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Sample records for sodium hydroxide treatment

  1. Sodium hydroxide treatment for boiler water - some questions and answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursik, A. [PPChem, Neulussheim (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    PowerPlant Chemistry has received a multitude of questions regarding currently used feedwater and boiler water treatments. This contribution addresses many of the inquiries about sodium hydroxide treatment, giving general information on the subject and providing references where the inquirers and readers of this paper can find more detailed information on the topics discussed. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of Alkaline Treatment of Lead Contaminated Wastewater Using Lime and Sodium Hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Sudhakar M; Raju, G C

    2010-01-01

    A lead-acid storage battery manufacturing industry in India produces several thousand liters of lead con-taminated acidic wastewater on a daily basis and uses hydrated lime to render the lead-contaminated acidic wastewater alkaline (pH = 8.0). Alkaline treatment of the acidic wastewater with lime though a cost-effective method, generates copious amount of lead-contaminated gypsum sludge. Other alkali agents such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dolomite are also used for alkali treat...

  3. Rapeseed-straw enzymatic digestibility enhancement by sodium hydroxide treatment under ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we carried out sodium hydroxide and sonication pretreatments of rapeseed straw (Brassica napus) to obtain monosugar suitable for production of biofuels. To optimize the pretreatment conditions, we applied a statistical response-surface methodology. The optimal pretreatment conditions using sodium hydroxide under sonication irradiation were determined to be 75.0 °C, 7.0 % sodium hydroxide, and 6.8 h. For these conditions, we predicted 97.3 % enzymatic digestibility. In repeated experiments to validate the predicted value, 98.9 ± 0.3 % enzymatic digestibility was obtained, which was well within the range of the predicted model. Moreover, sonication irradiation was found to have a good effect on pretreatment in the lower temperature range and at all concentrations of sodium hydroxide. According to scanning electron microscopy images, the surface area and pore size of the pretreated rapeseed straw were modified by the sodium hydroxide pretreatment under sonication irradiation. PMID:23124436

  4. Investigation by bioassay of the efficacy of sodium hydroxide treatment on the inactivation of mouse-adapted scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, A; Thyer, J; Uren, E; Middleton, D; Braun, M; Maher, D

    2007-06-01

    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) has been shown to reduce the infectivity of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents. This study investigated the efficacy of sodium hydroxide at 0.1M, 0.25M and 0.5M concentrations for the inactivation of mouse-adapted scrapie strain ME7. Times and temperatures modelled conditions used in an industrial plasma fractionation plant for sanitisation of ultrafilters, and the sodium hydroxide component of Clean In Place sanitisation. The concentration of scrapie ME7 brain homogenate in NaOH test solutions was 1% (w/v). At the end of incubation periods, the samples were adjusted to neutral pH prior to intracerebral inoculation into mice for bioassay. The conditions of 0.1M NaOH at 60 degrees C for 2min and 0.25M NaOH at 30 degrees C for 60min were found to inactivate 3.96 and 3.93logs of scrapie, respectively. Use of 0.5M NaOH at 30 degrees C for 60 or 75min was found to inactivate >or=4.23 and 4.15logs of scrapie. This indicates that the use of these conditions in an industrial process would substantially reduce prion infectivity. PMID:17074508

  5. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide

  6. Comparison of Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide Followed by Heat Treatment on Rice Straw for Cellulase Production under Solid State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    A.L. Chew; C. Chuah; L. G. A. Ong

    2010-01-01

    Rice straw is the major agricultural by-product in the world. Its low digestibility made it unsuitable as livestock feed which lead to the mass disposal and burning of rice straw. The main objective of this study were to optimise the alkali concentration and soaking time on rice straw for the alkali pretreatment followed by heat treatment for cellulose production and to compare the effectiveness of both alkali used. The rice straws were subjected to two treatments, which were Treatment A and ...

  7. An evaluation of the residual toxicity and chemistry of a sodium hydroxide-based ballast water treatment system for freshwater ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kemble, Nile E; Echols, Kathy R; Brumbaugh, William G; Henquinet, Jeffrey W; Watten, Barnaby J

    2015-06-01

    Nonnative organisms in the ballast water of freshwater ships must be killed to prevent the spread of invasive species. The ideal ballast water treatment system (BWTS) would kill 100% of ballast water organisms with minimal residual toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. In the present study, the residual toxicity and chemistry of a BWTS was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was added to elevate pH to >11.5 to kill ballast water organisms, then reduced to pH diesel exhaust (the source of CO2 ). Cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 2 d to BWTS water under an air atmosphere (pH drifted to ?9) or a 2.5% CO2 atmosphere (pH 7.5-8.2), then transferred to control water for 5?d to assess potential delayed toxicity. Chemical concentrations in the BWTS water met vessel discharge guidelines with the exception of concentrations of copper. There was little to no residual toxicity to cladocerans or fish, but the BWTS water was toxic to amphipods. Maintaining a neutral pH and diluting BWTS water by 50% eliminated toxicity to the amphipods. The toxicity of BWTS water would likely be minimal because of rapid dilution in the receiving water, with subsurface release likely preventing pH rise. This BWTS has the potential to become a viable method for treating ballast water released into freshwater systems. PMID:25693486

  8. Interaction of sodium with sodium hydroxide due to interloop leakage in a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors construct a model depicting the process by which chemical equilibrium is reached in the heterogeneous system formed by sodium and sodium hydroxide under accident conditions in a sodium-water steam generator. The results of the calculations demonstrate the following conclusions: that the rate of the homogeneous reaction of sodium and sodium hydroxide has an insignificant effect on the concentration of the components in sodium so that in evaluating the effectiveness of emergency detection the equilibrium values of the concentration of sodium oxide and sodium hydride must be used; and the solidification of the drops occurs at a temperature higher than the melting point of pure sodium hydroxide at 30 degrees K. Solid drops can therefore settle on the surface of the steam generator

  9. Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2002-09-18

    This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

  10. Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovi? Ljubica J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

  11. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

    1996-10-01

    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  12. Behavior of Alloy 800 in sodium contaminated by sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of various metallic materials in NaOH-contaminated sodium was studied in the temperature range 475-5500C. It was observed that the presence of NaOH in sodium induced a generalized corrosion of ferritic steels while austenitic material were subjected to intergranular penetrations even without stress. In a second part, alloy 800 was specially investigated, since it was chosen as a standard material for Superphenix steam generators. Parametric tests were carried out under tensile stress to study susceptibility to cracking of this alloy. A device for introducing NaOH into sodium at the experiment temperature was specially designed. The results show that, for high concentration of NaOH (8 weight % and more), there is a real risk of stress cracking. So ruptures are observed in samples which show or not welded areas after 20 hours with 16% of NaOH under 130 N.mm-2 stress. On the other hand, for low initial concentrations (about 1%) and with the same stress conditions, no cracking occurs after 100 hours. Finally surface condition of material has an effect on the formation of the oxided surface layer but this parameter has no significant influence on the sample life-time

  13. Kinetics of cubic boron nitride reaction with molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of cubic boron nitride (different makes) interaction with sodium hydroxide melt in the temperature range of 380-480 deg C was studied by the gravimetric method. It was ascertained that the reaction order at 440 deg C makes up 3.5, while the value of apparent activation energy is 92.3 ± 12.9 kJ/mol, which suggests occurrence of the process in kinetic range. It is shown that different makes of cubic boron nitride differ in their chemical resistance to alkali melt

  14. A study on oxide ions in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature by laser Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If high temperature sodium is burned in humid air, its compound will become high temperature melt of sodium hydroxide as a solvent. If this melt includes peroxide ion, it will be a considerably active aggressive and corrosive for steels. This study was carried out in order to investigate the ability of presence of peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature. Laser Raman Spectroscopy was employed to analyze the Raman spectra of sodium peroxide and mixed specimen of sodium hydroxide with sodium peroxide. These reagents were heated up to 1073K under Ar gas atmosphere in the specially made vessel. Detectability and stability of peroxide ion at high temperature were investigated. Also we investigated about superoxide ion by using sodium peroxide and potassium superoxide. Superoxide ion was included in sodium peroxide as an impurity. As the result, the stability of peroxide ion in high temperature melt was showed up to 873K for sodium peroxide and 823K for sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium peroxide. And as the results for superoxide ion, its stability was showed as up to 873K for unmixed potassium superoxide and up to 773K for sodium hydroxide mixed one. Additionally, it was considered that superoxide ion will not change into peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature. (author)

  15. Comparison of tissue solubility of human umbilical cord by sodium hypochlrorite and calcium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Barati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As biomechanical preparation of root canal system is not always completely accomplished because of morphological and physical barriers, to obtain a sterile root canal for the success of endodontic treatment, use of chemical solvents is essential. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare effects of Ca (OH2 and NaOCl in single and combination usage for this purpose.Methods and Materials: In this experimental study, five groups of 40 pieces of human umbilical cord samples were placed in 10 ml of different solvents for 1 wk. The weight of samples was adjusted to 0.03 g. Experimental solvents included: 1 Calcium hydroxide solution (0.6g per ml, 2 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 3 5% sodium hypochlorite, and 4 calcium hydroxide solution for 1 wk and then 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min, 5 Normal saline. Tissue solubility of these solvents was compared by weight changes of samples after 1 wk. Data was analyzed with Kruscal- wallis and t- student tests.Results: There was no significant difference between calcium hydroxide (Group 1 and salin (Group 5. Other groups had significant differences (p value < 0.01.Conclusion: According to findings of this study, tissue solubilizing of 0.5% NaOCl is less than 5% although both have more solubilizing power than Ca (OH2. Pretreatment with Ca (OH2 could not enhance the tissue dissolving effect of 0.5% NaOCl.Key words: Root canal therapy- Irrigators- Sodium hypochlorite- Calcium hydroxide- Tissue solubility

  16. Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Mechanical Property of Non Sodium Silicate Fly Ash Based Geopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    R.H. Abdul Rahim; K.A. Azizli; Man, Z.; T. Rahmiati; M. F. Nuruddin

    2014-01-01

    Alkali activator and materials rich in Si and Al are the requirements for the geopolymer synthesis. The common activator use is sodium hydroxide with silicate solution. There is limited literature on the mechanical property of geopolymer in the absence of silicate solution. In this study, fly ash was used as the raw material to provide Si and Al and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the only activator for the synthesis of geopolymer. This study describes the effect of varying the sodium hydroxide co...

  17. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzai Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provided that the resulting total sodium concentration in feed does not compromise the overall electrolyte balance. Sodium hydroxide in solid form and in aqueous solution at concentrations > 8.0 % is corrosive. At lower concentrations it is irritant to skin and eyes (0.5 % and 0.2 %, respectively and the respiratory tract (0.5 %. Exposure via inhalation is likely to be minimal. Sodium hydroxide is not considered to be a skin sensitiser. As sodium hydroxide is used in food as an acidity regulator, and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  19. Reactions between rocks and the hydroxides of calcium, sodium and potassium: progress report no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction between the hydroxides of calcium, sodium and potassium, and clay minerals, feldspars, and some rocks (aggregates for use in concrete) was investigated. The reaction products were examined by means of x-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. The solid reaction products identified were hydrated calcium silicates,hydrated calcium aluminates, and hydrated calcium alumina silicates. It was found that, in the presence of water, calcium hydroxide liberated alkali into solution if the rocks and minerals contained alkali metals in their structure. Two crystalline hydrated sodium calcium silicates (12A and 16A) were prepared in the system Na2O-CaO-SiO2-H2O at 80 degrees Celsius. The one compound (12A) was also observed when sodium hydroxide plus calcium hydroxide and water reacted with silica- or silicate-containing rocks

  20. Effect of different molarities of Sodium Hydroxide solution on the Strength of Geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji S. Bidwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the experimental study of strength of geopolymer concrete for different molarities of sodium hydroxide solution. This paper also contains results of the laboratory tests conducted to find out the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the strength of the geopolymer concrete. In these days the world is facing a major problem i.e. the environmental pollution. We can use fly ash instead of cement in the construction in order to reduce environmental pollution. The Concrete made by using Fly ash and alkaline liquid mixture as a binder is known as geopolymer concrete. In this study for the polymerization process alkaline liquids used are Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH and Sodium Silicate (Na2SiO3. Different molarities of sodium hydroxide solution i.e. 8M, 10M and 12M are taken to prepare different mixes and the compressive strength is calculated for each of the mix. The size of the cube specimens taken are 150mm X 150mm X 150mm. Curing of these cubes is done in an oven for 3 days and 28 days. The Compressive strength of these geopolymer concrete specimens is tested at 3 days and 28 days. The results show that there is increase in comp. strength of geopolymer concrete with increase in molarity of Sodium Hydroxide Solution. Ordinary Concrete Specimens are also manufactured with cement as binder. It is found that the Compressive strength of Geopolymer Concrete specimens is higher than the Compressive strength of Ordinary Concrete Specimens.

  1. Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodrigues de Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3 tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm.The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to develop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3 with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

  2. Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina / Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Rodrigues de, Lima; Ricardo Araújo, Oliveira; Miriam Carla Bonicontro, Ambrosio-Ugri; Sueli Teresa Davantel de, Barros; Carlos de, Barros Júnior.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitand [...] o seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3) tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm. Abstract in english The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to d [...] evelop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3) with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

  3. Kinetics of de-N-acetylation of the chitin disaccharide in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Thang Trung; Aachmann, Finn L; Vårum, Kjell M

    2012-05-01

    Chitosan is prepared from chitin, a process which is carried out at highly alkaline conditions, and that can be performed either on chitin in solution (homogeneous deacetylation) or heterogeneously with the chitin as a solid throughout the reaction. We report here a study of the de-N-acetylation reaction of the chitin dimer (GlcNAc-GlcNAc) in solution. The reaction was followed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy in deuterated aqueous sodium hydroxide solution as a function of time, sodium-hydroxide concentration and temperature. The (1)H NMR spectrum of GlcNAc-GlcNAc in 2.77 M deuterated aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was assigned. The interpretation of the (1)H NMR spectra allowed us to determine the rates of de-N-acetylation of the reducing and non-reducing ends, showing that the reaction rate at the reducing end is twice the rate at the non-reducing end. The total deacetylation reaction rate was determined as a function of the hydroxide ion concentration, showing for the first time that this de-N-acetylation reaction is second order with respect to hydroxide ion concentration. No significant difference in the deacetylation rates in deuterated water compared to water was observed. The activation energy for the reaction (26-54 °C) was determined to 114.4 and 98.6 kJ/mol at 2.77 and 5.5 M in deuterated aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, respectively. PMID:22424830

  4. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description...

  5. Anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive wastes, primarily consisting of concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions, are stored in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated solutions of 10 M NaOH and various concentrations of NaNO3 (0.01-2.0 M) was determined in order to predict the caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) susceptibility of the tanks. The active-passive transition peak exhibited during anodic polarization of low-carbon steel in 10 M NaOH, typically associated with CSCC, at -0.25 and -0.75 VSCE, is still present at the lower and higher concentrations of nitrate. However, there is a mid-range of nitrate concentrations (0.5-1 M) within which the peak is suppressed by the strongly oxidizing nitrate in the presence of oxygen, a cathodic depolarizer. Temperature also affects the magnitude of this mid-range of nitrate concentrations where CSCC is seen to be electrochemically prevented. The data suggest that the oxygen solubility at the relatively low temperatures tested (corr is driven more noble than the active-passive transition peak

  6. The use of sodium pyruvate and sodium hydroxide to increase the number of colonies and coloured antigen yield of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeripto

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A trial to increase the number of colonies and coloured antigen yield of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in mycoplasma broth medium was conducted by comparing the use of normal medium, medium with sodium pyruvate and medium with sodium hydroxide. The result showed that medium with §odium pyruvate had increased the number of colonies and antigen yield and was highly significant different (P< 0.01 compared to both normal medium and medium with sodium hydroxide. Medium with sodium hydroxide produced the number of colonies and antigen yield lower than medium with sodium pyruvate, but higher and was highly significant different (P< 0.01 compared to the normalmedium.

  7. Associating cooking additives with sodium hydroxide to pretreat bamboo residues for improving the enzymatic saccharification and monosaccharides production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Wang, Yan; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Cooking additive pulping technique is used in kraft mill to increase delignification degree and pulp yield. In this work, cooking additives were firstly applied in the sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving the bioconversion of bamboo residues to monosaccharides. Meanwhile, steam explosion and sulfuric acid pretreatments were also carried out on the sample to compare their impacts on monosaccharides production. Results indicated that associating anthraquinone with sodium hydroxide pretreatment showed the best performance in improving the original carbohydrates recovery, delignification, enzymatic saccharification, and monosaccharides production. After consecutive pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification process, 347.49 g, 307.48 g, 142.93 g, and 87.15 g of monosaccharides were released from 1000 g dry bamboo residues pretreated by sodium hydroxide associating with anthraquinone, sodium hydroxide, steam explosion and sulfuric acid, respectively. The results suggested that associating cooking additive with sodium hydroxide is an effective pretreatment for bamboo residues to enhance enzymatic saccharification for monosaccharides production. PMID:26133470

  8. An empirical model to estimate density of sodium hydroxide solution: An activator of geopolymer concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2016-02-01

    Geopolymer concrete is zero-Portland cement concrete containing alumino-silicate based inorganic polymer as binder. The polymer is obtained by chemical activation of alumina and silica bearing materials, blast furnace slag by highly alkaline solutions such as hydroxide and silicates of alkali metals. Sodium hydroxide solutions of different concentrations are commonly used in making GPC mixes. Often, it is seen that sodium hydroxide solution of very high concentration is diluted with water to obtain SHS of desired concentration. While doing so it was observed that the solute particles of NaOH in SHS tend to occupy lower volumes as the degree of dilution increases. This aspect is discussed in this paper. The observed phenomenon needs to be understood while formulating the GPC mixes since this influences considerably the relationship between concentration and density of SHS. This paper suggests an empirical formula to relate density of SHS directly to concentration expressed by w/w.

  9. Application of inorganic sorbents in production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of application of inorganic sorbents in production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide is studied. It is defined that sorbents on the basis of titanium phosphate can be used for water conditioning. The sorption properties, mechanical strength, chemical stability of these sorbents as well as optimal conditions of their operation are defined.

  10. Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Mechanical Property of Non Sodium Silicate Fly Ash Based Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkali activator and materials rich in Si and Al are the requirements for the geopolymer synthesis. The common activator use is sodium hydroxide with silicate solution. There is limited literature on the mechanical property of geopolymer in the absence of silicate solution. In this study, fly ash was used as the raw material to provide Si and Al and sodium hydroxide (NaOH as the only activator for the synthesis of geopolymer. This study describes the effect of varying the sodium hydroxide concentration with respect to curing time and temperature on mechanical properties of non-sodium silicate fly ash based geopolymer. The samples were prepared by mixing fly ash with 8, 10 and 12 M of NaOH concentration and cured in room temperature and 60°C for 1, 7 and 28 days. The highest alkali concentration of 12 M showed the fastest setting time and the highest compressive strength regardless of days of curing. The highest compressive strength obtained for curing at 60°C was 59.81 MPa and 45 min was recorded for the setting time. Meanwhile, at room temperature, the highest strength obtained was 17.71 MPa and 248 min for setting time.

  11. Effect of High Temperature Sodium Hydroxide Immersion on Fusion Bond Epoxy Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Al-Borno; Xianyi Chen; Shailesh Kewaldas Dhoke

    2015-01-01

    Fusion Bond Epoxy (FBE) coating system was exposed to 5% sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature for 30 days. The result of exposure showed formation of adhere deposit layer, a discolored zone underneath and remaining un-affected bulk of the coating. The deterioration of the coating was characterized using analytical techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), ...

  12. Bioethanol production from hydrothermally pretreated coconut fibre mature catalyzed with sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, F. A.; Ruíz, Héctor A.; Santos, E. S. dos; Teixeira, J. A.; G. R. Macedo

    2014-01-01

    In search to increase the offer of liquid energy, clean, renewable and sustainable in the world energy matrix, arises the alternative in the use lignocellulosic materials in bioethanol production. The objective of this work was evaluated the bioethanol production using different strategies as simultaneous (SSF) and semi-simultaneous (SSSF) saccharification on hydrothermally pretreated coconut fibre mature as raw material catalyzed with sodium hydroxide. The bioethanol production was performed...

  13. Experimental study on reactivity of structural concrete with sodium-hydroxide in sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For countermeasure against sodium leak, structural concrete is protected by steel liner in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). However, if considering severe and unexpected accidental condition such as breach of steel liner by intensive sodium leak, the reaction of concrete with liquid sodium potentially may occur. For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of sodium-concrete reaction in SFR, kinetic study of the sodium-hydroxide (NaOH)-silica (SiO2) reaction was carried out by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The parameters, including melting point of NaOH, phase transition temperature of NaOH and SiO2, and NaOH-SiO2 reaction temperature were identified from DSC curves. From visualization test, sample eruption was observed during reaction. It was found that rate of NaOH-SiO2 reaction was quite fast from DSC curves, which was similar with that of the reaction between NaOH and aggregate of practical concrete. Thermal analysis results indicated that NaOH-SiO2 reaction could occur in the timeframe of sodium-concrete reaction. (author)

  14. Sorption of sodium hydroxide by type I collagen and bovine corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whikehart, D R; Edwards, W C; Pfister, R R

    1991-01-01

    There are no quantitative studies on the uptake of alkali into corneal tissues. To study this phenomenon, both type I collagen and bovine corneas were incubated in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) under varying conditions for periods up to 27.5 h. The sorption (absorption or adsorption) of the alkali to protein and tissue was measured as the quantity of NaOH no longer available for titration to neutrality with hydrochloric acid. Sorption was found to be dependent on the concentration of NaOH (0.01-1 N) but independent of the incubation temperature (4-35 degrees C). In whole cornea, sorption of 1 N NaOH began immediately and increased with time up to 6 h. After 6 h, sorption decreased, together with the observed degradation and solubilization of the tissue. Stripping of the corneal endothelium alone or of the endothelium and epithelium increased sorption in a similar manner when compared to whole corneas for periods up to 4 h. These observations are compatible with ionic and nonionic bonding of hydroxide ions to collagen (including that of the cornea) and the subsequent release of hydroxide ions during hydrolysis of the protein itself. Indirect evidence also suggests the inclusion of quantities of unbound hydroxide ions in hydrated gels of glycosaminoglycans. It is proposed that in a chemical burn of the cornea, alkali is both stored in the tissue (by sorption) and reacted with it (by hydrolysis), without any net consumption of alkali taking place. PMID:2019107

  15. The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.

  16. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P. O.; Frandsen, Cathrine; Mørup, Steen; Geckeis, H.; Katerinopoulou, A.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was...... characterised using Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established by mass and absorption spectroscopy. The sulphate form of green rust is composed of brucite-like layers...

  17. Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Izzati Iberahim; Jamaliah Md Jahim; Shuhaida Harun; Mohd Tusirin Mohd Nor; Osman Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was carried out with NaOH from 2% to 10% (w/v) at temperature 500C and 700C. The performances of pretreatments were evaluated based on total carbohydrate and reducing sugar including glucose, xylose and arabinose after enzymatic hydrolysis on the pretreated biomass. It was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis had significantly improved when 6% NaOH in 700C applied in the pretreatment process. The highest total reducing sugars prod...

  18. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC. The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 hours and then kept in room temperature until the day of testing. Compressive strength test was carried out at the ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that concentration variation of sodium hydroxide had least effect on the fresh properties of SCGC. With the increase in sodium hydroxide concentration, the workability of fresh concrete was slightly reduced; however, the corresponding compressive strength was increased. Concrete samples with sodium hydroxide concentration of 12 M produced maximum compressive strength.

  19. Effect of peracetic acid, sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid on cellulosic materials as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farid, M.A.; Shaker, H.M.; El-Diwany, A.I.

    1983-11-01

    Crystalline cellulose and cellulosic wastes have been treated with various concentrations of peracetic acid and other reagents at 100 degrees C for various times, washed with water, ethanol and air dried. For each treated cellulose, the degree of enzymatic solubilization was measured with Trichoderma viride cellulase (1,4-(1,3;1,4)-..beta..-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.4). Cellulosic wastes such as sunflower stalks, wheat straw and sugar-cane bagasse were solubilized effectively by the enzyme. Delignification of wheat straw with 1% sodium hydroxide and treatment of this straw with peracetic acid enhanced the degree of enzymatic solubilization. Infrared spectra of the untreated and treated cellulosic wastes were recorded. 18 references.

  20. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    FAREED AHMED MEMON; MUHD FADHIL NURUDDIN; SADAQATULLAH KHAN; NASIR SHAFIQ; TEHMINA AYUB

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC). The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 ...

  1. The sodium level. An inconspicuous but very important parameter in all-volatile treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursik, Albert [PowerPlant Chemistry GmbH, Neulussheim (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Boiler tube failure due to ''lack of sodium''? This is certainly not a common concern, yet this contribution stresses the importance of the presence of sodium in the boiler water even when applying all-volatile treatment (AVT) as a method of boiler water treatment. Sodium in the cycle (either unintentionally via sodium-contaminated makeup or intentionally through sodium hydroxide additions) may neutralize the possible acidic contaminations and help to avoid boiler tube failures due to hydrogen damage. (orig.)

  2. Influence and hydrolysis kinetics in titanyl sulfate solution from the sodium hydroxide molten salt method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijing; Chen, Desheng; Chu, Jinglong; Li, Jie; Xue, Tianyan; Wang, Lina; Wang, Dong; Qi, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Hydrated titanium dioxide (HTD) was precipitated by thermal hydrolysis in purified titanyl sulfate solution (TSS) obtained through the sodium hydroxide molten salt clean method. Various factors including the stirring speed and initial concentrations of TiOSO4, sulfuric acid, and sodium ion were studied. The main influence factors in the hydrolysis process were the initial concentrations of TiOSO4 and sulfuric acid. Contrary to the ferrous ion, the sodium ion improved the ionic activity of Ti4+, but did not decrease the crystal size. The Boltzman growth model (x=A2+(A1-A2)/{1+exp[(t-t0)/dt)]}, which focuses on two main parameters (CTiOSO4 and CH2SO4), fits the hydrolysis process well with R2>0.97. An increase in sulfuric acid concentration negatively affected the hydrolysis rates and the value of A2, while t0 increased. An increase in titanyl sulfate concentration directly reduced the hydrolysis rates and particle size of HTD, contrary to the trend for the value of t0. A simulation software called 1stopt was used to observe the relationship between Z (A1, A2, t0, dt) and a, b (CTiO2 and CH2SO4).

  3. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layereddouble hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bo C.; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Petit, Pierre-Olivier; Frandsen, Cathrine; Mørup, Steen; Geckeis, Horst; Katerinopoulou, Anna; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was...... with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in an ordered distribution. The interlayers contain sulphate, water and sodium in an arrangement characteristic for the nikischerite group. The crystal structure is highly disordered by stacking faults. The composition, formula and crystallographic parameters are: NaFe(II)6Fe......(III)3(SO4)2(OH)18•12H2O, space group P-3, a = 9.528(6)Å, c = 10.968(8)Å andZ = 1. Green rust sodium sulphate, GRNa,SO4, crystallizes in thin, hexagonal plates. Particles range from less than 50 nm to 2 µm in diameter and are 40 nm thick or less. The material is redox active and reaction rates are fast...

  4. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P. O.; Frandsen, Cathrine; Mørup, Steen; Geckeis, H.; Katerinopoulou, A.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was...... with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in an ordered distribution. The interlayers contain sulphate, water and sodium in an arrangement characteristic for the nikischerite group. The crystal structure is highly disordered by slacking faults. The composition, formula and crystallographic parameters are: NaFe(II)(6)Fe......(III)(3)(SO4)(2)(OH)(18)center dot 12H(2)O, space group P-3, a = 9.528(6) angstrom, c = 10.968(8) angstrom and Z = 1.Green rust sodium sulphate, GR(Na,SO4) crystallizes in thin, hexagonal plates. Particles range from less than 50 nm to 2 mu m in diameter and are 40 nm thick or less. The material is redox...

  5. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was characterised using Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established by mass and absorption spectroscopy. The sulphate form of green rust is composed of brucite-like layers with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in an ordered distribution. The interlayers contain sulphate, water and sodium in an arrangement characteristic for the nikischerite group. The crystal structure is highly disordered by slacking faults. The composition, formula and crystallographic parameters are: NaFe(II)(6)Fe(III)(3)(SO4)(2)(OH)(18)center dot 12H(2)O, space group P-3, a = 9.528(6) angstrom, c = 10.968(8) angstrom and Z = 1.Green rust sodium sulphate, GR(Na,SO4) crystallizes in thin, hexagonal plates. Particles range from less than 50 nm to 2 mu m in diameter and are 40 nm thick or less. The material is redox active and reaction rates are fast. Extremely small particle size and high surface area contribute to rapid oxidation, transforming green rust to an Fe(III)-phase within minutes.

  6. The effect of Sodium hydroxide catalyst in formation of Ni nanoparticles at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, Ni nanoparticles growth is studies by spontaneous auto catalytic reduction in an alcohol- water solution in present NaOH catalysis with various ratio at room temperature. The scanning electron microscopy and XRD analyses have been used for investigation diameter and structure of Ni nanoparticles. Investigation of the analyses show that have not formed Ni Nanoparticles in Ph values 8, 9, 10 and 13, but in Ph values 11 and 12 have formed Ni Nanoparticles with average diameter of about 65 and 90 nm, respectively. The XRD patterns show that samples have face-centered cubic structure with (111),(200).(222) planes. The results show that sodium hydroxide value is very effect on the Ni nanoparticles growth.

  7. Convenient synthetic method of starch/lactic acid graft copolymer catalyzed with sodium hydroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qingling Wang; Yingmo Hu; Jianhua Zhu; Yang Liu; Xue Yang; Jing Bian

    2012-06-01

    Copolymer of starch grafted with lactic acid (LA) could be directly prepared by reaction of cornstarch with lactic acid and with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst. The structure of starch/LA copolymer was characterized by IR, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The effects of NaOH concentration, ratios of starch and LA, reaction temperature and reaction time on the grafting degree were also investigated and the results showed that the highest grafting degree of starch could reach 33.60% when the graft copolymerization was carried out in 0.40 mol l-1 NaOH aqueous solution for 9 h at 90°C with 1: 6 ratio of starch and lactic acid.

  8. Comparison of efficacy of phenol and sodium hydroxide matricectomies for management of ingrown toenails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the efficacy of Phenol and Sodium Hydroxide Matricectomies in terms of frequency of pain and wound healing in the management of Ingrown Toenails. Study Design: Randomized Clinical Trial Place of Duration of Study: Out Patient Department of Surgery Combined Military Hospital Kharian from Aug 2010 to Feb 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 140 cases with Ingrown Toenails were selected and randomly divided into two groups of 70 each. Cases of Group A and B were subjected to Phenol Matricectomy (PMC) and Sodium Hydroxide Matricectomy (SHMC) respectively. Postoperative pain was comparatively and Southampton Wound Grade for wound healing were analyzed at 2nd and 10th postop day. Results: Mean age of Group A was 28.86 ± 6.423 whereas that of Group B was 28.80 ± 5.997. Group A had 58 (83%) males and 12 (17%) females. Group B had 48 (69%) males and 22 (31%) females. Postoperative pain was comparatively less in group A with statistical difference between two groups on 2nd day (p = 0.014), whereas it was less intense in group B with no statistical significant difference on 10th day (p=0.662). Wound healing was better in group B with statistical difference between two groups on 2nd (p = 0.022) and 10th day (p = 0.024). Group B (91.4%) had more statistically significant efficacy than Group A (71.4%) (p = 0.004). Conclusion: SHMC is superior to PMC in reducing pain and improving wound healing for managing Ingrown Toenails. (author)

  9. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  10. Novel hypertonic saline-sodium hydroxide (HS-SH) method for decontamination and concentration of sputum samples for Mycobacterium tuberculosis microscopy and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ganoza, C. A.; Ricaldi, J. N.; J. Chauca; Rojas, G; Munayco, C.; Agapito, J.; Palomino, J. C.; H GUERRA

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a new decontamination and concentration (DC) method for sputum microscopy and culture. Sputum samples from patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) (n=106) were tested using the proposed hypertonic saline–sodium hydroxide (HS–SH) DC method, the recommended N-acetyl-L-cysteine–sodium citrate–sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH) DC method and unconcentrated direct smear (Ziehl–Neelsen) techniques for the presence of mycobacteria using Löwenstein-Jensen culture and light ...

  11. The effect of flow-accelerated corrosion with high-temperature sodium hydroxide on tube target-wastage caused in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastage phenomena on adjacent tubes (target-wastage) arise from water/steam leak in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Target-wastage is likely to be caused by liquid droplet impingement erosion and flow-accelerated corrosion in an environment marked by high-temperature and high-alkali (reaction jet) due to sodium-water reaction. The static and flow-accelerated corrosion experiments have been carried out as a part of phenomena clarification experiments for target-wastage by using tube material under high-temperature sodium-hydroxide and sodium monoxide conditions which are mainly generated by sodium-water reaction. The authors evaluated the dependence of liquid/tube material temperature and liquid impingement velocity upon the flow-accelerated corrosion rate on the tube in this report. (author)

  12. High-temperature sodium hydroxide impinging experiment for investigating tube wastage phenomena caused by sodium-water reaction in FBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium reacts chemically with water in case of unexpected heat transfer tube failure in a steam generator (SG) of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and exothermic reaction produces reaction field with high temperature and high corrosive action (sodium-water reaction). Adjacent tubes are damaged due to erosive and corrosive environment of the reaction field (wastage). Therefore, it is integral to evaluate the sodium-water reaction phenomena with high accuracy for the safety assessment of FBRs. For the purpose of understanding the wastage mechanism, an experiment was carried out in which sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the main reaction product collided with the tube material under high temperature conditions to simulate the reaction field. We confirmed that the erosion-corrosion rate of tube material has a tendency to increase as the temperature and velocity of NaOH are raised. (author)

  13. High-temperature sodium hydroxide impinging experiment for investigating tube wastage phenomena caused by sodium-water reaction in FBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium reacts chemically with water in case of unexpected heat transfer tube failure in a steam generator (SG) of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs), exoergic reaction produces reaction field with high temperature and high corrosive action (sodium-water reaction). Adjacent tubes are damaged due to erosive and corrosive environment of the reaction field. Therefore, it is integral to evaluate such sodium-water reaction phenomena with high accuracy for the safety assessment of FBRs. For the purpose of understanding the wastage mechanism, an experiment was carried out in which sodium hydroxide (NaOH) collided with the tube material under high temperature conditions simulating the reaction field. We confirmed that the erosion-corrosion rate of tube material has a tendency to increase as the temperature and velocity of NaOH are raised. (author)

  14. Sodium hydroxide injection passivation work for the reactor water clean-up system in a new ABWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have identified that Co-58 and Co-60 as the primary source of radiation build up on out-of-core components in new BWR plants. The deposition rate of Co on stainless steel and carbon steel is shown to be controlled mainly by the thickness of oxide films and its morphology formed through pretreatment. The passivation treatment was implemented accordingly at Lungmen unit 1 in an ABWR plant in September 2010. It is determined that the passivation conditions should be maintained at the temperature of 180?230 deg. C, pH of 8.0?8.5 and dissolved oxygen content over 400 ppb. The films would provide effective protection against radioactive deposition. The application of the pre-filming process on piping before the pre-operation is done during the flow induced vibration test (FIV) period. The protectiveness of stable magnetite can be increased by the pH control under the specific condition. The pre-filming control process and evaluation of passivation effectiveness is discussed in detail based on the surface analysis of the passivated specimens. Many efforts have been devoted to sodium hydroxide injection method for pH control of the system through the filter demineralizer under smooth operation. A comparison of test specimens on the properties of oxide film formed between laboratory and in-plant tests through alkaline treatment are also shown in this report. (authors)

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  16. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43 (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  17. Fabrication and corrosion behavior of fresh porous silicon in sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of fresh porous silicon (f-PS) in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution in the presence and absence of ethanol was studied by weight loss measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. The phenomena and progress of f-PS corrosion in 1.0 M NaOH at 318 K was obtained and described. Weight loss measurements show that the corrosion rate increases with increasing temperature and concentration of NaOH solution. Meanwhile, the corrosion rate first increases with increasing volume ratio of ethanol in 1.0 M NaOH, and then decreases. Additionally, the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (Ea, A, ?Ha and ?Sa) for f-PS corrosion were obtained and discussed. And the effect factors (T, c and v) of f-PS corrosion in NaOH solution were studied in this paper. - Highlights: • The corrosion behavior of f-PS in NaOH solution was studied for the first time. • Phenomena and progress of f-PS corrosion in NaOH solution was obtained and described. • The effect factors (T, c and v) of f-PS corrosion in NaOH solution were studied. • The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained and discussed. • The corrosion rate can be improved by adding ethanol into NaOH solution

  18. Environmental Stress Cracking of Poly(3-hydroxibutyrate) Under Contact with Sodium Hydroxide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rômulo Freitas, Farias; Eduardo Luís, Canedo; Renate Maria Ramos, Wellen; Marcelo Silveira, Rabello.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress cracking (ESC) is one of the most important causes of polymer premature failure, occurring when a combination of mechanical load and an aggressive fluid is applied. The phenomenon is well know by polymer producers and product designers but its mechanisms are not very well unders [...] tood. Although the ESC effects of many commercial polymers are well known, this type of failure in biopolymers were not studied yet. In the current work, the stress cracking behaviour of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with 4,0 and 6,2% of hydroxyvalerate (HV) was investigated in injection-moulded bars under contact with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. The experiments were conducted using two different types of stress arrangements: (i) an ordinary tensile testing and (ii) a relaxation experiment. In both situations the injection-moulded bars were exposed to the NaOH solution and some testing conditions where varied, like the cross-head speed of the tensile test and the maximum load of the relaxation arrangement. The results showed that NaOH acted as a strong stress cracking agent for PHB, causing surface cracking and reducing significantly the mechanical properties. Catastrophic failure with an extensive surface damage was also observed by photographed and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The magnitude of the effects increased with decreasing crosshead speed and increasing loading level.

  19. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn–Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: ? In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. ? Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. ? Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. ? Growth mechanism was discussed. ? Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  20. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber

  1. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  2. Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com hidróxido de sódio Sugarcane bagasse treated with sodium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (MS do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar contendo 60% de MS submetido a doses crescentes de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH (0; 2,5; 5 e 7,5% de uma solução 2:1 de água:NaOH na MS em diferentes períodos de tratamento (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias. Foram utilizados baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10 L, mantidos em uma câmara climática à temperatura constante de 25ºC. Não foi verificado efeito dos tratamentos (dose de NaOH e dias de tratamento sobre os teores de PB, que apresentaram valor médio de 1,6%. A MS aumentou com os dias de tratamento, não sendo observadas alterações para essa variável em relação às doses crescentes de NaOH. Foi observada redução das frações de FDN, FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HEM e lignina (LIG. A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e o teor de sódio aumentaram quando o bagaço de cana foi submetido a doses crescentes de NaOH, mas não foi observado efeito do período de tratamento sobre essas variáveis. O valor nutritivo do bagaço de cana é melhorado com a adição de NaOH, comprovado pela redução nos constituintes da parede celular e pelo aumento na DIVMS.The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sugar-cane bagasse containing 60% dry matter submited to increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% NaOH on a dry matter basis. NaOH was applied as a 2:1 water:NaOH solution, over different treatment times (1, 3, 5, and 7 days. Plastic pails with 10 L capacity were utilized and stocked in climatic chamber at 25ºC constant temperature. The experimental treatments had no effect on the crude protein content of the sugar cane bagasse which averaged 1.6% CP. The dry matter content of the bagasse increased over of the days of treatment, without any effect of the NaOH solution concentration. Mean values for the bagasse neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents declined in response to NAOH solution concentration. NaOH treatment improved the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and sodium content of the bagasse. Time of treatment had no effect on these variables. The treatment of sugar cane bagasse with the NaOH solution improved its nutritive value in terms of its reduced cell wall constituents and increased IVDMD.

  3. Experiment on the Water Mock-up for a Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    As a treatment method of the waste sodium which was produced from a sodium facility, an investigation for a reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide has been developed. The sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a caustic soda through an atomizing nozzle to maintain the reaction uniformly. There were complex reacting phenomena in the system to observe with a naked eye. Therefore, a water mock-up was carried out for a practical use the data got in the waste sodium treatment test. The major experimental parameters are the flowrate of water through an atomizing nozzle and the recirculation rate. In addition, the positions and flow directions of the nozzles are important parameters, also. From this experiment, 300 sets of data were obtained by analyses of the phenomena of the photographic records, and the optimum flowing conditions

  4. Sodium Hydroxide (CAS No. 62-53-3 [Hidróxido de Sodio (CAS No. 62-53-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Muniz Canto Brum da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda, is an inorganic solid which provides an extremely important role for the manufacture of heavy chemical. This Arrhenius’ base is used for the production of textiles and paper, and participates as an input the manufacture of various products. This article presents a brief history of the production of caustic soda, describes in detail the electrolytic processes currently used for their production and, finally, shows how is the outlook for brazilian and worldwide production and consumption of this basis.

  5. Pancreatitis during sodium valproate treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, L H; Reynolds, R. P.; Emery, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A girl aged 1 year died of acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis while taking sodium valproate. Necropsy showed widespread vascular disease that may have contributed to the onset of pancreatitis. Previous reports of pancreatitis in children receiving valproic acid are reviewed and although the association is rare, a causal relation between pancreatitis and valproic acid seems to have been established.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  7. Influence of calcium hydroxide on the post-treatment pain in Endodontics: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    K Anjaneyulu; Malli Sureshbabu Nivedhitha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pain of endodontic origin has been a major concern to the patients and the clinicians for many years. Post-operative pain is associated with inflammation in the periradicular tissues caused by irritants egressing from root canal during treatment. It has been suggested that calcium hydroxide intra-canal medicament has pain-preventive properties because of its anti-microbial or tissue altering effects. Some dispute this and reasoned that calcium hydroxide may initiate or increase ...

  8. Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com hidróxido de sódio / Sugarcane bagasse treated with sodium hydroxide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Ricardo Andrade, Reis; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Gustavo Rezende, Siqueira; Thiago Fernandes, Bernardes.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (MS) do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar contendo 60% de MS submetido a doses crescentes de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) (0; 2,5; 5 e 7,5% de uma solução 2:1 de água:NaOH na MS) em diferentes [...] períodos de tratamento (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias). Foram utilizados baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10 L, mantidos em uma câmara climática à temperatura constante de 25ºC. Não foi verificado efeito dos tratamentos (dose de NaOH e dias de tratamento) sobre os teores de PB, que apresentaram valor médio de 1,6%. A MS aumentou com os dias de tratamento, não sendo observadas alterações para essa variável em relação às doses crescentes de NaOH. Foi observada redução das frações de FDN, FDA, celulose (CEL), hemicelulose (HEM) e lignina (LIG). A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) e o teor de sódio aumentaram quando o bagaço de cana foi submetido a doses crescentes de NaOH, mas não foi observado efeito do período de tratamento sobre essas variáveis. O valor nutritivo do bagaço de cana é melhorado com a adição de NaOH, comprovado pela redução nos constituintes da parede celular e pelo aumento na DIVMS. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sugar-cane bagasse containing 60% dry matter submited to increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% NaOH on a dry matter basis). NaOH was applied as a 2:1 [...] water:NaOH solution, over different treatment times (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). Plastic pails with 10 L capacity were utilized and stocked in climatic chamber at 25ºC constant temperature. The experimental treatments had no effect on the crude protein content of the sugar cane bagasse which averaged 1.6% CP. The dry matter content of the bagasse increased over of the days of treatment, without any effect of the NaOH solution concentration. Mean values for the bagasse neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents declined in response to NAOH solution concentration. NaOH treatment improved the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and sodium content of the bagasse. Time of treatment had no effect on these variables. The treatment of sugar cane bagasse with the NaOH solution improved its nutritive value in terms of its reduced cell wall constituents and increased IVDMD.

  9. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in the one-pot synthesis of intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fengzhu Lv; Zilin Meng; Penggang Li; Yihe Zhang; Guocheng Lv; Qian Zhang; Zhilei Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Anion surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium lauric acid (SLA), with almost the same chain length but different anion groups were used together as intercalates to prepare intercalated ZnAl–layered double hydroxides (ZnAl–LDHs). Their composition, structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated SDS intended to maintain the lamellae structure of LDHs, but SLA was more likely to expand the basal spacings of LDHs in the present system. The arrangement of the surfactants in the interlayer of ZnAl–LDHs was also simulated by Materials Studio. The basal spacings of the LDHs calculated based on simulated structure consisted with that from XRD.

  10. Standard state thermodynamic properties of completely dissociated hydrochloric acid and aqueous sodium hydroxide at extreme temperatures and pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamali, Essmaiil; Cobble, James W

    2009-08-01

    Standard state thermodynamic properties for completely dissociated hydrochloric acid were fixed by ionic additivity, using the data from other strong electrolytes perrhenic acid, sodium perrhenate, and sodium chloride from 298.15 to 598.15 K and at p(sat). The standard electrode potential for the important silver-silver chloride electrode system and the equilibrium constants for the volatility of HCl from aqueous solutions were then calculated and compared with literature data. Using the experimental data from this study and auxiliary data from literature, the logarithm of the molal association constant of HCl at the critical temperature of water and at 673.15 K up to 1000 MPa was predicted from the unified theory of electrolytes (UTE). The standard state thermodynamic properties for completely dissociated aqueous sodium hydroxide were also calculated by ionic additivity over the same temperature range from aqueous sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and the dissociation constant of water. The results were compared with literature data. PMID:19606908

  11. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-05-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions, was not different when comparing MCS, SHW and barley. PMID:24594308

  12. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HymØller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2014-01-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions, was not different when comparing MCS, SHW and barley.

  13. Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio Valmor, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Sodré, Barroso; Patrícia Alvarez, Ruiz.

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de soluções irrigadoras de canais radiculares contendo hidróxido de cálcio e lauril sulfato de sódio em linhagem de fibroblastos L929. Solução aquosa saturada de hidróxido de cálcio, lauril sulfato de sódio e HCT20 (lauril sulfato de sódio e hid [...] róxido de cálcio) foram diluídos em água destilada em concentrações de 50%, 20%, 10% e 5%. O grupo controle foi representado por meio de cultura de células (MEM - minimum essential medium). A citotoxicidade das soluções sobre os fibroblastos foi avaliada em 4 e 24 h de contato, pelo método do cromo radioativo. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Em todas as análises, o intervalo de confiança referente às médias entre os grupos foi estabelecido em 95%. As soluções saturadas de hidróxido de cálcio e o HCT20 apresentaram toxicidade nas concentrações de 50%. O lauril sulfato de sódio foi tóxico em todas as concentrações. As soluções de hidróxido de cálcio em concentrações menores que 50% apresentaram tolerância celular, assim como combinadas ao lauril sulfato de sódio. Tal comportamento não foi observado na solução pura de lauril sulfato de sódio em todas as concentrações. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calciu [...] m hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxicity of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution.

  14. Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2011-02-04

    Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

  15. Solidification Of The Hanford Law Waste Stream Produced As A Result Of Near-Tank Continuous Sludge Leaching And Sodium Hydroxide Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of 2O7 also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Stone monoliths to verify PA compliance. Based on testin

  16. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

  17. Doping magnesium hydroxide with sodium nitrate: a new approach to tune the dehydration reactivity of heat-storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkatulov, Alexandr; Krieger, Tamara; Zaikovskii, Vladimir; Chesalov, Yurii; Aristov, Yuri

    2014-11-26

    Thermochemical energy storage (TES) provides a challenging approach for improving the efficiency of various energy systems. Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, is known as a suitable material for TES at temperature T>300 °C. In this work, the thermal decomposition of Mg(OH)2 in the absence and presence of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is investigated to adapt this material for TES at TNaNO3 content. The Td decrease by 25 °C is revealed at a salt content Y?2.0 wt %. The maximum Td depression of some 50 °C is observed at Y=15-20 wt %; (2) the NaNO3-doped Mg(OH)2 decomposes considerably faster under conditions typical for closed TES cycles (at T>300 °C in vapor atmosphere) than a pure Mg(OH)2; (3) the morphology of the dehydration product (MgO) dramatically changes. Differential scanning calorimetry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman) are used to study the observed effects and to elucidate possible ways the NaNO3 influences the Mg(OH)2 dehydration and morphology of the dehydration product. The mechanism involving a chemical interaction between the salt and the hydroxide accompanied by nitrate embedding into brucite layers is discussed. PMID:25333760

  18. The Corrosion Behavior of Nickel and Inconel 600 in Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrochloric Acid Solution at 280 .deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of nickel and Inconel 600 has been investigated by the weight change measurement method at pH ranges 3?13 of the solution. The specimens were exposed to aqueous solutions in a static autoclave at 280 .deg. C for 210 hours. The pH of the solutions was adjusted by hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide and the dissolved oxygen concentration was fixed as 10 ppb by using pure nitrogen gas. Weight loss of Inconel 600 was much less than that of nickel over the tested pH ranges. At pH 9.5, nickel and Inconel 600 showed the minimum weight loss phenomenon and the values of weight loss were 1.5mg/dm2 and 0.9mg/dm2, respectively. Microscopic examination showed that nickel surface was attacked uniformly, whereas Inconel 600 surface was not greatly

  19. Changes in the porous structure of beryllium hydroxide- and basic carbonate powders under heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The porous structure of intact and heat-treated at 770 and 1470 K powders of Be(OH2) hydroxide and basic beryllium carbonate xBeCo3xyBe(OH)2xH2O is studied by methods of nitrogen desorption at low temperatures and mercury porosimetry. It is found that the volumes of pores and the character of their size distribution change depending on the type of the initial beryllium samples (beryllium hydroxide or basic beryllium carbonate) and temperatures of heat treatment

  20. Influence of zeolite treated with sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide on the coagulation-flocculation process of drainage. Influencia de la zeolita tratada con acido sulfurico y con hidroxido de sodio en el proceso de coagulacion floculacion en aguas superficiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Duque, M.; Herrera Vasconcelos, T.; Laria Piedra, N.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper has had as objective the treatment of natural zeolite from Tasajera with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide (residuals acid and basic from the regeneration of cationic and anionic resins of the ''Otto Parallada'' thermoelectric plant) at different times and concentrations, with a further comparison and testing of the effectiveness of the obtained zeolite in respect to the natural one as a coadyuvant of the coagulation-flocculation process in the treatment of superficial water. (Author)

  1. Split of sodium and sulfur in a Kraft mill and internal production of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The removal of lignin in a Kraft pulp mill, with the aim to utilize the lignin as more value added green product than just firing lignin in black liquor, is possible with a LignoBoost plant. The LignoBoost plant uses sulfuric acid in the process and this results in an increased net input of sulfur to the pulp mills recovery cycle. The sodium/sulfur balance in a Kraft pulp mill is an important factor to be able to run a mill optimal. The increased input of sulfur into the mill when implementin...

  2. A basis for the development of new ammonia-water-sodium hydroxide absorption chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiu, Simona; Salavera, Daniel; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Mechanical Engineering, CREVER - Group of Applied Thermal Engineering, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Adding NaOH to ammonia/water improves the separation of ammonia in the generator and reduces both chiller driving temperature and rectification losses. In this paper the main disadvantages for the implementation of these new mixtures are addressed: a) few experimental data or reliable correlations of the fluid mixture properties exist; b) selection of an adequate system for separating the hydroxide; and c) evaluation of potential corrosion problems. Our results show that the separation of NaOH from an ammonia/water solution with a maximum approximate mass fraction of 0.05 (5% weight) is viable when reverse osmosis is used with membranes BW30 and SW30HR LE. Cycle simulation using experimental data to calculate the vapour-liquid equilibrium properties shows that the COP is approximately 20% higher than with a conventional ammonia/water chiller working under the same conditions and using a hydroxyl separation efficiency of 99% for NaOH, which is feasible according to the experimental tests. (author)

  3. Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with sodium lauryl sulfate as a sorbent for 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with nitrate anions (LDH-NO3) was synthesized, modified with the anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate, and applied for the removal of 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions. Modification of the as-synthesized Mg-Al layered double hydroxide was carried out at surfactant concentration of 0.01 M (the organo-LDH produced denoted LDH-NaLS). The as-synthesized and surfactant-intercalated LDHs were characterized by FT-IR and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The effect of some variables such as solution pH, contact time and sorbate concentration on removal of 152+154Eu was investigated. The kinetic data obtained were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model rather than the pseudo-first-order model. Intraparticle diffusion model showed that sorption of 152+154Eu proceed by intraparticle diffusion together with boundary layer diffusion. Experimental isotherm data were well described by Langmuir model. Organo-LDH was found to have higher capacity (156.45 mg g-1) for europium than the as-synthesized LDH-NO3 (119.56 mg g-1). Comparing LDHs capacities obtained for Eu(III) in the present work with other sorbents reported in literature indicated that LDHs have the highest capacities. Application of the developed process for removal of 152+154Eu(III) from radioactive process wastewaters was also studied and the obtained results revealed that these LDHs are promising materials for treatment of radioactive wastewaters. (author)

  4. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. PMID:26342336

  5. Current Status on Development of Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of sodium as a coolant necessitates the development of special post-operation procedures for the treatment of waste sodium, sodium contaminated equipment, or other purposes. Only a few power and research reactors with sodium coolant have been constructed and operated worldwide. They are close to the end of their design lifetime and, in some cases, the decommissioning is in progress. Conducted by countries that have operational experience with sodium cooled fast reactor, R and D programmes are intended to provide a solid basis for design and operation of sodium waste processing facilities as well as for decommissioning planning. Sodium waste, which has been generated from the test facilities related to the sodium since the beginning of the 1990s, requires now the safe sodium treatment in Korea. Each work activity with sodium should be properly planned and managed to avoid potential chemical reactions or explosions with a high risk of consequent environmental contamination. Special procedures should be implemented for removing and processing bulk quantities of sodium and sodium residuals in internal spaces and on internal surfaces of equipment. The objective of the report is to provide researchers with technical information necessary for the design and construction of technological facilities for sodium waste treatment by reviewing the current state of technical developments for advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and hazards of a sodium waste treatment process. Based on these results, a future plan for development of a sodium waste treatment process can be established

  6. Optimization of hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids production from sugarcane filter cake: Effects of urea supplementation and sodium hydroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Batista, Karla; Weinrich, Sören; Sträuber, Heike; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Different methods for optimization the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugarcane filter cake (FC) with a special focus on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were studied. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment at different concentrations was investigated in batch experiments and the cumulative methane yields fitted to a dual-pool two-step model to provide an initial assessment on AD. The effects of nitrogen supplementation in form of urea and NaOH pretreatment for improved VFA production were evaluated in a semi-continuously operated reactor as well. The results indicated that higher NaOH concentrations during pretreatment accelerated the AD process and increased methane production in batch experiments. Nitrogen supplementation resulted in a VFA loss due to methane formation by buffering the pH value at nearly neutral conditions (? 6.7). However, the alkaline pretreatment with 6g NaOH/100g FCFM improved both the COD solubilization and the VFA yield by 37%, mainly consisted by n-butyric and acetic acids. PMID:26278994

  7. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  8. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  9. Chemical Decontamination with N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine–Sodium Hydroxide Improves Recovery of Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Organisms from Cultured Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Bradner, L.; Robbe-Austerman, S.; Beitz, D.C.; Stabel, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is shed into the milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne's disease, allowing the transmission of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk. The parameters investigated included chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-l-cysteine–sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), alone and in combination with antibiotics (vancomycin, a...

  10. Effect of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentration on the optical property of chitosan-ZnO nanostructure prepared in chitin deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandhavelu, S. [Department of Industrial chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Thambidurai, S., E-mail: sthambi01@yahoo.co.in [Department of Industrial chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro addition of sodium hydroxide induced the nano particles crystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano crystals with maximum Zn/O ratio of 77:23 was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline size with 16-53 nm was estimated by XRD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study, nanocrystalline powders with band gap of 3.32 eV was prepared. - Abstract: Chitosan-ZnO nanostructures are prepared by eco-friendly way of synthesis. With same amount of chitin, three different ratios of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentrations are used for preparation. The hexagonal shape of chitosan-ZnO nanostructures with size range of 40-100 nm are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface morphology is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Maximum Zn/O atomic ratio of 77:23 is noticed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis. Presence of chitosan and ZnO structure are confirmed with FTIR spectra. Absorbance at 364 nm in the UV-vis spectra indicates the presence of ZnO. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the size of crystallites are in 16-53 nm range. Optical studies revealed that chitosan-ZnO nanostructure with band gap of 3.4 eV have been prepared by slow addition of 45% sodium hydroxide into 15% zinc chloride and chitin solution.

  11. Multi-elemental determination of heavy elements in plastics using X-ray fluorescence after destruction of the polymer by molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a method is proposed for the multielemental analysis of Sb(III), Ba, Cd, Cr(III), Hg, Pb and As(III) in plastics, using X-ray fluorescence after alkaline decomposition and preconcentration by (co)precipitation. The organic matrix is destroyed by decomposition with sodium hydroxide melted in a silver crucible by the open system technique, using sodium nitrate as auxiliary oxidant. The variables which influence preconcentration are optimized: Digestion time, pH, salinity, carrier and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and sodium rhodizonate (R) as precipitants. The calibration curves were linear up to 200 ?g of the element present, except for lead (150 ?g) antimony(III) (100 ?g) and barium (1000 ?g). The proposed method has been applied to several different industrial plastics. The procedure is quick and leads to results comparable with those obtained when using a recommended decomposition for each element separately. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  13. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.; Frenkel, A. I.; Bordia, R. K.; Korshin, G.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leachin...

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs

  15. Treatment of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits with dysprosium-165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dysprosium-165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (165Dy-FHMA) was used as an agent of radiation synovectomy in an antigen-induced arthritis model in New Zealand white rabbits. Animals were killed up to 6 months after treatment. 165Dy-FHMA was found to have a potent but temporary antiinflammatory effect on synovium for up to 3 months after treatment. Treated knees also showed significant preservation of articular cartilage architecture and proteoglycan content compared with untreated controls, but only during the first 3 months after treatment. In animals killed 3 and 6 months after treatment there were only minimal differences between the treated and untreated knees, indicating that the antiinflammatory effects on synovial tissue and articular cartilage preservation were not sustained

  16. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.; Frenkel, A. I.; Bordia, R. K.; Korshin, G.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate their...... treatment caused a part of the metals bound in the oxides to be released, thus increasing metals leachability by 1-2 orders of magnitude depending on the metal. Pb and Cd were released in particularly significant concentrations, suggesting less incorporation into the iron oxides after heat......-induced transformation. For Pb, this transformation of the chemical state of the bound metal was clearly supported by the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies. A fraction of the bound Cr remained stable even after treatment at the highest temperature used in the study. It was concluded that the heat treatment...

  17. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aquarium products Clinitest tablets Drain cleaners Hair straighteners Metal polishes Oven cleaners Note: This list is not ... Severe pain in the throat Severe pain or burning in the nose, eyes, ears, lips, or tongue ...

  18. Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2005-06-01

    Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

  19. Accumulation of experiences and knowledge for sodium cleaning treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In O-arai Research and Development Center/JAEA, lots of sodium test facilities had been constructed and lots of tests using sodium had been carried out for the development of sodium component systems, the evaluation of sodium environmental effect for structural materials and the development of sodium technologies for the experimental reactor JOYO and the prototype reactor MONJU. As the first stage of research and development came to an end for these reactors, those sodium test facilities were dismantled and attached sodium was cleaned. Thus lots of experiences and knowledge of sodium cleaning treatment technologies has accumulated. In order to use those experiences and knowledge effectively for future maintenance and repair sodium technology and research on the next generation fast reactors, those of sodium cleaning treatment technologies for typical systems and components have been evaluated and knowledge related important topics has been rearranged. Based on those evaluation and rearrangement, technical guidelines of sodium cleaning treatment are proposed for the purpose of effective reference of the past experiences and knowledge. (author)

  20. [Treatment of Baume class IV pulp diseases with calcium hydroxide: a clinical experimental study in Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye, F; Mbaye, M; Diop-Thiaw, F; Ndiaye, D

    2001-09-01

    The calcium hydroxide used as intracanalar temporary medication in modern endodontics, is the aim of this clinical and radiographic appraisal of endodontic treatment during two sessions (HESS J. C. and all. 1990); on 22 mature permanent teeth with peri apical lesion. In this second Dakar serial study, the mediate disinfection during 6 weeks in average, was followed by a root canal filling for: 11 mono-radicular teeth by compactage of gutta percha, adjusted monocone for 11 pluri-radicular teeth; and so by definitive coronal restoration. The direct magistral preparations used in this study are not expensive, but simple and efficient; our endodontic processing (pre-treatment and treatment) end up at clinical silence and radiographic apical healing in 90.91% of cases after 9 months for 66.67% of root canal filling located at the safety apical limit. PMID:11813684

  1. Simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by sodium hydroxide solution in a packed bed and studying the effect of operating parameters on absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In this study. simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by Sodium Hydroxide solution in a packed bed has been investigated. At first, mass and energy balances were applied around a differential height of the bed. So, the governing equations were obtained. Surface renewal theory by Danckwerts was used to represent the mass transfer operation Finally, by changing the operating parameters like solvent temperature, inlet gas composition pressure and height of the bed, the effect of these parameters on the absorption and the composition of carbon dioxide in exit stream have been investigated. (authors)

  2. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. RESULT In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts. PMID:24770498

  3. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caio Lamunier de Abreu, Camargo; Walter, Belda Junior; Luiz Jorge, Fagundes; Ricardo, Romiti.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection [...] and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE: A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS: Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. Result: In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION: Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

  4. Treatment of rheumatoid synovitis of the knee with intraarticular injection of dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred eight knees of 93 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and persistent synovitis of the knee were treated with an intraarticular injection of 270 mCi of dysprosium 165 bound to ferric hydroxide macroaggregate. Leakage of radioactivity from the injected joint was minimal. Mean leakage to the venous blood 3 hours after injection was 0.11% of the injected dose; this corresponds to a mean whole body dose of 0.2 rads. Mean leakage to the liver 24 hours after injection was 0.64% of the injected dose; this corresponds to a mean liver dose of 3.2 rads. In 7 additional patients examined, there was negligible or near negligible activity found in the draining inguinal lymph nodes. One-year followup was possible for 74 knees (63 patients). Sixty-one percent of the knees had good results, 23% had fair results, and 16% had poor results. There was a direct correlation between the radiographic stage and response to treatment. In knees with stage I radiographic changes, 72% showed good results; 93% showed improvement. In knees with stage II changes, 59% showed good results; 81% showed improvement. These preliminary results indicate that dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregate is an effective agent for radiation synovectomy. The low leakage rates observed offer a definite advantage over agents previously used

  5. Aluminium oxide-hydroxides obtained by hydrothermal synthesis: influence of thermal treatment on phase composition and textural characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykova, A.; Livanova, A.; Kosova, N.; Godymchuk, A.; Mamontov, G.

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium oxide-hydroxides obtained by means of the hydrothermal synthesis of aluminium nanopowder are of great interest in terms of the potential supports for heterogeneous catalysts due its high specific surface area (200...300 m2/g) and pore size of 4...17 nm. In this work the influence of thermal treatment (150...1300 °C) on structural and phase composition, specific surface area and porosity of aluminium oxide-hydroxides has been investigated. Nanostructured γ-Al2O3 (T=400 °C) was found to have the specific surface area of 328 m2/g and average pore size of ∼9 nm. The thermal treatment of aluminium oxide- hydroxides at the temperature of higher and lower than 400 °C has caused the reduction of specific surface area and overall pore volume.

  6. Endodontic treatment for necrotic immature permanent teeth using MTA and calcium hydroxide. A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Almeida Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic treatment of young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp has been a challenge for the dentist. It is necessary to induce the formation of apical barrier (apical plug, enabling the complete root canal filling. Objective: This retrospective clinical study compared the protocols for treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation, using calcium hydroxide (CH or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Material and methods: 28 patients with incomplete root formation have undergone root canal treatments in the period from 2000 to 2009 were selected. The procedures for cleaning, shaping and intracanal medication (CH paste were performed in a standardized manner. In 13 patients, after using the CH paste (14 days, apical plugs with MTA were made. In the remaining 15 teeth monthly exchanges with CH paste were executed until it was observed radiographically the formation of the apical barrier. In all cases the canals were filled conventionally with gutta-percha and sealer. Initially, follow-ups were made on a quarterly and semiannually at the end of first year. Results: All apical lesions showed apical healing between 4 and 13 months after starting treatment. There was not noted the continuing process of root formation. Conclusion: It was concluded that the treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp with the use of MTA as apical plug has the same clinical results compared with the use of CH, with the advantage of less clinical time.

  7. Radioactive sodium waste treatment and conditioning. Review of main aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication reviews the main aspects relating to the treatment and conditioning of radioactive sodium waste. This waste arises from the operation of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). In this type of reactor, sodium (Na) or sodium-potassium alloys (NaK) are used as a low-effect neutron moderating coolant medium for extracting and transferring thermal energy from the core and they represent a significant technical and safety challenge during operation and decommissioning. This publication provides the reader with technologically oriented information on the present status of sodium waste management approaches and recent achievements related to treatment and conditioning, with the objective of facilitating planning and preparatory work for the decommissioning of LMFRs. This publication provides a comprehensive review of the hazards associated with sodium waste management. Given the large quantities of sodium waste arising during decommissioning or reactor refurbishment, as well as the challenges and varied techniques associated with removal of 100% of all sodium and NaK bulk quantities and residues during decommissioning, a hazards review and analysis is a critical component in planning the dismantling and waste management activities. Roughly half of this publication focuses on sodium waste generating, handling and treatment processes. This includes draining sodium and NaK from plant systems; in situ treatment of residual sodium; cutting techniques for pumps, valves, piping and other components; cleaning of components; potential reuse of sodium; and removal of selected radionuclides from sodium waste with the objective of reducing the waste classification or converting it to exempt waste. The focus is on proven techniques and technologies, and each discussed method includes a review of the associated principle or theory, practical applications, advantages and disadvantages, limitations, industry experience, and final waste products. A review is provided of final management practices for treated sodium and NaK wastes, including conditioning of radioactive sodium waste and subsequent storage/disposal considerations. The review of conditioning practices includes those designed for the nuclear industry, as well as industrial conditioning technologies which are directly applicable or readily adaptable to nuclear applications. This review includes both successes, failures, and failure analysis. Throughout this publication, emphasis is placed on industry experience and application of sodium and NaK and industry experience with the techniques and technologies used to manage sodium waste. Reactor-specific examples are abundant and include both successes and failures. Throughout the publication, the emphasis is on proven methodologies, including their advantages, disadvantages, limitations and hazards. In fact, sodium-related hazards and associated safety considerations are extensively annotated throughout. This publication can be used most effectively during the planning stages for sodium and NaK removal and treatment activities, including in situ treatment for the purpose of conversion to non-reactive species (e.g. salts, acids). Once radioactive sodium waste or sodium-contaminated components are removed for disposition, this publication is best used as a review of conditioning and dispositioning options, as well as for developing the associated waste management plan. With regard to planning in general, this publication is especially useful in identifying the potential hazards and hazard mitigation considerations at each stage of the removal, treatment, handling and conditioning activities

  8. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leaching tests, and extractions with oxalate and weak hydrochloric acid. It was found that at 600 and 900 °C the iron oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat treatment caused a part of the metals bound in the oxides to be released, thus increasing metals leachability by 1-2 orders of magnitude depending on the metal. Pb and Cd were released in particularly significant concentrations, suggesting less incorporation into the iron oxides after heat-induced transformation. For Pb, this transformation of the chemical state of the bound metal was clearly supported by the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies. A fraction of the bound Cr remained stable even after treatment at the highest temperature used in the study. It was concluded that the heat treatment of iron oxides may be advantageous to improve the thermodynamic stability of the product but that thermal treatment at both 600 and 900 °C significantly reduced the binding capacity for heavy metals.

  9. The Effect of Formaldehyde or Sodium Hydroxide on In situ Rumen Degradation of Low and High Fat Sunflower Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine in situ dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability of sunflower meal containing 25 and 165 g fat kg-1 DM and untreated and treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 40 g kg-1 DM and formaldehyde ( 30 and 60 g kg-1 DM. DM and CP degradation of the samples were determined using in situ technique in two fistulated Holstein steers (400±12 kg, body weight and data were analysed to estimate soluble fraction (a, potentially degradable fraction (b, degradation rate (c and effective degradability (ED. Formaldehyde decreased (a fraction of DM (p<0.05. NaOH treated high fat sunflower meal had the highest (a fraction and the lowest of (b fraction of DM, (0.43 and 0.31, respectively. Formaldehyde and NaOH significantly decreased degradation rate (c of DM. Formaldehyde (30 g kg-1 DM treated low fat sunflower meal had the lowest ED of DM (0.44, k = 0.03 h-1 (p<0.05. Fraction of (a and ED of DM of low fat sunflower meal was less than high fat sunflower meal. Formaldehyde and NaOH significantly were affected fractions of a, b, c and ED of CP (p<0.05. Fraction of (a of CP decreased by formaldehyde and NaOH. Treatment of sunflower meal (low and high fat with formaldehyde at 60 g kg-1 DM resulted in the highest (b fraction and the lowest of (c fraction and ED of CP. Crude protein (b fraction of low fat sunflower meal was more than high fat sunflower meal but there was not any significant difference for (a fraction and ED. DM and CP disappearance after 24 h was decreased by formaldehyde and NaOH. Therefore, it is appears that formaldehyde, NaOH and fat content of sunflower meal can affect DM and CP degradability parameters.

  10. The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na2O and NaH. The most important contaminant is 137Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide

  11. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)]. E-mail: mralam@royalten.net.bd; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh); McNeill, D.M. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)

    2005-08-19

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated into a 35% improvement in growth rate (40, 36 g/day versus 26, 29 g/day). Calcium hydroxide alone did not improve the feeding value of Albizia. These data highlight the danger of assuming an assayable reduction in tannin, such as that observed in the calcium hydroxide treatment, will translate into an improvement in nutritive value and subsequent animal performance. Since the performance of the goats improved maximally when PEG was added to the calcium hydroxide-treated Albizia it was clear that the tannins were still as active as in the untreated Albizia. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide does not deactivate the tannins in Albizia. (author)

  12. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated into a 35% improvement in growth rate (40, 36 g/day versus 26, 29 g/day). Calcium hydroxide alone did not improve the feeding value of Albizia. These data highlight the danger of assuming an assayable reduction in tannin, such as that observed in the calcium hydroxide treatment, will translate into an improvement in nutritive value and subsequent animal performance. Since the performance of the goats improved maximally when PEG was added to the calcium hydroxide-treated Albizia it was clear that the tannins were still as active as in the untreated Albizia. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide does not deactivate the tannins in Albizia. (author)

  13. The role of sodium thiosulphate in the treatment of calciphylaxis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    James R, Smith; Mark D, Findlay; Colin C, Geddes; Jonathan G, Fox.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Calciphylaxis is a rare but important cause of severe morbidity, which predominantly affects patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. It is associated with mortality in excess of 50% at one year, and this has changed little over the last 20 years despite advances in our understanding of its un [...] derlying pathophysiology, and evolving treatment strategies. Sodium thiosulphate has played a prominent role in the treatment of calciphylaxis since its first use in 2004, with reports of success both in improving the severe pain associated with the condition and in the healing of calciphylaxis lesions. The literature documenting the use of sodium thiosulphate in the treatment of calciphylaxis is reviewed here, along with a detailed summary of case reports and case series. While there is reason to be optimistic with regard to the efficacy of sodium thiosulphate within a multifaceted and multidisciplinary approach to treatment, there is clearly much yet to be learned

  14. Microstructural transformation with heat-treatment of aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite structure was prepared, and the microstructural transformation of the sample heat-treated at various temperatures was investigated. The sample was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and BET surface area. The shape of the grains in the prepared sample was hexagonal prism-like morphology. The prepared sample kept a metastable state of alumina phase at higher temperatures than the commercially available gibbsite powders. The prepared gibbsite grains underwent characteristic structural change depending on the calcination temperature. The transformation of the surface morphology was initiated at 400degC, leading to the formation of cracks with the direction parallel to the basal plane. After calcination at 1200degC, a large number of grooves were formed on the surface of the lateral planes. The specific structural change of gibbsite induced by the heat treatment was strongly related to the topotactic dehydration from gibbsite and subsequent phase transition to aluminum oxides. (author)

  15. Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  16. USING OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE FOR TREATMENT OF SMALL PETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova I. S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we show the results of treatment of surgical diseases of the small domestic animals sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite is an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying agent. We used it in a topical treatment for dogs and cats with allergic, infected wounds and in the post operative period. A solution of sodium hypochlorite is produced by activation of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by electrochemical method using electrometers and "Key", produced by the NGO Pyrolyzer in St. Petersburg. The resulting solution is a colorless transparent liquid, one liter contains 600 mg of the active substance is sodium hypochlorite. In the treatment of surgical diseases in medicine apply modern systemic therapies (drug therapy - physiotherapy - operation-pharmacotherapy, uses the latest drugs targeted actions (antibiotics, immunomodulators, probiotics, enzymes and hormones. There are other methods, including alternative medicine. It is known that increased therapeutic effect on wound process leads to the reduction of the inflammatory response, which can sometimes block local regeneration processes; for dogs and cats moderate inflammatory response in the wound is a necessary condition for successful healing. A certain degree of inflammation of the wound is starting mechanism of reparative processes. These features were considered during the experiment and the selection of treatment regimens

  17. Nonsurgical treatment of periapical lesion associated with type III dens invaginatus using calcium hydroxide: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaskar R; Kalaskar A

    2008-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth, probably resulting from an infolding of the papilla during tooth development. It predisposes the tooth to develop caries and periapical pathosis. Root canal therapy may present many problems because of the complex anatomy of the teeth. The purpose of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of an Oehlers type III dens invaginatus that perforated into the apical area. Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with normal saline, w...

  18. Evaluation of topical potassium hydroxide solution for treatment of plane warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil I Al-Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plane wart is a common dermatological disease that is caused by human papilloma virus; although the rate of spontaneous recovery is high, it usually takes a long time to occur. Many modalities of treatments have been used but none of them proved to be uniformly effective. Potassium hydroxide (KOH solution is a well-known keratolytic agent with many dermatological uses. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topical KOH solution in the treatment of plane warts. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 patients with plane warts, consulting the department of Dermatology and Venereology of Basra Teaching Hospital between March 2008 and October 2009, were enrolled in this opened therapeutic trial study. Patients were divided into two age and sex cross-matched equal groups; patients in group (A were treated with topical 5% KOH solution once at night, while patients in group (B were treated with topical 10% KOH solution once nightly. Only 107 patients from group (A and 95 patients from group (B completed the study, while the remainders were defaulted for unknown reasons. The patients were evaluated at second and fourth week to assess the cure rates and side effects, those patients who showed complete cure were followed up for 3 months to detect any recurrence. Results: At the end of second week, 9.3% of group (A patients showed complete disappearance of their warts, vs 66.3% of group (B patients. At the end of fourth week, 80.3% of group (A patients showed complete response in comparison with 82.1% of group (B patients. The side effects for the treating solution in both concentrations include itching, burning sensation, erythema, and temporary dyspigmentations, that were reported in 77.6% of group (A patients in comparison with 90.5% of group (B patients. Recurrence rate was reported in 5.8% of group (A patients vs 5.1% of group (B patients during the three months period of follow-up. Conclusions: Topical KOH solution is proved to be an effective and safe treatment of plane warts in both concentrations (5% and 10% with no important side effects.

  19. Evaluation of Topical Potassium Hydroxide Solution for Treatment of Plane Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdi, Khalil I; AL-Rahmani, Moutaz AA

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plane wart is a common dermatological disease that is caused by human papilloma virus; although the rate of spontaneous recovery is high, it usually takes a long time to occur. Many modalities of treatments have been used but none of them proved to be uniformly effective. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution is a well-known keratolytic agent with many dermatological uses. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topical KOH solution in the treatment of plane warts. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 patients with plane warts, consulting the department of Dermatology and Venereology of Basra Teaching Hospital between March 2008 and October 2009, were enrolled in this opened therapeutic trial study. Patients were divided into two age and sex cross-matched equal groups; patients in group (A) were treated with topical 5% KOH solution once at night, while patients in group (B) were treated with topical 10% KOH solution once nightly. Only 107 patients from group (A) and 95 patients from group (B) completed the study, while the remainders were defaulted for unknown reasons. The patients were evaluated at second and fourth week to assess the cure rates and side effects, those patients who showed complete cure were followed up for 3 months to detect any recurrence. Results: At the end of second week, 9.3% of group (A) patients showed complete disappearance of their warts, vs 66.3% of group (B) patients. At the end of fourth week, 80.3% of group (A) patients showed complete response in comparison with 82.1% of group (B) patients. The side effects for the treating solution in both concentrations include itching, burning sensation, erythema, and temporary dyspigmentations, that were reported in 77.6% of group (A) patients in comparison with 90.5% of group (B) patients. Recurrence rate was reported in 5.8% of group (A) patients vs 5.1% of group (B) patients during the three months period of follow-up. Conclusions: Topical KOH solution is proved to be an effective and safe treatment of plane warts in both concentrations (5% and 10%) with no important side effects. PMID:22470207

  20. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  1. Use of sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of calciphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calciphylaxis is an infrequent but severe entity found in chronic dialysis patients. Its clinical pattern consists of tissue ischemia with itchy and painful subcutaneous nodules and plaques, most often located on the abdomen, buttocks, thighs and/or legs. These injuries evolve to extensive superficial necrosis of the skin overlying the panniculitis, with ulceration, overinfection and consequent sepsis. Current treatment modalities used to counteract this pathology are not entirely effective. A new treatment reported for calciphylaxis, is the use of intravenous sodium thiosulfate. This inorganic salt is already used in the treatment of intoxication caused by cyanide, in patients with calcific nephrolithiasis and tumoral calcinosis, with very good and safe results. We herewith report a case of calciphylaxis that was cured using intravenous sodium thiosulphate treatment.

  2. Sumatriptan/naproxen sodium combination for the treatment of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleves, Catalina; Tepper, Stewart J

    2008-09-01

    Sumatriptan 85 mg with naproxen sodium 500 mg, a combination tablet for the acute treatment of migraine, is approved in the USA. It is likely that triptan/NSAID combination benefits are a class effect, although the majority of data are on sumatriptan and naproxen sodium. The combination tablet demonstrated superior effectiveness over its individual components or placebo in two Phase III regulatory trials on six coprimary end points. The pharmacokinetic shifts in the combination tablet result in an earlier T(max) for sumatriptan, a later T(max) for naproxen sodium and a reduction of the C(max) by 36% for naproxen sodium compared with the components alone. In addition, the 85 mg dose of sumatriptan in the combination tablet has an area under the curve similar to 100 mg of sumatriptan alone. The clinical advantage of the sumatriptan and naproxen sodium combination is likely to be prolonged benefit per attack, that is, a sustained pain-free response. PMID:18759540

  3. Treatment of spinal muscular atrophy by sodium butyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jan-Gowth; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu-Mei; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Wang, Nancy M.; Tsai, Chang-hai; Li, Hung

    2001-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, leading to muscular paralysis with muscular atrophy. No effective treatment of this disorder is presently available. Studies of the correlation between disease severity and the amount of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein have shown an inverse relationship. We report that sodium butyrate effectively increases the amount of exon 7...

  4. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L?1) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn2+ + Cd2+)/Al3+ molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS?) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by the SDS concentration which indicated changes to the environment around the DS molecule in LDH interlayer

  5. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Abdullah Ahmed Ali, E-mail: abdullah2803@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Applied Science, Thamar University, Dhamar 87246 (Yemen); Talib, Zainal Abidin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor 43400 (Malaysia); Hussein, Mohd Zobir [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor 43400 (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L{sup −1}) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn{sup 2+} + Cd{sup 2+})/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS{sup −}) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by the SDS concentration which indicated changes to the environment around the DS molecule in LDH interlayer.

  6. Intracanal dressing paste composed by calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide for the treatment of immature and mature traumatized teeth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana de Jesus, Soares; Thiago Farias Rocha, Lima; Juliana Yuri, Nagata; Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida, Gomes; Alexandre Augusto, Zaia; Francisco José de, Souza-Filho.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To evaluate clinical and radiographic aspects before and after endodontic treatment with an intracanal dressing paste composed of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide in traumatized teeth followed-up for 1 year. METHODS : Patients (n=105) treated at the Dental Trauma Service of [...] Piracicaba School of Dentistry, Brazil were enrolled in the study. Two groups of teeth were formed: immature (G1) (n=28) and completely developed teeth (G2) (n=174). All teeth were endodontically treated and received an intracanal dressing with a paste composed by calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel and zinc oxide at a 2:1:2 rate. Clinical and radiographic aspects were evaluated initially, monthly and after 1-year. RESULTS : Most of the immature teeth suffered extrusive luxation (39.3%), whereas intrusive luxation (40.8%) was more common in completely developed teeth. There was a significant reduction in pain on percussion and mobility (p=0.0001) for immature teeth. Mature teeth showed reduction of spontaneous pain, fistula, mobility and pain on percussion (p

  7. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  8. Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja / Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Acyr Wanderley de Paula, Freitas; José Carlos, Pereira; Fernanda Cipriano, Rocha; Edenio, Detmann; Marinaldo Divino, Ribeiro; Marcone Geraldo, Costa; Fernando de Paula, Leonel.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade nutricional e as características fermentativas da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante microbiano (Lactobacillus plantarum nas doses 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 x 10(6) ufc/g MN) e hidróxido de sódio (solução 40% na base de 3% da MS) e acrescida de 10% [...] de resíduo da colheita de soja, com base no peso verde da cana. Foi utilizada a variedade RB855536, colhida em soca aos 11 e 13 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (duas idades e oito tratamentos da massa ensilada). Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de fatores. Para as variáveis de composição e cinética de degradação, foram obtidos três fatores: QN - qualidade nutritiva, incluindo MS, PB, DIVMS, FDN, FDA e LIG; MF - maturidade fisiológica, incluindo carboidratos solúveis, LIG e fração indegradável da FDN; e VDF - velocidade de degradação dos carboidratos fibrosos, contemplando o kdFDN. Às variáveis de características de fermentação atribuíram-se os fatores: PFS - perdas e fermentação secundária, incluindo perda de MS, concentração de ácido acético, ácido propiônico e etanol; PH - potencial hidrogeniônico, pH; e DP - degradação protéica, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal. O resíduo da colheita da soja na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade nutritiva e reduzir as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol das silagens. O tratamento com hidróxido de sódio diminuiu a produção de etanol, mas não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva e não reduziu as perdas de MS das silagens. A utilização de inoculante microbiano contendo L. plantarum também não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva da silagem nem reduziu as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol. Abstract in english The objective of this trial was to evaluate the nutritional quality and fermentation characteristics of sugarcane silages treated with inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6) cfu/g NM), 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis), or 10% of soybean crop residu [...] e added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment) with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments). For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1) "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2) "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3) "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1) "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2) "hydrogen potential" (pH); and 3) "protein degradation" (PD) that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

  9. Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acyr Wanderley de Paula Freitas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade nutricional e as características fermentativas da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante microbiano (Lactobacillus plantarum nas doses 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 x 10(6 ufc/g MN e hidróxido de sódio (solução 40% na base de 3% da MS e acrescida de 10% de resíduo da colheita de soja, com base no peso verde da cana. Foi utilizada a variedade RB855536, colhida em soca aos 11 e 13 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (duas idades e oito tratamentos da massa ensilada. Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de fatores. Para as variáveis de composição e cinética de degradação, foram obtidos três fatores: QN - qualidade nutritiva, incluindo MS, PB, DIVMS, FDN, FDA e LIG; MF - maturidade fisiológica, incluindo carboidratos solúveis, LIG e fração indegradável da FDN; e VDF - velocidade de degradação dos carboidratos fibrosos, contemplando o kdFDN. Às variáveis de características de fermentação atribuíram-se os fatores: PFS - perdas e fermentação secundária, incluindo perda de MS, concentração de ácido acético, ácido propiônico e etanol; PH - potencial hidrogeniônico, pH; e DP - degradação protéica, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal. O resíduo da colheita da soja na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade nutritiva e reduzir as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol das silagens. O tratamento com hidróxido de sódio diminuiu a produção de etanol, mas não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva e não reduziu as perdas de MS das silagens. A utilização de inoculante microbiano contendo L. plantarum também não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva da silagem nem reduziu as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the nutritional quality and fermentation characteristics of sugarcane silages treated with inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6 cfu/g NM, 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis, or 10% of soybean crop residue added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments. For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1 "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2 "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3 "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1 "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2 "hydrogen potential" (pH; and 3 "protein degradation" (PD that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

  10. Differential ERK activation during autophagy induced by europium hydroxide nanorods and trehalose: Maximum clearance of huntingtin aggregates through combined treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng-Fei; Jin, Pei-Pei; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ji-Qian; Shi, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Hou-Rui; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Ruan, Ren-Quan; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Wen, Long-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Accelerating the clearance of intracellular protein aggregates through elevation of autophagy represents a viable approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In our earlier report, we have demonstrated the enhanced degradation of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates through autophagy process induced by europium hydroxide nanorods [EHNs: Eu(III)(OH)3], but the underlying molecular mechanism of EHNs mediated autophagy was unclear. The present report reveals that EHNs induced autophagy does not follow the classical AKT-mTOR and AMPK signaling pathways. The inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation using the specific MEK inhibitor U0126 partially abrogates the autophagy as well as the clearance of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates mediated by EHNs suggesting that nanorods stimulate the activation of MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway during autophagy process. In contrast, another mTOR-independent autophagy inducer trehalose has been found to induce autophagy without activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the combined treatment of EHNs and trehalose leads to more degradation of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates than that obtained with single treatment of either nanorods or trehalose. Our results demonstrate the rational that further enhanced clearance of intracellular protein aggregates, needed for diverse neurodegenerative diseases, may be achieved through the combined treatment of two or more autophagy inducers, which stimulate autophagy through different signaling pathways. PMID:26409001

  11. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  12. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office's (NE-ID) and State of Idaho's top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work

  13. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: a literature review - Part I. In vitro studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dohyun; Kim, Euiseong

    2014-01-01

    The goal of endodontic treatment is the prevention and control of pulpal and periradicular infections. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been widely used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament to eliminate the remaining microorganisms after chemomechanical preparation. The purpose of this article is to review the antimicrobial properties of Ca(OH)2 as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment. The first part of this review details the characteristics of Ca(OH)2 and summarizes the res...

  14. THE INEFFECTIVENESS OF SODIUM BASED SURFACE TREATMENT ON THE MITIGATION OF ALKALI SILICA REACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Prasetia

    2015-01-01

    Crack injection and surface treatment method were being used in Japan for repairing damaged concrete due to Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) since 1988. In the case of surface treatment method, the sodium based surface treatment is commonly used for repairing damaged concrete due to ASR. The first part of this paper discusses the investigation results from repaired concrete bridge structures in Japan using sodium based surface treatment. The second part presents the experiments results regarding ...

  15. Effect of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Maki; Endo, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The effect of Ca(OH)2 addition on optimization of hydrothermal-mechanochemical pretreatment, which combines hydrothermal and milling treatments, was examined. The highest glucose yield of 90% was achieved in the ball-milled specimen previously treated at 170°C in the presence of 20% Ca(OH)2 per substrate weight. The specific surface area of the substrate was closely correlated with glucose yield, and a larger specific surface area was obtained when treating the specimen at 170°C in the presence of Ca(OH)2 compared to treatment at 170°C without Ca(OH)2. Although the Ca(OH)2-treated specimen was relatively unaffected by delignification, the cleavage of the ester bonds between lignin and hemicellulose was confirmed by FT-IR. This suggests that Ca(OH)2 weakens the substrate structure by loosening the bonds between lignin and hemicellulose as the mechanism to increase the specific surface area regardless of the high lignin content, facilitating the fibrillation of fibers with mechanical milling. PMID:25496951

  16. Disassembly of SWAT-3 and treatment of the sodium-water reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sodium-Water reaction test facility, SWAT-3, was disassembled at the O-arai Engineering Center of JNC. It was the first experience in Japan to disassemble the large-scale sodium facilities containing sodium-water reaction products. This report describes some special techniques (extracting the sodium from the damp tank, treatment of the sodium-water reaction products, disassembly of the damp tank) obtained through the disassembly work of the SWAT-3 dump tank, which contained a large amount of sodium-water reaction products deposits. Information is also presented on the corrosion of the structural material of the dump tank, whose inner surface had come into contact with the sodium-water reaction products over a long period. (author)

  17. Disassembly of SWAT-3 and treatment of the sodium-water reaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2001-12-01

    The Sodium-Water reaction test facility, SWAT-3, was disassembled at the O-arai Engineering Center of JNC. It was the first experience in Japan to disassemble the large-scale sodium facilities containing sodium-water reaction products. This report describes some special techniques (extracting the sodium from the damp tank, treatment of the sodium-water reaction products, disassembly of the damp tank) obtained through the disassembly work of the SWAT-3 dump tank, which contained a large amount of sodium-water reaction products deposits. Information is also presented on the corrosion of the structural material of the dump tank, whose inner surface had come into contact with the sodium-water reaction products over a long period. (author)

  18. French sodium waste storage rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of Superphenix Plant decommissioning, CEA and EDF had to determine the rules to applied for safe sodium waste storage. Even if sodium waste storage has been monitored for some decades (but only during Operational Plant phases), some recent events showed that this item had to be secured before beginning large decommissioning operations. Of course, the best way would be an on-line treatment but operational constraints always imply a delay in this operation. Indeed, a number of sodium wastes will be produced during the period before the end of Superphenix sodium treatment (planned in 2013) and will have to wait for further treatment. The events to be avoided, or at least taken into account, are uncontrolled sodium reaction with air moisture (large hydrogen production, important overheating) and sodium reaction with liquid water (pressure waves, large hydrogen production, important overheating). Careful analysis of all abnormal events in sodium waste storage disposal was performed and led to rule evolution. In 2004, experimental studies were undertaken, in order to know how solid sodium at room temperature reacts with air humidity: the conditions of aqueous sodium hydroxide production (which is the main risk source in sodium waste storage) have been observed. On this basis, new general safe rules for sodium waste storage have been raised: - Waste classifying: pure sodium and soda to be separated, bulk and residues to be separated - Sodium waste containers: tight, dry, easy to refill with gas, protected against overpressure effect, with specific marking and reference - Dedicated rooms: dry, with specific markings, with specific sodium fire extinguishers - Maximum duration: three months before next refill with inert dry gas, in an over-container if more than one year - Dry gas feeling: inert gas except for sodium film residues (dry air) 395 For Superphenix application, packaging and storage conditions of sodium wastes have been defined, in accordance with container fluxes to sodium waste treatment cell: it was decided to initially fill the containers (packaging phase) with dry air (dew point less than -10 deg C) whatever are the sodium waste types, because any gas in the container is rapidly and totally dried by sodium itself. Then, renewal of gas in the containers will be done with dry argon (storage phase), except for sodium film residues (dry air filling). On site feedback experience will confirm the efficiency of these recent rules which have to be adapted to each specific case (sodium waste type, containers) and which can evolve with on site feedback experience. (author)

  19. Thermal-radiation treatment of sodium-boron-silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Na2O ·19B2O3 ·30SiO2 glass was studied after 60Co ?-irradiation to the dose of 5· 104 Gy at the ambient 25oC and elevated temperatures 100-500oC with the step of 50oC. Upon each step of the treatment the optical absorption spectra were taken at the room temperature in the range of 200† 1200 nm with spectrometer Lambda-35 (Perkin Elmer). Non-irradiated samples did not have any absorption bands in the wave-length interval from 250 to 1200 nm. The spectra of the sample irradiated at 25oC contained the bands at 305 and 480 nm caused by E'(B) and =B-O* centers respectively. The irradiation temperature increase effects on the centers concentrations: at 100o C the number of E'(B) centers increases with its peak at 305 nm moving towards the short wave length side, and the number of =B-O* centers almost doesn't change, at 150oC the both centers amount decrease significantly. At 200oC the number of E'(B) centers grows much as compared with that at 150oC. At higher temperatures from 250 to 400oC the intensities of the number of both centers decreases monotonously. At 350oC a new weak absorption band appears near 600 nm, which relates to [BO4] centers, while the band at 480 nm (=B-O* centers) disappears. All the gamma-induced centers anneal at 450oC. The mechanism is suggested for the observed thermal-radiation induced transformations of optical centers in the sodium-boron silica glasses: the new [BO4] centers are formed from two =B-O* centers at 350oC. The work was done by the CST RUz grant F2.1.17

  20. The Effect of Feed Supplemented with Different Sodium Bentonite Treatments on Broiler Performance

    OpenAIRE

    PASHA, Talat Naseer; Mahmood, Amir; KHATTAK, Farina Malik

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of rations containing different sodium bentonite treatments on broiler performance. The study included 280 broiler chicks (1-day-old) that were randomly allocated to 7 experimental groups designated as follows: A (control); B and C (0.5% and 1.0% sodium bentonite, respectively); D and E (0.5% and 1.0% sodium bentonite + 0.5% and 1.0% gentian violet, respectively); F and G (0.5% and 1.0% sodium bentonite + 0.5% and 1.0% acetic acid, respe...

  1. French sodium waste storage rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of Superphenix Plant decommissioning, CEA and EDF had to determine the rules to apply for safe sodium waste storage. Even if sodium waste storage has been monitored for some decades (but only during Operational Plant phases), some recent events showed that this item had to be secured before beginning large decommissioning operations. Of course, the best way would be an on-line treatment but operational constraints always imply a delay in this operation. Indeed, a number of sodium wastes will be produced during the period before the end of Superphenix sodium treatment (planned in 2013) and will have to wait for further treatment. The events to be avoided, or at least taken into account, are uncontrolled sodium reaction with air moisture (large hydrogen production, important overheating) and sodium reaction with liquid water (pressure waves, large hydrogen production, important overheating). Careful analysis of all abnormal events in sodium waste storage disposal was performed and led to rule evolution. In 2004, experimental studies were undertaken, in order to know how solid sodium at room temperature reacts with air humidity: the conditions of aqueous sodium hydroxide production (which is the main risk source in sodium waste storage) have been observed. Waste classifying: pure sodium and soda to be separated, bulk and residues to be separated; Sodium waste containers: tight, dry, easy to refill with gas, protected against overpressure effect, with specific marking and reference; Dedicated rooms: dry, with specific markings, with specific sodium fire extinguishers; Maximum duration: three months before next refill with inert dry gas, in an over-container if more than one year; Dry gas feeling: inert gas except for sodium film residues (dry air). For Superphenix application, packaging and storage conditions of sodium wastes have been defined, in accordance with container fluxes to sodium waste treatment cell: it was decided to initially fill the containers (packaging phase) with dry air (dew point less than -10 deg. C) whatever are the sodium waste types, because any gas in the container is rapidly ant totally dried by sodium itself. Then, renewal of gas in the containers will be done with dry argon (storage phase), except for sodium film residues (dry air filling). On site feedback experience will confirm the efficiency of these recent rules which have to be adapted to each specific case (sodium waste type, containers) and which can evolve with on site feedback experience. (author)

  2. A Literature Review of the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of QRS Widening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruccoleri, Rebecca E; Burns, Michele M

    2016-03-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a well-known antidote for tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) poisoning. It has been used for over half a century to treat toxin-induced sodium channel blockade as evidenced by QRS widening on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this review is to describe the literature regarding electrophysiological mechanisms and clinical use of this antidote after poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants and other agents. This article will also address the literature supporting an increased serum sodium concentration, alkalemia, or the combination of both as the responsible mechanism(s) for sodium bicarbonate's antidotal properties. While sodium bicarbonate has been used as a treatment for cardiac sodium channel blockade for multiple other agents including citalopram, cocaine, flecainide, diphenhydramine, propoxyphene, and lamotrigine, it has uncertain efficacy with bupropion, propranolol, and taxine-containing plants. PMID:26159649

  3. Treatment of Residual Sodium and Sodium Potassium from Fast Reactors. Review of Recent Accomplishments, Challenges and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the usual radiation and conventional hazards present during the decommissioning of disused nuclear installations, the presence of residual sodium or the alloy sodium potassium — used in primary, secondary and support systems in reactors using liquid metal as a coolant — presents additional technical, safety and cost challenges for decommissioning. This results from the propensity of these materials to react exothermically with water and moisture in the air potentially resulting in toxic and explosive reactionsThis publication discusses a variety of treatment methods to be considered when dismantling components that still contain residual quantities of sodium or sodium potassium, several of which were presented as contributed papers to the IAEA session during the 5. International Conference and Exhibition on Decommissioning Challenges, in Avignon, France, 7–11 April 2013. The publication provides a synthesis of information presented during the session, which was developed further at a consultants meeting held in Vienna, 2–6 December 2013. Decommissioning challenges faced at eight different facilities in five different countries are discussed, as well as the achievements and lessons learned that are of value to the worldwide decommissioning community

  4. Osteoinductive porous titanium implants: effect of sodium removal by dilute HCl treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Neo, Masashi; Suzuki, Jun; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2006-05-01

    In a previous study, we observed that chemically and thermally treated plasma-sprayed porous titanium possesses intrinsic osteoinductivity and that bone formation occurs after 12 months in the muscles of beagle dogs. The aim of this study was to optimize the surface treatment and to accelerate the osteoinductivity. Previous studies have reported that sodium removal converts the sodium titanate layer on the surface of an alkali-treated titanium plate into a more bioactive titania layer. In this study, we developed a dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) treatment for porous titanium, which removed sodium from the complexly shaped porous structure more effectively than conventional hot water treatment. Three types of surface treatments were applied: (a) alkali and heat treatment (AH treatment); (b) alkali, hot water, and heat treatment (Water-AH treatment); and (c) alkali, dilute HCl, hot water, and heat treatment (HCl-AH treatment). The osteoinductivity of the materials implanted in the back muscles of adult beagle dogs was examined at 3, 6, and 12 months. The HCl-AH-treated porous bioactive titanium implant had the highest osteoinductivity, with induction of a large amount of bone formation within 3 months. The dilute HCl treatment was considered to give both chemical (titania formation and sodium removal) and topographic (etching) effects on the titanium surface, although we cannot determine which is the predominant factor. Nevertheless, adding the dilute HCl treatment to the conventional chemical and thermal treatments is a promising candidate for advanced surface treatment of porous titanium implants. PMID:16413052

  5. Creys-Malville (Superphenix) decommissioning program and sodium treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Creys-Malville or Superphenix NPP is a 3000 MWth sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor, with four secondary sodium loops and 2 x 620 MWe turbogenerators. Superphenix is a pool-type reactor, with 3,300 tons of primary sodium and 2,500 tons of secondary and auxiliary sodium. The Fast Reactor design requires the use of a non-moderator coolant, which explains why water is de facto eliminated. Most of the Fast Reactor designs worldwide, and that includes Superphenix, use sodium as coolant, based on the following criteria: - non moderator, - small neutron capture cross section, - high power density removal capacity, - easy pumping, - large operating range in the liquid state without pressurization, - good radiation behaviour, - limited piping corrosion, - limited noxiousness, - high industrial availability and low cost. Superphenix is the largest Fast Reactor in the world. It reached first criticality in September 1985 and first grid connection in January 1986. Following a French governmental decision to abandon the FBR technology, Superphenix was officially shutdown in February 1998. The decommissioning of Creys-Malville is part of the EDF industrial strategy, which aims at dismantling its 8 'first-generation' reactor units and Superphenix, over a 25-year period. To this end, EDF has established a specific unit dedicated to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, waste management and environment protection: the Engineering Center for Decommissioning and Environment (CIDEN, Lyon). The Creys-Malville site is part of the CIDEN organization. The aim of the Creys-Malville decommissioning project is to achieve the complete dismantling of the plant by 2026. The regulatory frame is now fully set (statutory decrees of March 2006) and allows the dismantling of the reactor and all decommissioning-related operations until the end. (author)

  6. Creys-Malville (Superphenix) decommissioning program and sodium treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settimo, D. [EDF - Centre d' Ingenerie Deconstruction Environnement (CIDEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Creys-Malville or Superphenix NPP is a 3000 MWth sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor, with four secondary sodium loops and 2 x 620 MWe turbogenerators. Superphenix is a pool-type reactor, with 3,300 tons of primary sodium and 2,500 tons of secondary and auxiliary sodium. The Fast Reactor design requires the use of a non-moderator coolant, which explains why water is de facto eliminated. Most of the Fast Reactor designs worldwide, and that includes Superphenix, use sodium as coolant, based on the following criteria: - non moderator, - small neutron capture cross section, - high power density removal capacity, - easy pumping, - large operating range in the liquid state without pressurization, - good radiation behaviour, - limited piping corrosion, - limited noxiousness, - high industrial availability and low cost. Superphenix is the largest Fast Reactor in the world. It reached first criticality in September 1985 and first grid connection in January 1986. Following a French governmental decision to abandon the FBR technology, Superphenix was officially shutdown in February 1998. The decommissioning of Creys-Malville is part of the EDF industrial strategy, which aims at dismantling its 8 'first-generation' reactor units and Superphenix, over a 25-year period. To this end, EDF has established a specific unit dedicated to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, waste management and environment protection: the Engineering Center for Decommissioning and Environment (CIDEN, Lyon). The Creys-Malville site is part of the CIDEN organization. The aim of the Creys-Malville decommissioning project is to achieve the complete dismantling of the plant by 2026. The regulatory frame is now fully set (statutory decrees of March 2006) and allows the dismantling of the reactor and all decommissioning-related operations until the end. (author)

  7. Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fütterer, S; Andrusenko, I; Kolb, U; Hofmeister, W; Langguth, P

    2013-12-01

    Drug products containing iron oxide and hydroxide nanoparticles (INPs) are important for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Pharmaceuticals prepared by the complexation of different kinds of INPs and carbohydrates have different physicochemical and biopharmaceutic characteristics. The increasing number of parenteral non-biological complex drugs (NBCD) containing iron requires physicochemical methods for characterization and enabling of cross comparisons. In this context the structure and the level of crystallinity of the iron phases may be connected to the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates, which etiologically determine the therapeutic and toxic effects. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and electron diffraction (ED) methods were used in order to investigate the nine different parenteral iron formulations Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)), sodium ferric gluconate sucrose (Ferrlecit(®)), iron sucrose (Venofer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (Infed(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Ironate(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Dexferrum(®)), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®)) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(®)). The iron phase in CosmoFer(®), Ferinject(®), Monofer(®), Infed(®), Ironate(®) and Dexferrum(®) was identified as Akaganéite/Akaganéite-like (?-FeOOH), with low amounts of chloride. By combining results of both methods the iron oxide in Feraheme(®) was identified as Magnetite (Fe3O4) with spinel-like structure. Ferrlecit(®) and Venofer(®) were difficult to analyze due to the low degree of crystallinity, but the iron phase seems to fit Lepidocrocite/Lepidocrocite-like (?-FeOOH) or an amorphous kind of structure. The structural information on the type of iron oxide or hydroxide together with the particle size allows predicting the stability of the different complexes including their labile iron content. The combination of ED and XRPD methods is a very helpful approach especially for structural analysis of nanoscopic or low crystalline materials. PMID:23998966

  8. Biological and genetic effects of combined treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and EMS in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of diploid barley were subjected to mutagenic treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and EMS alone or in combination. Damage (reduction in seedling height, plant height and fertility), the frequency of chimeras in the M1 generation, and the frequency of chlorophyll-deficient mutations as well as morphological mutations in the M2 generation induced by combined treatments were greater than those by either of the single treatments. Synergistic increase in the frequency of chimeras, chlorphyll-deficient mutations and morphological mutations were observed in both sodium azide post-irradiation treatments and pre-EMS treatments; interaction among the mutagens in the treatment combinations on M1 damage was generally subtractive. An 8- to 16-hr soaking period of irradiated seeds in distilled water prior to sodium azide treatment significantly increased chlorophyll mutation frequency, as compared to that from the non-soaking treatment. Damage and frequency of chimeras, chlorophyll mutations and morphological mutations were consistently reduced by the soaking treatment in sodium azide plus EMS treatments. (author)

  9. Sodium Hyaluronate Injections Compared to Local Modalities for the Treatment of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    İlker ŞENGÜL; Bengi ÖZ; Özlem YOLERİ; Neşe ÖLMEZ; Asuman MEMİŞ; Uluç, Engin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the efficacies of sodium hyaluronate injections and local modalities in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.Materials and Methods: Patients (n=50) were treated with subacromial injections of sodium hyaluronate (n=25) once weekly for 3 weeks or a daily program of local modalities (n=25) for 2 weeks. Response to treatment was evaluated with the items of function in the Society of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Basic Shoulder Evaluation Form and ...

  10. The Use of Sodium Sulfacetamide 10%-Sulfur 5% Emollient Foam in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder encountered in ambulatory clinical practice comprising 11.3 percent of office visits to dermatologists in 2005.1 By comparison, eczematous dermatoses, psoriasis, and skin cancer accounted for 6.2, 3.5, and 10 percent of office visits, respectively.1 A variety of topical therapeutic options are available for treatment of acne vulgaris, including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur.2,3 Sodium sulfaceta...

  11. Treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with sodium diclofenac: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bloise

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the use of sodium diclofenac, an antagonist of PPAR-gamma and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor in the treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with clinical activity score (CAS 2 to 7 were treated during a period ranging from 3 to 12 months (mean 7.8 ± 3.4 with oral sodium diclofenac, 50 mg every 12 hours. RESULTS: Extra-ocular muscle restriction and CAS improved significantly, p = 0.003 and = 0.004, respectively. Ocular pain and diplopia disappeared, except for one patient who reported improvement of these symptoms. No recurrence was found after interruption of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with oral sodium diclofenac is a good, safe and less expensive therapeutic option. Like others new treatment trials, findings must be confirmed in a greater number of patients in a controlled study.

  12. Oxidative treatment of fentanyl compounds in water by sodium bromate combined with sodium sulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Ren, Lijun; Wang, Zhihua; Tian, Xingtao; Qi, Lihong; Fan, Qiping; Xiang, Yulian

    2015-01-01

    As narcotic analgesics, fentanyl compounds have been commonly produced and widely used during surgical procedures. The residual and waste of fentanyl compounds have potential harmful impacts on the environment and human health. The oxidative degradation of fentanyl compounds by sodium bromate mixed systems was studied. Factors influencing the oxidation reaction, including molar ratio of NaBrO3/H(+)/SO3(2-), molar ratio of NaBrO3/fentanyl and pH, were investigated. Fentanyl, carfentanil and 3-methylfentanyl were able to be completely degraded in 30 minutes by a NaBrO3 mixed system under optimum conditions, the molar ratio of NaBrO3/H(+)/SO3(2-) equal to 20:3:10, the molar ratio of NaBrO3:fentanyl compounds 50:1 and pH = 4. Sufentanil was only able to be degraded by 74% under the same conditions. The degradation products of the fentanyl compounds detected and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry suggested several possible degradation pathways. PMID:26114269

  13. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Zeinaly; Jalal Shakhes; Mohammadreza Dehghani Firozabadi; Alireza Shakeri

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF) wer...

  14. Contaminated sodium disposal Noah process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final shutdown of the FBRs and the contaminated sodium loop dismantling bring a large problem which is the radioactivated sodium becoming. The corresponding quantity can reach several thousands of tonnes for the commercial units. The characteristics of the sodium to be disposed can be very different depending on its origin. We can distinguish two main sources: - the primary and secondary circuits in case of fast breeder reactor final shutdown or some test loops. The quantities can be very large (several hundreds or thousands of tonnes) but the sodium is chemically clean, i.e. with a low concentration of oxides and particles. - some tests facilities or dismantling operations which supply smaller quantities of sodium but it is usually chemically dirty with a high concentration of oxides and particles. NOAH process has been developed by CEA/DRN to dispose sodium coming from the first origin. To be able to dispose large quantities of sodium, continuous operating has been chosen and, to be able to treat easily the resulting product, they have selected the aqueous caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) which can be sent in all contaminated effluent treatment units. The safety, the functional simplicity and the compactness have been also integrated in the technical choices. (authors). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 1 ref

  15. Process optimization of positive novolac resists for electron-beam lithography resist characterization using single or multiple development steps with either a sodium-hydroxide or metal ion-free dev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert L.; Flores, Gary E.

    1993-09-01

    OCG895i and Tokyo Ohka OEBR2000 (both commercially available) and two experimental resists were evaluated by experimental design. The design factors investigated included developer normality, softbake temperature, and develop time with a sodium hydroxide-based developer. The design responses included optimum dose, remaining film thickness, and dose latitude (change in critical dimension per unit dose). The best results were given by AZ141C, an experimental resist from Hoechst. At 90 degree(s)C prebaking temperature, AZ141C could be imaged at 4.0 (mu) C/cm2 with good film thickness retention and dose latitude. A second set of optimization experiments was done evaluating metal ion-free developer. Finally, multiple develop processing was evaluated for improving process latitude and film thickness loss and for minimizing the dose required. A two-step process shows promise: it consists of a high initial normality develop for a short time to accomplish breakthrough of the resist surface inhibition layer, followed by a second low normality develop. Another sequence of statistically designed experiments performed to optimize this scheme and results of the optimizations are presented.

  16. Effect of Plasma Treatment and Cross-Linking on the Over Voltage Positive Temperature Coefficient of High Density Polyethylene/carbon Black/magnesium Hydroxide Nano Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. Y.; Tsai, C. S.

    2008-08-01

    The Argon (Ar) plasma pretreated high-density polyethylene (PHDPE) was blended with the nano-degree conductive carbon black (CB) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) to formed the over-voltage positive temperature coefficient (PTC) composite. Effect of the CB content, plasma treatment time, power of plasma, initiator (dicumyl peroxide, DCP), and dosage of 60Co Y-ray irradiation on PTC behaviors of composites were studied. The results showed that the CB dispersion could be increased with increasing the amount free radicals of PHDPE and then not only the room-temperature volume resistivity of composite decreased, but also the PTC intensity of composite increased. The best plasma treatment condition was 20W, 1min. As the initiator was added into PHDPE composites and passed the 60Co Y-ray radiation, the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect of composites was eliminated, the PTC intensity of composite markedly increased and composite passes over-voltage resistance test.

  17. Sulfanegen Sodium Treatment in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transfe...

  18. Mineral uptake and biochemical changes in Helianthus annuus under treatment with different sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, P; Jaleel, C Abdul; Sankar, B; Kishorekumar, A; Murali, P V; Somasundaram, R; Panneerselvam, R

    2008-03-15

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of different sodium salts viz., sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium sulphate (Na(2)SO(4)) and sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3)) on growth, dry matter production, mineral contents, biochemical constituent and enzyme activities of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The germinating sunflower seeds were treated with 10, 20 and 50mM NaCl and Na(2)SO(4) and 5, 10 and 15 mM Na(2)CO(3). The seedling growth, minerals, chlorophyll content and biochemicals like protein and free amino acid contents with enzyme activities like ATPase and protease were analysed on 8 DAS. The seedlings were separated into root, stem, leaf and cotyledon on 8 DAS. All the treatments decreased the germination percentage; shoot length, root length, leaf area and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein contents significantly. Potassium, sodium and free amino acid contents; activities of ATPase and protease were increased when compared to control. This effect was very high in the Na(2)CO(3) treated seedlings this was followed by Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treated seedlings. From the results of this investigation, it is clear that, the sunflower seedlings were affected significantly in the Na(2)CO(3) treatments, and followed by Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatments. PMID:17983733

  19. Anti-Obesity Sodium Tungstate Treatment Triggers Axonal and Glial Plasticity in Hypothalamic Feeding Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó-Correig, Marta; Barceló-Batllori, Sílvia; Soria, Guadalupe; Krezymon, Alice; Benani, Alexandre; Pénicaud, Luc; Tudela, Raúl; Planas, Anna Maria; Fernández, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims at exploring the effects of sodium tungstate treatment on hypothalamic plasticity, which is known to have an important role in the control of energy metabolism. Methods Adult lean and high-fat diet-induced obese mice were orally treated with sodium tungstate. Arcuate and paraventricular nuclei and lateral hypothalamus were separated and subjected to proteomic analysis by DIGE and mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging were also performed. Results Sodium tungstate treatment reduced body weight gain, food intake, and blood glucose and triglyceride levels. These effects were associated with transcriptional and functional changes in the hypothalamus. Proteomic analysis revealed that sodium tungstate modified the expression levels of proteins involved in cell morphology, axonal growth, and tissue remodeling, such as actin, CRMP2 and neurofilaments, and of proteins related to energy metabolism. Moreover, immunohistochemistry studies confirmed results for some targets and further revealed tungstate-dependent regulation of SNAP25 and HPC-1 proteins, suggesting an effect on synaptogenesis as well. Functional test for cell activity based on c-fos-positive cell counting also suggested that sodium tungstate modified hypothalamic basal activity. Finally, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed that tungstate treatment can affect neuronal organization in the hypothalamus. Conclusions Altogether, these results suggest that sodium tungstate regulates proteins involved in axonal and glial plasticity. The fact that sodium tungstate could modulate hypothalamic plasticity and networks in adulthood makes it a possible and interesting therapeutic strategy not only for obesity management, but also for other neurodegenerative illnesses like Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22802935

  20. Treatment with 89SrCl and Sodium Ibandronate for pain relief of multiple bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the palliative effect on pain relief in patients with multiple bone metastases treated with 89SrCl2 together with Sodium Ibandronate,Sodium Ibandronate alone and 89SrCl2 alone. Methods: Eighty-four patients with bone pain secondary to bone metastases were divided into three groups. Thirty patients were treated with combined 89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate, 26 with 89SrCl2 alone and 28 with Sodium Ibandronate alone. The ?2 test was used in data analysis. Results: The overall palliative pain relief rate in the combined treatment group was 96.6 % (29/30). For the groups using Sodium Ibandronate or 89SrCl2 only, the palliative rates were 71.4% (20/28) and 73.1% (19/26), respectively. There are statistically significant differences between the combined treatment group and the other 2 groups with single treatment modalities in the overall palliative pain relief rate (?2=7.497), in terms of improvement in (1) whole body Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score (80.0% (24/30) vs 50.0% (14/28)/53.8% (14/26), ?2 =35.476) and (2) focal palliative rate (47.6% (50/105) vs 11.2% (11/98)/22.2% (20/90), ?2 =6. 564, all P89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate is more effective than single treatment modalities to relieve bone pain secondary to multiple bone metastases. (authors)

  1. The renal handling of sodium and water is not affected by the standard-dose cisplatin treatment for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Frederiksen, P L; Svendsen, U G; Munck, O; Leyssac, P P

    1987-01-01

    all other parameters of glomerular filtration and renal sodium handling remained normal throughout the study (with the exception of a fall in fractional sodium excretion after the first treatment series). Plasma magnesium declined during all four treatment periods, signifying renal magnesium wasting.......Renal clearances of 51Cr-EDTA, lithium, sodium and potassium were measured before and after each of four consecutive treatment series with cisplatin in 15 men with testicular cancer. Since lithium is reabsorbed like sodium and water in the proximal tubules, but not reabsorbed to any measurable...

  2. Calcitonin, sodium alendronate and high intensity laser in the treatment of traumatized teeth: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Lage-Marques, José Luiz; Marotti, Juliana; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Apel, Christian; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser compared with traditional treatment on dentin permeability to calcitonin and sodium alendronate. Forty bovine roots were sectioned and divided into eight groups. Groups 1 and 2 (G1/G2) were immersed in saline solution; G1T/G2T were immersed in ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid plus sodium lauryl ether sulfate (EDTA-T) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G1I/G2I were irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94 microm, 6 Hz, 40.4 J/cm(2)); G1TI/G2TI were immersed in EDTA-T, NaOCl and subjected to Er:YAG irradiation. After 4 h the radioactivity of the saline solution was measured. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (P < 0.05) when the groups treated with EDTA-T and NaOCl followed by Er:YAG laser irradiation were compared with the groups treated with EDTA-T only and with the groups that received no treatment. Er:YAG laser associated with traditional procedures significantly increased the diffusion of calcitonin and sodium alendronate through dentin. All groups showed calcitonin and sodium alendronate diffusion. PMID:19011951

  3. Comparison of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Elinore

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with confirmed kala-azar were treated in a mission hospital in West Pokot region, Kenya, with sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days - either as Pentostam® (PSM or generic sodium stibogluconate (SSG; 51 patients were allocated alternately to each treatment group. FINDINGS: There were no significant differences in baseline demographic characteristics or disease severity, or in events during treatment. There were 3 deaths in the PSM group and 1 in the SSG group; 2 patients defaulted in each group. Only 1 out of 80 test-of-cure splenic aspirates was positive for Leishmania spp.; this patient was in the SSG group. Follow-up after > 6 months showed that 6 out of 58 patients had relapsed, 5 in the SSG group and 1 in the PSM group. No outcome variable was significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The availability of cheaper generic sodium stibogluconate, subject to rigid quality controls, now makes it possible for the health authorities in kala-azar endemic areas to provide treatment to many more patients in Africa.

  4. Pegaptanib sodium treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: clinical experience in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Feucht

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaus Feucht, Huebner Matthias, Chris P Lohmann, Mathias MaierAugenklinik rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, GermanyBackground: The VEGF Inhibition Study In Ocular Neovascularisation (VISION reported the efficacy of intravitreal (ITV vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibition with pegaptanib sodium (Macugen® for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. This paper reports clinical experience with pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of occult or minimally classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to AMD.Material and methods: The study included 50 eyes (in 49 patients with either occult CNV or minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD who were not eligible for photodynamic therapy (PDT. Study data were analyzed retrospectively. During the 6-month study, patients were administered an average 2.74 injections of 0.3 mg ITV pegaptanib sodium. Angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT examinations were carried out and intraocular pressure (IOP and visual acuity (VA were measured at baseline, at 3 months and at 6 months. An eye examination was performed and VA was measured the 2 days following treatment and then again at weeks 4–6, and at 3 and 6 months. OCT, VA, and IOP were also assessed at 1 month.Results: ITV pegaptanib sodium was well tolerated and no treatment complications arose. Mean VA was measured as: 0.37 ± 0.24 at baseline; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 1 month; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 3 months and 0.40 ± 0.26 at 6 months. VA was stabilized in approximately 90% of eyes treated with pegaptanib sodium. OCT examination showed a minimal change in central retinal thickness (CRT during the course of the study, from 251.19 µm at baseline to 251.63 µm at 6 months. No elevation in IOP was measured during treatment at 4–6 months in patients receiving pegaptanib sodium.Conclusions: ITV therapy with pegaptanib sodium for occult and minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD offered good efficacy with a favorable adverse events profile. The majority of patients showed stabilization in all assessed parameters. In clinical practice, careful consideration should be given to the use of nonselective VEGF inhibition in patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile or in those with a history of thromboembolic events.Keywords: Intravitreal (ITV injection, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, choroidal neovascularization (CNV, anti-VEGF therapy, pegaptanib sodium

  5. Epoprostenol sodium for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yukihiro Saito,1 Kazufumi Nakamura,1 Satoshi Akagi,1 Toshihiro Sarashina,1 Kentaro Ejiri,1 Aya Miura,1 Aiko Ogawa,2 Hiromi Matsubara,2 Hiroshi Ito1 1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan; 2Division of Cardiology, National Hospital Organization Okayama Medical Center, Okayama, Japan Abstract: The release of endogenous prostacyclin (PGI2 is depressed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. PGI2 replacement therapy by epoprostenol infusion is one of the best treatments available for PAH. Here, we provide an overview of the current clinical data for epoprostenol. Epoprostenol treatment improves symptoms, exercise capacity, and hemodynamics, and is the only treatment that has been shown to reduce mortality in patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH in randomized clinical trials. We have reported that high-dose epoprostenol therapy (>40 ng/kg/min also results in marked hemodynamic improvement in some patients with IPAH. High-dose epoprostenol has a pro-apoptotic effect on PAH-PASMCs via the IP receptor and upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL in vitro. However, long-term intravenous administration of epoprostenol is sometimes associated with catheter-related infections and leads to considerable inconvenience for the patient. In the future, the development of new routes of administration or the development of powerful PGI2 analogs, IP-receptor agonists, and gene and cell-based therapy enhancing PGI2 production with new routes of administration is required. Keywords: pulmonary arterial hypertension, prostacyclin, apoptosis

  6. Composição química e perdas fermentativas de silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio Chemical composition and fermentative losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química e as perdas fermentativas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio (NaOH. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar (CB 45-3 e RB 72-454 e quatro aditivos (controle, NaOH, ureia ou NaOH + ureia, compondo as seguintes silagens: cana-de-açúcar sem aditivo; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 4% de ureia; cana-de-açúcar tratada 4% de NaOH; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2% de ureia + 2% de NaOH. Os procedimentos foram realizados em ambas as variedades e as doses aplicadas com base na matéria seca. A cana-de-açúcar foi picada e misturada, acescida dos aditivos e armazenada em silos de PVC com 50 cm de altura por 10 cm de diâmetro, providos de válvula de Bunsen. Adotou-se uma compactação de 750 kg de matéria natural/m³. Os silos foram pesados no início e ao final do período experimental para quantificar as perdas por gases e efluente. Não foi observado efeito de interação entre variedades de cana-de-açúcar e doses para perdas por efluente, pH, celulose, lignina e cinza. O hidróxido de sódio contribui para redução de perdas,manutenção do grau brixa e elevação do pH da silagem da cana-de-açúcar, independentemente da utilização da ureia, além de promover redução dos constituintes da parede celular, ocasionando melhoria na qualidade da silagem de cana-de-açúcar.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide (NaOH. It was used a completely randomized design with four replicates, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two varieties of cane sugar (CB 45-3, RB 72-454 and four additives (Control, NaOH, urea or NaOH + urea, composing the following silages: sugar cane without additive; sugar cane treated with 4% urea; sugar cane treated with 4% NaOH; sugar cane treated with 2% urea + 2% NaOH. The procedures were performed in both varieties and the doses applied in the dry matter basis. The sugar cane was chopped and then mixed, added with additives and stored in PVC silos with 50 cm of height by 10 cm of diameter, provided with Bunsem valve. It was adopted a compression of 750 kg of natural matter/m³. The silos were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the trial period to quantify the losses by gases and effluent. There was no interaction effect among varieties of sugar cane and doses for effluent losses, pH, cellulose, lignin and ash. Sodium hydroxide contributes for the reduction of losses, maintenance of Brix and pH raising of the silage of sugar cane, regardless to the use of urea, in addition to promote reduction of the constituents of the cell wall causing improvement on the quality of silage from sugar cane.

  7. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  8. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Mandryk; Alexander Rapoport; Emily Kolomiets; Linda Rozenfelde; Galina Khroustalyova

    2012-01-01

    The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl) treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings co...

  9. Synthesis of high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries by morphology-tailored hydroxide co-precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Belharouak, Ilias; Ortega, Luis H.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Dehua; Zhou, Guangwen; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Nickel manganese hydroxide co-precipitation inside a continuous stirred tank reactor was studied with sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as the precipitation agents. The ammonium hydroxide concentration had an effect on the primary and secondary particle evolution. The two-step precipitation mechanism proposed earlier was experimentally confirmed. In cell tests, Li- and Mn-rich composite cathode materials based on the hydroxide precursors demonstrated good electrochemical performance in terms of cycle life over a wide range of lithium content.

  10. Sodium Hyaluronate Injections Compared to Local Modalities for the Treatment of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ä°lker ÅžENGÃœL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine and compare the efficacies of sodium hyaluronate injections and local modalities in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.Materials and Methods: Patients (n=50 were treated with subacromial injections of sodium hyaluronate (n=25 once weekly for 3 weeks or a daily program of local modalities (n=25 for 2 weeks. Response to treatment was evaluated with the items of function in the Society of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Basic Shoulder Evaluation Form and pain, activities of daily living and ranges of motion in the Constant-Murley Scale. Patients were questioned about night pain and their global impressions of the treatment. All outcome measures were assessed at baseline and weeks 1 and 5 after treatment.Results: Society of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Basic Shoulder Evaluation Form and Constant-Murley Scale scores of both groups were significantly improved at week 1 and 5 compared to baseline (p0.05. Night pain was reduced effectively by both treatments, with no significant difference between the groups. The majority of patients reported that they benefited from the treatment and results were similar in both groups. No side effects were observed. Conclusion: Sodium hyaluronate injections and local modalities have been found to be similarly effective. Either one of these methods may be included in a treatment program for patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:138-42.

  11. Treatment of water contaminated with radiocesium using novel complexes between Prussian-blue and bivalent transition metal hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of technologies are applied to the decontamination of radiocesium from water using inorganic adsorbents such as zeolites, Prussian blue (PB) and its analogues. However, these adsorbents are difficult to apply. Although zeolites work as good adsorbents for cesium (Cs) in freshwater, their adsorption ability is extremely low in seawater and fly ash extracts with a high salt concentration. In contrast, PB and its analogues maintain their selective adsorption ability for Cs even in water containing salts, but a high level of cyan remains in the treated water. In this study, we introduce a new technology that utilizes complexes between PB and hydroxides of transition metals (PB-X) for the decontamination of Cs from water and report results of demonstration tests on simulated seawater and fly ash extract. Furthermore, the excellent results of the PB-X method applied to the extracts from fly ash contaminated with radiocesium (more than 8000 Bq/kg) are also shown. It has been proved that radiocesium activities are not only below the detection limit (<10 Bq/kg) and the content of cyan can be controlled under the regulation value of tap water in the water treated with PB-X. (author)

  12. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 C, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process

  13. A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfandyar Khan Niazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

  14. A new route to mass production of metal hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanofibers were self-assembled by hydration of highly activated aluminum powder using no surfactants or templates. The activation was performed by milling aluminum powder with sodium chloride as nano-miller. Transmission electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that this method leads to smaller size of aluminum particles (less than 50 nm) and increases the lattice strain. These factors provide conditions under which hydration procedure proceeds until it reaches the core of aluminum particles. The synthesized powder consists of nanofibers with thickness less then 10 nm and average length of 120 nm and specific surface area of 309 m2 g-1. The process is convenient, highly efficient and capable to be implemented in mass production. It may be extended to produce hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanopowders of other metals, as well.

  15. A new route to mass production of metal hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinejad, Babak, E-mail: alinezhad_b@merc.ac.ir [Thermoelectric Lab, Department of Semiconductors, Material and Energy Research Center (MERC), P.O. Box 14155-4777, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi, Korosh; Ahmadi, Kamran [Thermoelectric Lab, Department of Semiconductors, Material and Energy Research Center (MERC), P.O. Box 14155-4777, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Aluminum hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanofibers were self-assembled by hydration of highly activated aluminum powder using no surfactants or templates. The activation was performed by milling aluminum powder with sodium chloride as nano-miller. Transmission electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that this method leads to smaller size of aluminum particles (less than 50 nm) and increases the lattice strain. These factors provide conditions under which hydration procedure proceeds until it reaches the core of aluminum particles. The synthesized powder consists of nanofibers with thickness less then 10 nm and average length of 120 nm and specific surface area of 309 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The process is convenient, highly efficient and capable to be implemented in mass production. It may be extended to produce hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanopowders of other metals, as well.

  16. Oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Linqiang; Gao, Bingying; Deng, Ning; Liu, Lu; Cui, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during the thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2) was investigated. The amounts of Cr(III) oxidized at various temperatures and heating times were determined, and the Cr-containing species in the residues were characterized. During the transformation of chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3 at 300 °C approximately 5% of the Cr(III) was oxidized to form intermediate compounds containing Cr(VI) (i.e., CrO3), but these intermediates were reduced to Cr2O3 when the temperature was above 400 °C. Alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly promoted the oxidation of Cr(III) during the thermal drying process. Two pathways were involved in the influences the alkali and alkaline earth metals had on the formation of Cr(VI). In pathway I, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to act as electron transfer agents and to interfere with the dehydration process, causing more intermediate Cr(VI)-containing compounds (which were identified as being CrO3 and Cr5O12) to be formed. The reduction of intermediate compounds to Cr2O3 was also found to be hindered in pathway I. In pathway II, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to contribute to the oxidation of Cr(III) to form chromates. The results showed that the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly increases the degree to which Cr(III) is oxidized during the thermal drying of chromium-containing sludge. PMID:26650573

  17. Chronic Temporomandibular Pain Treatment Using Sodium Diclofenac / Tratamiento crónico del dolor temporomandibular con diclofenaco sódico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Kurita Varoli; Sandra, Sato; Murillo, Sucena Pita; Cássio, do Nascimento; Vinícius, Pedrazzi.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evaluó el dolor espontáneo antes y después de la administración de diclofenaco sódico, aislado o asociado a carisoprodol, paracetamol y cafeína, en pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares crónicos (TTM). Se seleccionaron dieciocho voluntarios, hombres y mujeres, entre 35-70 años de [...] edad (edad media 50 años). Los criterios de inclusión fueron dolor muscular masticatorio, y los criterios diagnósticos para trastornos temporomandibulares (RDC / TMD) como diagnóstico. La selección del tratamiento para cada individuo se llevó a cabo mediante una metodología de cruce triple ciego completo al azar. Por lo tanto, todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a todos los tratamientos en diferentes momentos, en una secuencia no estandarizada, evitando los resultados tendenciosos. Los tratamientos fueron: A (diclofenaco sódico + carisoprodol + acetaminofen + cafeína), B (diclofenaco sódico) y C (placebo), todos asociados a una férula oclusal. Cada período de tratamiento fue seguido por once días. No se encontraron diferencias entre los valores inicial y final de los tratamientos. Sin embargo, hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los grupos de evaluación sensorial y después del tratamiento B, y en los grupos de calificación sensorial, afectivo, y el total después de los tratamientos B y C. Dentro de las limitaciones de esta investigación, se concluye que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico aislado en pacientes con TTM musculares promueve una mayor analgesia que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico más asociaciones o placebo, cuando se asocia a una férula oclusal. Abstract in english This study evaluate spontaneous pain after and before administration of sodium diclofenac, isolated or associated to carisoprodol, acetaminophen and caffeine, in chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. Were selected eighteen volunteers, both men and women, between 35-70 years of age (mea [...] n age 50 years). The inclusion criteria was masticatory muscle pain, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was used on the diagnose. The selection of treatment for each individual was done by a triple-blind full-randomized crossover methodology. Thus, all patients were submitted to all treatment at different moments, in a non standardized sequence, avoiding tendentious results. The treatments were: A (sodium diclofenac + carisoprodol + acetaminophen + caffeine), B (sodium diclofenac) and C (placebo), all associated with an occlusal splint. Each treatment period was followed by an eleven-day washout. There weren't observed differences between initial and final values of treatments. However, there were statistically significant differences in evaluative and miscellaneous sensorial groups after B treatment; and in sensorial, affective, and total score groups after B and C treatments. Within the limitations of this investigation, we conclude that treatment of muscular TMD patients with sodium diclofenac isolated promoted higher analgesia than treatment with sodium diclofenac more associations or placebo, when associated to an occlusal splint.

  18. Determination of the biodistribution and biokinetics of radiopharmaca like 166Ho-ferric-hydroxide or 153Sm-EDTMP used for therapeutic treatment by energy dispersive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity distribution of beta-emitting radionuclides in the human body and the respective therapeutic dose distribution in the target and the unwanted leakage in the other organs was determined by measurement of corresponding gamma-lines. The measurement was done by scanning in a whole-body counter in the General Hospital Vienna. It is possible to localize activity and dose distribution by means of the detected activity profiles of the four detectors. Two typical treatments are reported: the treatment of synovitis using radiation of 166Ho-Ferric-Hydroxide (characteristic gamma-line: 81 keV) and radionuclide therapy focused at the palliative treatment of bone metastases with 153Sm-EDTMP, a bone seeking beta-emitting radionuclide (characteristic gamma-line: 103 keV). For the determination of the applied dose, the leakage and the quality assurance spectroscopic data of a clinical whole-body counter can be a useful tool for controlling and monitoring in health care. (authors)

  19. RUMINAL DEGRADATION KINETIC PARAMETERS OF COFFEE HULLS (Coffea arabica, L. TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NAOH PARÂMETROS CINÉTICOS DA DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica, L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO (NAOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fernandes de Sousa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate dry matter ruminal degradation kinetics of coffee hulls treated with increasing sodium hydroxide quantities. Two rumen fistulated cows were used to incubate samples in nylon bags for 12. 24, 36. 48 and 72 hours. Four ruminal incubation periods were used, in a complete randomized block design. Coffee hulls were treated with 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% of sodium hydroxide (dry matter basis, corresponding to treatments T1 to t4 respectively. Experimental results were compared using Tukey test, at 5% probability level, as follows for treatments 1 to 4 respectively: soluble fraction (9.35d; 17.65c; 31.93b; 32.28a, de (34.40d; 40.50c; 43.28b; 50.35a, potential degradability (44.33d; 50.33c; 52.35b; 57.70a and lag time in hours (4.03a; 3.93a; 4.33a; 2.55a. The results indicate that increasing the levels of NaOH in the coffee hulls treatments increased significantly their ruminal solubility, as well as their effective and potential degradabilities. However that increase had no effect upon coffee hulls lag time in the rumen.KEY WORDS: by-product feedstuffs, rumen degradability, ruminant.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de determinar a cinética de degradação ruminal da matéria seca da casca de café, tratada com diferentes quantidades de hidróxido de sódio. Utilizaram-se duas vacas fistuladas no rúmen, incubando-se as amostras em sacolas de náilon por 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas, por quatro rodadas seqüenciais, sendo que cada uma destas representou um bloco, dentro de um delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados. Tratou-se a casca de café com 0%, 3%, 6% e 9 % de hidróxido de sódio (base seca constituindo assim os tratamentos t1  a t4. os resultados médios encontrados foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, como se segue para os tratamentos de 1 a 4, respectivamente: fração solúvel (9,35d; 17,65c; 31,93b; 32,28a, de (34,40d; 40,50c; 43,28b; 50,35a, degradabilidade potencial (44,33d; 50,33c; 52,35b; 57,70a e tempo de colonização em horas (4,03a; 3,93a; 4,33a; 2,55a. Os resultados indicam que o aumento dos níveis percentuais de NaOH utilizados nos tratamentos eleva a solubilidade ruminal, a degradabilidade potencial e efetiva da casca de café, não influenciando significativamente o tempo de colonização
    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: degradabilidade ruminal, resíduos agrícolas, ruminante

  20. Intramuscular diclofenac sodium versus intravenous Baralgin in the treatment of renal colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanahuja, J; Corbera, G; Garau, J; Plá, R; Carmen Carré, M

    1990-04-01

    A comparative, randomized, double-blind study of diclofenac sodium 75 mg im versus Baralgin (a combination drug composed of dipyrone and two spasmolytics) 5 mL iv was performed on 57 patients with renal colic. Both groups were comparable as to age, sex, pain evolution time before treatment, and no treatment for renal colic in the six hours preceding trial drug administration. No significant differences were found between the two groups with respect to the evolution of pain after the first dose or in the frequency of administration of a second dose. Tolerability was good in both groups, but sweating and pain throughout the vein were observed in one patient in the Baralgin group. We concluded that diclofenac sodium constitutes an excellent alternative to pyrazolone analgesics, with the advantages of being monotherapy and having good tolerability, when used as intramuscular injection in ambulatory patients. PMID:2183488

  1. Comparison between the beneficial impact of polymer treatment and sodium-activation on calcium bentonites

    OpenAIRE

    Di Emidio, Gemmina; De Camillis, Michela; Verastegui Flores, RD; Bezuijen, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of Geosynthetic Clay Liners for the confinement of waste disposal facilities mainly depends on the hydraulic conductivity of the core bentonite clay encased between the two geotextiles. Bentonite clay is the most common material for Geosynthetic Clay Liners. Even though sodium bentonite has the lowest hydraulic conductivity to water, calcium bentonite is widely used because of low cost and availability. This research concerns the evaluation of the treatment of calci...

  2. Another Base, Another Solvent? Desalinating Iron Finds with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Friederike Kuhn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The desalination processes commonly applied to improve the corrosion stability of archaeological iron artifacts are based on immersion treatments in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Faster and more efficient chloride extraction in solutions based on organic solvents with a lower surface tension can be expected. Furthermore, the danger of new corrosion forming during the subsequent washing out of residual chemicals from the desalinating solution could be minimised, if organic solvents would replace the water, commonly used for this process. Only alkali metal hydroxide (LiOH and NaOH solutions in organic solvents have been tested so far. Their comparatively low chloride extraction efficiency was ascribed to the low solubility of the alkali metal hydroxides and the corresponding chlorides in the solvents used. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH is readily soluble in alcohols and has been tested in aqueous and/or methanolic solutions as an alternative. Neither improved overall chloride extraction efficiency, nor a higher chloride extraction rate could be observed using methanolic solutions. However, aqueous TMAH showed a trend towards higher overall chloride extraction efficiency than the common alkaline treatments. These results could be explained by the different solubility of corrosion products, in particular akaganéite, ?-FeO(OH, in the tested solutions.

  3. Comparison of efficacy between sodium morrhuate and lauromacrogol as sclerosing agents in treatment of hepatic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Zuyun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the efficacy of sodium morrhuate versus lauromacrogol in the treatment of hepatic cyst. MethodsSeventy-four patients with hepatic cyst who were admitted to our hospital from January 2009 to May 2013 were enrolled as subjects and divided into two groups. After the cystic fluid was drained by percutaneous liver biopsy, sodium morrhuate solution was injected into the cystic cavity for adhesion and sclerosis in 46 patients in group A, and lauromacrogol solution was injected in 28 patients in group B. The incidence rates of pain in patients during and after surgery were compared between the two groups. The follow-up comparison of hepatic cyst recurrence rates within one year after surgery was performed between the two groups. Between-group comparison was performed by ?2 test. ResultsFive patients (10.87% in group A and two patients (7.14% in group B had recurrence within one year after treatment. There was no significant difference in recurrence rate between the two groups (?2=0.283, P?0.05. The incidence of pain in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (?2=5.258, P?0.05. ConclusionWith the same efficacy as sodium morrhuate in the treatment of hepatic cyst, lauromacrogol can be routinely used as a sclerosing agent due to its mild side effects.

  4. Inhibition of atmospheric corrosion of mild steel by sodium benzoate treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Ramazan

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sodium benzoate as an inhibitor to slow down or prevent atmospheric corrosion/discoloration of the local mild steel during storage in the Arabian Gulf region. Test specimens were prepared from locally produced reinforcing steel products. The inhibitor solution was applied on steel specimens at a concentration of 100 mM for 1 day at room temperature. Wooden exposure racks were used to hold as-received and inhibitor-treated specimens during atmospheric exposure for different periods. Corrosion was evaluated through weight loss determination and electrochemical technique. As expected, the Arabian Gulf atmosphere was corrosive on the as-received local mild steel. On the other hand, treatment of steel with sodium benzoate lowered its corrosion rate during initial days of its exposure to atmosphere. However, atmospheric corrosion inhibition performance of sodium benzoate deteriorated with exposure time after 30 or more days of atmospheric exposure, and the corrosion rates of sodium benzoate-treated specimens reached that of the unprotected specimens at the end of 90 days of atmospheric exposure.

  5. Comparison of Treatment Effect of Sodium Valprovate, Propranolol and Tricyclic Antidepressants in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasami K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy and treatment effect of sodium valprovate with propranolol and tricyclic antidepressive drugs. This piece is a rarandomized clinical trial conducted on 126 migraine patients admitted to brain and nerves clinic in Arak, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups then randomized to study treatments. Data were gathered using a checklist and a complete examination. They were analyzed by Chi square and exact test. In patients with normal and abnormal encephalogram the effectiveness rate of two treatments were 35, 61.9, 95.6 and 28.6%, respectively. This difference between two treatments was statistically significant (p<0.001. But didn't observe significant differences between two sex groups (p>0.05. For treatment and control of the migraine, in patients with normal encephalogram, propranolol with tricyclic antidepressive drugs advised and for abnormal encephalogram sodium valprovate can be the better treatment for management and reduction of headache attacks.

  6. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rozenfelde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

  7. Treatment of sodium spills and leakage detection at loop-type fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium spills are of great importance in the safety analysis for sodium cooled nuclear plants. Large leakages can lead to a depletion of the heat transfer system and cause the loss of cooling of the reactor. Further the hot sodium may attack structural materials. In areas with air atmosphere large amounts of sodium can burn and cause great damages. Therefore the control of large leakages is an indispensable task in design and construction of sodium cooled reactor systems. Because of the typical arrangement of widespread long pipe systems loop type plants are subject to a gradually greater risk of damage than pool type plants. The sodium catching devices of the SNR-300 are described and their function is illustrated as an example for the treatment of large spills. Since the equipment for the control of large amounts of leaking sodium is very expensive, great efforts are made in order to save costs and to decrease safety problems. It is aimed to minimize the probability of such events to a degree that they no longer are to be considered realistic. The advantageous operating conditions and the favourable material properties support this aim. Under the well known keyword 'leak-before-rupture' criterion this task is pursued. Crack growth measurements are made at structural materials under LMFBR conditions, and leakage detecting systems are being developed. Some test results concerning this task are described. Despite the fact that there are good chances to verify the leak-before-rupture criterion it is assumed that certain hypothetical accidents occur, which are to be considered in the design of the reactor plant. The extremely improbable Bethe-Tait-accident (HCDA) is such an event. It would lead to a super spill, that means to the complete depletion of the reactor tank. For the SNR-300 plant a system is provided that is able to catch this super spill and the core melt. This core catcher must withstand the high temperatures and remove the decay heat. The purpose of this system is to restrict the consequences of the accident to the inner containment and to guarantee the integrity and the function of the outer containment. It is reported on investigations concerning the design of the core catcher, especially on experiments which were performed to find suitable materials which are able to withstand the extreme operating conditions of the system

  8. Layered Double Hydroxides: Structure, Synthesis and Catalytic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the work studied here was to relate the structure of the conventional Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH), hydrotalcite and several transition metal doped hydrotalcites to their function once calcined into catalysts for use in the production of biodiesel. Attention was paid to the preparation of the LDHs. Three preparative methods were investigated, using sodium hydroxide and carbonate, using ammonia, and using urea as precipitating agents. The properties of the resultant LDHs...

  9. Sodium chloride as effective antifungal treatment for artificial egg incubation in Austropotamobius pallipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Policar T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sodium chloride at three different concentrations, 30 000 ppm (S30, 60?000 ppm (S60 and 90 000 ppm (S90, and formaldehyde at one concentration, 3000 ppm (F, were tested as antifungal chemicals during artificial incubation (AI of Austropotamobius pallipes eggs. Two treatments were tested without chemicals as control groups with (R and without (C the removal of dead eggs. After AI, formaldehyde treatment ensured high survival of stage 1 (89.7 ± 2.3% and stage 2 (85.5 ± 2.4% of juveniles. However, comparable survival rate to stage 1 and stage 2 (85.5 ± 5.5% and 80.6 ± 3.2% were also found in the treatment with the highest sodium chloride concentration (S90. Significantly lower survival rate of juveniles (stage 1: 60.6–70.3% and stage 2: 56.1–67.3% were evident in groups S60, S30 and R. However, group R demanded high labor and related costs. The lowest juvenile survival levels to stage 1 (46.4 ± 8.2% and stage 2 (45.2 ± 6.8% were observed in treatments without fungicide chemicals and removal of dead eggs (C.

  10. Recent Sodium Technology Development for the Decommissioning of the Rapsodie and Superphenix Reactors and the Management of Sodium Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has recently developed and/or conducted experiments on several processes in support of the decommissioning of two French liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), Rapsodie and Superphenix, as well as on the treatment of CEA sodium wastes. CEA has demonstrated that it is possible to define appropriate and efficient processes to meet the different situations encountered in decommissioning LMFRs. Mechanical techniques derived from standard technologies have been successfully applied to fast reactor decommissioning to complete primary vessel draining from sodium. In addition, specific chemical processes have been developed to deal safely with metallic sodium reactivity. Sodium-contaminated equipment has been successfully cleaned by reacting sodium with water mist in an atmosphere with carbon dioxide to form inert sodium carbonate. Bulk sodium has been successfully converted into aqueous caustic soda by injection of liquid-metallic sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. Several processes were also defined to deal with specific sodium wastes. In all cases the principle is based on a sodium/water chemical reaction where the released hydrogen and heat are controlled. With the development of a wide variety of processes, all steps in the decommissioning of LMFRs are assumed to be now properly mastered

  11. Encapsulation of triphenyltin hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, A; Felix, S; Pelah, Z

    1986-01-01

    Triphenyltin hydroxide was encapsulated to prolong its fungicidal activity and to decrease its phytotoxicity in peanut fields. The envelopes found to be adequate for this purpose were polyureas and ethyl cellulose, as was demonstrated by biological tests. PMID:3508175

  12. Standard enthalpies of formation of francium hydroxide hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available experimental data on standard enthalpies of formation of alkali metal hydroxide hydrates have been summarized. Using equations derived, the authors have calculated previously unknown enthalpies of formation of some lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium hydroxide hydrates. Taking into account the contribution of water to the enthalpies of formation of monohydrates, the authors have estimated the enthalpies of formation of francium hydroxide hydrates FrOH·H2O, FrOH·2H2O, and FrOH·3H2O (-745.8, -1085.8, and -1515.8 kJ mol-1, respectively)

  13. Sodium pivalate treatment reduces tissue carnitines and enhances ketosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, P B; Davis, A T

    1991-12-01

    Sodium pivalate, a compound conjugated to carnitine and excreted in the urine was used to induce a secondary carnitine deficiency. In the first series of experiments, rats received in their drinking water either 20 mmol/L sodium pivalate (experimental) or 20 mmol/L sodium bicarbonate (control) for 4 d, 2 wk, or 8 wk. Tissues and urine were collected, and carnitine concentrations in liver, skeletal muscle, heart, plasma and urine were determined. The total carnitine concentrations in tissues and plasma of pivalate-treated rats were significantly depressed (P less than 0.05) at all time points, except at 4 d for skeletal muscle and at 4 d and 2 wk for liver. The acylcarnitine:free carnitine ratios in urine and plasma of the pivalate-treated animals were significantly higher at all time points relative to the controls. In the second experiment, rats received either the pivalate or the bicarbonate treatments for 15 d followed by a 2-d fast. After fasting, the plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate of pivalate-treated rats was significantly higher relative to controls, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose concentrations. The reduced plasma and tissue carnitine concentrations, increased acylcarnitine:free carnitine ratio in plasma and urine, and fasting ketosis found in pivalate-treated rats are findings also reported for human secondary carnitine deficiency due to organic acidurias. PMID:1941267

  14. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

  15. Sodium conversion experiments in the Inert Carrier Process demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the sodium treatment studies reported here was to evaluate the use of the Inert Carrier Process (ICP) for converting sodium metal to a stable disposal form. The ICP demonstration plant consists of a closed loop of silicone oil that is circulated through a reservoir called a disperser. Solid sodium particles were fed to the disperser and kept suspended in the silicone oil carrier by turbulence. The sodium did not react with the silicone oil carrier. The dispersion of sodium in silicone oil was fed to an in-line mixer (''jet'' mixer) where it was mixed with a reactant. Water was used as the reactant in most of the tests, generating sodium hydroxide and hydrogen as the initial products. Analysis of the final solid product from the reaction indicated that the sodium hydroxide initial product interacted with the silicone oil. Complete reaction of the sodium in the demonstration plant required at least a 6/1 molar ratio of water to sodium. Good separation of the product solution was difficult because of the small difference in density between the aqueous product phase and the organic carrier phase. Emulsification of the silicone oil-aqueous solution was minimized by applying heat to the separator. Foaming of the silicone oil in the separator occurred, aggravated by the evolution of hydrogen from the sodium conversion reaction. Bench-scale tests were conducted to analyze and resolve several problems encountered in the plant experiments, such as incomplete reaction in the jet mixer, poor separation of the product from the silicone oil, formation of an oil aqueous solution emulsion in the separator, and oil foaming in the separator. Solidification tests were carried out to immobilize the sodium conversion product by mixing it with various binders. The most satisfactory binder was EPON 828, an epoxy resin

  16. Ammonium hydroxide treatment of A? produces an aggregate free solution suitable for biophysical and cell culture characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Ryan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Pathologically it is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neuronal loss within the brain tissue of affected individuals. It is now widely hypothesised that fibrillar structures represent an inert structure. Biophysical and toxicity assays attempting to characterize the formation of both the fibrillar and the intermediate oligomeric structures of A? typically involves preparing samples which are largely monomeric; the most common method by which this is achieved is to use the fluorinated organic solvent 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP. Recent evidence has suggested that this method is not 100% effective in producing an aggregate free solution. We show, using dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography and small angle X-ray scattering that this is indeed the case, with HFIP pretreated A? peptide solutions displaying an increased proportion of oligomeric and aggregated material and an increased propensity to aggregate. Furthermore we show that an alternative technique, involving treatment with strong alkali results in a much more homogenous solution that is largely monomeric. These techniques for solubilising and controlling the oligomeric state of A? are valuable starting points for future biophysical and toxicity assays.

  17. Comparison Between Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Hydroxide Spray Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare the consequences of an 8 molar NaNO2 spray leak to the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) evaluation of sprays of up to 19 molar (50%) NaOH. Four conditions were evaluated. These are: a spray during transfers from a one-inch pipe, a spray resulting from a truck tank Crack, a spray resulting from a truck tank rupture, and a spray in the 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility

  18. Potential and limits of sodium hydroxide as an additive to the binary system ammonia/water in absorption heat pumps; Potenzial und Grenzen von Natriumhydroxid als Zusatz zum Stoffpaar Ammoniak/Wasser in Absorptions-Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotenko, Oleksandr; Moser, Harald; Fenzl, Thomas; Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik

    2011-07-01

    Several authors proposed the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an additive to the ammonia/water working fluid mixture (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O), especially in solar air conditioners. Measured vapour-liquid equilibrium data of this tertiary mixture are found in the relevant literature. Thermodynamic calculations carried out with these data show that the efficiency (COP) will be enhanced in theory while the rectification time will decrease. To verify these theoretical considerations and to gain practical experience with the tertiary mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH, a test stand was constructed at the Institut fuer Waermetechnik, and measurements were carried out on the mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, i.e. without NaOH, and with 5% NaOH. The technical feasibility of the process was established, although NaOH depositions in the refrigerating circuit caused operational disturbances, so that the mixture had to be renewed regularly and the plant had to be flushed with water. The expected efficiency improvement was not observed. Analyses using ''ASPEN Plus'' showed that this was the result of lower absorber efficiency, which may be due to the higher circulation rate and higher viscosity of the working fluid mixture. Measurements showed a moderate improvements of heat transfer in the expeller after addition of NaOH; no effects were found in the evaporator, solvent heat exchanger and rectification column. The findings suggest that fast implementation of NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP is not realistic. Considerable research and development will still be required for optimisation of the absorber for operation with NaOH. [German] Die Verwendung von Natriumhydroxid (NaOH) als Zusatz zum Arbeitsstoffgemisch Ammoniak / Wasser (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O) wurde von verschiedenen Autoren insbesondere fuer das Anwendungsgebiet der solaren Klimatisierung vorgeschlagen. In der einschlaegigen Literatur wurden gemessene Dampf-Fluessig-Gleichgewichts-Daten von diesem Dreistoffgemisch publiziert. Die mit diesen Daten durchgefuehrten thermodynamischen Rechnungen zeigen, dass die Effizienz (COP) durch die Zugabe von Natriumhydroxid in einer Ammoniak / Wasser-Absorptionswaermepumpe theoretisch erhoeht werden kann und der Rektifikationsaufwand sinkt. Um diese theoretischen Berechnungen zu ueberpruefen und praktische Erfahrungen mit dem Dreistoffgemisch NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH zu sammeln, wurde am Institut fuer Waermetechnik ein Pruefstand aufgebaut. Mit diesem Pruefstand wurden Messungen mit dem Gemisch NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, d.h. ohne NaOH, und mit 5% NaOH durchgefuehrt. Dabei konnte die technische Machbarkeit dieses Prozesses gezeigt werden. Allerdings fuehrten Ablagerungen von NaOH im Kaeltekreis zu Betriebsstoerungen bzw. dazu, dass das Arbeitsgemisch regelmaessig gewechselt und die Anlage mit Wasser gespuelt werden musste. Die erwartete Verbesserung bezueglich der Prozess-Effizienz konnte bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden. Die Analyse der Messergebnisse mit dem Softwareprogram ''ASPEN Plus'' hat gezeigt, dass dies vor allem an einer geringeren Absorber-Effizienz lag, welche wahrscheinlich auf den bei gleicher Leistung notwendigen hoeheren Loesungsumlauf und die hoehere Viskositaet des Arbeitsgemisches zurueckzufuehren ist. In Bezug auf den Einfluss von NaOH auf die anderen Komponenten, fuehrt die NaOH-Zugabe laut Messungen zu einer moderaten Verbesserung des Waermeueberganges im Austreiber. Bei der Analyse des Einflusses von NaOH auf den Verdampfer, den Loesungsmittelwaermetauscher und die Rektifikationskolonne konnten keine signifikanten Veraenderungen zwischen den Betriebspunkten mit und ohne NaOH festgestellt werden. Aus heutiger Sicht scheint die rasche technische Umsetzung einer NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP aus den oben genannten Gruenden nicht realistisch zu sein. Es besteht noch erheblicher Forschungs- und Entwicklungsbedarf in Bezug auf die Optimierung des Absorbers fuer den Betrieb mit NaOH und die oben genannten Betriebsstoerungen.

  19. Treatment of Industrial Liquid Waste of Steel Plating by Coagulation-Flocculation Using Sodium Biphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research about treatment of industrial liquid waste of steel plating by coagulation-flocculation using sodium biphosphate have been conducted. The purpose of the treatment was the content reduction of Cr, Ni, and Cu in the liquid waste, so that produced effluent with Cr, Ni, and Cu content until they laid under mutual standard. The variables studied in this process were the solution pH, the coagulant/waste volume comparison, the speed of the fast stirring, and the time of the fast stirring. Optimum separation efficiency on coagulation-flocculation process of liquid waste of steel plating using sodium biphosphate at the condition of solution ph 9, coagulant/waste volume comparation 1.50, the speed of the fast stirring 400 rpm, and the time of fast stirring is 5 minute. Low stirring was conducted at 60 rpm for 60 minute. The yields of optimum separation efficiency in this condition were 99.48 % for Cr, 99.51 % for Ni, and 99.03 % for Cu. (author)

  20. TREATMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: SODIUM FLUORIDE OR CALCITONIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mowla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical controversy and lack of controlled clinical trial study comparing the effects of sodium fluoride and calcitonin therapies in osteoporosis of patients with RA made us to conduct this study to clarify which one of the above treatments would be more useful and effective in the treatment of osteoporosis.From subjects who turned to Ahwaz Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinic during 2000, all women who met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR 1987 criteria for RA (7, WHO 1994 criteria for osteoporosis (8 and signed the written consent were enrolled into the study. Considering these inclusion criteria, 70 women were enrolled into the study. They were randomized into two groups. Age, BMI (body mass index and BMD (bone mineral density were the adjusted variables during randomization. Thirty-four patients were treated with 20 mg sodium fluoride daily and 36 patients with 200 units nasal calcitonin per day. All patients were treated for 12 months.Patients who received Fluoride showed significant higher BMD in femoral neck (0.74 vs. 0.65, p<0.01 and in lumbar spine (0.90 vs. 0.79, p<0.05 than who received calcitonin after 12 months of therapy.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Rezende Delgado, Ronan; Helena Gasparoto, Thaís; Renata Sipert, Carla; Ramos Pinheiro, Claudia; Gomes de Moraes, Ivaldo; Brandão Garcia, Roberto; Antônio Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Monteiro Bramante, Clóvis; Aparecido Torres, Sérgio; Pompermaier Garlet, Gustavo; Paula Campanelli, Ana; BERNARDINELI, Norberti

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0–100 and 100–200 µm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the ...

  2. Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack

  3. Secondary neurotransmitter deficiencies in epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channelopathies: A potential treatment target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Demos, Michelle; Shyr, Casper; Matthews, Allison; Zhang, Linhua; Race, Simone; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Van Allen, Margot I; Mancarci, Ogan; Toker, Lilah; Pavlidis, Paul; Ross, Colin J; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Trump, Natalie; Heales, Simon; Pope, Simon; Helen Cross, J; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2016-01-01

    We describe neurotransmitter abnormalities in two patients with drug-resistant epilepsy resulting from deleterious de novo mutations in sodium channel genes. Whole exome sequencing identified a de novo SCN2A splice-site mutation (c.2379+1G>A, p.Glu717Gly.fs*30) resulting in deletion of exon 14, in a 10-year old male with early onset global developmental delay, intermittent ataxia, autism, hypotonia, epileptic encephalopathy and cerebral/cerebellar atrophy. In the cerebrospinal fluid both homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased; extensive biochemical and genetic investigations ruled out primary neurotransmitter deficiencies and other known inborn errors of metabolism. In an 8-year old female with an early onset intractable epileptic encephalopathy, developmental regression, and progressive cerebellar atrophy, a previously unreported de novo missense mutation was identified in SCN8A (c.5615G>A; p.Arg1872Gln), affecting a highly conserved residue located in the C-terminal of the Nav1.6 protein. Aside from decreased homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate was also found to be low. We hypothesize that these channelopathies cause abnormal synaptic mono-amine metabolite secretion/uptake via impaired vesicular release and imbalance in electrochemical ion gradients, which in turn aggravate the seizures. Treatment with oral 5-hydroxytryptophan, l-Dopa/Carbidopa, and a dopa agonist resulted in mild improvement of seizure control in the male case, most likely via dopamine and serotonin receptor activated signal transduction and modulation of glutamatergic, GABA-ergic and glycinergic neurotransmission. Neurotransmitter analysis in other sodium channelopathy patients will help validate our findings, potentially yielding novel treatment opportunities. PMID:26647175

  4. Role of pegaptanib sodium in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobha Sivaprasad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sobha SivaprasadLaser and Retinal Research Unit, King’s College Hospital, UKAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is responsible for more than half the blind registration in the United Kingdom. Retinal manifestations of AMD can be categorized as either atrophic or neovascular. The hallmark of AMD is the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV. Until recently, there have been few, limited treatment modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy [PDT] for this condition and the mainstay of treatment has comprised social and lifestyle support. However, increased understanding of the molecular processes at work in neovascular AMD and CNV in recent years has led to the introduction of new antiangiogenic agents that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. These agents either inhibit a selected VEGF isoform (eg, VEGF165 inhibition by pegaptanib sodium or inhibit all forms of the VEGF isoform (eg, non-selective VEGF blockade by ranibizumab. The trial data suggest that non-selective inhibition of VEGF offers better treatment outcomes in neovascular AMD. As a result, agents that inhibit all VEGF isoforms are now widely used as first-line therapy for this condition. However, it is known that VEGF plays an important role in maintaining the intergrity of the cardiovascular system and, particularly as the age of patients with AMD places them at an elevated risk of thromboembolic events, long-term post-marketing surveillance data are essential to determining whether non-selective VEGF blockade confers any increased risk. Theoretically, selective VEGF inhibition may reduce any risk associated with pan-VEGF blockade, yet on the basis of initial trials, their use remains more limited at this time. However, clinical practice suggests that initial trials may have under-estimated the efficacy of selective-VEGF inhibition. Observational studies also indicate that better treatment outcomes may be possible by combining VEGF inhibitors sequentially with each other, or with existing therapies (eg, photodynamic therapy [PDT]. The optimum role and indications of anti-VEGF agents will come through careful consideration of the available efficacy and safety data, from the outcomes of long-term follow-up studies, and through assessment of the relative merits of the two approaches to VEGF inhibition in clinical practice. At this time, further head-to-head trials, and economic evaluations, comparing the treatment alternatives are needed.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD, choroidal neovascularization (CNV, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, cardiovascular, ranibizumab, pegaptanib sodium

  5. Evaluation of the migraine treatment sumatriptan/naproxen sodium on blood pressure following long-term administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William B; Derosier, Frederick J; Thompson, April H; Adams, Bryan E; Goodman, David K

    2011-12-01

    Anti-inflammatory and pain therapies have been associated with blood pressure (BP) destabilization. Hence, the effects on BP of sumatriptan/naproxen sodium in fixed-dose combination, sumatriptan 85 mg, and naproxen sodium 500 mg administered intermittently for the acute treatment of migraine attacks were assessed. Patients with migraine with or without aura and no history of hypertension were randomized to sumatriptan/naproxen sodium (n=135), sumatriptan (n=136), or naproxen sodium (n=136) to treat migraine attacks for 6 months in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Following a treated migraine attack, patients performed 2 consecutive days of self-measured BPs beginning ?24 hours after the last dose of study medication and transmitted them by a transtelephonic modem. The primary end point was the change from baseline in self-measured BP at 6 months. Changes in self-measured BP from baseline to 6 months for sumatriptan/naproxen sodium were -2.1/-1.5 mm Hg (95% confidence intervals, -3.4 to -0.8 for systolic and -2.6 to -0.3 for diastolic). Mean changes from baseline in self-measured BP did not differ among the 3 treatment groups. Additional categorical analyses did not show increases from baseline with sumatriptan/naproxen sodium relative to either of the monotherapy groups. Intermittent acute migraine treatment with sumatriptan/naproxen sodium for up to 6 months was associated with clinically insignificant decreases in self-measured BP that were similar to those with sumatriptan or naproxen alone in normotensive patients with migraine. PMID:22142350

  6. Delayed sodium pyruvate treatment improves working memory following experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Nobuhiro; Ghavim, Sima S; Hovda, David A; Sutton, Richard L

    2011-03-17

    Prior work indicates that cerebral glycolysis is impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and that pyruvate treatment acutely after TBI can improve cerebral metabolism and is neuroprotective. Since extracellular levels of glucose decrease during periods of increased cognitive demand and exogenous glucose improves cognitive performance, we hypothesized that pyruvate treatment prior to testing could ameliorate cognitive deficits in rats with TBI. Based on pre-surgical spatial alternation performance in a 4-arm plus-maze, adult male rats were randomized to receive either sham injury or unilateral (left) cortical contusion injury (CCI). On days 4, 9 and 14 after surgery animals received an intraperitoneal injection of either vehicle (Sham-Veh, n=6; CCI-Veh, n=7) or 1000 mg/kg of sodium pyruvate (CCI-SP, n=7). One hour after each injection rats were retested for spatial alternation performance. Animals in the CCI-SP group showed no significant working memory deficits in the spatial alternation task compared to Sham-Veh controls. The percent four/five alternation scores for CCI-Veh rats were significantly decreased from Sham-Veh scores on days 4 and 9 (pglucose and regional cytochrome oxidase activity at day 15 post-injury did not differ between CCI-SP and CCI-Veh groups. These results show that spatial alternation testing can reliably detect temporal deficits and recovery of working memory after TBI and that delayed pyruvate treatment can ameliorate TBI-induced cognitive impairments. PMID:21241774

  7. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: a literature review - Part II. in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dohyun; Kim, Euiseong

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this study reviewed the characteristics of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and summarized the results of in vitro studies related to its antimicrobial effects. The second part of this review covers in vivo studies including human clinical studies and animal studies. The use of Ca(OH)2 as an intracanal medicament represented better histological results in animal studies. However, human clinical studies showed limited antimicrobial effects that microorganisms were reduced but not ...

  8. Method of processing radioactive sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To semi-continuously process through an on-line system in a safe and rapid manner great quantity of radioactive sodium discharged from a fast breeder reactor. Structure: Radioactive sodium is poured into a heating dish within a reduced pressure sealed container and steam is blown onto the radioactive sodium while controlling the reaction speed. The resultant sodium hydroxide waste liquid is thermally condensed. The reaction speed control is effected through control of the sodium temperature by the heater of the reaction dish and through control of the processing tank inner pressure. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. A combination of topical antiseptics for the treatment of sore throat blocks voltage-gated neuronal sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foadi, Nilufar; de Oliveira, Regina Campos; Buchholz, Vanessa; Stoetzer, Carsten; Wegner, Florian; Pilawski, Igor; Haeseler, Gertrud; Leuwer, Martin; Ahrens, Jörg

    2014-10-01

    Amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol are ingredients of lozenges used for the treatment of sore throat. In a former in vitro study, a local anaesthetic-like effect of these substances has been described. Since amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol are co-administered in over-the-counter lozenges, the intention of this study is to evaluate the in vitro effects of the combination of these compounds on the voltage-gated sodium channel. We analysed the block of inward sodium currents induced by the combination of amylmetacresol, dichloro-benzylalcohol and the local anaesthetic lidocaine. Tonic and use-dependent block and effects on the inactivated channel state of the neuronal sodium channel were examined. Therefore, the ?-subunit of the voltage-gated NaV1.2 sodium channel was heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells in vitro. Inward sodium currents were investigated in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The combination of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol and the combination of amylmetacresol and lidocaine induced a block of resting and inactivated sodium channels both displaying a pronounced block at the inactivated channel state. In addition, the combination of all three compounds also resulted in a voltage-dependent block of inward sodium currents. While use-dependent block by co-application of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol was moderate (amylmetacresol induced a robust use-dependent block (up to 50 %). This study demonstrates local anaesthetic-like effects of a combination of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol as established ingredients of lozenges. In the presence of amylmetacresol, dichloro-benzylalcohol and lidocaine, a prominent block of inward sodium currents is apparent. PMID:25012093

  10. Association of calcium hydroxide and metronidazole in the treatment of dog's teeth with chronic periapical lesion / Associação do hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol no tratamento de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sônia Regina, Panzarini; Valdir, Souza; Roberto, Holland; Eloi, Dezan Júnior.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Um dos principais objetivos do tratamento endodôntico de dentes com polpa necrosada é a eliminação máxima possível dos microrganismos presentes no sistema de canal radicular, principalmente nos casos que apresentam lesões periapicais crônicas. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisa [...] r a resposta dos tecidos periapicais de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica ao tratamento endodôntico utilizando como curativo de demora o metronidazol, o hidróxido de cálcio e a associação das duas substâncias. METODOLOGIA: Foram empregados 44 canais radiculares de 2 cães adultos, portadores de lesão periapical crônica induzida experimentalmente. Após o preparo biomecânico os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo com o curativo de demora empregado: Grupo I - controle - sem curativo de demora; Grupo II - hidróxido de cálcio; Grupo III - associação de hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol e Grupo IV - metronidazol. Após 15 dias todos os canais foram obturados com cimento Fill Canal e passados 90 dias os animais foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o hidróxido de cálcio apresentou resultado superior aos demais tratamentos, com diferença estatísticamente significante (alfa = 0.01) e o metronidazol resultado semelhante à associação do hidróxido de cálcio com o metronidazol. Os piores resultados foram obtidos pelo grupo sem curativo de demora. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de metronidazol ou da sua associação com hidróxido de cálcio, não proporcionou melhoras no reparo quando comparado ao curativo de hidróxido de cálcio. Abstract in english One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periap [...] ical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I - no root canal dressing; group II - calcium hydroxide; group III - metronidazole; group IV - calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (alpha = 0.01). Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing.

  11. Association of calcium hydroxide and metronidazole in the treatment of dog's teeth with chronic periapical lesion Associação do hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol no tratamento de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Panzarini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I - no root canal dressing; group II - calcium hydroxide; group III - metronidazole; group IV - calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (alpha = 0.01. Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing.Um dos principais objetivos do tratamento endodôntico de dentes com polpa necrosada é a eliminação máxima possível dos microrganismos presentes no sistema de canal radicular, principalmente nos casos que apresentam lesões periapicais crônicas. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a resposta dos tecidos periapicais de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica ao tratamento endodôntico utilizando como curativo de demora o metronidazol, o hidróxido de cálcio e a associação das duas substâncias. METODOLOGIA: Foram empregados 44 canais radiculares de 2 cães adultos, portadores de lesão periapical crônica induzida experimentalmente. Após o preparo biomecânico os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo com o curativo de demora empregado: Grupo I - controle - sem curativo de demora; Grupo II - hidróxido de cálcio; Grupo III - associação de hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol e Grupo IV - metronidazol. Após 15 dias todos os canais foram obturados com cimento Fill Canal e passados 90 dias os animais foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o hidróxido de cálcio apresentou resultado superior aos demais tratamentos, com diferença estatísticamente significante (alfa = 0.01 e o metronidazol resultado semelhante à associação do hidróxido de cálcio com o metronidazol. Os piores resultados foram obtidos pelo grupo sem curativo de demora. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de metronidazol ou da sua associação com hidróxido de cálcio, não proporcionou melhoras no reparo quando comparado ao curativo de hidróxido de cálcio.

  12. VALOR NUTRITIVO DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO E/OU URÉIA SUPLEMENTADA COM FENO DE ALFAFA (Medicago sativa L. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF COFFEE (Coffea arabica L. HULLS TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND/OR UREA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L. HAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Afonso Leitão

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutritivo da casca de café tratada ou não com hidróxido de sódio e/ou uréia. Foram utilizados vinte carneiros, em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e cinco tratamentos constituídos de 50% de feno de alfafa e 50% de casca de café tradada ou não, assim distribuídos: T1-feno de alfafa e casca de café pura; T2-feno e casca de café + 5% uréia; T3-feno e casca de café + 1,5% NaOH; T4-feno e casca de café + 1,5% NaOH + 5% uréia; T5-100% feno de alfafa. O tratamento da casca de café com uréia propiciou apenas aumento no teor de proteína bruta (PB, e com NaOH não provocou alterações na composição química. A casca tratada ou não provocou depressão no consumo. Houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto ao consumo de proteína digestível (CPD, consumo de energia digestível (CED e digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta (DAPB. Considerando-se a composição bromatológica e a digestiblidade da casca de café pura, ela é um subproduto que pode ser aproveitado pelos ruminantes. Devido ao baixo consumo da casca de café tratada ou não, deve-se fornecêla junto a outro alimento de melhor valor nutritivo, principalmente com um melhor teor de energia.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Consumo; digestibilidade; ruminantes; subprodutos agrícolas.

    The aim of this work was to assess the nutritive value of coffee hulls treated with sodium hydroxide and urea. Twenty sheeps were utilized in a randomized block design, with four blocks and five treatments combining 50% alfalfa hay and 50% treated or untreated coffee hulls, as follows: T1-alfalfa hay and pure coffee hulls; T2-hay and coffee hulls + 5% urea; T3-hay + coffee hulls + 1.5% NaOH; T4-hay + coffee hulls + 1.5% NaOH + 5% urea; T5-100% hay. The treatment coffee hulls with urea resulted only in increased crude protein content. The treatment with NaOH did not resulted in any changes in the chemical composition. Hulls, whether treated or not, caused intake reduction. There were differences among treatments as the digestible protein intake, digestible energy intake, and apparent digestibility of crude protein. Given the bromatological composition and digestibility of pure coffee hulls, we can conclude that it is a byproduct can be utilized by ruminants. For low consumption of coffee hulls, it should only be used together with another fodder with higher nutritional value, particularly with a higher energy content.

    KEY-WORDS: Agricultural byproducts; digestibility; intake; ruminants.

  13. Effects of ferric hydroxid sludge dosage on sludge treatment/-disposal. Final report; Einfluesse einer Eisenschlammzugabe auf die Klaerschlammbehandlung/-entsorgung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, E.; Benzinger, S.

    1997-12-01

    A pilot plant consisting of two gravity thickeners, two sludge digesters and sludge dewatering by laboratory-frame filter press was operated on two different sewage water treatment plants. Ferric hydroxide sludge (FS) was treated together as with surplus sludge from enhanced biological removal of phosphorus (SS{sub EBPR}) as together with a mixture of primary and surplus sludge including precipitation sludge (PS+SS). One sludge treatment system was dosed with FS, the other serving as control unit operated without FS. In combined thickening in view of filterable solids, COD and P the quality of supernatant improved in most cases as well as the dried solid matter of the thickened sludge increased. In thickening of SS{sub EBPR} 45-70% P was refixed more than in the control system. Scum caused by hydrogen sulphide could be avoided in particular cases. There were no negative influences on the process of combined digestion with SS{sub EBPR} observed as well as with PS+SS. The degradation of organic solid matter was increased by FS-dosage>30 g Fe/kg TR{sub RS}. If present SS{sub EBPR}, hydrogen sulphide was reduced significantly; the content of methane in digester gas increased. Re-dissolved poly-P was refixed nearly completely. Sludge dewatering process was not influenced by FS, independent of the kind of post sludge conditioning. Nor was the sludge disposal restricted by FS. P-feedback from combined thickening, digestion and dewatering of SS{sub EBPR} decreased in comparison to the control unit with 16,8% (in relation to P{sub tot} influent) to 11,2 resp. 1,4% depending on the dosage of FS. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine halbtechnische Versuchsanlage mit Schwerkrafteindickern, Faulbehaeltern und Entwaesserung mit einer Labor-Rahmenfilterpresse wurde auf zwei kommunalen Klaeranlagen betrieben. Eisenhydroxidschlamm (ES) wurde zum einen mit Ueberschussschlamm aus der erhoehten biologischen P-Elimination (UeSS{sub BIO-P}) und zum anderen mit einem Gemisch aus Primaer- und Ueberschussschlamm mit Faellschlammanteilen (PRS+UeSS) gemeinsam behandelt. Eine Strasse wurde mit verschiedenen ES-Dosierungen beschickt. Die zweite Strasse diente zu Referenzzwecken. Bei der gemeinsamen Eindickung konnte zumeist eine Verbesserung der Ueberstandswasserqualitaet bezueglich der Parameter AFS, CSB und P durch die ES-Zugabe festgestellt werden. Gleichfalls wurden hoehere Feststoffgehalte nach der Eindickung erzielt. Bei der UeSS{sub BIO-P} Eindickung wurde zusaetzlich 45-70% P fixiert. Schwefelwasserstoffbedingte Schwimmschlammbildung konnte z.T. voellig unterbunden werden. Die gemeinsame Ausfaulung, sowohl mit UeSS{sub BIO-P} als auch mit PRS+UeSS wurde nicht negativ beeinflusst. Bei ES-Dosierungen >30 g Fe/kg TR{sub KS} war ein verbesserter oTR-Abbau festzustellen. Schwefelwasserstoff wurde, soweit vorhanden, deutlich reduziert; der Methangehalt des Faulgases wurde erhoeht. Rueckgeloestes Polyphosphat konnte fast vollstaendig refixiert werden. Die ES-Zugabe wirkte sich nur in geringem Masse auf das Entwaesserungverhalten aus. Dies gilt fuer die anorganische Konditionierung genauso, wie fuer die Konditionierung mit organischen FHM. Die Entsorgungsmoeglichkeiten wurden durch die ES-Dosierung nicht eingeschraenkt. Aus den Teilergebnissen der gemeinsamen Eindickung, Faulung Entwaesserung mit UeSS{sub BIO-P} laesst sich eine Abnahme der P-Rueckbelastung infolge Schlammwasserrueckfuehrung von 16,8% (bezogen auf P{sub ges} im Zulauf) in der Referenzanlage auf 11,2 bzw, 1,4% in Abhaengigkeit von der Eisendosierung errechnen. (orig.)

  14. Medicine Of Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with the medicine of water handling, which includes medicine for dispersion and cohesion, zeta-potential, congelation with Shalze Hardy's law, inorganic coagulants, inorganic high molecule coagulants, aid coagulant such as fly ash and sodium hydroxide, and effect of aluminum and iron on cohesion of clay suspension, organic coagulants like history of organic coagulants, a polyelectrolyte, coagulants for cation, and organic polymer coagulant, heavy metal and cyan exfoliants, application of drugs of water treatment.

  15. Divalproex Sodium for the Treatment of PTSD and Conduct Disordered Youth: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Hans; Saxena, Kirti S.; Carrion, Victor; Khanzode, Leena A.; Silverman, Melissa; Chang, Kiki

    2007-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of divalproex sodium (DVP) for the treatment of PTSD in conduct disorder, utilizing a previous study in which 71 youth were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Twelve had PTSD. Subjects (all males, mean age 16, SD 1.0) were randomized into high and low dose conditions. Clinical Global Impression (CGI)…

  16. Chronic sodium cyanate treatment induces "hypoxia-like" effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisseire, B P; Vieilledent, C C; Teisseire, L J; Vallez, M O; Hérigault, R A; Laurent, D N

    1986-04-01

    Three weeks of sodium cyanate (NaCNO) intraperitoneal treatment in rats (n = 15) induced high hemoglobin O2 affinity, i.e., low PO2 at 50% hemoglobin saturation (P50), 20.5 +/- 1.4 Torr, in comparison with the mean control values, 34.5 +/- 1.6 Torr (n = 15). NaCNO rats showed a reduction in mean body weight, 376 +/- 27 g, in comparison with controls, 423 +/- 23 g (P less than 0.001). Despite arterial O2 partial pressure (PaO2) within normal limits NaCNO-treated rats had a higher systolic right ventricular pressure (SRVP), 33.7 +/- 3.1 Torr, in comparison with control value, 29.0 +/- 2.5 Torr (P less than 0.001). Right ventricle weights were significantly increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 min of an hypoxic challenge (fractional concentration of inspired O2 = 0.10) NaCNO-treated rats increased SRVP of only 7 +/- 4% compared with 46 +/- 9% in the control animals. Inducing high hemoglobin affinity in rats (n = 10; 6 wk NaCNO treatment) resulted in increases in hematocrit ratio and hemoglobin concentration (P less than 0.001). The characteristics of the red blood cell (RBC) itself changed; values of mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration being significantly increased (P less than 0.001) when compared with mean control values. The count of nucleated RBC's appeared to be significantly higher from the 2nd wk of NaCNO treatment. Chronic NaCNO treatment was demonstrated to exert "hypoxia-like" effects since it induced prevention of normal growth, polycythemia, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and blunted pulmonary pressor response to acute hypoxia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3700297

  17. Morphological changes in the rat carotid body following acute sodium nitrite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Dimitrinka Y; Lazarov, Nikolai E

    2016-01-15

    The carotid body (CB) is a small neural crest-derived chemosensory organ that detects the chemical composition of the arterial blood and responds to its changes by regulating breathing. The effects of acute nitrite treatment on the CB morphology in rats were examined by morphometry. We found that 1h after administrating a single dose of sodium nitrite, the CB underwent structural changes characterized by a prominent increase in its size with a marked, several-fold dilation of the blood vessels. The obvious CB enlargement mostly due to apparent vasodilation and glomus cell hypertrophy was at its highest one day later and persisted until the fifth day. 20 days after the treatment, the CB regained its size to the normoxic control state. Morphometric analysis revealed that the CB size increase in treated animals is statistically significant when compared to that of untreated controls. It can be inferred that the nitrite-exposed CB displays remarkable structural plasticity and enlarges its size mostly through vascular expansion. PMID:26528896

  18. Some citogenetic effects of sodium azide treatments in caraway root meristems

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Maxim; Gabriela Capraru; Mirela Mihaela Campeanu

    2009-01-01

    Sodium azide (NaN3) still remains a popular plant mutagen. In the present investigation, its effects on the cytogenetic changes were studied in root tip cells of Carum carvi L., an important economical and medicinal crop plant. The study revealed that sodium azide decreased mitotic index, and caused increase of chromosomal aberrations. Altogether, sodium azide treated root tip cells exhibited an increased incidence of bridges, lagging and/or expulsed chromosomes and C-metaphases.

  19. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION TREATMENTS ON SILICON DIOXIDE CONTENT AND DISTRIBUTION IN ORYZA SATIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, rice straw and rice plant stems were subjected to nonconventional chemical fractionation methods to investigate the treatment of effects on the silica content of the straw as well as SiO2 content and distribution in rice stem tissue. The treatments included sodium hydroxide, an acid-c...

  20. Efficacy of Topical Sodium Sulfacetamide in the Treatment of Mild and Moderate Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized, Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ay?egül Turan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Clindamycin and erythromycin are the most widely used topical antibiotics in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. The combination of topical antibiotics with benzoyl peroxide increases the efficacy of the treatment and reduces antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. Sodium sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic. Although it has been known for many years, it is not widely used in acne treatment. However, it has recently acquired currency again. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of sodium sulfacetamide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris and to compare with the other widely used topical antibiotics. Material and Method: In our comparative study, 60 patients with acne vulgaris were randomly assigned into 3 groups, wherein the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd groups were applied sodium sulfacetamide 10% lotion, clindamycin 1% lotion, and erythromycin 2% gel, respectively, twice daily for 12 weeks. Each group consisted of 20 subjects. The treatment was combined with benzoyl peroxide in all groups. The patients were assessed for noninflammatory (open and closed comedones and inflammatory (papules and pustules lesion counts at 4, 8, and 12 weeks and, adverse events were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for age, sex and acne duration (p>0.05. Statistically significant decrease was obtained with all 3 treatment regimens at the end of the study (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, topical sodium sulfacetamide was found to be as effective and safe as erythromycin and clindamycin when combined with benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. These results should be supported by studies with larger cohorts.

  1. A Comparison Between the Treatment and Side Effect of Sodium Valproate and Propranolol in Preventing Migraine Headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Taghdiri

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of frequent headaches in children is migraine headache. The prevention of headaches , will improve life equality in children. This study was designed to compare between treatment and side effects of sodium valproate and propranolol in preventing migraine headaches. This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial which carried out on 52 children who were reffered to out patient neurology clinic of the Ekbatan and Sina hospitals. All children with migraine who had headache during last 6 months were enrolled, and those who had received sodium valproate and propranolol previously, were excluded. The method was convenience sampling and the patients were divided into two groups with 26 patients: A and B for propranolol and sodium valproate respectively. Group A treated with propranolol and group B with sodium valproate for 8 weeks. The response to treatment was evaluated after 4 weeks. The study evaluated 52 children with migraine from 7-15 year’s old , 38.5% of cases were male and 61.5% female. Before treatment , the mean number of attacks was 5.61 months in group A and 8.73 months in group B. After treatment the number of attacks was declined in 21 cases (80.8% of group A and 19 cases (73.1% of group B. Severity of pain was improved in 18 cases (69.2% of group A and 15 cases (57.7% of group B. The incidence of vertigo was 3 cases (11.5% in group A and 2 cases (7.7% in group B. Abnormal liver enzymes test were detected in 11.5% of cases in the group B. CBC was abnormal in 7.7% of cases in the group B Sodium valproate and propranolol , both have the same therapeutic effects in prevention of migraine headeache in children. But side effects are different , and choice of either one depended on the effects consideration and contraindications of each one.

  2. Chondroitin sulfate and sodium hialuronate in treatment of the degenerative joint disease in dogs. Clinical and radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate in the knee joint of dogs with experimentally induced degenerative joint disease (DJD). Fifteen mongrel dogs, weighing 18 to 25kg were used. DJD was induced by cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) arthroscopical transection. After three weeks, CCL was repaired by an intrarticular technique, which uses fascia lata. The dogs were then divided into three groups as follows: group I received no other treatment, but the CCL reconstitution, group II received 24mg/animal of chondroitin sulfate/IM every five days, totaling six injections, and group III received 20mg/animal of sodium hyaluronate /IV every five days, totaling three injections. All dogs were examined clinically and radiographically for 90 days after the repairment surgery. The clinical evaluation was performed by assessment of lameness, weight-bearing, limb muscle atrophy and range of motion. The results demonstrated that the group treated with sodium hyaluronate had lower degree of lameness in comparison with other groups. The radiographic evaluation showed marginal osteophytes and subchondral bone sclerosis. These changes were more severe in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate. The better clinical results observed in this group, compared with the others, was probably due to the greater action of the drug in the synovium, decreasing the pain and lameness. Radiographic findings correlated poorly with the clinical signs in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate

  3. The reference value for blood sodium in inhabitants of Brazil: harmonization of statistical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is the establishment of reliable sodium reference value in whole blood of Brazilians, living in two regions (Northeast and Southeast) using NAA, with emphasis on the statistical treatment. These results included: mean Na levels (1.77 g/l), the standard deviation (0.29 g/l), median (1.75 g/l), mode (2.05 g/l) and also the reference intervals - for general population (1.48 - 2.06 g/l), for male (1.47 - 2.05 g/l) and for female (1.53 - 2.07 g/l). Also, the influence of sex and age on Na in blood was evaluated by the analyse of variance between males and females and considering several range for age (18-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, ? 51 years). These results show small differences when a comparison is performed in function of age, sex and geographic occupation. (author)

  4. Sodium thiosulfate for the treatment of warfarin-induced calciphylaxis in a nondialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Carrell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calciphylaxis or uremic arteriolopathy is a complex process typically seen in patients with end-stage renal disease, but has also been reported in patients with normal renal function. However, therapies for calciphylaxis are based on reports of traditional patients (i.e., end-stage renal disease. A mainstay of therapy, sodium thiosulfate (STS, has been shown to be effective for the treatment of calciphylaxis. Without a standardized therapy reported for nondialysis patients there is a need for evidence-based therapy. Here, we report a case of a 63-year-old woman with an acute injury on chronic kidney disease (CrClBaseline = 48 mL/min, CrClAKI = 36 mL/min, not requiring dialysis, with warfarin-induced calciphylaxis. After 4 weeks of therapy with STS, sevelamer, alendronate, and enzymatic debridement the patient subjectively reported slight improvement of the necrotic ulcers but developed cellulitis on her nonaffected limb. Additionally, after 12 weeks of therapy she was readmitted for renal failure and subsequently required dialysis.

  5. Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 2: Cook yield, tenderness, and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A N; VanOverbeke, D L; Goad, C L; Mireles DeWitt, C A

    2011-01-01

    The impact of 2 different brines on the palatability and tenderness of select beef strip loin steaks was evaluated. Brines were differentiated by the type of alkaline agent, 4.5% sodium-based phosphate (control brine; CON) or 1% ammonium hydroxide (ammonium hydroxide treatment; AHT), incorporated into the formula. Injected steaks were placed in high oxygen (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) MAP, stored 4 d at 4 °C in dark storage to simulate transportation, and then placed in retail display. Steaks were selected randomly on day 0, 7, and 14 retail display to measure pH, cook loss, shear force, and sensory characteristics. The pH for AHT steaks (pH 5.96) was slightly higher than CON steaks (pH 5.86; P 0.05). Sensory evaluation indicated that on day 0, retail display the initial juiciness, sustained juiciness, tenderness 1st impression, tenderness overall impression, and connective tissue in AHT steaks was not different from CON steaks (P > 0.05). A day effect (decrease) for those sensory parameters was observed only for sustained juiciness (P ingredient in brines injected into fresh meats. Successful replacement of sodium phosphate with ammonium hydroxide would allow processors to significantly reduce the sodium content of injected fresh meat. PMID:21535721

  6. Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 1: Fluid loss, oxidation, color, and microbial plate counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A N; VanOverbeke, D L; Goad, C L; Mireles Dewitt, C A

    2011-01-01

    Select beef loin pairs (n = 10) were injected (10% pump) with brine containing either 4.5% sodium-based phosphates, (CON), or 1% ammonium hydroxide treatment (AHT). Both brines also contained 3.6% NaCl and 1% Rosemary Herbalox. Steaks cut from loins were high oxygen (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) modified atmosphere packaged, stored 4 d at 4 °C in the dark to simulate transportation, and then placed in retail display for 14 d (4 °C). On day 0, 7, and 14 of retail display steak properties were measured. Purge from AHT steaks was higher than CON (P 0.05). Microbial counts increased more rapidly for AHT steaks than CON steaks (P fresh meat. However, results also indicated the AHT and CON steaks were no longer acceptable by day 14 in terms of color, were questionable in terms of microbial load, and likely were beyond their reasonable shelf life. Based on retail display properties, results indicated 1% AHT could successfully replace 4.5% SP in a meat injection brine. Practical Application: The research in this report compares steaks that have been injected with a commercial brine formulated with SP to steaks that have been injected with a brine, where the SP in the formulation are replaced with 1% AHT. Ammonium hydroxide is an USDA-FSIS approved ingredient in brines injected into fresh meats. Successful replacement of sodium phosphate with ammonium hydroxide would allow processors to significantly reduce the sodium content of injected fresh meat. PMID:21535717

  7. Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 8700C (950 to 16000F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium

  8. Using the sodium salt of native DNA as an immunomodulator in the treatment of different diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy P. Godovalov; Tatyana Yu. Danielyan

    2013-01-01

    We used a solution of the sodium salts of native deoxyribonucleic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (15 mg/ml). Deoxyribonucleinat was obtained from sturgeon milt. It is known that nuclease activates when nucleic acid is injected into a cell; and cytosis, bacteriosis, enzymatic processes of the cell directly depend on the nuclease. During therapy with deoxyribonucleinat we observed an improvement in the elimination of the inflammatory response and menstrual disorders, improvement of the ...

  9. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. PMID:22841594

  10. Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation) from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major sources of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation , also there is a potential for exposure via contamination.Precautions are necessary to limit the radiation dose to family members, nursing staff and members of public and waste treatment workers to less than 1mSv. Patients received Sodium Iodide-131 may come into close contact with other persons. In order to derive appropriate recommendations, dose rates were measured from the anterior mid-trunk of 29 patients in the upright position with 15 minutes post-dose administration at 3 meters and just before they left the nuclear medicine department at 0.5, 1, and 3 meters. We have also measured urinary iodide excretion in 29 patients to estimate Sodium Iodide-131 urinary excretion pattern in iranian patients. Based on results, the maximum cumulative dose to nursing staff was on third day (leaving day) still less than recommended dose bye ICRP. The cumulative dose family members will be more but regarding the time and distance in close contact it will be also less than recommended dose by ICRP.Radiation dose rate was decreased significantly on third day. The urinary excretion patterns in all patients were similar. The urinary excretion rate-time curve in all patients showed multiple peaks due to retention and redistribution of Iodine-131 or enterohepatic cycle of radioiodinated thyroid hormones, which didn't allow calculation of urinary excretion rate constant. The results also showed that 67 hours post administration of Sodium Iodide-131 about 70% of radiopharmaceutical was excreted through urine, 28% physically decayed or eliminated through other biological routes

  11. Impact of Acidified Sodium Chlorite and Enzyme Treatment on the Microbial Load and Energy Bioavailability of Feedstuffs

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur R; Mandal AB; Parvin R; Yadav AS

    2013-01-01

    The presence of microbial load and high fiber content in various non conventional feedstuffs limit their utilization in poultry feed. In the present study, the feedstuffs were treated with acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and its impact on  the microbial load and metabolizable energy availability was assessed in  the chickens. The effect of supplementation of feed grade enzyme was also evaluated either alone or in combination with ASC treatment.  ASC was prepared by adding citric acid to an aq...

  12. Insight of the removal of nickel and copper ions in fixed bed through acid activation and treatment with sodium of clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. de Almeida Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bentonitic clays show good adsorptive characteristics, being used as alternative material for removing metals. This study evaluates several treatments (calcination, acid activation and treatment with sodium of bentonite type Bofe in the removal of nickel and copper. Analyses were performed for physicochemical characterization of clay using the techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF, thermal analysis (TG and DTA, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME method, N2 adsorption (BET and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Among the changes induced by acid activation and sodium transformations, the treatment with sodium chloride in fixed bed showed the highest performance in the monocomponent removal of nickel and copper.

  13. Insight of the removal of nickel and copper ions in fixed bed through acid activation and treatment with sodium of clay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. F. de, Almeida Neto; M. G. A., Vieira; M. G. C. da, Silva.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bentonitic clays show good adsorptive characteristics, being used as alternative material for removing metals. This study evaluates several treatments (calcination, acid activation and treatment with sodium) of bentonite type Bofe in the removal of nickel and copper. Analyses were performed for [...] physicochemical characterization of clay using the techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermal analysis (TG and DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) method, N2 adsorption (BET) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Among the changes induced by acid activation and sodium transformations, the treatment with sodium chloride in fixed bed showed the highest performance in the monocomponent removal of nickel and copper.

  14. Genetically targeted radiotherapy using the sodium-iodide symporter for treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts at using gene therapy for cancer treatment have achieved limited success. Traditional in vivo gene therapy techniques are limited by relatively inefficient gene transfer, with only a small fraction of tumor cells transfected with the gene of interest. Gene therapy strategies yielding substantial bystander cytotoxicity are preferable and could yield significant clinical effect despite a lack of gene transfer to the entire tumor. We report the successful use of such a strategy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene, expressed primarily in the thyroid, is responsible for physiologic iodide accumulation. Expression of NIS in non-thyroid cell lines has been shown to confer iodide-concentrating ability. Using a recombinant adenovirus-NIS construct (Ad-NIS) delivered to HNSCC cell lines, we demonstrate radioiodide accumulation 15- to 30-fold higher than that of cell lines transduced with a control (Ad-Bgl II) adenovirus. Consistent with NIS-mediated uptake, this accumulation is inhibited by treatment with perchlorate. Using a clonogenic cell survival assay, we demonstrate a statistically significant, dose-dependent decrease in cell survival after delivery of Ad-NIS followed by administration of varying doses of I-131. Compared to a control, Ad-Bgl II-treated group, absolute survival was reduced by 80% at the highest dose of I-131 in Ad-NIS-treated cells. We also demonstrate the ability of NIS gene transfer followed by systemic administration of I-131 to dramatically attenuate tumor formation in nude mice. Three weeks after subcutaneous injection of tumor cells, tumors treated with Ad-NIS had decreased in size by 0.7±0.1 mm, whereas control tumors treated with Ad-Bgl II had increased in size by 7.4±1.7 mm. The relative accessibility of head and neck cancers make them attractive targets for gene therapy. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of genetically targeted radiotherapy using the NIS gene as a possible therapeutic intervention. Supported by NIH CA91709

  15. Evaluation of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings leachates. Laboratory progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions. Highly acidic tailings solutions (pH3) reagent grade; Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] reagent grade; Magnesium oxide (MgO) reagent grade; Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) reagent grade; and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reagent grade. Evaluation of the effectiveness for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions for the selected neutralizing agents under controlled laboratory conditions was based on three criteria. The criteria are: (1) treated effluent water quality, (2) neutralized sludge handling and hydraulic properties, and (3) reagent costs and acid neutralizing efficiency. On the basis of these limited laboratory results calcium hydroxide or its dehydrated form CaO (lime) appears to be the most effective option for treatment of uranium tailings solutions

  16. Multi-stage absorption of rendering plant odours using sodium hypochlorite and other reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, D.; Davis, B. J.; Moss, R. L.

    Conditions for using sodium hypochlorite solution as the main component of a multi-stage absorption system for the treatment of malodorous process emissions were studied, together with the additional reagents needed for effective odour control. In laboratory experiments, mixtures containing vpm levels in air of trimethylamine, hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulphide, n-butanal and sometimes ammonia were passed through three bubble-plate columns containing some of the following: water, dilute sulphuric acid, sodium hypochlorite solutions (varying in pH and available chlorine content) sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen sulphite. Odour removal was monitored by Chromatographic and sensory methods. Conclusions from laboratory experiments were supported by field-tests at four rendering plants in the U.K., treating both ventilation and process gases. Alkaline hypochlorite with considerable excess available chlorine removes many sulphur-compounds and aldehydes but effective odour control requires an acid pre-wash to prevent the generation of odorous chlorinated compounds from ammonia and amines. Acidic hypochlorite solution followed by sodium hydrogen sulphite (to remove aldehyde) and sodium hydroxide was a most effective combination in both laboratory and field tests. Odour generated in chlorination reactions involving acidic hypochlorite solution was analysed by GC-MS and GC-MPD-odour-port and the odour key compounds identified.

  17. Development of Sodium Technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the experiments to investigate the characteristics of the free surface fluctuation in a vessel, the experimental correlation was modeled to describe the free surface fluctuation in the upper plenum of a liquid metal reactor within 95% reliability and 2.4% error. The correlation was used to verify the computational model. The new conceptual flowmeters were suggested to measure the sodium flow for the reliability enhancement. The electromagnetic flowmeter with permanent magnet showed a good linearity and repeatability. For reuse of the sodium contaminated component, CO2 bubbling method was developed. Sodium in 0.3mm crevice specimen was removed completely. The optimum condition for the used sodium treatment was deduced to estimate which reaction is more safe and adequate for operation condition by analyzing the reactivity alleviation condition and the reaction rate with the control of sodium hydroxide concentration A series of tests were carried out to investigate the enlargement rate of the nozzle hole itself and the sodium-water reaction temperature associated with needle-like jets of a high-pressure water/steam into the sodium side of a steam generator. The size of the nozzle hole became larger with an increased duration of the steam injection both for the 2.25Cr-1Mo and M9Cr-1Mo steels by a self-wastage phenomenon. For developing the SWR acoustic leak detection technology, the tool prepared by the LabVIEW was installed with the system, and confirmed the performance of the on-line acoustic leak detection tool using the SWR leak signal acquired in the KAERI facility

  18. The Relationship of Inflammation Markers and Vascular Endothelial Indicators in Program Hemodialysis Patients in Sodium Deoxyribonucleate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinok ?.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the dynamics and relationship of inflammatory process activity indicators and vascular endothelial condition in program hemodialysis (PHD patients, sodium deoxyribonucleate being used in complex treatment. Materials and Methods. The study involved 69 PHD patients with end-stage renal failure. The patients were randomized into two groups. Control group patients with PHD (n=35 received background therapy, while the patients of the treatment group (n=34 — background therapy and 75 mg (5 ml of 1.5% solution of sodium deoxyribonucleate (Derinat, Technomedservice, Russia intramuscularly (10 injections, every 24 h. The content of interleukin-6, -1?, -10 (IL-6, IL-1?, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?, endothelin (1-21 and von Willebrand factor (vWF activity were analyzed using enzyme immunoassay, stable metabolites of nitric oxide (NO — spectrophotometrically; of ?-reactive protein (CRP — by immunoturbidimetric method; of fibrinogen — using Klaus method. The indices were assessed within three months: on day 1 (I examination, in treatment group — before sodium deoxyribonucleate administration, day 30 (II examination, and day 90 (III examination; at each of the mentioned stages — before hemodialysis procedure. Blood serum was the object of the research. Results. There were observed an increased content of IL-6, IL-1?, IL-10, CRP, fibrinogen, NO and endothelin (1-21, and the decrease of TNF-? and vWF activity in relation to initial data. Sodium deoxyribonucleate as part of complex background therapy of PHD patients reduced the levels of IL-6, IL-1?, CRP (day 30 and fibrinogen (days 30 and 90, with the increase in IL-10 level (day 30 in relation to both: initial indices and control group indices. TNF-? content decreased only in relation to the initial level; and on day 30 it was higher than the similar index in the control group. We observed the lower NO level compared to the background therapy (days 30 and 90, but higher vWF activity (day 30. PHD patients were found to have the interaction of the changes of inflammation markers and endothelial condition indices. However, in sodium deoxyribonucleate administration the range of the correlation-dependent indices changed in comparison with those in background therapy. Therefore, we recommend a follow-up of inflammatory markers and vascular endothelial condition indices if sodium deoxyribonucleate is used as part of complex therapy for PHD patients.

  19. Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Nitrite And/Or Glutathione Treatment On Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Helal; *Zahkok, S; **Ghada Z A Soliman; * Al-Kassas, M;

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using food preservatives as sodium nitrite are increased in industrial food productions. Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects have been related to using of some food preservatives. Purpose: To study the effect of sodium nitrite (food additives and treated with glutathione (nature antitoxic on rats. Material And Methods: Certain parameters were measured as percentage of body weight change, body temperature, heart rates, Red & white blood cells count (RBCs & WBCs, hemoglobin (Hb level, hematocrite (Hct value, serum total lipids, serum cholesterol, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum glucose, serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase (ALT & AST activity and serum total cholinesterase. The organs, body weight were detected. Organs were prepared for biochemical analysis. Results: Body weight, respiration rate, hepatosomatic index, RBCs & WBCs count, Hb, Hct, serum total lipids, protein, albumin, A/G ratio, liver and muscle total lipids and cholesterol were significantly reduced while serum cholesterol, kidney total lipids and cholesterol, serum ALT & AST was significantly increased. Supplementation of sodium nitrite to rats had no effect on serum glucose level or cholinesterase activity Conclusion: Due to the hazardous effect of food additives as sodium nitrite, it is recommended that the use of sodium nitrite as food additives must be limited and gluathione has the ability to prevent its toxic effect

  20. Observation of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Hua Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the effects of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis. METHODS:Forty patients with ocular herpes zoster were divided into two groups, 20 cases in the observation group, 20 cases in the control group. Observation group was treated with 200mg oral acyclovir for 5 times a day and sodium hyaluronate eye drops for 4 times a day. When stromal keratitis, disciform keratitis or corneal endotheliitis occurred, fluorometholone was used for 4 times a day. The control group was treated with ganciclovir ophthalmic gel for 4 times a day. The efficacy of two groups was observed, patients were followed up for 3-4wk. RESULTS:The observation group of local pain and photophobia in remission time and corneal damage healing time were better than control group, and there were significant differences(PCONCLUSION: Effects of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis are satisfactory.

  1. Chronic ciguatoxin treatment induces synaptic scaling through voltage gated sodium channels in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Víctor; Vale, Carmen; Rubiolo, Juan A; Roel, Maria; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luís M

    2015-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channels activators that cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents with long-term neurological alterations. In central neurons, chronic perturbations in activity induce homeostatic synaptic mechanisms that adjust the strength of excitatory synapses and modulate glutamate receptor expression in order to stabilize the overall activity. Immediate early genes, such as Arc and Egr1, are induced in response to activity changes and underlie the trafficking of glutamate receptors during neuronal homeostasis. To better understand the long lasting neurological consequences of ciguatera, it is important to establish the role that chronic changes in activity produced by ciguatoxins represent to central neurons. Here, the effect of a 30 min exposure of 10-13 days in vitro (DIV) cortical neurons to the synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on Arc and Egr1 expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction approaches. Since the toxin increased the mRNA levels of both Arc and Egr1, the effect of CTX 3C in NaV channels, membrane potential, firing activity, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and glutamate receptors expression in cortical neurons after a 24 h exposure was evaluated using electrophysiological and western blot approaches. The data presented here show that CTX 3C induced an upregulation of Arc and Egr1 that was prevented by previous coincubation of the neurons with the NaV channel blocker tetrodotoxin. In addition, chronic CTX 3C caused a concentration-dependent shift in the activation voltage of NaV channels to more negative potentials and produced membrane potential depolarization. Moreover, 24 h treatment of cortical neurons with 5 nM CTX 3C decreased neuronal firing and induced synaptic scaling mechanisms, as evidenced by a decrease in the amplitude of mEPSCs and downregulation in the protein level of glutamate receptors that was also prevented by tetrodotoxin. These findings identify an unanticipated role for ciguatoxin in the regulation of homeostatic plasticity in central neurons involving NaV channels and raise the possibility that some of the neurological symptoms of ciguatera might be explained by these compensatory mechanisms. PMID:25945544

  2. Multi-laminated metal hydroxide nanocontainers for oral-specific delivery for bioavailability improvement and treatment of inflammatory paw edema in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Kuthati, Yaswanth; Sie, Huei-Wun; Shih, Hung-Yuan; Lue, Sheng-I; Kankala, Shravankumar; Jeng, Chien-Chung; Deng, Jin-Pei; Weng, Ching-Feng; Liu, Chen-Lun; Lee, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-15

    Multiple layers of pH-sensitive enteric copolymers were coated over layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles for controllable drug release and improved solubility of hydrophobic drugs. The nano-sized LDH carriers significantly improved the accessibility of sulfasalazine molecules that have positively charged frameworks. In addition, the successful encapsulation of negatively charged enteric copolymers was achieved via electrostatic attractions. The multi-layered enteric polymer coating could potentially protect nanoparticle dissolution at gastric pH and accelerate the dissolution velocity, which would improve the drug bioavailability in the colon. Next, biological studies of this formulation indicated a highly protective effect from the scavenging of superoxide free radicals and diethyl maleate (DEM) induced lipid peroxidation, which are major cell signalling pathways for inflammation. The histological view of the liver and kidney sections revealed that the nanoformulation is safe and highly biocompatible. The animal studies conducted via paw inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) revealed that enteric-coated LDH-sulfasalazine nanoparticles provided a sustained release that maintained the sulfasalazine concentrations in a therapeutic window. Therefore, this nanoformulation exhibited preferential efficacy in reducing the CFA-induced inflammation especially at day 4. PMID:26225492

  3. A comparison of the efficacy of naproxen sodium and a paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene combination in the treatment of soft-tissue disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, C. J.; Bouchier-Hayes, T. A.; Hunt, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    Ninety-eight patients were admitted to a single-blind parallel study comparing the efficacy of naproxen sodium with a paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene combination in the treatment of soft-tissue disorders. The two study groups were well matched in all respects. After seven days of treatment patients in the naproxen sodium group had less residual symptoms and more of them were considered cured. These patients also had a significantly lower mean-pain-score, tended to have less daily symptoms and ...

  4. Studies on plutonium hydroxide precipitation for separation of plutonium from bulk of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste solution resulting from recovery of plutonium from some ceramic scrap, contains 3.5 - 10 g/L of plutonium and large amount of calcium. Though solvent extraction and ion exchange are the popular methods for plutonium purification by wet process, Pu(IV)-hydroxide precipitation using ammonia solution is more convenient for separation of Pu from calcium. A systematic study of Pu (IV)-hydroxide precipitation as a function of hydrogen (pH), plutonium and calcium ion concentrations was, therefore, carried out and extent of purification of Pu from Ca was investigated. Use of combination of sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide in place of ammonium hydroxide alone was also explored and was found to be satisfactory for easy pH control. (author)

  5. Extraction of radionuclides 90Sr+90Y from complex solutions by coprecipitation of iron, zirconium and manganese hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to elaboration of method of purification of waste waters of nuclear reactors. Therefore, the coprecipitation of tracer amounts of radionuclides 90Sr+90Y with iron, zirconium and manganese hydroxides in solutions of sodium and ammonium nitrates and components of waste waters depending on ph and composition of solutions, anion concentration and quantity of hydroxides is studied. It was defined, that radionuclides 90Sr+90Y completely coprecipitated with iron and zirconium hydroxides at ph 9+12 and with manganese hydroxide at ph 3+12 in wide range of concentrations of base electrolyte and sorbent quantity.

  6. Antimicrobial evaluation of gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide paste in infected root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh A Saberi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial irritation is the major etiologic cause of pulp and periapical lesions. Therefore the main goal of endodontic treatment is complete elimination or inimizing acteria with chemo-mechanical preparation. Calcium hydroxide is one of the chemical substances, which are used, in endodontic treatment and its antimicrobial effect on various bacteria has extensively has been studied and researched. Recently Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide has been offered to dentistry.The purpose this study was to examine the antimicrobial effects of this substance in infected root canals. Material and Methods: In this study ninty extracted human maxillary central incisors, which had been extracted to various reasons, were selected. After canal preparation and root sterilization, all the samples (excluding 10 negative control samples were contaminated by bacillus subtillis. Then these eighty roots were randomly divided into 3 groups , which were 10 roots as positive control group ( non medicated , 35 roots medicated with Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide as group A, 35 roots medicated with calcium hydroxide as group B. after 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days in these three groups , antimicrobial effect was assessed. Result: The result showed no significant difference (p=0.35 between antimicrobial effect of Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide past.Conclusion: Since there is no significant difference between antimicrobial effect of Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide past, it seems that the usage of this product as an intracanal medication should be more investigated

  7. The efficacy of paracetamol in the treatment of ankle sprains in comparison with diclofenac sodium.

    OpenAIRE

    Cemil Kayali; Haluk Agus; Levent Surer; Ali Turgut

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy of paracetamol in comparison with diclofenac sodium. METHODS Between February - November 2006, a prospective, double blinded, parallel group study of 100 patients suffering from first or second degree lateral ankle sprain within 48-hours of admission in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. Patients with bilateral injury, ipsilateral knee injury, third degree sprain, previous sprain within 6 months, and ankle pain less than 45 accor...

  8. Topical diclofenac sodium for treatment of postoperative inflammation in cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy Manjoo; N.SUNEETHA; Thomas Reji; Battu R

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effect of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an alternative to topical steroids for postoperative control of inflammation in cataract surgery. Methods: The effect of diclofenac sodium 0.1% following cataract surgery was studied and compared to routine corticosteroid, dexamethasone phosphate 1% in a prospective, double-blind randomized study. Both groups were similar in baseline parameters. Postoperative inflammatory response, intraocular pres...

  9. Stability and preservation of a new formulation of epoprostenol sodium for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert O; Bandilla D

    2012-01-01

    Olivier Lambert, Dirk BandillaActelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, SwitzerlandBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and microbiological properties of a formulation of epoprostenol sodium with L-arginine and sucrose excipients (epoprostenol AS).Methods: The stability of the reconstituted solutions after storage at 5°C and 25°C, diluted solutions (3000–60,000 ng/mL) at controlled room temperature, and diluted solutions (3000–60,0...

  10. Place of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2), such as canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents lower blood glucose mainly by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels by an average of 0.5%-0.8% when used as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Advantages of this drug class include modest weight loss of approximately 2 kg, low risk of hypoglycemia, and d...

  11. Radiation studies of aqueous alkali-metal hydroxide systems at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation initially involves the study of electron trapping in gamma-irradiated alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses. The study was conducted using electron spin resonance (esr) and optical spectroscopy techniques at about 77K. The hydroxides of lithium, sodium and potassium were looked at briefly as these have been covered in previous work. Rubidium and caesium hydroxides have been investigated in more detail, and results presented here clearly show that a second electron trapped centre exists for gamma-irradiated Rb aqueous glasses. Results for irradiated CsOH aqueous glasses are less conclusive, but certainly show divergence from the pattern established in lithium, sodium and potassium systems. Other systems studied are the aqueous hydroxide glasses of sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium (by pulse-radiolysis) irradiated aqueous glasses containing halide salts (by esr and optical spectroscopy), irradiated aqueous hydroxide glasses of caesium or rubidium mixed with sodium or potassium (esr spectroscopy), gamma-irradiated glasses of mixed ammonia-water systems at 77K (esr and optical spectroscopy) and gamma irradiated KOH pellets at 77K (esr spectroscopy). (UK)

  12. Wet reclamation of sodium silicate used sand and biological treatment of its wastewater by Nitzschia palea

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Shaoqiang; Fan Zitian; Wang Huafang

    2012-01-01

    The massive amount of sodium silicate in the used sand was a pollution source, especially in the waste water from the wet reclamation of used sand. A new process of wet reclamation by biologically treating the waste water produced during the wet reclamation process of used sand was studied in the paper. In the work, the pre-cultivation of N. palea was performed firstly, and three different scrubbing solutions: (1) tap water, (2) modified medium for N. palea, and (3) filtrate of the broth trea...

  13. Treatment of lung cancer with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous sodium thiosulfate rescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-nine patients with primary lung cancer were treated with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous injection of an antidote, sodium thiosulfate. More than 50% reduction of tumor size (PR) was observed in 8 of 9 small cell carcinomas (SCLC) and in 16 of 40 non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). In NSCLC patients PR was obtained in 71% (12/17) after repeated infusions (? 200 mg cisplatin) and in 17% (4/23) after a single infusion (? 150 mg cisplatin). There was a significant linear relationship between cisplatin dose and tumor reduction in this group. No severe adverse effects were encountered. (orig.)

  14. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant from the Parsons process in the CRU. The modular CRU is easily scalable as a standalone system for caustic recycling, or for NTTS integration or for use as an In-Tank Treatment System to process sodium bearing waste to meet LLW processing needs at the Hanford site. The standalone pilot operation of the CRU to recycle sodium from NTCR effluent places the technology demonstration at TRL level 6. Multiple operations were performed with the CRU to process up to 500 gallons of the NTCR effluent and demonstrate an efficient separation of up to 70 % of the sodium without solids precipitation while producing 10 M caustic. Batch mode operation was conducted to study the effects of chemistry variation, establish the processing rate, and optimize the process operating conditions to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent. The performance of the CRU was monitored by tracking the density parameter to control the concentration of caustic produced. Different levels of sodium were separated in tests from the effluent at a fixed operating current density and temperature. The voltage of the modules remained stable during the unit operation which demonstrated steady operation to separate sodium from the NTCR effluent. The sodium transfer current efficiency was measured in testing based on the concentration of caustic produced. Measurements showed a current efficiency of 99.8% for sodium transfer from the NTCR effluent to make sodium hydroxide. The sodium and hydroxide contents of the anolyte (NTCR feed) and catholyte (caustic product) were measured before and after each batch test. In two separate batch tests, samples were taken at different levels of sodium separation and analyzed to determine the stability of the NTCR effluent after sodium separation. The stability characteristics and changes in physical and chemical properties of the NTCR effluent chemistry after separation of sodium hydroxide as a function of storage time were evaluated. Parameters such as level of precipitated alumina, total alkalinity, analysis of Al, Na, K, Cs, Fe, OH, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved and undissolved solids, viscosity, density, and other parameters of the NTCR effluent were measured. Changes in rheology and properties of NTCR stream to support downstream handling of the effluent after sodium separation was the basis for the analysis. The results show that the NTCR effluent is stable without the precipitation of aluminum hydroxide after 70% of the sodium was separated from the effluent. (authors)

  15. Thorium recovery as mantle grade nitrate using a crude thorium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of the industrial treatment of monazite sand in S. Paulo, Brazil, several concentrates containing thorium and rare earth elements were produced. A typical thorium concentrate, named 'crude thorium hydroxide' TBR, has the following composition: thorium oxide 50-60%, rare earth oxides: 20-26% and minor impurities like iron, lead, silicon, sodium and others. A reasonable amount of the above mentioned concentrate is available today. Having in mind an alternative process in substitution of the until recently used thorium sulfate as the raw material, now completely consumed, work with this HTBR thorium concentrate is being worked out. A process of fractional hydroxides precipitation has been studied for separation of thorium from the rare earth. The fractional precipitation is based upon the warm nitric acid dissolution aiming the insolubilization of the great majority of the silica and the maximum solubilization of thorium and rare earth elements. The resultant filtered acid solution is then treated with a neutralizing agent in a controlled condition for the precipitation of the whole thorium content and keeping the rare earth nitrates in the solution. The precipitate has high concentration of thorium and 4% rare earths. Thorium nitrate solution containing 200-250 g L-1 ThO2 is obtained by dissolution of this fraction with nitric acid. Thorium nitrate obtained from the HTBR is adequate for the use in the gas mantle manufacture. (author)

  16. Adsorption of phosphonate antiscalant from reverse osmosis membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, Luciaan; Keesman, Karel J; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2012-09-01

    Adsorptive removal of antiscalants offers a promising way to improve current reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment processes and enables the reuse of the antiscalant in the RO desalination process. This work investigates the adsorption and desorption of the phosphonate antiscalant nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from RO membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), a material that consists predominantly of akaganéite. The kinetics of the adsorption of NTMP onto GFH was predicted fairly well with two models that consider either combined film-pore or combined film-surface diffusion as the main mechanism for mass transport. It is also demonstrated that NTMP is preferentially adsorbed over sulfate by GFH at pH 7.85. The presence of calcium causes a transformation in the equilibrium adsorption isotherm from a Langmuir type to a Freundlich type with much higher adsorption capacities. Furthermore, calcium also increases the rate of adsorption substantially. GFH is reusable after regeneration with sodium hydroxide solution, indicating that NTMP can be potentially recovered from the RO concentrate. This work shows that GFH is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of NTMP antiscalant from RO membrane concentrates. PMID:22873428

  17. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corona discharge formed an alkali depletion layer on a glass surface. • Introduction of hydrogen accelerated the depletion layer thickness. • Thickness was doubled compared with that in air. • Efficient formation of proton at an anode needle end was one cause. • Applied voltage across the glass plate in hydrogen was 2.7 times that in air. - Abstract: Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air

  18. The quasi-three-dimensional marginal leakage of full-coverage crowns: resin coating versus sodium hypochlorite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Daizo; Mine, Atsushi; De Munck, Jan; Kuboki, Takuo; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the effects of various surface treatments and techniques on the marginal leakage of full-coverage crowns using a quasi-three-dimensional evaluation. Crowns were cast using a gold-silver-palladium alloy by means of the lost-wax technique. Twenty-eight recently extracted human molars were divided randomly into four groups according to surface treatment before crown cementation: (1) no pretreatment (negative control), (2) primer (positive control), (3) resin coating and primer, and (4) phosphoric acid, sodium hypochlorite, and primer. All specimens were cemented with composite cement. The lowest marginal leakage was observed in group 4. Variation in marginal leakage between specimens originating from the same tooth was observed. PMID:20859554

  19. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Ola; Eksborg, Staffan; Wallenberg, Marita; Asker-Hagelberg, Charlotte; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Mohlkert, Dag; Lenneby-Helleday, Clara; Jacobsson, Hans; Linder, Stig; Misra, Sougat; Bjornstedt, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients' refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. Patients received first line of chemotherapy following selenite treatment to investigate altered sensitivity to these drugs and preliminary assessment of any clinical benefits. Materials and Method...

  20. Rice mutants obtained through sodium azide (NaN3) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful utilization of sodium azide to generate genetic variability in plant breeding has been reported in barley, rice, and other crops. Rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce', Brazilian upland cultivar, were treated with 5x10-3 M of sodium azide, prepared in buffer solution of pH 3,0, for 8 hours at laboratory temperature. Ten short culm mutant lines were selected in the M2, M3 and M4 generations. In the M5 generation, the mutant lines were evaluated for flowering and maturing cycles, tiller number per plant, plant height, panicle number per m2 , panicle length, fertility of panicle, weight of 1.000 grains, productivity, percentage of intact grains after milling, width and thickness of peeled and polished grains and length/width grain ratio. The experiment was conducted in the Centro Experimental of Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the period of 1993/94, utilizing randomized block design with four replications. Each experimental plot consisted of five rows of four meters in length, 50 cm between rows, with 75 seeds sown per meter. The cultivar 'IAC 201' and the original Dourado Precoce were planted as checks. All observations were made on the three central rows of each experimental plot. The data was analysed by the SANEST statistical program and the mean values were discriminated by the Tukey's test at the level 5% of probability

  1. Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Daume

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Long term stability is crucial to maturing any photovoltaic technology. We have studied the influence of sodium, which plays a key role in optimizing the performance of Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGSe solar cells, on the long-term stability of flexible CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil. The standardized procedure of damp heat exposure (85% relative humidity at 85 °C was used to simulate aging of the unencapsulated cells in multiple time steps while they were characterized by current-voltage analysis, capacitance-voltage profiling, as well as electroluminescence imaging. By comparing the aging process to cells that were exposed to heat only, it could be confirmed that moisture plays the key role in the degradation process. We found that cells with higher sodium content suffer from a more pronounced degradation. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate the superposition of an enhancing and a deteriorating mechanism during the aging process. We propose an explanation based on the corrosion of the planar contacts of the solar cell.

  2. Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasanapiarnpong, T; Thueploy, A; Arayaphong, D [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramic, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Nilpairach, S, E-mail: thanakorn.w@chula.ac.t [National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)

    2011-10-29

    Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 deg. C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 deg. C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 deg. C had lower water absorption as 12.22%, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

  3. Technology of mine water treatment in uranium ore mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used method of radioactive water treatment is the sedimentation method based on the adsorption mechanism. Iron, aluminium and calcium hydroxides are used for removal of uranium. Thorium, polonium and lead 210 are removed using the said hydroxides and also barium chloride and sodium phosphate. The mining solutions are mixed with chemicals and cleaning proceses take place including sedimentation, decantation and filtration. The treated water is partially returned into technological operations, partially discharged. Hygiene regulations have so far been missing governing other uses. (M.D.). 3 refs

  4. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Zhen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Antiplatelet aggregation treatment has become a regular treatment of ischemic stroke. The affirmation of antiplatelet therapy is mainly derived from patients with clinical use, which can not provide the laboratory indexes for evaluation of a recognized accuracy. Studies have confirmed that the degree of platelet activation is associated with atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke, and recognized that both CD62p (?-platelet granule membrane glycoprotein and CD63 (lysosomal membrane glycoprotein were important indexes of platelet activation. This study aims to explore the differences of efficacy between combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium and monotherapy by aspirin in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke by investigating the expression of CD62p and CD63. Methods Flow cytometry was employed to detect CD62p and CD63 expression on circulating platelet in patients with ischemic stroke and normal control group. The positive rate of CD62p and CD63 was detected in patients with ischemic stroke who were treated with aspirin 0.15 g (single drug therapy and clopidogrel 75 mg + ozagrel sodium 80 mg (combination therapy before and after one and two weeks' treatment. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores were measured in patients with ischemic stroke at the same time in three periods respectively to evaluate the improvement of neural function. Results Platelet CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate in ischemic stroke group were higher than normal control group before treatment (P = 0.001, 0.032. CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score were measured at different times, and the differences were statistically significant (F = 56.693, P = 0.000; F = 21.544, P = 0.000; F = 216.271, P = 0.000, respectively. Compared with before treatment, CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score decreased significantly after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but the differences between aspirin group and combination group were not statistically significant (P > 0.05, for all. There was no interaction between the treatment groups and measuring time with CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate (F = 1.403, P = 0.250; F = 2.830, P = 0.063, while there was interaction between treatment groups and measuring time with NIHSS score (F = 4.518, P = 0.013. Conclusion Antiplatelet drug treatment of acute ischemic stroke is effective. The curative effect of combined treatment (clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium is not superior to aspirin alone. CD62p positive expression rate in acute stage of ischemic stroke can measure the effect of antiplatelet therapy, while the determination of CD63 needs further research.

  5. Dialysate sodium, serum sodium and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Causland, Finnian R.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Waikar, Sushrut S.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Individuals with end-stage kidney disease appear to have stable pre-dialysis serum sodium concentrations over time, with lower values associating with increased mortality. Dialysate sodium concentrations have increased over many years in response to shorter treatments, but the relationship between serum sodium, dialysate sodium and outcomes in chronic hemodialysis patients has not yet been systematically examined.

  6. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-08-26

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable.

  7. [Treatment of chronic copper poisoning in dairy sheep with oral ammonium molybdate and sodium sulphate ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, J; Bidaut, A; Waldvogel, A; Emmenegger, B; Naegeli, H

    2005-05-01

    Four weeks after the introduction of a new ration, a herd of sheep in the Swiss midland area was affected by depression, anorexia, decreased milk production, anemia, hemoglobinuria and frequent recumbency. Seventeen ewes died within a few days. A diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning was based on the results of feed analysis, histopathological findings and the toxicological examination of liver tissue. The remaining sheep were treated with oral ammonium molybdate and sodium sulfate, which together provide an inexpensive alternative to the chelator D-penicillamine.This combination not only prevents further copper intake, but also supports its elimination from the hepatocellular storage compartments. Serum copper levels have been determined to monitor the mobilization of copper following this antidote therapy. PMID:15929603

  8. The Sr-90 waste treatment by using sodium carbonat as a carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coprecipitation processes of the Sr-90 wastes, with the lime-soda treatment, that followed by the mechanism of isomorph substitution, have shown a good performance in pH 7-8. Excess of natrium carbonate in the lime-soda treatment caused the decrease of the decontamination factor. This research shows that the coprecipitation by calcite-phosphate was better than the lime-soda treatment. (author)

  9. Radiation-electron spin resonance studies on alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiated alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses were investigated using electron spin-resonance (esr) technique at a temperature range 92-163 K. The study was also conducted on these systems using chemical additives as electron scavengers including potassium ferricyanide, potassium nitrate, and sodium selenite and selenate. Sodium, potassium and rubidium hydroxide containing SeO42- and NO3- as scavengers have been investigated in detail over a range of temperatures (92-163 K). An attempt has been made to analyse the scavenging yields and the results have been treated in terms of scavenging efficiencies. Irradiated aqeuous hydroxide glasses of sodium mixed with potassium or rubidium were studied using NO3- and SeO42- as a scavenger. The esr study of rubidium and caesium hydroxide at 163 K gave rise to a characteristic spectrum similar to the one assigned to NO32-not present in the original systems at 92 K. Interesting results were obtained when the samples containing SeO32-were photobleached with white light. Possible mechanisms for the reactions of the scavenger ion in the alkaline glass are discussed in the light of previous studies. The work with caesium hydroxide has reinforced recent ideas that electrons are trapped within the matrix of the glass on irradiation. (author)

  10. Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THORR process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. Design of the IWTU is nearing completion. The IWTU will be constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF), with planned fabrication and construction to start in early 2007 upon receipt of needed permits and completion of design and engineering. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

  11. Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium-Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site 1. SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THORR process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. The IWTU is being constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF). Detailed design of the IWTU has been completed and DOE has approved the CD-3 detailed design. The State of Idaho has approved the RCRA and construction air permits. Construction of the IWTU started in April 2007 with civil and foundation work. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

  12. Comparison between Intravenous Sodium Valproate and Subcutaneous Sumatriptan for Treatment of Acute Migraine Attacks; Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Rahimdel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium valproate (SV has been approved for migraine prophylaxis and its intravenous form is used to treat acute migraine attacks. We compared the efficacy and safety of intravenous SV and subcutaneous Sumatriptan in managing acute migraine attacks. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial divided 90 patients into two groups: one group received 400 mg of intravenous SV and the second group received 6 mg of subcutaneous Sumatriptan. Headache severity before treatment and half an hour, one hour, and two hours after treatment was measured based on the VNRS in the groups. Associated symptoms, i.e., photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting, were assayed on admission and 2 hours after treatment. Side effects of the drugs were checked 2 hours after injection. Obtained data from the groups were compared. Results: In both groups, pain decrement at the mentioned time points was significant (P0.05, indicating the similar effect of both drugs on pain improvement. In the SV group, photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting were improved significantly, while in the Sumatriptan group, only photophobia and vomiting were decreased significantly, indicating the advantage of SV in improving the associated symptoms. Nausea, vomiting, facial paresthesia, and hypotension were more significantly frequent in the Sumatriptan group than in the SV group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Intravenous SV (400 mg was as effective as subcutaneous Sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks, but with more improvement in associated symptoms and with fewer side effects. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201108025943N4

  13. Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected as the technology of choice for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). SBW is an acidic tank waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at INL. It consists primarily of waste from decontamination activities and laboratory wastes. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, alkali and aluminum nitrates, with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium and strontium. The THORR steam reforming process will convert the SBW tank waste feed into a dry, solid, granular product. The THORR technology was selected to treat SBW, in part, because it can provide flexible disposal options to accommodate the final disposition path selected for SBW. THORR can produce a final end-product that will meet anticipated requirements for disposal as Remote-Handled TRU (RH-TRU) waste; and, with modifications, THORR can also produce a final end-product that could be qualified for disposal as High Level Waste (HLW). SBW treatment will be take place within the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), a new facility that will be located at the INTEC. This paper provides an overview of the THORR process chemistry and process equipment being designed for the IWTU. (authors)

  14. Chemical destruction of HMX-based explosives with ammonium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, C.; Dell`Orco, P.; Flesner, R.; Kramer, J.; Spontarelli, T.

    1995-09-01

    A series of experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory explored the efficacy of ammonium hydroxide solutions in converting HMX (cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine, or Octogen) and HMX-based explosives to nonenergetic, nonhazardous materials. When 80 g of explosive was converted in a reactor operating at 85 psig pressure at 140 C, the principal gaseous products were nitrous oxide (46% to 51%), nitrogen (22% to 32%), and ammonia (17% to 28%). Formate and hexamethylene-tetramine (hexamine) account for effectively 100% of the carbon-bearing aqueous species. Nitrate, nitrite, and acetate were present in the liquid in trace amounts. The process effectively treated molding powders of the plastic-bonded explosives PBX 9501 (2.5% estane), LX-04 (15% viton), and PBX 9404 (3% nitrocellulose). Results were compared with those achieved using sodium hydroxide solutions at 150 C in a pressurized reactor.

  15. Development of biological treatment of high concentration sodium nitrate waste liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrolytic reduction, chemical reduction, and biological reduction have been picked up as a method of nitrate liquid waste treatment system exhausted from the reprocessing process. As a result of comparing them, it was shown that the biological treatment was the most excellent method in safety and the economy. (author)

  16. Complex Microfiltration Behavior of Metal Hydroxide Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-02-28

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance against waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicate that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux loses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current research is to develop an understanding of the roles of cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. Metal hydroxide wastes were tested to examine the role of particle-filter interaction on filter performance.

  17. Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luciana Segura de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control. Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with chloramphenicol presented higher survival than the treatment with oxytetracycline and both showed significantly higher survival than control. Swimming activity was higher in the fish treated with antibiotics and salt compared to control fish. A combination of the studied antibiotics plus salt is more effective to treat both A. hydrophila infection and I. multifiliis infestation in silver catfish, but since the use of chloramphenicol is not allowed in Brazil, oxytetracycline plus salt seems to be the best treatment option.

  18. Stability and preservation of a new formulation of epoprostenol sodium for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Olivier Lambert, Dirk BandillaActelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, SwitzerlandBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and microbiological properties of a formulation of epoprostenol sodium with L-arginine and sucrose excipients (epoprostenol AS.Methods: The stability of the reconstituted solutions after storage at 5°C and 25°C, diluted solutions (3000–60,000 ng/mL at controlled room temperature, and diluted solutions (3000–60,000 ng/mL stored at 5°C and then at room temperature were evaluated. Solutions were prepared using sterile water for injection or sterile saline (sodium chloride 0.9% for injection. Shelf-life was assessed by determining potency over time relative to initial potency. In this context, potency is synonymous with content. The antimicrobial activity of reconstituted (100,000 ng/mL for 0.5 mg vial, 300,000 ng/mL for 1.5 mg vial and diluted (3000 ng/mL epoprostenol AS was measured using an antimicrobial effectiveness test after inoculation with six species of bacteria, yeast, and mold.Results: Reconstituted epoprostenol AS was stable for up to one day’s storage at 25°C or 7 days’ storage at 5°C. Epoprostenol AS was stable for up to 72 hours when diluted, depending on temperature and concentration. The maximum shelf-life of the diluted solution if the reconstituted solution had been stored for up to one day at room temperature or up to 7 days at 5°C, was between 24 and 72 hours, depending on concentration. Following storage of diluted solutions at 5°C for up to 8 days, maximum shelf-life was between one and 2 days, depending on temperature and concentration. Potency was not dependent on diluents. Preservative testing confirmed no microbial growth for any of six organisms tested for at least 14 days at 5°C or 25°C for the reconstituted solution and for at least 16 days at 5°C followed by one day at 25°C for the diluted solutions.Conclusion: Epoprostenol AS has favorable thermal stability and does not support the growth of any micro-organism tested for up to 17 days. This extended stability under ambient conditions has the potential to improve convenience further for patients.Keywords: epoprostenol, pulmonary arterial hypertension, potency, stability, shelf-life, microbiological activity

  19. The sodium process facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters (180,000 gallons) of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The SPF was designed to react elemental sodium to sodium carbonate through two-stages involving caustic process and carbonate process steps. The sodium is first reacted to sodium hydroxide in the caustic process step. The caustic process step involves the injection of sodium into a nickel reaction vessel filled with a 50 wt% solution of sodium hydroxide. Water is also injected, controlling the boiling point of the solution. In the carbonate process, the sodium hydroxide is reacted with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate. This dry powder, similar in consistency to baking soda, is a waste form acceptable for burial in the State of Idaho as a non-hazardous, radioactive waste. The caustic process was originally designed and built in the 1980s for reacting the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of primary sodium from the Fermi-1 Reactor to sodium hydroxide. The hydroxide was slated to be used to neutralize acid products from the PUREX process at the Hanford site. However, changes in the DOE mission precluded the need for hydroxide and the caustic process was never operated. With the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), the necessity for a facility to react sodium was identified. In order to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the sodium had to be converted into a waste form acceptable for disposal in a Sub-Title D low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Sodium hydroxide is a RCRA regulated waste. It was decided to convert the hydroxide to sodium carbonate, a substance that is not RCRA regulated. ANL-W undertook the task of upgrading the SPF, and designing and constructing the additional carbonate process. At the time of preparation of this paper, the facilities were undergoing testing and startup activities. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters (13,000 gallons) of the EBR-II secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters (87,000 gallons) of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-levels of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter (71 gallon) barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal. (author)

  20. Determination of hydrogen in lithium hydroxide by carbon monoxide carrier gas method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given for the determination of hydrogen in lithium hydroxide by hot extraction method in a stream of carbon monoxide. The carbon monoxide is not only used as a carrier gas but also as chemical reactant, which removes the hydrogen present as hydroxide in lithium hydroxide by the formation of carbonate. The recommended procedure is as follows: an accurately weighed sample of approximately 100 mg of lithium hydroxide is placed in a reaction tube (test tube type, glassware. 15 phi x 200 mm) by use of a sample charging device. Argon is passed through the system for 10 min at a rate of 100 ml/min, and then carbon monoxide is passed through at 80 ml/min. The reaction tube is heated at 3900C for 15 min. The hydrogen evolved from the sample is determined by means of a thermal conductivity cell. Variation of the sample size, in the range from 20 to 120 mg, did not affect the results. The presence of lithium oxide up to 50 mg did not interfere with the extraction of hydrogen in the sample. A coeffieicient of variation of 1.7% was obtained (n=5). Approximately 97% of hydrogen present as hydroxide in the lithium hydroxide sample considered to be recovered by comparing with a result of titration method. The proposed method may be also used for analyzing sodium- and potassium hydroxide. (auth.)

  1. Effects of treatment with sodium fluoride and subsequent starvation on fluoride content of earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    The two experiments described here originated during a long-term investigation into the occurrence and movement of pollutant fluoride in a terrestrial ecosystem. Moles (Talpa europaea) whose diet consist largely of various species of earthworm Lumbricidae, are one of the species under investigation. Bone fluoride in moles was found to be higher, on average, than in foxes or small rodents. Moles probably acquire fluoride from their earthworm diet. Earthworms do not have any readily identifiable tissue in which to store large amounts of fluoride but, for their size, they have a considerable amount of soil in their gut, up oto 20% of their dry weight. Preliminary measurements of fluoride in whole earthworms suggested that observed levels could probably be accounted for by fluoride bound in the mineral part of contained soil and released during preparatory ashing. Two experiments to investigate this situation are described; here their aims were: to expose earthworms kept in soil to different concentrations of sodium fluoride; to measure resulting fluoride in earthworms when soil was removed from their gut by starvation for varying periods of time; and to compare amounts of fluoride in whole starved earthworms with those in starved earthworms from which remaining soil had also been physically removed by dissection and washing.

  2. Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control

  3. Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

  4. Successful Treatment of Lung Calciphylaxis With Sodium Thiosulfate in a Patient With Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrestier, Romain; Dudreuilh, Caroline; Remy, Philippe; Boulahia, Ghada; Bentaarit, Bouteina; Leibler, Claire; Adedjouma, Amir; Kofman, Tomek; Matignon, Marie; Sahali, Dil; Dufresne, Roger; Deux, Jean-Francois; Colin, Charlotte; Grimbert, Philippe; Lang, Philippe; Bartolucci, Pablo; Maitre, Bernard; Tran Van Nhieu, Jeanne; Audard, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calciphylaxis is a small vessel vasculopathy, characterized by medial wall calcification that develops in a few patients with chronic renal failure. The prognosis of skin calciphylaxis has improved considerably since the introduction of sodium thiosulfate (STS), but it remains unclear whether this therapy is effective against organ lesions related to calciphylaxis. Pulmonary calciphylaxis is a usually fatal medical condition that may occur in association with skin involvement in patients with end-stage renal disease. We report here the case of a 49-year-old woman homozygous sickle cell disease patient on chronic hemodialysis with biopsy-proven systemic calciphylaxis involving the lungs and skin. On admission, ulcerative skin lesions on the lower limbs and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest computerized tomography scan were the main clinical and radiological findings. Skin and bronchial biopsies demonstrated calciphylaxis lesions. The intravenous administration of STS in association with cinacalcet for 8 consecutive months led to a clear improvement in skin lesions and thoracic lesions on chest computerized tomography scan. This case suggests for the first time that organ lesions related to calciphylaxis, and particularly lung injury, are potentially reversible. This improvement probably resulted from the combination of 3 interventions (more frequent dialysis, cinacalcet, and STS), rather than the administration of STS alone. PMID:26871829

  5. Alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly for the treatment of osteoporosis: review of a novel, easy to swallow formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imai K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiro Imai Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, decreased bone strength, and an increased risk of bone fracture. The disease progresses with age, especially in postmenopausal women. Japan is one of the most rapidly aging societies worldwide. Japanese individuals over 65 years of age constituted 23.0% of the population in 2010 and 25.1% to 25.2% as of 2013. The estimated number of people with osteoporosis in Japan is currently 13 million. Bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Alendronate sodium hydrate (alendronate is a bisphosphonate that potently inhibits bone resorption and is used to treat osteoporosis. Sufficient water is required to take an alendronate oral tablet; insufficient water could result in digestive system diseases, such as esophageal ulceration. Elderly patients with swallowing difficulty may choke on the tablet. Taking a tablet with oral jelly is a method to prevent digestive system disease and reduce the choking hazard. Once-weekly alendronate oral jelly was approved in 2012 by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan as the world's first drug for osteoporosis in a jelly formulation. It consists of a jelly portion and an air portion. The jelly formulation is smoothly discharged by pushing the air portion. Therefore, elderly patients with physical disabilities are able to easily take all of the jelly formulation from the package. In this review, this new formulation of alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly is introduced and discussed in terms of osteoporosis treatment. This new formulation provides an alternative so that patients may select a method of dosing tailored to their preferences. Management of osteoporosis involves assessing fracture risk and preventing fractures. Higher adherence to the treatment of patients with osteoporosis and prevention of osteoporotic fractures are issues to be resolved. Keywords: air-extruded jelly formulation, alendronate sodium hydrate, bisphosphonate, elderly person, oral jelly, osteoporosis

  6. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg.... It is a white, highly deliquescent caustic solid, which is marketed in several forms,...

  7. Delayed sodium pyruvate treatment improves working memory following experimental traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Nobuhiro; Ghavim, Sima S.; Hovda, David A.; Sutton, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior work indicates that cerebral glycolysis is impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and that pyruvate treatment acutely after TBI can improve cerebral metabolism and is neuroprotective. Since extracellular levels of glucose decrease during periods of increased cognitive demand and exogenous glucose improves cognitive performance, we hypothesized that pyruvate treatment prior to testing could ameliorate cognitive deficits in rats with TBI. Based on pre-surgical spatial alternation...

  8. Oxidative leaching of chromium from layered double hydroxides: Mechanistic studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A V Radha; P Vishnu Kamath

    2004-08-01

    The layered double hydroxide (LDH) of Zn with Cr on treatment with a hypochlorite solution releases chromate ions as a result of oxidative leaching by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism. The residue is found to be -Zn(OH)2. The LDH of Mg with Cr on the other hand is resistant to oxidative leaching. In contrast, a X-ray amorphous gel of the coprecipitated hydroxides of Mg and Cr yields chromate ions. These results suggest that the oxidation potential of Cr(III) in LDHs is determined by the nature of the divalent ion and the crystallinity of the phase while being unaffected by the nature of the intercalated anions.

  9. High pressure treatments combined with sodium lactate to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and spoilage microbiota in cured beef carpaccio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masana, Marcelo Oscar; Barrio, Yanina Ximena; Palladino, Pablo Martín; Sancho, Ana Maria; Vaudagna, Sergio Ramón

    2015-04-01

    High-pressure treatments (400 and 600 MPa) combined with the addition of sodium lactate (1 and 3%) were tested to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) and spoilage microbiota contamination in a manufactured cured beef carpaccio in fresh or frozen conditions. Counts of spoilage microorganisms and STEC O157 were also examined during the curing step to prepare the carpaccio. STEC O157 counts remained almost unchanged through the curing process performed at 1 ± 1 °C for 12 days, with a small decrease in samples with 3% of sodium lactate. High-pressure treatments at 600 MPa for 5 min achieved an immediate reduction of up to 2 logarithmic units of STEC O157 in frozen carpaccio, and up to 1.19 log in fresh condition. Counts of spoilage bacteria diminished below detection limits in fresh or frozen carpaccio added with sodium lactate by the application of 400 and 600 MPa. Maximum injury on STEC O157 cells was observed at 600 MPa in carpaccio in fresh condition without added sodium lactate. Lethality of high-pressure treatments on STEC O157 was enhanced in frozen carpaccio, while the addition of sodium lactate at 3% reduced the lethality on STEC O157 in frozen samples, and the degree of injury in fresh carpaccio. PMID:25475335

  10. Inhibition treatment of the corrosion of lead artefacts in atmospheric conditions and by acetic acid vapour: use of sodium decanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of linear sodium decanoate, CH3(CH2)8COONa (noted NaC10), as corrosion inhibitor of lead was determined by electrochemical techniques in two corrosive mediums: ASTM D1384 standard water and acetic acid-enriched solutions. Best results were obtained with 0.05 mol l-1 of NaC10 solution. In these conditions, the inhibition efficiency can be estimated of 99.9%. The corrosion inhibition effect was confirmed by cyclic atmospheric tests in a climatic chamber in two different conditions: water saturated vapour, and acid acetic enriched vapour simulating the atmosphere in the wooden displays in museums. Surface analyses by SEM and X-ray diffraction indicate that the metal protection is due to the formation of a protective layer mainly composed of lead decanoate Pb(C10)2 (metallic soap). This inhibition treatment was applied on objects of metallic cultural heritage: gallo-roman sarcophagus in lead. Electrochemical methods confirm the efficiency of treatment on archaeological materials. In conclusion, this inhibitor treatment seems to be very promising against the atmospheric corrosion and the corrosion by organic acid vapour in museums

  11. A Brief Up-Date of the Use of Sodium Oxybate for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Fabio; Vignoli, Teo; Tarli, Claudia; Domenicali, Marco; Zoli, Giorgio; Bernardi, Mauro; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) with sodium oxybate (SMO) or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) was introduced in Italy and Austria more than 20 years and 15 years ago, respectively, and it is now widely employed to treat alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and to maintain alcohol abstinence. These indications derive from its similar structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA), exerting an ethanol-mimicking effect, because it binds to GABAB receptors. Craving for, and abuse of, SMO remain a controversial issue; even though these unfavorable effects are evident in poly-drug addicted patients and in those with psychiatric diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. In addition, despite cases of severe intoxication and deaths being widely documented when GHB is used as "street drug"; its clinical use remains safe. Thus, the aim of the present review is to examine the role of SMO in the treatment of AUD, its possible implications in reducing alcohol consumption, and cases of abuse, and severe intoxication due to SMO during its clinical use in the treatment of AUD. PMID:26959045

  12. Chemical gardens without silica: the formation of pure metal hydroxide tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Bruno C; Steinbock, Oliver

    2015-08-21

    Contrary to common belief, hollow precipitation tubes form in the absence of silicate if sodium hydroxide solution is injected into solutions of various metal ions. In many cases, the growth speed has a power law dependence on the flow rate. For vanadyl, we observe damped oscillations in the tube height. PMID:26172246

  13. REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

    2010-05-11

    A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

  14. Manual on early medical treatment of possible radiation injury with an appendix on sodium burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manual covers the following topics: 1) Background information and general principles; 2) New methods in the treatment of internal contamination by alpha emitters; 3) Emergency local decontamination; 4) Precautions to be taken in the event of hospitalization; 5) Assessment of fitness to resume work after contamination of irradiation accidents; 6) Organization, planning and training. The appendixes are concerned with: A) Samples to be taken in cases of external irradiation or internal contamination; B) Techniques for local decontamination of the skin; C) Basic treatment information for the physician; D) Standard first-aid kits; E) Decontamination room supplies

  15. Effects of magnesium-aluminum hydroxide antacid on absorption of rufloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzaroni, M.; Imbimbo, B P; Bargiggia, S; Sangaletti, O; Dal Bo, L; Broccali, G; Porro, G B

    1993-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of an antacid suspension containing magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide (30 ml of Maalox) on the oral bioavailability of rufloxacin (400 mg). Rufloxacin was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers according to a randomized, balanced, crossover design. Three treatments were administered to each subject, with a 10-day washout period between treatments; the treatments included rufloxacin alone, rufloxacin taken 5 min after antac...

  16. The Performance of Geopolymers Activated by Sodium Hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeontaek; Kang, Seunggu

    2015-08-01

    Geopolymers, a group of promising environmentally friendly materials that can work as cement substitutes, should be fabricated from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO mixtures containing large amounts of amorphous phases to ensure optimal chemical and physical properties. In this study, it was shown that geopolymers with enhanced mechanical strengths, as high as 115 MPa, could be obtained from perfectly amorphous slag from spent catalyst (SSC) discharged during automobile catalyst recycling. Geopolymer processing involved alkali-activation using a 16 M NaOH solution of pH13. The varying SSC grain size was the main experimental factor of interest, in combination with curing temperature and aging time. Variations in the mechanical strengths of the resulting geopolymers are explained by the occurrence of 10-50 nm-sized crystals and the presence of voids and pores dozens to hundreds of micrometers in size. PMID:26369225

  17. Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment of Switchgrass for Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulose-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to supplement corn-based ethanol production. However, the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic material is a major obstacle to the efficient conversion. To improve the enzymatic digestibility of switchgrass for the fermentable sugar...

  18. Unique layered double hydroxide morphologies using reverse microemulsion synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, G.(Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, U.S.A.); O'Hare, D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first controlled synthesis of a layered double hydroxide (LDH) in a water-in-oil reverse microemulsion system. This synthesis of Mg2Al-LDHs was carried out in the reverse microemulsion of NaDDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate)-water-isooctane with water/surfactant molar ratio = 24. This enables us to obtain nanometer sized LDH platelets typically with a 40-50 nm diameter and 10 nm thickness. Further modification of the reverse microemulsion using triblock copolymers during crystallizati...

  19. Contaminated sodium disposal: the Noah process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important and specific aspects of fast reactors after their final shutdown is the management of the contaminated sodium contained in the primary and secondary coolant systems. The NOAH sodium-destruction process was developed by the CEA and qualified on a pilot loop between 1985 and 1989; it was then validated by destroying 37 metric tons of sodium from the Rapsodie experimental fast reactor at Cadarache. Its principle consists in causing small quantities of liquid sodium to react after injection by a metering pump into a strong current of water confined in a cooled tank; the sodium/water reaction produces sodium hydroxide, that can be used to neutralize acidic effluents, and hydrogen. After the Desora operation for Rapsodie sodium, a project is under course in the context of the dismantling of the british PFR facility, in Scotland

  20. Combined Sodium Hypochlorite and 940 nm Diode Laser Treatment Against Mature E. Faecalis Biofilms in-vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeland De Moor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laser irradiation has been introduced in endodontic treatment due to its bactericidal effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of a 940 nm diode laser alone or in combination with 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl against mature biofilms of E. Faecalis.METHODS: Sixty-eight (60 for the three groups, 4 for SEM and 4 as negative controls single-rooted human central incisors were prepared and contaminated with E. Faecalis. After two weeks of incubation, specimens were randomly divided in three groups; group 1 (n =20, the teeth were irradiated with a 940 nm diode laser; group 2 (n=20, specimens were rinsed with 5% NaOCl; group 3 (n=20, the teeth were rinsed with 5% NaOCl and then were irradiated with 940 nm diode laser. Four teeth were used to observe the biofilms by SEM. Intracanal bacteria sampling was done, and the samples were plated to determinate the CFU count.RESULTS: At 24 hours and 7 days, group 3 showed a significant difference (P=0,02; P=0,00 in disinfection if compared to group 1 but did not show this difference if compared to group 2 (P=1, P=0,66, although group 3 obtaining a more extensive disinfection. Groups 1 and 2 did not show difference after 24 hours (P=0,09 but showed a significant difference 7 days afterwards (P=0,04.CONCLUSION: The combination of sodium hypochlorite and diode laser light (940 nm has a synergistic effect, intensifying the bactericidal action.

  1. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-48h found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE5048h 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE5096h found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE5015min of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

  2. Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

  3. Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, Andrea; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Kertesz, Tereza; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F. [University Hospital, Goettingen (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Pradier, Olivier [University Hospital, Brest (France). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

  4. Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

  5. Role of pegaptanib sodium in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobha Sivaprasad

    2008-01-01

    Sobha SivaprasadLaser and Retinal Research Unit, King’s College Hospital, UKAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is responsible for more than half the blind registration in the United Kingdom. Retinal manifestations of AMD can be categorized as either atrophic or neovascular. The hallmark of AMD is the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Until recently, there have been few, limited treatment modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy [PDT]) for this condition an...

  6. Influence of chemical treatment on sodium clay for obtaining polypropylene nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, M.; Rosa, J.; De Cruz, K.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial clay was chemically treated with aluminum alkyl to prepare a Ziegler-Natta pro-catalyst containing MgCl2 and clay (as inert support) for the synthesis of polypropylene nanocomposites by in situ polymerization technique. The performance of this catalyst was compared with a reference one (catalyst prepared without clay), as well as with another one, composition of which presents the same clay content, without prior chemical treatment. Propylene polymerizations were pe...

  7. Treatment of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis by adoptive transfer of peritoneal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xia-wei; Shen, Guo-bo; Liu, Yan-tong; Luo, Min; Xu, Guang-chao; Shao, Bin; Deng, Sen-yi; He, Zhi-yao; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan-Zhu; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li; Deng, Hong-xin; Wei, Yu-quan

    2015-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of the natural regulatory B cells and macrophages should be a useful treatment for inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, it is usually difficult to isolate these cells from the tissues and expand them. Here, we investigated the feasibility of adoptively transferring peritoneal cells (PCs) as a treatment for DSS-induced colitis. We found that peritoneal cavity can provide an easily accessible site for harvesting enough number of PCs, namely, two-dose PCs for the treatment from a mouse in one operation. Adoptive therapy of these cells from healthy mice or those with disease is effectively in reducing the disease activity score. The natural B cells and macrophages of the infused PCs can selectively migrate to lesion sites and regulate the expression of Stat3, NF??B, Smad3 and Smad7. Additionally, PCs exert dual activity of IL-10 and TGF-? secreted spontaneously by both peritoneal B cells and macrophages, which in turn enhance the induction of regulatory B cells and Macrophages in microenvironment of inflammation. Moreover, PCs can re-establish immunological tolerance in the OVA-immunized mice. Thus, our findings provide a new strategy for colitis therapy and could be of importance in additional exploration of other inflammation and autoimmune diseases therapy. PMID:26565726

  8. Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes After Initiation of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Bagger, Jonatan I; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) were recently introduced for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). SGLT2i lower plasma glucose by inhibiting the renal reuptake of glucose leading to glucosuria. Generally, these drugs are considered safe to use. However, recently, SGLT2i have been suggested to predispose to ketoacidosis. Here, we present a case of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) developed in an obese, poorly controlled male patient with T2D treated with the SGLT2i dapagliflozin. He was admitted with DKA 5 days after the initiation of treatment with the SGLT2i dapagliflozin. On admission, the primary symptoms were nausea and dizziness, and he was hypertensive (170/103) and tachycardic (119 bpm) and had mild hyperglycaemia (15.3 mmol/l), severe ketonuria and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.08). He responded well to infusions of insulin, glucose and saline and was discharged after 72 hr with insulin as the only glucose-lowering therapy. After 1 month, dapagliflozin was reintroduced as add-on to insulin with no recurrent signs of ketoacidosis. During acute illness or other conditions with increased insulin demands in diabetes, SGLT2i may predispose to the formation of ketone bodies and ensuing acidosis. PMID:26291182

  9. Steam Reforming Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. The SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates, along with many other inorganic compounds, including substantial levels of radionuclides. As part of the implementation of the THORR process at INTEC, an engineering-scale test demonstration (ESTD) was conducted using a specially designed pilot plant located at Hazen Research, Inc. in Golden Colorado. The purpose of the ESTD was to confirm and optimize operation of the THORR dual fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) process for treating the SBW. The performance of the integrated FBSR thermal and off-gas systems was demonstrated while treating waste simulants representative of the actual SBW. Simulants were utilized that consisted of highly acidic nitrate solutions, with both dissolved and undissolved solids (UDS). The SBW simulant solutions were converted into a dry, granular solid, consisting of carbonate and aluminate product compounds. The successful performance of the integrated FBSR system was verified and demonstrated. (authors)

  10. Rhenium-188 as an alternative to Iodine-131 for treatment of breast tumors expressing the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), which transports iodine into the cell, is expressed in thyroid tissue and was recently found to be expressed in approximately 80% of human breast cancers but not in healthy breast tissue. These findings raised the possibility that therapeutics targeting uptake by NIS may be used for breast cancer treatment. To increase the efficacy of such therapy it would be ideal to identify a radioactive therapy with enhanced local emission. The feasibility of using the powerful beta-emitting radiometal 188Re in the form of 188Re-perrhenate was therefore compared with 131I for treatment of NIS-expressing mammary tumors. In the current studies, using a xenografted breast cancer model induced by the ErbB2 oncogene in nude mice, 188Re-perrhenate exhibited NIS-dependent uptake into the mammary tumor. Dosimetry calculations in the mammary tumor demonstrate that 188Re-perrhenate is able to deliver a dose 4.5 times higher than 131I suggesting it may provide enhanced therapeutic efficacy

  11. Homogeneous nucleation of magnesium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D H; Smith, M D; Driy, J A

    1967-08-01

    The rate of homogeneous nucleation of magnesium hydroxide has been determined as a function of solution concentration, using a quasi-homogeneous precipitation technique and electronic particle counting. The nucleation rate becomes measurable at super-saturations of about 4, and is dependent on the 33rd power of the product aMgaOH(2). The experimental results are consistent with nucleation theory. The nucleus-solution interfacial energy is calculated to be 115 erg/cm(2). PMID:18960187

  12. Thermochemical pre- and biological co-treatments to improve hydrolysis and methane production from poultry litter

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, J. C.; Barbosa, S. G.; Alves, M. M.; Sousa, D. Z.

    2012-01-01

    The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of raw poultry litter waste was assessed in batch assays. Biological co-treatment with Clostridium cellulolyticum, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum as bioaugmentation strains, and thermochemical pre-treatments with lime and sodium hydroxide performed at different temperatures and pressures were applied as strategies to improve the BMP by favouring the hydrolysis of the cellulolytic material in the waste. Anaerobic digest...

  13. SODIUM VALPROATE AND PHENOBARBITOL: WEIGHT COMPLICATIONS OF TREATMENT IN EPILEPTIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghofrani

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of Na Valproate and Phenobarbital on changes in the weight of epileptic patients following treatment for their condition using the drugs mentioned.Materials and methodsSixty epileptics were assigned into two groups of 30 patients each, the case and controls. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE characteristics. BMI was defined. In the case group, the patients received 20mg/kg/day of Na Valproate, while the 30controls received 5mg/kg/day of Phenobarbital for 6 months. Using the Mc Nemar and Chi-2 tests, BMI changes were compared after 6 months between the groups. Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate the role of age, sex, and primary weight on the weight increase due to Na Valproate usage.ResultsThere were no specific changes in age, sex, primary BMI and fatness between the 2 groups; in the case group, 20 patients(66.7% and in the controls 4(13.3% gained weight (P<0.001. There were higher chances of weight gain in children who were older and fatter at the beginning of the study (P<0.2.ConclusionThe results indicate that epileptic children, aged over 10 years, and those who are overweight have more chances of gaining weight or becoming fatter, following treatment with Na Valproate. Further studies investigating the issue are warranted.

  14. Effects of pre-treatment with sodium butyrate on the frequencies of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sodium butyrate-mediated alterations in chromatin structure on the yields of X-ray-induced chromosomal abberrations were studied in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results show that sodium butyrate pre-treatment leads to a significant increase in the frequencies of dicentrics and rings, but not of fragments. The data from biochemical studies suggest that the numbers and rates of repair of X-ray-induced DNA-strand breaks are the same in butyrate-treated and untreated cells. The authors suggest that the observed effect is probably a consequence of butyrate-induced conformational changes in the chromatin of G0 lymphocytes. (Auth.)

  15. Phosphate Adsorption onto Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH) for Wastewater Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Adsorption onto Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH), a commercially available, synthetic adsorbent is studied as treatment process for phosphorus removal from wastewater. The objective is to evaluate the suitability of this process alternative for advanced wastewater treatment and reuse. Within this scope, the present work focusses on quantification of competitive adsorption of phosphate and development of a regeneration process that allows multiple application of GFH. Furthermore, breakthrough p...

  16. Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutzen Brian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS, has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. Methods We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Results MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. Conclusions These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma.

  17. Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV) can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS), has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease) or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease) and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma

  18. Effect of reduced oxygen atmosphere and sodium acetate treatment on the microbial quality changes of seer fish (Scomberomorus commerson) steaks stored in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C O; Ravishankar, C N; Srinivasa Gopal, T K; Lalitha, K V; Asok Kumar, K

    2010-06-01

    The effect of reduced oxygen atmosphere and sodium acetate treatment on the microbial quality of seer fish (Scomberomorus commerson) steaks was determined during chilled storage (1-2 degrees C). The O2 absorber reduced the oxygen content in the pack to less than 0.01% corresponding to 99.96% reduction within 24 h. The use of O2 absorber with sodium acetate dip treatment (2% w/v) extended the sensory shelf life up to 25 days compared to only 12 days for control air packs and 20 days for untreated samples with O2 absorber. A prominent lag phase was observed for many bacterium studied, particularly for the sodium acetate treated samples with O2 absorber. On the day of sensory rejection, both the total mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts reached 7.7-8.1 and 7.1-7.9 log cfu/g, respectively. The sodium acetate treatment and reduced O2 atmosphere affected the type of major spoilers. In air packed samples, H2S-producers predominated followed by Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., where as in the untreated samples with O2 absorber, H2S-producers predominated the microbial flora followed by Lactobacillus spp. For treated samples with O2 absorber, B. thermosphacta formed the major micro-flora followed by Lactobacillus spp. The use of O2 absorber inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas spp., and total Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:20417403

  19. [Influence of sodium alginate on the intestinal transit in low birth weight newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouraqui, J P; Morer, I; Renard, P; Bielsky, M C; Richard-Berthe, C; Rambaud, P

    1993-01-01

    Sodium alginate (Gaviscon) is used in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants. No digestive disadvantages have as yet been reported with the use of the Gaviscon formula available in France, which contains neither aluminium hydroxide nor thickener. Twenty-two healthy neonates were prospectively studied before and after Gaviscon treatment in order to characterize their whole gut transit time with the use of a carmine index. The head of the marker appeared within the same time in both experiments but the appearance of the tail was earlier in the treated infants (P Gaviscon can be regarded as having no deleterious effect on transit time in neonates. PMID:8247649

  20. Regulation of apoptosis in human melanoma and neuroblastoma cells by statins, sodium arsenite and TRAIL: a role of combined treatment versus monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N; Hei, Tom K

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of melanoma cells by sodium arsenite or statins (simvastatin and lovastatin) dramatically modified activities of the main cell signaling pathways resulting in the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and in a downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels. Through heme degradation and the production of carbon monoxide and biliverdin, HO-1 plays a protective role in different scenario of oxidative stress followed by mitochondrial apoptosis. Both sodium arsenite and statins could be efficient inducers of apoptosis in some melanoma cell lines, but often exhibited only modest proapoptotic activity in others, due to numerous protective mechanisms. We demonstrated in the present study that treatment by sodium arsenite or statins with an additional inhibition of HO-1 expression (or activation) caused a substantial upregulation of apoptosis in melanoma cells. Sodium arsenite- or statin-induced apoptosis was independent of BRAF status (wild type versus V600E) in melanoma lines. Monotreatment required high doses of statins (20-40 ?M) for effective induction of apoptosis. As an alternative approach, pretreatment of melanoma cells with statin at decreased doses (5-20 ?M) dramatically enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis, due to suppression of the NF-?B and STAT3-transcriptional targets (including COX-2) and downregulation of cFLIP-L (a caspase-8 inhibitor) protein levels. Furthermore, combined treatment with sodium arsenite and TRAIL or simvastatin and TRAIL efficiently induced apoptotic commitment in human neuroblastoma cells. In summary, our findings on enhancing effects of combined treatment of cancer cells using statin and TRAIL provide the rationale for further preclinical evaluation. PMID:21910007

  1. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ash with sodium salt additives for phosphorus fertilizer production - Analysis of underlying chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemann, Jan; Peplinski, Burkhard; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Stocks of high grade phosphate rock are becoming scarce, and there is growing concern about potentially harmful impurities in conventional phosphorus fertilizers. Sewage sludge ash is a promising secondary phosphorus source. However, to remove heavy metals and convert the phosphorus contained in sewage sludge ash into mineral phases available to plants, an after-treatment is required. Laboratory-scale calcination experiments of sewage sludge ash blended with sodium salts using dried sewage sludge as a reducing agent were carried out at 1000°C. Thus, the Ca3(PO4)2 or whitlockite component of raw sewage sludge ash, which is not readily plant available, was converted to CaNaPO4 (buchwaldite). Consequently, nearly complete phosphorus solubility in ammonium citrate (a well-established indicator for plant availability) was achieved. Moreover, it was shown that Na2CO3 may be replaced by moderately priced Na2SO4. However, molar ratios of Na/P>2 were required to achieve >80% phosphorus solubility. Such over-stoichiometric Na consumption is largely caused by side reactions with the SiO2 component of the sewage sludge ash - an explanation for which clear evidence is provided for the first time. PMID:26219587

  2. Minimizing Concentration of Sodium Hypochlorite in Root Canal Irrigation by Combination of Ultrasonic Irrigation with Photodynamic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhuang; Xiao, Suli; Ma, Dianfu; Huang, Xiaojing; Cai, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    Concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is positively correlated with its effectiveness in root canal disinfection but negatively correlated with its biocompatibility. The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the bactericidal effects among ultrasonic irrigation with different concentration of NaOCl alone or together with photodynamic treatment (PDT) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in infected root canals. One hundred and twenty bovine root canals contaminated with E. faecalis were randomly distributed into 12 groups treated with different disinfection methods: PDT, ultrasonic irrigation with NaOCl at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 5.25%), and ultrasonic irrigation with NaOCl at different concentrations plus PDT. Data of microorganism load were collected before and after disinfection and analyzed by one-way ANOVA and LSD tests. Significantly enhanced antibacterial effects were noticed in groups treated by PDT plus 2.0% or 2.5% NaOCl irrigation (P  0.05). Our study confirmed the feasibility to reduce the concentration of NaOCl to a safer level while maintaining its antibacterial efficiency through synergistic effect of PDT with NaOCl ultrasonic irrigation. PMID:25892274

  3. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Yttrium Hydroxide Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Li,CHEN Wen-Chun,CHEN Lin,LIANG En-Xiang,ZHANG Xin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium hydroxide nanotubes were synthesized by hydrothermal method using Y2O3 as raw materials. And then yttrium hydroxide nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction £¨XRD£©,scan electron microscope £¨SEM£©, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis£¨TG-DTA£©to investigate the phase, morphology, composition and heat stability of the products. Effects of reaction temperature and hydrothermal time on the formation of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes were studied. The results indicate that the optimal reaction conditions of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes are as follows: T=220¡?pH=11-12 and t=24h. The formation mechanism of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes is suggested to be twoª²step process£¬the initiative production of yttrium precursor and the successional achievement of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes.

  4. Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

  5. Anion-exchange synthesis of carbonate form of double hydroxide of aluminium and lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentiality of anion-exchange synthesis of aluminium and lithium double hydroxide (Li2CO3x2mAl(OH)3·pH2O in the course of LiCl·mAl(OH)3·nH2O interaction with sodium carbonate aqueous solution, as well as the influence of temperature, process duration and reagent excess on the anion exchange degree, have been studied. Structural and morphological characteristics of the compound synthesized with the carbonate from, prepared by carbonization of the aluminium and lithium double hydroxide isolated from solution, are compared. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Telmisartan treatment targets inflammatory cytokines to suppress the pathogenesis of acute colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Sreedhar, Remya; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Afrin, Mst Rejina; Miyashita, Shizuka; Nomoto, Mayumi; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-08-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is essential for the regulation of cardiovascular and renal functions to maintain the fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Recent studies have demonstrated a locally expressed RAS in various tissues of mammals, which is having pathophysiological roles in those organ system. Interestingly, local RAS has important role during the inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Further to delineate its role and also to identify the potential effects of telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, we have used a mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium. We have used 0.01 and 5mg/kg body weight doses of telmisartan and administered as enema to facilitate the on-site action and to reduce the systemic adverse effects. Telmisartan high dose treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index score when compared with the colitis control mice. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers expression were also significantly reduced when compared with the colitis control mice. Subsequent experiments were carried out to investigate some of the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory effects and identified that the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1?, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 as well as cellular DNA damage were significantly suppressed when compared with the colitis control mice. Similarly the apoptosis marker proteins such as cleaved caspase 3 and 7 levels were down-regulated and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 level was significantly upregulated by telmisartan treatment. These results indicate that blockade of RAS by telmisartan can be an effective therapeutic option against acute colitis. PMID:25873126

  7. Crystal growth morphology of magnesium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    WU, Jian-Song; Du, Juan; GAO, Yi-Min

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the formation process of magnesium hydroxide unit cells, as well as the structural characteristics and growth morphology of magnesium hydroxide, is discussed from the perspective of growth units. The growth process of the hexagonal structure of the magnesium hydroxide is as follows: the growth units are first incorporated into a larger hexagonal dimension unit on the same plane, and then the hexagonal layers connect to each other in the z-axis direction for the hexagonal magnes...

  8. Topical antiseptics for the treatment of sore throat block voltage-gated neuronal sodium channels in a local anaesthetic-like manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Vanessa; Leuwer, Martin; Ahrens, Jörg; Foadi, Nilufar; Krampfl, Klaus; Haeseler, Gertrud

    2009-08-01

    Lozenges for the treatment of sore throat provide relief of discomfort in cases of oral inflammation. This effect has not been fully explained so far. Here, we have examined the proposition that key components of pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of sore throat which are routinely regarded antiseptics might have sodium channel-blocking, i.e. local anaesthetic-like effects. We investigated the effects of hexylresorcinol, amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol on voltage-operated neuronal (Na(V)1.2) sodium channels heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells in vitro. Hexylresorcinol, amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol reversibly blocked depolarisation-induced whole-cell sodium inward currents. The half-maximum blocking concentrations (EC(50)) at -150 mV were 23.1, 53.6 and 661.6 microM, respectively. Block induced by hexylresorcinol and amylmetacresol was increased at depolarised potentials and use-dependent during trains of depolarisations applied at high frequency (100 Hz) indicating that both drugs bind more tightly to inactivated conformations of the channel. Estimates for the inactivated state affinity were 1.88 and 35 microM for hexylresorcinol and amylmetacresol, respectively. Hexylresorcinol and amylmetacresol are 10-20 fold more potent than the local anaesthetic lidocaine in blocking sodium inward current. Both drugs show an increased effect at depolarised membrane potentials or in conditions of high-frequency discharges. PMID:19367399

  9. A hybrid liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) process in conjunction with membrane distillation (MD) for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel hybrid system combining liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) and membrane distillation (MD) is integrated for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste. The integrated system provides a 'full separation' approach that consists of three main processing stages. The first stage is focused on the separation and recovery of nitric acid from the bulk of the waste stream using vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). In the second stage, polyvalent cations (mainly TRU elements and their fission products except cesium along with aluminum and other toxic metals) are separated from the bulk of monovalent anions and cations (dominantly sodium nitrate) by a front-end LPP. In the third stage, MD is used first to concentrate sodium nitrate to near saturation followed by a rear-end LPP to precipitate and separate sodium nitrate along with the remaining minor species from the bulk of the aqueous phase. The LPP-MD hybrid system uses a small amount of an additive and energy to carry out the treatment, addresses multiple critical species, extracts an economic value from some of waste species, generates minimal waste with suitable disposal paths, and offers rapid deployment. As such, the LPP-MD could be a valuable tool for multiple needs across the DOE complex where no effective or economic alternatives are available

  10. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Brodin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients’ refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. Patients received first line of chemotherapy following selenite treatment to investigate altered sensitivity to these drugs and preliminary assessment of any clinical benefits. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with different therapy resistant tumors received iv sodium selenite daily for consecutive five days either for two weeks or four weeks. Each cohort consisted of at least three patients who received the same daily dose of selenite throughout the whole treatment. If 0/3 patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs, the study proceeded to the next dose-level. If 2/3 had DLT, the dose was considered too high and if 1/3 had DLT, three more patients were included. Dose-escalation continued until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD was reached. MTD was defined as the highest dose-level on which 0/3 or 1/6 patients experienced DLT. The primary endpoint was safety, dose-limiting toxic effects and the MTD of sodium selenite. The secondary endpoint was primary response evaluation. Results and Conclusion: MTD was defined as 10.2 mg/m2, with a calculated median plasma half-life of 18.25 h. The maximum plasma concentration of selenium from a single dose of selenite increased in a nonlinear pattern. The most common adverse events were fatigue, nausea, and cramps in fingers and legs. DLTs were acute, of short duration and reversible. Biomarkers for organ functions indicated no major systemic toxicity. In conclusion, sodium selenite is safe and tolerable when administered up to 10.2 mg/m2 under current protocol. Further development of the study is underway to determine if prolonged infusions might be a more effective treatment strategy.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Ola; Eksborg, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients' refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. Patients received first line of chemotherapy following selenite treatment to investigate altered sensitivity to these drugs and preliminary assessment of any clinical benefits. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with different therapy resistant tumors received iv sodium selenite daily for consecutive five days either for two weeks or four weeks. Each cohort consisted of at least three patients who received the same daily dose of selenite throughout the whole treatment. If 0/3 patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), the study proceeded to the next dose-level. If 2/3 had DLT, the dose was considered too high and if 1/3 had DLT, three more patients were included. Dose-escalation continued until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was reached. MTD was defined as the highest dose-level on which 0/3 or 1/6 patients experienced DLT. The primary endpoint was safety, dose-limiting toxic effects and the MTD of sodium selenite. The secondary endpoint was primary response evaluation. Results and Conclusion: MTD was defined as 10.2 mg/m(2), with a calculated median plasma half-life of 18.25 h. The maximum plasma concentration of selenium from a single dose of selenite increased in a nonlinear pattern. The most common adverse events were fatigue, nausea, and cramps in fingers and legs. DLTs were acute, of short duration and reversible. Biomarkers for organ functions indicated no major systemic toxicity. In conclusion, sodium selenite is safe and tolerable when administered up to 10.2 mg/m(2) under current protocol. Further development of the study is underway to determine if prolonged infusions might be a more effective treatment strategy.

  12. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 μM) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ► Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ► Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ► Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ► Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT

  13. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT.

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Rafiei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans is one of the mouth normal flora which may cause failures in endodontics. The resistance of C. albicans to intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide could reduce success rate root canal treatments .Objectives: Due to recivening some reports regarding resistance of C. albicans to calcium hydroxide from different parts of the world, the aim of this study was to evaluate anti candidal effects of Iranian and Korean made injectable calcium hydroxide and to compare the results.Materials and Methods: In the present research, the antifungal effects of calcium hydroxide on seven clinical isolates and one standard strain of C. albicans were evaluated. For this evaluation, two methods were used including: inhibition zone and colony count. In all experiments distilled water and clotrimazole were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In order to evaluate the effects of exposure time of calcium hydroxide on C. albicans growth, 30” , 5’ , 1 and 24 hours of incubation periods were applied. In addition, to evaluate role the effect of calcium hydroxide concentration samples with saturated, 1/10, 1/100 and 1/1000 dilutions and also a saturated one were used.Results: According to inhibition zone method, the mean diameters of C. albicans for Iranian and Korean made calcium hydroxide and clotrimazole were 17, 13 and 22 mm, respectively. Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide did not show any anti candidal effects. By colony counting method, it was found that in longer exposure time, Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide have more anti candidal effects , but no significant difference was observed between the two. Saturated and all other dilutions of calcium hydroxide base material indicated a significant statistical difference in anti candidal effect after 24 hours exposure in comparison with other periods.Conclusions: The Current study, confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide on C. albicans, up to 24 hours is within low range . Higher concentrations of base calcium hydroxide, showed greater inhibition zone on C. albicans ..--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:The results of present study indicated uncomplete compatibility of susceptibility of C. albicans strains to calcium hydroxide, therefoe, it seems continious evaluation is necessary in different geographical region..Please cite this paper as:Rafiei N, Eftekhar B, Rafiei A, Pourmahdi Borujeni M, Zarrin M. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2012;5(3:470-3. DOI: 10.5812/jjm.3409.

  15. Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidotti M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mario Guidotti,1 Caterina Barrilà,1 Serena Leva,1 Claudio De Piazza,1 Stefano Omboni21Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, 2Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, ItalyBackground: Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study.Methods: Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine to 10 (severe migraine and use of rescue medication.Results: The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.8–5.9] than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1–6.4], P < 0.05 versus frovatriptan or no therapy (6.6 [6.2–7.0], P < 0.01 versus frovatriptan. The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5–2.3] versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0–4.2], P < 0.001 and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4–5.8], P < 0.001 and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P < 0.05 lower on frovatriptan (12.5% than on naproxen sodium (31.3% or no therapy (56.3%.Conclusion: This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine.Keywords: migraine, frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, weekend

  16. Treatment of mid-late stage NSCLC using sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6/GP regimen in clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoli Wang

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6/GP regimen had fair effectiveness and synergistically improved the clinical outcomes. It lowered the toxic/adverse effects and its application is worth further investigation and promotion.

  17. Electrochemical properties of polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium vanadate nanomaterials were synthesized at different pH-values of a sodium hydroxide solution of vanadium pentoxide. Polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials were prepared at room temperature and at 3 C by a chemical polymerization method. The crystal structure and phase purity of the samples have been examined by powder XRD. The samples were identified as HNaV6O16.4H2O and Na1.1V3O7.9. The electrochemical measurements show that polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate hydrated nanomaterials provide higher current density than the sodium vanadate nanomaterials. (orig.)

  18. Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, D.; Lefefre, S.; Feron, D. [CEA-Saclay, Lab. d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vaillant, F. [EDF-Les Renardieres - DRD/EMA, Moret-sur-Loing (France)

    2002-07-01

    In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

  19. Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

  20. Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, E; Ruiz de la Rosa, M; Louzara, G; Ruiz, J M; Marín-Guirao, L; Quesada, J; González, J C; Roque, F; González, N; Mendoza, H

    2014-03-15

    Reverse osmosis membranes at many desalination plants are disinfected by periodic shock treatments with sodium metabisulphite, which have potentially toxic effects to the environment for marine life, although no empirical and experimental evidence for this is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterise for the first time, the physico-chemical modification of the marine environment and its biological effects, caused by hypersaline plumes during these membrane cleaning treatments. The case study was the Maspalomas II desalination plant, located in the south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Toxicity bioassays were performed on marine species characteristic for the infralittoral soft bottoms influenced by the brine plume (Synodus synodus and Cymodocea nodosa), and revealed a high sensitivity to short-term exposure to low sodium metabisulphite concentrations. The corrective measure of incorporating a diffusion system with Venturi Eductors reduced nearly all the areas of influence, virtually eliminating the impact of the disinfectant. PMID:24495930

  1. Online and offline sodium monitoring in feed/steam water of FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) utilizes Once Through Steam Generator (OTSG) for producing super heated steam at 480 deg C, 125 kg/cm2. In order to minimize corrosion related failures of tubes and ensure the SG tube integrity efficient water chemistry control is maintained in the feed/steam water system with All Volatile Treatment (AVT) and Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU). The high pH, low oxygen treatment is achieved by adding Ammonium hydroxide (500ppb) and Hydrazine (20-30ppb). Monitoring of sodium impurity in feed water and steam is highly important to assess the condenser tube leak and prevent possible caustic corrosion. The cationic impurities can be effectively controlled in the system by monitoring sodium at the outlet of CPU. A gradual and slow increase in sodium concentration indicates the exhaust/pre exhaust conditions of CPU whereas a rapidly increasing trend is an indication of cooling water tube leak in to the condenser. However, routine ultra trace level monitoring of sodium in presence of excess of ammonium ion and hydrazine, is a challenging task. This paper details the offline monitoring of sodium at ultra trace level using Reagent-Free Ion chromatograph (RFIC) wherein the high purity eluent is generated in situ. An on line sodium monitoring system using ion selective electrode (ISE) is also discussed here. The sodium concentration at Condensate Extraction Pump discharge (CEP) was always found to be less than 1.2 ppb ruling out the ingress of cooling water into the condensate due condenser tube leak. Comparisons of sodium analysis with both the techniques are also presented in this paper. (author)

  2. Combined eye gel containing sodium hyaluronate and xanthan gum for the treatment of the corneal epithelial defect after pterygium surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocatürk, Tolga; Gençgönül, Ataman; Balica, Faruk; Özba?civan, Mehmet; Çakmak, Harun

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the ophthalmic gels containing hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine with fusidic acid in terms of recovery periods of corneal epithelium in the patients who underwent pterygium surgery. Methods Patients who underwent pterygium surgery were separated into two groups. Forty patients in group 1 were given eye gel containing sodium hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine, and 40 patients in group 2 were given one drop of eye gel containing fusidic acid. The patients in both groups were examined at the 12th, 24th, and 48th hours in the postoperative period by using slit-lamp technique. The subjective complaints of the patients such as pain and stinging, and the recovery periods of the corneal epithelial defect were evaluated comparatively by fluorescein staining. Results The mean ages were 26±8 years (range: 18–35) and 24±6 years (range: 18–33) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The closure period of the corneal epithelial defect was observed as 24±8 hours (range: 16–42) and 36±12 hours (range: 18–48) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The number of the patients suffering from subjective complaints such as pain and stinging in the first 12 hours was six and 29 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The difference was significant both clinically and statistically (P=0.001). Conclusion Combined eye gel containing hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine accelerates the recovery of corneal epithelial defect and reduces the complaints of the patients, when compared to the fusidic acid gel. Combined eye gel should be considered as an option for the treatment of the corneal epithelial defect related with pterygium surgery. PMID:26316686

  3. The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients [Corrigendum

    OpenAIRE

    Tsumura T; Yoshikawa K; Kimura T; Suzumura H; Kawashima M; Nanno M; Ishijima K; Takeda R

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients [Corrigendum] Tsumura T, Yoshikawa K, Kimura T, et al. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014;8:1681–1687. The authors wish to advise of the following errors: on page 1684, right column, line 18, “10.72” should be replaced with “–10.72”; on page 1685, right column, line 2, “<–6D” should be replace...

  4. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium oxybate.Sodium oxybate is not available at retail pharmacies. A special program is in place to ... Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by ...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721.4467 Section...Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a quaternary ammonium hydroxide (PMN...

  6. A systematic study of multiple minerals precipitation modelling in wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Tait, Stephan; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Batstone, Damien J.

    2015-01-01

    wastewater treatment models. The present study systematically tested a semi-mechanistic modelling approach, using various experimental platforms with multiple minerals precipitation. Experiments included dynamic titration with addition of sodium hydroxide to synthetic wastewater, and aeration to...... progressively increase pH and induce precipitation in real piggery digestate and sewage sludge digestate. The model approach consisted of an equilibrium part for aqueous phase reactions and a kinetic part for minerals precipitation. The model was fitted to dissolved calcium, magnesium, total inorganic carbon...

  7. Effect of the smear layer in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Arslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the smear layer influences the removal of calcium hydroxide from the root canal with manual or rotary instruments. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 48 freshly extracted single-rooted maxillary incisors were prepared to apical size 40 (n=40 and finally irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (group A, or ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA followed by sodium hypo chlorite (group B. 20 teeth were assigned to each group, while the remaining eight teeth served as positive and negative controls. Each group was divided into two subgroups of 10 teeth (subgroup I - calcium hydroxide was removed with master apical file; subgroup II - with profile file; and, in all removal procedures, citric acid was used for irrigation. The percentage of calcium hydroxide-[Ca(OH [Ca(OH 2 ] coated surface area was calculated by image processing analysis. Results: Considering the root canal as a whole, the removal of Ca(OH 2 from the dentinal walls in group B showed significantly better results (P<0.05 as compared to group A. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that the smear layer is important in the removal of calcium hydroxide.

  8. ??Topical Treatment With Liposomal Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Complex in Subjects With Facial Redness and Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasily, David B

    2015-10-01

    Physicians are often presented with patients complaining of facial redness and difficult to control rosacea. The water soluble sodium copper chlorophyllin complex has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial activities in vitro and anti-redness, pore reduction, and anti-acne activities in pilot clinical studies. In these case studies, the safety and efficacy of a topical gel containing a liposomal suspension of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex was assessed in subjects with facial redness and erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. PMID:26461829

  9. Comparação da efetividade entre polietilenoglicol 4000 sem eletrólitos e hidróxido de magnésio no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional em crianças / Comparison of the effectiveness of polyethylene glycol 4000 without electrolytes and magnesium hydroxide in the treatment of chronic functional constipation in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia Boechat, Gomes; Marco Antônio, Duarte; Maria do Carmo Barros de, Melo.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a efetividade de dois medicamentos: hidróxido de magnésio e polietilenoglicol 4000 sem eletrólitos no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional em crianças. MÉTODOS: Trinta e oito crianças foram divididas, por processo randômico, em dois grupos para uso de polietileno [...] glicol 4000 sem eletrólitos ou de hidróxido de magnésio. As crianças foram acompanhadas em consultas periódicas até completarem 6 meses de tratamento. Em todas as consultas, foram investigados: consistência das fezes, frequência evacuatória, presença de escape fecal, dor abdominal, esforço evacuatório e aceitação desses fármacos. RESULTADOS: Dezessete crianças fizeram uso de polietilenoglicol, e 21 utilizaram o hidróxido de magnésio. Houve melhora clínica de todas as variáveis nos dois grupos, sem diferenças com significância estatística. Todas as crianças aceitaram o polietilenoglicol, enquanto 42,9% recusaram o hidróxido de magnésio. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença de efetividade no tratamento da constipação intestinal entre esses dois laxantes. Entretanto, a melhor aceitação do polietilenoglicol, por ser inodoro e insípido, torna-o melhor opção no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two drugs, polyethylene glycol 4000 without electrolytes and magnesium hydroxide, in the treatment of chronic functional constipation in children. METHODS: Thirty-eight children were randomly assigned to either of two groups, polyethylene glycol 4000 withou [...] t electrolytes or magnesium hydroxide. The children were followed through periodic appointments until they reached 6 months of treatment. In each medical appointment the following aspects were evaluated: stool consistency, frequency of bowel movements, fecal incontinence, abdominal pain, straining and acceptance of the drugs. RESULTS: Seventeen children made use of polyethylene glycol and twenty-one received magnesium hydroxide. All variables analyzed improved for both groups, with no statistically significant differences. All children accepted polyethylene glycol, while 42.9% refused magnesium hydroxide. CONCLUSION: The two laxatives showed no difference in effectiveness for the treatment of constipation. However, due to its better acceptance, because it is odorless and tasteless, polyethylene glycol proved to be a better option for treating chronic functional constipation.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The formation of yttrium hydroxide fluorides nanobundles can be expressed as a precipitation transformation from cubic NaYF4 to hexagonal NaYF4 and to hexagonal Y(OH)2.02F0.98 owing to ion exchange. - Highlights: • Novel Y(OH)2.02F0.98 nanobundles have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The branched nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles has been studied. • The growth mechanism is proposed to be ion exchange and precipitation transformation. - Abstract: This article presents the fabrication of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles via one-pot hydrothermal process, using yttrium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent. The X-ray diffraction pattern clearly reveals that the grown product is pure yttrium hydroxide fluoride, namely Y(OH)2.02F0.98. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized product is testified to be nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles as observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The chemical composition was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), confirming the phase transformation of the products which was clearly consistent with the result of XRD analysis. It is proposed that the growth of yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles be attributed to ion exchange and precipitation transformation

  11. Combined eye gel containing sodium hyaluronate and xanthan gum for the treatment of the corneal epithelial defect after pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocatürk T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tolga Kocatürk,1 Ataman Gençgönül,2 Faruk Balica,1 Mehmet Özba?civan,1 Harun Çakmak1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Mevki Military Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the ophthalmic gels containing hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine with fusidic acid in terms of recovery periods of corneal epithelium in the patients who underwent pterygium surgery.Methods: Patients who underwent pterygium surgery were separated into two groups. Forty patients in group 1 were given eye gel containing sodium hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine, and 40 patients in group 2 were given one drop of eye gel containing fusidic acid. The patients in both groups were examined at the 12th, 24th, and 48th hours in the postoperative period by using slit-lamp technique. The subjective complaints of the patients such as pain and stinging, and the recovery periods of the corneal epithelial defect were evaluated comparatively by fluorescein staining.Results: The mean ages were 26±8 years (range: 18–35 and 24±6 years (range: 18–33 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The closure period of the corneal epithelial defect was observed as 24±8 hours (range: 16–42 and 36±12 hours (range: 18–48 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The number of the patients suffering from subjective complaints such as pain and stinging in the first 12 hours was six and 29 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The difference was significant both clinically and statistically (P=0.001.Conclusion: Combined eye gel containing hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine accelerates the recovery of corneal epithelial defect and reduces the complaints of the patients, when compared to the fusidic acid gel. Combined eye gel should be considered as an option for the treatment of the corneal epithelial defect related with pterygium surgery. Keywords: iatrogenic corneal epithelial defect, netilmycine, fusidic acid, ophthalmic gel

  12. Effect of combinations of gamma irradiation, hot water, Sodium chloride, and Acetic acid treatments on potato-dry rot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation increased the severity of dry rot in potato tubers when they were inoculated with any of 4 species of Fusarium, previously isolated either from irradiated or unirradiated tubers. Treating either irradiated or unirradiated tubers with warm water or sodium chloride solutions following inoculation with F. roseum also increased the severity of dry rot to some extent

  13. Treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with sodium diclofenac: a pilot study / Tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves leve a moderada com diclofenato de sódio: um estudo piloto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter, Bloise; Lidia Yuri, Mimura; Janete, Moura; Wilian, Nicolau.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o uso do diclofenato de sódio, um antagonista do PPAR-gama e inibidor da ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) no tratamento da leve a moderada oftalmopatia de Graves. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Treze pacientes com CAS (clinical activity score) 2 a 7 foram tratados durante um período de 3 a 12 meses ( [...] média 7,6 ± 3,4) com diclofenaco de sódio por via oral na dose de 50 mg a cada 12 horas. RESULTADOS: A restrição da musculatura extraocular e o índice CAS melhoraram de modo significativo, respectivamente p = 0,003 e p = 0,004. A dor ocular e a diplopia desapareceram, com exceção de um paciente que referiu melhora desses sintomas. Não houve recidiva após a interrupção do tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves de média gravidade com diclofenaco de sódio por via oral é uma opção boa, segura e de baixo custo. Como outros novos tratamentos, ele deverá ser confirmado em um maior número de pacientes em estudos controlados. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the use of sodium diclofenac, an antagonist of PPAR-gamma and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor in the treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with clinical activity score (CAS) 2 to 7 were treated during a period ranging fr [...] om 3 to 12 months (mean 7.8 ± 3.4) with oral sodium diclofenac, 50 mg every 12 hours. RESULTS: Extra-ocular muscle restriction and CAS improved significantly, p = 0.003 and = 0.004, respectively. Ocular pain and diplopia disappeared, except for one patient who reported improvement of these symptoms. No recurrence was found after interruption of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with oral sodium diclofenac is a good, safe and less expensive therapeutic option. Like others new treatment trials, findings must be confirmed in a greater number of patients in a controlled study.

  14. Sodium hypochlorite accident resulting in life-threatening airway obstruction during root canal treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sebaei MO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maisa O Al-Sebaei,1 Omar A Halabi,2 Ibrahim E El-Hakim3 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King Abdulaziz University – Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Saudi Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Aim: This case report describes a serious and life-threatening complication of the use of sodium hypochlorite as an irrigation solution in root canal therapy. Summary: This case report describes a hypochlorite accident that occurred in a healthy 42-year-old female who was undergoing routine root canal therapy for the lower right central incisor (tooth #41. After approximately 1 hour of irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite (for a total of 12 cc, the patient complained of severe pain and burning in the lip. The swelling progressed over the next 8 hours to involve the sublingual and submental fascial spaces with elevation of the tongue and resultant upper airway obstruction. The patient was intubated and remained on mechanical ventilation for 3 days. She recovered without any skin necrosis or nerve deficits. Key learning points: This case report highlights the importance of carefully performing root canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite to avoid complications. Careful injection without pressure, the use of proper rubber dam isolation, and the use of the endodontic needle are necessary to avoid this type of complication. Although it is a safe root canal irrigation solution, its use may lead to life-threatening complications. Early recognition and management of the untoward effects of sodium hypochlorite are vital for the patient's safety. Keywords: complications of root canal, facial edema, root canal irrigation, root canal therapy, sodium hypochlorite, upper airway obstruction

  15. Cold Trap Dismantling and Sodium Removal at a Fast Breeder Reactor - 12327

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first German prototype Fast Breeder Nuclear Reactor (KNK) is currently being dismantled after being the only operating Fast Breeder-type reactor in Germany. As this reactor type used sodium as a coolant in its primary and secondary circuit, seven cold traps containing various amounts of partially activated sodium needed to be disposed of as part of the dismantling. The resulting combined difficulties of radioactive contamination and high chemical reactivity were handled by treating the cold traps differently depending on their size and the amount of sodium contained inside. Six small cold traps were processed onsite by cutting them up into small parts using a band saw under a protective atmosphere. The sodium was then converted to sodium hydroxide by using water. The remaining large cold trap could not be handled in the same way due to its dimensions (2.9 m x 1.1 m) and the declared amount of sodium inside (1,700 kg). It was therefore manually dismantled inside a large box filled with a protective atmosphere, while the resulting pieces were packaged for later burning in a special facility. The experiences gained by KNK during this process may be advantageous for future dismantling projects in similar sodium-cooled reactors worldwide. The dismantling of a prototype fast breeder reactor provides the challenge not only to dismantle radioactive materials but also to handle sodium-contaminated or sodium-containing components. The treatment of sodium requires additional equipment and installations to ensure a safe handling. Since it is not permitted to bring sodium into a repository, all sodium has to be neutralized either through a controlled reaction with water or by incinerating. The resulting components can be disposed of as normal radioactive waste with no further conditions. The handling of sodium needs skilled and experienced workers to minimize the inherent risks. And the example of the disposal of the large KNK cold trap shows the interaction with others and also foreign decommissioning projects can provide solutions with were unknown before. (authors)

  16. THE DIGESTION OPERATION IN THE ALKALI ALUMINAT SOLUTIONS OF ALUMINUM HYDROXIDES IN THE BOEHMITIC BAUXITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami ?AH?N

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available At present more than 90 per cent of the world's alumina is produced by the Bayer process, a simple technology providing high purity final product. A part from some exceptional local conditions, bauxite is processed almost solely by this technology. As a benefication process, alumina production releases the aluminum oxide content of bauxite from other accompanying oxides thus providing alumina suitable for electrolysis in a cryolite melt. The basic theory of the Bayer process was elaborated by K.J. Bayer and described in his patents in 1887 and 1892. The first patent refers to the aid of seed crystals of aluminum hydroxide or of carbonic acid, that is, to the precipitation and carbonation processes. The second patent formulates the concept that the aluminum oxide content of bauxites can be dissolved in sodium hydroxide solutions, with the formulation of sodium aluminate, a process called digestion nowadays. The most important operations of the Bayer technology are bauxite preparation, crushing, grinding, digestion, red mud separation, thickening, washing, filtration, precipitation, calcination and evaporation. In spite of its great significance as regards the complete Bayer technology, the structure of sodium aluminate solutions has not been cleared up definitely yet. Boehmite is the most important aluminum mineral of karstic bauxites. Some experimental results showing the various effects on aluminum hydroxides by alkali process from boehmitic bauxites and the factors gowerning the digestion operation of aluminate solutions were investigated.

  17. Experimental study and kinetic analysis of sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. It was reconfirmed that sodium monoxide (Na2O) generation should be considered during the sodium-water reaction in spite of variation of volume fraction (Na:NaOH). Na, NaOH and Na2O as major chemical species were identified from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the residues after the DTA experiment. (author)

  18. Layered Metal Hydroxides Containing Calcium and Their Structural Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Heo, Il; Lee, Sung Han; Oh, Jae Min [College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Seung Min [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chung Berm; Choi, Ae Jin [National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science of R and D Eumseong (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Jin Ho [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Layered metal hydroxides (LMHs) containing calcium were synthesized by coprecipitation in solution having two different trivalent metal ions, iron and aluminum. Two mixed metal solutions (Ca{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} = 2/1) were added to sodium hydroxide solution and the final pH was adjusted to {approx}11.5 and {approx}13 for CaAl-and CaFe-LMHs. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the two LMH samples showed well developed (00l) diffractions indicating 2-dimensional crystal structure of the synthesized LMHs. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern, the local structure analysis through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and thermal analysis also confirmed that the synthesized precipitates show typical structure of LMHs. The chemical formulae, Ca{sub 2.04}Al{sub 1}(OH){sub 6}(NO{sub 3}){center_dot}5.25H{sub 2}O and Ca{sub 2.01}Fe{sub 1}(OH){sub 6}(NO{sub 3}){center_dot}4.75H{sub 2}O were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Particle morphology and thermal behavior for the synthesized LMHs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry

  19. Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH4 electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH4 at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH4 at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H2 bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H2 bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders of magnitude bigger than the film thickness, thus minimizing its effect.

  20. Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marian.Chatenet@phelma.grenoble-inp.fr; Molina-Concha, M.B. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); El-Kissi, N. [Laboratoire de Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1301 rue de la piscine, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2009-07-15

    This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH{sub 4} electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH{sub 4} at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH{sub 4} at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H{sub 2} bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H{sub 2} bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders of magnitude bigger than the film thickness, thus minimizing its effect.

  1. Deuterium and sodium quadrupole interactions in sodium hydroxide. II. The monoclinic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amm, D. T.; Segel, S. L.; Bastow, T. J.; Jeffrey, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the 23NaOH pure quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequency has been studied from 77 to 550 K and shows a change in slope and a discontinuous change in frequency of 6±2 kHz at the orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition at 505 K. At 292 K the 23Na NQR frequency is 1.778±0.001 MHz, ?<0.04. The temperature dependence of the deuterium quadrupole coupling was fit to a librating molecule model between 293 and 570 K (QCC=245±2 kHz, ?=0.05±0.01 at 293 K) and confirms that the frequency of the OD- libration decreases in the high temperature monoclinic phase.

  2. Deuterium and Sodium Quadrupole Interactions in Sodium Hydroxide. The Monoclinic Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amm, D. T.; Segel, S. L.; Bastow, T. J.; Jeffrey, K. R.

    1986-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the 23NaOH Pure Quadrupole Resonance Frequency has been studied from 77 K to 550 K and shows a change in slope and a discontinuous change in frequency of 6 ± 2 kHz at the orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition at 505 K At 292 K the 23Na NQR frequency is 1.778 ± 0.001 MHz, ? < 0 .04. The temperature dependence of the deuterium quadrupole coupling was fit to a librating molecule model between 293 K and 570 K (QCC = 245 ± 2 kHz, ? = 0.05 ± 0 .0 1 at 293 K) and confirms that the frequency of the libration decreases in the high temperature monoclinic phase. X-ray studies indicate that down to 10 K there are no further phase transitions in NaOH. On the other hand, it is now known that NaOD, orthorhombic at room temperature, monoclinic at high temperature, suffers another transition at 160 K to yet another monoclinic phase.

  3. Radiation synovectomy with 165-dysprosium ferric hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of chronic rheumatoid synovitis (RS) is directed to control the inflammatory process causing pain and disability. Radiation synovectomy is suggested to be an alternative to surgical treatment, but its clinical use has been restricted because of significant leakage (>10%) associated with the use of the standard radionuclide 90-Yttrium (used as 90-Yttrium silicate colloid) and because of its long physical half-life of 64 hours prolonging the patients' stay in the hospital. 165-Dysprosium possesses promising nuclear properties for the treatment of patients suffering from RS. The maximum soft tissue penetration of its ?-particles is 5.7 mm which is the range necessary to penetrate the inflammed synovia. Using as carrier ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (DFH) 165-Dy is expected to minimize the cumulative radiation dose to non-target organs by its very low leakage. Animal studies were performed in 13 rats and 6 rabbits to obtain the rationale and safety data for its clinical evaluation. These studies revealed that 98.2±0.6% of the injected dose remained in the joint with a nontarget organ uptake of less than 0.1%. Clinical results were obtained from 8 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 24 hours after injection scintigraphy was performed over the treated joint and the liver region revealing no detectable leakage of the injected activity from the joint. Blood pool activity was also assessed revealing a leakage of 0.02% of the dose injected in the knee 24 hours after injection. Preliminary results from the ongoing first clinical trial in Austria also revealed an excellent to good response in 5 out of 8 patients of whom one has been in remission for more than eight months now. Radiosynovectomy with 165-Dy GFH offers promising physical, experimental, and preliminary clinical results which suggest its use as an ambulatory standard therapy of RS. (authors)

  4. The effects of duration of pre-soaking treatments on the frequency and spectrum of mutations induced by sodium azide in CES 14 Mungbean variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of mungbean variety CES 14 were treated with 10-3 sodium azide for 2 hours buffered at pH 3 after various pre-soaking treatment durations of 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 hours. The biological parameters that were significantly affected by the treatments in the M1 were germination, seedling height and survival. The chlorophyll and other morphological mutations in the M2 gradually increased with increasing pre-soaking time. The treatment that had the lowest mutation rate was the 16-hour pre-soaked seeds. No chlorophyll mutation was noted in both the water and buffer control. One variant was noted, however, in the buffer control. (author)

  5. Monitoring treatment of field cancerisation with 3% diclofenac sodium 2.5% hyaluronic acid by reflectance confocal microscopy: a histologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvehy, Josep; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Iglesias-García, Pablo; Díaz, Alba; Puig, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Visual inspection may fail to accurately evaluate field cancerisation (subclinical actinic keratoses [AKs]). We aimed to describe field cancerisation by confocal reflectance microscopy and changes induced by the application of 3% diclofenac sodium gel in 2.5% hyaluronic acid. Fourteen male patients, >?50 years old, with AKs on the bald scalp were included. Clinical examination, confocal microscopy and histological study of clinically visible lesions and "normal appearing" adjacent skin before and after treatment was completed. Reflectance confocal microscopy showed a decrease in scaling (p?=?0.001) and atypia of the honeycomb pattern (p?=?0.001) at 2 weeks of treatment. Changes in parakeratosis, inflammation and dermal collagen remodelling were also observed. Histology correlated with confocal features in AK and subclinical AK. Reflectance confocal microscopy was useful in the evaluation of field cancerisation and monitoring of treatment response. A rapid improvement in epidermal atypia was observed. PMID:24696069

  6. Synergy between chronic corticosterone and sodium azide treatments in producing a spatial learning deficit and inhibiting cytochrome oxidase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, M. C.; Mlady, G W; Fleshner, M.; Rose, G M

    1996-01-01

    Previously, we developed a rat model of persistent mitochondrial dysfunction based upon the chronic partial inhibition of the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1). Continuous systemic infusion of sodium azide at approximately 1 mg/kg per hr inhibited cytochrome oxidase activity and produced a spatial learning deficit. In other laboratories, glucocorticoids have been reported to exacerbate neuronal damage from various acute metabolic insults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis...

  7. [Degumming of kenaf fibers by combining steam explosion with ultrasonic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Han, Guangting; Zhang, Yuanming; Wang, Qijun; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Shouwu

    2014-05-01

    Kenaf has a high content of gum that is difficult to remove. Traditional chemical degumming process causes serious environmental pollution. To solve the problem, we developed a new method to degum kenaf. We pretreated the kenaf with steam explosion followed by ultrasonic treatment. We chose the single factor tests to select the ultrasonic frequency, sodium hydroxide concentration and processing time. Combined with orthogonal tests, we found that the optimum conditions were as follows: ultrasonic frequency was 28 kHz, sodium hydroxide concentration was 2%, and processing time was 60 min. Under these conditions, the residual gum of kenaf fiber was 9.72% and the fineness was 139.45 N(m). Steam explosion combined with ultrasonic method is effective in degumming of kenaf. PMID:25118397

  8. Dual treatment with COX-2 inhibitor and sodium arsenite leads to induction of surface Fas Ligand expression and Fas-Ligand-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir N. Ivanov; Hei, Tom K

    2006-01-01

    Most human melanomas express Fas receptor on the cell surface, and treatment with exogenous Fas Ligand (FasL) efficiently induces apoptosis of these cells. In contrast, endogenous surface expression of FasL is suppressed in Fas-positive melanomas. We report here the use of a combination of sodium arsenite, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation, and NS398, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, for restoration of the surface FasL expression. We observed a large increase of Fas-mediated apoptosis in ...

  9. The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients [Corrigendum] Tsumura T, Yoshikawa K, Kimura T, et al. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014;8:1681–1687. The authors wish to advise of the following errors: on page 1684, right column, line 18, “10.72” should be replaced with “–10.72”; on page 1685, right column, line 2, “<–6D” should be replaced with “<–6dB”. Read the original article Previous corrigendum has been published

  10. The study of sodium saturation temperatures by its oxide and azide at their simultaneous occurrence in sodium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new technique based on analysis of the signals from electro-chemical oxygen cell and hydrogen sensor located in sodium stream behind heat and mass exchanger with electromagnetic sodium mixing inside it is applied for determination of the temperature of sodium saturation by its oxide and hydride. It is revealed that apparent increase in oxygen and hydrogen dissolving with second impurity concentration growth is caused by sodium hydroxide formation. The equilibrium constant of the reaction NaOH + 2Na ? Na2O + NaH at 400 deg C is estimated. Experimental error sources and their values are analyzed

  11. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  12. Soil Washing and Effluent Treatment for Contaminated Soil with Toxic Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jung-Seok; Kwon, Man Jae [KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jin-Min [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Kitae [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study evaluated the optimal soil washing conditions for toxic metals considering the removal efficiency of toxic metals from contaminated soils as well as from soil washing effluents. In the contaminated soils, As was the major contaminant and extracted by sodium hydroxide solution better than by sulfuric acid. However, in the case of the treatment of soil washing effluents, sodium hydroxide was less effective extractant because soil organic matter extracted by sodium hydroxide prevented the solid-liquid phase separation and toxic metal removal. In the treatment of soil washing effluents with sulfuric acid, toxic metals in the effluents were mostly precipitated at the pH above 6.5. In addition, granular ferric oxide (GFO) as an adsorbent enhanced the removal of As and Pb indicating that toxic metals in the washing effluents can be removed almost completely by the use of combined adsorption-neutralization process. This study suggests that soil washing techniques for toxic metals should be optimized based on the physical and chemical properties of the contaminated soils, the nature of chemical extractant, and the removal efficiency and effectiveness of toxic metals from the soils as well as soil washing effluents.

  13. An application of hydrothermally crystallized coal ashes for waste water treatment, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide an application of combustion coal ash, hydrothermal reaction of fly ash (FA) and clinker ash (CA) is performed and an investigation is carried out to determine the capability of the P type zeolite produced from these ashes to adsorb heavy metal ions. Hydrothermal reaction of FA and CA at 95 - 100 deg C is conducted with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide for various reaction times. Both types of ash are found to easily undergo crystallization to form P type zeolite (PZ) and hydroxy sodalite (HS) when treated with a sodium hydroxide solution (sodium hydroxide/coal ash = 10 v/w) for 18 hours. The FA-PZ and CA-PZ produced by the hydrothermal treatment have degrees of crystallinity in the range of 40 - 60 percent. It is seen that the degree of crystallinity gradually increases with increasing treatment time. The cristallinity of hydrothermally treated coal ash is also shown to have good correlation with the base substitution capacity and the maximum adsorption of ammonium ion. Furthermore, they are shown to effectively adsorb metal ions, in particular those of lead, cadmium and strontium. It is suggested that they may serve as an enrichment agent for low-level radioactive nuclides produced in nuclear power plants. They also seem to have the possibility of serving as a metal elution preventive for industrial wastes of some special types. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Soil Washing and Effluent Treatment for Contaminated Soil with Toxic Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the optimal soil washing conditions for toxic metals considering the removal efficiency of toxic metals from contaminated soils as well as from soil washing effluents. In the contaminated soils, As was the major contaminant and extracted by sodium hydroxide solution better than by sulfuric acid. However, in the case of the treatment of soil washing effluents, sodium hydroxide was less effective extractant because soil organic matter extracted by sodium hydroxide prevented the solid-liquid phase separation and toxic metal removal. In the treatment of soil washing effluents with sulfuric acid, toxic metals in the effluents were mostly precipitated at the pH above 6.5. In addition, granular ferric oxide (GFO) as an adsorbent enhanced the removal of As and Pb indicating that toxic metals in the washing effluents can be removed almost completely by the use of combined adsorption-neutralization process. This study suggests that soil washing techniques for toxic metals should be optimized based on the physical and chemical properties of the contaminated soils, the nature of chemical extractant, and the removal efficiency and effectiveness of toxic metals from the soils as well as soil washing effluents

  15. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, D.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Hackley, K.C. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Strickland, R. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States); Berger, R.; Schanche, G. [Illinois Univ., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In this project, the ISGS is investigating the pelletization of fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur-capturing sorbent. The objective is to produce a readily-transportable fuel which will burn in compliance with the recently passed Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA). To improve the economics of pelletizing, carbonation, or, the reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, which produces a binding matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated as a method of hardening pelletized coal fines. This year, pellets were produced from 28 {times} 0 coal fines collected from an Illinois preparation plant using a laboratory version of a California Pellet Mill (CPM), a commercially available pellet machine. The CPM effectively pelletized coal fines at the moisture content they were dewatered to at the plant. Carbonation nearly doubled the strength of pellets containing 10 wt % calcium hydroxide. Other results from this year`s work indicate that inclusion of calcium hydroxide into pellets resulted in chlorine capture of approximately 20 wt % for combustion tests conducted at both 850 and 1100{degrees}C. Arsenic emissions were reduced from near 38 wt% at 850 C to essentially nil with inclusion of 10 wt % calcium hydroxide into the pellets. At 110{degrees}C, arsenic emissions were reduced from about 90 wt % to about 15 wt %. Sodium emissions, however, increased with the addition of calcium hydroxide. At 850{degrees}C, sodium capture dropped from about 98 wt % to 73 wt % for pellets containing 10 wt % calcium hydroxide; at 1100{degrees}C, capture dropped from about 92 wt % to about 20 wt %.

  16. Performance of combined sodium persulfate/H2O2 based advanced oxidation process in stabilized landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilles, Ahmed H; Abu Amr, Salem S; Hussein, Rim A; El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Arafa, Anwaar I

    2016-01-15

    A combination of persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) was used to oxidizelandfill leachate. The reaction was performed under varying S2O8(2-)/H2O2 ratio (g/g), S2O8(2-)/H2O2 dosages (g/g), pH, and reaction time (minutes), so as to determine the optimum operational conditions. Results indicated that under optimum operational conditions (i.e. 120 min of oxidation using a S2O8(2-)/H2O2 ratio of 1 g/1.47 g at a persulfate and hydrogen peroxide dosage of 5.88 g/50 ml and8.63 g/50 ml respectively, at pH 11) removal of 81% COD and 83% NH3-N was achieved. In addition, the biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio) of the leachate was improved from 0.09 to 0.17. The results obtained from the combined use of (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) were compared with those obtained with sodium persulfate only, hydrogen peroxide only and sodium persulfate followed by hydrogen peroxide. The combined method (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD and NH3-N compared with the other methods using a single oxidizing agent. Additionally, the study has proved that the combination of S2O8(2-)/H2O2 is more efficient than the sequential use of sodium persulfate followed by hydrogen peroxide in advanced oxidation processes aiming at treatingstabilizedlandfill leachate. PMID:26580899

  17. Thermal analysis experiment for elucidating sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. The parameters, including melting points of Na and NaOH, phase transition temperature of NaOH, Na-NaOH reaction temperature, and decomposition temperature of sodium hydride (NaH) have been identified from DTA curves. Based on the measured reaction temperature, rate constant of sodium monoxide (Na2O) generation was obtained. Thermal analysis results indicated that Na2O generation at the secondary overall reaction should be considered during the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  18. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Todd M; Lichty, Paul R; Perkins, Christopher; Tucker, Melinda; Kreider, Peter B; Funke, Hans H; Lewandowski, A; Weimer, Alan W

    2012-10-24

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar-driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  19. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  20. Indirect pulp capping using different calcium hydroxide products: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović-Radman Irena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Indirect pulp capping is a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of deep carious lesion in order to stimulate odontoblasts to produce tertiary dentin using different biomaterials based mainly on calcium hydroxide. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hard-setting (Dycal and a suspension of calcium hydroxide (Calcipulp in the treatment of deep carious lesion (caries profunda. Materials and Methods. Clinical study included 29 patients of both genders, age 16 to 40, and 45 teeth of different morphological groups with verified caries profunda using clinical and radiographic examination. After the cavity preparation, calcium hydroxide materials (Dycal or Calcipulp were applied on the pulpal wall and cavities temporarily restored (phosphate cement for the period of two months. After this period cavities were restored with composite materials and clinically observed during twelve months, with mandatory check-ups after three and six months. Results. Obtained results showed that indirect pulp capping using calcium hydroxide suspension (90.0% was more successful than hard-setting material (84.0%, but with no statistically significant difference. Conclusion. Suspension and hard-setting calcium hydroxide were equally successful in the treatment of caries profunda.

  1. Aluminum hydroxide dissolution in synthetic sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the revised Stage 1 Defense Waste Processing Facility, aluminum hydroxide dissolving has been moved from S Canyon to the waste tank farm. The maximum attainable temperature has been reduced from 1070C in the stainless steel dissolver to less than 900C in the large mild steel waste tanks. Also, caustic strength must be maintained below 6.5 molar to avoid caustic cracking. Studies at TNX indicate that 75% of the crystalline aluminum hydroxide can be dissolved while using about one-third of the caustic quantity specified for the S Canyon dissolver. Studies were made in laboratory-scale and large-scale equipment to determine optimum conditions for dissolving the most aluminum hydroxide with the least caustic. These studies showed that gibbsite Al(OH)3 is readily dissolved at low caustic strength, low addition rate, and at easily attainable in-tank temperatures. On the other hand, most of the boehmite AlOOH can be dissolved, but a lengthy digestion period is required at maximum temperatures and caustic strengths. Fortunately, 72% of the total aluminum hydroxide in the waste sludge is gibbsite and 28% is boehmite according to recent sludge analyses. Recommendations are made for the in-tank conditions needed to dissolve 75% of the aluminum hydroxide contacted. With low boehmite sludges, mild dissolving conditions are adequate while providing good caustic economy. With higher boehmite sludges, the harsher conditions within existing constraints are recommended

  2. LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES: NANOMATERIALS FOR APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíz Paulo Figueredo Benício

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to introduce Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH as nanomaterials to be used in agriculture, with particular reference to its use as storage and slow release matrix of nutrients and agrochemicals for plant growing. Structural characteristics, main properties, synthesis methods and characterization of LDH were covered in this study. Moreover, some literature data have been reported to demonstrate their potential for storage and slow release of nitrate, phosphate, agrochemicals, besides as being used as adsorbent for the wastewater treatment. This research aims to expand, in near future, the investigation field on these materials, with application in agriculture, increasing the interface between chemistry and agronomy.

  3. Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rodrigues de Lima; Ricardo Araújo de Oliveira; Miriam Carla Bonicontro Ambrosio-Ugri; Sueli Teresa Davantel de Barros; Carlos de Barros Júnior

    2008-01-01

    No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e t...

  4. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method. PMID:21832599

  5. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method.

  6. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method

  7. Optimization of NaOH thermo-chemical pre-treatment for enhancing solubilisation of rice straw by Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Seyed; Aziz, Hamidi,; Syafalni, C.; Kiamahalleh, Meisam,

    2011-01-01

    A municipal solid waste produced in urban and rural communities is a serious pollution source of water resource in developing country. One of the main problem in treatment of organic solid waste is its non-readily biodegradability due to the complexity of organic material especially hemicellolluse. This study reports Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) thermochemical pretreatment of rice straw as a indicators of cellulosic compound to enhance its biodegradability. Laboratory-scale experiments were carrie...

  8. Effect of Sodium Valproate on the Toxicity of Cyclophosphamide in the Testes of Mice: Influence of Pre- and Post-Treatment Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S.; Jena, G. B.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, sodium valproate (VPA) has been proven as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and potentiates the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs, and also exhibit promising anti-cancer activity. Present study aimed to investigate the influence of pre- and post-treatment of VPA on cyclophosphamide (CP) induced genotoxicity and germ cell toxicity in mice. All the animals were treated with VPA at the dose of 500 mg/kg/day on alternate day thrice/week for a period of two weeks, CP at the dose of 200 mg/kg on 7th and 15th day and sacrificed 24 h after administration (i.p.) of the last dose. End point of evaluation includes sperm count, sperm head morphology, sperm comet assay and histology. VPA treatment significantly decreases CP induced sperm count, testes and epididymis weight; increased sperm head abnormality and sperm DNA damage. Both VPA pre- and post-treatment augmented CP induced DNA damage and the germ cell toxicity; however, pre-treatment induced more cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as compared to post-treatment. PMID:23833441

  9. Thorium sorption by hydroxides of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of thorium microquantities by hydroxides of bi-, tri-, and tetravalent metals in coprecipitation conditions is investigated. It is shown that sorptive ability of of metal hydroxides relative to thorium decreases with increase of pH value of precipitation beginning, that is with decrease of acidic properties of the collectors in a row Sn(1.1)>Ti(1.1)>Zr(0.8)>Fe(2.0)>Ga(2.8)>In(3.4)>Al(4.0)>Cr(5.)>Be(6.0). It is determined that thorium sorption by metal hydroxides takes place as a result of acid-base interaction between micro- and macrocomponents through heterohydroxocomplex formation type

  10. Iodine Sequestration Using Delafossites and Layered Hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka; J.L. Krumhansl

    2006-03-28

    The objective of this document is to report on early success for sequestering {sup 129}I. Sorption coefficients (K{sub d}) for I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured in order to compare their applicability for sequestering {sup 129}I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain area. Delafossites generally exhibited relatively poor sorption coefficients (< 10{sup 1.7} mL/g). In contrast, the composition of the layered hydroxides significantly affects their ability to sorb I. Cu/Al and Cu/Cr layered hydroxide samples exhibit K{sub d}'s greater than 10{sup 3} mL/g for both I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -}.

  11. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P; Cherel, Y; Laval, A; Theaker, J M; Bak, Martin; Ferretti, E; Morvan, H

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules in...... the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide was the...

  12. SXPS investigation of the Cd partial electrolyte treatment of CuInSe2 absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical modification of polycrystalline CuInSe2 absorber surfaces by the so-called Cd partial electrolyte (PE) treatment was studied by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS). The Cd PE treatment was found to remove surface indium oxides and hydroxides and segregated sodium compounds. A hydroxide-terminated CdSe surface layer of one monolayer thickness is formed by the partial electrolyte treatment. The reaction mechanism is discussed as substrate site-controlled exchange reaction, where surface indium is removed and replaced by cadmium. Electronically, the Cd PE treated surface is inverted and exhibits a surface barrier which is by 0.2 eV higher than a comparable structure that was prepared by the vacuum deposition of one monolayer of CdS onto clean CuInSe2

  13. Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste

  14. Single sheet metal oxides and hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer...... composition. (2) Delamination of the LDHs structure (oxGRC12) with the formation of single sheet iron (hydr)oxide (SSI). (3) Assembly of the new 2D nanosheets layer by layer to achieve desired functionalities....

  15. Formation of chromia from amorphous chromium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Musi?, Svetozar; Maljkovi?, Miroslava; Popovi?, Stanko; Trojko, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    Forced hydrolysis of Cr(NO3)(3) in a solution of decomposing urea was investigated. Chromium hydroxide precipitates were amorphous for the final pH values up to similar to 9 to 9.5. Heating of amorphous chromium hydroxide up to 360 degrees C produced Cr2O3 crystallites of the order of 20 nm, whereas after heating up to 825 degrees C the crystallite size of Cr2O3 increased to the order of 100 nm. Crystallization of Cr2O3 was also monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy. TGA/DTA curves, recorded in air...

  16. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  17. Intra-arterial cis-platinum infusion with sodium thiosulfate protection and angiotensin II induced hypertension for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (CDDP; 52-169 mg/m2) mixed with angiotensin II (1.5-10 ?g/min) was infused into the hepatic artery in 33 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Simultaneously, sodium thiosulfate (10-50 g) was administered intravenously in order to reduce the systemic toxicity of CDDP. Over 50% reduction in tumor size was obtained in 18 patients (55%). Complete response was achieved in 4 patients (12%). Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels decreased by more than 75% in 10 of 18 patients in whom the previous AFP level was more than 200 mg/ml. The one year survival rate was estimated at 61% by the Kaplan-Meier method. Alimentary symptoms (nausea, vomiting) were mild or non-existent in nearly 90 per cent of treatments. Peptic ulcer and abdominal pain were manifested in small numbers. Severe changes in the laboratory data were not observed. High dosage arterial infusion of CDDP and angiotensin II and intravenous injection of sodium thiosulfate was well tolerated and gave effective therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma. (orig.)

  18. Eficacia de la carboximetilcelulosa sódica para el tratamiento del síndrome del ojo seco / Efficacy of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the treatment of dry eye syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Bruix; A., Adán; R.P., Casaroli-Marano.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de la carboximetilcelulosa sódica para el tratamiento del Síndrome de Ojo Seco (SOS). Material y métodos: Se realizó un ensayo clínico prospectivo randomizado unicéntrico y enmascarado de tipo grupo problema/control con 19 pacientes que padecían un SOS leve o moderado, [...] durante un período de 12 meses. Los pacientes fueron clínicamente evaluados cada 3 meses y tratados con una solución isotónica de carboximetilcelulosa sódica (CMC) al 0,5% o BSS. La toma de los síntomas subjetivos, las pruebas objetivas de funcionalidad clínica, y la citología de impresión conjuntival fueron realizadas según el protocolo preestablecido. Para la comparación de los datos entre los grupos se utilizó un análisis estadístico mediante prueba de chi cuadrado (?²). Resultados: Se ha observado una disminución significativa (p Abstract in english Aim: To assess the efficacy of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the treatment of dry eye. Material and methods: We carried out a prospective, randomized, masked-observer, control/problem group, single-center clinical assay during a period of 12 months in 19 patients that presented mild or moderate f [...] orms of dry eye. Patients were clinically evaluated each 3 months and treated with a 0.5% isotonic solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or balanced salt solution. Subjective symptoms, functional tests and conjunctival impression cytology were performed according preexistent schedule study visits. To compare data between groups chi squared (?2) analysis was applied. Results: We observed a significant (p

  19. Treatment with sodium hyaluronate eye drops in a patient who had early-onset bleb leakage after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, Hideto; Sekiryu, Tetsuju; Noji, Hiroki; Ogasawara, Masashi; Imaizumi, Kimihiro; Yago, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 47-year-old man who had bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma. Schirmer I test revealed tear secretions of 5 mm and 3 mm in the right and left eyes, respectively. Tear breakup times in the right and left eyes were 7 and 8 seconds, respectively. The ocular surface staining in both eyes was scored as Grade 1 as per the Oxford scheme. Retinal photocoagulation was performed for correction of the proliferative diabetic retinopathy and rubeosis iridis, which resolved with treatment. However, the intraocular pressure in the left eye could not be adequately controlled. Therefore, trabeculectomy with mitomycin C using limbal-based conjunctival flap was performed. Three hours after the surgery, the patient developed a large and diffuse filtering bleb, but no leakage occurred from the conjunctival scar. However, on the first postoperative day, leakage was noted and the conjunctiva was at the leakage point. The leakage resolved transiently, but recurred the next day. Severe keratoconjunctival epithelial failure was detected, and the patient was administrated 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops six times daily. The epithelial failure improved, and many microcysts were detected on the bleb surface where the epithelial failure improved. The leakage resolved 2 days after initiation of the sodium hyaluronate eye drops. The microcysts disappeared and the bleb surface became smooth 1 month later.

  20. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene with layered double hydroxide nano composites: In situ synthesis, morphology and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted interest, both in industry and in academia, because they often exhibit remarkable improvement in their properties when compared with pure polymer or conventional micro and macro-composites using low levels of reinforcements. In this work polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene reinforced with layered double hydroxide, which was intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized and compared by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test. The X-ray diffraction demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites showed a high global dispersion of layered double hydroxide, suggesting exfoliated morphology. The result of thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test for synthesized polystyrene/ layered double hydroxide nanocomposite presented a significant improvement in thermal stability and flammability property when compared with pure polymer. (author)

  1. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs134 and Cs137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  2. Possibly enhanced Gd excretion in dialysate, but no major clinical benefit of 3-5 months of treatment with sodium thiosulfate in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.; Sloth, J.J.; Nielsen, Arne Høj

    2008-01-01

    Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3...

  3. Gallium oxide nanorods by the conversion of gallium oxide hydroxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-crystalline gallium oxide hydroxide (?-GaOOH) nanorods could be successfully synthesized in large quantities through a hydrothermal synthetic method using gallium oxide as the gallium source and sodium azide and aqueous hydrazine as both alkaline and complexing reagent. Single-crystalline gallium oxide (?-Ga2O3 and ?-Ga2O3) nanorods could be selectively obtained by thermal decomposition method using gallium oxide hydroxide nanorods as the precursor. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and photoluminescence spectra (PL)

  4. Gallium oxide nanorods by the conversion of gallium oxide hydroxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaohe [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)]. E-mail: liuxh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Qiu, Guanzhou [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)]. E-mail: qgz@mail.csu.edu.cn; Zhao, Yan [School of Physics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Ning [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Yi, Ran [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2007-07-31

    Single-crystalline gallium oxide hydroxide ({alpha}-GaOOH) nanorods could be successfully synthesized in large quantities through a hydrothermal synthetic method using gallium oxide as the gallium source and sodium azide and aqueous hydrazine as both alkaline and complexing reagent. Single-crystalline gallium oxide ({alpha}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanorods could be selectively obtained by thermal decomposition method using gallium oxide hydroxide nanorods as the precursor. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and photoluminescence spectra (PL)

  5. Cryogenic and room temperature strength of sapphire jointed by hydroxide-catalysis bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxide-catalysis bonding is a precision technique used for jointing components in opto-mechanical systems and has been implemented in the construction of quasi-monolithic silica suspensions in gravitational wave detectors. Future detectors are likely to operate at cryogenic temperatures which will lead to a change in test mass and suspension material. One candidate material is mono-crystalline sapphire. Here results are presented showing the influence of various bonding solutions on the strength of the hydroxide-catalysis bonds formed between sapphire samples, measured both at room temperature and at 77 K, and it is demonstrated that sodium silicate solution is the most promising in terms of strength, producing bonds with a mean strength of 63 MPa. In addition the results show that the strengths of bonds were undiminished when tested at cryogenic temperatures. (paper)

  6. Chromatographic separation of uranium(VI) by use of gel containing titanium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been made on the separation of uranium (VI) from various metals with a column, packed with the gel containing titanium hydroxide. Gel particles as carrier were prepared with acrylamide, N,N-methylenebisacrylamide and titanium hydroxide. Uranium (VI) was able to be eluted almost quantitatively from the gel column, which consisted of the gel particles ((20 -- 100) mesh), by 0.1 M sodium carbonate solution. On the other hand, dilute hydrochloric acid ((0.1 -- 0.2)M) was employed as eluting agent for nickel (II) and iron (III). It was observed that uranium (VI) was able to be separated from nickel (II) and iron (III), but could not be separated from barium (II) and lanthanum (III). Uranium (VI) could be recovered more than 90% when the solution containing 93 ?g of uranium (VI) as well as 200 ?g each of nickel (II) and iron (III) was used. (auth.)

  7. Microwaves and layered double hydroxides: A smooth understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave-hydrothermal treatment (MWHT), a modification of conventional hydro thermal treatment, has been used during post-treatment of different layered double hydroxides (LDHs). In some cases, microwaves (MWs) have been used simultaneously with urea hydrolysis or for reconstruction of the LDH structure. The main advantages of replacing the conventional furnaces by MW ovens are a noticeable reduction in the time required to complete the process to obtain well-crystallized materials, and modification of their particle size distribution and textural and thermal properties. MW radiation leads to an increase in the rate of urea hydrolysis and consequently to fast precipitation of LDHs. Finally, the memory effect of Ni,Al-based LDHs is also improved. (authors)

  8. Critical operating parameters for microwave solidification of hydroxide sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineers at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed an innovative technology for the treatment of homogeneous wet or dry solids which are contaminated with hazardous and/or radioactive materials. The process uses microwave energy to heat and melt the waste into a vitreous final form that is suitable for land disposal. The advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form; volume and toxicity reduction; favorable economics; in-container treatment; favorable public acceptance; isolated equipment; and instantaneous energy control. Regulatory certification of the final form is accomplished by meeting the limitation specified in EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). This paper presents the results from a series of TCLP tests performed on a surrogate hydroxide coprecipitation sludge spiked with heavy metals at elevated concentrations. The results are very encouraging and support RFP's commitment to the use of microwave technology for treatment of various mixed waste streams

  9. Intrarenal octreotide treatment prevents sodium retention in liver cirrhotic rats: evidence for direct effects within the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Thomas; Christensen, Sten; Marcussen, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that systemic treatment with the somatostatin analog octreotide has marked beneficial effects on renal function in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by common bile duct ligation (CBL; Jonassen TEN, Christensen S, Sørensen AM, Marcussen N, Flyvbjerg A, Andreasen F, and...... Petersen JS. Hepatology 29: 1387-1395, 1999). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that octreotide has a direct effect on renal tubular function. Rats (CBL or Sham-CBL) were intrarenally treated with low-dose octreotide in a long-acting release formulation, which had no systemic actions (100...... microg/kg body wt as a single dose). Rats receiving low-dose octreotide (sc) were used as controls. The rats were chronically instrumented, and renal function was examined 4 wk after CBL or Sham-CBL. Intrarenal octreotide administration (IROA) prevented sodium retention in CBL rats without changes in...

  10. Recycling Lithium Carbonate/Lithium Hydroxide Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, J.; Flowers, J.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste disposal problem eliminated by regeneration. Li2CO3/ LiOH recycling process relies on low solubility of alkali carbonates in corresponding hydroxides. Li2CO3 precipitate calcined to LI2O, then rehydrated LiOH. Regeneration eliminates need to dispose caustic waste and uses less energy than simple calcination of entire waste mass.

  11. Thermal analysis experiment for elucidating sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in steam generator of sodium-cooled after reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. The parameters, including melting point of Na and NaOH, transition temperature of NaOH, Na-NaOH reaction temperature, and the decomposition temperature of sodium hydride (NaH) have been identified from DTA curves. Based on the measured reaction temperature, rate constant of Na2O generation was obtained. Thermal analysis results indicated that Na2O generation at the secondary overall reaction would be considered during the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  12. Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones: synthesis, facile morphological and structural modification, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Renzhi; Liang, Jianbo; Wang, Chengxiang; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhou, Kechao; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-10-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones intercalated with DS- have been synthesized for the first time via a convenient synthetic approach, using homogeneous precipitation in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS plays a significant role in controlling the morphologies of as-synthesized samples. Conical samples intercalated with various anions were transformed through an anion-exchange route in ethanol solution, and the original conical structure was perfectly maintained. Additionally, these DS--inserted nanocones can be transformed into square-like nanoplates in aqueous solution at room temperature, fulfilling the need for different morphology-dependent properties. Corresponding ZnO nanocones and nanoplates have been further obtained through the thermal calcination of NO3--intercalating zinc hydroxide nanocones/nanoplates. These ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies exhibit promising photocatalytic properties.Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones intercalated with DS- have been synthesized for the first time via a convenient synthetic approach, using homogeneous precipitation in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS plays a significant role in controlling the morphologies of as-synthesized samples. Conical samples intercalated with various anions were transformed through an anion-exchange route in ethanol solution, and the original conical structure was perfectly maintained. Additionally, these DS--inserted nanocones can be transformed into square-like nanoplates in aqueous solution at room temperature, fulfilling the need for different morphology-dependent properties. Corresponding ZnO nanocones and nanoplates have been further obtained through the thermal calcination of NO3--intercalating zinc hydroxide nanocones/nanoplates. These ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies exhibit promising photocatalytic properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Typical SEM images, TGA curves and XRD patterns of as-prepared samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04166f

  13. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  14. Eficacia del valproato de sodio en el tratamiento profiláctico de la migraña / Efficacy of sodium valproate in the prophylactic treatment of migraine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Fernando, Lizárraga Luyo; Pilar Milagros, Jara Pinto; Leónidas E., Unzueta Rozas.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La migraña es un síndrome doloroso recurrente crónico acompañado de características neurológicas, objetivos: evaluar la eficacia del valproato de sodio en la profilaxis de la migraña a través de cambios en intensidad, dolor y frecuencia. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, longi [...] tudinal, experimental y aleatorio en 30 pacientes que recibieron en la 1ra semana 1 tableta/dia de valproato de sodio 500 mg vía oral y 2 tabletas/dia de 500 mg por 7 semanas más. Resultados: 97% refirió disminución de la intensidad del dolor. 97% estuvieron en la categoría 3 de frecuencia de crisis de migraña al mes 0; durante el 1er mes de tratamiento, se redujo al 0% y se mantuvo durante el 2do mes. Conclusiones: El tratamiento profiláctico de la migraña con valproato de sodio produce una disminución de la frecuencia e intensidad del dolor Abstract in english Introduction: migraine is a chronic recurrent pain syndrome accompanied by neurological features. Objectives: evaluate the efficacy of sodium valproate in the migraine prophylactic, measuring pain intensity and frequency. Material and Methods: prospective, longitudinal, experiemental and randomized [...] in 30 patients, each patient received in the 1st week 1 table/day of 500 mg orally and 2 table/day of 500 mg for the next 7 weeks Results: 97% reported decreased pain intensity. 97% were in category 3 of frequency of migraine attacks per month 0. during the 1 st month of treatment, it was reduced to 0% and remained during the 2nd month. Conclusions: prophylactic treatment of migraine with sodium valproate causes a decrease in pain intensity and frequency.

  15. Efficacy of gastro-retentive forms of ecabet sodium in the treatment of gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Bae, Hyun-Ju; Choi, Jungsub; Lim, Jong-Rae; Kim, Sang-Wook; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Park, Eun-Seok

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of gastric retention of ecabet sodium (ECS) on its mucoprotective effect in rat ulcer models. Mini-tablets containing 9 mg ECS were prepared using the direct compression method. The release rates of ECS mini-tablets were controlled by the amount and viscosity grade of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose incorporated. Gastric retention of ECS mini-tablets after oral administration to rats was visually confirmed using a fluorescence imaging system. Because ECS mini-tablets exhibited size-dependent gastric retention, their gastric retention time was prolonged as the release rate decreased. In the in vivo efficacy study, gastro-retentive dosage forms of ECS did not influence the mucoprotective effect in the immediate irritation model but enhanced the effect in the delayed irritation model compared with ECS suspension. This finding indicates that the duration of the mucoprotective effect of ECS can be extended by the employment of gastro-retentive dosage formulations and provides a rationale for development of ECS gastro-retentive dosage forms. PMID:24254934

  16. Successful Treatment of Lung Calciphylaxis With Sodium Thiosulfate in a Patient With Sickle Cell Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrestier, Romain; Dudreuilh, Caroline; Remy, Philippe; Boulahia, Ghada; Bentaarit, Bouteina; Leibler, Claire; Adedjouma, Amir; Kofman, Tomek; Matignon, Marie; Sahali, Dil; Dufresne, Roger; Deux, Jean-Francois; Colin, Charlotte; Grimbert, Philippe; Lang, Philippe; Bartolucci, Pablo; Maitre, Bernard; Tran Van Nhieu, Jeanne; Audard, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Calciphylaxis is a small vessel vasculopathy, characterized by medial wall calcification that develops in a few patients with chronic renal failure. The prognosis of skin calciphylaxis has improved considerably since the introduction of sodium thiosulfate (STS), but it remains unclear whether this therapy is effective against organ lesions related to calciphylaxis. Pulmonary calciphylaxis is a usually fatal medical condition that may occur in association with skin involvement in patients with end-stage renal disease.We report here the case of a 49-year-old woman homozygous sickle cell disease patient on chronic hemodialysis with biopsy-proven systemic calciphylaxis involving the lungs and skin. On admission, ulcerative skin lesions on the lower limbs and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest computerized tomography scan were the main clinical and radiological findings. Skin and bronchial biopsies demonstrated calciphylaxis lesions. The intravenous administration of STS in association with cinacalcet for 8 consecutive months led to a clear improvement in skin lesions and thoracic lesions on chest computerized tomography scan.This case suggests for the first time that organ lesions related to calciphylaxis, and particularly lung injury, are potentially reversible. This improvement probably resulted from the combination of 3 interventions (more frequent dialysis, cinacalcet, and STS), rather than the administration of STS alone. PMID:26871829

  17. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO2 are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO2 present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs

  18. The impact of low serum sodium on treatment outcome of targeted therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Database Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutz, Fabio A B; Xie, Wanling

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia has been associated with poor survival in many solid tumors and more recently found to be of prognostic and predictive value in metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) patients treated with immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of baseline hyponatremia in mRCC patients treated with targeted therapy in the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data on 1661 patients treated with first-line vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) targeted therapy for mRCC were available from 18 cancer centers to study the impact of hyponatremia (serum sodium level <135 mmol/l) on clinical outcomes. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary objective was overall survival (OS) and secondary end points included time to treatment failure (TTF) and the disease control rate (DCR). The chi-square test was used to compare the DCR in patients with and without hyponatremia. OS and TTF were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and differences between groups were examined by the log-rank test. Multivariable logistic regression (for DCR) and Cox regression (for OS and TTF) were undertaken adjusted for prognostic risk factors. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Median OS after treatment initiation was 18.5 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.5-19.8 mo), with 552 (33.2%) of patients remaining alive on a median follow-up of 22.1 mo. Median baseline serum sodium was 138 mmol/l (range: 122-159 mmol/l), and hyponatremia was found in 14.6% of patients. On univariate analysis, hyponatremia was associated with shorter OS (7.0 vs 20.9 mo), shorter TTF (2.9 vs 7.4 mo), and lower DCR rate (54.9% vs 78.8%) (p<0.0001 for all comparisons). In multivariate analysis, these effects remain significant (hazard ratios: 1.51 [95% CI, 1.26-1.80] for OS, and 1.57 [95% CI, 1.34-1.83] for TTF; odds ratio: 0.50 [95% CI, 34-0.72] for DCR; adjusted p<0.001). Results were similar if sodium was analyzed as a continuous variable (adjusted p<0.0001 for OS, TTF, and DCR). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest multi-institutional report to show that hyponatremia is independently associated with a worse outcome in mRCC patients treated with VEGF- and mTOR-targeted agents.

  19. Development of Drug Delivery Systems Based on Layered Hydroxides for Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Barahuie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Layered hydroxides (LHs have recently fascinated researchers due to their wide application in various fields. These inorganic nanoparticles, with excellent features as nanocarriers in drug delivery systems, have the potential to play an important role in healthcare. Owing to their outstanding ion-exchange capacity, many organic pharmaceutical drugs have been intercalated into the interlayer galleries of LHs and, consequently, novel nanodrugs or smart drugs may revolutionize in the treatment of diseases. Layered hydroxides, as green nanoreservoirs with sustained drug release and cell targeting properties hold great promise of improving health and prolonging life.

  20. Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser (λ= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm2 during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

  1. Physical, morphological and rheological alterations of properties by the calcination of aluminium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolution of physical, morphological and rheological characteristics resulted from several thermal treatments on national aluminium hydroxide, are evaluated and discussed after mercury porosimetry analysis, scanning electron microscopy, surface area and pressure curve compaction. The results may consider about the Kinetics of the reaction during the aglomerate calcination and to verify the better processing conditions to get products with superior performance. (Autor)

  2. Performance testing of in-sodium sensors and simulated experiments in, sodium chemistry loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sodium chemistry loop operated with simulated reactor conditions. • Electrochemical sensors for measurement of H2, C and O2 in sodium tested. • Hydrogen sensor response studied by Na–NaOH and Na–H2O reactions. • Hydrogen and oxygen sensors response tested for cold trap temperature variation. - Abstract: Impurities like oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in sodium circuits of fast reactors need to be monitored and controlled within permissible levels. Toward this, electrochemical sensors are being developed in this Center for continuous monitoring of these impurities in sodium. A sodium chemistry loop (SCL), wherein reactor conditions can be simulated, was built and performance of the sensors was studied. The response of the hydrogen sensor for sodium hydroxide addition and simulated steam leak was studied in SCL. The responses of hydrogen and oxygen sensors for the variation of cold trap temperature are also discussed. Carbon activity in sodium was monitored using carbon sensor and foil equilibration technique and the results were used for testing a radionuclide trap, containing reticulated vitreous carbon, for the removal of cesium isotopes in sodium was tested in SCL. The results of these studies are presented in this paper

  3. O uso do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento das disfunções temporomandibulares articulares / The use of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Grossmann; Eduardo, Januzzi; Liogi, Iwaki Filho.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A disfunção temporomandibular compreende um termo coletivo que envolve alterações clínicas nos músculos da mastigação, das articulações temporomandibulares e/ou estruturas associadas.O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise crítica, utilizando as principais bases d [...] e dados, sobre a efetividade e a segurança do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento das disfunções temporomandibulares de origem articular, a fim de recomendar ou refutar seu uso na prática clínica. CONTEÚDO: Os estudos foram obtidos através das seguintes bases de dados: Medline, via PubMed (1966 - 2013), Registro de Ensaios Controlados Cochrane, (2012), Embase (1980 - 2013) e LILACS (1982 - 2013). A estratégia utilizada foi a busca ajustada para cada base, a fim de identificar o maior número possível de estudos envolvendo o uso do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento da disfunção temporomandibular de origem articular. Houve limitação do idioma, buscando artigos em língua inglesa. Cruzaram-se os seguintes descritores: tratamento da articulação temporomandibular versus hialuronato de sódio versus deslocamento agudo e crônico do disco com e sem redução versus ácido hialurônico versus osteoartrite e osteoartrose versus viscossuplementação. Como critérios de inclusão foram analisados estudos randomizados, uni ou duplamente encobertos, série de casos, com 15 ou mais participantes. Excluíram-se relato de caso, estudos abertos "open-label", estudos em modelos animais e artigos relacionados a tratamento da disfunção artrogênica que não possuíssem como uma das terapias a infiltração de hialuronato de sódio na articulação temporomandibular. A qualidade metodológica desses estudos foi avaliada e classificada conforme o nível de evidência do Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com a análise crítica dos estudos incluídos, pode-se afirmar que o uso do hialuronato de sódio é eficaz e seguro, sendo recomendado no tratamento das seguintes condições: deslocamento agudo e crônico do disco com redução e sem redução, osteoartrose, osteoartrite e doença articular degenerativa. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Temporomandibular disorder is a collective term involving clinical masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints and/or associated structures changes. This study aimed at reviewing, using major databases, the effectiveness and safety of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment [...] of temporomandibular joint disorders, aiming at recommending or discarding its clinical use. CONTENTS: The following databases were queried: Medline, via Pubmed (1966-2013), Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (2012), Embase (1980-2013) and LILACS (1982-2013). The strategy was a search adjusted to each database to identify the largest possible number of studies involving sodium hyalorunate to manage joint temporomandibular disorders. Language was limited to articles published in English. The following keywords were crossed: temporomandibular joint management, versus sodium hyalorunate, versus acute or chronic reducing or nonreducing disk displacement, versus hyaluronic acid, versus osteoarthritis, versus viscosupplementation. Inclusion criteria were randomized, blind or double-blind studies, and case series with 15 or more participants. Exclusion criteria were open label-label studies, animal model studies and articles related to arthrogenous disorders not being treated with sodium hyalorunate infiltration of the temporomandibular joint. Methodological quality of such studies was evaluated and classified according to the level of evidence of the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine. CONCLUSION: According to this review, one may state that sodium hyalorunate is effective and safe, being recommended to manage the following conditions: acute and chronic reducing and nonreducing disk displacement, osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease.

  4. The effect of extraction temperature on oil sand bitumen extraction and froth treatment effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanova, U.G.; Stasiuk, E.N.; Yarranton, H.W.; Valinasab, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Schramm, L. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Shelfantook, W.E. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    Extraction and froth treatment are the 2 stages of bitumen recovery. In order to further develop Alberta's oil sand deposits, poorer quality oil sands will have to be processed while maximizing bitumen recovery, minimizing the water and solids content of the product bitumen, and minimizing overall energy consumption. This study focused on the effect of process conditions in the Clark Hot Water Bitumen Extraction Process on froth treatment effectiveness. Laboratory studies were used to represent the following 2 commercialized froth treatment processes in Alberta: (1) the Syncrude process which involves dilution with an aromatic solvent followed by centrifugation, and (2) the Albian process which involves dilution with a paraffinic solvent followed by gravity settling. Oil sand quality, extraction shear, extraction temperature, sodium hydroxide addition in extraction, froth treatment temperature, and froth treatment residence time were the parameters considered during this study. The study showed that lowering the extraction temperature results in lower bitumen recovery, at least for low quality oil sands. Higher shear extraction improves bitumen recovery, but decreases the effectiveness of froth treatment. For paraffinic solvent based froth treatments, the addition of sodium hydroxide in extraction may be required to obtain optimum froth treatment of low quality oil sands. 22 refs., 9 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. Colistimethate sodium for the treatment of chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koerner-Rettberg C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cordula Koerner-Rettberg, Manfred Ballmann Department of Pediatric Pneumology, University Children’s Hospital of Ruhr University Bochum at St Josef-Hospital, Bochum, Germany Abstract: Chronic bacterial respiratory-tract infections are a major driving force in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease and promote chronic lung-function decline, destruction, and progression to respiratory failure at a premature age. Gram-negative bacteria colonizing the airways in CF are a major problem in CF therapy due to their tendency to develop a high degree of resistance to antibiotic agents over time. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominating bacterial strain infecting the CF lung from early childhood on, and multiresistant strains frequently develop after years of therapy. Colistin has been used for treating pulmonary bacterial infections in CF for decades due to its very good Gram-negative activity. However, drawbacks include concerns regarding toxicity when being applied systemically, and the lack of approval for application by inhalation in the USA for many years. Other antibiotic substances for systemic use are available with good to excellent Gram-negative and anti-Pseudomonas activity, while there are only three substances approved for inhalation use in the treatment of chronic pulmonary infection with proven benefit in CF. The emergence of multiresistant strains leaving nearly no antibiotic substance as a treatment option, the limited number of antibiotics with high activity against P. aeruginosa, the concerns about increasing the risk of antibiotic resistance by continuous antibiotic therapy, the development of new drug formulations and drug-delivery devices, and, finally, the differing treatment strategies used in CF centers call for defining the place of this “old” drug, colistimethate, in today’s CF therapy. This article reviews the available evidence to reflect on the place of colistimethate sodium in the therapy of chronic pulmonary infection in CF. Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, treatment, multiresistant strains, Gram-negative bacteria, colistin

  6. Survival mechanism of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against combined treatment with acetic acid and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, including pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, the addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which salt confers resistance against acetic acid in E. coli O157:H7. The addition of high concentrations (up to 9% or 15% [w/v]) of salt increased the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to acetic acid treatment. Combined treatment with acetic acid and salt showed varying results among different bacterial strains (an antagonistic effect for E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella and a synergistic effect for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The addition of salt increased the cytoplasmic pH of E. coli O157:H7, but decreased the cytoplasmic pH of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus on treatment with acetic acid. Therefore, the addition of salt increases the acid resistance of E. coli O157:H7 possibly by increasing its acid resistance response and consequently preventing the acidification of its cytoplasm by organic acids. PMID:26742620

  7. A retrospective, pooled data analysis of the safety of pegaptanib sodium in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration in subjects with or without diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dombi Theresa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the safety of pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg intravitreal injection in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in subjects with or without diabetes mellitus. Methods A pooled, retrospective, analysis was conducted of data from 9 sponsor-administered, randomized, open-label trials. Subjects who received pegaptanib by randomization or change in dose assignment, crossover design, or protocol amendment, were included. Reports of endophthalmitis, increased intraocular pressure, retinal injury, intraocular hemorrhage, traumatic cataract, hypersensitivity reactions, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other arterial thromboembolic events defined by the Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration were identified by Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities preferred terms. Adverse events were summarized from the first injection to 42 days after the last injection. The incidence of adverse events was stratified by the presence/absence of diabetes. Results Of 1,586 subjects enrolled, 165 (10.4% had a history of diabetes mellitus and 1,421 (89.6% did not. The 2 populations were similar at baseline. Based on the comparison of prespecified ocular, hypersensitivity, and Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration event terms, the safety review did not identify any notable differences between the 2 populations. Conclusions This retrospective analysis found no increased safety risk resulting from treatment with pegaptanib 0.3 mg in individuals with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and concomitant diabetes mellitus.

  8. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  9. Atomic capture of negative muons in hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic capture of negative muons in Hsub(m)EOsub(n) compounds formed by the elements E of the 3-5 groups of the periodic table are studied. The capture probability is determined from ?--e--decay. The results obtained are analyzed in terms of the chemical increment W and compared to analogous data for oxides. It is noted that the dependence of W on the atomic number Z is similar for the both types of the compounds, W being systematically larger for hydroxides. Period analysis shows that in the third period W is independent of Z; in the forth period there is a tendency for W to increase with Z; in the fifth period, peaking is possible in the middle of the period, though the constancy of W along the period is not excluded. The analysis of the hydroxide and oxide data is carried out from the viewpoint of the relative probability of the muonic substitution of inner and valence electrons

  10. In situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) is constrained by the decomposition of species at the surface and the absence of OH bulk diffusion. Therefore, it is not possible to prepare such films simply by water exposure to a Calcium layer. We present four different approaches for the preparation of Ca(OH)2 films in an UHV. Two of these methods are found to be ineffective for the preparation, the other two are shown to produce Calcium hydroxide films. Both of the two effective procedures make use of H2 gas exposure. Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy are employed to verify quality and purity of the films.

  11. In situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, S.; Voigts, F. [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Maus-Friedrichs, W., E-mail: w.maus-friedrichs@pe.tu-clausthal.de [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Clausthaler Zentrum fuer Materialtechnik, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2011-10-31

    The in situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) is constrained by the decomposition of species at the surface and the absence of OH bulk diffusion. Therefore, it is not possible to prepare such films simply by water exposure to a Calcium layer. We present four different approaches for the preparation of Ca(OH){sub 2} films in an UHV. Two of these methods are found to be ineffective for the preparation, the other two are shown to produce Calcium hydroxide films. Both of the two effective procedures make use of H{sub 2} gas exposure. Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy are employed to verify quality and purity of the films.

  12. Effect of combined gamma-irradiation and alkali treatment on cotton-cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of high-energy irradiation and sodium hydroxide treatment on the structure of cotton-cellulose was studied. The irradiation resulted in degradation of cellulose characterized by the decrease in the degree of polymerization (viscosimetry) and increase in the carbonyl content (FTIR, C=O stretching band at 1740 cm-1). The treatment with NaOH after irradiation had no significant effect on these characteristics. However as it was shown by XRD and SEM that the transformation of the crystalline structure from cellulose I to cellulose II was observed at lower alkaline concentration when irradiation pretreatment was applied

  13. Sodium MRI of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, Maria; Fleysher, Lazar; Oesingmann, Niels; Inglese, Matilde

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and disease progression are poorly understood, in part as a result of the lack of non-invasive methods to measure and monitor neurodegeneration in vivo. Sodium MRI is a topic of increasing interest in MS research as it allows the metabolic characterization of brain tissue in vivo, and integration with the structural information provided by (1) H MRI, helping in the exploration of pathogenetic mechanisms and possibly offering insights into disease progression and monitoring of treatment outcomes. We present an up-to-date review of the sodium MRI application in MS organized into four main sections: (i) biological and pathogenetic role of sodium; (ii) brief overview of sodium imaging techniques; (iii) results of sodium MRI application in clinical studies; and (iv) future perspectives. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25851455

  14. Highly hydroxide conductive ionomers with fullerene functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengjin; Liu, Yazhi; Guo, Rui; Hou, Jianqiu; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2016-02-01

    A novel ionomer was designed that will not poison the catalyst in alkaline fuel cells, by incorporating for the first time N-methyl pyrrolidine-C60 cation in polymeric anion exchange ionomers. The resultant fullerene-based anion exchange ionomer shows an extremely high hydroxide conductivity (182 mS cm(-1)) at a low cation concentration (0.62 mmol g(-1)). PMID:26765494

  15. Thermal behaviour of hydroxides, hydroxysalts and hydrotalcites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parthasarathi Bera; Michael Rajamathi; M S Hegde; P Vishnu Kamath

    2000-04-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of gases evolved during thermal decomposition of divalent metal hydroxides, hydroxysalts and hydrotalcites show that all these compounds undergo dehydration in the temperature range 30 < T < 220°C followed by decomposition at temperatures above 250°C. The latter step involves simultaneous deanation and dehydroxylation of the layers. Our observations conclusively prove that alternative mechanisms which envisage CO2 evolution due to deanation at lower temperatures proposed by Kanezaki to be wrong.

  16. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  17. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results indicated that the vaccine was to be held responsible for the formation of granulomas. A clinical trial was then performed to further substantiate the initial hypothesis, by comparing pigs, which were aseptically inoculated twice with either the original vaccine or the adjuvant alone (groups vaccine and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide was the cause of the granulomas.

  18. Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes After Initiation of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Bagger, Jonatan I; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    been suggested to predispose to ketoacidosis. Here, we present a case of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) developed in an obese, poorly controlled male patient with T2D treated with the SGLT2i dapagliflozin. He was admitted with DKA 5 days after the initiation of treatment with the SGLT2i dapagliflozin. On...... 72 hr with insulin as the only glucose-lowering therapy. After 1 month, dapagliflozin was reintroduced as add-on to insulin with no recurrent signs of ketoacidosis. During acute illness or other conditions with increased insulin demands in diabetes, SGLT2i may predispose to the formation of ketone...

  19. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reaction mixture (expressed in terms of molar ratios NaOH/SiO2 and H2O/SiO2. About 90% silica conversion contained in the RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in closed system at 200 °C. The results showed that sodium silicate production from RHA can generate aggregate value to this residue.

  20. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edson Luiz, Foletto; Ederson, Gratieri; Leonardo Hadlich de, Oliveira; Sérgio Luiz, Jahn.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produ [...] ced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA) and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reaction mixture (expressed in terms of molar ratios NaOH/SiO2 and H2O/SiO2). About 90% silica conversion contained in the RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in closed system at 200 °C. The results showed that sodium silicate production from RHA can generate aggregate value to this residue.

  1. Electrochemical properties of polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy Channu, V.S.; Holze, Rudolf [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Institut fuer Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, Chemnitz (Germany); Yeo, In-Hyeong [Dongguk University, Department of Chemistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Mho, Sun-il [Ajou University, Division of Energy Systems Research, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kalluru, Rajamohan R. [Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University of Hyderabad, KITE College of Professional Engineering Sciences, Shabad (India)

    2011-08-15

    Sodium vanadate nanomaterials were synthesized at different pH-values of a sodium hydroxide solution of vanadium pentoxide. Polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials were prepared at room temperature and at 3 C by a chemical polymerization method. The crystal structure and phase purity of the samples have been examined by powder XRD. The samples were identified as HNaV{sub 6}O{sub 16}.4H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 1.1}V{sub 3}O{sub 7.9}. The electrochemical measurements show that polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate hydrated nanomaterials provide higher current density than the sodium vanadate nanomaterials. (orig.)

  2. Effect of three different calcium hydroxide mixtures (calcium hydroxide with glycerine, normal saline and distilled water on root dentin microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasheminia SM

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: During root canal therapy, it is necessary to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal. The use of medicaments is recommended to reduce the microbial population prior to root filling. Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used because of their antibacterial effects and the ability of tissue dissolving. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide/glycerine mixture, calcium hydroxide/normal saline mixture and calcium hydroxide/distilled water mixture on root dentin microhardness in storage times of 7 and 14 days.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, fifteen extracted maxillary canines and central incisors were selected. The crowns of the teeth were removed and the canals were prepared. Teeth were sectioned transversally to produce a total of 30 dentin discs from the middle third of the roots. Specimens were divided into three groups of 10 discs each. Dentin samples were subjected to calcium hydroxide/glycerine, calcium hydroxide/normal saline and calcium hydroxide/distilled water mixtures for 7 and 14 days. Dentin microhardness was measured by a Vickers indenter with a load of 200 g for 15 seconds. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Paired t-test and LSD with p<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: Statistical analysis showed that all three mixtures decreased dentin microhardness. After 7 days, reduction in dentin microhardness by calcium hydroxide/glycerine combination was significantly higher than calcium hydroxide/normal saline and calcium hydroxide/distilled water combinations. After 14 days, reduction in dentin microhardness by calcium hydroxide/distilled water combination was significantly higher than the other two groups.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the use of calcium hydroxide combinations for intracanal dressing reduces dentin microhardness. After 7 days calcium hydroxide/glycerine combination and after 14 days calcium hydroxide/distilled water combination are the most effective combinations.

  3. Pre-harvest treatments with fungicides and post-harvest dips in sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest decay in stone fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Barberis, A; Satta, D; De Pau, L; Schirra, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different commercial formulations of fungicides containing one or more active ingredients in controlling postharvest decay of Thyrinthos and Boccuccia apricots, Red top peaches and Caldesi nectarines. Field treatments consisted of two sprays with cupric compounds, at the end of leaf fall and before bud swelling, one with sulfur compound, at fruit about half final size stage, and one with one of the following commercial formulations at the label suggested rates, one week before harvest: Teldor (fenexamid 50%; Bayer Crop Protection), Folicur (Tebuconazole 4.35%; Bayer Crop Protection), Signum (boscalid 26.7%, pyraclostrobin 6.7%; Basf Crop Protection), Score (difenoconazole 23.23%, Syngenta Crop Protection) and Switch (cyprodinil 37.5%, fludioxonil 25%, Syngenta Crop Protection). After harvest the fruit were stored for 1 week at 6 degrees C and 90% RH followed by 1 week at 20 degrees C and 60% RH to simulate retail conditions, or placed directly at 20 degrees C. All formulations significantly reduced decay in all cultivars. Switch, Signum and Folicur were the most active, while Score was slightly less effective. Teldor activity was low, especially in Thyrintos apricots, where the percentage of rotten fruit was slightly lower than in control fruit. Brown rot was the most representative disease, but in apricots a high percentage of fruit was affected by blue mold and grey mold. Rhizopus rot generally developed as a secondary disease on fruit previously affected by other pathogens and was more frequent in control and Teldor treated fruit. Preharvest sprays with Signum 3 days before harvest reduced postharvest decay after 1 week storage at 20 degrees C in Glo haven peaches and Venus nectarine harvested at advanced stage of maturity. Combining pre-harvest sprays with Signum and a 2-min postharvest dip in 2% sodium bicarbonate at 20 degrees C further reduced decay. In Sothern regions of Italy, the use of synthetic fungicides only immediately before harvest in years when the weather conditions are not favorable to brown rot and other pathogens inducing postharvest decay, combined with a postharvest treatment with sodium bicarbonate could be a feasible integrated approach to reduce the risk of selection of resistant strains of fungi to synthetic fungicides while controlling effectively postharvest decay. PMID:23878974

  4. Aluminum Solubility Model for Hanford Tank Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of aluminum in Hanford tank waste is a critical issue that fundamentally impacts the planning basis for treating waste at Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant. Dissolving or leaching aluminum from Hanford tank sludges and maintaining its solubility during pretreatment requires the addition of large amounts of sodium hydroxide. Recent estimates suggest that added sodium may result in nearly doubling the amount of Low-Activity Waste (LAW). On the other hand, aluminum (as aluminate) often shows very high solubility in Hanford tank waste supernatants. There are many reports of tank farm supernatants with aluminum concentrations in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 M, considerably higher than predicted by current models with the measured free hydroxide concentrations. This paper proposes an aluminum solubility model that is consistent with these observations by taking into account not only the free hydroxide, but three additional characteristics of these complex waste mixtures: 1) Low water activity that appears to stabilize aluminate in solution and is caused by high amounts of dissolved salts in waste concentrates; 2) Carbonate appears to further stabilize aluminate in solution; and 3) High TOC (total organic carbon) in waste also appears to stabilize soluble aluminate. This paper shows this 'water activity' aluminum solubility model is consistent with a large number of tank farm assays and may therefore be useful for Site planning. The well-known dependence of Al solubility on hydroxide concentration occurs by means of formation of soluble aluminate, Al(OH)4-. Although it has also been long recognized that changes in species activities are important for highly concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions, the role of water activity has not yet been well defined. The water-activity model herein developed seems to be consistent with the large amount of data for the simple system of NaOH, Al(OH)3, and H2O, including temperature. Moreover, this paper shows additional roles for carbonate (TIC) and TOC for enhancing Al solubility in Hanford waste concentrates. If validated, the water-activity model could prove very useful in waste treatment planning not only at Hanford, but at Savannah River Site as well. (authors)

  5. Transcriptional response of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 sessile cells to treatments with high doses of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Hans

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria are opportunistic pathogens, which can cause severe respiratory tract infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. As treatment of infected CF patients is problematic, multiple preventive measures are taken to reduce the infection risk. Besides a stringent segregation policy to prevent patient-to-patient transmission, clinicians also advise patients to clean and disinfect their respiratory equipment on a regular basis. However, problems regarding the efficacy of several disinfection procedures for the removal and/or killing of B. cepacia complex bacteria have been reported. In order to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance of biofilm-grown Burkholderia cenocepacia cells against high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS, the present study focussed on the transcriptional response in sessile B. cenocepacia J2315 cells following exposure to high levels of H2O2 or NaOCl. Results The exposure to H2O2 and NaOCl resulted in an upregulation of the transcription of 315 (4.4% and 386 (5.4% genes, respectively. Transcription of 185 (2.6% and 331 (4.6% genes was decreased in response to the respective treatments. Many of the upregulated genes in the NaOCl- and H2O2-treated biofilms are involved in oxidative stress as well as general stress response, emphasizing the importance of the efficient neutralization and scavenging of ROS. In addition, multiple upregulated genes encode proteins that are necessary to repair ROS-induced cellular damage. Unexpectedly, a prolonged treatment with H2O2 also resulted in an increased transcription of multiple phage-related genes. A closer inspection of hybridisation signals obtained with probes targeting intergenic regions led to the identification of a putative 6S RNA. Conclusion Our results reveal that the transcription of a large fraction of B. cenocepacia J2315 genes is altered upon exposure of sessile cells to ROS. These observations have highlighted that B. cenocepacia may alter several pathways in response to exposure to ROS and they have led to the identification of many genes not previously implicated in the stress response of this pathogen.

  6. Comparison of the effects of pre-treatment with sodium chloride, sucrose and trehalose on developmental competence porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, L; Kragh, P M; Purup, S; Du, Y; Zhang, X; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gabor

    the same osmotic level (588 mOsmol) in 4-well dishes and incubated for 1 h at 38.5°C in air. COCs incubated in T2 under the same conditions without supplementation were used as controls. Subsequently COCs were incubated in IVM medium for 1 h at 38.5°C in 5% CO2 with maximum humidity. After this...... al. 2002 Biol. Reprod. 66, 112-119) in 5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2 and maximum humidity. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were checked on Day 1 and Day 6, respectively. Cell numbers were counted after fixation in glycerol containing 20 ?g mL-1 Hoechst 33342 fluorochrome on Day 6. t-test was performed for...... in decreased cell number in blastocysts after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In conclusion, a simple NaCl pre-treatment of oocytes has improved the in vitro efficiency of porcine SCNT...

  7. Protective Activity of the Mixtures of Pine Oil and Copper Hydroxide against Bacterial Spot and Anthracnose on Red Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woo Soh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to examine the protective activities of the mixtures of pine oil and copper hydroxide against bacterial spot and anthracnose on pepper plants. As for bacterial spot, the treatment of pine oil alone displayed high disease incidence (59.6% and low protective effect (28.9%. In comparison, the treatments of mixtures and copper hydroxide alone showed protective activities of 66.8-76.1%. The mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 suppressed the most effectively bacterial spot on pepper. On the other hand, the mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 also showed the strongest protective effect against pepper anthracnose among the 4 treatments tested; its disease incidence and disease control value were 49.8% and 41.7%, respectively. The other treatments showed low protective activities with control values of 7.4-17.1%. These results suggested that the mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 can be used for the environmental-friendly disease control of bacterial spot and anthracnose on pepper.

  8. Radioactive sludge and wastewater analysis and treatment in the Hungarian VVER-440/213-type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that in the Hungarian VVER-type nuclear power plant Paks the radioactive waste waters are collected in common tanks. These water streams contain radioactive isotopes in ultra-low concentration and inactive compounds as major components (borate 1.7 g/dm3, sodium-nitrate 0.4 g/dm3, sodium-hydroxide 0.16 g/dm3, and oxalate 0.25 g/dm3). These low salinity solutions were evaporated by adding sodium-hydroxide, until 400 g/dm3 salt content is reached. There is about 6000 m3 concentrated evaporator bottom residues in the tanks of the reactor. There are some tanks at the power plant containing sludge type radioactive waste containing more or less liquid phase too. The general physical and chemical characteristics (density, pH, total solid, dissolved solid etc.) and chemical and radiochemical composition are important information for volume reduction and solidification treatment of these wastes. We have investigated and constructed a complex analysis system for the radioactive sludge and supernatant analysis, including the physical, as well as the chemical and radiochemical analysis methods. Using well known analysis techniques as ion chromatography, ICP-MS, AAS, gamma-and alpha-spectrometry and chemical alkaline fusion digestion and acidic dissolution methods we could analyze the main inorganic, organic and radioactive components of the sludges and supernatants. Determination of the mass and charge balance for the sludge samples were more difficult then for the supernatant samples. Not only are there assumptions required about the chemical form and the oxidation state of the species present in the sludge, but many of the compounds in the sludge are mixed oxides which are not directly measured. Also, the sludge is actually a slurry with a high water content. The interstitial liquid is in close contact with the sludge, and there are many ionic solubility equilibriums. The anion data for the sludge samples are based on the water soluble anions that would be available to a water wash. The water wash would not account for the insoluble hydroxides, carbonates, and mixed oxides present. The insoluble species do not contribute to the charge balance, and the cation charge is not used in the calculation. Most of the nitrate reported for the sludge is due to the interstitial liquid. Considering the limitations of these calculations, the mass balance was within the analytical error (±20%) for the sludge samples. There were three sample preparation methods used to investigate the total anion content of the sludge samples, which included water leach, potassium-hydroxide and/or sodium peroxide/sodium hydroxide fusion and acidic dissolution. (author)

  9. Changes in cardiac glycoside receptor sites 86 rubidium uptake and intracellular sodium concentrations in the erythrocytes of patients receiving digoxin during the early phases of treatment of cardiac failure in regular rhythm and of atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the binding of 12-?-[3H]-digoxin to the membranes of intact erythrocytes, erythrocytic 86Rb uptake and intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations have been made in the red cells of patients receiving digoxin in the short-term for atrial fibrillation or cardiac failure in regular rhythm. During the first few days of treatment [3H]-digoxin binding and 86Rb uptake fall and intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations rise. Subsequently parallel fluctuations occur in [3H]-digoxin binding and 86Rb uptake but not in intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations and the significance of the fluctuations is discussed. The values of all three measurements correlate significantly with the response of the heart in sinus rhythm as measured by QS2I. Plasma digoxin concentrations do not correlate with QS2I. (author)

  10. Ultrasound efficiency in relation to sodium hypochlorite and filtration adsorption in microbial elimination in a water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processes like ultrasound, chlorination and filtration-adsorption were compared to eliminate microorganisms and to adjust established parameters of public drinking water. A mini water treatment plant (WTP-CB, in pilot scale, was projected and built to evaluate each process influence as: decontamination, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. Total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and heterotrophic bacteria and physic/chemical parameters were quantified from water. Ultrasound, chlorination and filtration-adsorption were efficient to inactivate and/or eliminate bacteria. Ultrasound decontamination in addition to coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration, could be considered as an alternative treatment water solution where prechlorination, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration were used. The chlorination itself was efficient in inactivating bacteria despite of the coagulation-flocculation process; however, in the absence of the coagulation process, the resultant water did not achieve the established parameters. The filtration-adsorption was an important process to eliminate bacteria, showing that the filter retained particles, suspended solids, besides chemical substances and microorganisms.Comparou-se diferentes processos: ultra-som, cloração e filtração/adsorção para eliminação de microrganismos e adequação de outros parâmetros exigidos para água de abastecimento público. Para avaliar a influência de cada processo: desinfecção, coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração foi projetada e construída uma Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA-CB em escala piloto. Foram avaliados coliformes, bactérias heterotróficas e parâmetros físico/químicos. Ondas ultra-sônicas, cloração e filtração/adsorção mostraram-se eficientes na inativação e/ou eliminação de bactérias. O processo de desinfecção com ultra-som juntamente com a coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração, pode ser considerado como um tratamento alternativo do processo tradicional onde utiliza-se pré-cloração, coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração. A cloração mostrou-se eficiente na inativação de bactérias, independente da aplicação do processo de coagulação/floculação, porém na ausência desse processo à água resultante não atingiu a especificação de potabilidade. A filtração/adsorção mostrou-se importante na eliminação de bactérias, evidenciando que o filtro retém partículas, sólidos suspensos, substâncias químicas e microrganismos.

  11. Chemical dispersants and pre-treatments to determine clay in soils with different mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil physical properties, including the clay content, is of utmost importance for agriculture. The behavior of apparently similar soils can differ in intrinsic characteristics determined by different formation processes and nature of the parent material. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of separate or combined pre-treatments, dispersion methods and chemical dispersant agents to determine clay in some soil classes, selected according to their mineralogy. Two Brazilian Oxisols, two Alfisols and one Mollisol with contrasting mineralogy were selected. Different treatments were applied: chemical substances as dispersants (lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and hexametaphosphate; pre-treatment with dithionite, ammonium oxalate, and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate organic matter; and coarse sand as abrasive and ultrasound, to test their mechanical action. The conclusion was drawn that different treatments must be applied to determine clay, in view of the soil mineralogy. Lithium hydroxide was not efficient to disperse low-CEC electropositive soils and very efficient in dispersing high-CEC electronegative soils. The use of coarse sand as an abrasive increased the clay content of all soils and in all treatments in which dispersion occurred, with or without the use of chemical dispersants. The efficiency of coarse sand is not the same for all soil classes.

  12. Possibly enhanced Gd-excretion in dialysate, but no clinical benefit of 3-5 months treatment with sodium thiosulfate in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.; Nielsen, A.H.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3-5 m...

  13. Radiochemical study of hydroxide films. III. Deposition of ferric hydroxide films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin ferric hydroxide films with a homogeneous top layer were deposited from solutions on glass substrates. Radiochemical studies showed the manner in which difficulty soluble iron compounds are deposited in thin films and compositional changes in the product formed as a function of growth time. The films and species precipitated in the solutions were found to be ferric hydroxide contaminated with sulfur; and carbon-containing compounds. The composition of the thin films and precipitates varied with deposition time. Film growth, observed to be stepwise, was compared with results of electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and derivatographic studies

  14. Phosphoric ore treatment by roasting it with sodium carbonate and leaching it with ammonium citrate for the recovery of soluble phosphate and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By thermal treatment of phosphoric ore, with low phosphorus contents and iron, aluminum, and silicon impurities, basic fertilizers with P2O5 soluble in citric acid or ammonium citrate, can be produced. The phosphoric ore lightly grinded with alkaline salts like CO3Na2 y SiO2 is roasted between 800 to 1 000°C in rotary kilns. The roasted material contains from 25–30% of alkaline phosphates soluble in citrates. Phosphoric ore from the province of Napo-Ecuador with 24% of P2O5, 40% CaO in form of apatite, 20% of SiO2 and 7 g/ton U is tested by thermic differential analysis, roasting at 800°C for 2 hours with 50% w/w of sodium carbonate and 2% w/w of SiO2 by using a Nichols pilot furnace with 15 L of capacity which uses gas (propane-butane) as fuel, and agitated leaching with ammonium citrate (5% w/w). The initial ore and products are characterized by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Perkin Elmer AA400) and x-ray diffraction (Bruker D8 Advance). In the best conditions, 32% of phosphorus soluble in water is obtained as well as 40% of phosphorus and 56% uranium soluble in ammonium citrate. (author)

  15. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary

  16. Comparison of the effects of pre-treatment with sodium chloride, sucrose and trehalose on developmental competence porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, L; Kragh, P M

    2009-01-01

    Modified environmental stress was reported to improve the developmental competence and cryotolerance of porcine oocytes, such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP; Du et al. 2008 Cloning Stem Cells, Epub ahead of print) and osmotic stress (Lin et al. 2008 Reprod. Biomed. Online, in press). HHP also improved the cryotolerance of bovine and murine blastocysts (Pribenszky et al. 2005a Reprod. Dom. Anim. 40, 338-344; Pribenszky et al. 2005b Anim. Reprod. Sci. 87, 143-150). In the present study we compared the effects of NaCl with that of concentrated solutions of two non-permeable osmotic agents, sucrose and trehalose on in vitro maturated oocytes. A total of 2050 slaughterhouse-derived porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured for 41-42 h, and then put into 800 ?L T2 (HEPES-buffered TCM-199 [Earle's salts] with 2% cattle serum) supplemented with additional NaCl, sucrose or trehalose with the same osmotic level (588 mOsmol) in 4-well dishes and incubated for 1 h at 38.5°C in air. COCs incubated in T2 under the same conditions without supplementation were used as controls. Subsequently COCs were incubated in IVM medium for 1 h at 38.5°C in 5% CO2 with maximum humidity. After this recovery period cumulus cells were removed with 1 mg mL-1 hyaluronidase and pipetting, and oocytes were used as recipients for somatic nuclear transfer with handmade cloning (HMC) method. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were used as nuclear donor cells. Embryo culture was performed in PZM-3 medium (Yoshioka et al. 2002 Biol. Reprod. 66, 112-119) in 5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2 and maximum humidity. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were checked on Day 1 and Day 6, respectively. Cell numbers were counted after fixation in glycerol containing 20 ?g mL-1 Hoechst 33342 fluorochrome on Day 6. t-test was performed for statistical calculations with SPSS 11.0 program (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results are shown in Table 1. Osmotic stress with both permeable and non-permeable agents increased developmental competence of porcine IVM oocytes. NaCl seems to be more appropriate for the purpose, as the other two components resulted in decreased cell number in blastocysts after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In conclusion, a simple NaCl pre-treatment of oocytes has improved the in vitro efficiency of porcine SCNT

  17. A retrospective study of intravenous sodium stibogluconate alone and in combinations with allopurinol, rifampicin, and an immunomodulator in the treatment of Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A retrospective analysis of treatment outcome using recommended dose of sodium stibogluconate (SSG alone and in combination with other antileishmanial drugs in adults with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL attending as outpatients. Methods: A total of 61 patients seen over ten years were included in the report. All had polymorphic lesions. Diagnosis was based on clinical picture, hailing from kala-azar (KA endemic area, exclusion of other dermatoses, histopathology, and therapeutic response. Patients were distributed into two groups: Group I (n = 32, where SSG was given intravenously; in Group II (n = 29, they were allocated to one of four categories using SSG in combination with other drugs. In the first category, SSG was given along with allopurinol (n = 10; in second with rifampicin (n = 6; and in third with both allopurinol and rifampicin (n = 5. In the fourth category, SSG was administered with an immunomodulator (n = 8, Mw vaccine, known to enhance host Th1 response. Results: Only 12 out of 61 patients completed treatment till histopathologic evidence of cure, five in Group I and seven in Group II, no patient being from third category. None had taken SSG without interruptions. Time taken for papulonodules to subside was similar in both groups, but erythema and induration subsided earlier in Group II. Group I patients attained cure after 120 injections while in Group II it took 95 injections in SSG + allopurinol and Mw vaccine categories respectively, and 110 with SSG + rifampicin. Nevertheless this was insufficient to facilitate compliance. Poor performance and high dropouts related to long duration of therapy, thrombophlebitis, difficulty in accessing veins, disabling rheumatic side-effects and practical problems. Liver, renal and pancreatic functions and ECG remained normal. Conclusion: No major advantage was obtained using allopurinol, rifampicin or Mw vaccine along with SSG as compared to SSG alone.

  18. Biofilm regeneration on carriers in MBBR used for vitamin C wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X B; Wang, Zh; Xu, K; Ren, H Q

    2013-01-01

    Methods were investigated for biofilm regeneration on carriers in a moving bed biofilm reactor used for vitamin C production wastewater treatment. Three ordinary chemical cleaning agents (hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium hypochlorite) and physical drying were chosen for evaluation as methods for biofilm detachment. The results showed that these methods all had some degree of biofilm removal effectiveness. Treatment with 3% hydrochloric acid (w/w) achieved the maximum degree of biofilm detachment, at 75.2%. Biofilm biomass re-formed on carriers, from the maximum degree of biofilm detachment, quickly by an increase of 76.17 g m(-2) month(-1). It was concluded that treatment with 3% acid was the best choice for biofilm removal and regeneration. PMID:23508156

  19. Non-spherical gold nanoparticles mediated surface plasmon resonance in Er{sup 3+} doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses: Role of heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, Asmahani; Ghoshal, S.K., E-mail: krishnasib@gmail.com; Sahar, M.R.; Arifin, R.; Nawaz, Fakhra

    2014-05-01

    Tuning the enhanced optical properties of rare earth (RE) doped inorganic glasses mediated via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by embedding metallic nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled sizes is ever-demanding in photonics. Erbium (Er{sup 3+}) doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses containing gold NPs are prepared and spectroscopic characterization are made. The heat treatment temperature dependent variations in refractive index, density, molar volume, molar refraction and polarizability are ascribed to the alteration in bonding of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) ions originates from annealing processes between 325 and 400 °C. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the glass samples. TEM micrograph reveals the nucleation of heat treated Au{sup 0} NPs and SAED manifest their growth along the (1 1 1) crystallographic planes having average diameter in the range 7.4–10.3 nm. The UV–vis spectra exhibit seven absorption bands corresponding to 4f–4f transitions of Er{sup 3+} ions. The SPR bands evidenced in the range 629–631 nm validate the growth of gold NPs in the glass matrix. The glass annealed at 350 °C displays maximum enhancement in the up-conversion (UC) emission intensity by a factor of 4.86 and 3.40 for green bands ({sup 2}H{sub 11/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) and a strong enhancement by a factor of 4.91 for red band ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}). The enhancement is primarily attributed to the local field effect of non-spherical NPs assisted SPR effects and the energy transfer processes between Er{sup 3+} ions and NPs. The excellent luminescence efficiency of proposed glasses nominates them potential for photonic devices and solid state lasers. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles embedded Er{sup 3+}-doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses heat treated with different annealing temperatures have been synthesized. • Growth of NPs modifies physical properties by alteration in bonding between ligands and glass structure. • Variations in size and shape of NPs stimulated the enhancement or quenching in luminescence intensity. • Plasmonic effect preferably SPR from gold NPs exert prominent enhancement in UC emission intensity.

  20. Non-spherical gold nanoparticles mediated surface plasmon resonance in Er3+ doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses: Role of heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuning the enhanced optical properties of rare earth (RE) doped inorganic glasses mediated via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by embedding metallic nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled sizes is ever-demanding in photonics. Erbium (Er3+) doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses containing gold NPs are prepared and spectroscopic characterization are made. The heat treatment temperature dependent variations in refractive index, density, molar volume, molar refraction and polarizability are ascribed to the alteration in bonding of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) ions originates from annealing processes between 325 and 400 °C. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the glass samples. TEM micrograph reveals the nucleation of heat treated Au0 NPs and SAED manifest their growth along the (1 1 1) crystallographic planes having average diameter in the range 7.4–10.3 nm. The UV–vis spectra exhibit seven absorption bands corresponding to 4f–4f transitions of Er3+ ions. The SPR bands evidenced in the range 629–631 nm validate the growth of gold NPs in the glass matrix. The glass annealed at 350 °C displays maximum enhancement in the up-conversion (UC) emission intensity by a factor of 4.86 and 3.40 for green bands (2H11/2?4I15/2 and 4S3/2?4I15/2) and a strong enhancement by a factor of 4.91 for red band (4F9/2?4I15/2). The enhancement is primarily attributed to the local field effect of non-spherical NPs assisted SPR effects and the energy transfer processes between Er3+ ions and NPs. The excellent luminescence efficiency of proposed glasses nominates them potential for photonic devices and solid state lasers. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles embedded Er3+-doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses heat treated with different annealing temperatures have been synthesized. • Growth of NPs modifies physical properties by alteration in bonding between ligands and glass structure. • Variations in size and shape of NPs stimulated the enhancement or quenching in luminescence intensity. • Plasmonic effect preferably SPR from gold NPs exert prominent enhancement in UC emission intensity

  1. The effects of potassium and rubidium hydroxide on the alkali-silica reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of mortar specimens prepared with an aggregate of mylonite from the Santa Rosa mylonite zone in southern California was studied to investigate the effect of different alkali ions on the alkali-silica reaction in concrete. The expansion tests indicate that mortar has a greater expansion when subjected to a sodium hydroxide bath than in a sodium-potassium-rubidium hydroxide bath. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of mortar bars at early ages show that rubidium ions, used as tracer, were present throughout the sample by the third day of exposure. The analysis also shows a high concentration of rubidium in silica gel from mortar bars exposed to bath solutions containing rubidium. The results suggest that expansion of mortar bars using ASTM C 1260 does not depend on the diffusion of alkali ions. The results indicate that the expansion of alkali-silica gel depends on the type of alkali ions present. Alkali-silica gel containing rubidium shows a lower concentration of calcium, suggesting competition for the same sites

  2. Synthesis of polymer nanocomposites using layered hydroxide salts (LHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work latexes of poly (methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via emulsion polymerization using layered hydroxide salts (LHS) as reinforcements: zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) and copper hydroxide acetate (Cu2(OH)3CH3COO.H2O). The LHSs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Mastersizer analysis indicated the particle diameter of the latexes. Molecular weights and conversion data were also obtained. (author)

  3. Pooled safety analysis of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w in the treatment of osteoarthritis in patients aged 75 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth SH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Phoenix, AZ, 2Medical Affairs, Mallinckrodt Inc, Hazelwood, MOBackground: This study aimed to determine the safety of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w in 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo for the treatment of knee or hand osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older.Methods: A pooled analysis of safety data from seven multicenter, randomized, blinded, Phase III clinical trials (4–12 weeks' duration of TDiclo was conducted. The analysis focused on a subset of patients (n = 280 aged 75 years or older with a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee (six trials or hand (one trial. Patients received one of three topical treatments: TDiclo (n = 138; placebo (2.33% or 4.55% dimethyl sulfoxide, n = 39; or control (45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide, n = 103. Treatment groups were compared using Chi-square analysis, Fisher's Exact test, or analysis of variance.Results: The most common adverse events involved the skin or subcutaneous tissue, primarily at the application site. The incidence of dry skin was higher in the TDiclo (36.2%; P < 0.0001 and dimethyl sulfoxide control (18.4%; P = 0.0142 groups than in the placebo group (2.6%; the incidence of other skin or subcutaneous tissue adverse events was similar between the groups. Relatively few patients (<18% experienced gastrointestinal adverse events, and group differences were not detected. In the TDiclo group, constipation (3.6%, diarrhea (3.6%, and nausea (3.6% were the most common gastrointestinal adverse events. Cardiovascular and renal/urinary adverse events were rare, and group differences were not detected. There was one case (0.7% each of hypertension, spider veins, and vasodilation in the TDiclo group. Changes from baseline to the final visit in blood pressure and hepatic/renal enzyme levels were also similar between the groups.Conclusion: TDiclo appears to be well tolerated for the treatment of osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older.Keywords: adverse events, analgesic, arthritis, gastrointestinal, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tolerability

  4. Study of niobium hydroxide and tantalum hydroxide purification ways in the process of their precipitation from fluoride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considered are ways of deep purification of niobium and tantalum hydroxides at the stage of sedimentation from reextracts, produced by treatment of metal containing organic phases of fluoride ammonium solutions. Characteristics of impurity elements, which are subdivided into three groups depending on stability of their hydroxocomplexes are presented. It is pointed out that niobium and tantalum purification from the elements, forming stable hydroxocomplexes (Hg, Al, Sc, Ce, Ti, Sn, V, Fe3+) presents the greatest difficulty. In this case it is recommended to carry out niobium and tantalum purification from reextracts either by means of tractional niobium and tantalum sedimentation from reextracts or by impurity binding before neutralization of reextracts into stable complexes by means of introduction of corresponding complex formation agents. A number of ways of niobium and tantalum purification from impurities of Mo, W, Si, Zr is suggested

  5. The alpha-form of the hydroxides of bivalent metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitknecht, W.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray analyses were made of the hydroxides of the bivalent metals. The freshly pptd. hydroxide is usually in the alpha-form, which on standing is converted to another form or other forms. The alpha and c grating dimensions of the alpha-form and the C6-type of Co, Zn, C, Co-Zn and Ni-Zn hydroxides are tabulated. Ni hydroxide does not exhibit an alpha-form. The alpha-Co(OH)2, the blue form, is stabilized by sugar or by the higher alcohols: these compounds do not stabilize alpha-Zn(OH)2.

  6. Mullite and alumina composites preparation from cordierite and aluminium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densification and phase transformation of mullite and alumina composites prepared from cordierite and aluminium hydroxide mixture were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of mullite since the early stage of aluminium hydroxide addition to the cordierite. Above 40 wt.% of aluminium hydroxide addition, the presence of spinel and mullite phases can be detected by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the amounts of spinel as well as mullite present increased with increasing aluminium hydroxide concentration at the expense of cordierite. These analyses were completed by density measurements and scanning electron microscopy observation

  7. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na{sub 2}O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}, NaOH, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers.

  8. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na2O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na2O2, NaOH, and Na2CO3, ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  9. Comparative study of actinic keratosis treatment with 3% diclofenac sodium and 5% 5-fluorouracil / Estudo comparativo do tratamento de ceratoses actinicas com diclofenaco sodico 3% e 5-fluorouracil 5%

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Majorie Mergen, Segatto; Sergio Ivan Torres, Dornelles; Vera Bauer, Silveira; Gabriela de Oliveira, Frantz.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Ceratose actínica é uma lesão frequente que ocorre em áreas de exposição solar. Diclofenaco sódico e 5-Fluorouracil são opções de tratamento tópico efetivo, não invasivo e de fácil aplicação. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar e comparar a efetividade do diclofenaco sódico 3% associado ao ácido h [...] ialurônico 2,5% e do 5-fluorouracil 5% no tratamento de ceratose actínica, assim como a tolerabilidade e o grau de satisfação do paciente. MÉTODOS: 28 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de ceratoses actínicas foram randomizados para receber diclofenaco sódico ou 5-fluorouracil e foram avaliados clinicamente antes, ao término e após 8 semanas do tratamento. Utilizou-se o Escore de Melhora Global do Investigador e do Paciente, ambos modificados. RESULTADOS: A média de lesões no grupo do diclofenaco sódico antes e depois do tratamento foi de 13,6 e 6,6 (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis is a frequent lesion which occurs in sunlight exposed areas. Diclofenac sodium and 5-Fluorouracil are effective, non-invasive and easy-to-apply topical treatment options. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effectiveness of 3% diclofenac sodium associated with 2 [...] .5% hyaluronic acid and of 5% 5-Fluorouracil for the treatment of actinic keratosis, as well as the patient's degree of satisfaction and tolerability. METHODS: 28 patients with a clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis were randomized to receive diclofenac sodium or 5-Fluorouracil and were clinically assessed before and after treatment as well as 8 weeks after the end of treatment. Modified versions of the Investigator and Patient Global Improvement Scores were used. RESULTS: The average number of lesions in the diclofenac sodium group before and after treatment was 13.6 and 6.6 (p

  10. Mechanochemical changes in mixture of magnesium and aluminium hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxová Mária

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex oxides with the spinel structure often called ?spinels? belong to the group of strategic materials which are used in the wide area of modern technologies. They exhibit excellent magnetic, refractory, semiconducting, catalytic and sorption properties. Spinels based on magnesium aluminate (MA spinels are used for the preparation of refractory ceramic materials and bricks. Due to its good properties MA spinel is predestinated for special applications in electronics.Several methods and precursors for the synthesis of MA spinel have been studied experimentally. The conventional process of MA spinel preparation based on the high temperature solid state reaction of precursors is connected with the difficulty to obtain the high spinel phase purity required for its special applications. From the viewpoint of final material properties and of intensification of solid state reactions, the non-standard mechanochemical techniques are suitable.In the paper, results of the mechanochemical modification of the mixture of crystalline hydroxide precursors caused by the high-energy milling and subsequent heating in the temperature range 300-1500 °C are presented.Mixtures of brucite and gibbsite in the molar ratio 1:2 were submitted to grinding in a planetary mill using the corundum chamber for various milling times (0.5-12 hours. The specific surface area of the milled samples was determined by the BET method. Changes in the structure of mechanosynthesized products and the evolution of the spinel phase during the subsequent calcination of both mechanosynthesized samples and reference homogenised mixtures were monitored by the X-ray diffraction analysis and IR spectroscopy. The degree of conversion of hydroxide mixture to the MA spinel was determined by chelatometry.During the early stage of grinding (up to 1 hour, a considerable refinement of hydroxide mixture occurs. With the increasing grinding time, amorphisation of structure as well as a gradual mechanochemical dehydration and formation of aggregates take place. A structural metastability of high reactive products of dehydration and a large area of particle contacts lead to the solid state mechanochemical reaction with the formation of nucleation centres of amorphous magnesium aluminate. By the combination of mechanosynthesis with the subsequent thermal treatment, crystalline magnesium aluminate with the spinel structure is prepared at temperatures which are by 300 K lower than those at which the spinel is synthesized by conventional ceramic method.

  11. Aerosol release from sodium fires and their consequences for reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of nuclear aerosols is important for the calculation of radiological and chemical source terms during accidents in fast breeder reactors. Sodium fires cause intensive release of aerosols which may consist of different sodium compounds. It can be assumed that the released radioactivity is attached to the sodium particles. Therefore, the knowledge of the aerosol formation rate, the physical and chemical quality and the behaviour oft these particles in the free atmosphere and in closed containments is necessary to estimate the consequences of reactor accidents. The consequences of sodium pool, spray and dispersed fires have been investigated. Numerous experiments have shown that during sodium pool fires between 10 and 30% of the burned sodium is airborne. Much higher is the aerosol formation rate during spray fires. Here the rate is between 30% and 60%, depending on the sodium flow rate, the oxygen concentration, and the size of the burning sodium droplets. Sodium fire aerosols have a mass median diameter between 1 ?m and 2 ?m. The aerodynamic diameter depends slightly on the mass concentration of the particles. The aerosol mass concentration in closed containments show logarithmic decay. Aerosol codes usually underestimate the aerosol concentration during sodium fires, but they are in excellent agreement with the course of the measured mass concentration after the fire. The chemical composition influences the physical behaviour of the particles only to a small extent. The transformation from sodium oxide to sodium hydroxide is a very fast process in humid atmosphere, while the formation of sodium carbonate particles in the free atmosphere is a slower process, depending on the size of the particles and on the relative humidity. Usually the sodium hydroxide particles are transformed to sodium carbonate particles in less than one minute. The results of some performance tests on blowers and cooling devices for the SNR 300 containment system under accident conditions are reported. (author)

  12. Digestibility and energetic value of agricultural wastes as affected by gamma irradiation and chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to study the changes in the values of in-vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy lactation (NEL) of wheat straw, sunflower seed shell, olive cake wood, date palm seeds and peanut shell after spraying with different concentrations of hydrobromic acid (HBr) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0,3,6 ml HBr and 3,6 g NaOH/25 ml water/100 g Dm) or after exposure to various doses of gamma radiation (0, 20, 40, 60 kGy). Results indicated that, except for the date palm seeds, the chemical treatments with either HBr or NaOH significantly (P<0.05) increased IVOMD, Me and NEL values for all treated samples. The experimental agricultural wastes did not respond equally to the chemical treatments investigated, i.e. they differ in the induced increases pertaining to their IVOMD, ME and NEL. The highest changes in the studied parameters due to chemical treatments were obtained when applying the 6% concentration. There was no significant effect (P<0.05) of irradiation on IVOMD, ME and NEL values for all treated samples. Moreover, the combined treatments of irradiation and hydrobromic acid or sodium hydroxide were found to have no significant affects on the IVOMD, ME and NEL values compared to the individual chemical treatments. (author)

  13. Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility properties of para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide and Zn/Al layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah,1 Mohamed E El Zowalaty,2,3 Palanisamy Arulselvan,2 Sharida Fakurazi,2,4 Thomas J Webster,5,6 Benjamin M Geilich,5 Mohd Zobir Hussein1 1Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 6Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The treatment of tuberculosis by chemotherapy is complicated due to multiple drug prescriptions, long treatment duration, and adverse side effects. We report here for the first time an in vitro therapeutic effect of nanocomposites based on para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide (PAS-ZLH and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (PAS-Zn/Al LDH, against mycobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria. The nanocomposites demonstrated good antimycobacterial activity and were found to be effective in killing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A biocompatibility study revealed good biocompatibility of the PAS-ZLH nanocomposites against normal human MRC-5 lung cells. The para-aminosalicylic acid loading was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In summary, the present preliminary in vitro studies are highly encouraging for further in vivo studies of PAS-ZLH and PAS-Zn/Al LDH nanocomposites to treat tuberculosis.  Keywords: Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides, zinc layered hydroxides, tuberculosis, para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS, antimicrobial agents

  14. Characteristic and composition of smokes in sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation ratios of chemical principal compounds appear in smokes of fires up to 50 Kg of sodium in installations for fast reactor researches, were measured for a simulation in a scale of 1:1000. Relations of hydroxide concentrations, carbonate and bicarbonate appear in smokes retained in counter-current washing tower and in dry filters are presented. It is still presented the variation of the temperature profile and composition of burning wastes. (Author)

  15. Fabrication of thermoplastic polyester elastomer/layered zinc hydroxide nitrate nanocomposites with enhanced thermal, mechanical and combustion properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei; Ma, Liyan; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study is to explore the potential of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate modified with sodium benzoate as nanoparticle in thermoplastic polyester elastomer (TPEE). The organically modified zinc hydroxide nitrate was compounded with TPEE using solution blending method. The nanocomposite structure was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanoparticle was homogenously dispersed in TPEE matrix, and partially exfoliated structure was formed. The thermal behavior, mechanical and thermal combustion properties of the novel nanocomposite were studied respectively through differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC). For the nanocomposite containing 7 wt% nanoparticle, the crystallization temperature evaluated by DSC was increased by 10 °C. The storage modulus at ?95 °C measured by DMA was improved by around 26%. The heat release capacity (an indicator of a material fire hazard) from MCC testing was reduced by about 56% (compared to the results of neat TPEE). - Highlights: • We prepare zinc hydroxide nitrate modified by sodium benzoate (SB-ZHN). • We prepare and characterize thermoplastic polyester elastomer/SB-ZHN nanocomposites. • We investigate the thermal and combustion properties of the nanocomposites. • We study the thermodynamic properties of the nanocomposites.

  16. Fabrication of thermoplastic polyester elastomer/layered zinc hydroxide nitrate nanocomposites with enhanced thermal, mechanical and combustion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to explore the potential of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate modified with sodium benzoate as nanoparticle in thermoplastic polyester elastomer (TPEE). The organically modified zinc hydroxide nitrate was compounded with TPEE using solution blending method. The nanocomposite structure was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanoparticle was homogenously dispersed in TPEE matrix, and partially exfoliated structure was formed. The thermal behavior, mechanical and thermal combustion properties of the novel nanocomposite were studied respectively through differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC). For the nanocomposite containing 7 wt% nanoparticle, the crystallization temperature evaluated by DSC was increased by 10 °C. The storage modulus at ?95 °C measured by DMA was improved by around 26%. The heat release capacity (an indicator of a material fire hazard) from MCC testing was reduced by about 56% (compared to the results of neat TPEE). - Highlights: • We prepare zinc hydroxide nitrate modified by sodium benzoate (SB-ZHN). • We prepare and characterize thermoplastic polyester elastomer/SB-ZHN nanocomposites. • We investigate the thermal and combustion properties of the nanocomposites. • We study the thermodynamic properties of the nanocomposites

  17. A phase 2/3, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, 2-year trial of pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Marla B; Zhou, Duo; Loftus, Jane; Dombi, Theresa; Ice, Kathleen S; Larsen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To confirm the safety and compare the efficacy of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg versus sham injections in subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the macula associated with vision loss not due to ischemia.

  18. Carboxymethyl inulin: a novel flocculant for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahul, Rahul; Jha, Usha; Sen, Gautam; Mishra, Sumit

    2014-02-01

    Carboxymethyl inulin (CMI) has been synthesized by incorporation of carboxymethyl groups in the inulin framework; by reacting inulin with sodium salt of monochloro acetic acid (SMCA) in presence of sodium hydroxide. The resulting carboxymethylated product, with different degrees of substitution, has been confirmed through various physicochemical characterization techniques, such as intrinsic viscosity measurement, elemental analysis (C, H, N and O), FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. Flocculation efficacy of various grades of CMI, have been studied in kaolin suspension and then in municipal wastewater, in relation to inulin (parent polysaccharide). This has been done utilizing jar-test procedure towards possible application as a flocculant for waste water treatment. PMID:24141069

  19. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides

  20. Hydrogen production coupled to nuclear waste treatment: the safe treatment of alkali metals through a well-demonstrated process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the United Nations emphasised the urgent need to act against the perpetuation of disparities between and within nations, the worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy and the continuing deterioration of ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being. In this framework, taking into account the preservation of both worldwide energy resources and ecosystems, the use of nuclear energy to produce clean energy carriers, such as hydrogen, is undoubtedly advisable. However, coping fully with the Agenda 21 statements requires defining adequate treatment processes for nuclear wastes. This paper discusses the possible use of a well-demonstrated process to convert radioactively contaminated alkali metals into sodium hydroxide while producing hydrogen. We conclude that a synergy between Chlor-Alkali specialists and nuclear specialists may help find an acceptable solution for radioactively contaminated sodium waste. (author)

  1. Consistency of response to sumatriptan/naproxen sodium in a randomized placebo-controlled, cross-over study for the acute treatment of migraine in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, Paul; Linder, Steven; Hershey, Andrew D

    2015-04-01

    A multi-centered, randomized, placebo-controlled, early intervention, cross-over study was conducted to evaluate the consistency of response of sumatriptan/naproxen sodium 85/500 mg (S/NS) over 4 attacks in the acute treatment of migraine in adolescents. Inclusion of subjects was dependent on their age of 12-17 years, frequency, and history of migraine headaches (1-8 per month) over the previous 6 months prior to screening and generally healthy males and females of non-childbearing potential that were not on excluded medications. Subjects were instructed to treat within 1 hour of pain onset, including when the pain was still mild. Subjects were randomized in a double-blind fashion using a computer-generated randomization list in which the study drug was prepared prior to study start, and subjects were allocated to a number in sequential order for each site. Each site was allocated number blocks in sets of 10 depending of the rate of enrollment. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of S/NS vs placebo in the primary end-points of pain-free response at 2 hours (2hPF), 24-hour sustained pain-free response (24hPF), and pain-free response at 2 hours with early intervention (2hPFE) calculated as percentage out of all attacks. In the study, 94 subjects treated 347 attacks in total: treating 277 with S/NS and 70 with placebo. Compared with placebo, S/NS produced higher 2hPF rates (S/NS 37%, placebo 18%; P?migraines treated with S/NS in 40.4% of subjects. 24hPF was reported in at least 2 of the 3 migraine treated with S/NS in 86.2% subjects. Adverse reactions were generally low and comparable between S/NS and placebo. PMID:25881677

  2. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 6000C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-300C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-100C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na2CO3, Na2O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients

  3. Simple UV Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Fluvastatin Sodium in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    J. Saminathan; A. S. Sankar; Anandakumar, K.; Vetrichelvan, T.

    2009-01-01

    A simple and cost effective spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of fluvastatin sodium in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. When the drug reacts with sodium hydroxide shows absorption maximum at 304 nm and obeys beer's law in the concentration range 5-25 µg mL-1. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of FVS, which is corroborated by the calculated correlation coefficient value of 0.9999 (n=5). The apparent molar absorpt...

  4. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying, E-mail: clu@nchu.edu.tw; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: A comparison of TMAH adsorption capacity with GO, NaY and GAC is conducted and the result reveals that the magnitude of qe follows the order of GO > NaY > GAC. The adsorption capacity of GO is significantly higher than those of zeolite and activated carbon in this and reported studies, showing its encouraging potential. GO also exhibits good reversibility of TMAH adsorption through 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. This reflects that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of TMAH to GO, NaY and GAC are compared. • Thermodynamics of TMAH adsorption to GO, NaY and GAC is determined. • GO exhibits the highest TMAH adsorption capacity, followed by NaY and GAC. • Recyclabilities of NaY and GO remain above 95% but that of GAC dropped to 70%. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

  5. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A comparison of TMAH adsorption capacity with GO, NaY and GAC is conducted and the result reveals that the magnitude of qe follows the order of GO > NaY > GAC. The adsorption capacity of GO is significantly higher than those of zeolite and activated carbon in this and reported studies, showing its encouraging potential. GO also exhibits good reversibility of TMAH adsorption through 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. This reflects that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of TMAH to GO, NaY and GAC are compared. • Thermodynamics of TMAH adsorption to GO, NaY and GAC is determined. • GO exhibits the highest TMAH adsorption capacity, followed by NaY and GAC. • Recyclabilities of NaY and GO remain above 95% but that of GAC dropped to 70%. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment

  6. Tensile behavior contrast of basalt and glass fibers after chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basalt and glass fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid solutions respectively for different periods of time. Both the mass loss ratio and the strength maintenance ratio of the fibers were examined after the treatment. The morphologies of the fiber surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and their compositions were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. For the basalt fibers, the acid resistance was much better than the alkali resistance. Nevertheless, for the glass fibers, the acid resistance was nearly the same as the alkali resistance. Based on the experimental results, possible corrosion mechanisms are addressed.

  7. Enhanced aerobic sludge granulation with layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhi Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge technology has been developed for the biochemical treatment of wastewater in the present study. A fast cultivation of aerobic granular sludge was realized in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR, where Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH was used as a carrier for granules growth. In comparison, the sludge particle size with LDH addition was bigger than those without LDH, with more than 50% of compact granular sludge >1.4 mm in size. This indicatestheLDH improved the growth ofthegranular sludge. The frequency of LDH addition had little effect on the granule growth. Moreover, the formation of granules led to the low sludge volume index (SVI and high mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS in SBR reactor. With the formation of granular sludge, more than 80% of COD was removed in SBR reactor. The high COD removal efficiency of wastewater was observed regardless of various COD loading strength. The results suggest that the growth of granular sludge with LDH as a carrier enhanced the treatment efficiency. Therefore, our results have provided a promising way to prepare the granular sludge for wastewater treatment.

  8. From cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate nanowires to porous Co3O4 nanorods for high performance lithium-ion battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a simple approach for the large-scale synthesis of cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate (Co(CO3)0.35(NO3)0.2(OH)1.1·1.74H2O) nanowires via the hydrothermal process using sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde as mineralizers at 120 deg. C. The porous Co3O4 nanorods 10-30 nm in diameter and hundreds of nanometres in length have been fabricated from the above-mentioned multicomponent nanowires by calcination at 400 deg. C. The morphology and structure of cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate nanowires and Co3O4 nanorods have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the porous Co3O4 nanorods have been applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, which exhibit high electrochemical performance

  9. Leaching of Arsenic from Granular Ferric Hydroxide Residuals under Mature Landfill Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Amlan; Mukiibi, Muhammed; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Wendell P. Ela

    2006-01-01

    Most arsenic bearing solid residuals (ABSR) from water treatment will be disposed in non-hazardous landfills. The lack of an appropriate leaching test to predict arsenic mobilization from ABSR creates a need to evaluate the magnitude and mechanisms of arsenic release under landfill conditions. This work studies the leaching of arsenic and iron from a common ABSR, granular ferric hydroxide, in a laboratory-scale column that simulates the biological and physicochemical conditions of a mature, m...

  10. Development of Drug Delivery Systems Based on Layered Hydroxides for Nanomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Farahnaz Barahuie; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Sharida Fakurazi; Zulkarnain Zainal

    2014-01-01

    Layered hydroxides (LHs) have recently fascinated researchers due to their wide application in various fields. These inorganic nanoparticles, with excellent features as nanocarriers in drug delivery systems, have the potential to play an important role in healthcare. Owing to their outstanding ion-exchange capacity, many organic pharmaceutical drugs have been intercalated into the interlayer galleries of LHs and, consequently, novel nanodrugs or smart drugs may revolutionize in the treatment ...

  11. Preparation and Evaluation of Holmium-166 Ferric Hydroxide Macroaggregates for Radiation Synovectomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Argüelles, María Graciela.; Pereyra Molina, Vivian.; Rutty Solá, Gisela.; Cerizola, María Verónica.; Luppi Berlanga, Ignacio.; Bottazzini, Débora Lucrecia.

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiopahrmaceuticals is an important therapeutic approach, so we studied ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (FHMA) labeled with 166Ho as a radiation synovectomy agent.166Ho was produced by neutron irradiation of natural holmium (Ho-165). In order to produce labeled particles, a coprecipitation technique of Ho(OH)3 and Fe(OH)3 was used.Particles in vivo behavior was investigated following intra-articular injection into knees of normal rabbits and rabbi...

  12. Adsorption of Phosphonate Antiscalant from Reverse Osmosis Membrane Concentrate onto Granular Ferric Hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Boels, L.; Keesman, K.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Adsorptive removal of antiscalants offers a promising way to improve current reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment processes and enables the reuse of the antiscalant in the RO desalination process. This work investigates the adsorption and desorption of the phosphonate antiscalant nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from RO membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), a material that consists predominantly of akaganéite. The kinetics of the adsorption of NTMP onto ...

  13. Experimental study and kinetic analysis of sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. Based on the measured reaction temperature, the first-order rate constant of sodium monoxide (Na2O) generation was obtained by the application of the laws of chemical kinetics. From the estimated rate constant, it was reconfirmed that Na2O generation should be considered during the sodium-water reaction in spite of variation of volume fraction (Na:NaOH). Na, NaOH and Na2O as major chemical species were identified from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the residues after the DTA experiment. It was inferred that Na2O could be generated as a reaction product. (author)

  14. Separation and concentration of beryllium by coprecipitation with hafnium hydroxide prior to determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafnium hydroxide coprecipitates 0.01-0.2 ?g of beryllium from 100-400 ml of sample solution at pH 6.0-10.5. The presence of hafnium quantitatively increases the atomic absorbance of beryllium by about 1.5 times, and the reproducibility of the measurement is improved. The calibration graph is linear for 0.4-8 ng ml-1 of beryllium. The interference induced by large amounts of aluminium can be eliminated by raising the pH of solution to 13-13.5 with sodium hydroxide solution after the coprecipitation procedure has been carried out at about pH 9.5. Several other ions tested did not produce serious interference effects. This method is applicable to the determination of trace amounts of beryllium in water samples and in aluminium. (author)

  15. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties

  16. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  17. Prediction of the rates of chemical transformation of sodium fire aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium fires resulting from accidental releases of liquid sodium from a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) would produce aerosols consisting of oxides of sodium, which would tend to react with available water vapor and carbon dioxide. The hydroxide aerosol particles thus formed would be particularly corrosive and hazardous likely exceeding the U.S. industrial hygiene threshold limit value of 2 mg/m3. Reaction of the hydroxide with carbon dioxide to form the carbonate would make the aerosol substantially less hazardous chemically. The analysis of Clough and Garland is extended to study the rates of transformation of the oxides to hydroxide and the hydroxide to the carbonate, assuming that mass transfer is limiting. The cases studied here are gas-phase transport to solid or liquid particles and the transport within particles which are liquids, solids, or agglomerates. For sodium fire aerosols less than 10 micrometers in diameter, mass-transfer rates in air are sufficiently fast that the particles should be converted to the carbonate within seconds, except those particles which are solid or have a solid shell (and are larger than 1 micrometer). Such non-porous particles would be expected only if the aerosol passes through a liquid state during or after agglomeration, due to melting or the absorption of water

  18. Impregnation of sodium titanate onto DMAPAA-grafted fiber under mild reaction conditions and its strontium removal performance from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)