpay Sümer

2012-03-01

228

Comparision of the Efficacy of Two Combinations;Sodium Valproate with Lithium & Sodium Valproate with Olanzapine in Treatment of Acute Mania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Acute mania is a psychiatric emergency state that often requires rapid management. There are many different therapeutic protocols for this emergent situation. One of them is combination of moodstabilizers and antipsychotics. Olanzapine which is now available in our country can be used for this purpose. Methods and Materials: In this study, we compared the effectiveness, rapidity of response and side effects of sodium valproate plus olanzapine (group I with sodium valproate plus lithium (group II in acutely manic or mixed bipolar patients. In this randomized, double blind, parallel group study, 44 acutely manic or mixed patients according to DSM IV-TR criteria were randomly assigned to receive combinations of sodium valproate (20mg/kg per day with either olanzapine (5-15mg/day or lithium (900mg/day during a ten-day course. Efficacy was measured with Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS. Effectiveness measures included YMRS response (YMRS reduction ³ 50% and YMRS remission (YMRS<=12. Data was entered in SPSS11 software program and analyzed by Mann-Whitney, Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon tests (P-values < 0.05 were significant. Results: Total number of patients were 44 (mean age 27.18±7.34, 21 in group I and 23 in group II. Response rate was 85.7% (18 patients and 73.9% (17 patients in group I and II, respectively; with no significant differences between the two groups(P=0.33. Remission rate was 42.9 %(9 patients and 43.5% (10 patients in group I and II, respectively; with no significant differences between two groups(P=0.97. The reduction in total scores in YMRS on the 2nd, 7th and 10th days of study were significant in both groups (P<0.05, but the rapidity of response was similar. The rates of adverse effects between two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Both combinations of drugs were effective in acutely manic or mixed patients. Both treatments were safe and well tolerated

S Amanat

2005-10-01

229

A comparison of the efficacy of naproxen sodium and a paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene combination in the treatment of soft-tissue disorders.  

OpenAIRE

Ninety-eight patients were admitted to a single-blind parallel study comparing the efficacy of naproxen sodium with a paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene combination in the treatment of soft-tissue disorders. The two study groups were well matched in all respects. After seven days of treatment patients in the naproxen sodium group had less residual symptoms and more of them were considered cured. These patients also had a significantly lower mean-pain-score, tended to have less daily symptoms and ...

Abbott, C. J.; Bouchier-hayes, T. A.; Hunt, H. A.

1980-01-01

230

Effect of chronic oral administration of a low dose of captopril on sodium appetite of hypothyroid rats: Influence of aldosterone treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with methimazole develop an exaggerated sodium appetite. We investigated here the capacity of hypothyroid rats (N = 12 for each group) to respond to a low dose of captopril added to the ration, a paradigm which induces an increase in angiotensin II synthesis in [...] cerebral areas that regulate sodium appetite by increasing the availability of circulating angiotensin I. In addition, we determined the influence of aldosterone in hypothyroid rats during the expression of spontaneous sodium appetite and after captopril treatment. Captopril significantly increased (P

R.R., Ventura; E.L., Olivares; D.B., Passos Junior; M.J., Ramalho; J., Antunes-Rodrigues; L.C., Reis.

2001-03-01

231

Investigation of interaction of tantalum hydroxide with lithium carbonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using thermography, X-ray phase and mass-spectrometric analyses interaction tantalum hydroxide, containing 0.5-1 mass% fluorine as an impurity, with lithium carbonate is investigated. Interaction begins at approximately 610 deg C and proceeds in many stages, with formation of lithium metatantalate and LiF, and Li4TaO4F impurity phases. Preliminary heat treatment of tantalum hydroxide at the temperature of Ta2O5 formation allows to decrease fluorine impurity content

232

Place of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes  

OpenAIRE

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2), such as canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents lower blood glucose mainly by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels by an average of 0.5%-0.8% when used as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Advantages of this drug class include modest weight loss of approximately 2 kg, low risk of hypoglycemia, and d...

Mikhail, Nasser

2014-01-01

233

Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate Tablets for Routine Treatment of Household Drinking Water in Periurban Ghana: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

OpenAIRE

We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded trial to determine the health impact of daily use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets for household drinking water treatment in periurban Ghana. We randomized 240 households (3,240 individuals) to receive either NaDCC or placebo tablets. All households received a 20-liter safe water storage vvessel. Over 12 weeks, 446 diarrhea episodes (2.2%) occurred in intervention and 404 (2.0%) in control households (P = 0.38). Resid...

Jain, Seema; Sahanoon, Osman K.; Blanton, Elizabeth; Schmitz, Ann; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert E.

2010-01-01

234

Pilot field-verification studies of the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment process. Final report, September 1987-May 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In previous project, jar and dynamic testing showed that the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process was a viable method for reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from the Tinker AFB industrial wastewater with significant decrease in sludge production and treatment costs. In this phase, pilot-plant field verification studies were conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical parameters of the chromium reduction process, the precipitation and clarification process, and the activated-sludge system. Sludge production was evaluated and compared to the sulfuric acid/sulfur dioxide/lime process.

Wiloff, P.M.; Suciu, D.F.; Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Loyd, F.S.

1988-09-01

235

Repository performance assessment of waste forms from the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ceramic and metal waste forms produced by electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel are undergoing evaluation as to how they will perform within the geologic repository which is proposed to be built at Yucca Mountain. An initial assessment, making use of preliminary degradation models for the waste forms, is described. The analyses are performed with a simplified version of the Total System Performance Assessment--Viability Assessment repository model. Results indicate that the ability of the ceramic and metal waste forms to retain radionuclides is similar to and sometimes better than defense high-level waste glass

236

Thermal treatment, grain boundary composition and intergranular attack resistance of Alloy 690  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commercial Alloy 690 PWR steam generator tubes and experimentally produced alloys with varying amounts of carbon, aluminium and titanium have been examined. After simulated mill annealing and thermal treatment, the microstructure and corrosion behaviour in corrosion tests have been investigated. Stress corrosion resistance of selected alloy 690 tubes and experimental alloys has been examined with environments based on pure water, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide + sodium sulphate solutions. Effects of aluminium content and the thermal treatments on the susceptibility to intergranular attack have been examined, although they appear not to be very significant to the amounts of IGA. Samples used in thermal treatments have been further examined with a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope to show compositional changes at grain boundaries

237

Flavonoid accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgii in vitro cultures upon treatment with sodium cinnamate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of secondary metabolites by plant cell cultures has been suggested as a feasible technology that attracted considerable industrial and academic interest in the past three decades. However, many secondary pathways are not well expressed in plant cell cultures. Optimization of culture medium, elicitation, genetic engineering and the supply of biosynthetic precursors are among the strategies adopted to increase secondary metabolite production in vitro. In this study, the effects of five potential biosynthetic precursors on the production of baicalin and baicalein in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgii suspension and callus cultures were measured. The results of this work show that flavonoid biosynthesis was most stimulated by the addition of sodium cinnamate in the concentration of 5 mg x l(-1) and by cinnamic acid (1 mg x l(-1)). Feeding with L-phenylalanine, malonic acid and sodium malonate did not induce changes in the amounts of flavonoids, and the biomass production was not affected. PMID:18257419

Martin, J; Dusek, J

2007-12-01

238

EFFECT OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE FILLER LOADING ON THE PROPERTIES OF BANANA STEM HANDSHEETS  

OpenAIRE

Calcium hydroxide filler dispersions, of various particle sizes, were prepared by mixing sodium hydroxide with calcium chloride, in various concentrations, at room temperature. The resulting filler dispersions were added, in various amounts, to the banana stem mechanical pulp, which was then converted to handsheets. Increasing the filler loading increased the tensile index but reduced the tear index and water absorption of the handsheets. The SEM micrographs of the handsheets surfaces and the...

Nur Syazwani Abd Rahman,; Baharin Azahari

2012-01-01

239

Sodium carbonate treatment induces scoparone accumulation, structural changes, and alkalinization in the albedo of wounded citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following sodium carbonate treatment, accumulation of scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) but not scopoletin (6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin) was found in the albedo of wounded fruit from different Citrus sp. and cultivars. Treating wounded mandarin fruit cv. Fairchild with 5% Na(2)CO(3) (SC) lead to a scoparone accumulation in the albedo of 310, 361, and 382 microg g(-1) fresh weight after 7, 10, and 15 days, respectively. Scoparone accumulation was associated with a decrease in decay severity. When oranges cv. Biondo comune wounded and treated with 5% SC were inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or Penicillium italicum conidia 3 days posttreatment, the decay percentage as compared to untreated wounds was reduced by 97.2 and 93.9%, respectively. Observations by scanning electron microscopy of wounded Citrus fruits treated at 20 degrees C with 2, 3, 4, or 5% (w/v) solutions of sodium carbonate showed structural modifications to the albedo as well as damage to 24-48 h old mycelia of P. digitatum, the cause of citrus green mold. Modifications were more evident in orange, lemon, and grapefruit as compared to mandarin fruit. The efficacy of the treatment was strictly related to the SC interaction with the albedo tissue that, in addition to structural changes, significantly increased tissue pH, affecting P. digitatum pathogenicity. The SC remaining as a film on unwounded flavedo had no effect in preventing contact infection by the Penicillia. PMID:15853395

Venditti, Tullio; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Dore, Antonio; Agabbio, Mario; D'hallewin, Guy

2005-05-01

240

Mutagenic effects of 137Cs gamma ray and sodium azide combined treatment on rice (oryza sativa L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dry seeds of rice variety, Guanglu No.4, were treated with 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 Gy of gamma ray or 1,2,3 mmol of sodium azide (NaN3), and with their combination. The biological effects in M1 and mutation frequency of M2 were investigated. The results showed that the biological injuries of M1 increased with dose of gamma ray and concentration of NaN3. The additive effects were observed on seedling height, root length, vigorous index of seedling height, vigorous index of root length and the synergic effect on the percentage of chromosome aberration. It was found that combination treatment with gamma ray and sodium azide were more effective than single treatment of gamma ray or NaN3. The results of this study suggested that 200 Gy gamma ray + 2 mmol NaN3 was the most effective one for inducing mutation. Frequency of chlorophyll mutation, mutation on heading date and the plant height in M2 generation were 2.833%, 2.473% and 1.828% respectively. Index of interaction were 1.640, 1.329 and 1.449 respectively

241

The quasi-three-dimensional marginal leakage of full-coverage crowns: resin coating versus sodium hypochlorite treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the effects of various surface treatments and techniques on the marginal leakage of full-coverage crowns using a quasi-three-dimensional evaluation. Crowns were cast using a gold-silver-palladium alloy by means of the lost-wax technique. Twenty-eight recently extracted human molars were divided randomly into four groups according to surface treatment before crown cementation: (1) no pretreatment (negative control), (2) primer (positive control), (3) resin coating and primer, and (4) phosphoric acid, sodium hypochlorite, and primer. All specimens were cemented with composite cement. The lowest marginal leakage was observed in group 4. Variation in marginal leakage between specimens originating from the same tooth was observed. PMID:20859554

Kawahara, Daizo; Mine, Atsushi; De Munck, Jan; Kuboki, Takuo; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Yatani, Hirofumi

2010-01-01

242

Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Corona discharge formed an alkali depletion layer on a glass surface. • Introduction of hydrogen accelerated the depletion layer thickness. • Thickness was doubled compared with that in air. • Efficient formation of proton at an anode needle end was one cause. • Applied voltage across the glass plate in hydrogen was 2.7 times that in air. - Abstract: Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H{sub 2} atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H{sup +} with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. , 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 221-8755 (Japan); Harada, Kenji [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Nishii, Junji, E-mail: nishii@es.hokudai.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan)

2014-05-01

243

Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Corona discharge formed an alkali depletion layer on a glass surface. • Introduction of hydrogen accelerated the depletion layer thickness. • Thickness was doubled compared with that in air. • Efficient formation of proton at an anode needle end was one cause. • Applied voltage across the glass plate in hydrogen was 2.7 times that in air. - Abstract: Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air

244

Changes in Erythrocyte Sodium-Lithium Countertransport and Plasma Parameters Following Selenium Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of selenium as an antioxidant on erythrocyte Sodium-Lithium Countertransport (SLC activity and plasma parameters have not already been studied in full detail. In the present study, the relationship between selenium and SLC activity, plasma parameters (lipids, lipoproteins, sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine was investigated. Male rabbits weighed 1350±50 g were divided in to four groups (5 in each. For in vivo studies selenium dioxide (SeO2 was administered intraperitoneally on alternate days for 2 weeks as acute dose (250 ?g kg-1 body weight and for 7 weeks as chronic dose (125 ?g kg-1 body weight. The control groups for each doses received deionized water at the same time. The results showed that the acute dose of selenium decreased SLC activity and Vmax/Km, but the Km of the transporter was increased. Also this metal decreased plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL. All these changes may be helpful to the health. The chronic dose of the metal increased SLC activity, Vmax/Km and Vmax, but it decreased Km of the transporter. This dose of selenium increased plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL, LDL, sodium and decreased the potassium level. In vitro studies showed that, the metal at low concentration (1 ?M can lower SLC activity and then it is beneficial to the health, but at high concentration (50 and 100 ?M increases the SLC activity and may cause a serious problem to the health. It is concluded that selenium at high concentration and with chronic dose increases the SLC activity and plasma lipids. But at low concentration and acute dose will have a beneficial effect to the health.

Samad Akbarzadeh

2008-01-01

245

Conductivity measures coupled with treatment with ion-exchange resin for the assessment of sodium concentration in physiological fluids: analyses on artificial solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In humans, sodium is essential for the regulation of blood volume and pressure. During hemodialysis, sodium measurement is important to preserve the patient from hypo- or hyper-natremia Usually, sodium measurement is performed through laboratory equipment which is typically expensive, and requires manual intervention. We propose a new method, based on conductivity measurement after treatment of dialysate solution through ion-exchange resin. To test this method, we performed in vitro experiments. We prepared 40 ml sodium chloride (NaCl) samples at 280, 140, 70, 35, 17.5, 8.75, 4.375 mEq/l, and some mixed samples, i.e., with added potassium chloride (KCl) at different concentrations (4.375–17.5 mEq/l), to simulate the confounding factors in a conductivity-based sodium measurement. We measured the conductivity of all samples. Afterwards, each sample was treated for 1 min with 1 g of Dowex G-26 resin, and conductivity measured again. On average, the difference ? in the conductivity between mixed samples and corresponding pure NaCl samples (at the same NaCl concentration) was 20.9%. With treatment with the resin, it was 9.9%, only. We conclude that ion-exchange resin treatment coupled with conductivity measures may be a possible simple approach for continuous and automatic sodium measurement during hemodialysis

246

Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Antiplatelet aggregation treatment has become a regular treatment of ischemic stroke. The affirmation of antiplatelet therapy is mainly derived from patients with clinical use, which can not provide the laboratory indexes for evaluation of a recognized accuracy. Studies have confirmed that the degree of platelet activation is associated with atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke, and recognized that both CD62p (?-platelet granule membrane glycoprotein and CD63 (lysosomal membrane glycoprotein were important indexes of platelet activation. This study aims to explore the differences of efficacy between combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium and monotherapy by aspirin in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke by investigating the expression of CD62p and CD63. Methods Flow cytometry was employed to detect CD62p and CD63 expression on circulating platelet in patients with ischemic stroke and normal control group. The positive rate of CD62p and CD63 was detected in patients with ischemic stroke who were treated with aspirin 0.15 g (single drug therapy and clopidogrel 75 mg + ozagrel sodium 80 mg (combination therapy before and after one and two weeks' treatment. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores were measured in patients with ischemic stroke at the same time in three periods respectively to evaluate the improvement of neural function. Results Platelet CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate in ischemic stroke group were higher than normal control group before treatment (P = 0.001, 0.032. CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score were measured at different times, and the differences were statistically significant (F = 56.693, P = 0.000; F = 21.544, P = 0.000; F = 216.271, P = 0.000, respectively. Compared with before treatment, CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score decreased significantly after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but the differences between aspirin group and combination group were not statistically significant (P > 0.05, for all. There was no interaction between the treatment groups and measuring time with CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate (F = 1.403, P = 0.250; F = 2.830, P = 0.063, while there was interaction between treatment groups and measuring time with NIHSS score (F = 4.518, P = 0.013. Conclusion Antiplatelet drug treatment of acute ischemic stroke is effective. The curative effect of combined treatment (clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium is not superior to aspirin alone. CD62p positive expression rate in acute stage of ischemic stroke can measure the effect of antiplatelet therapy, while the determination of CD63 needs further research.

ZHAO Zhen

2013-10-01

247

Sequential Treatment by Ionizing Radiation and Sodium Arsenite Dramatically Accelerates TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis of Human Melanoma Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. There is a lack of effective treatments for individuals with advanced disease. Many melanomas exhibit high levels of radioresistance. The direct consequence of ?-irradiation for most melanoma cells is growth arrest at the G2-M phase of cell cycle. However, radiation-induced signaling pathways may affect numerous additional targets in cancer cells. We show in the present study that ?-irradiation, as well as ?-particle exposure, dramatically increases the susceptibility of melanoma cells to recombinant tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis via up-regulation of surface TRAIL-receptor 1/receptor 2 (DR4/DR5) levels and to Fas ligand–mediated apoptosis via up-regulation of surface Fas levels. Additionally, increased dynamin-2 expression after irradiation is critically important in the translocation of death receptor to the cell surface. Moreover, sodium arsenite treatment may up-regulate expression of endogenous TRAIL and induces its translocation to cell surface and further down-regulates cFLIP levels in melanoma cells. We have evaluated the effects of sequential ?-irradiation and arsenite treatment of melanoma cells for the induction of death signaling. Such treatment results in an efficient TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via a paracrine mechanism. These data highlight the efficacy of combined modality treatment involving radiation and arsenite in clinical management of this often fatal form of skin cancer. PMID:17545621

Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

2015-01-01

248

Rice mutants obtained through sodium azide (NaN3) treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The successful utilization of sodium azide to generate genetic variability in plant breeding has been reported in barley, rice, and other crops. Rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce', Brazilian upland cultivar, were treated with 5x10-3 M of sodium azide, prepared in buffer solution of pH 3,0, for 8 hours at laboratory temperature. Ten short culm mutant lines were selected in the M2, M3 and M4 generations. In the M5 generation, the mutant lines were evaluated for flowering and maturing cycles, tiller number per plant, plant height, panicle number per m2 , panicle length, fertility of panicle, weight of 1.000 grains, productivity, percentage of intact grains after milling, width and thickness of peeled and polished grains and length/width grain ratio. The experiment was conducted in the Centro Experimental of Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the period of 1993/94, utilizing randomized block design with four replications. Each experimental plot consisted of five rows of four meters in length, 50 cm between rows, with 75 seeds sown per meter. The cultivar 'IAC 201' and the original Dourado Precoce were planted as checks. All observations were made on the three central rows of each experimental plot. The data was analysed by the SANEST statistical program and the mean values were discriminated by the Tukey's test at the level 5% of probability

249

Degradation of l-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesium–aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces and catalytically active Mg site centers are causative factors for PLA degradation. Interestingly, the release of water under the processing conditions was found to have a rather small effect on the PLA degradation. Low loadings of sodium laurate also caused PLA degradation indicating that carboxylate chain ends may be active degrading agents. Phosphate treatment of laurate-modified LDH was investigated and this may be a promising way of reducing PLA degradation, thereby making such processes more practically realistic.

Gerds, Nathalie; Katiyar, Vimal

2012-01-01

250

Degradation of L-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C-12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces and catalytically active Mg site centers are causative factors for PLA degradation. Interestingly, the release of water under the processing conditions was found to have a rather small effect on the PLA degradation. Low loadings of sodium laurate also caused PLA degradation indicating that carboxylate chain ends may be active degrading agents. Phosphate treatment of laurate-modified LDH was investigated and this may be a promising way of reducing PLA degradation, thereby making such processes more practically realistic. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gerds, Nathalie Christiane; Katiyar, Vimal

2012-01-01

251

The Sr-90 waste treatment by using sodium carbonat as a carrier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coprecipitation processes of the Sr-90 wastes, with the lime-soda treatment, that followed by the mechanism of isomorph substitution, have shown a good performance in pH 7-8. Excess of natrium carbonate in the lime-soda treatment caused the decrease of the decontamination factor. This research shows that the coprecipitation by calcite-phosphate was better than the lime-soda treatment. (author)

252

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THORR process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. Design of the IWTU is nearing completion. The IWTU will be constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF), with planned fabrication and construction to start in early 2007 upon receipt of needed permits and completion of design and engineering. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment a and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

253

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected as the technology of choice for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). SBW is an acidic tank waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at INL. It consists primarily of waste from decontamination activities and laboratory wastes. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, alkali and aluminum nitrates, with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium and strontium. The THORR steam reforming process will convert the SBW tank waste feed into a dry, solid, granular product. The THORR technology was selected to treat SBW, in part, because it can provide flexible disposal options to accommodate the final disposition path selected for SBW. THORR can produce a final end-product that will meet anticipated requirements for disposal as Remote-Handled TRU (RH-TRU) waste; and, with modifications, THORR can also produce a final end-product that could be qualified for disposal as High Level Waste (HLW). SBW treatment will be take place within the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), a new facility that will be located at the INTEC. This paper provides an overview of the THORR process chemistry and process equipment being designed for the IWTU. (authors))

254

Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate and Trichostatin A (TSA treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development of post-stroke epilepsy. Unilateral carotid ligation of P12 CD1 mice was followed by treatment with valproate, TSA, or vehicle for 2 weeks, BrdU administration for measurement of neurogenesis, and perfusion at P42 or P60. Behavior testing was conducted from P38-42. No detrimental effects on behavior testing were noted with TSA treatment, but mildly impaired cognitive function was noted with valproate-treated injured animals compared to normal animals. Significant increases in DG neurogenesis with both TSA and valproate treatment were noted with later administration of BrdU. Increased mortality and impaired weight gain was noted in the valproate-treated ligated animals, but not in the TSA-treated animals. In summary, the impact of HDAC inhibition upon post-stroke SGZ neurogenesis is likely to depend on the age of the animal at the time point when neurogenesis is assessed, duration of HDAC inhibition before BrdU labeling, and/or the stage in the evolution of the injury.

AnneMarieComi

2013-08-01

255

Risperidone Versus Risperidone Plus Sodium Valproate for Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical-Trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy with risperidone plus valproate in bipolar I disorder, manic phase. Some studies showed the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, so we examined this effectiveness in this clinical-trial study. Method: This 7-week, randomized, single-blind study included 48 bipolar I inpatients manic phase without psychotic features divided in risperidone group (n = 23 and risperidone plus sodium valproate group (n = 25. According to clinical symptoms, 3 categories: complete remission, partial remission and no remission were mentioned in weekly follow-up. Remission rate compared with survival analysis. Results: The results showed a significant difference in remission rate between risperidone monotherapy and risperidone plus sodium valproate at the 1st, 2nd and the 3rd week (p = 0.012, 0.023, 0.027 respectively, It means the remission rate in risperidone plus valproate group was higher in the first three weeks, but at the end of the seventh week, the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the development of adverse effects. Conclusions: Risperidone can be effective and well tolerated in both acute manic episodes of bipolar mood disorders.

S. Mohammad Moosavi

2014-06-01

256

Development of biological treatment of high concentration sodium nitrate waste liquid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrolytic reduction, chemical reduction, and biological reduction have been picked up as a method of nitrate liquid waste treatment system exhausted from the reprocessing process. As a result of comparing them, it was shown that the biological treatment was the most excellent method in safety and the economy. (author)

257

Safety and efficacy of clobazam versus phenytoin-sodium in the antiepileptic drug treatment of solitary cysticercus granulomas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: It is now agreed that the prognosis of seizure disorder due to solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG is generally good. However, the choice antiepileptic drugs (AEDs remain empirical, with no comparative trials of different AEDs being available. Aims: To determine the safety and efficacy (measured by the incidence of ?treatment failure? of clobazam in comparison to standard treatment with phenytoin-sodium for prevention of seizures in persons with solitary cysticercus granulomas (SCGs. Settings and Design: This pilot study was conducted in a neurology department of a medical college hospital in the form of a prospective, randomized, open-labeled trial. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight patients with seizures due to SCG were randomized in an open-labeled trial to either, clobazam (1 mg/kg oral loading followed by 0.5 mg/kg/d (n=21 or phenytoin (15 mg/kg, oral loading in 3 divided doses over 24 h, followed by 5 mg/kg/d (n=27. They were followed over 6 months with the primary outcome measure being treatment failure (either discontinuation or modification of AEDs due to either adverse effects or breakthrough seizures. Results: Treatment failures were noted to be significantly less common ( P =0.03 in the clobazam-treated group (n=1; 4.7% than in phenytoin-treated group (n=9; 33.3%. These included one patient (4.7% in the clobazam-group who had breakthrough seizures and 3 (11.1% who had breakthrough seizures and 6 (22.2% in the phenytoin-treated group who had adverse effects requiring treatment discontinuation. Conclusions: Clobazam was well tolerated, safe and more effective than phenytoin in the AED treatment of patients with SCG.

Kaushal Sandeep

2006-01-01

258

High pressure treatments combined with sodium lactate to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and spoilage microbiota in cured beef carpaccio.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-pressure treatments (400 and 600 MPa) combined with the addition of sodium lactate (1 and 3%) were tested to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) and spoilage microbiota contamination in a manufactured cured beef carpaccio in fresh or frozen conditions. Counts of spoilage microorganisms and STEC O157 were also examined during the curing step to prepare the carpaccio. STEC O157 counts remained almost unchanged through the curing process performed at 1 ± 1 °C for 12 days, with a small decrease in samples with 3% of sodium lactate. High-pressure treatments at 600 MPa for 5 min achieved an immediate reduction of up to 2 logarithmic units of STEC O157 in frozen carpaccio, and up to 1.19 log in fresh condition. Counts of spoilage bacteria diminished below detection limits in fresh or frozen carpaccio added with sodium lactate by the application of 400 and 600 MPa. Maximum injury on STEC O157 cells was observed at 600 MPa in carpaccio in fresh condition without added sodium lactate. Lethality of high-pressure treatments on STEC O157 was enhanced in frozen carpaccio, while the addition of sodium lactate at 3% reduced the lethality on STEC O157 in frozen samples, and the degree of injury in fresh carpaccio. PMID:25475335

Masana, Marcelo Oscar; Barrio, Yanina Ximena; Palladino, Pablo Martín; Sancho, Ana Maria; Vaudagna, Sergio Ramón

2015-04-01

259

Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. PMID:25149022

Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

2014-10-15

260

Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

2004-01-01

261

Evaluation of a consolidation treatment in dolostones by mean of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in high relative humidity conditions; Evaluacion del tratamiento de consolidacion de dolomias mediante nanoparticulas de hidroxido de calcio en condiciones de alta humedad relativa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article, the results of a treatment applied to dolomitic stones using an isopropyl colloidal solution based on calcium hydroxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 2.0g/l are presented. The consolidation process in the stone has been checked before and after 28 days of exposure to 75% relative humidity. Morphologic and structural studies of the consolidating product confirmed the carbonation process. X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (TEM and ESEM), and electron diffraction carried out on the consolidating product have confirmed the transformation of portlandite phase to calcium carbonate polymorph, calcite, aragonite and vaterite. Petrophysical tests performed on the stone before and after the application of the product have shown the improvement in the physical and hydrical properties due to the increase in the ultrasound velocity and density of the material, and a decrease in the capillarity coefficient and open porosity without significant changes in colour and brightness. The application of the consolidating product in the proposed experimental conditions is a natural method, compatible with the petrological characteristics of the substrate, without secondary damages on the stone, being an effective method to improve the durability of carbonate stones. (Author) 26 refs.

Gomez-Villalba, L. s.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza, A.; Alvares de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

2011-07-01

262

Possibly enhanced Gd-excretion in dialysate, but no clinical benefit of 3-5 months treatment with sodium thiosulfate in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3-5 months. Symptoms and patients' experiences were investigated. The dialysate Gd content was monitored. Results. We observed no major clinical improvements in any patient. In one patient, we found slightly improved joint motion. Two patients had a subjective impression of slight improvements of joint motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd seemed to increase. It is unknown whether increased Gd excretion will lead to long-term clinical improvements in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

Marckmann, P.; Nielsen, A.H.

2008-01-01

263

Possibly enhanced Gd excretion in dialysate, but no major clinical benefit of 3-5 months of treatment with sodium thiosulfate in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3-5 months. Symptoms and patients' experiences were investigated. The dialysate Gd content was monitored. Results. We observed no major clinical improvements in any patient. In one patient, we found slightly improved joint motion. Two patients had a subjective impression of slight improvements of joint motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd seemed to increase. It is unknown whether increased Gd excretion will lead to long-term clinical improvements in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10

Marckmann, P.; Sloth, J.J.

2008-01-01

264

Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos  

OpenAIRE

In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had thei...

André Dotto Sottovia; Celso Koogi Sonoda; Wilson Roberto Poi; Sônia Regina Panzarini; José Roberto Pereira Lauris2

2006-01-01

265

The sodium process facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters (180,000 gallons) of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The SPF was designed to react elemental sodium to sodium carbonate through two-stages involving caustic process and carbonate process steps. The sodium is first reacted to sodium hydroxide in the caustic process step. The caustic process step involves the injection of sodium into a nickel reaction vessel filled with a 50 wt% solution of sodium hydroxide. Water is also injected, controlling the boiling point of the solution. In the carbonate process, the sodium hydroxide is reacted with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate. This dry powder, similar in consistency to baking soda, is a waste form acceptable for burial in the State of Idaho as a non-hazardous, radioactive waste. The caustic process was originally designed and built in the 1980s for reacting the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of primary sodium from the Fermi-1 Reactor to sodium hydroxide. The hydroxide was slated to be used to neutralize acid products from the PUREX process at the Hanford site. However, changes in the DOE mission precluded the need for hydroxide and the caustic process was never operated. With the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), the necessity for a facility to react sodium was identified. In order to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the sodium had to be converted into a waste form acceptable for disposal in a Sub-Title D low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Sodium hydroxide is a RCRA regulated waste. It was decided to convert the hydroxide to sodium carbonate, a substance that is not RCRA regulated. ANL-W undertook the task of upgrading the SPF, and designing and constructing the additional carbonate process. At the time of preparation of this paper, the facilities were undergoing testing and startup activities. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters (13,000 gallons) of the EBR-II secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters (87,000 gallons) of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-levels of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter (71 gallon) barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal. (author)

266

Manual on early medical treatment of possible radiation injury with an appendix on sodium burns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manual covers the following topics: 1) Background information and general principles; 2) New methods in the treatment of internal contamination by alpha emitters; 3) Emergency local decontamination; 4) Precautions to be taken in the event of hospitalization; 5) Assessment of fitness to resume work after contamination of irradiation accidents; 6) Organization, planning and training. The appendixes are concerned with: A) Samples to be taken in cases of external irradiation or internal contamination; B) Techniques for local decontamination of the skin; C) Basic treatment information for the physician; D) Standard first-aid kits; E) Decontamination room supplies

267

Wet reclamation of sodium silicate used sand and biological treatment of its wastewater by Nitzschia palea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The massive amount of sodium silicate in the used sand was a pollution source, especially in the waste water from the wet reclamation of used sand. A new process of wet reclamation by biologically treating the waste water produced during the wet reclamation process of used sand was studied in the paper. In the work, the pre-cultivation of N. palea was performed firstly, and three different scrubbing solutions: (1 tap water, (2 modified medium for N. palea, and (3 filtrate of the broth treated by N. palea for 15 days, were used. The results of the primary investigation show that a de-skinning ratio of 90% is obtained when using the scrubbing solution containing modified medium for N. palea at the ratio 1:2 of sand and scrubbing solution, and the maximal concentrations of Na+ and SiO3? are 1.49 g?-1 and 0.51 g?-1, respectively. The results of the optimal biomass, pH value decrease and Na+ and SiO32- consumption indicate the optimal incubation conditions are at the irradiance of 5,000 lux and 25 ?. Using the filtrate of the broth treated by N. palea for 15 days as the scrubbing solution directly, a de-skinning ratio of 93% is the highest compared to the results of the tap water and the modified medium for N. palea. In the biological process using N. palea, less water is used and little wastewater is produced, which is advantageous to the purpose of green manufacturing and environmental protection.

Yu Shaoqiang

2012-02-01

268

Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

269

Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

270

Chemical destruction of HMX-based explosives with ammonium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory explored the efficacy of ammonium hydroxide solutions in converting HMX (cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine, or Octogen) and HMX-based explosives to nonenergetic, nonhazardous materials. When 80 g of explosive was converted in a reactor operating at 85 psig pressure at 140 C, the principal gaseous products were nitrous oxide (46% to 51%), nitrogen (22% to 32%), and ammonia (17% to 28%). Formate and hexamethylene-tetramine (hexamine) account for effectively 100% of the carbon-bearing aqueous species. Nitrate, nitrite, and acetate were present in the liquid in trace amounts. The process effectively treated molding powders of the plastic-bonded explosives PBX 9501 (2.5% estane), LX-04 (15% viton), and PBX 9404 (3% nitrocellulose). Results were compared with those achieved using sodium hydroxide solutions at 150 C in a pressurized reactor.

Skidmore, C.; Dell`Orco, P.; Flesner, R.; Kramer, J.; Spontarelli, T.

1995-09-01

271

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium-Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site 1. SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THORR process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. The IWTU is being constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF). Detailed design of the IWTU has been completed and DOE has approved the CD-3 detailed design. The State of Idaho has approved the RCRA and construction air permits. Construction of the IWTU started in April 2007 with civil and foundation work. This paper provides a project and process overview o provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

272

Development and testing of SREX flowsheets for treatment of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant sodium-bearing waste using centrifugal contactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning 90Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A baseline flowsheet has been proposed for the treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) which includes extraction of strontium from liquid SBW into the SREX solvent (0.15 M 4',4'(5')-di-(tert-butyldicyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.2 M TBP in Isopar L), a 0.01 M nitric acid strip section to back-extract components from the loaded solvent, and a 2.0 M HNO3 solvent acidification section to equilibrate the solvent with HNO3 prior to recycle to the extraction section. The flowsheet was designed to provide a decontamination factor (DF) of >103 which will reduce the 90Sr activity in the waste solution to below the NRC Class A LLW limit of 0.04 Ci 90Sr/m3. SREX flowsheet testing was performed using sixteen stages of 5.5-cm diameter centrifugal contactors. The behavior of stable Sr and other components which are potentially extracted by the SREX solvent were evaluated. Specifically, the behavior of the matrix components including Pb, K, Hg, Na, Ca, Zr, and Fe was studied. The described flowsheet achieved 99.98% Sr removal (DF=4250) with one cycle of SREX. Potassium and Zr were partially extracted into the SREX solvent with 35% and 21%, respectively, exiting in the strip product. Sodium, Ca, and Fe were essentially inextractium, Ca, and Fe were essentially inextractable. Lead was determined to extract and accumulate in the SREX solvent and in the strip section. As a result, a Pb precipitate formed in the strip stages of the contactors. Mercury was also determined to extract and accumulate in the SREX solvent

273

Rhenium-188 as an alternative to Iodine-131 for treatment of breast tumors expressing the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), which transports iodine into the cell, is expressed in thyroid tissue and was recently found to be expressed in approximately 80% of human breast cancers but not in healthy breast tissue. These findings raised the possibility that therapeutics targeting uptake by NIS may be used for breast cancer treatment. To increase the efficacy of such therapy it would be ideal to identify a radioactive therapy with enhanced local emission. The feasibility of using the powerful beta-emitting radiometal 188Re in the form of 188Re-perrhenate was therefore compared with 131I for treatment of NIS-expressing mammary tumors. In the current studies, using a xenografted breast cancer model induced by the ErbB2 oncogene in nude mice, 188Re-perrhenate exhibited NIS-dependent uptake into the mammary tumor. Dosimetry calculations in the mammary tumor demonstrate that 188Re-perrhenate is able to deliver a dose 4.5 times higher than 131I suggesting it may provide enhanced therapeutic efficacy

274

Steam Reforming Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. The SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates, along with many other inorganic compounds, including substantial levels of radionuclides. As part of the implementation of the THORR process at INTEC, an engineering-scale test demonstration (ESTD) was conducted using a specially designed pilot plant located at Hazen Research, Inc. in Golden Colorado. The purpose of the ESTD was to confirm and optimize operation of the THORR dual fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) process for treating the SBW. The performance of the integrated FBSR thermal and off-gas systems was demonstrated while treating waste simulants representative of the actual SBW. Simulants were utilized that consisted of highly acidic nitrate solutions, with both dissolved and undissolved solids (UDS). The SBW simulant solutions were converted into a dry, granular solid, consisting of carbonate and aluminate product compounds. The successful performance of the integrated FBSR system was verified and demonstrated. (authors)

275

Place of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2), such as canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents lower blood glucose mainly by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels by an average of 0.5%-0.8% when used as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Advantages of this drug class include modest weight loss of approximately 2 kg, low risk of hypoglycemia, and decrease blood pressure of approximately 4 mmHg systolic and 2 mmHg diastolic. These characteristics make these agents potential add-on therapy in patients with HbA1c levels close to 7%-8.0%, particularly if these patients are obese, hypertensive, and/or prone for hypoglycemia. Meanwhile, these drugs are limited by high frequency of genital mycotic infections. Less common adverse effects include urinary tract infections, hypotension, dizziness, and worsening renal function. SGLT2 inhibitors should be used with caution in the elderly because of increased adverse effects, and should not be used in chronic kidney disease due to decreased or lack of efficacy and nephrotoxicity. Overall, SGLT2 inhibitors are useful addition for treatment of select groups of patients with type 2 diabetes, but their efficacy and safety need to be established in long-term clinical trials. PMID:25512787

Mikhail, Nasser

2014-12-15

276

Stress corrosion cracking of type 403 stainless steel in sodium chloride at 95 C under different heat treatment conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slow strain rate tests were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the stress corrosion cracking (SC) susceptibility of type AISI 34 (UNS S40300) martensitic stainless steel in 20% sodium chloride (NaCl) at 95 C. Heat treatments included water-quenched, quenched, and tempered at 200 C, 400 C, and 600 C and annealed at 850 C. When tested in oil (90 C), the highest loss in ductility was shown by the quenched specimen, and the lowest by the annealed specimen. Between these two specimens, there were specimens tempered at 200 C, 400 C, and 600 C, respectively. When tested in 20% NaCl (wt%) at pH 7, 6, and 5, all specimens were embrittled by the environment, the most severe one being the solution with pH 5, showing at least 50% reduction in the elongation exhibited in oil. Fracture morphology was completely intergranular along the prior austenite for the quenched specimen and completely transgranular for the annealed specimen. The percentage of intergranular cracking decreased as the tempering temperature increased from 200 C to 600 C, and as the pH increased from 5 to 7. The fracture mechanism was thought to be hydrogen embrittlement.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M.; Martinez-Villafane, A.

1999-10-01

277

A whole core subassembly treatment in the SSC-K sodium-cooled fast reactor system analysis code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed subassembly thermal-hydraulic model for the reactor core has been added to the SSC-K sodium-cooled fast reactor system analysis code. It computes steady-state and transient fuel, cladding, and coolant temperatures in each fuel pin and coolant sub-channel of a subassembly. Duct wall temperatures are also calculated for each of the six flats of a hexagonal subassembly. The new core thermal-hydraulic model provides a whole core treatment including a pin-wise sub-channel treatment within a subassembly. By adopting the detailed core thermal-hydraulic model, SSC-K has a capability to explicitly calculate intra-subassembly effects, not a hot-channel adjustment to a calculated average channel. This is especially important for new reactors that have not yet been built. This paper describes the theoretical concept of the detailed core thermal-hydraulic model of SSC-K and shows code verification results with the test data from the EBR II reactor. Also, an unprotected transient overpower accident for the KALIMER conceptual design is discussed with respect to the inherent safety characteristics of the core.

Kwon, Young Min; Ha, Kwi Seok; Jeong, Hae Yong; Chang, Won Pyo; Lee, Yong Bum [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-01

278

REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, (LiAl2(OH)6)+X-) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 (micro)m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of ? 5 (micro)m diameter platelets with < 1 (micro)m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

279

Structural changes in anthracites during reaction with alkali metal hydroxides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies properties of catalyst impregnated high rank coal (anthracite-MOH) with the help of X-ray diffraction analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Describes tests carried out on samples of Donetsk basin anthracite, the least reactive solid fuel. Gives results of investigation and concludes that: treatment of anthracite with alkali metal hydroxides changes its structural characteristics as a result of electron donor-acceptor reaction between alkali and coal; structural characteristics of different anthracites vary depending on hydroxide used; electron characteristics and reactivity of anthracite are changed substantially. 11 refs.

Bratchun, V.I.; Sapunov, V.A.; Zverev, I.V.; Kucherenko, V.A.; Zubova, T.I.; Dolgova, M.O.

1987-11-01

280

Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS, has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. Methods We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Results MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. Conclusions These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma.

Hutzen Brian

2012-11-01

281

[Effects of local treatment with sodium fluoride mouthrinse on peroxidase and hypothiocyanite saliva levels in adolescent]/.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work describes and analyzes the results of a randomized clinical trial on adolescents (age 18.2 +/- 0.6) carried out in order to evaluate the effects of a twice daily mouthrinse application containing xylitol, sorbitol, sacarine, ciclamate, aspartame, chlorhexidine, hexetidine or NaF for 14 days on amylase, peroxidase, thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, secretory IgA and total proteins in whole saliva. No significative changes were observed in health and bucodental parameters nor in flow salivary rate, protein, secretory Ig A, or thiocyanate levels as a consequence of the mouthrinses application. On the other hand, NaF treatment (0.02%, 0.05% or 0.1%) did cause an increase in salivary peroxidase and hypothiocyanite, being the former increase higher than the second one. Peroxidase increase was proportional to the mouthrinse dose (r = 0.78; p hypothiocyanite increase (r = 0.407; p = 0.12). Since the adolescents' health condition was the adequate, it is suggested that the peroxidase increase was due to a higher enzyme synthesis and/or secretion by the parotid and/or submaxillar glands. It is concluded that the increases in salivary peroxidase and hypothiocyanite caused by the NaF treatment favour the host, as they potentiate one of the mechanisms that modulate dental plaque composition, preventing in such a way the colonization by cariogenic pathogens. PMID:9504181

Azcurra, A I; Calamari, S E; Yankilevich, E R; Battellino, L J; Cattoni, S T; Colantonio, G

1997-01-01

282

Management of the sodium hypochlorite accident: a rare but significant complication of root canal treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 66-year-old female patient presented to the accident and emergency department, 3?h following a dental appointment. Significant right-sided facial swelling, bruising and pain were present. The patient had been sent by her general dental practitioner with a covering letter explaining that a hypochlorite accident had occurred during root canal treatment of the upper right first premolar tooth. An iatrogenic perforation was suspected. The patient was admitted under the care of the maxillofacial team and intravenous antibiotics, analgesia and steroids were administered. The patient was prepared for the possibility of requiring surgical intervention under a general anaesthetic. No nerve injury was encountered and the periorbital tissues were spared. A full recovery was made by the patient with no surgical intervention required but significant bruising and swelling were present up to 4?weeks following the incident. PMID:25809429

Hatton, Jonathan; Walsh, Stephen; Wilson, Alan

2015-01-01

283

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18

284

Sodium Azide  

Science.gov (United States)

... Phosphorus Ricin Q & A Health Professionals Labs Responders Sarin Saxitoxin Selenium Sodium azide Sodium monofluoroacetate Soman Strychnine Sulfur mustard Sulfuryl Fluoride Super Warfarin Tabun ...

285

Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal of CO2 from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide [Ba(OH)2] or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. Such a process would be applied to scrub 14CO2 from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)2 slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)2. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated

286

Carbon dioxide capture from atmospheric air using sodium hydroxide spray.  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast to conventional carbon capture systems for power plants and other large point sources, the system described in this paper captures CO2 directly from ambient air. This has the advantages that emissions from diffuse sources and past emissions may be captured. The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of a NaOH spray-based contactor for use in an air capture system by estimating the cost and energy requirements per unit CO2 captured. A prototype system is constructed and tested to measure CO2 absorption, energy use, and evaporative water loss and compared with theoretical predictions. A numerical model of drop collision and coalescence is used to estimate operating parameters for a full-scale system, and the cost of operating the system per unit CO2 captured is estimated. The analysis indicates that CO2 capture from air for climate change mitigation is technically feasible using off-the-shelf technology. Drop coalescence significantly decreases the CO2 absorption efficiency; however, fan and pump energy requirements are manageable. Water loss is significant (20 mol H2O/mol CO2 at 15 degrees C and 65% RH) but can be lowered by appropriately designing and operating the system. The cost of CO2 capture using NaOH spray (excluding solution recovery and CO2 sequestration, which may be comparable) in the full-scale system is 96 $/ton-CO2 in the base case, and ranges from 53 to 127 $/ton-CO2 under alternate operating parameters and assumptions regarding capital costs and mass transfer rate. The low end of the cost range is reached by a spray with 50 microm mean drop diameter, which is achievable with commercially available spray nozzles. PMID:18497115

Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Keith, David W; Lowry, Gregory V

2008-04-15

287

Kinetics of oxygen reduction in sodium (hydroxide + borohydride ) electrolyte.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Brno : University of Technology Brno, 2006, s. 23-27. ISBN 80-214-3181-4. [International Conference Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /7./. Brno (CZ), 04.06.2006-08.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SN/3/171/05; GA AV ?R(CZ) KJB208130604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : electrolyte Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

Chatenet, M.; Micoud, F.; Roche, I.; Chainet, E.; Vondrák, Ji?í

288

Effects of alkaline or liquid-ammonia treatment on crystalline cellulose: changes in crystalline structure and effects on enzymatic digestibility  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In converting biomass to bioethanol, pretreatment is a key step intended to render cellulose more amenable and accessible to cellulase enzymes and thus increase glucose yields. In this study, four cellulose samples with different degrees of polymerization and crystallinity indexes were subjected to aqueous sodium hydroxide and anhydrous liquid ammonia treatments. The effects of the treatments on cellulose crystalline structure were studied, in addition to the effects on th...

Himmel Michael E; Katahira Rui; Mittal Ashutosh; Johnson David K

2011-01-01

289

Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet

290

Sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets for routine treatment of household drinking water in periurban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded trial to determine the health impact of daily use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets for household drinking water treatment in periurban Ghana. We randomized 240 households (3,240 individuals) to receive either NaDCC or placebo tablets. All households received a 20-liter safe water storage vvessel. Over 12 weeks, 446 diarrhea episodes (2.2%) occurred in intervention and 404 (2.0%) in control households (P = 0.38). Residual free chlorine levels indicated appropriate tablet use. Escherichia coli was found in stored water at baseline in 96% of intervention and 88% of control households and at final evaluation in 8% of intervention and 54% of control households (P = 0.002). NaDCC use did not prevent diarrhea but improved water quality. Diarrhea rates were low and water quality improved in both groups. Safe water storage vessels may have been protective. A follow-up health impact study of NaDCC tablets is warranted. PMID:20064989

Jain, Seema; Sahanoon, Osman K; Blanton, Elizabeth; Schmitz, Ann; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert E

2010-01-01

291

Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon  

Science.gov (United States)

Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

2015-01-01

292

Antibacterial effect of triantibiotic mixture versus calcium hydroxide in combination with active agents against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to compare the antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide (CH), triantibiotic mixture (TAM), and CH in combination with chlorhexidine (CHX), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or colchicine (COL) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in surface and deep dentinal tubules. Seventy five fresh single-rooted human teeth were infected and divided into five experimental groups (n=15). The experimental groups were treated with CH+distilled water, CH+CHX, CH+NaOCl, CH+COL+distilled water and TAM+distilled water. Dentin chips obtained from surface and deep dentin of these root canals were prepared and analyzed by counting the number of colony forming units. There was significant difference between groups in the surface dentin (p0.05). CH-containing medications and TAM can be used as effective disinfectants in treatment of infected root canals. PMID:25297855

Shokraneh, Ali; Farhad, Ali Reza; Farhadi, Nastaran; Saatchi, Masoud; Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen

2014-01-01

293

In vivo treatment with the herbal phenylethanoid acteoside ameliorates intestinal inflammation in dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently we demonstrated that in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) macrophage-oxidative burst activity is increased and NADPH oxidase mRNA is induced. The herbal phenylethanoid acteoside isolated from Plantago lanceolata L. was shown to exhibit anti-oxidative potential. Using the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model, in this study we have assessed whether systemic application of acteoside affects colitis. Colitis was induced by DSS in Balb/c mice. Treatment with acteoside (120, 600 microg/mouse/day) was performed intraperitoneally. The colon lengths were determined. Colonic tissue was scored histologically (max. score 8) by a blinded investigator. T cells isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 (final concentration 10 U/ml). After incubation for 24 h, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12 tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma levels in supernatants were analysed by the beadlyte cytokine detection system. Histological scoring of colonic tissue revealed that application of acteoside was followed by a significantly improved histological score. In acute colitis the histological score was 3.2 with acteoside versus 5.2 with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (P < 0.02). In chronic colitis both 120 microg (3.3 versus 5.2) or 600 microg acteoside (3.0 versus 5.2) significantly ameliorated colitis (both P < 0.02). Stimulated MLN from mice with chronic DSS-induced colitis treated with acteoside showed a significant down-regulation of IFN-gamma secretion (195 pg/ml with 600 microg acteoside versus 612 pg/ml with PBS, P < 0.02). Inhibition of oxidative burst activity with acteoside reduced mucosal tissue damage in DSS colitis and could be a therapeutic alternative for IBD treatment. Further studies of this agent are warranted. PMID:17437425

Hausmann, M; Obermeier, F; Paper, D H; Balan, K; Dunger, N; Menzel, K; Falk, W; Schoelmerich, J; Herfarth, H; Rogler, G

2007-05-01

294

Reduction of diffusive contaminant emissions from a dissolved source in a lower permeability layer by sodium persulfate treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residual contamination contained in lower permeability zones is difficult to remediate and can, through diffusive emissions to adjacent higher permeability zones, result in long-term impacts to groundwater. This work investigated the effectiveness of oxidant delivery for reducing diffusive emissions from lower permeability zones. The experiment was conducted in a 1.2 m tall × 1.2 m wide × 6 cm thick tank containing two soil layers having 3 orders of magnitude contrast in hydraulic conductivity. The lower permeability layer initially contained dissolved methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylenes (BTEX). The treatment involved delivery of 10% w/w nonactivated sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) solution to the high permeability layer for 14 days. The subsequent diffusion into the lower permeability layer and contaminant emission response were monitored for about 240 days. The S2O8(2-) diffused about 14 cm at 1% w/w into the lower permeability layer during the 14 day delivery and continued diffusing deeper into the layer as well as back toward the higher-lower permeability interface after delivery ceased. Over 209 days, the S2O8(2-) diffused 60 cm into the lower permeability layer, the BTEX mass and emission rate were reduced by 95-99%, and the MTBE emission rate was reduced by 63%. The overall treatment efficiency was about 60-110 g-S2O8(2-)delivered/g-hydrocarbon oxidized, with a significant fraction of the oxidant delivered likely lost by back-diffusion and not involved in hydrocarbon destruction. PMID:25386986

Cavanagh, Bridget A; Johnson, Paul C; Daniels, Eric J

2014-12-16

295

Relative effectiveness and efficiency of single and combination treatments using gamma rays and sodium azide in inducing chlorophyll mutations in rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seeds of rice cultivars, Jaya, IET 5656 and Fujiminori, were presoaked for 24 hours, then, irradiated with 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 kR of gamma ray, treated with 0.001, 0.002, 0.004 and 0.005 molar solutions of sodium azide at pH 3 for 4 hours, or subjected to the combination of the above, to study their relative effectiveness and efficiency for inducing chlorophyll mutation in rice. In all three varieties, the azide-treated subjects showed the higher frequency of chlorophyll mutants than the gamma ray-irradiated subjects in both single and combined treatments. In the variety Jaya, the sodium azide treatment showed higher efficiency and effectiveness than the gamma ray irradiation and the combined treatment, and also in the other two varieties, this tendency was more or less similar. The indica cultivars, Jaya and IET 5656, were more sensitive than the japonica cultivar, Fujiminori, to the generation of chlorophyll mutation. Sodium azide appeared to be more efficient than gamma ray in single or combined treatment. (Kako I.)

296

The effects of various precipitation chemicals on the properties of alumna-based hydroxides  

OpenAIRE

Titanium dioxide pigment is surface treated with various inorganic hydroxides. The purpose of a coating is to optimise processability as well as the chemical and physical properties of the TiO2 pigments. The treatments are tailored to the requirements of the final application. The most important surface treatment compound is aluminium hydroxide. This work was based on a previous study of pure alumina precipitations carried out by Tuomo Keskisaari. In addition to aluminium, in this study silic...

Meura, Mari

2009-01-01

297

Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mario Guidotti,1 Caterina Barrilà,1 Serena Leva,1 Claudio De Piazza,1 Stefano Omboni21Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, 2Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, ItalyBackground: Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study.Methods: Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine to 10 (severe migraine and use of rescue medication.Results: The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.8–5.9] than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1–6.4], P < 0.05 versus frovatriptan or no therapy (6.6 [6.2–7.0], P < 0.01 versus frovatriptan. The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5–2.3] versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0–4.2], P < 0.001 and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4–5.8], P < 0.001 and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P < 0.05 lower on frovatriptan (12.5% than on naproxen sodium (31.3% or no therapy (56.3%.Conclusion: This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine.Keywords: migraine, frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, weekend

Guidotti M

2013-01-01

298

Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT

299

Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT.

Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States)

2013-04-01

300

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Research and Development FY-2002 Status Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering several optional processes for disposal of liquid sodium-bearing waste. During fiscal year 2002, immobilization-related research included of grout formulation development for sodium-bearing waste, absorption of the waste on silica gel, and off-gas system mercury collection and breakthrough using activated carbon. Experimental results indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be immobilized in grout at 70 weight percent and onto silica gel at 74 weight percent. Furthermore, a loading of 11 weight percent mercury in sulfur-impregnated activated carbon was achieved with 99.8% off-gas mercury removal efficiency.

Herbst, Alan Keith; Deldebbio, John Anthony; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Olson, Lonnie Gene; Scholes, Bradley Adams

2002-09-01

301

Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

302

Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy  

OpenAIRE

Mario Guidotti,1 Caterina Barrilà,1 Serena Leva,1 Claudio De Piazza,1 Stefano Omboni21Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, 2Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, ItalyBackground: Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study.Methods: Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, inclu...

Guidotti M; Barrilà C; Leva S; De Piazza C; Omboni S

2013-01-01

303

Monitoring instruments for sodium impurity surveillance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical instruments have been tested for the insertion in sodium systems. The electrochemical oxygen meter was investigated in long term experiments with respect to meter indication and its compatibility with liquid sodium. The electrochemical carbon meter with CO/CO2-reference electrode showed a long term drift to low emf-values which requires additional fundamental work. A tritium meter for sodium and cover gas has been tested with tritium concentrations specific for reactor systems. The influence of temperature, sweep gas flow rate and of hydrogen addition to the sweep gas on the meter reading has been investigated. The addition of sodium hydride, sodium hydroxide and water to a sodium loop system has been surveyed with oxygen and hydrogen meters. (author)

304

Removal of fluoride from water using iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel and facile method for the synthesis of uniform stoichiometric powder form of non-magnetic iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles with spherical morphology and its application for defluoridation of drinking water is reported. X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), BET surface area, FTIR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images were used to characterize nanoscale iron oxide-hydroxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image revealed the formation of iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles with spherical morphology. The iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles showed an excellent ability to remove fluoride (F-) from contaminated water over a wide range of pH. The influences of temperature, stirring speed, pH, adsorbent dose and contact time were studied. The equilibrium data were tested with various isotherm models and finally, a calculation procedure was reported for the calculation of adsorbent requirement. The fluoride adsorbed nanoparticles was regenerated upto 70% using sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid solution. The iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles can be used as an effective and replicable adsorbent media for defluoridation of water in presence of competing anions like chloride, iodate, iodide and sulphate. PMID:22852326

Raul, Prasanta Kumar; Devi, Rashmi Rekha; Umlong, Iohborlang M; Banerjee, Saumen; Singh, Lokendra; Purkait, Mihir

2012-05-01

305

Online and offline sodium monitoring in feed/steam water of FBTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) utilizes Once Through Steam Generator (OTSG) for producing super heated steam at 480 deg C, 125 kg/cm2. In order to minimize corrosion related failures of tubes and ensure the SG tube integrity efficient water chemistry control is maintained in the feed/steam water system with All Volatile Treatment (AVT) and Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU). The high pH, low oxygen treatment is achieved by adding Ammonium hydroxide (500ppb) and Hydrazine (20-30ppb). Monitoring of sodium impurity in feed water and steam is highly important to assess the condenser tube leak and prevent possible caustic corrosion. The cationic impurities can be effectively controlled in the system by monitoring sodium at the outlet of CPU. A gradual and slow increase in sodium concentration indicates the exhaust/pre exhaust conditions of CPU whereas a rapidly increasing trend is an indication of cooling water tube leak in to the condenser. However, routine ultra trace level monitoring of sodium in presence of excess of ammonium ion and hydrazine, is a challenging task. This paper details the offline monitoring of sodium at ultra trace level using Reagent-Free Ion chromatograph (RFIC) wherein the high purity eluent is generated in situ. An on line sodium monitoring system using ion selective electrode (ISE) is also discussed here. The sodium concentration at Condensate Extraction Pump discharge (CEP) was always found to be less than 1.2 ppb ruling out the ingresbe less than 1.2 ppb ruling out the ingress of cooling water into the condensate due condenser tube leak. Comparisons of sodium analysis with both the techniques are also presented in this paper. (author)

306

On the possibility of extraction uranium(6) sorbed by iron hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigated are conditions of uranium(6) and iron(3) hydroxide coextraction using caprylic acid. Established is the increase in the degree of uranium(6) extraction with a kerosene solution of caprylic acid in the presence of iron (3) hydroxide which serves as a carrier. The degree of uranium extraction in the case of a 100-fold excess of the carrier in the interval pH 4-5 is 82%. The nature of curve distribution depends on pH, extraction duration and carrier-metal concentration. Sodium chloride (0.5 and 1.0 M) presence has no effect on uranium(6) extraction

307

Pyroprocessing of oxidized sodium-bonded fast reactor fuel - An experimental study of treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electro-metallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 C. degrees with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. In the absence of zirconium or sodium oxide, the electrolytic reduction of MnO showed nearly complete conversion to metal. The electrolytic reduction of a blend of MnO-ZrO2 in LiCl - 1 wt% Li2O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but only 8.5% of the zirconium was found in the metal phase. The electrolytic reduction of the same blend of MnO-ZrO2 in LiCl - 1 wt% Li2O - 6.2 wt% Na2O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but zirconium reduction was even less at 2.4%. This study concluded that ZrO2 cannot be substantially reduced to metal in an electrolytic reduction system with LiCl - 1 wt% Li2O at 650 C. degrees due to the perceived preferential formation of lithium zirconate. This study also identified a possible interference that sodium oxide may have on the same system by introducing a parasitic and cyclic reaction of dissolved sodium metal between oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. When applied to oxidized sodium-bonded EBR-II fuel (e.g., U-10Zr), the prescribed electrolytic reduction system would not be expected to substantially reduce zirconium oxide, and the accumulation of sodium in the electrolyte could interfere with the reduction of uranium oxide, or at least render it less efficient

308

Pyroprocessing of oxidized sodium-bonded fast reactor fuel - An experimental study of treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electro-metallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. In the absence of zirconium or sodium oxide, the electrolytic reduction of MnO showed nearly complete conversion to metal. The electrolytic reduction of a blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but only 8.5% of the zirconium was found in the metal phase. The electrolytic reduction of the same blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O - 6.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but zirconium reduction was even less at 2.4%. This study concluded that ZrO{sub 2} cannot be substantially reduced to metal in an electrolytic reduction system with LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees due to the perceived preferential formation of lithium zirconate. This study also identified a possible interference that sodium oxide may have on the same system by introducing a parasitic and cyclic reaction of dissolved sodium metal between oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. When applied to oxidized sodium-bonded EBR-II fuel (e.g., U-10Zr), the prescribed electrolytic reduction system would not be expected to substantially reduce zirconium oxide, and the accumulation of sodium in the electrolyte could interfere with the reduction of uranium oxide, or at least render it less efficient.

Hermann, S.D.; Gese, N.J. [Separations Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Wurth, L.A. [Zinc Air Inc., 5314-A US Hwy 2 West, Columbia Falls, MT 59912 (United States)

2013-07-01

309

Detalhes da utilização do íon hidróxido, HO-, no tratamento de efluentes contaminados com metal pesado zinco=Details of hydroxide ion utilization in the treatment of contaminated effluents with zinc.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo abordou o tratamento do efluente gerado num Espectrômetro de Absorção Atômica - EAA, no tocante ao metal pesado zinco, utilizando a propriedade do cátion formar o precipitado Zn(OH2(ppt. O assunto foi tratado teórica e praticamente. Teoricamente foram levantados parâmetros termodinâmicos e analisada matematicamente a solubilidade do Zn(OH2(ppt com a variação do pH. Experimentalmente foi analisado o comportamento da solução aquosa do Zn(OH2(ppt e da solução in natura do efluente descartado com o pH. As medidas da concentração de zinco nas diversas situações foram realizadas pelo método da EAA, com limite de detecção (LD de 0,030 mg L-1. Os resultados nas diferentes situações de solução e pH do meio, para a solubilidade mínima do Zn(OH(ppt, SMínima, em mg L-1, foram: valor teórico = 2,3; valor experimental para solução de Zn(OH(ppt = 0,92; valor para solução in natura = 0,092, respectivamente. Estes valores estão de conformidade com BRASIL-Resolução Conama n. 397/2008.This work analyzed the treatment of effluent produced by an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS containing the heavy metal zinc, utilizing the capacity of Zn2+ to react with hydroxide ion (HO-, forming Zn(OH2(ppt. The content was treated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, the thermodynamic parameters were assessed and the solubility of Zn(OH2(ppt with pH variation was analyzed mathematically. Experimentally, the study analyzed the behavior of the Zn(OH2(ppt aqueous solution and in natura solution of discarded effluent with the medium pH. The values of zinc concentration in the different situations were measured using AAS, flame modality, with detection limit (DL 0.030 mg L-1. The results in the different situations of solution and medium pH for the minimum solubility of Zn(OH2(ppt, in mg L-1, were: theoretical value = 2.3; experimental value for the Zn(OH2(ppt solution = 0.92; in natural effluent = 0.092, respectively. These values are in compliance with BRAZIL-Conama Resolution number 397/2008.

Ervim Lenzi

2011-07-01

310

Clinical effect of calcium hydroxide paste combined with triple antibiotic paste on root canal disinfection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective?To compare the efficacy in disinfection and pain control of calcium hydroxide paste and triple antibiotic paste (ornidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline used individually or jointly for root canal disinfection. Methods?Two hundred and thirty-five patients with chronic apical periodontitis (235 teeth were involved in the present study and divided into 2 groups: fistula group (n=118 and no fistula group (n=117. Each group was then randomly divided into 4 subgroups: calcium hydroxide paste group, triple antibiotic paste group, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste group, and camphor phenol group. After regular root canal preparation, root canals of patients in 4 groups were filled with tiny paper ends impregnated with fore 4 different drugs respectively. Visual analogue scales (VAS of pain were given to the patients with a guide for filling the scale. One week later, both the data of the scales and the effects of root canal disinfection were recorded and analyzed. Results?Seven days after treatment, the clinical efficacy of calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste was similar (P>0.05 either in fistula group or in no fistula group, but all better than that of camphor phenol (P<0.05. VAS score analysis showed that, at least on the first 3 days after sealing medicine in the root canal, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste achieved better result of pain control than the other three groups (P<0.05 no matter with or without fistula. Conclusions ?Calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste are effective in treatment of chronic apical periodontitis whether with or without fistula. However, the combined use of calcium hydroxide and three antibiotic pastes is better for controlling the pain after root canal preparation than other treatments, which is therefore worthy of clinical application. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.12

Chen QU

2014-03-01

311

XAFS Study of Arsenical Nickel Hydroxide  

OpenAIRE

To Investigate the role played by nickel co-ions in contributing to the stability of arsenic, fluorescence XAFS measurements at both arsenic K-edge and nickel K-edge, respectively, on amorphous arsenical nickel hydroxide, crystalline arsenical nickel hydroxide, and annabergite reference compounds have been carried out. The XAFS results indicate that the arsenic-bearing nickel hydroxides have a well-defined arsenic local structure with multiple coordination shells, suggesting a compound format...

Chen, N.; Kim, E.; Arthur, Z.; Daenzer, R.; Warner, J.; Demopoulos, G. P.; Joly, Yves; Jiang, D. T.

2013-01-01

312

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans is one of the mouth normal flora which may cause failures in endodontics. The resistance of C. albicans to intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide could reduce success rate root canal treatments .Objectives: Due to recivening some reports regarding resistance of C. albicans to calcium hydroxide from different parts of the world, the aim of this study was to evaluate anti candidal effects of Iranian and Korean made injectable calcium hydroxide and to compare the results.Materials and Methods: In the present research, the antifungal effects of calcium hydroxide on seven clinical isolates and one standard strain of C. albicans were evaluated. For this evaluation, two methods were used including: inhibition zone and colony count. In all experiments distilled water and clotrimazole were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In order to evaluate the effects of exposure time of calcium hydroxide on C. albicans growth, 30” , 5’ , 1 and 24 hours of incubation periods were applied. In addition, to evaluate role the effect of calcium hydroxide concentration samples with saturated, 1/10, 1/100 and 1/1000 dilutions and also a saturated one were used.Results: According to inhibition zone method, the mean diameters of C. albicans for Iranian and Korean made calcium hydroxide and clotrimazole were 17, 13 and 22 mm, respectively. Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide did not show any anti candidal effects. By colony counting method, it was found that in longer exposure time, Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide have more anti candidal effects , but no significant difference was observed between the two. Saturated and all other dilutions of calcium hydroxide base material indicated a significant statistical difference in anti candidal effect after 24 hours exposure in comparison with other periods.Conclusions: The Current study, confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide on C. albicans, up to 24 hours is within low range . Higher concentrations of base calcium hydroxide, showed greater inhibition zone on C. albicans ..--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:The results of present study indicated uncomplete compatibility of susceptibility of C. albicans strains to calcium hydroxide, therefoe, it seems continious evaluation is necessary in different geographical region..Please cite this paper as:Rafiei N, Eftekhar B, Rafiei A, Pourmahdi Borujeni M, Zarrin M. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2012;5(3:470-3. DOI: 10.5812/jjm.3409.

Neda Rafiei

2012-08-01

313

Sodium Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... anyone at particular risk for low or high sodium levels? Yes. People who have diarrhea, profuse sweating, ...

314

Sodium Phosphate  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

315

Treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with sodium diclofenac: a pilot study / Tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves leve a moderada com diclofenato de sódio: um estudo piloto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Relatar o uso do diclofenato de sódio, um antagonista do PPAR-gama e inibidor da ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) no tratamento da leve a moderada oftalmopatia de Graves. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Treze pacientes com CAS (clinical activity score) 2 a 7 foram tratados durante um período de 3 a 12 meses ( [...] média 7,6 ± 3,4) com diclofenaco de sódio por via oral na dose de 50 mg a cada 12 horas. RESULTADOS: A restrição da musculatura extraocular e o índice CAS melhoraram de modo significativo, respectivamente p = 0,003 e p = 0,004. A dor ocular e a diplopia desapareceram, com exceção de um paciente que referiu melhora desses sintomas. Não houve recidiva após a interrupção do tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves de média gravidade com diclofenaco de sódio por via oral é uma opção boa, segura e de baixo custo. Como outros novos tratamentos, ele deverá ser confirmado em um maior número de pacientes em estudos controlados. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the use of sodium diclofenac, an antagonist of PPAR-gamma and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor in the treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with clinical activity score (CAS) 2 to 7 were treated during a period ranging fr [...] om 3 to 12 months (mean 7.8 ± 3.4) with oral sodium diclofenac, 50 mg every 12 hours. RESULTS: Extra-ocular muscle restriction and CAS improved significantly, p = 0.003 and = 0.004, respectively. Ocular pain and diplopia disappeared, except for one patient who reported improvement of these symptoms. No recurrence was found after interruption of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with oral sodium diclofenac is a good, safe and less expensive therapeutic option. Like others new treatment trials, findings must be confirmed in a greater number of patients in a controlled study.

Walter, Bloise; Lidia Yuri, Mimura; Janete, Moura; Wilian, Nicolau.

2011-12-01

316

Effects of aluminum hydroxide and calcium carbonate antacids on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.  

OpenAIRE

This study was designed to determine the effects of an aluminum hydroxide antacid and a calcium carbonate antacid on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin (Cipro). Cipro (750 mg) was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers in a three-way randomized crossover design. The three treatments included Cipro alone, four 850-mg calcium carbonate tablets taken 5 min before Cipro, and three 600-mg aluminum hydroxide tablets taken 5 min before Cipro. The relative bioavailability of Cipro when given ...

Frost, R. W.; Lasseter, K. C.; Noe, A. J.; Shamblen, E. C.; Lettieri, J. T.

1992-01-01

317

21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250...Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended...

2010-04-01

318

21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 ...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity...specifications. The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall...

2010-04-01

319

21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally...

2010-04-01

320

The role of sodium in the body  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium is a metallic element with the symbol Na , in the same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs; is widespread in nature in the form of salts (nitrates, carbonates, chlorides, atomic number 11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft metal, reactive and with a low melting point , with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F. From the commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all the alkaline metals. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on earth, because it quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications .

Munteanu Constantin

2011-05-01

321

Sodium hypochlorite accident resulting in life-threatening airway obstruction during root canal treatment: a case report  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim This case report describes a serious and life-threatening complication of the use of sodium hypochlorite as an irrigation solution in root canal therapy. Summary This case report describes a hypochlorite accident that occurred in a healthy 42-year-old female who was undergoing routine root canal therapy for the lower right central incisor (tooth #41). After approximately 1 hour of irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite (for a total of 12 cc), the patient complained of severe pain and burning in the lip. The swelling progressed over the next 8 hours to involve the sublingual and submental fascial spaces with elevation of the tongue and resultant upper airway obstruction. The patient was intubated and remained on mechanical ventilation for 3 days. She recovered without any skin necrosis or nerve deficits. Key learning points This case report highlights the importance of carefully performing root canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite to avoid complications. Careful injection without pressure, the use of proper rubber dam isolation, and the use of the endodontic needle are necessary to avoid this type of complication. Although it is a safe root canal irrigation solution, its use may lead to life-threatening complications. Early recognition and management of the untoward effects of sodium hypochlorite are vital for the patient’s safety.

Al-Sebaei, Maisa O; Halabi, Omar A; El-Hakim, Ibrahim E

2015-01-01

322

Effect of combinations of gamma irradiation, hot water, Sodium chloride, and Acetic acid treatments on potato-dry rot  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma irradiation increased the severity of dry rot in potato tubers when they were inoculated with any of 4 species of Fusarium, previously isolated either from irradiated or unirradiated tubers. Treating either irradiated or unirradiated tubers with warm water or sodium chloride solutions following inoculation with F. roseum also increased the severity of dry rot to some extent

323

Response of HT115, a highly invasive human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, to sodium butyrate treatment and glucose deprivation.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 26, ?. 3 (2005), s. 793-799. ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) KSK5020115 Keywords : HT115 cells * sodium butyrate * glucose deprivation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.681, year: 2005

Štokrová, Jitka; Sovová, Vlasta; Šloncová, Eva; Ku?erová, Dana; Tuhá?ková, Zdena; Korb, Jan

2005-01-01

324

Sodium hypochlorite accident resulting in life-threatening airway obstruction during root canal treatment: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maisa O Al-Sebaei,1 Omar A Halabi,2 Ibrahim E El-Hakim3 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King Abdulaziz University – Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Saudi Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Aim: This case report describes a serious and life-threatening complication of the use of sodium hypochlorite as an irrigation solution in root canal therapy. Summary: This case report describes a hypochlorite accident that occurred in a healthy 42-year-old female who was undergoing routine root canal therapy for the lower right central incisor (tooth #41. After approximately 1 hour of irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite (for a total of 12 cc, the patient complained of severe pain and burning in the lip. The swelling progressed over the next 8 hours to involve the sublingual and submental fascial spaces with elevation of the tongue and resultant upper airway obstruction. The patient was intubated and remained on mechanical ventilation for 3 days. She recovered without any skin necrosis or nerve deficits. Key learning points: This case report highlights the importance of carefully performing root canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite to avoid complications. Careful injection without pressure, the use of proper rubber dam isolation, and the use of the endodontic needle are necessary to avoid this type of complication. Although it is a safe root canal irrigation solution, its use may lead to life-threatening complications. Early recognition and management of the untoward effects of sodium hypochlorite are vital for the patient's safety. Keywords: complications of root canal, facial edema, root canal irrigation, root canal therapy, sodium hypochlorite, upper airway obstruction

Al-Sebaei MO

2015-03-01

325

XAFS Study of Arsenical Nickel Hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

To Investigate the role played by nickel co-ions in contributing to the stability of arsenic, fluorescence XAFS measurements at both arsenic K-edge and nickel K-edge, respectively, on amorphous arsenical nickel hydroxide, crystalline arsenical nickel hydroxide, and annabergite reference compounds have been carried out. The XAFS results indicate that the arsenic-bearing nickel hydroxides have a well-defined arsenic local structure with multiple coordination shells, suggesting a compound formation mechanism instead of surface adsorption. The degradation of the arsenic local structure in the crystalline arsenical nickel hydroxide is observed. The XAFS of annabergites are compared to that of the arsenical nickel hydroxide and possible structural models are discussed.

Chen, N.; Kim, E.; Arthur, Z.; Daenzer, R.; Warner, J.; Demopoulos, G. P.; Joly, Y.; Jiang, D. T.

2013-04-01

326

Coprecipitation with metal hydroxides for the determination of beryllium in seawater by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coprecipitation first with magnesium hydroxide. next with tin(IV) hydroxide is developed for the determination of traces of beryllium in seawater. To a 200-ml sample is added a sodium hydroxide solution to form magnesium hydroxide at pH 11.5, on which beryllium is quantitatively coprecipitated. The precipitate is separated by centrifugation and dissolved in 2 ml of 12 mol/l hydrochloric acid. The resulting solution (ca. 10 ml) is mixed with 2 mg of tin(IV) carrier and the pH is adjusted to 5.0 to collect the beryllium on tin(IV) hydroxide, leaving magnesium ions in the solution. The tin(IV) hydroxide is centrifuged, dissolved in 0.1 ml of 5 mol/l hydrobromic acid, and then diluted to 1 ml with water. Magnesium is so added as to be 500 ?g/ml for increasing the sensitivity about four times, and the beryllium in the solution is determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The experiments with synthetic seawater samples showed that pg-?g amounts of beryllium can be coprecipitated on the metal hydroxides and beryllium at the low ng/l level can be determined with reasonable precision (RSD < 10%). The detection limit of the proposed method is 0.5 ng/l of beryllium in seawater. (author)

327

Cold Trap Dismantling and Sodium Removal at a Fast Breeder Reactor - 12327  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first German prototype Fast Breeder Nuclear Reactor (KNK) is currently being dismantled after being the only operating Fast Breeder-type reactor in Germany. As this reactor type used sodium as a coolant in its primary and secondary circuit, seven cold traps containing various amounts of partially activated sodium needed to be disposed of as part of the dismantling. The resulting combined difficulties of radioactive contamination and high chemical reactivity were handled by treating the cold traps differently depending on their size and the amount of sodium contained inside. Six small cold traps were processed onsite by cutting them up into small parts using a band saw under a protective atmosphere. The sodium was then converted to sodium hydroxide by using water. The remaining large cold trap could not be handled in the same way due to its dimensions (2.9 m x 1.1 m) and the declared amount of sodium inside (1,700 kg). It was therefore manually dismantled inside a large box filled with a protective atmosphere, while the resulting pieces were packaged for later burning in a special facility. The experiences gained by KNK during this process may be advantageous for future dismantling projects in similar sodium-cooled reactors worldwide. The dismantling of a prototype fast breeder reactor provides the challenge not only to dismantle radioactive materials but also to handle sodium-contaminated or sodium-containing components. The treatment of sodium requires additional equipment and installations to ensure a safe handling. Since it is not permitted to bring sodium into a repository, all sodium has to be neutralized either through a controlled reaction with water or by incinerating. The resulting components can be disposed of as normal radioactive waste with no further conditions. The handling of sodium needs skilled and experienced workers to minimize the inherent risks. And the example of the disposal of the large KNK cold trap shows the interaction with others and also foreign decommissioning projects can provide solutions with were unknown before. (authors)

328

Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation...

Leonardo Mário Roberto; Salgado Antônio Alberto Medeiros; Silva Léa Assed Bezerra da; Tanomaru Filho Mário

2003-01-01

329

The effects of duration of pre-soaking treatments on the frequency and spectrum of mutations induced by sodium azide in CES 14 Mungbean variety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of mungbean variety CES 14 were treated with 10-3 sodium azide for 2 hours buffered at pH 3 after various pre-soaking treatment durations of 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 hours. The biological parameters that were significantly affected by the treatments in the M1 were germination, seedling height and survival. The chlorophyll and other morphological mutations in the M2 gradually increased with increasing pre-soaking time. The treatment that had the lowest mutation rate was the 16-hour pre-soaked seeds. No chlorophyll mutation was noted in both the water and buffer control. One variant was noted, however, in the buffer control. (author)

330

Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: The formation of yttrium hydroxide fluorides nanobundles can be expressed as a precipitation transformation from cubic NaYF4 to hexagonal NaYF4 and to hexagonal Y(OH)2.02F0.98 owing to ion exchange. - Highlights: • Novel Y(OH)2.02F0.98 nanobundles have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The branched nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles has been studied. • The growth mechanism is proposed to be ion exchange and precipitation transformation. - Abstract: This article presents the fabrication of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles via one-pot hydrothermal process, using yttrium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent. The X-ray diffraction pattern clearly reveals that the grown product is pure yttrium hydroxide fluoride, namely Y(OH)2.02F0.98. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized product is testified to be nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles as observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The chemical composition was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), confirming the phase transformation of the products which was clearly consistent with the result of XRD analysis. It is proposed that the growth of yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles be attributed to ion exchange and precipitation transformation

331

Subchronic and reproductive/developmental (screening level) toxicity of complexation products of iron trichloride and sodium tartrate (FemTA).  

Science.gov (United States)

A complexation/reaction product, termed FemTA, of sodium tartrate [D(-)- and L(+)-tartaric acid and mesotartaric acid], sodium hydroxide, and iron trichloride may have use as an anticaking agent in salt preparations. FemTA is composed of about 4% sodium tartrate, approximately 10% mesotartaric acid, approximately 7% chloride, approximately 4% iron, approximately 7% sodium, approximately 0.3% sodium oxalate, and approximately 65% water. FemTA was tested in a 90-d oral toxicity study, which included a screening level reproductive/developmental toxicity phase, in Harlan Wistar rats. FemTA was administered by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight/d prior to and during mating, or about 20, 40, or 80 mg of iron/kg body weight/d, such that males received 90/91 d of treatment and females 104 to 109 d. Treatment was associated with inflammatory lesions of the lower GI tract at the mid- and high-dose levels, increased liver and kidney weights, increased serum bile acids and blood urea nitrogen, decreased chloride, and changes to hematological parameters consistent with inflammation. The effects were considered the result of iron overload. There were no effects on reproductive/developmental toxicity parameters. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), based on gastrointestinal tract effects was 500 mg/kg body weight/d. The NOAEL for reproductive/developmental toxicity was 2000 mg/kg body weight/d, the highest dose tested. PMID:24015727

Lynch, Barry; Emmen, Harry; van Otterdijk, Francois; Lau, Annette

2013-09-01

332

An application of hydrothermally crystallized coal ashes for waste water treatment, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To provide an application of combustion coal ash, hydrothermal reaction of fly ash (FA) and clinker ash (CA) is performed and an investigation is carried out to determine the capability of the P type zeolite produced from these ashes to adsorb heavy metal ions. Hydrothermal reaction of FA and CA at 95 - 100 deg C is conducted with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide for various reaction times. Both types of ash are found to easily undergo crystallization to form P type zeolite (PZ) and hydroxy sodalite (HS) when treated with a sodium hydroxide solution (sodium hydroxide/coal ash = 10 v/w) for 18 hours. The FA-PZ and CA-PZ produced by the hydrothermal treatment have degrees of crystallinity in the range of 40 - 60 percent. It is seen that the degree of crystallinity gradually increases with increasing treatment time. The cristallinity of hydrothermally treated coal ash is also shown to have good correlation with the base substitution capacity and the maximum adsorption of ammonium ion. Furthermore, they are shown to effectively adsorb metal ions, in particular those of lead, cadmium and strontium. It is suggested that they may serve as an enrichment agent for low-level radioactive nuclides produced in nuclear power plants. They also seem to have the possibility of serving as a metal elution preventive for industrial wastes of some special types. (Nogami, K.)

333

Distribution of Rhodium in Mice Submitted to Treatment With the Adduct of Rhodium Propionate and Sodium Isonicotinate  

OpenAIRE

The distribution of rhodium in Balb/c mice following intraperitoneal (ip) administration of a solution of adduct of rhodium propionate and sodium isonicotinate has been investigated. The metal concentration was determined in blood and in the following organ tissues: brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, testes, and uterus/ovary, and the rhodium concentration was obtained by Inductively Coupled Argon Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The metal was detected in all organ tissues ex...

Souza, Aparecido Ribeiro; Najjar, Renato; Oliveira, Elizabeth; Zyngier, Szulim Ber

1997-01-01

334

A critical assessment of the methods for intercalating anionic surfactants in layered double hydroxides  

OpenAIRE

The intercalation of surfactant anions, namely sodium dodecyl sulphate, sodium benzene sulphonate and lauric acid, into commercial layered double hydroxides (LDH-CO3) with approximate composition [Mg0.654AI0.346 (OH)2](CO3)0.173.0.5H2O] was explored. LDH-CO3 is commercially available in bulk form owing to its large scale applications as a PVC stabiliser and acid scavenger in polyolefins. It is therefore of interest to investigate intercalation methods using LDH-CO3 as starting material. Th...

Moyo, Lumbidzani

2008-01-01

335

Equilibrium considerations in aerosol formation during sodium combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combustion of liquid sodium is of interest in the safety assessment of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor systems. In the present study, a detailed thermodynamic analysis of sodium-air system has been carried out for equivalence ratios in the range of 0.1-1.9 and for flame temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1950 K. In addition to this, decomposition calculations presented for product aerosols such as sodium oxide (Na2O), sodium dioxide (Na2O2) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in normal oxygen and oxygen-deficient conditions (which are some form of phase diagrams of these aerosols) are used rigorously to find out the predominant aerosol that should be present in and outside the burn pan for a pool fire of liquid sodium. The conditions of occurrence of various sodium oxides under two different fire conditions namely pool and jet fires have been worked out. It is established that heterogeneous reactions involving sodium oxide are responsible for the formation of sodium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. It is necessary to take account of the rates of these heterogeneous reactions as well as the equivalence ratio-dependent decomposition calculations to correctly estimate the aerosol product mix in practical situations

336

Equilibrium considerations in aerosol formation during sodium combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combustion of liquid sodium is of interest in the safety assessment of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor systems. In the present study, a detailed thermodynamic analysis of sodium-air system has been carried out for equivalence ratios in the range of 0.1-1.9 and for flame temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1950 K. In addition to this, decomposition calculations presented for product aerosols such as sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O), sodium dioxide (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in normal oxygen and oxygen-deficient conditions (which are some form of phase diagrams of these aerosols) are used rigorously to find out the predominant aerosol that should be present in and outside the burn pan for a pool fire of liquid sodium. The conditions of occurrence of various sodium oxides under two different fire conditions namely pool and jet fires have been worked out. It is established that heterogeneous reactions involving sodium oxide are responsible for the formation of sodium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. It is necessary to take account of the rates of these heterogeneous reactions as well as the equivalence ratio-dependent decomposition calculations to correctly estimate the aerosol product mix in practical situations.

Subramani, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering IIT Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Jayanti, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering IIT Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: sjayanti@iitm.ac.in

2008-10-15

337

The efficacy of sodium channel blockers to prevent phencyclidine-induced cognitive dysfunction in the rat: potential for novel treatments for schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium channel inhibition is a well precedented mechanism used to treat epilepsy and other hyperexcitability disorders. The established sodium channel blocker and broad-spectrum anticonvulsant lamotrigine is also effective in the treatment of bipolar disorder and has been evaluated in patients with schizophrenia. Double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials found that the drug has potential to reduce cognitive symptoms of the disorder. However, because of compound-related side-effects and the need for dose titration, a conclusive evaluation of the drug's efficacy in patients with schizophrenia has not been possible. (5R)-5-(4-{[(2-Fluorophenyl)methyl]oxy}phenyl)-l-prolinamide (GSK2) and (2R,5R)-2-(4-{[(2-fluorophenyl)methyl]oxy}phenyl)-7-methyl-1,7-diazaspiro[4.4]nonan-6-one (GSK3) are two new structurally diverse sodium channel blockers with potent anticonvulsant activity. In this series of studies in the rat, we compared the efficacy of the two new molecules to prevent a cognitive deficit induced by the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) in the reversal-learning paradigm in the rat. We also explored the effects of the drugs to prevent brain activation and neurochemical effects of PCP. We found that, like lamotrigine, both GSK2 and GSK3 were able to prevent the deficit in reversal learning produced by PCP, thus confirming their potential in the treatment of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, higher doses than those required for anticonvulsant efficacy of the drugs were needed for activity in the reversal-learning model, suggesting a lower therapeutic window relative to mechanism-dependent central side effects for this indication. PMID:21487071

Large, Charles H; Bison, Silvia; Sartori, Ilaria; Read, Kevin D; Gozzi, Alessandro; Quarta, Davide; Antolini, Marinella; Hollands, Emma; Gill, Catherine H; Gunthorpe, Martin J; Idris, Nagi; Neill, Jo C; Alvaro, Giuseppe S

2011-07-01

338

Hideout of sodium salts in tubesheet crevices: Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hideout of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride in tubesheet crevices was studied in single tube model boilers at CADARACHE. Radioactive Na24 was used for the measurements. Crevices of 0.2 mm width were empty or packed. A hydraulically expanded crevice and a rolled crevice were also studied. The concentration rate depends on the bulk water concentration but the equilibrium concentration appears to be related only to thermal conditions. The equilibrium value of 25 moles per liter in the crevice was extrapolated, the sodium concentration in the bulk water being in the range of 5 to 50 ppM. This equilibrium will be obtained with an ''integrated pollution'' of 5000 to 10,000 ppM x hours. Flushing produced by the boiler depressurization was shown to be an effective way to remove salt from the crevice. Sodium hydroxide was shown to concentrate even in a residual crevice of few ?m width

339

Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles  

OpenAIRE

Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile, aluminum hydroxide can only weakly or moderately potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1–20 µm. There is increasing evidence that nanoparticles around or less than 200 nm as vaccine or antigen carriers have a more potent adjuvant activity than large microparticles. In the pr...

Li, Xinran; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M.; Cui, Zhengrong

2013-01-01

340

Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH{sub 4} electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH{sub 4} at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH{sub 4} at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H{sub 2} bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H{sub 2} bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders of magnitude bigger than the film thickness, thus minimizing its effect.

Chatenet, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marian.Chatenet@phelma.grenoble-inp.fr; Molina-Concha, M.B. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); El-Kissi, N. [Laboratoire de Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1301 rue de la piscine, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

2009-07-15

341

Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH4 electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH4 at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH4 at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H2 bubbles at the electrode surfacub>2 bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H2 bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders of magnitude bigger than the film thickness, thus minimizing its effect.

342

Desulphurization of damped battery paste by sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper treats investigation of the desulphurization process of damped Pb-paste by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} or NaOH. There is determined the effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (NaOH) concentration and the liquid-solid phase ratio on the process parameters (degree of desulphurization and degree of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (NaOH) utilization in function of the temperature and process duration). The optimum conditions for carrying out desulphurization of Pb-pastes by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} or NaOH are determined in dependence of the used reactors (common reactor with laboratory agitator and rotary reactor of drum type). The content of inclusions in the solutions is examined with the purpose of producing sufficiently pure crystalline Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for the industry. (author)

Lyakov, Nedialko K.; Atanasova, Dimitrina A.; Vassilev, Venceslav S.; Haralampiev, Georgi A. [Department of Semiconductors, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kliment Ohridski Boulevard, 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2007-09-27

343

SXPS investigation of the Cd partial electrolyte treatment of CuInSe2 absorbers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical modification of polycrystalline CuInSe2 absorber surfaces by the so-called Cd partial electrolyte (PE) treatment was studied by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS). The Cd PE treatment was found to remove surface indium oxides and hydroxides and segregated sodium compounds. A hydroxide-terminated CdSe surface layer of one monolayer thickness is formed by the partial electrolyte treatment. The reaction mechanism is discussed as substrate site-controlled exchange reaction, where surface indium is removed and replaced by cadmium. Electronically, the Cd PE treated surface is inverted and exhibits a surface barrier which is by 0.2 eV higher than a comparable structure that was prepared by the vacuum deposition of one monolayer of CdS onto clean CuInSe2

344

Hidden Sodium  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

2013-03-04

345

Radiochemical study of hydroxide films. IV. Uranium sorption from freshwater by thin layer titanium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium sorption from freshwater by thin-layer sorbents, viz., iron, manganese, and titanium hydroxides, has been studied under dynamic conditions. Titanium hydroxide has been found to be the most effective sorbent for uranium concentration. Uranium can be desorbed from thin-layer titanium hydroxide with five column volumes of 0.1 M HCl. From freshwater uranium is sorbed by thin-layer titanium hydroxide in the mixed diffusion region. Higher solution temperature accelerates sorption, which indicates that chemical interaction plays a notable part

346

Sodium equipments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To protect sodium equipments immersed in sodium for a long time against the damage to their constituent materials and decrease the specific radioactivity issued therefrom during maintenance, as well as facilitate the disposal of radioactive liquid wastes after decontamination. Constitution: In a sodium equipment provided to the sodium loops of primary coolant system in a fast type reactor, the surface of the equipment is covered at least with nickel and nickel-enriched nickel base alloy by flame spray coating or electroplating before the immersion in sodium. Then, the nickel surface is heated by flames from a torch nozzle to melt and smooth the coarse surface. Upon decontamination of the radioactivity after the use of the equipment, the nickel layer is removed through chemical etching. (Ikeda, J.)

347

Nickel hydroxide precipitation from aqueous sulfate media  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrometallurgical processing of laterite ores constitutes a major industrial and R&D activity in extractive metallurgy. In some of the process flowsheets, nickel hydroxide precipitation is incorporated. For these operations, the optimization of nickel hydroxide precipitation is important to assure efficiency and product quality. The main objective of this investigation was to study and improve the precipitation characteristics of Ni(OH)2 in a sulfate system using supersaturation controlled precipitation.

Sist, Cinziana; Demopoulos, George P.

2003-08-01

348

Thermal analysis experiment for elucidating sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. The parameters, including melting points of Na and NaOH, phase transition temperature of NaOH, Na-NaOH reaction temperature, and decomposition temperature of sodium hydride (NaH) have been identified from DTA curves. Based on the measured reaction temperature, rate constant of sodium monoxide (Na2O) generation was obtained. Thermal analysis results indicated that Na2O generation at the secondary overall reaction should be considered during the sodium-water reaction. (author)

349

Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

1985-01-01

350

Toxicity and aluminium concentration in bone following dietary administration of two sodium aluminium phosphate formulations in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of dietary administration of the basic sodium aluminium phosphates, KASAL and KASAL II, were examined in male rats. Aluminium levels in bone were determined in order to estimate the possible aluminium deposition by these compounds. Groups of 25 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control diet or diets containing 30,000 ppm KASAL, 7000 or 30,000 ppm KASAL II, or 14,470 ppm aluminium hydroxide for 28 days. The mean daily aluminium doses were calculated to be 5, 141, 67, 288 or 302 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Neither form of KASAL induced detectable toxicity. No adverse treatment-related clinical signs were observed. Body weights and food consumptions were similar in treated and control groups. No toxicologically significant changes were observed in haematology, clinical chemistry parameters or organ weights. No treatment-related changes were observed at autopsy or in histopathological examination of collected tissues. Femurs collected at autopsy under conditions free of aluminium contamination showed no significant deposition of aluminium after dietary administration of KASAL, KASAL II or aluminium hydroxide. All aluminium values in bone were less than 1 ppm and most values were not quantifiable. Thus, dietary administration of up to 30,000 ppm of either of the basic sodium aluminium phosphate formulations caused neither toxicity nor significant deposition of aluminium in femur. PMID:3623343

Hicks, J S; Hackett, D S; Sprague, G L

1987-07-01

351

Influence of cobalt hydroxide addition on the properties of the nickel hydroxide electrode during charge/discharge cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Voltametry and open circuit measurements of coprecipitated (nickel+cobalt) hydroxide electrodes, cobalt hydroxide+nickel hydroxide electrodes and nickel hydroxide+cobalt hydroxide electrodes in 0.1 M KOH at 250C were made. Coprecipitated electrodes exhibit an overpotential decrease for the Ni(II)/Ni(III) redox reactions and an overpotential increase for the oxygen evolution reaction. The behaviour of the different electrodes is interpreted in terms of a catalytic effect of the Co(II)/Co(III) reaction on the Ni(II)/Ni(III) reaction through hydroxide ions inserted into the metal hydroxide layer. (C.L.B.)

352

Computational sensitivity study on sodium-water reaction phenomenon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensitivity studies on Sodium-Water Reaction (SWR), which will take place in a steam generator of Liquid Metal Fast Reactor (LMFR) when a heat transfer tube fails, have been carried out using a multi-dimensional computational code: SERAPHIM. An initial pressure of liquid sodium, an interfacial area density and an evaporation of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are chosen as a parameter in this study. An influence of the parameter on a development of high temperature zone (>1,000degC) and maximum temperature has been investigated from the perspective that one avoids a secondary heat transfer tube failure in a steam generator due to overheating rupture. In the analyses, it is assumed that water vapor leaks into liquid sodium without and barrier for a simplicity. As a result, it is found that the initial pressure and the interfacial area density affect the high temperature zone strongly, whereas they have almost no influence on the maximum temperature in the present configuration. As concerns the evaporation of sodium hydroxide, it influences not on the high temperature zone but on the maximum temperature. The maximum temperature decrease approximately 200degC due to latent heat of the evaporation. It is concluded that the evaporation of sodium hydroxide will be a key phenomenon for maximum temperature investigation in the SWR. (author)

353

Indirect pulp capping using different calcium hydroxide products: A clinical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Indirect pulp capping is a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of deep carious lesion in order to stimulate odontoblasts to produce tertiary dentin using different biomaterials based mainly on calcium hydroxide. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hard-setting (Dycal and a suspension of calcium hydroxide (Calcipulp in the treatment of deep carious lesion (caries profunda. Materials and Methods. Clinical study included 29 patients of both genders, age 16 to 40, and 45 teeth of different morphological groups with verified caries profunda using clinical and radiographic examination. After the cavity preparation, calcium hydroxide materials (Dycal or Calcipulp were applied on the pulpal wall and cavities temporarily restored (phosphate cement for the period of two months. After this period cavities were restored with composite materials and clinically observed during twelve months, with mandatory check-ups after three and six months. Results. Obtained results showed that indirect pulp capping using calcium hydroxide suspension (90.0% was more successful than hard-setting material (84.0%, but with no statistically significant difference. Conclusion. Suspension and hard-setting calcium hydroxide were equally successful in the treatment of caries profunda.

Kuzmanovi?-Radman Irena

2014-01-01

354

Intra-arterial cis-platinum infusion with sodium thiosulfate protection and angiotensin II induced hypertension for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (CDDP; 52-169 mg/m2) mixed with angiotensin II (1.5-10 ?g/min) was infused into the hepatic artery in 33 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Simultaneously, sodium thiosulfate (10-50 g) was administered intravenously in order to reduce the systemic toxicity of CDDP. Over 50% reduction in tumor size was obtained in 18 patients (55%). Complete response was achieved in 4 patients (12%). Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels decreased by more than 75% in 10 of 18 patients in whom the previous AFP level was more than 200 mg/ml. The one year survival rate was estimated at 61% by the Kaplan-Meier method. Alimentary symptoms (nausea, vomiting) were mild or non-existent in nearly 90 per cent of treatments. Peptic ulcer and abdominal pain were manifested in small numbers. Severe changes in the laboratory data were not observed. High dosage arterial infusion of CDDP and angiotensin II and intravenous injection of sodium thiosulfate was well tolerated and gave effective therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma. (orig.)

355

The effect of chemical treatment on reduction of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in black and white pepper during washing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of 18 different chemicals, which included acidic compounds (sulfuric acid, chloridric acid, phosphoric acid, benzoic acid, citric acid, acetic acid), alkaline compounds (ammonia, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide), salts (acetate ammonium, sodium bisulfite, sodium hydrosulfite, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate) and oxidising agents (hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite), on the reduction of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was investigated in black and white pepper. OTA and aflatoxins were determined using HPLC after immunoaffinity column clean-up. Almost all of the applied chemicals showed a significant degree of reduction on mycotoxins (p sodium hydroxide. There was no significant difference between black and white peppers (p < 0.05). PMID:21416415

Jalili, M; Jinap, S; Son, R

2011-04-01

356

Concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for preventing the introduction of nonindigenous species in the ballast tanks of ships declaring no ballast on board.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, seawater flushing is the only management strategy for reducing the number of viable organisms in residual sediments and water of ballast tanks of vessels declaring no ballast on board (NOBOB) that traffic ports of the eastern United States. Previously, we identified several species of freshwater and brackish-water peracarid crustaceans able to survive the osmotic shock that occurs during open-ocean ballast water exchange and, potentially, to disperse over long distances via ballasted ships and NOBOB vessels. We tested the efficacy of concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for eradicating the halotolerant taxa often present in the ballast tanks of NOBOB ships. The lowest brine treatments (30 ppt for 1 h) caused 100% mortality in several species of cladocerans and copepods collected from oligohaline habitats. Several brackish-water peracarid crustaceans, however, including some that can survive in freshwater as well, required higher brine concentrations and longer exposure durations (45-60 ppt for 3-24 h). The most resilient animals were widely introduced peracarid crustaceans that generally prefer mesohaline habitats but do not tolerate freshwater (required brine treatments of 60-110 ppt for 3-24 h). Brine treatments (30 ppt) also required less time to cause 100% mortality for eight taxa compared with treatments using 34 ppt seawater. Based on these experiments and published data, we present treatment strategies for the ballast tank biota often associated with NOBOB vessels entering the Great Lakes region. We estimate the lethal dosage of brine for 95% of the species in our experiments to be 110 ppt (95% confidence interval, 85-192 ppt) when the exposure time is 1 h and 60 ppt (95% confidence interval, 48-98 ppt) when the exposure duration is 6 h or longer. PMID:18811222

Santagata, Scott; Bacela, Karolina; Reid, David F; Mclean, Kevin A; Cohen, Jill S; Cordell, Jeffery R; Brown, Christopher W; Johengen, Thomas H; Ruiz, Gregory M

2009-02-01

357

Eficacia del valproato de sodio en el tratamiento profiláctico de la migraña / Efficacy of sodium valproate in the prophylactic treatment of migraine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: La migraña es un síndrome doloroso recurrente crónico acompañado de características neurológicas, objetivos: evaluar la eficacia del valproato de sodio en la profilaxis de la migraña a través de cambios en intensidad, dolor y frecuencia. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, longi [...] tudinal, experimental y aleatorio en 30 pacientes que recibieron en la 1ra semana 1 tableta/dia de valproato de sodio 500 mg vía oral y 2 tabletas/dia de 500 mg por 7 semanas más. Resultados: 97% refirió disminución de la intensidad del dolor. 97% estuvieron en la categoría 3 de frecuencia de crisis de migraña al mes 0; durante el 1er mes de tratamiento, se redujo al 0% y se mantuvo durante el 2do mes. Conclusiones: El tratamiento profiláctico de la migraña con valproato de sodio produce una disminución de la frecuencia e intensidad del dolor Abstract in english Introduction: migraine is a chronic recurrent pain syndrome accompanied by neurological features. Objectives: evaluate the efficacy of sodium valproate in the migraine prophylactic, measuring pain intensity and frequency. Material and Methods: prospective, longitudinal, experiemental and randomized [...] in 30 patients, each patient received in the 1st week 1 table/day of 500 mg orally and 2 table/day of 500 mg for the next 7 weeks Results: 97% reported decreased pain intensity. 97% were in category 3 of frequency of migraine attacks per month 0. during the 1 st month of treatment, it was reduced to 0% and remained during the 2nd month. Conclusions: prophylactic treatment of migraine with sodium valproate causes a decrease in pain intensity and frequency.

Juan Fernando, Lizárraga Luyo; Pilar Milagros, Jara Pinto; Leónidas E., Unzueta Rozas.

2012-01-01

358

Study of decreasing of uranium interference in tri-sodium phosphate from the Thai monazite processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this experiment is to study the methods of decreasing uranium content presented as an impurity in tri-sodium phosphate from the processing of Thai Monazite. Three methods were studied. The addition of 5-35% sodium hydroxide solution could decrease 80% of uranium in tri-sodium phosphate, addition of 5-40% sodium carbonate solution with 5% sodium hydroxide solution could decrease uranium content up to 90% and only 40% of uranium was found to reduce if aluminium carrier method was applied. The recrystallization of tri-sodium phosphate was also revealed in the experiment to be another of decreasing uranium content in the product. The analysis of uranium were done by neutron activation technique, fluorimetry analysis technique was also applied for comparative study

359

Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method

360

Aluminum hydroxide dissolution in synthetic sludges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the revised Stage 1 Defense Waste Processing Facility, aluminum hydroxide dissolving has been moved from S Canyon to the waste tank farm. The maximum attainable temperature has been reduced from 1070C in the stainless steel dissolver to less than 900C in the large mild steel waste tanks. Also, caustic strength must be maintained below 6.5 molar to avoid caustic cracking. Studies at TNX indicate that 75% of the crystalline aluminum hydroxide can be dissolved while using about one-third of the caustic quantity specified for the S Canyon dissolver. Studies were made in laboratory-scale and large-scale equipment to determine optimum conditions for dissolving the most aluminum hydroxide with the least caustic. These studies showed that gibbsite Al(OH)3 is readily dissolved at low caustic strength, low addition rate, and at easily attainable in-tank temperatures. On the other hand, most of the boehmite AlOOH can be dissolved, but a lengthy digestion period is required at maximum temperatures and caustic strengths. Fortunately, 72% of the total aluminum hydroxide in the waste sludge is gibbsite and 28% is boehmite according to recent sludge analyses. Recommendations are made for the in-tank conditions needed to dissolve 75% of the aluminum hydroxide contacted. With low boehmite sludges, mild dissolving conditions are adequate while providing good caustic economy. With higher boehmite sludges, the harsher conditions within existing constraiarsher conditions within existing constraints are recommended

361

Development of a Waste Treatment Process to Deactivate Reactive Uranium Metal and Produce a Stable Waste Form  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper highlights the results of initial investigations conducted to support the development of an integrated treatment process to convert pyrophoric metallic uranium wastes to a non-pyrophoric waste that is acceptable for land disposal. Several dissolution systems were evaluated to determine their suitability to dissolve uranium metal and that yield a final waste form containing uranium specie(s) amenable to precipitation, stabilization, adsorption, or ion exchange. During initial studies, one gram aliquots of uranium metal or the uranium alloy U-2%Mo were treated with 5 to 60 mL of selected reagents. Treatment systems screened included acids, acid mixtures, and bases with and without addition of oxidants. Reagents used included hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acids, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. Complete dissolution of the uranium turnings was achieved with the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/HCI system at room temperature within minutes. The sodium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite systems achieved complete dissolution but required elevated temperatures and longer reaction times. A ranking system based on criteria, such as corrosiveness, temperature, dissolution time, off-gas type and amount, and liquid to solid ratio, was designed to determine the treatment systems that should be developed further for a full-scale process. The highest-ranking systems, nitric acid/sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid/phosphoric acid, were given priority in our follow-on investigations.

Gates-Anderson, D D; Laue, C A; Fitch, T E

2002-01-17

362

Development of a Waste Treatment Process to Deactivate Reactive Uranium Metal and Produce a Stable Waste Form  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper highlights the results of initial investigations conducted to support the development of an integrated treatment process to convert pyrophoric metallic uranium wastes to a non-pyrophoric waste that is acceptable for land disposal. Several dissolution systems were evaluated to determine their suitability to dissolve uranium metal and that yield a final waste form containing uranium specie(s) amenable to precipitation, stabilization, adsorption, or ion exchange. During initial studies, one gram aliquots of uranium metal or the uranium alloy U-2%Mo were treated with 5 to 60 mL of selected reagents. Treatment systems screened included acids, acid mixtures, and bases with and without addition of oxidants. Reagents used included hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acids, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. Complete dissolution of the uranium turnings was achieved with the H3PO4/HCI system at room temperature within minutes. The sodium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite systems achieved complete dissolution but required elevated temperatures and longer reaction times. A ranking system based on criteria, such as corrosiveness, temperature, dissolution time, off-gas type and amount, and liquid to solid ratio, was designed to determine the treatment systems that should be developed further for a full-scale process. The highest-ranking systems, nitric acid/sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid/pacid/sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid/phosphoric acid, were given priority in our follow-on investigations

363

Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser (?= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm2 during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

364

Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.

Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Y.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

1998-08-01

365

Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste

366

In vessel detection of delayed neutron emitters from clad failure in sodium cooled nuclear reactors: Information treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The formalism of hypothesis testing is applied to the detection of abnormal situations in a reactor vessel. • Clad failure monitoring in breeder reactors is taken as an example. • False alarms are addressed by a bayesian approach. • Operating several independent detectors at the same location is shown to be very effective. - Abstract: With appropriate techniques, the information brought by the in-vessel instrumentation of nuclear reactors may betray rather subtle departures from normal state indicating an abnormal situation at early stages, to improve both safety and availability. This paper takes the case of the detection of delayed neutrons released by a clad failure in sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors as an illustrative application of hypothesis testing. Two methods are discussed, seeking either for a counting excess of for a departure from stationarity, yielding similar results. The question of false alarms is addressed by a Bayesian approach that takes into account the prior probability of failure. The use of several identical sensors is shown to be effective

367

Household water treatment using sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets: a randomized, controlled trial to assess microbiological effectiveness in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the microbiologic effectiveness of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets used on a routine basis at the household level by a vulnerable population. In a 4-month trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh, one half of the 100 participating households received NaDCC tablets and instructions on how to use the same; the other one half received a placebo and the same instructions. Monthly samples of stored drinking water from intervention households were significantly lower in thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) than those of control households (geometric mean, 2.8 [95% CI: 2.2, 3.6] versus 604.1 [95% CI: 463.2, 787.9]; P < 0.0001). While 61.7% (116/188) of samples from the intervention households met World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for 0 TTCs in drinking water, none of the 191 samples from control households met such a benchmark. Residual free chlorine in water samples suggested that householders consistently used the intervention, but 11.7% of samples exceeded the WHO guideline value of 5.0 mg/L, underscoring the need to ensure that tablet dose and vessel size are compatible. PMID:17255252

Clasen, Thomas; Saeed, Tanveer F; Boisson, Sophie; Edmondson, Paul; Shipin, Oleg

2007-01-01

368

Effects of alkali treatment on ash and sulphur removal from Assam coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of leaching subbituminous coal samples from Boragolai and Ledo collieries of Makum coal field, Assam, India, with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution on removal of ash and sulphur, were investigated. Mild alkali treatment for relatively short period leads to removal of ash from the coal samples. Increase of alkali concentration and treatment time has negative effect on ash reduction due to formation and accumulation of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate. Boragolai coal is less demineralized than Ledo coal and is attributed to presence of higher amount of alkali-soluble silica and alumina. Alkali treatment leads to over 70% removal of the inorganic sulphur in the coal samples. Desulphurization increases with increase in alkali concentration and treatment time.

Mukherjee, Samit; Borthakur, P.C. [Material Science Division, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jorhat-785006, Assam (India)

2003-02-15

369

Microwaves and layered double hydroxides: A smooth understanding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microwave-hydrothermal treatment (MWHT), a modification of conventional hydro thermal treatment, has been used during post-treatment of different layered double hydroxides (LDHs). In some cases, microwaves (MWs) have been used simultaneously with urea hydrolysis or for reconstruction of the LDH structure. The main advantages of replacing the conventional furnaces by MW ovens are a noticeable reduction in the time required to complete the process to obtain well-crystallized materials, and modification of their particle size distribution and textural and thermal properties. MW radiation leads to an increase in the rate of urea hydrolysis and consequently to fast precipitation of LDHs. Finally, the memory effect of Ni,Al-based LDHs is also improved. (authors)

370

Critical operating parameters for microwave solidification of hydroxide sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Engineers at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed an innovative technology for the treatment of homogeneous wet or dry solids which are contaminated with hazardous and/or radioactive materials. The process uses microwave energy to heat and melt the waste into a vitreous final form that is suitable for land disposal. The advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form; volume and toxicity reduction; favorable economics; in-container treatment; good public acceptance; isolated equipment; and instantaneous energy control. Regulatory certification of the final form is accomplished by meeting the limitation specified in US EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure. This paper presents the results from a series of tests performed on a surrogate hydroxide coprecipitation sludge spiked with heavy metals at elevated concentrations. The results are very encouraging and support RFP's commitment to the use of microwave technology for treatment of various waste streams

371

O uso do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento das disfunções temporomandibulares articulares / The use of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A disfunção temporomandibular compreende um termo coletivo que envolve alterações clínicas nos músculos da mastigação, das articulações temporomandibulares e/ou estruturas associadas.O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise crítica, utilizando as principais bases d [...] e dados, sobre a efetividade e a segurança do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento das disfunções temporomandibulares de origem articular, a fim de recomendar ou refutar seu uso na prática clínica. CONTEÚDO: Os estudos foram obtidos através das seguintes bases de dados: Medline, via PubMed (1966 - 2013), Registro de Ensaios Controlados Cochrane, (2012), Embase (1980 - 2013) e LILACS (1982 - 2013). A estratégia utilizada foi a busca ajustada para cada base, a fim de identificar o maior número possível de estudos envolvendo o uso do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento da disfunção temporomandibular de origem articular. Houve limitação do idioma, buscando artigos em língua inglesa. Cruzaram-se os seguintes descritores: tratamento da articulação temporomandibular versus hialuronato de sódio versus deslocamento agudo e crônico do disco com e sem redução versus ácido hialurônico versus osteoartrite e osteoartrose versus viscossuplementação. Como critérios de inclusão foram analisados estudos randomizados, uni ou duplamente encobertos, série de casos, com 15 ou mais participantes. Excluíram-se relato de caso, estudos abertos "open-label", estudos em modelos animais e artigos relacionados a tratamento da disfunção artrogênica que não possuíssem como uma das terapias a infiltração de hialuronato de sódio na articulação temporomandibular. A qualidade metodológica desses estudos foi avaliada e classificada conforme o nível de evidência do Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com a análise crítica dos estudos incluídos, pode-se afirmar que o uso do hialuronato de sódio é eficaz e seguro, sendo recomendado no tratamento das seguintes condições: deslocamento agudo e crônico do disco com redução e sem redução, osteoartrose, osteoartrite e doença articular degenerativa. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Temporomandibular disorder is a collective term involving clinical masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints and/or associated structures changes. This study aimed at reviewing, using major databases, the effectiveness and safety of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment [...] of temporomandibular joint disorders, aiming at recommending or discarding its clinical use. CONTENTS: The following databases were queried: Medline, via Pubmed (1966-2013), Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (2012), Embase (1980-2013) and LILACS (1982-2013). The strategy was a search adjusted to each database to identify the largest possible number of studies involving sodium hyalorunate to manage joint temporomandibular disorders. Language was limited to articles published in English. The following keywords were crossed: temporomandibular joint management, versus sodium hyalorunate, versus acute or chronic reducing or nonreducing disk displacement, versus hyaluronic acid, versus osteoarthritis, versus viscosupplementation. Inclusion criteria were randomized, blind or double-blind studies, and case series with 15 or more participants. Exclusion criteria were open label-label studies, animal model studies and articles related to arthrogenous disorders not being treated with sodium hyalorunate infiltration of the temporomandibular joint. Methodological quality of such studies was evaluated and classified according to the level of evidence of the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine. CONCLUSION: According to this review, one may state that sodium hyalorunate is effective and safe, being recommended to manage the following conditions: acute and chronic reducing and nonreducing disk displacement, osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease.

Eduardo, Grossmann; Eduardo, Januzzi; Liogi, Iwaki Filho.

2013-12-01

372

Effect of combined gamma-irradiation and alkali treatment on cotton-cellulose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of high-energy irradiation and sodium hydroxide treatment on the structure of cotton-cellulose was studied. The irradiation resulted in degradation of cellulose characterized by the decrease in the degree of polymerization (viscosimetry) and increase in the carbonyl content (FTIR, C=O stretching band at 1740 cm-1). The treatment with NaOH after irradiation had no significant effect on these characteristics. However as it was shown by XRD and SEM that the transformation of the crystalline structure from cellulose I to cellulose II was observed at lower alkaline concentration when irradiation pretreatment was applied

373

Formation of chromia from amorphous chromium hydroxide  

OpenAIRE

Forced hydrolysis of Cr(NO3)(3) in a solution of decomposing urea was investigated. Chromium hydroxide precipitates were amorphous for the final pH values up to similar to 9 to 9.5. Heating of amorphous chromium hydroxide up to 360 degrees C produced Cr2O3 crystallites of the order of 20 nm, whereas after heating up to 825 degrees C the crystallite size of Cr2O3 increased to the order of 100 nm. Crystallization of Cr2O3 was also monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy. TGA/DTA curves, recorded in air...

Music?, Svetozar; Maljkovic?, Miroslava; Popovic?, Stanko; Trojko, Rudolf

1999-01-01

374

Aging of coprecipitated gallium and gadolinium hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray graphical and X-ray spectroscopic methods have been used to investigate aging under parent solution at 25, 50, 90 deg and thermolysis in the 250-1000 deg range of mixed gallium and gadolinium hydroxides coprecipitated at pH 8.6 by ammonium hydroxide from the nitrate solution (Gd:Ga=3:5). Hydroxopolycompounds With garnet prestructure are stated to be precipitated under the mentioned conditions. Their dehydration and crystallization of gallium-gadolinium garnet take place during aging under parent solution and thermolysis

375

Particle size and shape of calcium hydroxide  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to examine the particle length, width, perimeter, and aspect ratio of calcium hydroxide powder using a flow particle image analyzer (FPIA). Five sample groups each with 10mg calcium hydroxide were mixed with 15mL of alcohol and sonicated. Digital images of the particle samples were taken using the FPIA and analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. The overall averages±S.D. among the five groups for particle length (?m), width (?m), perimeter (?m), and aspect ratio were 2.25...

Komabayashi, Takashi; D’souza, Rena N.; Dechow, Paul C.; Safavi, Kamran E.; Spa?ngberg, Larz S. W.

2009-01-01

376

Sodium borohydride reaction in the absence of solvent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactions of sodium borohydride with simple substances (S, I2, D, T) with metal oxides, sodium hydroxide, oxygen-containing acid salts, chlorides and also thermal decompositiion of the compound are considered. The conclusion is made, that reactions with sodium hydride participation in the absence of solvent proceed according to several factors (the ratios of initial substance concentration, time, temperature and the nature of metal cation) in different ways: substitution of borohydride group hydrogen, exchange interaction, resulting in the formation of another metal borohydride, decompostion with the formation of diborane or borides, reduction with the formation of borides or metals

377

Preparation of submicron strontium sodium zirconate powder in alkaline solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthesis of fine-crystal zirconate containing strontium and sodium cations from aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide under atmospheric pressure was considered. It is shown that strontium zirconate with sodium partial substitution for strontium was prepared by crystallization from alkaline solution at temperatures from 115 to 130 deg C under atmospheric pressure. Conditions of zirconate phase formation were determined. The compound features the perovskite structure. The compound loses water in the range of 100-850 deg C, retaining the perovskite structure with decreased lattice parameters

378

Ruminal parameters of bovines fed diets based on sugar cane with doses of calcium hydroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the administration of different doses of calcium hydroxide mixed with sugar cane fed to cows by the pH, ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids concentration in ruminal content. Four cows with fistulated rumen were distributed in a Latin square (4 × 4) i [...] n split plot. The treatments involved adding doses of 0, 8, 16 and 24 g/kg of calcium hydroxide to sugar cane in natura. Samples of rumen fluid were collected and the pH and concentration of N-NH3 was determined before (time zero) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 hours after the feeding time. The concentration of volatile fatty acids at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours was also determined. The calcium hydroxide contributed to maintain the pH of rumen fluid close to neutral. The average concentrations of N-NH3 in the ruminal fluid was 20.59, 20.49, 17.28 and 18.22 mg/100 mL for samples with calcium hydroxide at 0, 8, 16, 24 g/kg, respectively. There was an effect of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the volatile fatty acids concentration from before feeding until 12 hours after feeding time. There was an effect on doses tested for the concentration of volatile fatty acids. The calcium hydroxide added to the sugar cane influences on ruminal parameters. The dose of approximately 10 g of calcium hydroxide per kg sugar cane in natura is recommended.

Alexandre Menezes, Dias; Luís Carlos Vinhas, Ítavo; Julio Cesar, Damasceno; Geraldo Tadeu dos, Santos; Ériklis, Nogueira; Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira, Ítavo.

2012-04-01

379

EFFECT OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE FILLER LOADING ON THE PROPERTIES OF BANANA STEM HANDSHEETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calcium hydroxide filler dispersions, of various particle sizes, were prepared by mixing sodium hydroxide with calcium chloride, in various concentrations, at room temperature. The resulting filler dispersions were added, in various amounts, to the banana stem mechanical pulp, which was then converted to handsheets. Increasing the filler loading increased the tensile index but reduced the tear index and water absorption of the handsheets. The SEM micrographs of the handsheets surfaces and the tensile fractured surfaces of the handsheets tensile test specimens showed that increasing the filler loading resulted in the formation of more and bigger filler aggregates in the spaces between the fibre. The filler particle size did not have any significant effect on the handsheets properties.

Nur Syazwani Abd Rahman,

2012-07-01

380

A long-term study on the efficacy of a herbal plant, Orthosiphon grandiflorus, and sodium potassium citrate in renal calculi treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was performed to compare the efficacy of a herbal plant, Orthosiphon grandiflorus (OG), and the drug sodium potassium citrate (SPC) in treatment of renal calculi. Forty-eight rural stone formers identified by ultrasonography were recruited and randomly assigned to two treatment groups (G1 and G2). For a period up to 18 months, subjects in G1 received 2 cups of OG tea daily, each tea cup made from an OG tea bag (contained 2.5 g dry wt), and G2 received 5-10 g of granular SPC in solution divided into three times a day. Once every 5 to 7 weeks, subjects were interviewed, given an additional drug supply, administered a kidney ultrasound and had spot urine samples collected for relevant biochemical analysis. From the recorded ultrasound images, rates of stone size reduction per year (ROSRPY) were calculated. The mean ROSRPY was 28.6+/-16.0% and 33.8+/-23.6% for G1 and G2, respectively. These two means were not significantly different. ROSRPY values of G1 and G2 were combined and divided into three levels: Level A (ROSRPY > mean + 0.5 SD), Level M (ROSRPY = mean +/- 0.5 SD) and Level B (ROSRPY < mean - 0.5 SD). Dissolution of stones was least in Level B which was related to higher excretions of Ca and uric acid in the urine. After treatment, 90% of the initial clinical symptoms (ie back pain, headaches and joint pain) were relieved. Fatigue and loss of appetite were observed in 26.3% of G2 subjects. Our study indicates that treatment of renal calculi with OG tea is an alternative means of management. Further investigation is needed to improve dissolution of stones with a low ROSRPY. PMID:11944733

Premgamone, A; Sriboonlue, P; Disatapornjaroen, W; Maskasem, S; Sinsupan, N; Apinives, C

2001-09-01

381

Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO2 are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO2 present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs

382

A retrospective, pooled data analysis of the safety of pegaptanib sodium in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration in subjects with or without diabetes mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the safety of pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg intravitreal injection in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in subjects with or without diabetes mellitus. Methods A pooled, retrospective, analysis was conducted of data from 9 sponsor-administered, randomized, open-label trials. Subjects who received pegaptanib by randomization or change in dose assignment, crossover design, or protocol amendment, were included. Reports of endophthalmitis, increased intraocular pressure, retinal injury, intraocular hemorrhage, traumatic cataract, hypersensitivity reactions, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other arterial thromboembolic events defined by the Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration were identified by Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities preferred terms. Adverse events were summarized from the first injection to 42 days after the last injection. The incidence of adverse events was stratified by the presence/absence of diabetes. Results Of 1,586 subjects enrolled, 165 (10.4% had a history of diabetes mellitus and 1,421 (89.6% did not. The 2 populations were similar at baseline. Based on the comparison of prespecified ocular, hypersensitivity, and Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration event terms, the safety review did not identify any notable differences between the 2 populations. Conclusions This retrospective analysis found no increased safety risk resulting from treatment with pegaptanib 0.3 mg in individuals with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and concomitant diabetes mellitus.

Dombi Theresa

2012-08-01

383

Treatment of the vertebral crush fracture syndrome with enteric-coated sodium fluoride tablets and calcium supplements.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cohort of 101 patients were treated with enteric-coated sodium fluoride tablets and calcium supplements. Vitamin D was also given in supra-physiologic doses in 70% of the cases. Lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by dual-photon absorptiometry, increased in a linear fashion up to four years, irrespective of the value of initial BMD and of the underlying condition, be it involutional osteoporosis (the vast majority), glucocorticoid osteoporosis, or even osteogenesis imperfecta. Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) seemed to promote the fluoride-induced increase in lumbar BMD, as did the vitamin D supplements. Of these patients, 17% proved "resistant" to the therapy. There was no way of predicting who would be in this category. Compared with an age- and sex-matched control group, women showed significantly different behavior of their bone mass. In the control group, the losses were highly significant at the lumbar spine and at all three scanning sites of the forearm, as measured by single-photon absorptiometry. In contrast, the fluoride group had a significant gain of BMD at the lumbar spine and changes of BMC at the forearm were not significant. Fluoride thus preserved bone mass at the appendicular skeleton, while increasing it at the axial skeleton. When comparing the patients who received vitamin D supplements and those who did not, there was a significant difference in the appendicular skeleton. The distal forearm in the vitamin D-supplemented group tended to gain, whereas the midforearm lost significant bone mass. The trend was reversed in the group without vitamin D-supplementation, a more favorable pattern. Therefore, vitamin D supplements should not, as a rule, be provided to such patients. The biochemical hallmark of the fluoride-induced changes is a slight rise of the alkaline phosphatase within the normal range. Alkaline phosphatase levels that exceed the upper limit of normal signal a warning that too much fluoride and/or too little calcium supplements are being administered, or that a fluoride-related complication is impending or has occurred (e.g., a stress fracture). Osteosclerosis was achieved in 69% of the cases who had a radiological followup of at least four years (average period of appearance: 1.8 years). Stress fractures in the lower limbs occurred in 17 patients, almost exclusively in females, and appeared on average 2.2 years after initiation of therapy. In this group of stress fractures there was significant cortical bone loss at midforearm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2187327

Nagant de Deuxchaisnes, C; Devogelaer, J P; Depresseux, G; Malghem, J; Maldague, B

1990-03-01

384

Performance testing of in-sodium sensors and simulated experiments in, sodium chemistry loop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Sodium chemistry loop operated with simulated reactor conditions. • Electrochemical sensors for measurement of H2, C and O2 in sodium tested. • Hydrogen sensor response studied by Na–NaOH and Na–H2O reactions. • Hydrogen and oxygen sensors response tested for cold trap temperature variation. - Abstract: Impurities like oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in sodium circuits of fast reactors need to be monitored and controlled within permissible levels. Toward this, electrochemical sensors are being developed in this Center for continuous monitoring of these impurities in sodium. A sodium chemistry loop (SCL), wherein reactor conditions can be simulated, was built and performance of the sensors was studied. The response of the hydrogen sensor for sodium hydroxide addition and simulated steam leak was studied in SCL. The responses of hydrogen and oxygen sensors for the variation of cold trap temperature are also discussed. Carbon activity in sodium was monitored using carbon sensor and foil equilibration technique and the results were used for testing a radionuclide trap, containing reticulated vitreous carbon, for the removal of cesium isotopes in sodium was tested in SCL. The results of these studies are presented in this paper

385

Performance testing of in-sodium sensors and simulated experiments in, sodium chemistry loop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Sodium chemistry loop operated with simulated reactor conditions. • Electrochemical sensors for measurement of H{sub 2}, C and O{sub 2} in sodium tested. • Hydrogen sensor response studied by Na–NaOH and Na–H{sub 2}O reactions. • Hydrogen and oxygen sensors response tested for cold trap temperature variation. - Abstract: Impurities like oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in sodium circuits of fast reactors need to be monitored and controlled within permissible levels. Toward this, electrochemical sensors are being developed in this Center for continuous monitoring of these impurities in sodium. A sodium chemistry loop (SCL), wherein reactor conditions can be simulated, was built and performance of the sensors was studied. The response of the hydrogen sensor for sodium hydroxide addition and simulated steam leak was studied in SCL. The responses of hydrogen and oxygen sensors for the variation of cold trap temperature are also discussed. Carbon activity in sodium was monitored using carbon sensor and foil equilibration technique and the results were used for testing a radionuclide trap, containing reticulated vitreous carbon, for the removal of cesium isotopes in sodium was tested in SCL. The results of these studies are presented in this paper.

Chandran, K. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Muralidaran, P. [Reactor Operation and Maintenance Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Saisubalakshmi, D. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Ganesan, V., E-mail: ganesh@igcar.gov.in [Reactor Operation and Maintenance Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

2014-03-15

386

Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sugars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective production of hexitols (sorbitol and mannitol was achieved from sugars by means of nickel nanoparticles supported on aluminium hydroxide (NiNPs/AlOH catalyst. NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was prepared by a simple and benign environmentally procedure using less amount of sodium hydroxide. ICP-AES and XRD analyses confirmed that the NiNPs/AlOH catalysts comprised a large amount of remained aluminium hydroxide (i.e. bayerite and gibbsite. The presence of aluminium hydroxide caused a high dispersion Ni metal species. The average Ni crystallite sizes that derived from the Scherrer`s equation for former R-Ni and NiNPs/AlOH were 8.6 nm and 4.1 nm, respectively. The catalyst exhibited high activity and selectivity both hydrogenolysis of disaccharides (sucrose and cellobiose and monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and xylose at 403 K for 24 h. The NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was found to be reusable for at least five consecutive runs without any significant loss of activity and selectivity. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 21st December 2012; Revised: 7th February 2013; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Shimazu, S. (2013. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sug-ars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 40-46. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46] | View in  |

Rodiansono Rodiansono

2013-06-01

387

Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

1992-05-01

388

A role for calcium hydroxide and dolomite in water: acceleration of the reaction under ultraviolet light.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic environmental pollutants are now being detected with remarkably high frequency in the aquatic environment. Photodegradation by ultraviolet light is sometimes used as a method for removing organic chemicals from water; however, this method is relatively inefficient because of the low degradation rates involved, and more efficient methods are under development. Here we show that the removal of various organic pollutants can be assisted by calcined dolomite in aqueous solution under irradiation with ultraviolet light. It was possible to achieve substantial removal of bisphenol A, chlorophenols, alkylphenols, 1-naphthol and 17?-estradiol. The major component of dolomite responsible for the removal was calcium hydroxide. Our results demonstrate that the use of calcium hydroxide with ultraviolet light irradiation can be a very effective method of rapidly removing organic environmental pollutants from water. This is a new role for calcium hydroxide and dolomite in water treatment. PMID:24359914

Nagase, Hiroyasu; Tsujino, Hidekazu; Kurihara, Daisuke; Saito, Hiroshi; Kawase, Masaya

2014-04-01

389

Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika  

Science.gov (United States)

Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (p4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (pother fruits.

Yoon, Minchul; Jung, Koo; Lee, Kwang-Youll; Jeong, Je-Yong; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hae-Jun

2014-05-01

390

The evaluation of sodium-modified chabazite zeolite and resorcinol-formaldehyde resin for the treatment of contaminated process wastewater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural chabazite zeolite has been selected as the baseline treatment technology to compare the performance of emerging sorbent materials for the removal of 90Sr and 137Cs from contaminated process water. The resorcinol-formaldehyde resin, developed at Savannah River Site, is the first sorbent to be evaluated in this study. This paper summarizes the required contact times for maximum strontium and cesium removal, presents sorption isotherms in wastewater simulant and authentic wastewater, and defines the effects of elevated concentrations of K, Mg, Ca, and Na in wastewater for both sorbents

391

Scandium-containing layered hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scandium analogue of hydrotalcite and a mixed sample containing both scandium and aluminum have been synthesized and characterized. It is known that both samples have a layered structure; the unit cell parameters of the