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1

Altering surface characteristics of polypropylene mesh via sodium hydroxide treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incisional hernias represent a serious and common complication following laparotomy. The use of synthetic (e.g. polypropylene) meshes to aid repair of these hernias has considerably reduced recurrence rates. While polypropylene is biocompatible and has a long successful clinical history in treating hernias and preventing reherniation, this material may suffer some limitations, particularly in challenging patients at risk of wound failure due to, for example, an exaggerated inflammation reaction, delayed wound healing, and infection. Surface modification of the polypropylene mesh without sacrificing its mechanical properties, critical for hernia repair, represents one way to begin to address these clinical complications. Our hypothesis is treatment of a proprietary polypropylene mesh with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) will increase in vitro NIH/3T3 cell attachment, predictive of earlier and improved cell colonization and tissue integration of polypropylene materials. Our goal is to achieve this altered surface functionality via enhanced removal of chemicals/oils used during material synthesis without compromising the mechanical properties of the mesh. We found that NaOH treatment does not appear to compromise the mechanical strength of the material, despite roughly a 10% decrease in fiber diameter. The treatment increases in vitro NIH/3T3 cell attachment within the first 72 h and this effect is sustained up to 7 days in vitro. This research demonstrates that sodium hydroxide treatment is an efficient way to modify the surface of polypropylene hernia meshes without losing the mechanical integrity of the material. This simple procedure could also allow the attachment of a variety of biomolecules to the polypropylene mesh that may aid in reducing the complications associated with polypropylene meshes today. PMID:22337661

Regis, Shawn; Jassal, Manisha; Mukherjee, Nilay; Bayon, Yves; Scarborough, Nelson; Bhowmick, Sankha

2012-05-01

2

Sodium hydroxide poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical that is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This is for information only and not ...

3

Comparison of Alkaline Treatment of Lead Contaminated Wastewater Using Lime and Sodium Hydroxide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A lead-acid storage battery manufacturing industry in India produces several thousand liters of lead con-taminated acidic wastewater on a daily basis and uses hydrated lime to render the lead-contaminated acidic wastewater alkaline (pH = 8.0). Alkaline treatment of the acidic wastewater with lime though a cost-effective method, generates copious amount of lead-contaminated gypsum sludge. Other alkali agents such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dolomite are also used for alkali treat...

2010-01-01

4

Sodium hydroxide treatment of PDMS based microfluidic devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss the use of aqueous NaOH as a facile surface treatment method to control the electroosmotic flow in PDMS microchannels. Flushing of PDMS/PDMS and glass/PDMS microchannels with 1 M NaOH for 24 h leads to a doubling of the electroosmotic flow. This high flow rate is comparable to the flow rates achieved by treating PDMS microchannels with O2 plasma. Contact angle measurements and ATR-FTIR analysis show that the surface chemistry of the NaOH treated PDMS differs from O2 plasma treated PDMS. An important advantage of the NaOH treated surfaces is the enhanced stability, irrespective of whether the devices are stored in air or water. PMID:20607182

Hoek, Ingrid; Tho, Febly; Arnold, W Mike

2010-09-01

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Comparison of Alkaline Treatment of Lead Contaminated Wastewater Using Lime and Sodium Hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A lead-acid storage battery manufacturing industry in India produces several thousand liters of lead con-taminated acidic wastewater on a daily basis and uses hydrated lime to render the lead-contaminated acidic wastewater alkaline (pH = 8.0. Alkaline treatment of the acidic wastewater with lime though a cost-effective method, generates copious amount of lead-contaminated gypsum sludge. Other alkali agents such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dolomite are also used for alkali treatment of the acid wastewaters. The present paper compares the relative efficiency of hydrated lime and 0.05 M to 1 M NaOH solutions with re-spect to 1 amounts of sludge produced, 2 immobilization of the soluble lead in the acidic wastewater (AWW and 3 increase in TDS (total dissolved solids levels upon treatment of AWW with NaOH solutions and lime. The study also performs equilibrium speciation upon alkaline treatment of AWW with lime and NaOH (sodium hydroxide solutions using the Visual MINTEQ program to understand the chemical reac-tions occurring during treatment process.

Sudhakar M. Rao

2010-04-01

6

[Conservative treatment improved corrosive esophagitis and pneumomediastinum in a patient who ingested bleaching agent containing sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 69-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department 3 hours after ingestion of a bleaching agent containing hypochlorous acid and sodium hydroxide in a suicide attempt. Enhanced chest computed tomography scans taken on admission indicated an edematous esophagus and air bubbles in the mediastinum. He underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation until day 9 because of laryngeal edema. On day 10, his endoscopy indicated diffuse reddish mucosal hyperemia, erosions, and lacerated mucosal lesions in the esophagus that were indicative of grade 2b corrosive esophagitis. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor was initiated, with which the condition of the esophagus improved, and on day 44, a slight stricture of the upper part of the esophagus was observed. He was discharged on day 64 without any complaints. The ingestion of sodium hypochlorite induces corrosive esophagitis and acute phase of gastritis. Ingestion of any corrosive agent is known as a risk factor for esophagus cancer in the long-term. In such cases with esophageal stricture, esophagectomy is recommended for preventing esophagus cancer. Considering the age of the patient, however, he did not undergo esophagectomy. PMID:24724360

Nakano, Hiroshi; Iseki, Ken; Ozawa, Akiko; Tominaga, Aya; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Otani, Koichi

2014-03-01

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Comparison of Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide Followed by Heat Treatment on Rice Straw for Cellulase Production under Solid State Fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rice straw is the major agricultural by-product in the world. Its low digestibility made it unsuitable as livestock feed which lead to the mass disposal and burning of rice straw. The main objective of this study were to optimise the alkali concentration and soaking time on rice straw for the alkali pretreatment followed by heat treatment for cellulose production and to compare the effectiveness of both alkali used. The rice straws were subjected to two treatments, which were Treatment A and Treatment B. In Treatment A, the rice straws were treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH followed by heat treatment (autoclaving at 121°C for an hour, whereas the rice straws were treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH followed by heat in Treatment B. Four different alkali concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% at four different soaking times (1, 2, 3 and 4 h were investigated. The treated rice straws were subjected to Solid State Fermentation (SSF with the condition of 1:1 moisture content, 1% ammonium sulphate and 1x107 spores mL-1 of locally isolated Aspergillus niger. The highest yield of filter paper enzyme (FPase and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase were obtained after 6 days of SSF, which were 7.85±0.18 U g-1 substrate and 11.73±0.27 U g-1 substrate, respectively; when the rice straw was pre-treated with 15% KOH with 1 h soaking time followed by heat. Conclusively, rice straw can be effectively bio-converted into valuable product such as cellulase in SSF.

A.L. Chew

2010-01-01

8

The dissolution and crystallisation of amphoteric metal hydroxides from sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissolution and recrystallisation of beryllium, zinc, cadmium and tin(II) hydroxides and chromium(III), iron(III), aluminium, scandium, yttrium, gallium and indium hydroxides, from sodium hydroxide solutions of concentrations C = 1 to 20 M at ambient temperatures, are surveyed. The different ionic equilibria in metal hydroxide-sodium hydroxide systems are examined: the phases crystallising from different sodium hydroxide solutions are tabulated and crystallisation mechanisms are analysed. (author)

1981-01-01

9

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide.

Bruce A. Moyer; Alan P. Marchand; Peter V. Bonnesen; Jeffrey C. Bryan; Tamara J. Haverlock

2004-06-08

10

Solubility of sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide in superheated steam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solubility of sodium sulfate in superheated steam was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments up to 25 MPa and 600 C. These experiments were carried out using a dynamic method where deionized steam was passed through a packed bed of salt crystals in a 500 mL Hastelloy autoclave. The residence time of the steam in the salt bed was sufficient to saturate the steam with the salt. The steam samples were cooled and analyzed by ion chromatography. A 'density' model was selected to correlate the experimental data of the solubility of sodium sulfate in superheated steam. The density dependence is much stronger than the temperature dependence. By using this type of correlation, it is possible to estimate the solubility of salt in steam at lower densities than those used in the experiments. Enthalpy-entropy diagrams are given that show the steam expansion line in turbines, including curves for constant concentration of sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solubility in steam. These can be used to analyze where in the steam cycle sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide may deposit. (orig.)

Jensen, J.P. [ENERGI E2 A/S, Ballerup (Denmark); Daucik, K. [Elsam A/S (Denmark)

2002-12-01

11

Absorption mechanism of sulfur dioxide into alcoholic sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical absorption of sulfur dioxide into alcoholic solution of sodium hydroxide was studied by simultaneous mass transfer and multiple instantaneous irreversible reaction. The experimental data showed the values of mass transfer enhancement factor to be much higher in the alcoholic sodium hydroxide solution. The results of present studies are compared with reversible and irreversible models over a wide range of sodium hydroxide solution concentration, reported previously. (author)

2006-01-01

12

Interaction of zirconium hydroxide with sodium silicide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that sodium silicate sorption on zirconium hydroxide prevents the ageing processes of the latter, that results in quick depolimerization of hydroxide in nitric acid. As a result determination of zirconium with pyrocatechol violet and its extraction ability by tributylphosphate increases. Sorbed silicate ion prevents OH group substitution for F in zirconium hydroxide at ph 8-10

1980-01-01

13

Hydrothermal treatment of naturally contaminated maize in the presence of sodium metabisulfite, methylamine and calcium hydroxide; effects on the concentration of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusarium toxin-contaminated ground maize was hydrothermally treated in the presence of different combinations of chemicals in order to simultaneously reduce zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) concentrations. Treatments were carried out in a laboratory conditioner at 80 °C and 17 % moisture. Six different treatments were performed, consisting of 3 doses of methylamine (MMA; 2.5, 5 and 10 g/kg maize) at a constant dose of 5 g sodium metabisulfite (SBS)/kg, either with or without the addition of 20 g calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)/kg. The used maize was contaminated with approximately 45.99 mg DON/kg and 3.46 mg ZEA/kg. Without the addition of Ca(OH)2, DON reductions reached approximately 82% after 1-min treatment and the toxin disappeared nearly completely after 10 min when 2.5 or 5 g MMA were applied. ZEA concentrations were only marginally affected. In the presence of Ca(OH)2, reductions in DON concentrations were lower, but were enhanced by increasing doses of MMA. ZEA concentrations were reduced by 72, 85 and 95% within the first 5 min of the treatment at MMA dosages of 2.5, 5 and 10 g/kg maize, respectively. The application of SBS in combination with a strong alkaline during hydrothermal treatment seems to be a promising approach to simultaneously decontaminate even high amounts of DON and ZEA in ground maize and may contribute to reduce the toxin load of diets. PMID:23536360

Rempe, Inga; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven

2013-08-01

14

Comparison of Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide Followed by Heat Treatment on Rice Straw for Cellulase Production under Solid State Fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rice straw is the major agricultural by-product in the world. Its low digestibility made it unsuitable as livestock feed which lead to the mass disposal and burning of rice straw. The main objective of this study were to optimise the alkali concentration and soaking time on rice straw for the alkali pretreatment followed by heat treatment for cellulose production and to compare the effectiveness of both alkali used. The rice straws were subjected to two treatments, which were Treatment A and ...

2010-01-01

15

Potential use of high-temperature and low-temperature steam treatment, sodium hydroxide and an enzyme mixture for improving the nutritional value of sugarcane pith  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The effectiveness of different treatment methods to improve the nutritional value of the sugarcane by-products (pith or bagasse) has been evaluated. The treatment methods included a high-pressure steam treatment (HPST; 19 bar, 3 min), treating the products with sodium hydroxide, sulphuric acid plus [...] an enzyme mixture, or low-temperature steam treatment (LTST) under different conditions. Gas production (GP), two-step in vitro digestibility (IVD) and in situ degradability (ISD) techniques were used to monitor the effectiveness of the treatments. HPST resulted in a significant increased in the total soluble sugar (TSS) content of unsteamed pith (USP), 20 vs. 123.75 mg/100 mL. Except for the enzyme treatment, the other treatments led to a significant improvement in the nutritional value of sugarcane by-products, as measured by the IVD method. LTST resulted in an increase in potential GP (B) at higher temperature, reaction time and amount of acid. The highest potential GP (110.92 mL/300 mg DM) was achieved under the conditions, 134 ºC, 18 g acid/kg DM, 120 min, and the lowest (72.4 mL/300 mg DM) under the conditions, 121 ºC, no acid, 40 min. In situ dry matter degradability (ISDMD) was unaffected by LTST. Dry matter digestibility results indicated that the optimal treatments for treating pith were HPST and NaOH, but that enzymes were ineffective. Furthermore, considering treatment cost (creating high-pressure are more expensive than low temperature treatments), potential environmental health problems and the relative improvement in the nutritional value of pith achieved by the LTST + acid method, compared to the HPST method (as measured using GP), these results suggested that the methods based on the use of LTST and acid (especially under harsher conditions), have the best potential to improve the nutritive value of sugarcane by-products.

M., Chaji; A.A., Naserian; R., Valizadeh; T., Mohammadabadi; Kh., Mirzadeh.

16

Recovery of acids and sodium hydroxide from solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride with the use of bipolar membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examined the kinetic laws governing the electrodialysis recovery of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, as well as sodium hydroxide, from 1M sodium chloride and 0.5 M sodium sulfate solutions and from a mixture of these salts with the use of the MB-1, MB-2, and MB-3 bipolar membranes. Kinetic plots of the current density and the concentration of the acid and the base in the chambers next to the bipolar membranes during the electrodialysis treatment of 1M sodium chloride, 0.5 M sodium sulfate, and solutions are presented. It was established that it is better to use the MB-3 membrane for the electrodialysis conversion of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate into acids and sodium hydroxide owing to the high rate and current efficiency and low expenditure of electrical energy and degree of contamination of the products obtained by the salts. It was also established that the resistance of the MB-1 and MB-2 bipolar membranes is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of the MB-3 membrane.

Bobrinskaya, G.A.; Pavlova, T.V.; Shatalov, A.Ya.

1985-09-01

17

Interaction of sodium with sodium hydroxide during intercircuit leaks in a steam generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of known experimental data on sodium-sodium hydroxide interaction and evaluations of separate parts of the process, physical assumptions put in the basis of the devised model for simulation of dissolution process of sodium hydroxide drops appearing as a result of water to sodium leakage in a steam generator, are formulated. Mathematical model is realized in the form of the DROPE code to be used in the BESM-6 type computer. Concentrations of components in sodium flow and phase composition of sodium hydroxide drops from the leak initiation to the moment of chemical equilibrium are calculated by the program. Comparison with other two models is made. The effect of constants on the calculation results is analyzed. Recommendations are made on the evaluation of detecting elements effectiveness in the system of a steam generator emergency protection

1987-01-01

18

Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

2002-09-18

19

Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH)3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT) and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.; A?imovi?-Pavlovi? Zagorka; Andri? Ljubiša D.; Prsti? Aurel

2002-01-01

20

Decomposition of Niobium Ore by Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Method  

Science.gov (United States)

The decomposition kinetics of niobium ore in the NaOH system was studied experimentally. The results show that the reaction products are sodium metaniobate and sodium niobate formed by the reaction of pyrochlore with sodium hydroxide under roasting. The effects of temperature, particle size, and mass ratio of alkali-to-ore were studied. The conversion rate of niobium exceeded 99 pct after 20 minutes at 923 K (650 °C) with a mass ratio of alkali-to-ore 1.2:1 and with initial particle size 75 to 106 ?m. The kinetic study indicates that the shrinking core model is applicable and the process is controlled by a chemical reaction. The activation energy was calculated to be 78.82 kJ mol-1.

Yang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Chang; Zheng, Shi-Li; Sun, Qing

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated

2001-01-01

22

Comparison of tissue solubility of human umbilical cord by sodium hypochlrorite and calcium hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: As biomechanical preparation of root canal system is not always completely accomplished because of morphological and physical barriers, to obtain a sterile root canal for the success of endodontic treatment, use of chemical solvents is essential. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare effects of Ca (OH2 and NaOCl in single and combination usage for this purpose.Methods and Materials: In this experimental study, five groups of 40 pieces of human umbilical cord samples were placed in 10 ml of different solvents for 1 wk. The weight of samples was adjusted to 0.03 g. Experimental solvents included: 1 Calcium hydroxide solution (0.6g per ml, 2 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 3 5% sodium hypochlorite, and 4 calcium hydroxide solution for 1 wk and then 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min, 5 Normal saline. Tissue solubility of these solvents was compared by weight changes of samples after 1 wk. Data was analyzed with Kruscal- wallis and t- student tests.Results: There was no significant difference between calcium hydroxide (Group 1 and salin (Group 5. Other groups had significant differences (p value < 0.01.Conclusion: According to findings of this study, tissue solubilizing of 0.5% NaOCl is less than 5% although both have more solubilizing power than Ca (OH2. Pretreatment with Ca (OH2 could not enhance the tissue dissolving effect of 0.5% NaOCl.Key words: Root canal therapy- Irrigators- Sodium hypochlorite- Calcium hydroxide- Tissue solubility

M Barati

2008-01-01

23

Two-compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis for splitting of sodium formate into formic acid and sodium hydroxide: Modelling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work is to model the two-compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis for organic salts acidification. The salt studied is sodium formate which splits into formic acid and sodium hydroxide thanks to water splitting by bipolar membrane. The contamination of sodium hydroxide by formate ion is due to diffusion of molecular formic acid through the bipolar membrane and to leakage of formate ion through the same membrane under the applied current. The cation-exchange membrane does n...

Jaime-ferrer, Jesus Salvador; Couallier, Estelle; Viers, Philippe; Rakib, Mohammed

2008-01-01

24

ION RECOGNITION APPROACH TO VOLUME REDUCTION OF ALKALINE TANK WASTE BY SEPARATION AND RECYCLE OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM NITRATE  

Science.gov (United States)

A 3-year collaborative project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Bruce A. Moyer) and the University of North Texas (Prof. Alan P. Marchand) is proposed to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide and other predominant sodium salts such as sodium nitrate f...

25

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provided that the resulting total sodium concentration in feed does not compromise the overall electrolyte balance. Sodium hydroxide in solid form and in aqueous solution at concentrations > 8.0 % is corrosive. At lower concentrations it is irritant to skin and eyes (0.5 % and 0.2 %, respectively and the respiratory tract (0.5 %. Exposure via inhalation is likely to be minimal. Sodium hydroxide is not considered to be a skin sensitiser. As sodium hydroxide is used in food as an acidity regulator, and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2012-10-01

26

Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions

1983-02-01

27

Reactions between rocks and the hydroxides of calcium, sodium and potassium: progress report no. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reaction between the hydroxides of calcium, sodium and potassium, and clay minerals, feldspars, and some rocks (aggregates for use in concrete) was investigated. The reaction products were examined by means of x-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. The solid reaction products identified were hydrated calcium silicates,hydrated calcium aluminates, and hydrated calcium alumina silicates. It was found that, in the presence of water, calcium hydroxide liberated alkali into solution if the rocks and minerals contained alkali metals in their structure. Two crystalline hydrated sodium calcium silicates (12A and 16A) were prepared in the system Na2O-CaO-SiO2-H2O at 80 degrees Celsius. The one compound (12A) was also observed when sodium hydroxide plus calcium hydroxide and water reacted with silica- or silicate-containing rocks

1982-01-01

28

Effect of sodium hydroxide on anionic surfactant distribution in a two-phase system based on TBP in n-dodecane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements have been made on the effects of sodium hydroxide on the distributions for the sodium salts of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA), di-n-butylphosphoric acid (DBPA), and lauric acid in a system composed of a 30% TBP solution in n-dodecane and aqueous sodium hydroxide. As the alkali concentration in the aqueous phase is reduced from 10 to 0.01 M, the distribution coefficients decrease for the anionic surfactants as well as TBP. Dilute sodium hydroxide solution thus enable one to remove extractant and diluent acid decomposition products from the organic phase, particularly ones having long alkyl chains, which tend to stabilize the emulsions in alkali-carbonate treatment. The distribution coefficients for these surfactants have appreciable effects on the type of stabilized emulsion. At 10 M alkali concentration, micellar aggregates are formed by sodium laurate in the organic phase.

Nikitin, S.D.; Balakhonov, V.G.; Semenov, E.N.; Shmidt, V.S.

1988-11-01

29

Effect of sodium hydroxide on anionic surfactant distribution in a two-phase system based on TBP in n-dodecane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been made on the effects of sodium hydroxide on the distributions for the sodium salts of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA), di-n-butylphosphoric acid (DBPA), and lauric acid in a system composed of a 30% TBP solution in n-dodecane and aqueous sodium hydroxide. As the alkali concentration in the aqueous phase is reduced from 10 to 0.01 M, the distribution coefficients decrease for the anionic surfactants as well as TBP. Dilute sodium hydroxide solution thus enable one to remove extractant and diluent acid decomposition products from the organic phase, particularly ones having long alkyl chains, which tend to stabilize the emulsions in alkali-carbonate treatment. The distribution coefficients for these surfactants have appreciable effects on the type of stabilized emulsion. At 10 M alkali concentration, micellar aggregates are formed by sodium laurate in the organic phase

1988-11-01

30

Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3 tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm.The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to develop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3 with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

Eduardo Rodrigues de Lima

2008-03-01

31

Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina / Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitand [...] o seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3) tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm. Abstract in english The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to d [...] evelop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3) with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

Eduardo Rodrigues de, Lima; Ricardo Araújo, Oliveira; Miriam Carla Bonicontro, Ambrosio-Ugri; Sueli Teresa Davantel de, Barros; Carlos de, Barros Júnior.

32

Comparison of oil recovery potential of sodium orthosilicate and sodium hydroxide for the Wainwright reservoir, Alberta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory evaluations of sodium hydroxide and sodium orthosilicate as improved oil recovery agents have been made for the Wainwright reservoir of Alberta. The characteristics of the Wainwright reservoir and the injection fluids used suggest that the injection of the two alkaline agents as slugs in the tertiary mode might result in different oil recoveries. Preliminary phases of the study involved evaluation of interfacial tension (IFT) between Wainwright oil and solutions of both alkaline agents at various concentration levels as a function of salinity and hardness. Included were tests of chemical reactivity of hard Wainwright waters with the two agents. With soft water, the measured IFT values for crude oil/alkaline solutions did not vary widely. Tests with hard water confirmed the superior ability of sodium orthosilicate to remove free hardness ions from solution. The relative oil recovery efficiencies of 50% slugs of the two alkaline agents at a 1.0 wt% concentration were studied in six Berea core displacement tests. The effects of the addition of salt to the slugs and of applying pre- and post-flushes were also evaluated. Sodium orthosilicate performed better than NaOH in the core subjected to soft water pre- and post-flushes when no NaCl was added to the alkaline slug. The improvement in oil recovery over waterflooding amounted to 15%. Oil recoveries were very similar for both agents when no soft water preflush was conducted, or when 1% NaCl was added to the alkaline and preflush slugs. Chemical losses were evaluated in various core floods and were found to be similar for both agents. The oil recovery and pressure drop data are reviewed and discussed in terms of the alkaline flooding mechanisms that appear to prevail. 5 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

Novosad, Z.; McCaffery, F.G.; Urness, C.; Hodges, J.

1981-07-01

33

Aprimoramentos No Processo de Desidratacao de Hidrazina Por Hidroxido de Sodio (Improvements in the Process of Dehydrating Hydrazine by Sodium Hydroxide).  

Science.gov (United States)

The dehydrating effect of alkaline metal oxides and hydroxides on hydrazine solutions is widely discussed in the literature and many authors affirm the efficiency of sodium hydroxide as a dehydrating agent. Due to the limited liquid miscibility of sodium ...

M. A. Ferreira I. C. C. Calegao A. G. Defreitas

1984-01-01

34

The solubility of iron hydroxide in sodium chloride solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

The solubility of iron(III) hydroxide as a function of pH was investigated in NaCl solutions at different temperatures (5-50°C) and ionic strengths (0-5 M). Our results at 25°C and 0.7 M in the acidic range are similar to the solubility in seawater. The results between 7.5 to 9 are constant (close to 10-11 M) and are lower than those found in seawater (>10-10) in this pH range. The solubility subsequently increases as the pH increases from 9 to 12. The solubility between 6 and 7.5 has a change of slope that cannot be accounted for by changes in the speciation of Fe(III). This effect has been attributed to a solid-state transformation of Fe(OH)3 to FeOOH. The effect of ionic strength from 0.1 to 5 M at a pH near 8 was quite small. The solubility at 5°C is considerably higher than at 25°C at neutral pH range. The effects of temperature and ionic strength on the solubility at low and high pH have been attributed to the effects on the solubility product and the formation of FeOH2+ and Fe(OH)4-. The results have been used to determine the solubility products of Fe(OH)3, K?Fe(OH)3 and hydrolysis constants, ??1, ??2, ??3, and ??4 as a function of temperature (T, K) and ionic strength (I): log K?Fe(OH)3 = -13.486 - 0.1856 I0.5 + 0.3073 I + 5254/T (? = 0.08) log ??1 = 2.517 - 0.8885 I0.5 + 0.2139 I - 1320/T (? = 0.03) log ??2 = 0.4511 - 0.3305 I0.5 - 1996/T (? = 0.1) log ??3 = -0.2965 - 0.7881 I0.5 - 4086/T (? = 0.6) log ??4 = 4.4466 - 0.8505 I0.5 - 7980/T. (? = 0.2) Both strong ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and weak (HA) organic ligands greatly affect iron solubility. The additions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and humic material were shown to increase the solubility near pH 8. The higher solubility of Fe(III) in seawater compared to 0.7 M NaCl may be caused by natural organic ligands.

Liu, Xuewu; Millero, Frank J.

1999-10-01

35

Physics of cellulose xanthate dissolution in sodium hydroxide-water mixtures: a rheo-optical study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The way cellulose xanthate (viscose) fibres dissolve in sodium hydroxide water mixtures is studied in situ, under flow, using a counter rotating optical rheometer. When a bunch of viscose fibres is placed in a solvent, a visco-elastic shell is formed, slowing down the diffusion of the solvent to non-dissolved fibres. It forms a highly concentrated, visco-elastic phase that disperses slowly through a pulling mechanism sucking this visco-elastic solution into the solvent. Due to this mechanism,...

Le Moigne, Nicolas; Navard, Patrick

2010-01-01

36

Rhenium and VR-20 alloy electrochemical dissolving in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experimental investigation of rhenium and W-Re (VR-20) alloy electrochemical dissolving both at variable (50 Hz) and constant current in sodium hydroxide solutions are presented. A possibility is shown of complete elimination of electrode polarization at electrochemical reprocessing of wastes of tungsten-rhenium alloys using variable current. It is established that one can work in dissolved electrolytes at constant current only at low densities of current

1981-01-01

37

Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root c...

Chawla H; Setia S; Gupta N; Gauba K; Goyal A

2008-01-01

38

THE BACTERIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT: NORMAL SALINE 5.25% AND 0.5%, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CALCIUM HYDROXIDE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this invitro investigation was to compare the anti-bacterial effect of normal saline and sodium hypochlorite (5.25 percent and 0.5 percent with calcium hydroxide used as intra canal dressing used in different time periods. Methods: 180 single-rooted freshly extracted teeth were selected. The crowns were resected of CEJ and the canal were flared to the same length using a number one Gates-Glidden. A suspension of selected strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria was placed inside the canals and incubated in anaerobic condition for 24 hours. Then the teeth were randomly assigned to 9 groups. Results: Group 1. Negative control; group 2. Positive control; group 3. instrumented using normal saile; group 4. instrumented using 0.5 percent sodium hypochlorite; grooup 5. instrumentation using 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite; group 6. After instrumentation, 10 min. of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 7. after instrumentation 24h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 8. After instrumentation 48h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group9. After instrumentation a week of calcium hydroxide was placed. Then paper points were used to get samples in each group. The samples incubated in anaerobid condition for 48 hours. The TSB turbidity was compared to mcfarland"s scale. Discussion: The results of this study indicates: Sodium hypochlorite in both concentrations were significantly more effective than normal saline. The one week calcium hydroxide group was significantly more effective than all other groups and was comparable to negative control group. The 24h and 48h calcium hydroxide groups did not have significant differences with each other or with the sodium hypochlorite groups. The 10 min. calcium hydroxide group was only comparable to normal saline group.

A.R FARHAD

2000-09-01

39

Synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks. [by hydrolysis of aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution obtained by scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to the use of three compartment electrolytic cell in the production of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and chemical feedstocks such as gasoline, methane and methanol by electrolyzing an aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution, obtained from scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, whereby the hydrogen generated at the cathode and the carbon dioxide liberated in the center compartment are combined thermocatalytically into methanol and gasoline blends. The oxygen generated at the anode is preferably vented into the atmosphere, and the regenerated sodium hydroxide produced at the cathode is reused for scrubbing the CO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere.

Steinberg, M.

1978-08-17

40

Potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration study of interaction of tungstovanadophosphoric heteropolyacids with sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methods of potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration are used to study Hs+nPW12-nVnO40 (n=1,2) (P-W-V HPA) decomposition by sodium hydroxide. It is shown that at the first stage of heteropolyanion interaction with alkali (pH) > 4 P-W-V HPA structural reconstruction takes place. It is accompanied by the formation of complexes with a higher content of vanadium atoms stable at pH 4-7/ P-W-V HPA decomposition to initial salts occurs at pH > 8

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Simultaneous multiwavelength study of the reaction of phenolphthalein with sodium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

A photodiode array (PDA) spectrophotometer was used to study the fading reaction of phenolpthalein in dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The principal component analysis (PCA) method was employed to identify the number of light absorbing species in the kinetics system. The target factor analysis (TFA) procedure, coupled with the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfard-Shanno (BFGS) optimization method, was applied to the observed data to deduce the rate constants and the concentration-time profile of the reaction. The internal referencing method was shown to be essential in improving the quality of data obtained by a single beam PDA spectrophotomer. PMID:18924946

Tam, K Y; Chau, F T

1992-01-01

42

EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC. The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 hours and then kept in room temperature until the day of testing. Compressive strength test was carried out at the ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that concentration variation of sodium hydroxide had least effect on the fresh properties of SCGC. With the increase in sodium hydroxide concentration, the workability of fresh concrete was slightly reduced; however, the corresponding compressive strength was increased. Concrete samples with sodium hydroxide concentration of 12 M produced maximum compressive strength.

FAREED AHMED MEMON

2013-02-01

43

Partition equilibrium of iodine in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions containing boric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The partition equilibrium of iodine in the aqueous mixtures of sodium hydroxide and boric acid was investigated and was compared with the case of the aqueous solution without boric acid. It was found that the reactions of iodine species with boric acid and its derivatives were negligible and the only effect of the addition of boric acid on the partition of iodine species in the solution came out through the shift of hydrogen ion concentration. The hydrogen ion concentration can be evaluated by taking into consideration the dissociation of boric acid and the formation of polymeric borate ion besides a series of reactions of iodine species in the solutions. The observed equilibrium concentrations of various iodine species agreed well with those calculated from the concentration of the total iodine and the calculated hydrogen ion concentration. (author)

1981-01-01

44

Theoretical simulation of reduction mechanism of graphene oxide in sodium hydroxide solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a density functional theory simulation, we proposed a reduction mechanism of graphene oxide (GO) under a sodium hydroxide solution containing anions (OH(-)), cations (Na(+)) and neutral H2O molecules as main components. OH(-) anion can interact with hydroxyl in GO and transfer electrons to the graphene sheet, resulting in negatively charged GO, and these electrons obviously lower the barrier of the ring-opening reaction of epoxy. Na(+) cations can be attracted by the negatively charged GO, and this reaction is equivalent to the one between metallic Na and GO. The opened epoxy is reduced with the assistance of Na(+) cation and water molecule. In such a reduction process, NaOH can be viewed as a catalyst and more defects should be formed because of these diffused epoxies on the negatively charged graphene sheet. Our results may be helpful to understand further the nature of the reduction of GO among various reducing agents. PMID:24845648

Chen, Chu; Kong, Weixin; Duan, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Jun

2014-07-01

45

Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF was carried out with NaOH from 2% to 10% (w/v at temperature 500C and 700C. The performances of pretreatments were evaluated based on total carbohydrate and reducing sugar including glucose, xylose and arabinose after enzymatic hydrolysis on the pretreated biomass. It was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis had significantly improved when 6% NaOH in 700C applied in the pretreatment process. The highest total reducing sugars produced by means of commercial enzymes was achieved with the overall conversions of glucan and xylan of 87% and 60.73% respectively. The compositions of OPMF in this study are as follows (% g/g dry biomass: glucan, 28.8, xylan, 25.3, arabinan, 1.91, ethanol extractive, 6.32 and ash, 2.60.

Nur Izzati Iberahim

2013-06-01

46

Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-06-01

47

Selective formation of Na-X zeolite from coal fly ash by fusion with sodium hydroxide prior to hydrothermal reaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrothermal treatment of fly ash with alkali gives various types of zeolites such as Na-Pl, Na-A and hydroxysodalite, where the zeolite zone was formed like an egg white, covering the central core of fly ash particles, as evinced in a previous paper. By fusion with sodium hydroxide, most of the fly ash particles were converted into sodium salts such as silicate and aluminate, from which hydrothermal reaction without stirring favourably resulted in the formation of Na-X zeolite. Crystallinity of Na-X zeolite as high as 62% was attained at the optimum condition of NaOH/fly ash-1.2 and a fusion temperature of 823 K. Fly ash contains 14 wt% mullite 3Al[sub 2]O[sub 3].2SiO[sub 2], which was revealed to be a less-active crystalline component for zeolite formation. Aluminium-enriched fly ash gave Na-A in place of Na-X zeolite. Scanning electron microscope images of cubic and octahedral crystals characteristic of Na-A and Na-X zeolite, respectively, obtained from fly ash, are given.

Shigemoto, N.; Hayashi, H.; Miyaura, K. (University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology)

1993-09-01

48

Coprecipitation of 152Eu with iron hydroxide formed during reduction of sodium(6) ferrate in aqueous medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of coprecipitation of 152Eu and Fe(3) hydroxide formed according to one of the two mechanisms: in the course of Fe(3) sulfate hydrolysis and in the course of spontaneous reduction of sodium ferrate(6) (Na4FeO5) in the reaction of water oxidation, are presented. Fe(3) hydroxide formed according to the second mechanism has a more developed surface and it precipitated Eu3+ more efficiently. Introduction of oxalate-ions (C=6.7x10-4 mol/l) into solution impedes Eu3+ coprecipitation. Preliminary data on 242Pu and 241Am with Fe(3) hydroxide formed from ferrate are given. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

1995-01-01

49

Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn–Al layered double hydroxide morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: ? In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. ? Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. ? Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. ? Growth mechanism was discussed. ? Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

2012-03-01

50

Step enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium hydroxide-pretreated Chinese liquor distillers' grains for ethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol. PMID:24397718

Liu, Yue-Hong; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yu-Ju; Zhang, Wen-Xue

2014-01-01

51

Efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio sobre a fração fibrosa, digestibilidade e tanino do feno de jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild) / Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on fiber fraction, digestibility and tannin of jurema-preta hay (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) na fração fibrosa, no teor de tanino e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca do feno de jurema-preta. As folhas foram colhidas manualmente e desidratadas à sombra. O tratamento químico co [...] nsistiu na pulverização do feno com solução de 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8% de NaOH, na proporção de 1 litro da solução para 1 kg de feno. Amostras do feno foram submetidas à determinação da matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), tanino e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS), que se constituíram nas variáveis analisadas. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. O tratamento com NaOH proporcionou efeito linear decrescente nos teores de MS, hemicelulose e tanino, enquanto, para FDN e FDA, ocorreu efeito quadrático. A PB não foi afetada e a DIVMS melhorou com o aumento da concentração de NaOH. A estimativa da DIVMS pelo teor de tanino, apesar de significativa, carece de mais estudos. Abstract in english Experiment was carried out with the goal to evaluate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on fiber fraction, tannin level and dry matter in vitro digestibility of jurema-preta hay. Leaves were harvested by hand and dried under shadow. Chemical treatment was done by pulverization of hay with 0; 2; 4 [...] ; 6 and 8% NaOH solution following the proportion of 1 liter of solution to 1 kg of hay. Samples of hay were submitted to determinations of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), tannin and DM in vitro digestibility which were the variables analyzed. Design completely randomized was used with five treatments and four repetitions. NaOH treatment caused linear effect in DM, hemicellulose and tannin contents; while for NDF and ADF was observed quadratic effect. CP was not affected and DMIVD was improved by NaOH concentration increase. DMIVD estimated by tannin content need to be more studied, instead of its significance.

Pereira Filho, José Morais; Vieira, Ednéia de Lucena; Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevedo; Cezar, Marcílio Fontes; Amorim, Francisco Uchoa.

52

Coprecipitation of 152Eu with Iron(III) hydroxide formed upon reduction of sodium ferrate(VI) in aqueous medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are presented on coprecipitation of 152Eu with iron(III) hydroxide formed either upon hydrolysis of Fe(III) sulfate or upon spontaneous reduction of sodium ferrate(VI) (Na4FeO5) by water with pH variation from 2.5 to 12 and constant ionic strength I=1. Iron(III) hydroxide formed according to the second mechanism has more developed surface and coprecipitates with Eu3+ more efficiently, especially when concentration of Fe(III) is low(?1.2 mg 1-1 or 2.2x10-5 M). Introduction of oxalate ions (C=6.7x10-4 M) into the solution inhibits the coprecipitation of Eu3+; however, oxalate is readily oxidized by ferrate ion, which in this case additionally favors sorption using ferrate. Tentative data on coprecipitation of 242Pu and 241Am with Fe(OH)3 produced from ferrate are presented. The data obtained show that sodium ferrate may be useful for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes, because only ozone is a stronger oxidant than sodium ferrate (among common oxidants) and sodium ferrate is one of the best coagulating agents

1995-01-01

53

Advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozone oxidation is an advanced oxidation process for treatment of organic and inorganic wastewater. In this paper, sodium acetate (according to chemical oxygen demand [COD]) was selected as the model pollutant in water, and the degradation efficiencies and mechanism of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation were investigated. The results showed that the ozone oxidation was an effective treatment technology for advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water; the COD removal rate obtained the maximum value of 45.89% from sodium acetate solution when the pH value was 10.82, ozone concentration was 100 mg/L, reaction time was 30 minutes, and reaction temperature was 25 degrees C. The COD removal rate increased first and decreased subsequently with the bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L, the largest decline being 20.35%. The COD removal rate declined by 25.38% with the carbonate (CO3(2-)) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L; CO3(2-) has a more obvious scavenging effect to inhibit the formation of hydroxyl free radicals than HCO3-. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) could enhance the COD removal rate greatly; they could reach 77.35 and 96.53%, respectively, after a reaction time of 30 minutes, which was increased by 31.46 and 50.64%, respectively, compared with only ozone oxidation. It was proved that the main ozone oxidation product of sodium acetate was carbon dioxide (CO2), and the degradation of sodium acetate in the ozone oxidation process followed the mechanism of hydroxyl free radicals. PMID:24645544

Yang, De-Min; Yuan, Jian-Mei

2014-02-01

54

Development of in-sodium electrochemical hydrogen and oxygen meters and their use in a study of the decomposition of sodium hydroxide in liquid sodium and in gettering reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decomposition of sodium hydroxide in liquid sodium is relatively rapid, the half-life for the reaction increasing from 1 minute at 500/degree/C to 17 minutes at 300/degree/C. Observations are also presented on the kinetics of gettering of oxygen and hydrogen in solution by foils of uranium and yttrium in the temperature range 370-500/degree/C. 21 refs

1980-04-24

55

THE BACTERIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT: NORMAL SALINE 5.25% AND 0.5%, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CALCIUM HYDROXIDE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: The purpose of this invitro investigation was to compare the anti-bacterial effect of normal saline and sodium hypochlorite (5.25 percent and 0.5 percent) with calcium hydroxide used as intra canal dressing used in different time periods. Methods: 180 single-rooted freshly extracted teeth were selected. The crowns were resected of CEJ and the canal were flared to the same length using a number one Gates-Glidden. A suspension of selected strict and facultative anaerobic bact...

Farhad, A. R.; Avaei, A.; Farhad, S. Z.; Poursina, F.

2000-01-01

56

Ecological comparison of calcium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate as sorbents; Oekologischer Vergleich der Sorptionsmittel Calciumhydroxid und Natriumhydrogencarbonat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lime products have long been used with success for flue gas purification in waste incineration plants, where they serve to eliminate acid gas pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. This article presents excerpts of a study commissioned by the German lime industry association for the purpose of obtaining an unbiased well-founded comparison of the environmental impact of the two sorbents calcium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. The following questions were addressed by the study: Which of the two flue gas additives provides greater environmental benefit under specified conditions? What parameters influence the outcome? How can the results be viewed in regard to different plant configurations?.

Pacher, Christian; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Rohstoff- und Energietechnologie; Mocker, Mario [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Faulstich, Martin [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Straubing (Germany). Wissenschaftszentrum Straubing

2009-07-01

57

SUCCESS RATE OF THE ENDODONTIC TREATMENT OF YOUNG PERMANENT TEETH WITH CALCIUM HYDROXIDE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of success rates of treatment of apical periodontitis with Calcium Hydroxide paste compared to the conventional method. The course of recovery was observed with 185 treated permanent teeth with either finished or unfinished root growth, of which 68 teeth fall within the control group. It is noted that the success rate of the group treated with Calcium Hydroxide is considerably higher (85% as opposed to 67%.

J. Vojinovi?

2010-08-01

58

Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 ?g/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

2014-02-01

59

Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3Ã?3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions, was not different when comparing MCS, SHW and barley.

Hymøller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

2014-01-01

60

Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions, was not different when comparing MCS, SHW and barley. PMID:24594308

Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

2011-09-20

62

Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2011-02-04

63

Effects of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Aluminate on the Precipitation of Aluminum Containing Species in Tank Wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aluminisilicate deposit buildup experienced during the tank waste volume-reduction process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) required an evaporator to be shut down. Studies were conducted at 80 C to identify the insoluble aluminosilicate phase(s) and to determine the kinetics of their formation and transformation. These tests were carried out under conditions more similar to those that occur in HLW tanks and evaporators. Comparison of our results with those reported from the site show very similar trends. Initially, an amorphous phase precipitates followed by a zeolite phase that transforms to sodalite and which finally converts to cancrinite. Our results also show the expected trend of an increased rate of transformation into denser aluminosilicate phases (sodalite and cancrinite) with time and increasing hydroxide concentrations

2006-01-01

64

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACTED LIGNIN OF BAMBOO (NEOSINOCALAMUS AFFINIS PRETREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE/UREA SOLUTION AT LOW TEMPERATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ball-milled bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis was first treated under ultrasound at 20 oC in 95% ethanol solution for 0 to 50 min, dissolved in sodium hydroxide/urea solution (7% NaOH/12% urea at –12 oC, and then extracted with ethanol and dioxane to isolate lignin. The structure of the isolated lignin was characterized with a set of wet chemical and spectroscopic methods, including UV, FT-IR, 13C NMR, and HSQC spectroscopies. The results showed that the lignin extracted from bamboo consisted of p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G, and syringyl (S type lignins with minor cinnamate units. The predominate lignin inter-units were ?-O-4´ ether linkages, followed by phenylcoumaran and a lower proportion of resinol and spirodienone. It was also found that the ester groups of lignin were cleaved during the pretreatment process with cold alkaline solution.

Ming-Fei Li

2010-06-01

65

The Corrosion Behavior of Nickel and Inconel 600 in Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrochloric Acid Solution at 280 .deg. C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion behavior of nickel and Inconel 600 has been investigated by the weight change measurement method at pH ranges 3?13 of the solution. The specimens were exposed to aqueous solutions in a static autoclave at 280 .deg. C for 210 hours. The pH of the solutions was adjusted by hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide and the dissolved oxygen concentration was fixed as 10 ppb by using pure nitrogen gas. Weight loss of Inconel 600 was much less than that of nickel over the tested pH ranges. At pH 9.5, nickel and Inconel 600 showed the minimum weight loss phenomenon and the values of weight loss were 1.5mg/dm2 and 0.9mg/dm2, respectively. Microscopic examination showed that nickel surface was attacked uniformly, whereas Inconel 600 surface was not greatly

1980-03-01

66

Enthalpy of solution of VOCl3 in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions and the standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO{4/2-} ion  

Science.gov (United States)

The calorimetric enthalpies of solution of liquid vanadium oxytrichloride in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured at 298.15 K and ionic strengths I = 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 (NaClO4). The standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO{4/2-} ion was calculated from the measured data.

Romodanovskii, P. A.; Vorob'ev, P. N.; Dmitrieva, N. G.; Gridchin, S. N.

2007-12-01

67

The enthalpies of solution of VOCl3 in dilute solutions of sodium hydroxide and the standard enthalpy of formation of liquid VOCl3  

Science.gov (United States)

The enthalpies of solution of liquid vanadium oxytrichloride in dilute solutions of sodium hydroxide were determined by direct calorimetric measurements at 298.15 K and ionic strength values I = 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 (NaClO4). The experimental data were used to calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of liquid VOCl3.

Dmitrieva, N. G.; Romodanovskii, P. A.; Gridchin, S. N.; Vorob'ev, P. N.

2010-01-01

68

Solubilities of betulin and betulinic acid in sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions of varied mole fraction at temperatures from 283.2 K to 323.2 K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The solubilities of betulin and betulinic acid in varied mole fraction of sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions. • The experimental solubility data are correlated by Apelblat equation. • The dissolution enthalpy and entropy were calculated using van’t Hoff equation. -- Abstract: The solubilities of betulin and betulinic acid were measured at varied values of mole fraction of sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions at a series of temperature (283.2, 293.2, 303.2, 313.2, and 323.2) K. They increase with the increase of temperature. Furthermore, the solubility of betulinic acid has a positive correlation with the mole fraction of sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions, and so is that of the betulin. The experimental solubility resuls are well correlated by the modified Apelblat equation. The enthalpy and entropy of betulin and betulinic acid during the dissolution process in sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are calculated with the van’t Hoff equation. The results indicate that the dissolution process is endothermal reaction that is driven by entropy

2013-12-01

69

Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate and nitrite at Nafion-coated electrodes in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions in alkaline solution has been studied using various cathode materials and is the basis for a patent describing the conversion of nitrate into hydroxide ion in carbonate solutions. Recently, Taniguchi et al. have reported that certain well studied transition metal cyclic amine complexes, namely Co(III)-cyclam and Ni(II)-cyclam where cyclam is 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, efficiently electrocatalyze the reduction of nitrate and nitrite to hydroxylamine at mercury electrodes. Here the authors report that the metal cyclam catalyst can be incorporated into a Nafion film electrode, and that the reduction of nitrate and nitrite proceeds efficiently at these electrodes in concentrated NaOH solution. Nafion is a perfluoroalkanesulfonated cation exchange material that has been widely used to immobilize redox couples at electrode surfaces, including electrocatalysis species.

Li, H. [Lanzhou Univ., Ganzu (China). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Chambers, J.Q. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hobbs, D.T. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.

1988-12-31

70

Low-cycle fatigue strength of 10Kh18N9 stainless steel at 773 K in sodium containing a hydroxide impurity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When an atomic power plant runs on fast neutrons with sodium coolant, the second-loop intermediate heat exchanger, which is made of 10Kh18N9 stainless steel, operates under static and dynamic loads. In this case, the material experiences the action of two incompatible coolants: sodium and a steam-and-water medium, direct contact between which results in the formation of a highly aggressive reaction product: sodium hydroxide. This research investigated the effect of sodium containing a hydroxide impurity on the low-cycle fatigue strength of stainless steel 10Kh18N9 at 773 K. It was found that the presence of 5 wt. % hydroxide in sodium leads to a significant decrease in the cyclic strength of 10Kh18N9 steel at 773 K. This is explained by the elevated aggressivity of the medium with respect to the main components of steel under a tensile load. The corrosion products formed in this situation (complex oxides) act like a wedge in the case of a compressive load. The high stress concentration that arises at the crack tip causes further development of the crack and exposure of fresh surfaces that are subjected to corrosion

1989-11-01

71

New System of Deprotection Step for the Hydroxide Radicals: Boron Trifluoride Etherate/Sodium Iodide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new efficient method for dealkylation of ethers is reported. Ethers could transform into corresponding alcohols with boron trifluoride etherate and sodium iodide in acetonitrile after hydrolysis. This reaction can proceed at room temperature, and the yield is excellent. It’s useful for deprotection process in organic synthesis.

Yuqing Cao

2011-08-01

72

New System of Deprotection Step for the Hydroxide Radicals: Boron Trifluoride Etherate/Sodium Iodide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new efficient method for dealkylation of ethers is reported. Ethers could transform into corresponding alcohols with boron trifluoride etherate and sodium iodide in acetonitrile after hydrolysis. This reaction can proceed at room temperature, and the yield is excellent. It’s useful for deprotection process in organic synthesis.

Yuqing Cao; Xiaojun Yang; Dingxiang Du; Xiangtao Xu; Fangrui Song; Liya Xu

2011-01-01

73

Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root canal filling material from the root canals and the status of overpushed material, if any, as the tooth resorbed with the passage of time. At 6 months, endodontic treatment in 2 of the 25 teeth had failed and one tooth had exfoliated; the remaining 22 teeth were without any signs or symptoms. At the end of 2 years, 14 teeth could be evaluated; out of these 12 had physiologically exfoliated. It was observed that the rate of resorption of this new root canal obturating mixture was quite similar to the rate of physiologic root resorption in primary teeth. In three cases, where there was an overpush of the mixture, a gradual partial resorption was noted.

Chawla H

2008-06-01

74

Comparison of sodium carbonate-oxygen and sodium hydroxide-oxygen pretreatments on the chemical composition and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pretreatment of wheat straw with a combination of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with oxygen (O2) 0.5MPa was evaluated for its delignification ability at relatively low temperature 110°C and for its effect on enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. In the pretreatment, the increase of alkali charge (as Na2O) up to 12% for Na2CO3 and 6% for NaOH, respectively, resulted in enhancement of lignin removal, but did not significantly degrade cellulose and hemicellulose. When the pretreated solid was hydrolyzed with a mixture of cellulases and hemicellulases, the sugar yield increased rapidly with the lignin removal during the pretreatment. A total sugar yield based on dry matter of raw material, 63.8% for Na2CO3-O2 and 71.9% for NaOH-O2 was achieved under a cellulase loading of 20FPU/g-cellulose. The delignification efficiency and total sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis were comparable to the previously reported results at much higher temperature without oxygen. PMID:24686372

Geng, Wenhui; Huang, Ting; Jin, Yongcan; Song, Junlong; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan

2014-06-01

75

Intergranular attack of inconel alloy 600 in sodium hydroxide solutions contaminated with Na_2CO_3 at 350 deg C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of sodium carbonate, boric acid and calcium hydroxide on the Intergranular Attack (IGA) of Inconel Alloy 600 has been studied in 20 wt% NaOH solution at 350 deg C. The IGA rate of Alloy 600 was higher in 20 wt% NaOH + 4 wt% Na_2CO_3 solution than in 20 wt% NaOH + 1 wt% Na_2CO_3 one, and the crack numbers of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) was also larger in 20 wt% NaOH + 4 wt% Na_2CO_3 solution than in 20 wt% NaOH + 1 wt% Na_2CO_3 one. The IGA rate of Alloy 600 in 20 wt% NaOH + 4 wt% Na_2CO_3 solution was suppressed by the addition of boric acid and the IGSCC crack numbers decreased from 108 to 79. On the other hand, the IGA rate was not so changed by the addition of calcium hydroxide, but the IGSCC crack numbers decreased extremely from 108 to 17. The IMMA studies revealed that the composition of oxide film of Alloy 600 was Cr-enriched in acid solution. As the pH was increased, the Ni composition of oxide film increased and the Cr composition decreased. The oxide film of Alloy 600 was mainly composed of Ni in 20 wt% NaOH + 1 wt% Na_2CO_3 solution. The examination of surface film should help to estimate the water quality in the crevice between tube and support plate. (author)

1986-01-01

76

Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with sodium lauryl sulfate as a sorbent for 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with nitrate anions (LDH-NO3) was synthesized, modified with the anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate, and applied for the removal of 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions. Modification of the as-synthesized Mg-Al layered double hydroxide was carried out at surfactant concentration of 0.01 M (the organo-LDH produced denoted LDH-NaLS). The as-synthesized and surfactant-intercalated LDHs were characterized by FT-IR and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The effect of some variables such as solution pH, contact time and sorbate concentration on removal of 152+154Eu was investigated. The kinetic data obtained were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model rather than the pseudo-first-order model. Intraparticle diffusion model showed that sorption of 152+154Eu proceed by intraparticle diffusion together with boundary layer diffusion. Experimental isotherm data were well described by Langmuir model. Organo-LDH was found to have higher capacity (156.45 mg g-1) for europium than the as-synthesized LDH-NO3 (119.56 mg g-1). Comparing LDHs capacities obtained for Eu(III) in the present work with other sorbents reported in literature indicated that LDHs have the highest capacities. Application of the developed process for removal of 152+154Eu(III) from radioactive process wastewaters was also studied and the obtained results revealed that these LDHs are promising materials for treatment of radioactive wastewaters. (author)

2012-06-01

77

Current Status on Development of Sodium Waste Treatment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of sodium as a coolant necessitates the development of special post-operation procedures for the treatment of waste sodium, sodium contaminated equipment, or other purposes. Only a few power and research reactors with sodium coolant have been constructed and operated worldwide. They are close to the end of their design lifetime and, in some cases, the decommissioning is in progress. Conducted by countries that have operational experience with sodium cooled fast reactor, R and D programmes are intended to provide a solid basis for design and operation of sodium waste processing facilities as well as for decommissioning planning. Sodium waste, which has been generated from the test facilities related to the sodium since the beginning of the 1990s, requires now the safe sodium treatment in Korea. Each work activity with sodium should be properly planned and managed to avoid potential chemical reactions or explosions with a high risk of consequent environmental contamination. Special procedures should be implemented for removing and processing bulk quantities of sodium and sodium residuals in internal spaces and on internal surfaces of equipment. The objective of the report is to provide researchers with technical information necessary for the design and construction of technological facilities for sodium waste treatment by reviewing the current state of technical developments for advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and hazards of a sodium waste treatment process. Based on these results, a future plan for development of a sodium waste treatment process can be established

2010-01-01

78

Enthalpy of solution of VOCl3 in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions and the standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO42- ion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calorimetric enthalpies of solution of liquid vanadium oxytrichloride in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured at 298.15 K and ionic strengths I = 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 (NaClO4). The standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO4 2- ion at 298.15 K was calculated from the measured data to be -1173.39 ±1.49 kJ/mol

2007-12-01

79

ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

2011-01-27

80

Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2000-09-28

 
 
 
 
81

The enthalpies of solution of VOCl3 in solutions of sodium hydroxide and the standard enthalpy of formation of the VO43- ion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dissolution enthalpies of liquid vanadium oxytrichloride in aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium perchloride at ionic strength values I = 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 were measured by the calorimetry method at 298.15 K. The experimental data obtained permitted calculating formation enthalpies of VOCl3 alkali solutions at different I values, standard dissolution enthalpy of VOCl3 (-330.63 ± 0.64 kJ/mol) and standard formation enthalpy of VO43- ion (-1053.33 ± 1.66 kJ/mol) in solution at 298.15 K

2002-01-01

82

Electrodeposition of nano-structured nickel-21% tungsten alloy and evaluation of oxygen reduction reaction in a 1% sodium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nano-structured nickel-21 at.% tungsten alloys were electrodeposited onto the copper substrates from unstirred sulfate-citrate-chloride-bromide-sodium tungstate electrolyte at 60 deg. C. The maximum particle sizes of the deposits, as estimated from the atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively were 125, 75, and 100 nm. The Tafel plot for oxygen reduction reaction in oxygenated unstirred 1% sodium hydroxide solution showed a Tafel slope of 130 mV/decade. There were minor variations in the limiting current density with a change in the particle size

2004-10-01

83

Effect of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentration on the optical property of chitosan–ZnO nanostructure prepared in chitin deacetylation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Micro addition of sodium hydroxide induced the nano particles crystallization. ? Nano crystals with maximum Zn/O ratio of 77:23 was prepared. ? Crystalline size with 16–53 nm was estimated by XRD. ? In this study, nanocrystalline powders with band gap of 3.32 eV was prepared. - Abstract: Chitosan–ZnO nanostructures are prepared by eco-friendly way of synthesis. With same amount of chitin, three different ratios of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentrations are used for preparation. The hexagonal shape of chitosan–ZnO nanostructures with size range of 40–100 nm are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface morphology is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Maximum Zn/O atomic ratio of 77:23 is noticed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis. Presence of chitosan and ZnO structure are confirmed with FTIR spectra. Absorbance at 364 nm in the UV–vis spectra indicates the presence of ZnO. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the size of crystallites are in 16–53 nm range. Optical studies revealed that chitosan–ZnO nanostructure with band gap of 3.4 eV have been prepared by slow addition of 45% sodium hydroxide into 15% zinc chloride and chitin solution.

2011-12-15

84

Effect of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentration on the optical property of chitosan-ZnO nanostructure prepared in chitin deacetylation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro addition of sodium hydroxide induced the nano particles crystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano crystals with maximum Zn/O ratio of 77:23 was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline size with 16-53 nm was estimated by XRD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study, nanocrystalline powders with band gap of 3.32 eV was prepared. - Abstract: Chitosan-ZnO nanostructures are prepared by eco-friendly way of synthesis. With same amount of chitin, three different ratios of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentrations are used for preparation. The hexagonal shape of chitosan-ZnO nanostructures with size range of 40-100 nm are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface morphology is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Maximum Zn/O atomic ratio of 77:23 is noticed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis. Presence of chitosan and ZnO structure are confirmed with FTIR spectra. Absorbance at 364 nm in the UV-vis spectra indicates the presence of ZnO. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the size of crystallites are in 16-53 nm range. Optical studies revealed that chitosan-ZnO nanostructure with band gap of 3.4 eV have been prepared by slow addition of 45% sodium hydroxide into 15% zinc chloride and chitin solution.

Anandhavelu, S. [Department of Industrial chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Thambidurai, S., E-mail: sthambi01@yahoo.co.in [Department of Industrial chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India)

2011-12-15

85

Multi-elemental determination of heavy elements in plastics using X-ray fluorescence after destruction of the polymer by molten sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a method is proposed for the multielemental analysis of Sb(III), Ba, Cd, Cr(III), Hg, Pb and As(III) in plastics, using X-ray fluorescence after alkaline decomposition and preconcentration by (co)precipitation. The organic matrix is destroyed by decomposition with sodium hydroxide melted in a silver crucible by the open system technique, using sodium nitrate as auxiliary oxidant. The variables which influence preconcentration are optimized: Digestion time, pH, salinity, carrier and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and sodium rhodizonate (R) as precipitants. The calibration curves were linear up to 200 ?g of the element present, except for lead (150 ?g) antimony(III) (100 ?g) and barium (1000 ?g). The proposed method has been applied to several different industrial plastics. The procedure is quick and leads to results comparable with those obtained when using a recommended decomposition for each element separately. (orig.)

1992-01-01

86

Overextension of Nonsetting Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontic Treatment: Literature Review and Case Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Premixed non-setting calcium hydroxide (CaOH2) paste in pressure syringe system is commonly used in root canal therapy. The aim of this paper is to present a case involving an iatrogenic extrusion of the medicament during endodontic treatment and a literature review of similar reports. The present case demonstrates severe tissue necrosis and other deleterious effects following the extrusion of CaOH2 paste beyond root apex. A 21-year old female was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxi...

Shahravan, Arash; Jalali, Shahrzad; Mozaffari, Behrooz; Pourdamghan, Nasim

2012-01-01

87

Chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide improves recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms from cultured milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is shed into the milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne's disease, allowing the transmission of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk. The parameters investigated included chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-l-cysteine-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), alone and in combination with antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid), and the efficacy of solid (Herrold's egg yolk medium [HEY]) and liquid (Bactec 12B and para-JEM) culture media. For each experiment, raw milk samples from a known noninfected cow were inoculated with 10(2) to 10(8) CFU/ml of live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms. The results indicate that an increased length of exposure to NALC-NaOH from 5 to 30 min and an increased concentration of NaOH from 0.5 to 2.0% did not affect the viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additional treatment of milk samples with the antibiotics following NALC-NaOH treatment decreased the recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells more than treatment with NALC-NaOH alone. The Bactec 12B medium was the superior medium of the three evaluated for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk, as it achieved the lowest threshold of detection. The optimal conditions for NALC-NaOH decontamination were determined to be exposure to 1.50% NaOH for 15 min followed by culture in Bactec 12B medium. This study demonstrates that chemical decontamination with NALC-NaOH resulted in a greater recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from milk than from samples treated with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC). Therefore, it is important to optimize milk decontamination protocols to ensure that low concentrations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be detected. PMID:23637290

Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C; Stabel, J R

2013-07-01

88

Effect of berry size and sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation heating.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research studied the effect of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were also determined using scanning electronic microscopy and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), respectively. To quantify the effect of berry size, non-pretreated bulk blueberries were sorted into 6 groups based on their diameters and dried at 70 degrees C. To determine the effectiveness of NaOH pretreatment in improving drying characteristics, bulk blueberries of different sizes, both nonpretreated and NaOH pretreated, were dried at constant temperatures of 80 and 90 degrees C, and variable temperatures of 70 degrees C for 50 min followed by 90 degrees C for 50 min. The NaOH pretreatment dipped blueberries in 0.1% NaOH solution with fruit to solution ratio 1:1 (w/v) at initial temperature of 93 degrees C for 5 s. Results showed that the drying rate increased with decreased berry size. Average moisture diffusivity was in the range of 5.89 to 8.13 m2/s at 70 degrees C. The NaOH pretreatment increased drying rate and moisture diffusivity and reduced the number of broken berries, especially at high drying temperatures. Results from SEM observation and DVS showed that the increase in diffusivity coefficients of berry coat and loss of intact microstructure in coat and tissue cells might contribute to the effect of NaOH pretreatment on the IR drying of blueberries. PMID:19241546

Shi, J; Pan, Z; McHugh, T H; Wood, D; Zhu, Y; Avena-Bustillos, R J; Hirschberg, E

2008-08-01

89

Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar L Modified with 1-Octanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE) was investigated for recovery of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from alkaline process solutions. PHE relies on the deprotonation of a lipophilic weak acid by hydroxide ion with concomitant transfer of sodium ion into an organic phase. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and NaOH in the aqueous phase, thus leading to a process in which NaOH equivalents are transferred from an alkaline feed solution to an aqueous stripping solution. In this work, we researched PHE using a process-friendly diluent Isopar L. The lipophilic cation exchanger 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) was used as the extractant. The Isopar L diluent was modified with 1-octanol to improve its solvation properties and the solubility of 35-DTBP so that practical Na+ concentrations could be achieved in the process solvent. The PHE mechanism at process-relevant conditions was explored by Raman and FTIR spectroscopic measurements. Electrospray mass spectroscopic results indicated extensive aggregation of the sodium phenolate at high Na+ loading. An equilibrium computer modeling suggested that the Na+ extraction behavior can be largely explained by the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 Na/35-DTBP species in the organic phase. Extraction isotherms obtained using caustic leaching simulant solutions indicate the potential utility of this approach for recycling NaOH from complex alkaline mixtures

2006-06-01

90

Chemical stability of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography silica under sodium hydroxide regeneration conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromatographic sorbents used within the purification of peptide or protein based active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are commonly subjected to caustic regeneration procedures, so-called CIP treatments. While polymeric materials remain unaffected by this treatment, silica-based sorbents are at an intrinsic risk of dissolution under high pH conditions, such as, e.g. 0.1M NaOH. It is common misconception that silica-based materials simply cannot be subjected to alkaline conditions above pH 9. Moreover, most studies covering the chemical stability of HPLC sorbents above pH 9 have been limited to the chromatographic conditions used for the separations themselves. Such studies have used buffered mobile phases up to pH 11 or 12. Very little focus has been put on the stability of the stationary phases when subjected to shorter but harsher pH conditions required for regeneration purposes, such as 0.1M NaOH (pH 13). Knowledge about the amount of so-called leachables, degradation products originating from the stationary phase, is of growing importance for the registration of pharmaceuticals for human use and is addressed in this work. This study compares the chemical stability of different commercially available reversed phase silica materials (C18) that are used in industrial scale preparative HPLC. The silica materials were subjected to NaOH regeneration conditions and it is shown that some materials are able to withstand 0.1M NaOH conditions without significant harm. It is demonstrated that contaminants present in the effluent in the range of 10-50 microg/mL can lead to significant contamination of API product fraction. PMID:16999967

Pettersson, Sylvia Winkel; Collet, Eric; Andersson, Ulrika

2007-02-16

91

Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs

1995-10-01

92

Treatment of aggressive external root resorption with calcium hydroxide medicaments: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intrusive luxation is an injury involving the axial displacement of a tooth into the alveolar socket. This paper describes apexification using calcium hydroxide medicaments of an immature permanent central incisor in which spontaneous re-eruption as well as severe inflammatory external root resorption was observed following traumatic intrusion. A 10-year-old boy was referred to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry 3 days after having fallen at school. Intraoral examination revealed intrusive luxation and an enamel-dentin crown fracture of the maxillary left central incisor (Tooth 21). The tooth was not sensitive to percussion and responded positively to electric pulp test. Radiographic examination indicated that the tooth had an open apex and had been intruded approximately 3-4 mm relative to the cemento-enamel junction of the adjacent right central incisor. The tooth was left for possible spontaneous re-eruption. The crown fracture was temporarily restored using glass ionomer cement, and the patient was scheduled for recall in 2 weeks, at which time intraoral examination revealed spontaneous re-eruption of the tooth. However, radiographic examination also showed inflammatory external root resorption. The root canal was accessed and filled with a calcium hydroxide paste; however, follow-up examination indicated continuing resorption after 1 month. Calcium hydroxide plus points (CHPP) was chosen as an alternative treatment. At the end of 6 months of CHPP treatment, examination showed no further progression of external resorption and complete apexification of the tooth. After a 24-month follow-up period, no signs of pathosis were observed. PMID:19519861

Oktem, Zeynep Ba?ak; Cetinba?, Tu?ba; Ozer, Levent; Sönmez, Hayriye

2009-10-01

93

A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection [...] and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE: A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS: Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. Result: In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION: Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda Junior, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo.

94

The Effect of Formaldehyde or Sodium Hydroxide on In situ Rumen Degradation of Low and High Fat Sunflower Meal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to determine in situ dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability of sunflower meal containing 25 and 165 g fat kg-1 DM and untreated and treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 40 g kg-1 DM) and formaldehyde ( 30 and 60 g kg-1 DM). DM and CP degradation of the samples were determined using in situ technique in two fistulated Holstein steers (400±1...

Mohammadabadi, T.; Danesh Mesgaran, M.; Heravi Moussavi, A. R.; Nasiri, M. R.; Chaji, M.

2008-01-01

95

A modified chemical treatment procedure for the decontamination of sodium carbonate waste solutions of the PUREX process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chemical treatment scheme followed by ion exchange has been formulated for the removal of radioactivity from the sodium carbonate waste solutions of the PUREX process. The treatment involves co-precipitation of technetium, antimony and actinides with Fe (II)/Fe (III) hydroxide; removal of cesium by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin (R.F. resin); and removal of ruthenium by carrier-precipitation with cobalt sulphide. The resultant effluent obtained by this treatment has total alpha radioactivity < 1x 10-4?Ci/mL and gross-? radioactivity in the range of 10-4?Ci/mL. The results reported herein are obtained for the actual waste solutions. (author)

2010-03-01

96

Treatment of rheumatoid synovitis of the knee with intraarticular injection of dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred eight knees of 93 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and persistent synovitis of the knee were treated with an intraarticular injection of 270 mCi of dysprosium 165 bound to ferric hydroxide macroaggregate. Leakage of radioactivity from the injected joint was minimal. Mean leakage to the venous blood 3 hours after injection was 0.11% of the injected dose; this corresponds to a mean whole body dose of 0.2 rads. Mean leakage to the liver 24 hours after injection was 0.64% of the injected dose; this corresponds to a mean liver dose of 3.2 rads. In 7 additional patients examined, there was negligible or near negligible activity found in the draining inguinal lymph nodes. One-year followup was possible for 74 knees (63 patients). Sixty-one percent of the knees had good results, 23% had fair results, and 16% had poor results. There was a direct correlation between the radiographic stage and response to treatment. In knees with stage I radiographic changes, 72% showed good results; 93% showed improvement. In knees with stage II changes, 59% showed good results; 81% showed improvement. These preliminary results indicate that dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregate is an effective agent for radiation synovectomy. The low leakage rates observed offer a definite advantage over agents previously used

1986-01-01

97

Loss of sight caused by calcium hydroxide paste accidentally splashed into the eye during endodontic treatment: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium hydroxide, widely used in endodontic treatment, is a strong base that may cause irreversible injury to vital tissue that comes into contact with this substance. We present the first case of a dentist who accidentally splashed endodontic calcium hydroxide into her own eye. After washing with copious amounts of water for several minutes, she was treated in the hospital within 30 minutes of the accident. Because of the burning caused by the base solution, the dentist lost vision in the affected eye. She returned to the hospital several times for treatment of a corneal abscess and corneal fungal infection. She had the keloid that formed between the eyeball and eyelid removed 3 times. Calcium hydroxide can cause blindness when it comes into contact with the eye. Clinicians should take adequate precautions to prevent this serious complication. In case of an accident, it is important to wash the eye efficiently. PMID:24195193

Lipski, Mariusz; Buczkowska-Radli?ska, Jadwiga; Góra, Monika

2013-06-01

98

3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT) on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic [...] techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr), and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp). It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

P.D. Reena, Kumari; Jagannath, Nayak; A. Nityananda, Shetty.

99

3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr, and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp. It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

P.D. Reena Kumari

2011-11-01

100

Endodontic treatment for necrotic immature permanent teeth using MTA and calcium hydroxide. A retrospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic treatment of young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp has been a challenge for the dentist. It is necessary to induce the formation of apical barrier (apical plug, enabling the complete root canal filling. Objective: This retrospective clinical study compared the protocols for treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation, using calcium hydroxide (CH or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Material and methods: 28 patients with incomplete root formation have undergone root canal treatments in the period from 2000 to 2009 were selected. The procedures for cleaning, shaping and intracanal medication (CH paste were performed in a standardized manner. In 13 patients, after using the CH paste (14 days, apical plugs with MTA were made. In the remaining 15 teeth monthly exchanges with CH paste were executed until it was observed radiographically the formation of the apical barrier. In all cases the canals were filled conventionally with gutta-percha and sealer. Initially, follow-ups were made on a quarterly and semiannually at the end of first year. Results: All apical lesions showed apical healing between 4 and 13 months after starting treatment. There was not noted the continuing process of root formation. Conclusion: It was concluded that the treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp with the use of MTA as apical plug has the same clinical results compared with the use of CH, with the advantage of less clinical time.

Fabio de Almeida Gomes

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Flowsheet Modeling and Testing of Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar(regsign) L Modified with Exxal(regsign) 8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptual counter-current process flowsheet was developed for sodium hydroxide recovery from alkaline solutions via pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE). PHE relies on a simple sodium ion/proton exchange mechanism at elevated pH using a weak organic acid extractant. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. In this work, the 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) cation exchanger was used in the Isopar(regsign) L diluent modified with isooctyl alcohol Exxal(regsign) 8. Equilibrium isotherms determined for PHE from pure sodium hydroxide solutions and simulated radioactive waste leachate were used to develop a semi-empirical model that could be used for designing PHE process flowsheets. Using this model, a conceptual PHE flowsheet was developed for recovering NaOH from solutions generated by caustic leaching of radioactive tank sludges. The flowsheet consists of extraction, scrub, and strip processes, each employing four equilibrium stages. Modeling of this flowsheet indicates 97% recovery of the sodium hydroxide from the waste leachate feed solution. An experimental demonstration, performed with a simulated radioactive waste leachate using batch contacts in a co-current analog of the counter-current flowsheet, confirmed the potential for practical application of PHE technology

2007-09-01

102

Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leaching tests, and extractions with oxalate and weak hydrochloric acid. It was found that at 600 and 900 °C the iron oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat treatment caused a part of the metals bound in the oxides to be released, thus increasing metals leachability by 1-2 orders of magnitude depending on the metal. Pb and Cd were released in particularly significant concentrations, suggesting less incorporation into the iron oxides after heat-induced transformation. For Pb, this transformation of the chemical state of the bound metal was clearly supported by the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies. A fraction of the bound Cr remained stable even after treatment at the highest temperature used in the study. It was concluded that the heat treatment of iron oxides may be advantageous to improve the thermodynamic stability of the product but that thermal treatment at both 600 and 900 °C significantly reduced the binding capacity for heavy metals.

Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.

2000-01-01

103

Radioactive sodium waste treatment and conditioning. Review of main aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication reviews the main aspects relating to the treatment and conditioning of radioactive sodium waste. This waste arises from the operation of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). In this type of reactor, sodium (Na) or sodium-potassium alloys (NaK) are used as a low-effect neutron moderating coolant medium for extracting and transferring thermal energy from the core and they represent a significant technical and safety challenge during operation and decommissioning. This publication provides the reader with technologically oriented information on the present status of sodium waste management approaches and recent achievements related to treatment and conditioning, with the objective of facilitating planning and preparatory work for the decommissioning of LMFRs. This publication provides a comprehensive review of the hazards associated with sodium waste management. Given the large quantities of sodium waste arising during decommissioning or reactor refurbishment, as well as the challenges and varied techniques associated with removal of 100% of all sodium and NaK bulk quantities and residues during decommissioning, a hazards review and analysis is a critical component in planning the dismantling and waste management activities. Roughly half of this publication focuses on sodium waste generating, handling and treatment processes. This includes draining sodium and NaK from plant systems; in situ treatment of residual sodium; cutting techniques for pumps, valves, piping and other components; cleaning of components; potential reuse of sodium; and removal of selected radionuclides from sodium waste with the objective of reducing the waste classification or converting it to exempt waste. The focus is on proven techniques and technologies, and each discussed method includes a review of the associated principle or theory, practical applications, advantages and disadvantages, limitations, industry experience, and final waste products. A review is provided of final management practices for treated sodium and NaK wastes, including conditioning of radioactive sodium waste and subsequent storage/disposal considerations. The review of conditioning practices includes those designed for the nuclear industry, as well as industrial conditioning technologies which are directly applicable or readily adaptable to nuclear applications. This review includes both successes, failures, and failure analysis. Throughout this publication, emphasis is placed on industry experience and application of sodium and NaK and industry experience with the techniques and technologies used to manage sodium waste. Reactor-specific examples are abundant and include both successes and failures. Throughout the publication, the emphasis is on proven methodologies, including their advantages, disadvantages, limitations and hazards. In fact, sodium-related hazards and associated safety considerations are extensively annotated throughout. This publication can be used most effectively during the planning stages for sodium and NaK removal and treatment activities, including in situ treatment for the purpose of conversion to non-reactive species (e.g. salts, acids). Once radioactive sodium waste or sodium-contaminated components are removed for disposition, this publication is best used as a review of conditioning and dispositioning options, as well as for developing the associated waste management plan. With regard to planning in general, this publication is especially useful in identifying the potential hazards and hazard mitigation considerations at each stage of the removal, treatment, handling and conditioning activities

2007-01-01

104

Treatment with coated layer double hydroxide clays decreases the toxicity of copper-contaminated water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper is a common pollutant found in watersheds that exerts toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are able to adsorb a wide range of contaminants through ion-exchange mechanisms. Coating LDH clays with various materials alters the aggregation of clay particles into the nano-size range, thus increasing relative surface area and offering great potential for contaminant remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment with coated LDH clays decreases the toxicity of copper-containing solutions to Daphnia magna. Four LDH clays with different coatings used to alter hydrophobicity were as follows: used: Na(+) montmorillonite, Zn-Al LDH-nitrate, Zn-Al LDH-stearate, and Zn-Al LDH-carbonate. It was determined that coated LDH clays decreased copper toxicity by decreasing bioavailability and that smaller aggregate sizes decreased bioavailability the most. 96 h LC50 values increased by as much as 4.2 times with the treatment of the solutions with 100 mg/L LDH clay. Copper analysis of the clay and solutions indicated that the clays work by decreasing copper bioavailability by way of a binding mechanism. Coated LDH clays hold promise as a small-scale remediation tool or as an innovative tool for toxicity identification and evaluation characterization of metals. PMID:24442186

Blake, Deanne; Nar, Mangesh; D'Souza, Nandika Anne; Glenn, J Brad; Klaine, Stephen J; Roberts, Aaron P

2014-05-01

105

Overextension of Nonsetting Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontic Treatment: Literature Review and Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Premixed non-setting calcium hydroxide (CaOH2 paste in pressure syringe system is commonly used in root canal therapy. The aim of this paper is to present a case involving an iatrogenic extrusion of the medicament during endodontic treatment and a literature review of similar reports. The present case demonstrates severe tissue necrosis and other deleterious effects following the extrusion of CaOH2 paste beyond root apex. A 21-year old female was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first premolar. After completion of the canal preparation, root canals were filled by premixed CaOH2 paste. In the second appointment, a gingival detachment and an irregular zone of necrosis adjacent to the tooth apex was observed. To treat this complication, a mucoperiosteal flap was raised and the extruded material and necrotic tissues were currettaged and the area sutured. The patient was prescribed antibiotics and followed up at 2 weeks, 6 months and 2 years. Two week follow up showed good soft tissue healing. Two years postoperatively, complete radiographic and clinical healing was observed. We can conclude that the application of CaOH2 should be carried out with care and preferably applied free hand or with a lentulo spiral rather than in a pressure syringe.

Arash Shahravan

2012-05-01

106

The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated into a 35% improvement in growth rate (40, 36 g/day versus 26, 29 g/day). Calcium hydroxide alone did not improve the feeding value of Albizia. These data highlight the danger of assuming an assayable reduction in tannin, such as that observed in the calcium hydroxide treatment, will translate into an improvement in nutritive value and subsequent animal performance. Since the performance of the goats improved maximally when PEG was added to the calcium hydroxide-treated Albizia it was clear that the tannins were still as active as in the untreated Albizia. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide does not deactivate the tannins in Albizia. (author)

Alam, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)]. E-mail: mralam@royalten.net.bd; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh); McNeill, D.M. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)

2005-08-19

107

The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na{sub 2}O and NaH. The most important contaminant is {sup 137}Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide.

Van Alsenoy, V; Rahier, A.

1996-07-01

108

The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na2O and NaH. The most important contaminant is 137Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide

1996-01-01

109

Nonsurgical treatment of periapical lesion associated with type III dens invaginatus using calcium hydroxide: A case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth, probably resulting from an infolding of the papilla during tooth development. It predisposes the tooth to develop caries and periapical pathosis. Root canal therapy may present many problems because of the complex anatomy of the teeth. The purpose of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of an Oehlers type III dens invaginatus that perforated into the apical area. Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with normal saline, w...

Kalaskar R; Kalaskar A

2008-01-01

110

Hydroxide complexes of lanthanides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the precipitation borderline in the pM' - pH diagram, determined experimentally under CO2-free conditions, the stability constants of the mononuclear and polynuclear species of samarium hydroxide have been established. The values found are presented. They refer to fresh precipitates, prepared at room temperature in sodium perchlorate medium with an ionic strength of 1. (author)

1979-01-01

111

FINAL REPORT. ION RECOGNITION APPROACH TO VOLUME REDUCTION OF ALKALINE TANK WASTE BY SEPARATION AND RECYCLE OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM NITRATE  

Science.gov (United States)

This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk redu...

112

Use of sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of calciphylaxis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calciphylaxis is an infrequent but severe entity found in chronic dialysis patients. Its clinical pattern consists of tissue ischemia with itchy and painful subcutaneous nodules and plaques, most often located on the abdomen, buttocks, thighs and/or legs. These injuries evolve to extensive superficial necrosis of the skin overlying the panniculitis, with ulceration, overinfection and consequent sepsis. Current treatment modalities used to counteract this pathology are not entirely effective. A new treatment reported for calciphylaxis, is the use of intravenous sodium thiosulfate. This inorganic salt is already used in the treatment of intoxication caused by cyanide, in patients with calcific nephrolithiasis and tumoral calcinosis, with very good and safe results. We herewith report a case of calciphylaxis that was cured using intravenous sodium thiosulphate treatment.

Musso Carlos

2009-01-01

113

Improvement to a production process of rare earth hydroxide by treatment of ores containing rare earth phosphates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ore is treated by an aqueous solution of alkaline metal hydroxide and solid rare earth hydroxides are separated. For recycling the alkaline hydroxide after concentration the alkaline metal phosphate is crystallized and then alkaline earth metal hydroxide is added to avoid silicates concentration in the recycled solution

1985-11-08

114

Utilization of Soda Ash in Pulping and Bleaching Operation as a Substitution or Partial Replacement of Sodium Hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soda ash or sodium carbonate is by nature a weak baseand hence lower in alkalinity. The agro based pulp and paper millwith unconventional chemical recovery process end up withproduction of soda ash or sodium carbonate. The soda ash thusproduced is of low quality and sold to soap manufacturing units.The pulping and bleaching process requires at some stage lowalkalinity where pH is normally in the range of 9.5-11. The lowalkalinity may help in utilization of soda ash in pulping andbleaching process itself.In the present study the pulping and bleaching processes whereutilization of soda ash can be explored is described for wood(eucalyptus and agrobased (wheat straw raw materials.. Thestudies on wheat straw incorporated chemical and semi chemicalpulping of wheat straw, production of newsprint grade pulp fromeucalyptus & wheat straw and exploration of utilization of sodaash in other bleaching processes. It has been observed that causticsoda can be replaced with soda ash at different proportiondepending upon the process and type of pulp produced.

Priti Shivhare.Lal

2013-07-01

115

Hydroxide complexes of lanthanides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the precipitation borderline in the pM'-pCsub(H) diagram, determined experimentally under CO"2-free conditions, stability constants for the mononuclear species of erbium hydroxide have been established. The values found were log *?"1 = -6.3, log *?"2 =-14.5, log *?"3 = -23.1, log *?"4 = -36.8 and log *Ksub(s0) = 18.0. The data refer to precipitates prepared at room temperature (21.5 +- 0.5 deg) in sodium perchlorate medium with an ionic strength of 1. The formation of polynuclear hydroxide complexes has been considered and rejected as unlikely to occur. (author)

1983-01-01

116

Computational NMR, IR/RAMAN calculations in sodium pravastatin: Investigation of the Self-Assembled Nanostructure of Pravastatin-LDH (Layered Double Hydroxides) Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Layered double hydroxides (LDH) can be used as nanocontainers for immobilization of Pravastatin, in order to obtain suitable drug carriers. The material's structure and spectroscopic properties were analyzed by NMR, IR/RAMAN and supported by theoretical calculations. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed using the Gaussian03 package [1]. The geometry optimizations were performed considering the single crystal X-ray diffraction data of tert-octylamonium salt of Pravastatin [2]. Tetramethylsilane (TMS), obtained with the same basis set, was used as reference for calculating the chemical shift of 13C. A scaling factor was used to compare theoretical and experimental harmonic vibrational frequencies. Through the NMR and IR/RAMAN spectra, we were able to make precise assignments of the NMR and IR/RAMAN of Sodium Pravastatin. [4pt] [1] Frisch, M.J. et al. Gaussian 03, Revision A.1, Gaussian Inc., Pittsburgh, PA,(2003). [0pt] [2] Sato, S.; Furukawa, Y. J. Antibiot. 41, 1265-1267 (1988).

Petersen, Philippe; Cunha, Vanessa; Gonçalves, Marcos; Petrilli, Helena; Constantino, Vera

2013-03-01

117

Ionic association of hydroperoxide anion HO2- in the binding mean spherical approximation. Spectroscopic study of hydrogen peroxide in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy of hydrogen peroxide in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions was studied. The peroxide band in the UV range shifts from approximately 214 nm to approximately 236 nm as the NaOH concentration increases from 0.338 mol dm-3 to 13.1 mol dm-3. The band originates from an intramolecular electronic transition of the hydroperoxide anion HO2-, as indicated by the negligible temperature effect on the band position and confirmed by ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. It is postulated that the bathochromic shift of the peroxide band that accompanies the increase in NaOH concentration originates from the formation of the ion pair (Na+HO2-). The equilibrium constant for the ion association reaction (0.048 mol-1 dm3) and the characteristics of the individual absorption bands of the hydroperoxide anion and its associate with Na+ were determined from the numerical modeling of the absorbance data, using the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA). PMID:17181346

Chlistunoff, Jerzy; Simonin, Jean-Pierre

2006-12-28

118

Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions

2000-01-01

119

Nonsurgical treatment of periapical lesion associated with type III dens invaginatus using calcium hydroxide: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth, probably resulting from an infolding of the papilla during tooth development. It predisposes the tooth to develop caries and periapical pathosis. Root canal therapy may present many problems because of the complex anatomy of the teeth. The purpose of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of an Oehlers type III dens invaginatus that perforated into the apical area. Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with normal saline, was used as an intracanal medicament. This eradicated the pathogenic microorganisms in the invagination and preserved the vitality of the tooth, allowing gutta-percha obturation in the invagination.

Kalaskar R

2008-10-01

120

Carbon-13 isotope fractionation and carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of perdeuterated sodium butyrate with manganate in 3M sodium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon -13 kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of single methylene 13C-2H bond of perdeuterated sodium butyrate, CD3(CD2)COONa, has been determined by measuring the isotope composition of cumulative carbon dioxide derived from carbonates and oxalates obtained at partial oxidation's od perdeuterated butyrate with manganate, MnO42-, in 3M NaOH. The experimental 13C KI E have been reproduced by applying two quantum mechanical correlations to the absolute rates of chemical reaction; the first correction caused by the difference of zero point energy of (13C-2H/12C-2H) isotopic bonds and the quantum mechanical correlation for tunneling of 12C and 13C. The reaction energy barrier was approximated by the Bell inverted parabola. The good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was achieved already in the first approximation by taking the half width of the energy barrier equal 5x10-11 m. (author)

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of chemomechanical preparation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide on cultivable bacteria in infected root canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This clinical study was conducted to assess the bacterial reduction after chemomechanical preparation with 2.5% NaOCl as an irrigant and the additive antibacterial effect of intracanal dressing with calcium hydroxide. According to stringent inclusion criteria, 11 teeth with primary intraradicular infections and chronic apical periodontitis were selected and monitored in the study. Bacterial samples were taken at the baseline (before treatment) (S1), after chemomechanical preparation with 2.5% NaOCl as an irrigant (S2), and after a 7-day dressing with a calcium hydroxide paste in glycerin (S3). Cultivable bacteria recovered from infected root canals at the 3 stages were counted and identified by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. At S1, all canals were positive for bacteria, with the mean number of 2.8 taxa per canal (range, 1-6). At S2, 5 cases (45.5%) still harbored cultivable bacteria, with 1 or 2 species per canal. At S3, bacteria were cultured from 2 cases (18.2%), with 1 species per positive case. There was no indication that any specific bacterial taxon was more resistant to treatment. A significant reduction in bacterial counts was observed between S1 and S2, and S1 and S3. However, no statistically significant difference was observed for comparisons involving S2 and S3 samples with regard to the number of cases yielding negative cultures (P = .18) or quantitative bacterial reduction (P = .19). It was concluded that the whole antibacterial protocol used in this study significantly reduced the number of bacteria in the canal and rendered most canals free of cultivable bacteria. PMID:17804315

Siqueira, José F; Guimarães-Pinto, Tatiana; Rôças, Isabela N

2007-07-01

122

Solvent Extraction of Sodium Hydroxide Using Alkylphenols and Fluorinated Alcohols: Understanding the Extraction Mechanism by Equilibrium Modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present work, it has been the aim to examine extraction efficiencies of nine proton-ionizable alcohols (HAs) in 1-octanol and to identify both the controlling equilibria and predominant species involved in the extraction process within a thermochemical model. Distribution ratios for sodium (DNa) extraction were measured as a function of organic-phase HA and aqueous-phase NaOH molarity at 25 °C. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the HAs, 4-(tert-octyl) phenol (HA 1a) and 4-noctyl- a,a-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (HA 2a) being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. By use of the equilibrium-modeling program SXLSQI, a model for the extraction of NaOH has been advanced based on an ion-pair extraction by the diluent to give organic-phase Na+OH- and corresponding free ions and cation exchange by the weak acids to form monomeric organic-phase Na+A- and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

Kang, Hyun-Ah; Engle, Nancy L.; Bonnesen Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

2004-03-29

123

Sodium hyaluronate eyedrops in the treatment of dry eyes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND--Several studies in the past have attempted to demonstrate the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eyes. However, results have been conflicting and a definite conclusion has not yet been reached. This study recruited a larger group of patients and has incorporated for the first time both fluorescein and rose bengal staining in the evaluation of the epithelium. METHODS--Eighteen albino rabbit corneas were used in a basic animal study to demonstrate the efficacy of...

1995-01-01

124

[Monitoring sodium valproate treatment of epilepsy in the development years].  

Science.gov (United States)

The levels of sodium valproate were determined in the blood and saliva of children treated for epilepsy. The determination of drug in saliva may be a simple test checking whether the patient is taking the drugs systematically, and makes possible determination of the approximate level in the serum without blood sampling. In doubtful cases poorly responding to treatment serial monitoring of valproic acid should be undertaken. PMID:3112594

Sobaniec, W; Wro?ski, B; Czerwi?ska-Ciechan, K; Szczepaniak, L

1987-01-01

125

Treatment of experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis by sodium alginate.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the therapeutic efficacy of the sodium alginate in experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nephritis was induced in rats by a subcutaneous immunization and daily intravenous administration of BSA. Sodium alginate at two different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally at regular 72-h intervals for 6 weeks. Onset of treatment was day 42. Urinary protein was measured weekly and serum anti-BSA antibody was assessed by ELISA method at different intervals. Animals were euthanized at the 12th experimental week and blood samples and kidney specimens were obtained. BUN, serum creatinine and serum cholesterol and triglyceride were measured at the time of sacrifice. Kidney specimens were processed for light and immunofluorescent microscopic examination. The tolerability and inhibitory effect of LVA on matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) were tested using WEHI-164 cell line and zymography method. Results of this experiment showed that treatment with sodium alginate could significantly reduce the urinary protein excretion and serum creatinine in treated rats vs. nontreated controls. Anti-BSA antibody titers were lower in treated rats than in controls at the 12th week post-immunization. There was no significant difference in the level of BUN and serum lipids between two groups. Whereas, glomerular hypercellularity, PMN infiltration and glomerular deposition of BSA were less intense in treated rats vs. controls. Moreover, in vitro examinations revealed that treatment with LVA, as a very safe agent could diminish MMP-2 activity. These results suggest that treatment with sodium alginate as a new immunosuppressive agent can reduce proteinuria, inhibit MMP-2 activity and suppress the antibody production as well as the development of glomerular lesions in a rat model of immune complex glomerulonephritis. PMID:15893960

Mirshafiey, Abbas; Borzooy, Zohreh; Abhari, Reza Safari; Razavi, Alireza; Tavangar, Mohammad; Rehm, Bernd H A

2005-06-01

126

Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

2013-05-21

127

Nickel-cobalt alloy nanosheets obtained from reductive hydrothermal-treatment of nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An anionic layered material, nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor produced an alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloy is a bimetallic nanostructured nickel-cobalt and a soft magnet material. -- Abstract: Nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate, a layered material was synthesized by the co-precipitation method using urea as precipitant agent. This anionic layered material with hexagonal structure is constructed from nickel and cobalt ions within the layers and carbonate anions between the layers. Nickel-cobalt alloy with pure cubic phase was obtained by a reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the initial layered material and its metallic alloy product. That is, the nickel-cobalt alloy has really produced via a wet chemical route for the first time. Magnetic measurement revealed that the alloy sample is a soft magnet material.

Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh, E-mail: yeganehghotbi@gmail.com [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Program, Ceramic Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jolagah, Ali; Afrasiabi, Hasan-ali [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Program, Ceramic Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-03-15

128

Intracanal dressing paste composed by calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide for the treatment of immature and mature traumatized teeth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM : To evaluate clinical and radiographic aspects before and after endodontic treatment with an intracanal dressing paste composed of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide in traumatized teeth followed-up for 1 year. METHODS : Patients (n=105) treated at the Dental Trauma Service of [...] Piracicaba School of Dentistry, Brazil were enrolled in the study. Two groups of teeth were formed: immature (G1) (n=28) and completely developed teeth (G2) (n=174). All teeth were endodontically treated and received an intracanal dressing with a paste composed by calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel and zinc oxide at a 2:1:2 rate. Clinical and radiographic aspects were evaluated initially, monthly and after 1-year. RESULTS : Most of the immature teeth suffered extrusive luxation (39.3%), whereas intrusive luxation (40.8%) was more common in completely developed teeth. There was a significant reduction in pain on percussion and mobility (p=0.0001) for immature teeth. Mature teeth showed reduction of spontaneous pain, fistula, mobility and pain on percussion (p

Adriana de Jesus, Soares; Thiago Farias Rocha, Lima; Juliana Yuri, Nagata; Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida, Gomes; Alexandre Augusto, Zaia; Francisco José de, Souza-Filho.

129

Surface treatment of magnesium hydroxide to improve its dispersion in organic phase by the ultrasonic technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Micron magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH){sub 2}] was modified by means of ultrasonic method with stearic acid (SA) as modifier in water. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and element analysis showed all SA was bonded upon the surface of the Mg(OH){sub 2} forming a coating layer and no free SA was detected after the modifying process. The thickness of coating SA on the Mg(OH){sub 2} was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compared with the unmodified Mg(OH){sub 2}, the modified Mg(OH){sub 2} had better dispersion property in xylene, slower sedimentation velocity of dilute suspension in xylene and lower viscosity of suspension in paraffin liquid. The results showed that the modified Mg(OH){sub 2} could be dispersed much better than the unmodified Mg(OH){sub 2} in organic phase.

Zhang Fangzhi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Hong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Su Zhixing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)]. E-mail: suzx@lzu.edu.cn

2007-07-15

130

Surface treatment of magnesium hydroxide to improve its dispersion in organic phase by the ultrasonic technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Micron magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] was modified by means of ultrasonic method with stearic acid (SA) as modifier in water. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and element analysis showed all SA was bonded upon the surface of the Mg(OH)2 forming a coating layer and no free SA was detected after the modifying process. The thickness of coating SA on the Mg(OH)2 was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compared with the unmodified Mg(OH)2, the modified Mg(OH)2 had better dispersion property in xylene, slower sedimentation velocity of dilute suspension in xylene and lower viscosity of suspension in paraffin liquid. The results showed that the modified Mg(OH)2 could be dispersed much better than the unmodified Mg(OH)2 in organic phase

2007-07-15

131

Surface treatment of magnesium hydroxide to improve its dispersion in organic phase by the ultrasonic technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Micron magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH) 2] was modified by means of ultrasonic method with stearic acid (SA) as modifier in water. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and element analysis showed all SA was bonded upon the surface of the Mg(OH) 2 forming a coating layer and no free SA was detected after the modifying process. The thickness of coating SA on the Mg(OH) 2 was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compared with the unmodified Mg(OH) 2, the modified Mg(OH) 2 had better dispersion property in xylene, slower sedimentation velocity of dilute suspension in xylene and lower viscosity of suspension in paraffin liquid. The results showed that the modified Mg(OH) 2 could be dispersed much better than the unmodified Mg(OH) 2 in organic phase.

Zhang, Fangzhi; Zhang, Hong; Su, Zhixing

2007-07-01

132

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

2004-07-01

133

Environment-assisted cracking of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel in fused sodium hydroxide at 623 K, 1 atm-I. Electrochemistry in relation to stress corrosion cracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemistry of fused sodium hydroxide has been reviewed, demonstrating the importance of its acid-base properties. The latter are reflected in the electrochemistry of iron which forms relatively insoluble oxide and ferrate in acidic conditions, but highly soluble ferrate in basic conditions. 21/4Cr-1Mo steel was shown to behave similarly to iron, passivating only in acidic melts. Major shifts were observed in the free-corrosion potential, brought about by changes in the water and/or oxygen concentrations in the melt, which are of likely significance to the stress corrosion behaviour of the material. (author)

1986-01-01

134

Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

2004-05-01

135

Hydroxide complexes of lanthanides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the precipitation borderline in the pLa'-pCsub(H) diagram the stability constants for (mononuclear) lanthanum-hydroxide species have been established. The presence of polynuclear species could not be demonstrated and seems unlikely. The values found were log *?1 =-8.6, log *?2 = - 17.9, log *?3 = -27.3 and log *Ksub(sO) 22.8. The data refer to precipitates prepared under CO2-free conditions at room temperature (21.5 + - 0.50) in sodium perchlorate medium with an ionic strength of 1. (author)

1987-01-01

136

Effect of hydrothermal treatment on properties of Ni-Al layered double hydroxides and related mixed oxides  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ni-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Ni/Al molar ratio of 2, 3, and 4 were prepared by coprecipitation and treated under hydrothermal conditions at 180 °C for times up to 20 h. Thermal decomposition of the prepared samples was studied using thermal analysis and high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal treatment increased significantly the crystallite size of coprecipitated samples. The characteristic LDH diffraction lines disappeared completely at ca. 350 °C and a gradual crystallization of NiO-like mixed oxide was observed at higher temperatures. Hydrothermal treatment improved thermal stability of the Ni2Al and Ni3Al LDHs but only a slight effect of hydrothermal treatment was observed with the Ni4Al sample. The Rietveld refinement of powder XRD patterns of calcination products obtained at 450 °C showed a formation of Al-containing NiO-like oxide and a presence of a considerable amount of Al-rich amorphous component. Hydrothermal aging of the LDHs resulted in decreasing content of the amorphous component and enhanced substitution of Al cations into NiO-like structure. The hydrothermally treated samples also exhibited a worse reducibility of Ni 2+ components. The NiAl 2O 4 spinel and NiO still containing a marked part of Al in the cationic sublattice were detected in the samples calcined at 900 °C. The Ni2Al LDHs hydrothermally treated for various times and related mixed oxides obtained at 450 °C showed an increase in pore size with increasing time of hydrothermal aging. The hydrothermal treatment of LDH precursor considerably improved the catalytic activity of Ni2Al mixed oxides in N 2O decomposition, which can be explained by suppressing internal diffusion effect in catalysts grains.

Kovanda, František; Rojka, Tomáš; Bezdi?ka, Petr; Jirátová, Kv?ta; Obalová, Lucie; Pacultová, Kate?ina; Bastl, Zden?k; Grygar, Tomáš

2009-01-01

137

Comparison of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya.  

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OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). METHODS: A total of 102 patients with confirmed kala-azar were treated in a mission hospital in West Pokot region, Kenya, with sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days)--either as Pentostam (PSM) or generic sodium stibogluconate (SSG); 51 patients were allocated alternately to each treatment group. FINDINGS: There were no significant differences in bas...

Moore Elinore; Flaherty Deidre, O.; Heuvelmans Hans; Seaman Jill; Veeken Hans; Wit Sjoukje de; Davidson Robert N.

2001-01-01

138

Evaluation of a consolidation treatment in dolostones by mean of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in high relative humidity conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article, the results of a treatment applied to dolomitic stones using an isopropyl colloidal solution based on calcium hydroxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 2.0g/l are presented. The consolidation process in the stone has been checked before and after 28 days of exposure to 75% relative humidity. Morphologic and structural studies of the consolidating product confirmed the carbonation process. X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (TEM and ESEM), and electron diffraction carried out on the consolidating product have confirmed the transformation of portlandite phase to calcium carbonate polymorph, calcite, aragonite and vaterite. Petrophysical tests performed on the stone before and after the application of the product have shown the improvement in the physical and hydrical properties due to the increase in the ultrasound velocity and density of the material, and a decrease in the capillarity coefficient and open porosity without significant changes in colour and brightness. The application of the consolidating product in the proposed experimental conditions is a natural method, compatible with the petrological characteristics of the substrate, without secondary damages on the stone, being an effective method to improve the durability of carbonate stones. (Author) 26 refs.

2011-01-01

139

Treatments of Can Lignite with Some Mineral Acids after Sodyum Hydroxide Washing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fossil properties can be increased via enrichment process. It is the process that removes sulfur and mineral matter without changing the organic structure. In this study, can lignite was demineralized with some mineral free acid of 5% such as HCOOH and some mineral acids of 5% such as HNO3, H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4 and HF after 5% NaOH washing. The best sulfur and mineral matter performed were obtained with NaOH plus HF treatment as approximately 44% and 45%, respectively. FTIR and X ray spectra of the samples were also drawn to determine the functional groups and mineral composition.

Jale Gulen

2011-08-01

140

An open, nonrandomized, comparative study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are numerous therapeutic modalities available for treatment of molluscum contagiosum. However, the ablative modalities are painful and not suitable for children. Aim: We aimed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of 2 of the painless modalities, viz., 5% imiquimod cream and 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH solution, in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Methods: Out of a total of 40 patients of molluscum contagiosum in the study, 18 patients in the imiquimod group and 19 patients in the KOH group completed the study. The given medication was applied by the patient or a parent to mollusca at night, 3 days per week. Imiquimod was continued till clinical cure; and 10% KOH, till lesions showed signs of inflammation. Assessments of response and side effects were performed at the end of week 4, week 8, and week 12. Significance was tested by Student?s t test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: The mean lesion count decreased from 22.39 to 10.75 with imiquimod and from 20.79 to 4.31 with KOH at the end of 12 weeks. We found complete clearance of lesions in 8 (44% patients with imiquimod and in 8 (42.1% patients with 10% KOH. Minor side effects were seen in 15 (78.9% patients on KOH and 10 (55.5% patients on imiquimod. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that both 5% imiquimod cream and 10% KOH solution are equally effective in molluscum contagiosum though KOH has a faster onset of action. However, KOH solution is associated with a higher incidence of side effects.

Metkar Amol

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of hydrothermal treatment on properties of Ni-Al layered double hydroxides and related mixed oxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ni-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Ni/Al molar ratio of 2, 3, and 4 were prepared by coprecipitation and treated under hydrothermal conditions at 180 deg. C for times up to 20 h. Thermal decomposition of the prepared samples was studied using thermal analysis and high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal treatment increased significantly the crystallite size of coprecipitated samples. The characteristic LDH diffraction lines disappeared completely at ca. 350 deg. C and a gradual crystallization of NiO-like mixed oxide was observed at higher temperatures. Hydrothermal treatment improved thermal stability of the Ni2Al and Ni3Al LDHs but only a slight effect of hydrothermal treatment was observed with the Ni4Al sample. The Rietveld refinement of powder XRD patterns of calcination products obtained at 450 deg. C showed a formation of Al-containing NiO-like oxide and a presence of a considerable amount of Al-rich amorphous component. Hydrothermal aging of the LDHs resulted in decreasing content of the amorphous component and enhanced substitution of Al cations into NiO-like structure. The hydrothermally treated samples also exhibited a worse reducibility of Ni2+ components. The NiAl2O4 spinel and NiO still containing a marked part of Al in the cationic sublattice were detected in the samples calcined at 900 deg. C. The Ni2Al LDHs hydrothermally treated for various times and related mixed oxides obtained at 450 deg. C showed an increase in pore size with increasing time of hydrothermal aging. The hydrothermal treatment of LDH precursor considerably improved the catalytic activity of Ni2Al mixed oxides in N2O decomposition, which can be explained by suppressing internal diffusion effect in catalysts grains. - Graphical Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment of Ni-Al LDH precursors influenced the porous structure of related mixed oxides and considerably improved their catalytic activity in N2O decomposition; the higher catalytic activity of hydrothermally treated samples can be explained by suppressing internal diffusion effect in catalysts grains

2009-01-01

142

Successful treatment by exchange transfusion of a young infant with sodium nitroprusside poisoning  

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Although sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is often used in pediatric intensive care units, cyanide toxicity can occur after SNP treatment. To treat SNP-induced cyanide poisoning, antidotes such as amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, and hydroxycobalamin should be administered immediately after diagnosis. Here, we report the first case of a very young infant whose SNP-induced cyanide poisoning was successfully treated by exchange transfusion. The success of this alternative method may ...

Baek, Jong Geun; Jeong, Hoar Lim; Park, Ji Sook; Seo, Ji Hyun; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae Young; Park, Chan Hoo; Woo, Hyang Ok; Youn, Hee Shang; Yeom, Jung Sook

2010-01-01

143

Treatment of high fluoride concentration water by MgAl-CO3 layered double hydroxides: kinetic and equilibrium studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

MgAl-CO(3) layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been employed to treat high fluoride concentration solution. The influences of solution pH, initial fluoride concentration and other anions in the solution were investigated by a series of batch experiments. A marked decrease in the amount of adsorbed fluoride by LDHs is observed with increasing pH. The extent of fluoride removal in the presence of other anions decreases in the order HCO(3)(-)>Cl(-)>H(2)PO(4)(-)>SO(4)(2-). The equilibrium isotherm for fluoride uptake corresponds closely to the Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F) model. The maximum capacity of LDHs for fluoride ions and the Gibbs free energy (DeltaG(0)) for the defluoridation process were calculated to be 319.8+/-5.7mg/g and -9.0+/-0.66kJ/mol, respectively. The negative value of DeltaG(0) indicates the spontaneous nature of the treatment process. Four kinetic models have been evaluated in order to attempt to fit the experimental data, namely the pseudo-first order, the pseudo-second order, the modified multiplex and the double exponential models. It was found that the modified multiplex model, involving a rapid first order step and a slow second order step most closely described the kinetics. The activation energies for the two steps are 37.2+/-5.26 and 72.6+/-4.52kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that the rapid step is controlled by diffusion processes, whilst the second step is controlled by the reaction of fluoride with the LDHs. PMID:17316743

Lv, Liang; He, Jing; Wei, Min; Evans, D G; Zhou, Zhaoliang

2007-04-01

144

Method of Administering Suramin Sodium in the Treatment of Cancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention provides a method of administering the generally large quantities of suramin sodium previously reported as needed to treat adrenocortical cancer in a patient, without producing high serum level concentrations of suramin, inasmuch as high ser...

C. A. Stein R. V. LaRocca C. E. Myers

1989-01-01

145

Thermal-radiation treatment of sodium-boron-silica glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Na2O ·19B2O3 ·30SiO2 glass was studied after 60Co ?-irradiation to the dose of 5· 104 Gy at the ambient 25oC and elevated temperatures 100-500oC with the step of 50oC. Upon each step of the treatment the optical absorption spectra were taken at the room temperature in the range of 200† 1200 nm with spectrometer Lambda-35 (Perkin Elmer). Non-irradiated samples did not have any absorption bands in the wave-length interval from 250 to 1200 nm. The spectra of the sample irradiated at 25oC contained the bands at 305 and 480 nm caused by E'(B) and =B-O* centers respectively. The irradiation temperature increase effects on the centers concentrations: at 100o C the number of E'(B) centers increases with its peak at 305 nm moving towards the short wave length side, and the number of =B-O* centers almost doesn't change, at 150oC the both centers amount decrease significantly. At 200oC the number of E'(B) centers grows much as compared with that at 150oC. At higher temperatures from 250 to 400oC the intensities of the number of both centers decreases monotonously. At 350oC a new weak absorption band appears near 600 nm, which relates to [BO4] centers, while the band at 480 nm (=B-O* centers) disappears. All the gamma-induced centers anneal at 450oC. The mechanism is suggested for the observed thermal-radiation induced transformations of optical centers in the sodium-boron silica glasses: the new [BO4] centers are formed from two =B-O* centers at 350oC. The work was done by the CST RUz grant F2.1.17

2004-10-01

146

Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance. PMID:22456234

Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

2012-06-01

147

Complex formation of beryllium(II) with salicylate and hydroxide ions in 1 mol dm"-"3 sodium perchlorate aqueous solution at 25"0C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The complex formation of Be"2"+ with salicylate (L"2"-) and hydroxide ions was investigated at 25 "0C in 1 mol dm"-"3 NaClO_4 by potentiometry using a glass electrode. E.m.f. measurements were performed. The e.m.f. data were explained with the three major species [Be(HL)L]"-, [BeL], and [BeL_2]"2"- and at least one or even all of the four minor species [Be(HL)]"+, [Be(HL)_2], [Be(OH)L]"-, and [Be_3(OH)_3L_3]"3"-. The hydrolytic reactions of Be"1"1 in 1 mol dm"-"3 NaClO_4, data on which were used for the analysis of the above beryllium(ii)-salicylate-hydroxide system, were also studied by separate potentiometric titrations. It was found that [Be_2(OH)]"3"+, [Be_3(OH)_3]"3"+, and [Be_6(OH)_8]"4"+ occur in 1 mol dm"-"3 NaClO_4 aqueous solution. (author)

1987-01-01

148

Evaluation of Sodium Stibogluconate (Pentostam) and Ketoconazole in the Treatment of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Guatemalans with parasitologically proven cutaneous leishmaniasis were randomly and equally divided into 3 treatment groups: those receiving sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), 20 mg antimony/kg/day iv for 20 days; those receiving ketoconazole (600 mg/day ...

T. R. Navin

1990-01-01

149

Products of thermal destruction of brown coal modified with calcium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pyrolytic mass spectrometry was used for studying the effect of preliminary chemical and thermal treatment on the yield and composition of products of the pyrolysis of brown coal. Modification of Irsha-Borodinsk brown coal with calcium hydroxide is described. The effects of the modification on the solubility of the products of thermal destruction in solutions of sodium hydroxide, benzene and benzene alcohol are studied. Mass spectrometry of the products of pyrolysis of brown coal showed that modification of the coal by calcium hydroxide reduced the strength of the bonds between the structural fragments and decreased the temperature of intensive separation of products in the vapor phase. After demineralization of the products, an increase in the yield of volatiles is observed. It was also demonstrated that yield and composition of pyrolysis products are effected by method of preliminary treatment and process temperature. (7 refs.)

Gankina, L.V.; Tishkova, O.P.; Zvegil' skii, D.S.; Sukhov, V.A.; Bychev, M.I.; Lukovnikov, A.F.

1981-05-01

150

Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug products containing iron oxide and hydroxide nanoparticles (INPs) are important for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Pharmaceuticals prepared by the complexation of different kinds of INPs and carbohydrates have different physicochemical and biopharmaceutic characteristics. The increasing number of parenteral non-biological complex drugs (NBCD) containing iron requires physicochemical methods for characterization and enabling of cross comparisons. In this context the structure and the level of crystallinity of the iron phases may be connected to the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates, which etiologically determine the therapeutic and toxic effects. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and electron diffraction (ED) methods were used in order to investigate the nine different parenteral iron formulations Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)), sodium ferric gluconate sucrose (Ferrlecit(®)), iron sucrose (Venofer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (Infed(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Ironate(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Dexferrum(®)), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®)) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(®)). The iron phase in CosmoFer(®), Ferinject(®), Monofer(®), Infed(®), Ironate(®) and Dexferrum(®) was identified as Akaganéite/Akaganéite-like (?-FeOOH), with low amounts of chloride. By combining results of both methods the iron oxide in Feraheme(®) was identified as Magnetite (Fe3O4) with spinel-like structure. Ferrlecit(®) and Venofer(®) were difficult to analyze due to the low degree of crystallinity, but the iron phase seems to fit Lepidocrocite/Lepidocrocite-like (?-FeOOH) or an amorphous kind of structure. The structural information on the type of iron oxide or hydroxide together with the particle size allows predicting the stability of the different complexes including their labile iron content. The combination of ED and XRPD methods is a very helpful approach especially for structural analysis of nanoscopic or low crystalline materials. PMID:23998966

Fütterer, S; Andrusenko, I; Kolb, U; Hofmeister, W; Langguth, P

2013-12-01

151

Treatment of post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation hemorrhagic cystitis with intravesicular sodium hyaluronate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a well-known complication of HSCT. Its overall incidence has been reported to vary from 7-68%. The spectrum of clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic microhematuria to life-threatening bleeding. Sodium hyaluronate is a glycosaminoglycan present on the bladder mucosa, which serves as an important protective substance against uroepithelial damage. Preparations of this component have been shown to be effective in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. We report our experience in the treatment of post-transplant HC with intravesical instillation of sodium hyaluronate. Five out of the seven patients included in this study achieved complete response, while one patient had only partial response. Sodium hyaluronate administration was not associated with any local or systemic adverse effects. We consider that the results of our study are promising and the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of post-transplant HC should be tested in larger cohorts of patients. PMID:16921402

Miodosky, M; Abdul-Hai, A; Tsirigotis, P; Or, R; Bitan, M; Resnick, I B; Gesundheit, B; Zilberman, I; Ioffe, L; Leubovic, A; Slavin, S; Shapira, M Y

2006-10-01

152

Radiation centers in alkaline-earth hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the EPR and optical spectroscopy methods the nature, kinetics of accumulation and annealing of radiation defects in ?-irradiated polycrystal samples of Mg and CA hydroxides depending on temperature treatment are studied. In ?-irradiated at 77 K magnesium and calcium hydroxides o"- ion-radicals, srface Fsub(s)-centers and stabilized hydrogen atoms are found. On the basis of studying accumulation kinetics of radiation defects the conclusion can be drawn on radiation instability of alkaline-larth metal hydroxides

1986-05-01

153

Constant pH precipitation of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant: I. Effect of precipitation conditions. II. Effect of hydrothermal treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aluminum-containing adjuvants are the only adjuvant approved by Food and Drug Administration for use in human vaccines, due to their long history of safe use and low cost. However, aluminum-containing adjuvants have been reported to be difficult to manufacture reproducibly because of the difficulty of achieving batch uniformity, in terms of pH and salt concentration, during precipitation process. The goal of this study was to produce aluminum hydroxide adjuvant with prolonged stability and co...

2002-01-01

154

32P-sodium phosphate treatment of metastatic malignant disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-four patients with cancer of the breast and 12 with cancer of the prostate were treated with testosterone and 32P-sodium phosphate for relief of pain from bony metastases. Thirty received chemotherapy as well, and 34 received external radiation to single ports for localized pain. Of the 46 patients, 34 had good results, 6 fair, and 6 were failures. Ten patients needed transfusion for marrow depression; no other side effect was observed

1979-01-01

155

Changes in Sodium-lithium Countertransport Activity Following Aluminium Treatment  

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The relationship between aluminium and rabbit erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport (SLC) activity has been investigated in vivo and in vitro. Male rabbits (1350±50 g) were used for the experiments. In vivo studies were performed by intrapritoneally injection of aluminium chloride (ALCL3.6H2O) every other day for 2 weeks (25 mg kg-1 body weight as acute dose) and for 7 weeks (12.5 mg kg-1 as chronic dose) and then the act...

Mohsen Ani; Ali Asghar Moshtaghie; Samad Akbarzadeh

2006-01-01

156

Changes in Sodium-lithium Countertransport Activity Following Aluminium Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between aluminium and rabbit erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport (SLC activity has been investigated in vivo and in vitro. Male rabbits (1350±50 g were used for the experiments. In vivo studies were performed by intrapritoneally injection of aluminium chloride (ALCL3.6H2O every other day for 2 weeks (25 mg kg-1 body weight as acute dose and for 7 weeks (12.5 mg kg-1 as chronic dose and then the activity of SLC was evaluated. It was shown that aluminium increased maximal efflux rate, Vmax/Km, Vmax and decreased Km of the transporter leading to increasing of the activity when compared with control group. The effects of incubation times (30, 60 and 90 min, different sodium concentrations (0 upto 150 mM and different aluminium concentrations (2.5 upto 200 ?M on SLC activity were studied in vitro which indicated a positive relationship between the activation of erythrocyte SLC and incubation time, sodium and aluminium concentrations (p<0.05. These observations suggest that abnormalities in SLC activity may be a causal factor in the pathogenesis of aluminium-induced hypertension.

Mohsen Ani

2006-01-01

157

A double blind placebo controlled group comparative study of ophthalmic sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a 4 week double masked comparative study, patients received 2% nedocromil sodium (48), 2% sodium cromoglycate (48), or placebo eye drops (42), four times daily, for the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Clinical examinations of eye condition and symptom severity were made before and after a 1 week baseline before starting test treatment, and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment. Patients kept daily diary card records of symptom severity and concomitant therapy. At the clinic,...

El Hennawi, M.

1994-01-01

158

Another Base, Another Solvent? Desalinating Iron Finds with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solution  

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The desalination processes commonly applied to improve the corrosion stability of archaeological iron artifacts are based on immersion treatments in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Faster and more efficient chloride extraction in solutions based on organic solvents with a lower surface tension can be expected. Furthermore, the danger of new corrosion forming during the subsequent washing out of residual chemicals from the desalinating solution could be minimised, if organic solvents wo...

2011-01-01

159

Novel Sodium Hypochlorite Cleanser Shows Clinical Response and Excellent Acceptability in the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis  

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The intermittent use of dilute sodium hypochlorite “bleach baths” has shown efficacy as adjunctive therapy for atopic dermatitis (AD). This feasibility study evaluated the clinical response and patient acceptability of treatment with a cleansing body wash containing sodium hypochlorite in children with AD. This was a 12-week open-label feasibility study of 18 children with AD conducted in a pediatric dermatology outpatient clinic between May 2011 and July 2012. Children with moderate to s...

Ryan, Caitriona; Shaw, Richard E.; Cockerell, Clay J.; Hand, Shari; Ghali, Fred E.

2013-01-01

160

Sodium Hyaluronate Injections Compared to Local Modalities for the Treatment of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To determine and compare the efficacies of sodium hyaluronate injections and local modalities in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.Materials and Methods: Patients (n=50) were treated with subacromial injections of sodium hyaluronate (n=25) once weekly for 3 weeks or a daily program of local modalities (n=25) for 2 weeks. Response to treatment was evaluated with the items of function in the Society of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Basic Shoulder Evaluation Form and ...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Effectiveness of Intraarticular Sodium Hyaluronate in Synchronous Treatment of Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis  

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Objective: We aimed to evaluate results of synchronous intraarticular sodium hyaluronate therapy in patients who have both hip and knee osteoarthritis.Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients (18 women, 7 men) with hip and knee osteoarthritis constituted the study group and 14 patients (9 women, 5 men) constituted the control group. In the treatment protocol, 2 ampules of sodium hyaluronate were injected into the hip joint using fluoroscopy guide in the operating room. After two weeks, the...

2008-01-01

162

The Use of Sodium Sulfacetamide 10%-Sulfur 5% Emollient Foam in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder encountered in ambulatory clinical practice comprising 11.3 percent of office visits to dermatologists in 2005.1 By comparison, eczematous dermatoses, psoriasis, and skin cancer accounted for 6.2, 3.5, and 10 percent of office visits, respectively.1 A variety of topical therapeutic options are available for treatment of acne vulgaris, including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur.2,3 Sodium sulfaceta...

Del Rosso, James Q.

2009-01-01

163

Application of electrodialysis to waste minimization: Simplified spent chloride salt treatment and reagent recycle flow sheet -- demonstrated controlled precipitation of Nd(III) and Fe(II) as hydroxides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrodialysis is a widely used industrial technique for the removal of salts from aqueous solution. The process involves the conversion of salts into their corresponding acid and base components; e.g., sodium chloride becomes hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Many of the residues generated in plutonium recovery operations are in the form of chloride and nitrate salts. Using electrodialysis to convert these salts back into their corresponding acid and base components results in the production of a decreased amount of waste. Furthermore, with recycle of the acid and base generated, electrodialysis results in a decrease in the quantity of reagents necessary to recover and purify plutonium.

Wedman, D.E.; Smith, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-12-31

164

77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration...Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration...Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration...treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be...Nithiodote is dosed for children based on body...

2012-11-28

165

Effect of Plasma Treatment and Cross-Linking on the Over Voltage Positive Temperature Coefficient of High Density Polyethylene/carbon Black/magnesium Hydroxide Nano Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

The Argon (Ar) plasma pretreated high-density polyethylene (PHDPE) was blended with the nano-degree conductive carbon black (CB) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) to formed the over-voltage positive temperature coefficient (PTC) composite. Effect of the CB content, plasma treatment time, power of plasma, initiator (dicumyl peroxide, DCP), and dosage of 60Co Y-ray irradiation on PTC behaviors of composites were studied. The results showed that the CB dispersion could be increased with increasing the amount free radicals of PHDPE and then not only the room-temperature volume resistivity of composite decreased, but also the PTC intensity of composite increased. The best plasma treatment condition was 20W, 1min. As the initiator was added into PHDPE composites and passed the 60Co Y-ray radiation, the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect of composites was eliminated, the PTC intensity of composite markedly increased and composite passes over-voltage resistance test.

Huang, C. Y.; Tsai, C. S.

2008-08-01

166

Comparison of Decontamination Efficacy between the Rapid Hygrothermal Pasteurization and Sodium Hypochlorite Treatments  

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We developed a novel rapid hygrothermal pasteurization (RHP) method using saturated water vapor with a dew point of 100?. The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of RHP treatment versus conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatments on inactivation of natural mesophilic bacteria and quality attributes on fruits and vegetables. The RHP treatment was performed within a second by free-falling samples (cabbage, cucumber, carrot, bell pepper, pineapple and melon) through cylindrical ...

2013-01-01

167

Formation of transparent aluminum hydroxide film with mesoscopic surface roughness by hydrothermal treatment of incompletely-nitrided sputtered aluminum film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incompletely-nitrided Al films (Al-N film) are deposited on the glass substrate by rf sputtering with a metallic Al target and using Ar and N2 gas mixture. With increasing film thickness up to 300nm, the surface roughness increases. And the roughness is easily controlled. The size and the number density of surface protuberance are suitable to control diffusive optical properties in the visible and near infrared regions. The films become transparent with retained roughness by boiling in ultra pure water at 368K under atmospheric pressure. The films have been transformed from composite of Al and AlN to aluminum hydroxide (Boehmite). Total transmittance of the boiled specimens exceeded that of the glass substrate itself. These facts suggest that hydrothermally-treated Al-N films with the mesoscopic surface roughness have high potential to reduce the optical loss by reflection.

2010-06-01

168

Evaluation of carbon dioxide laser irradiation associated with calcium hydroxide in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A preliminary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts have been made to treat dentinal hypersensitivity by sealing exposed dentinal tubules, and the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser has been shown to have a sealing effect on dentinal surfaces. The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphological ultra-structure and temperature change after CO(2) laser irradiation of dentin. Fourteen human third molars were selected and cleaned. An area was delimited, and the samples were randomly divided into seven groups: Group 1 (G1): control; G2, calcium hydroxide paste (CA)?+ CO(2) laser (L) (0.5 W/63,69 W/cm(2)); G3, CA + L (1 W/125,38 W/cm(2)); G4, CA + L (1.5 W/191,08 W/cm(2)); G5, L (0.5 W); G6, L (1 W); G7, L (1.5 W). All irradiation was performed in unfocused mode. The electron micrographs were analyzed by three observers. For temperature analysis, a thermocouple was used. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test showed statistical differences between the groups (P calcium hydroxide paste presented significantly higher mean scores. In the groups treated by CO(2) laser only, fusion, re-crystallization, cracks and carbonization were observed. A change of 1 ± 5°C was noted in the temperature. Under the limitation of an in vitro study, and with the protocols used, we concluded that CO(2) laser is safe to use for the establishment of partial fusion and re-solidification of the dentinal surface. PMID:20127133

Romano, Ana Cristina Cury Camargo; Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corrêa; da Silveira, Bruno Lopes; Baldochi, Sônia Lícia; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

2011-01-01

169

Rumen and Post Abomasal Disappearance of Amino Acids and Some Nutrients of Barley Grain Treated with Sodium Hydroxide, Formaldehyde or Urea in Lactating Cows  

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Full Text Available Four rumen and duodenum cannulated, Holstein lactating cows were used in a change-over design to determine the effects of NaOH, Formaldehyde or Urea treated barley on disappearance of Dry Matter (DM, Crude Protein (CP, Amino Acids (AA, NDF, ADF, hemicelluloses and starch in rumen, Post Abomasal Tract (PAT and total tract by mobile nylon bag technique. Experimental treatments were coarse milled barley, barley treated with 3.5% NaOH, barley treated with 0.4% formaldehyde and barley treated with 3.5% urea that all chemical treated barley milled coarse before feeding. NaOH Treatment reduced concentrations of Lysine and Cystine in the barley grain. All chemical treatments decreased rumen disappearances of barley CP but only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments also decrease total AA and some of the AA disappearances in the rumen. All chemical treatments increased DM, OM, CP, starch, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose disappearance of barley in the PAT. But only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments increased total AA and most of AA disappearances in the PAT. Effect of chemical treatments on increase of disappearance of starch, Met and Gly in the total tract was significant (p<0.05. Rumen disappearance of TAA was lower than CP but PAT disappearance of TAA was more than CP and finally total tract disappearance of TAA was more than CP. Individual AA in barley disappeared at different rates in the rumen and PAT. Consequently, the proportion of digesta CP and AA entering the intestine must be considered.

M. Dehghan-Banadaky

2007-01-01

170

Treatment with 89SrCl and Sodium Ibandronate for pain relief of multiple bone metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the palliative effect on pain relief in patients with multiple bone metastases treated with 89SrCl2 together with Sodium Ibandronate,Sodium Ibandronate alone and 89SrCl2 alone. Methods: Eighty-four patients with bone pain secondary to bone metastases were divided into three groups. Thirty patients were treated with combined 89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate, 26 with 89SrCl2 alone and 28 with Sodium Ibandronate alone. The ?2 test was used in data analysis. Results: The overall palliative pain relief rate in the combined treatment group was 96.6 % (29/30). For the groups using Sodium Ibandronate or 89SrCl2 only, the palliative rates were 71.4% (20/28) and 73.1% (19/26), respectively. There are statistically significant differences between the combined treatment group and the other 2 groups with single treatment modalities in the overall palliative pain relief rate (?2=7.497), in terms of improvement in (1) whole body Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score (80.0% (24/30) vs 50.0% (14/28)/53.8% (14/26), ?2 =35.476) and (2) focal palliative rate (47.6% (50/105) vs 11.2% (11/98)/22.2% (20/90), ?2 =6. 564, all P89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate is more effective than single treatment modalities to relieve bone pain secondary to multiple bone metastases. (authors)

2010-08-01

171

Comparison of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with confirmed kala-azar were treated in a mission hospital in West Pokot region, Kenya, with sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days - either as Pentostam® (PSM or generic sodium stibogluconate (SSG; 51 patients were allocated alternately to each treatment group. FINDINGS: There were no significant differences in baseline demographic characteristics or disease severity, or in events during treatment. There were 3 deaths in the PSM group and 1 in the SSG group; 2 patients defaulted in each group. Only 1 out of 80 test-of-cure splenic aspirates was positive for Leishmania spp.; this patient was in the SSG group. Follow-up after > 6 months showed that 6 out of 58 patients had relapsed, 5 in the SSG group and 1 in the PSM group. No outcome variable was significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The availability of cheaper generic sodium stibogluconate, subject to rigid quality controls, now makes it possible for the health authorities in kala-azar endemic areas to provide treatment to many more patients in Africa.

Moore Elinore

2001-01-01

172

Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment  

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The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl) treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96...

Linda Rozenfelde; Galina Khroustalyova; Marina Mandryk; Emily Kolomiets; Alexander Rapoport

2012-01-01

173

Sodium stibogluconate as first-line treatment for post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis  

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Full Text Available An 18 year-old-girl, a resident of Buxar District of Bihar State, India, presented with hypopigmented rash on face of six months duration. Superficial sensations were intact. There was history of being treated for prolonged fever two years ago, for about three weeks. Based on history, clinical and microscopic examination, she was diagnosed to have post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Treatment with parenteral sodium stibogluconate was initiated, to which she responded satisfactorily. This case highlights the classical lesions of Indian type of PKDL and reiterates the fact that sodium stibogluconate should still be considered first line therapy as it is a cheap, yet efficacious drug.

K.S. Dhillon

2014-04-01

174

Sodium Hyaluronate Injections Compared to Local Modalities for the Treatment of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine and compare the efficacies of sodium hyaluronate injections and local modalities in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.Materials and Methods: Patients (n=50 were treated with subacromial injections of sodium hyaluronate (n=25 once weekly for 3 weeks or a daily program of local modalities (n=25 for 2 weeks. Response to treatment was evaluated with the items of function in the Society of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Basic Shoulder Evaluation Form and pain, activities of daily living and ranges of motion in the Constant-Murley Scale. Patients were questioned about night pain and their global impressions of the treatment. All outcome measures were assessed at baseline and weeks 1 and 5 after treatment.Results: Society of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Basic Shoulder Evaluation Form and Constant-Murley Scale scores of both groups were significantly improved at week 1 and 5 compared to baseline (p0.05. Night pain was reduced effectively by both treatments, with no significant difference between the groups. The majority of patients reported that they benefited from the treatment and results were similar in both groups. No side effects were observed. Conclusion: Sodium hyaluronate injections and local modalities have been found to be similarly effective. Either one of these methods may be included in a treatment program for patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:138-42.

?lker ?ENGÜL

2008-12-01

175

Composição química e perdas fermentativas de silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio / Chemical composition and fermentative losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química e as perdas fermentativas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio (NaOH). Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com duas variedades de cana-de [...] -açúcar (CB 45-3 e RB 72-454) e quatro aditivos (controle, NaOH, ureia ou NaOH + ureia), compondo as seguintes silagens: cana-de-açúcar sem aditivo; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 4% de ureia; cana-de-açúcar tratada 4% de NaOH; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2% de ureia + 2% de NaOH. Os procedimentos foram realizados em ambas as variedades e as doses aplicadas com base na matéria seca. A cana-de-açúcar foi picada e misturada, acescida dos aditivos e armazenada em silos de PVC com 50 cm de altura por 10 cm de diâmetro, providos de válvula de Bunsen. Adotou-se uma compactação de 750 kg de matéria natural/m³. Os silos foram pesados no início e ao final do período experimental para quantificar as perdas por gases e efluente. Não foi observado efeito de interação entre variedades de cana-de-açúcar e doses para perdas por efluente, pH, celulose, lignina e cinza. O hidróxido de sódio contribui para redução de perdas,manutenção do grau brixa e elevação do pH da silagem da cana-de-açúcar, independentemente da utilização da ureia, além de promover redução dos constituintes da parede celular, ocasionando melhoria na qualidade da silagem de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide (NaOH). It was used a completely randomized design with four replicates, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two varieties of cane sugar (CB 45-3, RB [...] 72-454) and four additives (Control, NaOH, urea or NaOH + urea), composing the following silages: sugar cane without additive; sugar cane treated with 4% urea; sugar cane treated with 4% NaOH; sugar cane treated with 2% urea + 2% NaOH. The procedures were performed in both varieties and the doses applied in the dry matter basis. The sugar cane was chopped and then mixed, added with additives and stored in PVC silos with 50 cm of height by 10 cm of diameter, provided with Bunsem valve. It was adopted a compression of 750 kg of natural matter/m³. The silos were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the trial period to quantify the losses by gases and effluent. There was no interaction effect among varieties of sugar cane and doses for effluent losses, pH, cellulose, lignin and ash. Sodium hydroxide contributes for the reduction of losses, maintenance of Brix and pH raising of the silage of sugar cane, regardless to the use of urea, in addition to promote reduction of the constituents of the cell wall causing improvement on the quality of silage from sugar cane.

Leandro Sampaio Oliveira, Ribeiro; Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Alana Batista dos, Santos; Antônio Roberto, Ferreira; Paulo, Bonomo; Fabiano Ferreira da, Silva.

176

Effect of Ni cations and microwave hydrothermal treatment on the related properties of layered double hydroxide-ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer composites.  

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The effect of Ni cations and synthetic methods on the crystallinity, morphology, thermal stability and hydrophobic properties of carbonate-containing layered double hydroxides (LDHs) was investigated. The conventional hydrothermal treatment (CHT) and microwave hydrothermal treatment (MHT) methods were used to synthesize LDHs. The microwave treatment LDHs (MgAl-MHT and NiMgAl-MHT) have higher crystallinity and smaller crystal sizes than the conventional hydrothermal treatment LDHs (MgAl-CHT and NiMgAl-CHT). IR results indicate that the interactions of both OH(-)-CO(3)(2-) and CO(3)(2-)-CO(3)(2-) in NiMgAl-MHT are weaker. Furthermore, the thermal decomposition of OH(-) and CO(3)(2-) in the NiMgAl-MHT sample occurred earlier and faster than that of other LDHs. The contact angle values indicate that NiMgAl-MHT has the highest hydrophobicity. The influences of the LDHs on the thermal degradation and flame retardance of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)-LDH composites have also been studied in detail. NiMgAl-MHT has the more homogeneous nano-dispersed layers in EVA matrix. All composites enhance the thermal stability compared with the pure EVA because of the release of H(2)O and CO(2). Flame retardance of NiMgAl-MHT-EVA was obviously higher than that of the pure EVA and other composites. PMID:21316061

Wang, Lili; Li, Bin; Yang, Mingfei; Chen, Chunxia; Liu, Yongsheng

2011-04-15

177

A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors  

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Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

Asfandyar Khan Niazi

2010-12-01

178

Enhancement of circulatory antioxidants by alpha-ketoglutarate during sodium valproate treatment in Wistar rats.  

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The effects of alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) on sodium valproate-induced hyperammonemia and hepatotoxicity were studied in biochemical experiments in rats. The levels of ammonia, urea, serum transaminases, hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were significantly increased in sodium valproate-treated rats. These levels were significantly decreased in alpha-KG- and sodium valproate-treated rats. Further, non-enzymatic (vitamins C and E) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) antioxidants were significantly decreased in sodium valproate-treated rats and were increased in alpha-KG- and sodium valproate-treated rats. These biochemical alterations during alpha-KG treatment could be due to (i) its ability to act as an ubiquitous collector of amino groups in body tissues, (ii) the participation of alpha-KG in the non-enzymatic oxidative decarboxylation in the hydrogen peroxide decomposition process and (iii) enhancing the proper metabolism of fats which could suppress oxygen radical generation and, thus, prevent the lipid peroxidative damages in rats. PMID:12856823

Murugesan, Vidya; Subramanian, Perumal

2003-01-01

179

Sodium Gallium Oxide Electrolyte Additive for Aluminum Anode Activation.  

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An additive for an aluminum-based semi-fuel cell system includes a combination of components including gallium, oxygen, and a sodium component dissolvable an alkaline electrolyte solution such as seawater and sodium hydroxide. These components form sodium...

L. G. Carreiro S. P. Tucker

2001-01-01

180

Development of sodium conversion technology. Method and basic features of sodium conversion process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactor or an experimental facility which used radioactive sodium will bring a lot of radioactive sodium. However, technology to deal with such the radioactive sodium and decommission is not well established in Japan. Then, basic experimental study has been carried out in order to find and estimate an economic and safety process of the radioactive sodium decommission. Sodium is so active, that it is proposed to convert the sodium to more stable chemicals before the decommission. There were some examples in overseas to convert the sodium into sodium hydroxide via sodium-water reaction. This method was examined by a basic sodium conversion test apparatus. In the experiment, liquid metal sodium was injected into the sodium hydroxide. Influences of temperature and concentration of the sodium hydroxide were investigated. Nitrogen gas was injected into the sodium hydroxide as atomizing gas in order to protect the sodium injection nozzle and also to mix the sodium. Then the gas flow rate was also varied to see the desired effects. Injected sodium temperature and mass flow rate were fixed at 200 deg-C and 10 kg/h, respectively. The atomizing gas flow rate, the temperature and concentration of the sodium hydroxide were varied in ranges of 60-100 l/min, 70-100 deg-C and 40-60%, respectively. The influences of these parameters on the sodium conversion reaction were evaluated. The experiments showed that increase of the atomizing gas resulted in stable injection of the sodium and also larger reaction area. The temperature of the sodium hydroxide had small influences on the reaction, however, the sodium injection nozzle tended to choke up when the temperature was less than 70 deg-C. The lower concentration resulted in larger temperature fluctuation and also enlarged the reaction area. Unstable reaction, for example, sudden increase of reaction rate due to excess sodium, was not found under the conditions above listed ranges and stable sodium conversion was confirmed. (author)

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

A new route to mass production of metal hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanoparticles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanofibers were self-assembled by hydration of highly activated aluminum powder using no surfactants or templates. The activation was performed by milling aluminum powder with sodium chloride as nano-miller. Transmission electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that this method leads to smaller size of aluminum particles (less than 50 nm) and increases the lattice strain. These factors provide conditions under which hydration procedure proceeds until it reaches the core of aluminum particles. The synthesized powder consists of nanofibers with thickness less then 10 nm and average length of 120 nm and specific surface area of 309 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The process is convenient, highly efficient and capable to be implemented in mass production. It may be extended to produce hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanopowders of other metals, as well.

Alinejad, Babak, E-mail: alinezhad_b@merc.ac.ir [Thermoelectric Lab, Department of Semiconductors, Material and Energy Research Center (MERC), P.O. Box 14155-4777, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi, Korosh; Ahmadi, Kamran [Thermoelectric Lab, Department of Semiconductors, Material and Energy Research Center (MERC), P.O. Box 14155-4777, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-12-15

182

Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Drug Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs of Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles  

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Full Text Available The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen using a co-precipitation method with or without hydrothermal treatment (150 °C, 4 h. After being hydrothermally treated, LDH–drug crystallites increased in particle size and crystallinity, but did not change in the interlayer anion orientation, gallery height and chemical composition. The drug release patterns of all studied LDH–drug hybrids were biphasic and sustained. LDHs loaded with diclofenac had a quicker drug release rate compared with those with naproxen and ibuprofen, and the drug release from the hydrothermally-treated LDH–drug was slower than the freshly precipitated LDH–drug. These results suggest that the drug release of LDH–drugs is influenced by the crystallite size of LDHs, which can be controlled by hydrothermal treatment, as well as by the drug molecular physicochemical properties.

Zi Gu

2014-05-01

183

Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Drug Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs of Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen) using a co-precipitation method with or without hydrothermal treatment (150 °C, 4 h). After being hydrothermally treated, LDH–drug crystallites increased in particle size and crystallinity, but did not change in the interlayer anion orientation, gallery height and chemical composition. The drug release patterns of all studied LDH–drug hybrids were biphasic and sustained. LDHs loaded with diclofenac had a quicker drug release rate compared with those with naproxen and ibuprofen, and the drug release from the hydrothermally-treated LDH–drug was slower than the freshly precipitated LDH–drug. These results suggest that the drug release of LDH–drugs is influenced by the crystallite size of LDHs, which can be controlled by hydrothermal treatment, as well as by the drug molecular physicochemical properties.

Gu, Zi; Wu, Aihua; Li, Li; Xu, Zhi Ping

2014-01-01

184

Influence of hydrothermal treatment on physicochemical properties and drug release of anti-inflammatory drugs of intercalated layered double hydroxide nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) determines nanoparticles' performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl-LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen) using a co-precipitation method with or without hydrothermal treatment (150 °C, 4 h). After being hydrothermally treated, LDH-drug crystallites increased in particle size and crystallinity, but did not change in the interlayer anion orientation, gallery height and chemical composition. The drug release patterns of all studied LDH-drug hybrids were biphasic and sustained. LDHs loaded with diclofenac had a quicker drug release rate compared with those with naproxen and ibuprofen, and the drug release from the hydrothermally-treated LDH-drug was slower than the freshly precipitated LDH-drug. These results suggest that the drug release of LDH-drugs is influenced by the crystallite size of LDHs, which can be controlled by hydrothermal treatment, as well as by the drug molecular physicochemical properties. PMID:24858732

Gu, Zi; Wu, Aihua; Li, Li; Xu, Zhi Ping

2014-01-01

185

Comparison of regimens of treatment with sodium stibogluconate in kala-azar.  

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One hundred and twenty six patients with kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) were allocated at random to one of two groups for treatment with sodium stibogluconate. One group was treated for 20 days; in the other group the patients were assessed after 20 days' treatment and treatment was continued if necessary. Both groups were followed up for six months. There was no significant difference in symptomatic outcome between the two groups at 20 days. At six months eight of the patients in the gro...

Thakur, C. P.; Kumar, M.; Singh, S. K.; Sharma, D.; Prasad, U. S.; Singh, R. S.; Dhawan, P. S.; Achari, V.

1984-01-01

186

Intramuscular diclofenac sodium versus intravenous Baralgin in the treatment of renal colic.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative, randomized, double-blind study of diclofenac sodium 75 mg im versus Baralgin (a combination drug composed of dipyrone and two spasmolytics) 5 mL iv was performed on 57 patients with renal colic. Both groups were comparable as to age, sex, pain evolution time before treatment, and no treatment for renal colic in the six hours preceding trial drug administration. No significant differences were found between the two groups with respect to the evolution of pain after the first dose or in the frequency of administration of a second dose. Tolerability was good in both groups, but sweating and pain throughout the vein were observed in one patient in the Baralgin group. We concluded that diclofenac sodium constitutes an excellent alternative to pyrazolone analgesics, with the advantages of being monotherapy and having good tolerability, when used as intramuscular injection in ambulatory patients. PMID:2183488

Sanahuja, J; Corbera, G; Garau, J; Plá, R; Carmen Carré, M

1990-04-01

187

A comparison of trimethoprim-sulfadoxine and ceftiofur sodium for the treatment of respiratory disease in feedlot calves  

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A field trial was performed to compare trimethoprim-sulfadoxine to ceftiofur sodium in the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot calves. Five-hundred-and-fifty-five recently weaned, crossbred beef calves, with naturally occurring cases of BRD, were randomly assigned to either trimethoprim-sulfadoxine or ceftiofur sodium treatment groups. The effectiveness of the antibiotics was assessed by comparing relapse rates, three day treatment response rates, mortality rates, chronic...

1992-01-01

188

Treatment of osteoporosis with human parathyroid peptide and observations on effect of sodium fluoride.  

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OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the need for a randomised study of treatment of spinal osteoporosis with human parathyroid peptide in the secondary prevention of crush fractures; to study the effect of human parathyroid hormone peptide 1-34 plus sex hormones on vertebral body cancellous bone; and, separately, to determine the effect of relatively low doses of sodium fluoride plus calcium on spinal bone mineral density. DESIGN--Open study of patients with primary or postmenopausal osteoporosis. All pat...

Reeve, J.; Davies, U. M.; Hesp, R.; Mcnally, E.; Katz, D.

1990-01-01

189

Association of calcium hydroxide and metronidazole in the treatment of dog's teeth with chronic periapical lesion Associação do hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol no tratamento de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica  

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One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings...

Sônia Regina Panzarini; Valdir Souza; Roberto Holland; Eloi Dezan Júnior

2006-01-01

190

Effectiveness of Intraarticular Sodium Hyaluronate in Synchronous Treatment of Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis  

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Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate results of synchronous intraarticular sodium hyaluronate therapy in patients who have both hip and knee osteoarthritis.Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients (18 women, 7 men with hip and knee osteoarthritis constituted the study group and 14 patients (9 women, 5 men constituted the control group. In the treatment protocol, 2 ampules of sodium hyaluronate were injected into the hip joint using fluoroscopy guide in the operating room. After two weeks, the injection was performed in the affected knee joint. This protocol was repeated following a week without treatment. The clinical conditions of the groups before therapy and on the 30th and 60th days after therapy were evaluated by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC A, B, C indices and 15 m walking time.Results: There are significant differences between the two groups when WOMAC scores and the quantity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs administered were considered, but there was no difference between the groups concerning walking time. There are significant differences in all test parameters except for the WOMAC C index in group I before and after therapy.Conclusion: The treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis synchronously with sodium hyaluronate injection provides considerable reduction of pain and increase in joint range of motion and function. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:143-7.

Ali AYDEN?Z

2008-12-01

191

Long-term treatment with sodium phenylbutyrate in ornithine transcarbamylase-deficient patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is a very heterogeneous urea cycle disorder resulting in hyperammonemia with various presentations from the neonatal period through adulthood. We performed a retrospective study in nine patients (four male/five female, age at diagnosis ranging from 6 days to 14 years) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sodium phenylbutyrate (Ammonaps) in long-term treatment. All patients were diagnosed by DNA mutational analysis and/or liver enzyme measurement. They had previously been treated with sodium benzoate (median dose 248 mg/kg/day; range 106-275) and low protein diet (median 0.84 g/kg/day) and were switched to sodium phenylbutyrate (median dose of 352 mg/kg/day) at 8.9 and 4.9 years of age (median) in males and females, respectively. We analyzed clinical and biochemical data and the median follow-up duration was 26 months. During that time, there were no hyperammonemic episodes requiring hospitalization. Median plasma ammonia and glutamine levels were 30 and 902 micromol/L, respectively. Total protein intake could be increased to 0.95 g/kg/day after 18 months. No side effects related to therapy were observed. Further prospective studies should be performed to define the optimal dosage of sodium phenylbutyrate and the requirements for protein diet at different ages. PMID:11286510

Burlina, A B; Ogier, H; Korall, H; Trefz, F K

2001-04-01

192

Efficacy of the combination sodium ceftiofur-flumethasone in the treatment of experimental Pasteurella haemolytica bronchopneumonia in calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe acute bronchopneumonia was induced in 18 conventional Friesian-Holstein calves by inoculating them intratracheally with Pasteurella haemolytica type A1. Six of the calves received no treatment and served as controls. Six of the calves were treated with sodium ceftiofur and six were treated with sodium ceftiofur and flumethasone. The mortality rate in the group of calves treated with sodium ceftiofur and flumethasone was significantly lower and their clinical and haematological parameters returned to normal significantly faster than in the control calves and the calves treated with sodium ceftiofur alone. PMID:9197206

Sustronck, B; Deprez, P; van Loon, G; Coghe, J; Muylle, E

1997-05-01

193

Naproxen sodium, diflunisal, and placebo in the treatment of chronic back pain.  

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Thirty-seven patients with chronic back pain were entered into a randomised, 3-way, double-blind, cross-over comparison of naproxen sodium 550 mg twice daily, diflunisal 500 mg twice daily, and placebo. Each treatment was given for 14 days after a preadmission wash-out week during which only paracetamol was allowed. Patients were assessed on admission and at the end of each treatment with respect to global pain, night pain, pain on movement, and pain on standing. Both visual analogue scales a...

1982-01-01

194

Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

Marina Mandryk

2012-08-01

195

New world cutaneous leishmaniasis: obstacles in initiating treatment with sodium stibogluconate in 2 travelers from Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

New World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with nonhealing ulcers and a history of travel to high-risk areas. For patients at risk for progression to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, first-line treatment in the United States entails the use of sodium stibogluconate (SSG), which is obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) under an investigational drug protocol. We report 2 cases of New World CL in travelers to endemic areas who were diagnosed and treated with SSG. These cases demonstrate the logistics of coordinating with the CDC to definitively diagnose New World CL and initiate the necessary treatment. PMID:23652898

Darling, Melissa D; Reichenberg, Jason S; Gavino, Alde Carlo P

2013-04-01

196

Fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with sodium morrhuate for the treatment of lower extremity varices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate in treating lower extremity varices. Methods: A total of 30 cases (39 diseased lower limbs) with lower extremity varices were enrolled in this study. Under fluoroscopic guidance foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate was carried out in all patients. The obstructed condition of the great saphenous vein was observed during the following three months. Results: The technical success was achieved in all 39 patients. The mean dose of foam sclerosant used for each diseased limb was 5.9 ml (3.4-8.2 ml). Disappearance of blood flow reflux in lower extremity vein immediately after the treatment was seen in 35 patients (90%). Three months after the therapy, vascular sonography showed that the great saphenous vein was obstructed, and no serious complications occurred. Conclusion: For the treatment of lower extremity varices, fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate is safe and effective with satisfactory results. This technique is a newly-developed micro-invasive therapy for lower extremity varices. (authors)

2011-11-01

197

Radiation centers in alkaline-earth hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors showed previously that the radiation stability of alkaline-earth oxides depends to a great extent on their content of impurity OH- ions. There is virtually no information on the radiation stability of alkaline-earth hydroxides, which are secondary products in a number of radiation technology processes. In the present investigation they have studied by EPR and optical spectroscopy the nature, formation kinetics, and annealing of radiation-induced defects in ?-irradiated polycrystalline specimens of Mg and Ca hydroxides as functions of treatment temperature. In polycrystalline specimens of magnesium and calcium hydroxides ?-irradiated at 770K, O- ion-radicals, surface F/sub s/ centers, and stabilized hydrogen atoms have been observed. Based on a study of the accumulation kinetics of the radiation defects it can be concluded that alkaline-earth hydroxides are unstable toward radiation

1986-11-10

198

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE  

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Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

Farhad Zeinaly

2009-11-01

199

Recent Sodium Technology Development for the Decommissioning of the Rapsodie and Superphenix Reactors and the Management of Sodium Wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has recently developed and/or conducted experiments on several processes in support of the decommissioning of two French liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), Rapsodie and Superphenix, as well as on the treatment of CEA sodium wastes. CEA has demonstrated that it is possible to define appropriate and efficient processes to meet the different situations encountered in decommissioning LMFRs. Mechanical techniques derived from standard technologies have been successfully applied to fast reactor decommissioning to complete primary vessel draining from sodium. In addition, specific chemical processes have been developed to deal safely with metallic sodium reactivity. Sodium-contaminated equipment has been successfully cleaned by reacting sodium with water mist in an atmosphere with carbon dioxide to form inert sodium carbonate. Bulk sodium has been successfully converted into aqueous caustic soda by injection of liquid-metallic sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. Several processes were also defined to deal with specific sodium wastes. In all cases the principle is based on a sodium/water chemical reaction where the released hydrogen and heat are controlled. With the development of a wide variety of processes, all steps in the decommissioning of LMFRs are assumed to be now properly mastered

2005-04-01

200

Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

Nicholas R. Soelberg

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review  

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The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5...

Mohammadi, Z.; Shalavi, S.; Yazdizadeh, M.

2012-01-01

202

Comparison of Decontamination Efficacy between the Rapid Hygrothermal Pasteurization and Sodium Hypochlorite Treatments  

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Full Text Available We developed a novel rapid hygrothermal pasteurization (RHP method using saturated water vapor with a dew point of 100?. The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of RHP treatment versus conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaClO treatments on inactivation of natural mesophilic bacteria and quality attributes on fruits and vegetables. The RHP treatment was performed within a second by free-falling samples (cabbage, cucumber, carrot, bell pepper, pineapple and melon through cylindrical processing chamber filled with steam. NaClO treatment was performed by washing samples with NaClO solution (100 mg/mL of free chlorine (pH 7, for 1 min. The RHP treatment showed a significantly higher inactivation effect than NaClO treatment on all tested samples. The RHP treatment had a slightly larger influence on color and vitamin C content than NaClO treatment in cabbage. Furthermore, the effects of treatment time and operated temperature were also determined using microbial model system. Elongation of treatment time did not significantly increase the microbial inactivation effect. Lowering of operated temperature by mixing air into steam tended to decrease the inactivation effect. From these results, RHP treatment could be used as an alternative method for decontaminating microorganisms on fruits and vegetables, except on leafy vegetable. In addition, it is suggested that microbial inactivation by RHP treatment was achieved through the initial condensation stage of water vapor on sample surface. By contrast, interfusion of air disturbed the effective condensation of water vapor.

Mitsuya Shimoda

2013-06-01

203

Ammonium hydroxide treatment of A? produces an aggregate free solution suitable for biophysical and cell culture characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Pathologically it is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neuronal loss within the brain tissue of affected individuals. It is now widely hypothesised that fibrillar structures represent an inert structure. Biophysical and toxicity assays attempting to characterize the formation of both the fibrillar and the intermediate oligomeric structures of A? typically involves preparing samples which are largely monomeric; the most common method by which this is achieved is to use the fluorinated organic solvent 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP. Recent evidence has suggested that this method is not 100% effective in producing an aggregate free solution. We show, using dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography and small angle X-ray scattering that this is indeed the case, with HFIP pretreated A? peptide solutions displaying an increased proportion of oligomeric and aggregated material and an increased propensity to aggregate. Furthermore we show that an alternative technique, involving treatment with strong alkali results in a much more homogenous solution that is largely monomeric. These techniques for solubilising and controlling the oligomeric state of A? are valuable starting points for future biophysical and toxicity assays.

Colin L. Masters

2013-05-01

204

The effect of sodium hypochlorite and ginger extract on microorganisms and endotoxins in endodontic treatment of infected root canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This in vitro study sought to evaluate the biomechanical preparation action on microorganisms and endotoxins by using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and an intracanal medication containing Zingiber officinale, with or without calcium hydroxide. Single-rooted teeth were contaminated, and root canal instrumentation (using 2.5% NaOCl) was performed. Samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the intracanal medication employed. The root canal content was gathered 28 days after contamination (baseline), immediately after biomechanical preparation, 7 days after biomechanical preparation, 14 days after intracanal medication, and 7 days after intracanal medication was removed. The results (submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests) showed that the NaOCl eliminated 100% of root canal microorganisms and reduced 88.8% of endotoxins immediately after biomechanical preparation, and 83.2% at 7 days after biomechanical preparation. PMID:24784510

Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; Cardoso, Flavia Goulart Rosa; Oliveira, Luciane Dias de; Oliveira, Carolina Lima de; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge

2014-01-01

205

Modelo experimental de estenose traqueal mediante ressecção cirúrgica submucosa de anéis traqueais combinada com instilações de hidróxido de sódio / Experimental model of tracheal stenosis with submucosal resection of cartilaginous rings combined with sodium hydroxide instillations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, experimentalmente, malácia e estenose traqueal para testar novos modelos de órteses traqueais. MÉTODOS: Ressecamos três anéis cartilaginosos da traqueia cervical de cães no grupo A (n=5) e seis anéis no grupo B (n=4) para produzir malácia. Logo após, a mucosa da região com mal [...] ácia recebeu aplicações de uma solução de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) a 23%, e os animais eram acompanhados com exames broncoscópicos para observar o desenvolvimento de estreitamento da luz da via aérea. Quando a estenose era de mais de 50% da luz, ou havia sinais mínimos de insuficiência ventilatória, os animais eram sacrificados. O segmento de via aérea estreitada foi então coletado para análise histológica e era calculada a área de luz residual do segmento traqueal com estenose e malácia. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica, foi constatada fibrose na submucosa e adventícia, associada a granulomas na mucosa. A luz residual média dos segmentos com estenose foi de 9% e 12% nos grupos A e B, respectivamente, (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: A combinação da ressecção de anéis cartilaginosos e da aplicação de NaOH 23% na mucosa respiratória promoveu uma estenose traqueal intensa, porém esteve associada à perda de animais. Novos estudos são necessários para verificar se o emprego isolado de uma das técnicas seria mais seguro e eficaz para desenvolver estenose traqueal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To experimentally develop tracheal stenosis and malacia to test new models of tracheal stents. METHODS: We resected three cartilaginous rings from the cervical trachea of dogs in group A (n = 5) and six rings in group B (n = 4) to produce malacia. The mucosa of the region with malacia the [...] n received applications of a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 23%, and the animals were accompanied with bronchoscopic examinations to observe the development of luminal narrowing of the airway. When the stenosis was of more than 50% or there were minimal signs of ventilatory failure, the animals were sacrificed. The segment of narrowed airway was then collected for histological analysis and calculation of the area of residual lumen in the tracheal segment with stenosis and malacia. RESULTS: In histological analysis, fibrosis was found in the submucosa and adventitia, associated with granulomas in the mucosa. The average residual lumen of the segments with stenosis was 9% and 12% in groups A and B, respectively (p> 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of resection of the cartilaginous rings and the application of 23% NaOH in the respiratory mucosa promoted severe tracheal stenosis, but was associated with loss of animals. Further studies are needed to verify that the isolated use of one of the techniques would be safer and more effective to develop tracheal stenosis.

Maurício Guidi, Saueressig; Amarilio Vieira de, Macedo Neto; Julio de Oliveira, Espinel; Maria Isabel, Edelweiss; Paulo Roberto Stefani, Sanches; Rogério Gastal, Xavier.

206

Topical diclofenac sodium for treatment of postoperative inflammation in cataract surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To study the effect of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an alternative to topical steroids for postoperative control of inflammation in cataract surgery. Methods: The effect of diclofenac sodium 0.1% following cataract surgery was studied and compared to routine corticosteroid, dexamethasone phosphate 1% in a prospective, double-blind randomized study. Both groups were similar in baseline parameters. Postoperative inflammatory response, intraocular pressure and best-corrected visual acuity following standard extracapsular cataract extraction were assessed in both groups in the initial 21 days and the severity of these parameters was graded. The severity of postoperative inflammatory response to the two drugs was graded at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. Intraocular pressure and visual acuity at baseline and endpoint were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: The two groups did not differ statistically in treatment effect for any of the variables including aqueous cells, flare, ciliary congestion, Descemet?s folds, visual acuity and intraocular pressure (p< 0.001. However there seemed to be a trend towards quicker improvement with corticosteroid when cells in the anterior chamber were considered. There were no side effects from topical diclofenac, and it was well tolerated. Conclusion: Dicfofenac sodium is as effective as topical corticosteroid and can be used as an alternative in routine postoperative treatment following uncomplicated cataract surgery.

Reddy Manjoo

2000-01-01

207

Coking sewage treatment by centrifugal extraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tests were conducted on preliminary dephenolation of coke oven effluent before biological treatment at Hefei Iron Steel Co., China, using the XT-165 centrifugal extractor and an amidate solvent (70:30 kerosine: N503). Back extraction was performed with solvent naphtha and sodium hydroxide solution.

Gu Minyuan

208

Long term treatment with sodium hyaluronate-containing artificial tears reduces ocular surface damage in patients with dry eye  

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Background/aims: Several studies have reported that sodium hyaluronate is able to improve both symptoms and signs in patients with dry eye but none have demonstrated an improvement of conjunctival epithelial cell abnormalities of the ocular surface. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of sodium hyaluronate-containing eye drops on the ocular surface of patients with dry eye during long term treatment.

2002-01-01

209

Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated Thyroid carcinoma  

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Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (Urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation) from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major source of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation, also there is a potential for exposure via contamination. Precautions are necessary...

Beiki D; Shah Hosseini S; Dadashzadeh S; Eftekhari M; Tayebi H; Moosazadeh Rashti G

2004-01-01

210

Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans  

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This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0–100 and 100–200 µm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting...

Jacques Rezende Delgado, Ronan; Helena Gasparoto, Thai?s; Renata Sipert, Carla; Ramos Pinheiro, Claudia; Gomes Moraes, Ivaldo; Branda?o Garcia, Roberto; Anto?nio Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Monteiro Bramante, Clo?vis; Aparecido Torres, Se?rgio; Pompermaier Garlet, Gustavo; Paula Campanelli, Ana; Bernardineli, Norberti

2013-01-01

211

Solution phase synthesis of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate nanoribbons  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate nanoribbons have been synthesized by a solution-phase approach, which is based on the treatment of freshly precipitated magnesium hydroxide in an alcohol-water solution containing high concentrations of magnesium sulfate. These nanoribbons had typical lengths up to the micrometre range, widths of 60-300 nm, and thicknesses of 16-50 nm.

Yang, Dongning; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Rongming; Liu, Zhongfan

2004-11-01

212

Simple Method for Simultaneous Determination of Carbonate, Sulfite and Hydroxide in Solution  

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Full Text Available A method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide in a complex matrices. The method involves salvation of the tow gases in Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by simultaneous determination of the three species (carbonate, sulfite and hydroxide using conductometric and potentiometric titration. What set this method apart from other determination methods it`s simplicity.

Hossam I. Al-Itawi

2007-01-01

213

Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment during Transient or Sustained Lactic Acidemia in Normoxic and Normotensive Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Lactic acidosis is a frequent cause of poor outcome in the intensive care settings. We set up an experimental model of lactic acid infusion in normoxic and normotensive rats to investigate the systemic effects of lactic acidemia per se without the confounding factor of an underlying organic cause of acidosis. Methodology Sprague Dawley rats underwent a primed endovenous infusion of L(+) lactic acid during general anesthesia. Normoxic and normotensive animals were then randomized to the following study groups (n?=?8 per group): S) sustained infusion of lactic acid, S+B) sustained infusion+sodium bicarbonate, T) transient infusion, T+B transient infusion+sodium bicarbonate. Hemodynamic, respiratory and acid-base parameters were measured over time. Lactate pharmacokinetics and muscle phosphofructokinase enzyme's activity were also measured. Principal Findings Following lactic acid infusion blood lactate rose (Pbicarbonate treatment normalized pH during sustained infusion of lactic acid (from 7.22±0.02 to 7.36±0.04, Pbicarbonate infusion affected lactate wash-out kinetics (Pbicarbonate administration but the effects of bicarbonate infusion on pH differed under a persistent or transient acid load. Alkalization affected the rate of lactate disposal during the transient acid load.

Valenza, Franco; Pizzocri, Marta; Salice, Valentina; Chevallard, Giorgio; Fossali, Tommaso; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Polli, Federico; Gatti, Stefano; Fortunato, Francesco; Comi, Giacomo P.; Gattinoni, Luciano

2012-01-01

214

Thermal analysis of iron hydroxide microspheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal treatment is an important step in the preparative technology of the iron oxids microspheres with well established mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics. The first indications on the heating procedure have been obtained from the thermal analysis on iron hydroxide microspheres prepared by the support precipitation and internal gelification methods. (author)

1979-01-01

215

Rationalisation of regimens of treatment of kala-azar with sodium stibogluconate in India: a randomised study  

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The efficacy and safety of six regimens of treatment for kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) with sodium stibogluconate were evaluated in a prospective randomised study to ascertain the optimal treatment for Indian patients. Altogether 371 patients with kala-azar were randomised to receive sodium stibogluconate intramuscularly at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight/day for 20 or 40 days (groups A and A1, respectively), 15 mg/kg body weight/day for 20 or 40 days (groups B and B1, respectively), or 2...

Thakur, C. P.; Kumar, M.; Kumar, P.; Mishra, B. N.; Pandey, A. K.

1988-01-01

216

Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack

2006-08-01

217

Three compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis of sodium formate  

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Bipolar membrane electrodialysis is used in a three-compartment configuration to regenerate formic acid and sodium hydroxide from sodium formate. A previous study showed that the diffusion of molecular formic acid induces the loss of acid current efficiency. The present study shows the following results: the diffusion of molecular formic acid through the bipolar membrane explains quantitatively the presence of sodium formate in the sodium hydroxide solution. The loss of acid current efficienc...

Jaime-ferrer, Jesus Salavador; Couallier, Estelle; Durand, Gerard; Rakib, Mohammed

2008-01-01

218

Selective effects of sodium chlorate treatment on the sulfation of heparan sulfate.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have analyzed the effect of sodium chlorate treatment of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells on the structure of heparan sulfate (HS), to assess how the various sulfation reactions during HS biosynthesis are affected by decreased availability of the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate. Metabolically [(3)H]glucosamine-labeled HS was isolated from chlorate-treated and untreated Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and subjected to low pH nitrous acid cleavage. Saccharides representing (i) the N-sulfated domains, (ii) the domains of alternating N-acetylated and N-sulfated disaccharide units, and (iii) the N-acetylated domains were recovered and subjected to compositional disaccharide analysis. Upon treatment with 50 mM chlorate, overall O-sulfation of HS was inhibited by approximately 70%, whereas N-sulfation remained essentially unchanged. Low chlorate concentrations (5 or 20 mM) selectively reduced the 6-O-sulfation of HS, whereas treatment with 50 mM chlorate reduced both 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation. Analysis of saccharides representing the different domain types indicated that 6-O-sulfation was preferentially inhibited in the alternating domains. These data suggest that reduced 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate availability has distinct effects on the N- and O-sulfation of HS and that O-sulfation is affected in a domain-specific fashion. PMID:10593915

Safaiyan, F; Kolset, S O; Prydz, K; Gottfridsson, E; Lindahl, U; Salmivirta, M

1999-12-17

219

Effects of Aluminum Hydroxide and Famotidine on Bioavailability of Tosufloxacin in Healthy Volunteers  

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This study was designed to determine the influence of aluminum hydroxide and famotidine on the bioavailability of tosufloxacin. Coadministration of aluminum hydroxide reduced the bioavailability of tosufloxacin by 31.6% (P < 0.05). Famotidine did not alter tosufloxacin absorption. To avoid potential treatment failures, the concurrent use of tosufloxacin and aluminum hydroxide should be avoided altogether.

Minami, Rumiko; Nakamura, Chizuko; Inotsume, Nobuo; Nakano, Masahiro

1998-01-01

220

Stress corrosion on austenitic stainless steels components after sodium draining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Damage study performed on 316 pipes of a loop after two leakages concluded that a stress corrosion process in sodium hydroxide environment has induced cracks. In aqueous sodium hydroxide, two corrosion processes are general oxidation increasing with aeration and transcrystalline cracking for stresses on the order of yield strength. 5 refs

1980-04-24

 
 
 
 
221

Association of calcium hydroxide and metronidazole in the treatment of dog's teeth with chronic periapical lesion / Associação do hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol no tratamento de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um dos principais objetivos do tratamento endodôntico de dentes com polpa necrosada é a eliminação máxima possível dos microrganismos presentes no sistema de canal radicular, principalmente nos casos que apresentam lesões periapicais crônicas. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisa [...] r a resposta dos tecidos periapicais de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica ao tratamento endodôntico utilizando como curativo de demora o metronidazol, o hidróxido de cálcio e a associação das duas substâncias. METODOLOGIA: Foram empregados 44 canais radiculares de 2 cães adultos, portadores de lesão periapical crônica induzida experimentalmente. Após o preparo biomecânico os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo com o curativo de demora empregado: Grupo I - controle - sem curativo de demora; Grupo II - hidróxido de cálcio; Grupo III - associação de hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol e Grupo IV - metronidazol. Após 15 dias todos os canais foram obturados com cimento Fill Canal e passados 90 dias os animais foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o hidróxido de cálcio apresentou resultado superior aos demais tratamentos, com diferença estatísticamente significante (alfa = 0.01) e o metronidazol resultado semelhante à associação do hidróxido de cálcio com o metronidazol. Os piores resultados foram obtidos pelo grupo sem curativo de demora. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de metronidazol ou da sua associação com hidróxido de cálcio, não proporcionou melhoras no reparo quando comparado ao curativo de hidróxido de cálcio. Abstract in english One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periap [...] ical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I - no root canal dressing; group II - calcium hydroxide; group III - metronidazole; group IV - calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (alpha = 0.01). Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing.

Sônia Regina, Panzarini; Valdir, Souza; Roberto, Holland; Eloi, Dezan Júnior.

222

Association of calcium hydroxide and metronidazole in the treatment of dog's teeth with chronic periapical lesion Associação do hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol no tratamento de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica  

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Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I - no root canal dressing; group II - calcium hydroxide; group III - metronidazole; group IV - calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (alpha = 0.01. Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing.Um dos principais objetivos do tratamento endodôntico de dentes com polpa necrosada é a eliminação máxima possível dos microrganismos presentes no sistema de canal radicular, principalmente nos casos que apresentam lesões periapicais crônicas. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a resposta dos tecidos periapicais de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica ao tratamento endodôntico utilizando como curativo de demora o metronidazol, o hidróxido de cálcio e a associação das duas substâncias. METODOLOGIA: Foram empregados 44 canais radiculares de 2 cães adultos, portadores de lesão periapical crônica induzida experimentalmente. Após o preparo biomecânico os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo com o curativo de demora empregado: Grupo I - controle - sem curativo de demora; Grupo II - hidróxido de cálcio; Grupo III - associação de hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol e Grupo IV - metronidazol. Após 15 dias todos os canais foram obturados com cimento Fill Canal e passados 90 dias os animais foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o hidróxido de cálcio apresentou resultado superior aos demais tratamentos, com diferença estatísticamente significante (alfa = 0.01 e o metronidazol resultado semelhante à associação do hidróxido de cálcio com o metronidazol. Os piores resultados foram obtidos pelo grupo sem curativo de demora. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de metronidazol ou da sua associação com hidróxido de cálcio, não proporcionou melhoras no reparo quando comparado ao curativo de hidróxido de cálcio.

Sônia Regina Panzarini

2006-10-01

223

Sodium Phosphate  

Science.gov (United States)

... at other times before, during, and after your treatment with sodium phosphate. Clear liquids are liquids that can be seen through such as water, flavored water, lemonade without pulp, apple juice, and ...

224

Recent developments regarding voltage-gated sodium channel blockers for the treatment of inherited and acquired neuropathic pain syndromes  

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Full Text Available Chronic and neuropathic pain constitute significant health problems affecting millions of individuals each year. Pain sensations typically originate in sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS which relay information to the central nervous system (CNS. Pathological pain sensations can arise as result of changes in excitability of these peripheral sensory neurons. Voltage-gated sodium channels are key determinants regulating action-potential generation and propagation; thus, changes in sodium channel function can have profound effects on neuronal excitability and pain signaling. At present, most of the clinically available sodium channel blockers used to treat pain are non-selective across sodium channel isoforms and can contribute to cardio-toxicity, motor impairments and CNS side effects. Numerous strides have been made over the last decade in an effort to develop more selective and efficacious sodium channel blockers to treat pain. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of the more recent developments put forth by research universities and pharmaceutical companies alike in the pursuit of developing more targeted sodium channel therapies for the treatment of a variety of neuropathic pain conditions.

TheodoreRCummins

2011-10-01

225

Effects of ferric hydroxid sludge dosage on sludge treatment/-disposal. Final report; Einfluesse einer Eisenschlammzugabe auf die Klaerschlammbehandlung/-entsorgung. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot plant consisting of two gravity thickeners, two sludge digesters and sludge dewatering by laboratory-frame filter press was operated on two different sewage water treatment plants. Ferric hydroxide sludge (FS) was treated together as with surplus sludge from enhanced biological removal of phosphorus (SS{sub EBPR}) as together with a mixture of primary and surplus sludge including precipitation sludge (PS+SS). One sludge treatment system was dosed with FS, the other serving as control unit operated without FS. In combined thickening in view of filterable solids, COD and P the quality of supernatant improved in most cases as well as the dried solid matter of the thickened sludge increased. In thickening of SS{sub EBPR} 45-70% P was refixed more than in the control system. Scum caused by hydrogen sulphide could be avoided in particular cases. There were no negative influences on the process of combined digestion with SS{sub EBPR} observed as well as with PS+SS. The degradation of organic solid matter was increased by FS-dosage>30 g Fe/kg TR{sub RS}. If present SS{sub EBPR}, hydrogen sulphide was reduced significantly; the content of methane in digester gas increased. Re-dissolved poly-P was refixed nearly completely. Sludge dewatering process was not influenced by FS, independent of the kind of post sludge conditioning. Nor was the sludge disposal restricted by FS. P-feedback from combined thickening, digestion and dewatering of SS{sub EBPR} decreased in comparison to the control unit with 16,8% (in relation to P{sub tot} influent) to 11,2 resp. 1,4% depending on the dosage of FS. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine halbtechnische Versuchsanlage mit Schwerkrafteindickern, Faulbehaeltern und Entwaesserung mit einer Labor-Rahmenfilterpresse wurde auf zwei kommunalen Klaeranlagen betrieben. Eisenhydroxidschlamm (ES) wurde zum einen mit Ueberschussschlamm aus der erhoehten biologischen P-Elimination (UeSS{sub BIO-P}) und zum anderen mit einem Gemisch aus Primaer- und Ueberschussschlamm mit Faellschlammanteilen (PRS+UeSS) gemeinsam behandelt. Eine Strasse wurde mit verschiedenen ES-Dosierungen beschickt. Die zweite Strasse diente zu Referenzzwecken. Bei der gemeinsamen Eindickung konnte zumeist eine Verbesserung der Ueberstandswasserqualitaet bezueglich der Parameter AFS, CSB und P durch die ES-Zugabe festgestellt werden. Gleichfalls wurden hoehere Feststoffgehalte nach der Eindickung erzielt. Bei der UeSS{sub BIO-P} Eindickung wurde zusaetzlich 45-70% P fixiert. Schwefelwasserstoffbedingte Schwimmschlammbildung konnte z.T. voellig unterbunden werden. Die gemeinsame Ausfaulung, sowohl mit UeSS{sub BIO-P} als auch mit PRS+UeSS wurde nicht negativ beeinflusst. Bei ES-Dosierungen >30 g Fe/kg TR{sub KS} war ein verbesserter oTR-Abbau festzustellen. Schwefelwasserstoff wurde, soweit vorhanden, deutlich reduziert; der Methangehalt des Faulgases wurde erhoeht. Rueckgeloestes Polyphosphat konnte fast vollstaendig refixiert werden. Die ES-Zugabe wirkte sich nur in geringem Masse auf das Entwaesserungverhalten aus. Dies gilt fuer die anorganische Konditionierung genauso, wie fuer die Konditionierung mit organischen FHM. Die Entsorgungsmoeglichkeiten wurden durch die ES-Dosierung nicht eingeschraenkt. Aus den Teilergebnissen der gemeinsamen Eindickung, Faulung Entwaesserung mit UeSS{sub BIO-P} laesst sich eine Abnahme der P-Rueckbelastung infolge Schlammwasserrueckfuehrung von 16,8% (bezogen auf P{sub ges} im Zulauf) in der Referenzanlage auf 11,2 bzw, 1,4% in Abhaengigkeit von der Eisendosierung errechnen. (orig.)

Dammann, E.; Benzinger, S.

1997-12-01

226

Selective synthesis of zeolitic phillipsite and hibschite hydrogarnet from lignite ash employing calcium hydroxide under mild conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

A selective synthesis of zeolitic material, phillipsite, employing calcium hydroxide under mild chemical conditions is reported. This is to provide a potential method in reducing the amount of the waste from lignite power plant and the addition of economical value to the material. The fly ash was first activated by calcination at high temperature, and then fused with calcium hydroxide. The water was then added to the solid mixture before curing under saturated water vapour at low temperature. The treatment of as-received fly ash with either calcium hydroxide or a mixture of calcium and sodium hydroxide following as-described preparative procedure of phillipsite, but without prior calcination was also conducted, and led to the formation of Hibschite hydrogarnet, which was also evidentially selective. The following parameters, i.e. type and amount of alkali reagent, the amount of added water, fusion temperature and reaction time were investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction was used to identify type of crystalline solid products, and scanning electron microscope was employed to follow the alteration of solid morphologies. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to trace the chemical composition of the solids. The heavy metal cation removal abilities toward lead ion of the prepared phillipsites were also investigated.

Rujiwatra, Apinpus; Phueadpho, Malinee; Grudpan, Kate

2005-06-01

227

Selective synthesis of zeolitic phillipsite and hibschite hydrogarnet from lignite ash employing calcium hydroxide under mild conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A selective synthesis of zeolitic material, phillipsite, employing calcium hydroxide under mild chemical conditions is reported. This is to provide a potential method in reducing the amount of the waste from lignite power plant and the addition of economical value to the material. The fly ash was first activated by calcination at high temperature, and then fused with calcium hydroxide. The water was then added to the solid mixture before curing under saturated water vapour at low temperature. The treatment of as-received fly ash with either calcium hydroxide or a mixture of calcium and sodium hydroxide following as-described preparative procedure of phillipsite, but without prior calcination was also conducted, and led to the formation of hibschite hydrogarnet, which was also evidentially selective. The following parameters, i.e. type and amount of alkali reagent, the amount of added water, fusion temperature and reaction time were investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction was used to identify type of crystalline solid products, and scanning electron microscope was employed to follow the alteration of solid morphologies. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to trace the chemical composition of the solids. The heavy metal cation removal abilities toward lead ion of the prepared phillipsites were also investigated.

Rujiwatra, A.; Phueadpho, M.; Grudpan, K. [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Science

2005-06-01

228

Comparison of efficacy and safety of topical Ketotifen (Zaditen with Cromolyn sodium in the treatment of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis  

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Full Text Available Background: This study compared the efficacy of Ketotifen fumarate .025% (Zaditen with Cromolyn sodium 4% (Opticrom eye drops in prevention of itching, tearing, and redness in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC. Methods: This double blind randomized single center clinical trial conducted between April and August 2004 in Yazd. One hundred eligible patients with clinical diagnosis of moderate VKC were randomly prescribed Zaditen (group A: n=50 and Cromolyn sodium (group B: n=50 eye drops for a 4 weeks period. Itching, lacrimation, redness, and photophobia were scored on a 4-points severity scale. Results: After 7 days of treatment, the response rates based on subjects assessment of global efficacy was significantly greater in Ketotifen group (61.5% than in Cromolyn group(53%.A clear response to treatment occurred in 94.4 of Zaditen and 81.2% of Sodium Cromoglycate treated patients. The investigator,s assessment of response rates also showed that Ketotifen was superior to Cromolyn sodium (P=0.001. Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than Cromolyn for relief of signs and symptoms of VKC (P<0.05. Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total signs and symptoms score for each patients, in compare with day 0. Conclusion: Ketotifen had a faster onset of action and provided better symptom relief than Cromolyn. The rapid onset of action and symptom control, make Zaditen a valuable treatment for VKC. Keywords : VKC , allergic conjuctivitis , zaditen

MR Shoja

2005-03-01

229

Commentary on ‘propofol versus thiopental sodium for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus—still no answer’.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a commentary on a Cochrane review, published in this issue of EBCH, first published as:Prabhakar H, Bindra A, Singh GP, Kalaivani M. Propofol versus thiopental sodium for the treatment ofrefractory status epilepticus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD009202.DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009202.pub2. PMID:24040681

Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Stang, Antonia

2013-07-01

230

Clinical observation of the combined treatment of edaravone and ozagrel sodium in acute ischemic stroke beyond the thrombolytic time window  

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Full Text Available The curative effect of edaravone combined with ozagrel sodium on acute ischemic stroke beyond the time window of thrombolysis was investigated. A total of 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke beyond the time window of thrombolysis were admitted in our hospital from December 2010 to December 2012. The patients were divided into combined treatment group (N = 50 and ozagrel sodium monotherapy group (control group, N = 50. After 14 days' treatment, total effective rate of the combined treatment group (92% , 46/50 was significantly higher than that of the control group (66% , 33/50; ?2 = 10.780, P = 0.029. After treatment, the nerve function defect score was significantly improved in comparison with before treatment in both groups, but the improvement in combined treatment group (8.21 ± 3.58 was much better than that in the control group (14.60 ± 4.39; t = 7.976, P = 0.000. Therefore, treatment of edaravone combined with ozagrel sodium for patients with acute ischemic stroke beyond the thrombolytic time window can significantly raise the curative effect and improve the neurological function of these patients.

SUN Rui-xing

2013-09-01

231

VALOR NUTRITIVO DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO E/OU URÉIA SUPLEMENTADA COM FENO DE ALFAFA (Medicago sativa L. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF COFFEE (Coffea arabica L. HULLS TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND/OR UREA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L. HAY  

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Full Text Available

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutritivo da casca de café tratada ou não com hidróxido de sódio e/ou uréia. Foram utilizados vinte carneiros, em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e cinco tratamentos constituídos de 50% de feno de alfafa e 50% de casca de café tradada ou não, assim distribuídos: T1-feno de alfafa e casca de café pura; T2-feno e casca de café + 5% uréia; T3-feno e casca de café + 1,5% NaOH; T4-feno e casca de café + 1,5% NaOH + 5% uréia; T5-100% feno de alfafa. O tratamento da casca de café com uréia propiciou apenas aumento no teor de proteína bruta (PB, e com NaOH não provocou alterações na composição química. A casca tratada ou não provocou depressão no consumo. Houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto ao consumo de proteína digestível (CPD, consumo de energia digestível (CED e digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta (DAPB. Considerando-se a composição bromatológica e a digestiblidade da casca de café pura, ela é um subproduto que pode ser aproveitado pelos ruminantes. Devido ao baixo consumo da casca de café tratada ou não, deve-se fornecêla junto a outro alimento de melhor valor nutritivo, principalmente com um melhor teor de energia.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Consumo; digestibilidade; ruminantes; subprodutos agrícolas.

The aim of this work was to assess the nutritive value of coffee hulls treated with sodium hydroxide and urea. Twenty sheeps were utilized in a randomized block design, with four blocks and five treatments combining 50% alfalfa hay and 50% treated or untreated coffee hulls, as follows: T1-alfalfa hay and pure coffee hulls; T2-hay and coffee hulls + 5% urea; T3-hay + coffee hulls + 1.5% NaOH; T4-hay + coffee hulls + 1.5% NaOH + 5% urea; T5-100% hay. The treatment coffee hulls with urea resulted only in increased crude protein content. The treatment with NaOH did not resulted in any changes in the chemical composition. Hulls, whether treated or not, caused intake reduction. There were differences among treatments as the digestible protein intake, digestible energy intake, and apparent digestibility of crude protein. Given the bromatological composition and digestibility of pure coffee hulls, we can conclude that it is a byproduct can be utilized by ruminants. For low consumption of coffee hulls, it should only be used together with another fodder with higher nutritional value, particularly with a higher energy content.

KEY-WORDS: Agricultural byproducts; digestibility; intake; ruminants.

Rodrigo Afonso Leitão

2007-09-01

232

Method of processing radioactive sodium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Object: To semi-continuously process through an on-line system in a safe and rapid manner great quantity of radioactive sodium discharged from a fast breeder reactor. Structure: Radioactive sodium is poured into a heating dish within a reduced pressure sealed container and steam is blown onto the radioactive sodium while controlling the reaction speed. The resultant sodium hydroxide waste liquid is thermally condensed. The reaction speed control is effected through control of the sodium temperature by the heater of the reaction dish and through control of the processing tank inner pressure. (Kamimura, M.)

1975-01-01

233

Some citogenetic effects of sodium azide treatments in caraway root meristems  

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Full Text Available Sodium azide (NaN3 still remains a popular plant mutagen. In the present investigation, its effects on the cytogenetic changes were studied in root tip cells of Carum carvi L., an important economical and medicinal crop plant. The study revealed that sodium azide decreased mitotic index, and caused increase of chromosomal aberrations. Altogether, sodium azide treated root tip cells exhibited an increased incidence of bridges, lagging and/or expulsed chromosomes and C-metaphases.

Mirela Mihaela Campeanu

2009-03-01

234

Reactivity and applications of layered silicates and layered double hydroxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Layered materials, such as layered sodium silicates and layered double hydroxides (LDHs), are well-known for their remarkable adsorption, intercalation and swelling properties. Their tunable interlayers offer an interesting avenue for the fabrication of pillared nanoporous materials, organic-inorganic hybrid materials and catalysts or catalyst supports. This perspective article provides a summary of the reactivity and applications of layered materials including aluminium-free layered sodium silicates (kanemite, ilerite (RUB-18 or octosilicate) and magadiite) and layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Recent developments in the use of layered sodium silicates as precursors for the preparation of various porous, functional and catalytic materials including zeolites, mesoporous materials, pillared layered silicates, organic-inorganic nanocomposites and synthesis of highly dispersed nanoparticles supported on silica are reviewed in detail. Along this perspective, we have attempted to illustrate the reactivity and transformational potential of LDHs in order to deduce the main differences and similarities between these two types of layered materials. PMID:24841986

Selvam, Thangaraj; Inayat, Alexandra; Schwieger, Wilhelm

2014-07-21

235

Efficacy of Topical Sodium Sulfacetamide in the Treatment of Mild and Moderate Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized, Comparative Study  

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Full Text Available Background and Design: Clindamycin and erythromycin are the most widely used topical antibiotics in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. The combination of topical antibiotics with benzoyl peroxide increases the efficacy of the treatment and reduces antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. Sodium sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic. Although it has been known for many years, it is not widely used in acne treatment. However, it has recently acquired currency again. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of sodium sulfacetamide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris and to compare with the other widely used topical antibiotics. Material and Method: In our comparative study, 60 patients with acne vulgaris were randomly assigned into 3 groups, wherein the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd groups were applied sodium sulfacetamide 10% lotion, clindamycin 1% lotion, and erythromycin 2% gel, respectively, twice daily for 12 weeks. Each group consisted of 20 subjects. The treatment was combined with benzoyl peroxide in all groups. The patients were assessed for noninflammatory (open and closed comedones and inflammatory (papules and pustules lesion counts at 4, 8, and 12 weeks and, adverse events were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for age, sex and acne duration (p>0.05. Statistically significant decrease was obtained with all 3 treatment regimens at the end of the study (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, topical sodium sulfacetamide was found to be as effective and safe as erythromycin and clindamycin when combined with benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. These results should be supported by studies with larger cohorts.

Ay?egül Turan

2012-03-01

236

A closed loop system for the conversion of uranium turnings to uranyl oxy-hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The machine shops at Los Alamos National Laboratory generate up to 5 Kgs of uranium turnings daily. Presently, the turnings are packed in diesel fuel in 55 gallon drums and shipped off site for treatment and disposal. In response to a request for an in-situ generator treatment plan, a three-part closed loop system has been designed to dissolve the turnings and leave them in a non-reactive form for either storage or disposal. The system uses electrochemically generated sodium hypochlorite to dissolve the turnings, converting them to uranyl oxy-hydroxide precipitate. The precipitate is continually centrifuged to separate the liquids from solids. The supernant, spent hypochlorite, feeds into the electrochemical cell, the hypochlorite is regenerated and pumped back into the dissolution reactor. This closed loop system accomplishes both conversion of the uranium turnings to an acceptable form and minimizes the treatment wastestream

1997-04-13

237

A Comparison Between the Treatment and Side Effect of Sodium Valproate and Propranolol in Preventing Migraine Headaches  

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Full Text Available One of the causes of frequent headaches in children is migraine headache. The prevention of headaches , will improve life equality in children. This study was designed to compare between treatment and side effects of sodium valproate and propranolol in preventing migraine headaches. This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial which carried out on 52 children who were reffered to out patient neurology clinic of the Ekbatan and Sina hospitals. All children with migraine who had headache during last 6 months were enrolled, and those who had received sodium valproate and propranolol previously, were excluded. The method was convenience sampling and the patients were divided into two groups with 26 patients: A and B for propranolol and sodium valproate respectively. Group A treated with propranolol and group B with sodium valproate for 8 weeks. The response to treatment was evaluated after 4 weeks. The study evaluated 52 children with migraine from 7-15 year’s old , 38.5% of cases were male and 61.5% female. Before treatment , the mean number of attacks was 5.61 months in group A and 8.73 months in group B. After treatment the number of attacks was declined in 21 cases (80.8% of group A and 19 cases (73.1% of group B. Severity of pain was improved in 18 cases (69.2% of group A and 15 cases (57.7% of group B. The incidence of vertigo was 3 cases (11.5% in group A and 2 cases (7.7% in group B. Abnormal liver enzymes test were detected in 11.5% of cases in the group B. CBC was abnormal in 7.7% of cases in the group B Sodium valproate and propranolol , both have the same therapeutic effects in prevention of migraine headeache in children. But side effects are different , and choice of either one depended on the effects consideration and contraindications of each one.

M.M. Taghdiri

2004-07-01

238

Antimicrobial evaluation of gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide paste in infected root canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Microbial irritation is the major etiologic cause of pulp and periapical lesions. Therefore the main goal of endodontic treatment is complete elimination or inimizing acteria with chemo-mechanical preparation. Calcium hydroxide is one of the chemical substances, which are used, in endodontic treatment and its antimicrobial effect on various bacteria has extensively has been studied and researched. Recently Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide has been offered to dentist...

2010-01-01

239

Accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite in periapical region during endodontic treatment: Case report  

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Full Text Available The authors’ aim was to report a clinical case of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite 2,5% into periapical region during the root canaltreatment of the upper right first molar. It was demonstrated that sodium hypochlorite concentrate solutions injection induces tissular injuries, discomfort for the patient and doubts about the dentist’s ability.

Renata Grazziotin SOARES

2007-05-01

240

Mipomersen sodium: a new option for the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In collaboration with Genzyme, Isis Pharmaceuticals has developed mipomersen sodium (ISIS-310312), a synthetic second-generation 20-base phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that targets messenger RNA encoding apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo B-100). Elevated cholesterol levels, in particular low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) which contains a single apolipoprotein B (ApoB) molecule, have been directly correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular events. Preclinical investigations in transgenic mice have demonstrated that lowering LDL-C or ApoB can reduce aortic plaque formation associated with atherosclerosis. Mipomersen pharmacokinetics showed a wide and rapid tissue distribution and a slow prolonged elimination phase of several days in a range of species. Mipomersen displayed dose-dependent efficacy in lowering LDL-C, ApoB, triglycerides, total cholesterol and other low-density lipoproteins in healthy volunteers with mild hyperlipidemia. Similar decreases were observed in patients on stable lipid-lowering therapy for familial hypercholesterolemia with baseline LDL-C levels declining towards clinically desirable concentrations of 70 mg/dL. The efficacy of mipomersen in treating patients with severe heterozygous or homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia with cardiovascular complications has been recently assessed. There have been no serious adverse events noted with treatment and mipomersen can be administered in combination with other lipid-lowering therapies. One concern noted was an elevation in liver transaminase concentrations, although these increases were reversible. PMID:22348914

Haddley, K

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Acidified sodium chlorite solution as an antimicrobial treatment for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minimizing microbial growth and maintaining overall quality are priorities for intervention strategies that extend the shelf life of fresh, aquatic foods. Four treatments included a control (fresh fillets), water, 50 ppm of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), and 1,000 ppm of ASC. Fillets were stored at 1 to 2 degrees C for 0, 8, and 15 days. A significant (P treated with ASC, regardless of ASC concentration. Aerobic plate counts were not affected (P > 0.05) by intervention; however, a significant increase in counts was observed during storage (P 0.05) by intervention. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances decreased (P 0.05) with storage to 15 days. Based on these data, 50 ppm of ASC performed equally as well as 1,000 ppm of ASC. The value of ASC is as a decontaminant; however, fillets in this study had low psychrotrophic counts pretreatment (2.3 log CFU/cm2) and posttreatment (2.03 log CFU/cm2), which did not demonstrate ASC's effectiveness as a decontaminant. PMID:18522032

Kamireddy, N; Kenney, P B; Jittinandana, S; Slider, S D

2008-05-01

242

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibition in diabetes treatment: current evidence and future perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT2) are mainly expressed in the kidneys and are responsible for the renal handling of glucose load. SGLT2 inhibitors represent the latest oral agents for diabetes treatment. Their unique mechanism of action, which practically spares the insulin secretion or insulin utilization, differentiates the SGLT2 inhibitors from any existing antidiabetic agent. Thus, it is hypothesized that SGLT2 inhibitors can be effectively (and probably safely) combined with any existing antidiabetic agent (including insulin), either as monotherapy, or in dual or triple combinations. All these hypotheses are currently tested in many clinical trials. Currently dapagliflozin, one of the three most advanced SGLT2 inhibitors in the development (along with canagliflozin and empagliflozin), is already in the market in few European countries and canagliflozin has been approved from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in US. The evidence so far shows that SGLT2 inhibitors are equally effective to established antidiabetic agents such as metformin or sulfonylureas in their ability to lower HbA1c. On the other hand, SGLT2 inhibitors increase the possibility of genitourinary infections in type 2 diabetic individuals. Their potency in different populations and with different background therapy, but more importantly their short and long term safety remains to be seen. PMID:24040872

Rizos, Evangelos C; Elisaf, Moses S

2014-01-01

243

The Effect of Iodoacetic Acid Sodium Salt on Activity of Peroxidase in Leaves of Potatoes during Thermal Treatment  

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Full Text Available Potato tubers, which belong to Lugovsky and Lukyanovsky grades, processed with iodoacetic acid sodium salt (1 mM as a glycolis inhibitor underwent heat treatment at 37°C or 45°C (1 h. Later the tubers were placed in to soil. On the 45th day of vegetation, activity of peroxidase in potatoes leaves was determined depending on ??. We have revealed that heat treatment provoked a decrease in the activity of peroxidase in potatoes for the Lugovsky grade under all the values ??. No expressed influence of heat treatment upon peroxidase activity was registered for the potato leaves of Lukyanovsky grade.

Perfileva, A. I.

2013-04-01

244

Analytical treatment of large leak sodium-water interaction in LMFBR steam generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytical model is developed to study the pressure transients due to large leak sodium-water reaction in the steam generator of an liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Expansion of hydrogen, generated due to sodium-water reaction, is modelled as spherical bubble during the initial periods. Columnar bubble model is used as second stage of expansion. The change in temperature of hydrogen due to work done by the bubble on sodium is taken into account in the model. This spherical bubble model compares well with the experimental results. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

1989-01-01

245

Final feasibility report on chemical treatment of sodium nitrite waste water. Final report, Oct 89-Sep 91  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report on the sodium nitrite wastewater treatment process discusses the results of 12 simulation runs and six test runs using the boiler hydroblasting wastewater from the Long Beach Naval Shipyard (LBNSY). Reproducible results were obtained showing the total destruction of sodium nitrite by sulfamic acid in Navy boiler hydroblasting wastewater. The removal of heavy metals was equally successful, an approach which resulted in reducing nearly all the ions to the discharge limits by EPA standards. The sludge contained 30 percent solids by weight and passed the TCLP test required for disposal. The estimated cost of treatment remains under $0.30 per gallon compared with the 1990 contract haul cost of $2.00 per gallon.

Lee, T.Y.; Pan, B.Y.; Sheng, H.P.

1992-03-01

246

Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 8700C (950 to 16000F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium

1981-01-01

247

Inactivation of HIV-1 in breast milk by treatment with the alkyl sulfate microbicide sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Reducing transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk is needed to help decrease the burden of pediatric HIV/AIDS in society. We have previously reported that alkyl sulfates (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) are microbicidal against HIV-1 at low concentrations, are biodegradable, have little/no toxicity and are inexpensive. Therefore, they may be used for treatment of HIV-1 infected breast milk. In this report, human milk was artificially infected by adding...

Urdaneta Sandra; Wigdahl Brian; Neely Elizabeth B; Berlin Cheston M; Schengrund Cara-Lynne; Lin Hung-Mo; Howett Mary K

2005-01-01

248

Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Nitrite And/Or Glutathione Treatment On Male Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Using food preservatives as sodium nitrite are increased in industrial food productions. Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects have been related to using of some food preservatives. Purpose: To study the effect of sodium nitrite (food additives) and treated with glutathione (nature antitoxic) on rats. Material And Methods: Certain parameters were measured as percentage of body weight change, body temperature, heart rates, Red & white blood cells count (RBCs & WBCs), he...

2008-01-01

249

COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN PATIENTS WITH COMPLEX ABSENCE FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH SODIUM VALPROATE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association of sodium valproate with cognitive functions was studied in 29 patients with complex absence seizures. Seventeen patients were on monotherapy and twelve on polypharmacy with sodium valproate. Cognitive functions assessed were attention, speech, visuo-speciat perception, memory and intelligence. Behavioral disturbances were also assessed. Two assessments were made six months apart; in the first assessment, attention and speech were adequate, while memory, visuo-spatial percepti...

Rao, Shobini L.; Satischandra, P.; Devi, M. Gourie

1993-01-01

250

Changes in Erythrocyte Sodium-Lithium Countertransport and Plasma Parameters Following Selenium Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of selenium as an antioxidant on erythrocyte Sodium-Lithium Countertransport (SLC) activity and plasma parameters have not already been studied in full detail. In the present study, the relationship between selenium and SLC activity, plasma parameters (lipids, lipoproteins, sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine) was investigated. Male rabbits weighed 1350±50 g were divided in to four groups (5 in each). For in vivo studies selenium dioxide (SeO2) was administer...

Samad Akbarzadeh; Mohsen Ani; Moshtaghie, Ali A.; Ali Movahed

2008-01-01

251

Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation) from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major sources of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation , also there is a potential for exposure via contamination.Precautions are necessary to limit the radiation dose to family members, nursing staff and members of public and waste treatment workers to less than 1mSv. Patients received Sodium Iodide-131 may come into close contact with other persons. In order to derive appropriate recommendations, dose rates were measured from the anterior mid-trunk of 29 patients in the upright position with 15 minutes post-dose administration at 3 meters and just before they left the nuclear medicine department at 0.5, 1, and 3 meters. We have also measured urinary iodide excretion in 29 patients to estimate Sodium Iodide-131 urinary excretion pattern in iranian patients. Based on results, the maximum cumulative dose to nursing staff was on third day (leaving day) still less than recommended dose bye ICRP. The cumulative dose family members will be more but regarding the time and distance in close contact it will be also less than recommended dose by ICRP.Radiation dose rate was decreased significantly on third day. The urinary excretion patterns in all patients were similar. The urinary excretion rate-time curve in all patients showed multiple peaks due to retention and redistribution of Iodine-131 or enterohepatic cycle of radioiodinated thyroid hormones, which didn't allow calculation of urinary excretion rate constant. The results also showed that 67 hours post administration of Sodium Iodide-131 about 70% of radiopharmaceutical was excreted through urine, 28% physically decayed or eliminated through other biological routes

2004-01-01

252

Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated Thyroid carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (Urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major source of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation, also there is a potential for exposure via contamination. Precautions are necessary to limit the radiation dose to family members, nursing staff and members of public and waste treatment workers to less than 1mSv. Patients received Sodium Iodide-131 may come into close contact with other persons. In order to derive appropriate recommendations, dose rates were measured from the anterior mid-trunk of 29 patients in the upright position within 15 minutes post-dose administration at 3 meters and just before they left the nuclear medicine department at 0.5, 1 and 3 meters. We have also measured urinary iodide excretion in 29 patients to estimate Sodium Iodide-131 urinary excretion pattern in Iranian patients. Based on results, the maximum cumulative dose to nursing staff was on third day (Leaving day still less than recommended dose by ICRP. The cumulative dose of family members will be more but regarding the time and distance in close contact it will also be less than recommended dose by ICRP. Radiation dose rate was decreased significantly on third day. The urinary excretion patterns in all patients were similar. The urinary excretion rate-time curve in all patients showed multiple peaks due to retention and redistribution of Iodine-131 or entrohepatic cycle of radioiodinated thyroid hormones, which didn’t allow calculation of urinary excretion rate constant. The results also showed that 67 hours post administration of Sodium Iodide-131 about 70% of radiopharmaceutical was excreted through urine, 28% physically decayed or eliminated through other biological routes.

Beiki D

2004-06-01

253

Decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate, NaTPB, has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of components which influence NaTPB decomposition. Copper(II) ions, solution temperature, and solution pH (hydroxide ion concentration) have all been demonstrated to affect NaTPB stability. Their relationship with each other and the stability of NaTPB has been determined. Based upon this knowledge, a method for stabilizing NaTPB was determined. Decomposition of a NaTPB solution was delayed with the addition of sodium hydroxide. In additional work, the elimination of oxygen from the reaction environment did not prevent NaTPB decomposition in the presence of copper(II) ions but did, however, affect the course of decomposition.

Barnes, M.J.

1990-01-01

254

Decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate, NaTPB, has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of components which influence NaTPB decomposition. Copper(II) ions, solution temperature, and solution pH (hydroxide ion concentration) have all been demonstrated to affect NaTPB stability. Their relationship with each other and the stability of NaTPB has been determined. Based upon this knowledge, a method for stabilizing NaTPB was determined. Decomposition of a NaTPB solution was delayed with the addition of sodium hydroxide. In additional work, the elimination of oxygen from the reaction environment did not prevent NaTPB decomposition in the presence of copper(II) ions but did, however, affect the course of decomposition.

Barnes, M.J.

1990-12-31

255

Biopolymeric mucoadhesive bilayer patch of pravastatin sodium for buccal delivery and treatment of patients with atherosclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mucoadhesive bilayer buccal patch has been developed to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy along with providing sustained release of pravastatin sodium. Buccal patches comprising of varying composition of Carbopol 934P and HPMC K4M were designed and characterized for surface pH, swelling index, in vitro bioadhesion, mechanical properties, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics performance. All formulations exhibited satisfactory technological parameters and followed non-fickian drug release mechanism. Bilayer buccal patch containing Carbopol 934P and HPMC K4M in 4:6 ratio (PBP5) was considered optimum in terms of swelling, mucoadhesion, mechanical properties and in vitro release profile. Pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) Cmax (75.63 ± 6.98 ng/mL), AUC(0-8) (311.10 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h) and AUC(0-?) (909.42 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h) than pravastatin oral tablet (Cmax - 67.40 ± 9.23 ng/mL, AUC(0-8)-130.33 ± 10.25 ng/mL/h and AUC(0-?)-417.17 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h)). While, increased tmax of buccal patch indicated its sustained release property in comparison to oral tablet. Pharmacodynamic studies in rabbits showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.005) in the reduction of TG (131.10 ± 10.23 mg/dL), VLDL (26.00 ± 2.56 mg/dL) and LDL level (8.99 ± 3.01 mg/dL) as compared to oral conventional tablet. In conclusion, bioavailability from the developed buccal patch of pravastatin was 2.38 times higher than the oral dosage form, indicating its therapeutic potential in the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:22630116

Yedurkar, Pramod; Dhiman, Munish Kumar; Petkar, Kailash; Sawant, Krutika

2013-05-01

256

Layered double hydroxide formation in Bayer liquor and its promotional effect on oxalate precipitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer process liquor to improve the quality of alumina product remains an important objective for Bayer refining. The formation of layered double hydroxides by the reaction of alkaline earth oxides, such as lime and magnesia, with Bayer liquor gives a crystal structure which is capable of intercalating anions, both inorganic and organic, within its structure. Both lime and magnesia, with long contact times in Bayer liquor, show layered double hydroxide formation. This layered double hydroxide formation is accompanied with a decrease in the sodium oxalate content in the liquor from about 3 g/L to below 1 g/L. Short contact times lead to a destabilization of the liquor which facilitates sodium oxalate precipitation. Additional work on magnesium hydroxide shows, in comparison to lime and magnesia, much less layered double hydroxide formation with equivalent residence time in the liquor. Destabilization of the liquor also occurs, giving enhanced oxalate precipitation with less alumina being consumed in agreement with lower layered double hydroxide formation. Thermal regeneration of these structures, followed by in-situ recrystallization in Bayer liquor, also gives enhanced oxalate precipitation, suggesting that there is an opportunity for a regenerable oxalate reduction system. The implementation of these experiments and other related technology into the plant has resulted in the Purox Process for enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer liquor.

Perrotta, A.J. [Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA (United States); Williams, F. [Alcoa Operations, Pt. Comfort, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

257

Comparison of the treatment of cyanide poisoning in the cynomolgus monkey with sodium nitrite of 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-dmap), with and without sodium thiosulfate. Technical report, April 1979-September 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two methemoglobin generating compounds, sodium nitrite (iv) or 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-DMAP) (im), with and without sodium thiosulfate (iv), were compared as post-treatment therapy in anesthetized monkeys poisoning with cyanide. Arterial blood samples were taken before and after an injection of sodium cyanide (8.4 mg/kg) and treatment for analyses of blood cyanide, plasma cyanide, thiocyanate and methemoglobin content. Physiologic parameters were monitored in these treated cyanide-poisoned animals. The time course of methemoglobin formation and physiologic parameters were also monitored in animals receiving only 4-DMAP or sodium nitrite. A maximal methemoglobin level was observed at 30 minutes following injection of 4-DMAP, and 60 minutes post injection with sodium nitrite. Volumes of distribution (Vd) of cyanide were calculated from the concentrations of cyanide in blood samples and doses of cyanide injected. Although 4-DMAP forms methemoglobin more rapidly than sodium nitrite, both compounds form methemoglobin quickly enough to provide protection against cyanide poisoning. The protection offered by either compound against the lethal effects of cyanide was potentiated when used in combination with sodium thiosulfate.

Stemler, F.W.; Groff, W.A.; Kaminskis, A.; Johnson, R.P.; Froehlich, H.L.

1994-02-01

258

Genetically targeted radiotherapy using the sodium-iodide symporter for treatment of head and neck cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts at using gene therapy for cancer treatment have achieved limited success. Traditional in vivo gene therapy techniques are limited by relatively inefficient gene transfer, with only a small fraction of tumor cells transfected with the gene of interest. Gene therapy strategies yielding substantial bystander cytotoxicity are preferable and could yield significant clinical effect despite a lack of gene transfer to the entire tumor. We report the successful use of such a strategy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene, expressed primarily in the thyroid, is responsible for physiologic iodide accumulation. Expression of NIS in non-thyroid cell lines has been shown to confer iodide-concentrating ability. Using a recombinant adenovirus-NIS construct (Ad-NIS) delivered to HNSCC cell lines, we demonstrate radioiodide accumulation 15- to 30-fold higher than that of cell lines transduced with a control (Ad-Bgl II) adenovirus. Consistent with NIS-mediated uptake, this accumulation is inhibited by treatment with perchlorate. Using a clonogenic cell survival assay, we demonstrate a statistically significant, dose-dependent decrease in cell survival after delivery of Ad-NIS followed by administration of varying doses of I-131. Compared to a control, Ad-Bgl II-treated group, absolute survival was reduced by 80% at the highest dose of I-131 in Ad-NIS-treated cells. We also demonstrate the ability of NIS gene transfer followed by systemic administration of I-131 to dramatically attenuate tumor formation in nude mice. Three weeks after subcutaneous injection of tumor cells, tumors treated with Ad-NIS had decreased in size by 0.7±0.1 mm, whereas control tumors treated with Ad-Bgl II had increased in size by 7.4±1.7 mm. The relative accessibility of head and neck cancers make them attractive targets for gene therapy. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of genetically targeted radiotherapy using the NIS gene as a possible therapeutic intervention. Supported by NIH CA91709

2003-08-17

259

Microscopical analysis of Candida albicans biofilms on heat-polymerised acrylic resin after chlorhexidine gluconate and sodium hypochlorite treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of Candida albicans to form biofilms on denture surfaces is a significant cofactor in the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis. In this study, we applied a differential staining approach and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse the effect of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate on the viability, removal and morphology of C. albicans forming biofilms on denture acrylic using an in vitro model. Immediately after treatment, to distinguish live from dead C. albicans cells in the remaining biofilms, the specimens were stained differentially and analysed by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Moreover, morphological alterations of fungal cells were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. All disinfectant solutions killed all remaining fungal cells on the specimens. Interestingly, 4% chlorhexidine did not remove these cells from the acrylic resin surface whereas sodium hypochlorite solutions (1% and 2%) provided almost complete biofilm removal. Furthermore, treating the specimens with sodium hypochlorite induced cell morphology alterations, as seen in the residual fungal cells. Finally, according to our findings, it can be suggested that sodium hypochlorite solutions are the first choice as denture cleanser when compared with 4% chlorhexidine because those solutions not only killed C. albicans biofilms but also removed them from the heat-polymerised acrylic resin. PMID:21605193

da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; Acosta, Emílio José T Rodríguez; Pinto, Luciana de Rezende; Graeff, Márcia; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena P; Almeida, Ricardo S; Porto, Vinícius Carvalho

2011-11-01

260

Calcium hydroxide paste as a surface detoxifying agent for infected dental implants: two case reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental implant treatment is successful; however, an implant can become infected during or after osseointegration. The two case reports presented here demonstrate, anecdotally, the effectiveness of endodontic calcium hydroxide paste for the surface treatment of infected, healing, or osseointegrated dental implants. Calcium hydroxide may be an appropriate surface detoxifying agent for local dental implant infections. A sequence of calcium hydroxide and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate surface treatment may provide a broad range of antimicrobial action for detoxifying recalcitrant infections. Calcium hydroxide should not be left in the surgical site. PMID:19813427

Flanagan, Dennis

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Multi-stage absorption of rendering plant odours using sodium hypochlorite and other reagents  

Science.gov (United States)

Conditions for using sodium hypochlorite solution as the main component of a multi-stage absorption system for the treatment of malodorous process emissions were studied, together with the additional reagents needed for effective odour control. In laboratory experiments, mixtures containing vpm levels in air of trimethylamine, hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulphide, n-butanal and sometimes ammonia were passed through three bubble-plate columns containing some of the following: water, dilute sulphuric acid, sodium hypochlorite solutions (varying in pH and available chlorine content) sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen sulphite. Odour removal was monitored by Chromatographic and sensory methods. Conclusions from laboratory experiments were supported by field-tests at four rendering plants in the U.K., treating both ventilation and process gases. Alkaline hypochlorite with considerable excess available chlorine removes many sulphur-compounds and aldehydes but effective odour control requires an acid pre-wash to prevent the generation of odorous chlorinated compounds from ammonia and amines. Acidic hypochlorite solution followed by sodium hydrogen sulphite (to remove aldehyde) and sodium hydroxide was a most effective combination in both laboratory and field tests. Odour generated in chlorination reactions involving acidic hypochlorite solution was analysed by GC-MS and GC-MPD-odour-port and the odour key compounds identified.

Pope, D.; Davis, B. J.; Moss, R. L.

262

Comparison of the therapeutic effects of diclofenac sodium, prednisolone and an alpha blocker for the treatment of renal colic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we compare the efficacy of diclofenac sodium, methylprednisolone and alpha-blockers for the treatment of renal colic treatment.Material and methods: A total of 30 patients between the ages of 18-70 were included in this study. Patients were referred to the Meram Medical Faculty Urology Department or Department of Emergency Medicine at Selcuk University between October 2008 and January 2009. This prospective study was approved by the Selcuk University Meram Medical Faculty Ethics Committee. Patients were randomly divided into 3 cohorts of 10 patients each. The first group consisted of patients receiving diclofenac sodium and an alpha blocker, the second group of patients received diclofenac sodium and prednisolone, and the third group of patients received diclofenac sodium alone. Each patient was diagnosed and evaluated by the same clinician. Evaluation was based on the Numerical Classification Score (NCS and the Renal Colic Symptom Score (RCSS. Pain intensity was evaluated prior to medication administration and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 hours thereafter. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis test. P-value of ?0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Symptoms immediatiely prior to medication administration and after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 hours are evaluated. There are no significant differences between the groups (p>0.05. In group 1, stone expulsion occured in 4 patients (40%, a finding that is statistically significant (p=0.01. No adverse events occurred in any group during this study.Conclusion: Comparison of the therapeutic response among the 3 groups revealed no statistically significant difference. The most important aspects to consider in regard to a treatment modality include diminishing pain, dissolving blockage, a preservation of renal function and minimizing the side effects.

Alpay Sümer

2012-03-01

263

Studies on the effectiveness and safety of cilostazol, beraprost sodium, prostaglandin E1 for the treatment of intermittent claudication.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the effectiveness for the treatment of intermittent claudication (IC) of three drugs with antiplatelet effects, cilostazol, beraprost sodium, and prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)), by using a systemic review of literature and a meta-analysis. A search was undertaken for studies reported between 1966-2002 in the MEDLINE database, and references in published articles and reviews were obtained. Data for maximum walking distance (MWD), pain-free walking distance (PFWD), and adverse clinical events were extracted from the articles that met the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimates of the weighted mean differences (WMD) of MWD and PFWD for cilostazol were 52.19 m [95% confidence interval (CI) 32.08, 72.31] and 39.75 m [95% CI 23.39, 56.10], and those for PGE(1) were 100.27 m [95% CI 15.76, 184.78] and 55.73 [95% CI 21.54, 89.92], respectively. These differences were statistically significant between the test drugs and placebo. However there was no statistical significance difference between beraprost sodium and placebo, even though there was one study that showed a tendency for improvement in walking distance. The total rate of adverse clinical events in cilostazol and beraprost sodium was higher than that for placebo, while there was no statistical significant difference between PGE(1) and placebo, although PGE(1) had a higher tendency for adverse clinical events. The literature evaluation results and the meta-analysis suggest that these two drugs (cilostazol and PGE(1)) can be considered to be effective drugs for the treatment of IC. Due to current availability of only a few clinical reports, further studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of beraprost sodium in the treatment of IC. PMID:15170067

Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Ohno, Keiko; Saito, Ryoko

2004-06-01

264

Influence of the chemical treatment in sodium clay on barrier property of propylene nanocomposites obtained by melt mixing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the influence of the chemical treatment in sodium clay on the barrier property of polypropylene nanocomposites was evaluated. Nanocomposites of PP/clay were obtained by melting intercalation using two different chemically treated clays and the original one was mixed to PP for comparison. The change in the clay structure caused by the chemical treatment was evaluated by X-ray diffractometry. The influence of this modification on the barrier property of the obtained PP nanocomposites was evaluated by analysis of oxygen permeability. (author)

2009-10-13

265

Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji

2014-05-01

266

A review on sodium interaction with concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many problems which should be solved before the construction of commercial fast breeder reactors, and one of them is the interaction of sodium with concrete. The main purpose of this study was to survey the result of experiment on sodium-concrete reaction, performed in the Sandia Laboratory, USA, and to discuss the future problems. Some interesting points extracted from the result of investigation are summarized as follows. The initiation of the exothermic reaction, concrete penetration and the rate of penetration depended on various conditions of restriction, atmospheric pressure and so on, and also on the kinds of aggregate used. The different chemical reaction occurred depending on the different kinds of aggregate. The interaction of sodium with concrete occurred in two stages. In the first stage, sodium reacted with free water contained in concrete, and hydrogen and sodium hydroxide were produced. This reaction continued until the sodium hydroxide reached saturation in sodium pool. In the second stage after the saturation of sodium hydroxide, sodium interacted with the principal ingredients of concrete, thus sodium was consumed, and concrete was penetrated. The interaction of sodium with limestone and basalt concrete was compared. (Kako, I.)

1982-01-01

267

Development of Sodium Technology for LMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the experiments to investigate the characteristics of the free surface fluctuation in a vessel, the experimental correlation was modeled to describe the free surface fluctuation in the upper plenum of a liquid metal reactor within 95% reliability and 2.4% error. The correlation was used to verify the computational model. The new conceptual flowmeters were suggested to measure the sodium flow for the reliability enhancement. The electromagnetic flowmeter with permanent magnet showed a good linearity and repeatability. For reuse of the sodium contaminated component, CO2 bubbling method was developed. Sodium in 0.3mm crevice specimen was removed completely. The optimum condition for the used sodium treatment was deduced to estimate which reaction is more safe and adequate for operation condition by analyzing the reactivity alleviation condition and the reaction rate with the control of sodium hydroxide concentration A series of tests were carried out to investigate the enlargement rate of the nozzle hole itself and the sodium-water reaction temperature associated with needle-like jets of a high-pressure water/steam into the sodium side of a steam generator. The size of the nozzle hole became larger with an increased duration of the steam injection both for the 2.25Cr-1Mo and M9Cr-1Mo steels by a self-wastage phenomenon. For developing the SWR acoustic leak detection technology, the tool prepared by the LabVIEW was installed with the system, and confirmed the performance of the on-line acoustic leak detection tool using the SWR leak signal acquired in the KAERI facility

2007-01-01

268

Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Nitrite And/Or Glutathione Treatment On Male Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Using food preservatives as sodium nitrite are increased in industrial food productions. Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects have been related to using of some food preservatives. Purpose: To study the effect of sodium nitrite (food additives and treated with glutathione (nature antitoxic on rats. Material And Methods: Certain parameters were measured as percentage of body weight change, body temperature, heart rates, Red & white blood cells count (RBCs & WBCs, hemoglobin (Hb level, hematocrite (Hct value, serum total lipids, serum cholesterol, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum glucose, serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase (ALT & AST activity and serum total cholinesterase. The organs, body weight were detected. Organs were prepared for biochemical analysis. Results: Body weight, respiration rate, hepatosomatic index, RBCs & WBCs count, Hb, Hct, serum total lipids, protein, albumin, A/G ratio, liver and muscle total lipids and cholesterol were significantly reduced while serum cholesterol, kidney total lipids and cholesterol, serum ALT & AST was significantly increased. Supplementation of sodium nitrite to rats had no effect on serum glucose level or cholinesterase activity Conclusion: Due to the hazardous effect of food additives as sodium nitrite, it is recommended that the use of sodium nitrite as food additives must be limited and gluathione has the ability to prevent its toxic effect

Eman Helal; *Zahkok, S; **Ghada Z A Soliman; * Al-Kassas, M;

2008-03-01

269

Observation of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To explore the effects of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis. METHODS:Forty patients with ocular herpes zoster were divided into two groups, 20 cases in the observation group, 20 cases in the control group. Observation group was treated with 200mg oral acyclovir for 5 times a day and sodium hyaluronate eye drops for 4 times a day. When stromal keratitis, disciform keratitis or corneal endotheliitis occurred, fluorometholone was used for 4 times a day. The control group was treated with ganciclovir ophthalmic gel for 4 times a day. The efficacy of two groups was observed, patients were followed up for 3-4wk. RESULTS:The observation group of local pain and photophobia in remission time and corneal damage healing time were better than control group, and there were significant differences(PCONCLUSION: Effects of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis are satisfactory.

Yao-Hua Chen

2014-04-01

270

Predicting As removal during metal hydroxide precipitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simplified isotherm is described that can predict the extent of arsenate removal at drinking water utilities practicing coagulation or iron-manganese (Fe-Mn) removal. If all possible sources of particulate iron and aluminum hydroxide present in the system are accounted for, the model predicts arsenic (As) removal to within {+-}13 percent (90 percent confidence) for Fe coagulation at pH 6.5--8 and alum coagulation at pH < 7.6. Analysis of full-scale treatment data suggests that colloidal aluminum (Al) flocs with sorbed arsenate [As(V)] may pass through filters, thereby decreasing overall As removal efficiency. Thus, Al solubility and particle stability must be minimized to improve As removal. If stability and solubility of aluminum hydroxide flocs are not a problem, alum and Fe coagulants have nearly equal capacity for sorbing As(V). Survey results also demonstrate the importance of particulate As.

McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-01-01

271

Tratamento da distrofia muscular progressiva com lactato de sódio Treatment of progressive muscular dystrophy with sodium lactate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com base em trabalhos anteriores, 13 casos de distrofia muscular progressiva foram tratados com lactato de sódio 1/6 molar associado a ATP e complexo B. O exame da força muscular, realizado antes e após o tratamento — salvo em dois casos nos quais ocorreram melhoras muito discretas — não mostrou qualquer efeito favorável da medicação. Os autores sugerem a verificação de possíveis alterações enzimáticas provocadas pelo lactato de sódio, o que serviria para melhor avaliação do efeito terapêutico.Thirteen cases of progressive muscular dystrophy were treated with 1/6 M. sodium lactate plus ATP and B complex. Examinations of muscle strength, before and after the treatment, did not show any favourable effects, except in two of the cases which showed slight improvement. The authors suggest that possible enzimatic alterations caused by the sodium lactate be checked up on, since this checking could be employed in the evaluation of the therapeutic effects.

José Antonio Levy

1969-12-01

272

Effect of chronic oral administration of a low dose of captopril on sodium appetite of hypothyroid rats: Influence of aldosterone treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with methimazole develop an exaggerated sodium appetite. We investigated here the capacity of hypothyroid rats (N = 12 for each group) to respond to a low dose of captopril added to the ration, a paradigm which induces an increase in angiotensin II synthesis in [...] cerebral areas that regulate sodium appetite by increasing the availability of circulating angiotensin I. In addition, we determined the influence of aldosterone in hypothyroid rats during the expression of spontaneous sodium appetite and after captopril treatment. Captopril significantly increased (P

R.R., Ventura; E.L., Olivares; D.B., Passos Junior; M.J., Ramalho; J., Antunes-Rodrigues; L.C., Reis.

273

Effect of ascorbate ions in DTPA treatment after contamination by mixed plutonium dioxide-sodium burning products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plutonium toxicity problems arising from the use of molten sodium cooled fast breeder reactors involving the accidental mixing and ignition of sodium contaminated by plutonium dioxide have been investigated. The possibility of using the strong reducing agent, ascorbate ion, in order to reduce Pu VI to a chemical form more complexable by DTPA, has been tested using male and female rats. Urine, feces, liver and skeletal measurements of 239Pu daughter products were carried out. It was shown that the transportable fraction was not significantly modified by the associate ascorbate-DTPA treatment. However the skeletal burden which represents 2.2% with DTPA, reached only 1.6% with ascorbate association and 0.3% with preventive ascorbate injections. Whatever the DTPA ascorbate treatment, the liver burden was not modified significantly. Difference observable only with preventive ascorbate treatment cancels out ascorbate association in order to greatly increase DTPA therapy efficiency, but seems to indicate that the Pu-proteins associations in blood is reduced more easily by ascorbate than association of Pu with local proteins. Ascorbate reduction can also be observed in urinary elimination in that preventive ascorbate, followed by DTPA-ascorbate, leads to a quicker urinary elimination than DTPA or DTPA plus ascorbate post treatment. (U.K.)

1977-01-01

274

Sorption of tungsten ions by cryogranulated titanium, zirconium and iron hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation on sorption of tungsten ions by cryogranulated titanium, zirconium and iron hydroxides is carried out. As initials 0.01 M solutions of sodium tungstate with different pH value in the presence of (NH4)2SO4, NH4Cl and NH4NO3 electrolytes have been used. IR spectra of hydroxides with sorbed ions of tungsten are presented. The possibility of using cryogranulated hydroxides for extraction and concentration of tungsten from aqueous solutions with high salt background of strange electrolite is shown

1984-01-01

275

Antimicrobial evaluation of gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide paste in infected root canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Microbial irritation is the major etiologic cause of pulp and periapical lesions. Therefore the main goal of endodontic treatment is complete elimination or inimizing acteria with chemo-mechanical preparation. Calcium hydroxide is one of the chemical substances, which are used, in endodontic treatment and its antimicrobial effect on various bacteria has extensively has been studied and researched. Recently Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide has been offered to dentistry.The purpose this study was to examine the antimicrobial effects of this substance in infected root canals. Material and Methods: In this study ninty extracted human maxillary central incisors, which had been extracted to various reasons, were selected. After canal preparation and root sterilization, all the samples (excluding 10 negative control samples were contaminated by bacillus subtillis. Then these eighty roots were randomly divided into 3 groups , which were 10 roots as positive control group ( non medicated , 35 roots medicated with Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide as group A, 35 roots medicated with calcium hydroxide as group B. after 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days in these three groups , antimicrobial effect was assessed. Result: The result showed no significant difference (p=0.35 between antimicrobial effect of Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide past.Conclusion: Since there is no significant difference between antimicrobial effect of Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide past, it seems that the usage of this product as an intracanal medication should be more investigated

Eshagh A Saberi

2010-06-01

276

Determination of the biodistribution and biokinetics of radiopharmaca like "1"6"6Ho-ferric-hydroxide or "1"5"3Sm-EDTMP used for therapeutic treatment by energy dispersive measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity distribution of beta-emitting radionuclides in the human body and the respective therapeutic dose distribution in the target and the unwanted leakage in the other organs was determined by measurement of corresponding gamma-lines. The measurement was done by scanning in a whole-body counter in the General Hospital Vienna. It is possible to localize activity and dose distribution by means of the detected activity profiles of the four detectors. Two typical treatments are reported: the treatment of synovitis using radiation of "1"6"6Ho-Ferric-Hydroxide (characteristic gamma-line: 81 keV) and radionuclide therapy focused at the palliative treatment of bone metastases with "1"5"3Sm-EDTMP, a bone seeking beta-emitting radionuclide (characteristic gamma-line: 103 keV). For the determination of the applied dose, the leakage and the quality assurance spectroscopic data of a clinical whole-body counter can be a useful tool for controlling and monitoring in health care. (authors)

2003-09-22

277

Pharmacology and clinical potential of oblimersen sodium in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

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Gautam Borthakur, Susan O'BrienDepartment of Leukemia, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Targeted inhibition of the Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins is expected to improve outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Antisense oligonucleotides and small molecule inhibitors (BH3 mimetics) are two approaches that have been used to target Bcl-2 proteins. In this review, we summarize the experience with oblimersen sodium, an 18-base oligonucleotide targeting the first si...

Borthakur G; O'Brien S

2012-01-01

278

Heat treatment and anaerobic digestion of refuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alkaline heat treatment is evaluated as a pretreatment process for increasing the anaerobic digestibility of municipal refuse. Batch digestibility assays were employed to ascertain the separate effects of solids concentration, sodium hydroxide concentration, and temperature (25-250C/sup 0/) on the methane yield from refuse. Consumption of added alkali was observed and found to be relatively constant per unit mass of refuse solids. Various semi-continuous reactor configurations were evaluated.

Gossett, J.M.; Stuckey, D.C.; Owen, W.F.; McCarty, P.L.

1982-06-01

279

Degradation of l-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesiumâ??aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces and catalytically active Mg site centers are causative factors for PLA degradation. Interestingly, the release of water under the processing conditions was found to have a rather small effect on the PLA degradation. Low loadings of sodium laurate also caused PLA degradation indicating that carboxylate chain ends may be active degrading agents. Phosphate treatment of laurate-modified LDH was investigated and this may be a promising way of reducing PLA degradation, thereby making such processes more practically realistic.

Gerds, Nathalie; Katiyar, Vimal

2012-01-01

280

Coadministration of a Na(+)-H(+) exchange inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest in piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background:The present study tested the hypothesis that addition of an inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1) to sodium bicarbonate might improve the response to base therapy from prolonged asphyxial cardiac arrest in piglets.Methods:Asphyxial cardiac arrest was induced by endotracheal tube clamping. Animals were randomly assigned to four study groups: (i) vehicle control, (ii) administration of sabiporide (NHE1 inhibitor), (iii) administration of sodium bicarbonate, and (iv) administration of sabiporide and sodium bicarbonate.Results:Administration of sodium bicarbonate alone did not affect survival, hemodynamic measures, and regional blood flow to critical tissues such as brain, heart, kidney, liver, and spleen. In contrast, sabiporide given alone or combined with sodium bicarbonate improved these. Furthermore, treatment with sabiporide reduced accumulation of neutrophils, reduced cytokine production in the lung, and reduced plasma levels of cardiac troponin-I, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and urea. In addition, the combined use of sabiporide and sodium bicarbonate had more profound reduction in interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, compared to sabiporide alone.Conclusion:These results suggest that addition of sabiporide to the administration of sodium bicarbonate might improve hemodynamic response and dampen the inflammatory cascade noted with cardiac arrest, and therefore being an attractive option in the treatment of cardiac arrest. PMID:24796369

Lin, Xinchun; Kraut, Jeffrey A; Wu, Dongmei

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Mutagenic effects of 137Cs gamma ray and sodium azide combined treatment on rice (oryza sativa L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dry seeds of rice variety, Guanglu No.4, were treated with 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 Gy of gamma ray or 1,2,3 mmol of sodium azide (NaN3), and with their combination. The biological effects in M1 and mutation frequency of M2 were investigated. The results showed that the biological injuries of M1 increased with dose of gamma ray and concentration of NaN3. The additive effects were observed on seedling height, root length, vigorous index of seedling height, vigorous index of root length and the synergic effect on the percentage of chromosome aberration. It was found that combination treatment with gamma ray and sodium azide were more effective than single treatment of gamma ray or NaN3. The results of this study suggested that 200 Gy gamma ray + 2 mmol NaN3 was the most effective one for inducing mutation. Frequency of chlorophyll mutation, mutation on heading date and the plant height in M2 generation were 2.833%, 2.473% and 1.828% respectively. Index of interaction were 1.640, 1.329 and 1.449 respectively

1993-03-01

282

Effect of calcium hydroxide pastes on uninstrumented canal wall studied with scanning electron microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium hydroxide (Calpha(OH)2) paste has been used as a root canal dressing for long time and promotes healing of vital pulp and periapical tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dissolving effect of calcium hydroxide paste mixed with different vehicles on uninstrumented canal walls using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty one recently extracted single-root teeth were used. The crowns were removed and the root sections were divided longitudinally into two halves. The pulp tissue was removed and the specimens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The control group was immediately fixed without any treatment. The canals in the other groups were filled with the different calcium hydroxide pastes: group 1 (n = 6), with saline solution; group 2 (n = 6) with propylene glycol; group 3 (n = 6) with propylene glycol and camphorated p-monochlorophenol; group 4 (n = 6) with sodium hypochlorite; group 5 (n = 6) with chorhexidine 1%, group 6 (n = 6) with iodine potassium iodide 0.1/0.2%. The specimens were kept in an incubator at 100% humidity and 37 degrees C, removed after 14 days, and washed ultrasonically for 10 min. Then they were fixed with glutaraldehyde and examined with scanning electron microscopy The percentage of organic remains and paste were evaluated and scored. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal- Wallis test. In groups 1, 5 and 2 there were more cavities without organic remains than in the other groups (p 0.05). The paste in group 3 cleaned only 5%. In groups 4, 6 and 7 (control) the canals walls were wholly covered with fiber, cells, and residual paste, the percentage cleaned was 0. This study shows that Calpha(OH)2 pastes with saline solution, with chlorhexidine and with propylene glycol have a greater dissolving effect on the canal walls than the other pastes evaluated. PMID:22550816

de la Casa, María Luisa; Sáez, María del Milagro; López, Gabriela; López, María Elena

2011-01-01

283

Changes in Erythrocyte Sodium-Lithium Countertransport and Plasma Parameters Following Selenium Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of selenium as an antioxidant on erythrocyte Sodium-Lithium Countertransport (SLC activity and plasma parameters have not already been studied in full detail. In the present study, the relationship between selenium and SLC activity, plasma parameters (lipids, lipoproteins, sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine was investigated. Male rabbits weighed 1350±50 g were divided in to four groups (5 in each. For in vivo studies selenium dioxide (SeO2 was administered intraperitoneally on alternate days for 2 weeks as acute dose (250 ?g kg-1 body weight and for 7 weeks as chronic dose (125 ?g kg-1 body weight. The control groups for each doses received deionized water at the same time. The results showed that the acute dose of selenium decreased SLC activity and Vmax/Km, but the Km of the transporter was increased. Also this metal decreased plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL. All these changes may be helpful to the health. The chronic dose of the metal increased SLC activity, Vmax/Km and Vmax, but it decreased Km of the transporter. This dose of selenium increased plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL, LDL, sodium and decreased the potassium level. In vitro studies showed that, the metal at low concentration (1 ?M can lower SLC activity and then it is beneficial to the health, but at high concentration (50 and 100 ?M increases the SLC activity and may cause a serious problem to the health. It is concluded that selenium at high concentration and with chronic dose increases the SLC activity and plasma lipids. But at low concentration and acute dose will have a beneficial effect to the health.

Samad Akbarzadeh

2008-01-01

284

Mycophenolate sodium treatment in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome: a pilot trial  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mycophenolate sodium (MPS) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) refractory to other immunosuppressive agents. Eleven patients with pSS were treated with MPS up to 1,440 mg daily for an observation period of 6 months in this single-center, open-label pilot trial. At baseline, after 3 months, and after 6 months, we examined the clinical status, including glandular function tests, as well as different laboratory paramet...

Willeke, Peter; Schlu?ter, Bernhard; Becker, Heidemarie; Schotte, Heiko; Domschke, Wolfram; Gaubitz, Markus

2007-01-01

285

Treatment of lung cancer with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous sodium thiosulfate rescue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty-nine patients with primary lung cancer were treated with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous injection of an antidote, sodium thiosulfate. More than 50% reduction of tumor size (PR) was observed in 8 of 9 small cell carcinomas (SCLC) and in 16 of 40 non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). In NSCLC patients PR was obtained in 71% (12/17) after repeated infusions (? 200 mg cisplatin) and in 17% (4/23) after a single infusion (? 150 mg cisplatin). There was a significant linear relationship between cisplatin dose and tumor reduction in this group. No severe adverse effects were encountered. (orig.)

1988-01-01

286

Case report: Acute renal injury as a result of liposomal amphotericin B treatment in sodium stibogluconate unresponsive visceral leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report an unusual case of visceral leishmaniasis occurring in a patient from Sichuan China. The patient presented with a remitting fever, anemia, and pancytopenia. The case was confirmed as visceral leishmaniasis by microscopical detection of the Leishmania species amastigote in bone marrow aspirate. The patient was treated with 10 mg/kg/day of sodium stibogluconate for 5 days, with no therapeutic response. As a result, the patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B (LAB) at 10 mg/day as an initial dosage. After treatment with an increasing drug dosage for 7 days, acute renal injury was evident as indicated by increased serum creatinine and urea nitrogen. LAB administration was discontinued until serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen regressed on Day 15. Two maintenance treatments of 100 mg/day LAB were given on Days 19 and 26 (total 870 mg, 14.5 mg/kg). Bone marrow aspirate and clinical examination suggested total remission. PMID:22144439

Zhao, Songtao; Zhang, Dongxia; Li, Ling; Mao, Qing

2011-12-01

287

Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long term stability is crucial to maturing any photovoltaic technology. We have studied the influence of sodium, which plays a key role in optimizing the performance of Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGSe solar cells, on the long-term stability of flexible CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil. The standardized procedure of damp heat exposure (85% relative humidity at 85 °C was used to simulate aging of the unencapsulated cells in multiple time steps while they were characterized by current-voltage analysis, capacitance-voltage profiling, as well as electroluminescence imaging. By comparing the aging process to cells that were exposed to heat only, it could be confirmed that moisture plays the key role in the degradation process. We found that cells with higher sodium content suffer from a more pronounced degradation. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate the superposition of an enhancing and a deteriorating mechanism during the aging process. We propose an explanation based on the corrosion of the planar contacts of the solar cell.

Felix Daume

2013-11-01

288

Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 deg. C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 deg. C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 deg. C had lower water absorption as 12.22%, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

2011-10-29

289

Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 °C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 °C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 °C had lower water absorption as 12.22 %, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Thueploy, A.; Nilpairach, S.; Arayaphong, D.

2011-10-01

290

Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika  

Science.gov (United States)

Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (pirradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was investigated to reduce the gamma irradiation dose. In an artificial inoculation experiment of B. cinerea isolated from naturally-infected postharvest paprika, fungal symptoms were observed in the stem and exocarp of paprika after conidial inoculation. From the sensitivity of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, B. cinerea conidia were fully inactivated by 4 kGy of gamma irradiation (D10 value 0.99 kGy), and were fully inactivated by 50 ppm NaDCC treatment. The fungal symptoms were not detected by the dose-dependent gamma irradiation (>4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (pirradiation and NaDCC) than single treatment groups (gamma irradiation or NaDCC). These results suggest that combined treatment with irradiation and NaDCC treatment can be applied to preserve quality of postharvest paprika or other fruits.

Yoon, Minchul; Jung, Koo; Lee, Kwang-Youll; Jeong, Je-Yong; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hae-Jun

2014-05-01

291

Ablation of prion protein immunoreactivity by heating in saturated calcium hydroxide  

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Abstract Background Prions, the infectious agents that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are relatively resistant to destruction by physical, enzymatic, and chemical treatments. Hydrolysis in boiling saturated calcium hydroxide (limewater) utilizes inexpensive chemicals to digest protein components of offal. The purpose of this work was to determine if incubating brain material from scrapie-infected sheep in near-boiling saturated calcium hydroxide solut...

Greenlee Justin J; Nicholson Eric M; Hamir Amir N; Noyes Gary P; Holtzapple Mark T; Kehrli Marcus E

2008-01-01

292

Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable.

Bergman, T.B.

1998-08-26

293

Sodium Azide  

Science.gov (United States)

... Matters What's New A - Z Index Facts About Sodium Azide What sodium azide is Sodium azide is a rapidly acting, ... give people sufficient warning of the danger. Where sodium azide is found and how it is used ...

294

Treatment of lung cancer with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous sodium thiosulfate rescue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forty-nine patients with primary lung cancer were treated with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous injection of an antidote, sodium thiosulfate. More than 50% reduction of tumor size (PR) was observed in 8 of 9 small cell carcinomas (SCLC) and in 16 of 40 non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). In NSCLC patients PR was obtained in 71% (12/17) after repeated infusions (greater than or equal to 200 mg cisplatin) and in 17% (4/23) after a single infusion (less than or equal to 150 mg cisplatin). There was a significant linear relationship between cisplatin dose and tumor reduction in this group. No severe adverse effects were encountered.

Uchiyama, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Nakajo, M.; Shinohara, S.

1988-01-01

295

The optimum methods of sodium azide treatment after gamma ray irradiation in wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dormant seeds of two varieties of winter wheat were irradiated with gamma ray (200 Gy). The optimum methods, including presoaking-time of seeds, the concentration and treating-time of NaN3, were studied. It was found that the seedling height in M1 were decreased significantly and the starting-time of seed germination were delayed after seeds were presoaked. The average seedling height and the rate of emergence were reduced with the increase of concentration of treating-time of NaN3. On the basis of half of seedling height in M1, seeds presoaked for 10-12 hours and treated for 2 hours with 2 mM sodium azide were suitable for winter wheat

1991-01-01

296

Cumulative cardiac toxicity of sodium stibogluconate and amphotericin B in treatment of kala-azar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis is a disseminated protozoal infection caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania (Leishmania donovani in India). Conventional therapy for visceral leishmaniasis continues to be pentavalent antimony (sodium antimony gluconate [SAG]). Amphotericin B is widely used for SAG-unresponsive cases and sometimes even as a first-line drug, especially in endemic areas. With the conventional regimen of SAG, cardiac toxicity has been reported in 8% to 17% of cases with 5% to 7% of them having fatal toxicity. Cardiac toxicity is uncommon with amphotericin B with only few isolated reports. We report some patients with kala-azar in whom coadministration of SAG and amphotericin B led to arrhythmia and sudden death. PMID:20823781

Maheshwari, Anu; Seth, Anju; Kaur, Satnam; Aneja, Satinder; Rath, Bimbadhar; Basu, Srikanta; Patel, Rakesh; Dutta, Ashok Kumar

2011-02-01

297

Pharmacology and clinical potential of oblimersen sodium in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gautam Borthakur, Susan O'BrienDepartment of Leukemia, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Targeted inhibition of the Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins is expected to improve outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Antisense oligonucleotides and small molecule inhibitors (BH3 mimetics are two approaches that have been used to target Bcl-2 proteins. In this review, we summarize the experience with oblimersen sodium, an 18-base oligonucleotide targeting the first six codons of Bcl-2 mRNA, with particular focus on chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Despite evidence of improved outcomes in randomized trials of combination with chemoimmunotherapy, further development of this antisense approach has been slow, likely because of the clinical development of small molecule inhibitors.Keywords: oblimersen, Bcl-2, antisense, chronic lymphocytic leukemia

O'Brien S

2012-08-01

298

Evaluation of a consolidation treatment in dolostones by mean of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in high relative humidity conditions; Evaluacion del tratamiento de consolidacion de dolomias mediante nanoparticulas de hidroxido de calcio en condiciones de alta humedad relativa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article, the results of a treatment applied to dolomitic stones using an isopropyl colloidal solution based on calcium hydroxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 2.0g/l are presented. The consolidation process in the stone has been checked before and after 28 days of exposure to 75% relative humidity. Morphologic and structural studies of the consolidating product confirmed the carbonation process. X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (TEM and ESEM), and electron diffraction carried out on the consolidating product have confirmed the transformation of portlandite phase to calcium carbonate polymorph, calcite, aragonite and vaterite. Petrophysical tests performed on the stone before and after the application of the product have shown the improvement in the physical and hydrical properties due to the increase in the ultrasound velocity and density of the material, and a decrease in the capillarity coefficient and open porosity without significant changes in colour and brightness. The application of the consolidating product in the proposed experimental conditions is a natural method, compatible with the petrological characteristics of the substrate, without secondary damages on the stone, being an effective method to improve the durability of carbonate stones. (Author) 26 refs.

Gomez-Villalba, L. s.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza, A.; Alvares de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

2011-07-01

299

Dialysate sodium, serum sodium and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis  

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Background. Individuals with end-stage kidney disease appear to have stable pre-dialysis serum sodium concentrations over time, with lower values associating with increased mortality. Dialysate sodium concentrations have increased over many years in response to shorter treatments, but the relationship between serum sodium, dialysate sodium and outcomes in chronic hemodialysis patients has not yet been systematically examined.

2012-01-01

300

Method for preparation of sodium iodide and iodate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preparation of sodium iodide and iodate of higher purity at the expense of the increase in their separation degree, which comprises iodine interaction with sodium hydroxide, sodium iodate solid phase isolation by means of filtration from mother solution containing sodium iodide, is described. Sodium iodate impurity in mother solution is reduced by sodium sulfite, and sodium iodate, contained in the solid phase, is isolated after its repulping at mass ratio solid: liquid 1:1.8-3.4 at 15-40 deg. The solution formed is returned to the stage of iodine interaction with NaOH

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Tratamento da distrofia muscular progressiva com lactato de sódio / Treatment of progressive muscular dystrophy with sodium lactate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com base em trabalhos anteriores, 13 casos de distrofia muscular progressiva foram tratados com lactato de sódio 1/6 molar associado a ATP e complexo B. O exame da força muscular, realizado antes e após o tratamento ? salvo em dois casos nos quais ocorreram melhoras muito discretas ? não mostrou qua [...] lquer efeito favorável da medicação. Os autores sugerem a verificação de possíveis alterações enzimáticas provocadas pelo lactato de sódio, o que serviria para melhor avaliação do efeito terapêutico. Abstract in english Thirteen cases of progressive muscular dystrophy were treated with 1/6 M. sodium lactate plus ATP and B complex. Examinations of muscle strength, before and after the treatment, did not show any favourable effects, except in two of the cases which showed slight improvement. The authors suggest that [...] possible enzimatic alterations caused by the sodium lactate be checked up on, since this checking could be employed in the evaluation of the therapeutic effects.

Levy, José Antonio; Andrade, Almir Ferreira de.

302

Comparison between Intravenous Sodium Valproate and Subcutaneous Sumatriptan for Treatment of Acute Migraine Attacks; Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Sodium valproate (SV) has been approved for migraine prophylaxis and its intravenous form is used to treat acute migraine attacks. We compared the efficacy and safety of intravenous SV and subcutaneous Sumatriptan in managing acute migraine attacks. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial divided 90 patients into two groups: one group received 400 mg of intravenous SV and the second group received 6 mg of subcutaneous Sumatriptan. Headache severity before treatment and half an hour, one hour, and two hours after treatment was measured based on the VNRS in the groups. Associated symptoms, i.e., photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting, were assayed on admission and 2 hours after treatment. Side effects of the drugs were checked 2 hours after injection. Obtained data from the groups were compared. Results: In both groups, pain decrement at the mentioned time points was significant (P0.05), indicating the similar effect of both drugs on pain improvement. In the SV group, photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting were improved significantly, while in the Sumatriptan group, only photophobia and vomiting were decreased significantly, indicating the advantage of SV in improving the associated symptoms. Nausea, vomiting, facial paresthesia, and hypotension were more significantly frequent in the Sumatriptan group than in the SV group (PSumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks, but with more improvement in associated symptoms and with fewer side effects. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201108025943N4. PMID:24753639

Rahimdel, Abolghasem; Mellat, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad; Jafari, Elahe; Ayatollahi, Parisa

2014-03-01

303

Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice  

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Full Text Available Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate and Trichostatin A (TSA treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development of post-stroke epilepsy. Unilateral carotid ligation of P12 CD1 mice was followed by treatment with valproate, TSA, or vehicle for 2 weeks, BrdU administration for measurement of neurogenesis, and perfusion at P42 or P60. Behavior testing was conducted from P38-42. No detrimental effects on behavior testing were noted with TSA treatment, but mildly impaired cognitive function was noted with valproate-treated injured animals compared to normal animals. Significant increases in DG neurogenesis with both TSA and valproate treatment were noted with later administration of BrdU. Increased mortality and impaired weight gain was noted in the valproate-treated ligated animals, but not in the TSA-treated animals. In summary, the impact of HDAC inhibition upon post-stroke SGZ neurogenesis is likely to depend on the age of the animal at the time point when neurogenesis is assessed, duration of HDAC inhibition before BrdU labeling, and/or the stage in the evolution of the injury.

AnneMarieComi

2013-08-01

304

Radiation-electron spin resonance studies on alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses at low temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma-irradiated alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses were investigated using electron spin-resonance (esr) technique at a temperature range 92-163 K. The study was also conducted on these systems using chemical additives as electron scavengers including potassium ferricyanide, potassium nitrate, and sodium selenite and selenate. Sodium, potassium and rubidium hydroxide containing SeO42- and NO3- as scavengers have been investigated in detail over a range of temperatures (92-163 K). An attempt has been made to analyse the scavenging yields and the results have been treated in terms of scavenging efficiencies. Irradiated aqeuous hydroxide glasses of sodium mixed with potassium or rubidium were studied using NO3- and SeO42- as a scavenger. The esr study of rubidium and caesium hydroxide at 163 K gave rise to a characteristic spectrum similar to the one assigned to NO32-not present in the original systems at 92 K. Interesting results were obtained when the samples containing SeO32-were photobleached with white light. Possible mechanisms for the reactions of the scavenger ion in the alkaline glass are discussed in the light of previous studies. The work with caesium hydroxide has reinforced recent ideas that electrons are trapped within the matrix of the glass on irradiation. (author)

1985-01-01

305

Radiation-electron spin resonance studies on alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses at low temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gamma-irradiated alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses were investigated using electron spin-resonance (esr) technique at a temperature range 92-163 K. The study was also conducted on these systems using chemical additives as electron scavengers including potassium ferricyanide, potassium nitrate, and sodium selenite and selenate. Sodium, potassium and rubidium hydroxide containing SeO/sub 4//sup 2-/ and NO/sub 3//sup -/ as scavengers have been investigated in detail over a range of temperatures (92-163 K). An attempt has been made to analyse the scavenging yields and the results have been treated in terms of scavenging efficiencies. Irradiated aqeuous hydroxide glasses of sodium mixed with potassium or rubidium were studied using NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SeO/sub 4//sup 2-/ as a scavenger. The esr study of rubidium and caesium hydroxide at 163 K gave rise to a characteristic spectrum similar to the one assigned to NO/sub 3//sup 2-/not present in the original systems at 92 K. Interesting results were obtained when the samples containing SeO/sub 3//sup 2-/were photobleached with white light. Possible mechanisms for the reactions of the scavenger ion in the alkaline glass are discussed in the light of previous studies. The work with caesium hydroxide has reinforced recent ideas that electrons are trapped within the matrix of the glass on irradiation.

Abbas, A.K.

1985-01-01

306

Reaction of Calcium Hydroxide with Carbon Dioxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Details for carrying out an experiment on the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide are given. The addition of water is necessary for a reaction between dry calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide. (ERA citation 02:005491)

F. W. Dorst

1975-01-01

307

Sodium carbonate facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sodium Carbonate Facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was designed and built as an addition to the existing Sodium Processing Facility. The Sodium Process and Sodium Carbonate Facilities will convert radioactive sodium into a product that is acceptable for land disposal in Idaho. The first part of the process occurs in the Sodium Process Facility where radioactive sodium is converted into sodium hydroxide (caustic). The second part of the process occurs in the Sodium Carbonate Facility where the caustic solution produced in the Sodium Process Facility is converted into a dry sodium carbonate waste suitable for land disposal. Due to the radioactivity in the sodium, shielding, containment, and HEPA filtered off-gas systems are required throughout both processes

1997-07-21

308

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Fit-Friendly Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Sodium and Salt Updated:May 22,2014 About Sodium ... Striking a Balance: Less Sodium (Salt) More Potassium Sodium & High Blood Pressure Nutrition Quizzes & Tools Fats and ...

309

Safety and efficacy of clobazam versus phenytoin-sodium in the antiepileptic drug treatment of solitary cysticercus granulomas  

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Full Text Available Background: It is now agreed that the prognosis of seizure disorder due to solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG is generally good. However, the choice antiepileptic drugs (AEDs remain empirical, with no comparative trials of different AEDs being available. Aims: To determine the safety and efficacy (measured by the incidence of ?treatment failure? of clobazam in comparison to standard treatment with phenytoin-sodium for prevention of seizures in persons with solitary cysticercus granulomas (SCGs. Settings and Design: This pilot study was conducted in a neurology department of a medical college hospital in the form of a prospective, randomized, open-labeled trial. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight patients with seizures due to SCG were randomized in an open-labeled trial to either, clobazam (1 mg/kg oral loading followed by 0.5 mg/kg/d (n=21 or phenytoin (15 mg/kg, oral loading in 3 divided doses over 24 h, followed by 5 mg/kg/d (n=27. They were followed over 6 months with the primary outcome measure being treatment failure (either discontinuation or modification of AEDs due to either adverse effects or breakthrough seizures. Results: Treatment failures were noted to be significantly less common ( P =0.03 in the clobazam-treated group (n=1; 4.7% than in phenytoin-treated group (n=9; 33.3%. These included one patient (4.7% in the clobazam-group who had breakthrough seizures and 3 (11.1% who had breakthrough seizures and 6 (22.2% in the phenytoin-treated group who had adverse effects requiring treatment discontinuation. Conclusions: Clobazam was well tolerated, safe and more effective than phenytoin in the AED treatment of patients with SCG.

Kaushal Sandeep

2006-01-01

310

Kinetics of thermal dehydration of zirconium and thorium hydroxide hydrogels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of thermal dehydration of synthetic zirconium and thorium hydroxide hydrogels have been studied by thermogravimetric method. Dehydration followed first order kinetics upto a certain stage. The rate constants for the initial and final stages of dehydration were related to the water content of the gels. Textural change on heat treatment also contributes to it. (author)

1983-03-01

311

Varicella Zoster Virus Meningitis Complicating Sodium Stibogluconate Treatment for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

U.S. Armed Forces, with more than 700 cutaneous cases diagnosed in servicemen deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Treatment options available for patients infected with Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis range from observation for patients with...

C. A. Hawkes J. D. Hartzell N. E. Aronson S. Nagaraja T. Whitman

2006-01-01

312

The sodium process facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters (180,000 gallons) of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The SPF was designed to react elemental sodium to sodium carbonate through two-stages involving caustic process and carbonate process steps. The sodium is first reacted to sodium hydroxide in the caustic process step. The caustic process step involves the injection of sodium into a nickel reaction vessel filled with a 50 wt% solution of sodium hydroxide. Water is also injected, controlling the boiling point of the solution. In the carbonate process, the sodium hydroxide is reacted with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate. This dry powder, similar in consistency to baking soda, is a waste form acceptable for burial in the State of Idaho as a non-hazardous, radioactive waste. The caustic process was originally designed and built in the 1980s for reacting the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of primary sodium from the Fermi-1 Reactor to sodium hydroxide. The hydroxide was slated to be used to neutralize acid products from the PUREX process at the Hanford site. However, changes in the DOE mission precluded the need for hydroxide and the caustic process was never operated. With the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), the necessity for a facility to react sodium was identified. In order to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the sodium had to be converted into a waste form acceptable for disposal in a Sub-Title D low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Sodium hydroxide is a RCRA regulated waste. It was decided to convert the hydroxide to sodium carbonate, a substance that is not RCRA regulated. ANL-W undertook the task of upgrading the SPF, and designing and constructing the additional carbonate process. At the time of preparation of this paper, the facilities were undergoing testing and startup activities. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters (13,000 gallons) of the EBR-II secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters (87,000 gallons) of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-levels of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter (71 gallon) barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal. (author)

1997-11-01

313

Effect of acidified sodium chlorite treatment on chicken carcases processed in South Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A trial on the effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on Salmonella and Campylobacter was undertaken on chicken carcases after they exited the screw chiller of a commercial premises in Adelaide, Australia. On untreated carcases mean log10 total viable count (25 degrees C) was 2.78/cm2 compared with 1.23/cm2 on treated carcases. Prevalence of E. coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter was 100%, 90% and 100% respectively, on untreated carcases and 13%, 10% and 23% respectively, on treated carcases. The distributions of E. coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter (mean log10 of positive samples) from untreated carcases were 1.55, -1.80 and 1.59/cm2 respectively, and -0.64, -1.85 and -2.21/cm2 respectively, on treated carcases. On untreated carcases S. Sofia and S. Infantis were isolated from 73% and 37% of carcases, respectively; only S. Sofia was isolated from treated carcases. The significant reductions in both prevalence and concentration demonstrated in the present trial indicate that ASC is a risk management option immediately available to the poultry industry. PMID:17169454

Sexton, Margaret; Raven, Geoff; Holds, Geoff; Pointon, Andrew; Kiermeier, Andreas; Sumner, John

2007-04-10

314

Effects of magnesium-aluminum hydroxide antacid on absorption of rufloxacin.  

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The present study was designed to determine the effects of an antacid suspension containing magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide (30 ml of Maalox) on the oral bioavailability of rufloxacin (400 mg). Rufloxacin was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers according to a randomized, balanced, crossover design. Three treatments were administered to each subject, with a 10-day washout period between treatments; the treatments included rufloxacin alone, rufloxacin taken 5 min after antac...

Lazzaroni, M.; Imbimbo, B. P.; Bargiggia, S.; Sangaletti, O.; Dal Bo, L.; Broccali, G.; Porro, G. B.

1993-01-01

315

REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

2010-05-11

316

Avaliação do fluxo salivar total não estimulado, após o emprego do lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio associado ao hidróxido de cálcio em pacientes irradiados com carcinoma espinocelular da boca e orofaringe Total salivary non stimulated flow evaluation, after radiotherapy for patients with mouth and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma with the association of lauryl-dietylene-glycol-ether sodium sulphate and calcium hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introdução: Avaliar quantitativamente o índice de fluxo salivar total não estimulado de pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe, após tratamento radioterápico, exclusivo, tratados com a associação de lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio e hidróxido de cálcio. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Método: o fluxo salivar foi avaliado em 11 pacientes (n=11 em três fases: 1ª. durante sete semanas, quando foram submetidos à telecobaltoterapia na dose total de 7.000 cGy, sem utilização de medicamento para estimular a salivação; 2ª. em seguida, durante oito semanas após o tratamento radioterápico, quando os pacientes utilizaram a associação medicamentosa como estimulante da salivação; 3ª. finalmente, durante oito semanas após ter sido interrompido o tratamento com a associação de drogas. Resultados: os valores obtidos foram analisados com vistas a avaliação da eficácia da medicação utilizada para evitar a hipofunção salivar no período pós-radioterapia. Dos 11 pacientes, 10 apresentaram melhora significante dos índices de fluxo salivar com o uso da associação de drogas, em relação aos valores do período final do tratamento radioterápico, e mantiveram esses índices mesmo com a suspensão do medicamento. Conclusões: a associação de drogas foi eficaz no tratamento da hipofunção salivar, e proporcionou aumento do índice salivar total não estimulado em 10 dos 11 pacientes, sendo esse aumento mantido por dois meses após a interrupção do uso do medicamento.Introduction: Evaluation of quantitative non-stimulated salivary flow rate in 11 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma after exclusive radiation therapy, treated with the association of lauryl-diethylene-glycol-ether-sodium sulfate and calcium hydroxide. Study design: Prospective clinical no randomized. Method: salivary flow was evaluated in three phases: 1 during seven weeks when they were submitted to radiotherapy with total dose of 7,000 cGy, without salivary stimulation with the association of drugs; 2 during eight weeks after radiation treatment, when the patients had salivary stimulation with the association of drugs; 3 for eight weeks after the end of treatment with the association of drugs. Results: These data were analysed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the medicament in avoiding salivary hypofunction after radiotherapy. Ten out of eleven patients showed significant better outcome in the salivary flow rates with the use of drugs related to the values obtained at the final period of radiotherapy and mantained these rates even without continuing using the drugs. Conclusions: the association of drugs was effective in the treatment of salivary hypofunction and promoted increase, in the total non-stimulated salivary flow rates in ten out of eleven patients, and this enhancement, was maintained for two months after interruption of the use of the medicament.

Christiano M. Correia

2001-09-01

317

Manual on early medical treatment of possible radiation injury with an appendix on sodium burns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manual covers the following topics: 1) Background information and general principles; 2) New methods in the treatment of internal contamination by alpha emitters; 3) Emergency local decontamination; 4) Precautions to be taken in the event of hospitalization; 5) Assessment of fitness to resume work after contamination of irradiation accidents; 6) Organization, planning and training. The appendixes are concerned with: A) Samples to be taken in cases of external irradiation or internal contamination; B) Techniques for local decontamination of the skin; C) Basic treatment information for the physician; D) Standard first-aid kits; E) Decontamination room supplies

1978-01-01

318

Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos  

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In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had thei...

André Dotto Sottovia; Celso Koogi Sonoda; Wilson Roberto Poi; Sônia Regina Panzarini; José Roberto Pereira Lauris

2006-01-01

319

Sodium salicylate treatment in early lactation increases whole-lactation milk and milk fat yield in mature dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple lines of inquiry have suggested that a high degree of inflammation in early lactation cows is associated with low productivity and increased disease incidence. In addition, some small studies have suggested that milk production increases in response to antiinflammatory treatment in the first week of lactation. Our objective was to determine if administration of sodium salicylate (SS), a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID), in the first week of lactation changes whole-lactation productivity and retention in the herd. At calving, 78 cows [n=39 primiparous (1P); n=24 second parity (2P); n=15 third parity or greater (3P)] were alternately assigned to either control (CON) or SS treatments for 7 d postpartum. Sodium salicylate treatment was administered via individual water bowls at a concentration of 1.95 g/L, delivering a mean of 123.3±5.5 g of salicylate/d during the 7-d treatment. For the first 21 d of lactation, dry matter intake, water intake, milk yield, and health were monitored daily, and milk samples were collected twice weekly for milk component analysis. Monthly milk yield and component testing through the rest of the lactation provided data to assess long-term responses, and the effects of treatment on the risk of leaving the herd and on 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields were assessed. During the first 21 d of lactation, we observed no differences in morbidity, except for increased risk of metritis in 3P SS cows. Treatment interacted with parity to influence both 305-d milk and milk fat yields, and a tendency for an interaction was detected for 305-d milk protein yield. Milk yield was 2,469±646 kg greater over the lactation in 3P SS cows compared with 3P CON cows (21% increase) and tended to decrease by 8% in 1P cows treated with SS; no effects were detected in 2P cows. Furthermore, 3P SS cows produced 130±23 kg more milk fat over the lactation (30% increase), with no effects detected for 1P or 2P. Treatment with SS tended to increase 305-d milk protein yield in 3P cows by 14%, with no effects in 1P or 2P cows. A tendency for a treatment × parity interaction was also observed for the risk of leaving the herd. First-parity cows treated with SS tended to have greater risk of leaving the herd than controls (30 vs. 6% risk); however, treatment did not alter herd retention in 2P or 3P groups, and SS had no effect on the risk of leaving the herd overall. Results indicate that SS has long-term effects on lactation of mature dairy cows, particularly on fat yield, but may have negative effects for primiparous cows. PMID:24140330

Farney, J K; Mamedova, L K; Coetzee, J F; Minton, J E; Hollis, L C; Bradford, B J

2013-12-01

320

An in vitro study of antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis  

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Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide on Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Root canal treatment involves a number of steps. In spite of all the steps done thoroughly, root canal treatment might fail due to the remnant microbes. Of all such bacteria, E. faecalis is found in failed root canals. The study tests the antibacterial activity of various intracanal medicaments. Agar diffusion test was used to evaluate the antibacterial effects of the following antibacterial agents: i. hexidine:0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate; ii. periogard:0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate; iii. calcium hydroxide powder plus sterile water; iv. metapaste plus sterile water; v. calcium hydroxide plus hexidine; vi. calcium hydroxide plus periogard; vii. metapaste plus hexidine; viii. metapaste plus periogard. The size of zones of inhibition was measured. Results: The average size of zones of inhibition after 72 hours were hexidine: 5 mm; periogard: 4.25 mm; calcium hydroxide plus sterile water: 0.5 mm; metapaste plus sterile water: 0.5 mm; calcium hydroxide plus hexidine: 4.7 mm; calcium hydroxide plus periogard: 4 mm; metapaste plus hexidine: 4.65 mm; metapaste plus periogard: 4 mm. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine and its preparations are more potent antibacterial agents againstE. faecalis in comparison to calcium hydroxide.

Jhamb Swaty

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Thermochemical pre- and biological co-treatments to improve hydrolysis and methane production from poultry litter  

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The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of raw poultry litter waste was assessed in batch assays. Biological co-treatment with Clostridium cellulolyticum, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum as bioaugmentation strains, and thermochemical pre-treatments with lime and sodium hydroxide performed at different temperatures and pressures were applied as strategies to improve the BMP by favouring the hydrolysis of the cellulolytic material in the waste. Anaerobic digest...

2012-01-01

322

The influence of the activated carbon post-treatment on the phenolic  

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The aim of this research was to investigate how post treatment modification, such as those with sodium hydroxide or urea, can influence the capacity of activated carbon (AC) for phenolic compounds removal from liquid media. The ACs modification was performed using urea impregnation followed by pyrolysis at high temperature. With all ACs used, this treatment induced a pore volume increase, a mean pore size broadening, an increase in the point of zero charge and also in the basic ch...

Cansado, Isabel P. P.; Moura?o, Paulo A. M.; Falca?o, Ana I.; Ribeiro Carrott, M. Manuela L.; Carrott, Peter J. M.

2012-01-01

323

Comparação da efetividade entre polietilenoglicol 4000 sem eletrólitos e hidróxido de magnésio no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional em crianças Comparison of the effectiveness of polyethylene glycol 4000 without electrolytes and magnesium hydroxide in the treatment of chronic functional constipation in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a efetividade de dois medicamentos: hidróxido de magnésio e polietilenoglicol 4000 sem eletrólitos no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional em crianças. MÉTODOS: Trinta e oito crianças foram divididas, por processo randômico, em dois grupos para uso de polietilenoglicol 4000 sem eletrólitos ou de hidróxido de magnésio. As crianças foram acompanhadas em consultas periódicas até completarem 6 meses de tratamento. Em todas as consultas, foram investigados: consistência das fezes, frequência evacuatória, presença de escape fecal, dor abdominal, esforço evacuatório e aceitação desses fármacos. RESULTADOS: Dezessete crianças fizeram uso de polietilenoglicol, e 21 utilizaram o hidróxido de magnésio. Houve melhora clínica de todas as variáveis nos dois grupos, sem diferenças com significância estatística. Todas as crianças aceitaram o polietilenoglicol, enquanto 42,9% recusaram o hidróxido de magnésio. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença de efetividade no tratamento da constipação intestinal entre esses dois laxantes. Entretanto, a melhor aceitação do polietilenoglicol, por ser inodoro e insípido, torna-o melhor opção no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two drugs, polyethylene glycol 4000 without electrolytes and magnesium hydroxide, in the treatment of chronic functional constipation in children. METHODS: Thirty-eight children were randomly assigned to either of two groups, polyethylene glycol 4000 without electrolytes or magnesium hydroxide. The children were followed through periodic appointments until they reached 6 months of treatment. In each medical appointment the following aspects were evaluated: stool consistency, frequency of bowel movements, fecal incontinence, abdominal pain, straining and acceptance of the drugs. RESULTS: Seventeen children made use of polyethylene glycol and twenty-one received magnesium hydroxide. All variables analyzed improved for both groups, with no statistically significant differences. All children accepted polyethylene glycol, while 42.9% refused magnesium hydroxide. CONCLUSION: The two laxatives showed no difference in effectiveness for the treatment of constipation. However, due to its better acceptance, because it is odorless and tasteless, polyethylene glycol proved to be a better option for treating chronic functional constipation.

Patricia Boechat Gomes

2011-02-01

324

Chemical treatment of roughage Tratamento químico de volumosos  

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Chemical treatment of roughage has been the aim of studies for a long time. However, until nowadays, many questions are arisen due to the efficiency of additives used in relation to the variation of answers, either in nutritive value of treated roughage or in performance of animals feed with diet containing such roughage. This revision will approach the main and most used products, which are anhydrous ammonia, urea, sodium hydroxide and calcium oxide. It has been noticed that ammonization (bo...

Aureliano José Vieira Pires3; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro

2010-01-01

325

A novel SCN9A mutation responsible for primary erythromelalgia and is resistant to the treatment of sodium channel blockers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary erythromelalgia (PE) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by severe burning pain and erythema in the extremities upon heat stimuli or exercise. Mutations in human SCN9A gene, encoding the ?-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v)1.7, were found to be responsible for PE. Three missense mutations of SCN9A gene have recently been identified in Taiwanese patients including a familial (I136V) and two sporadic mutations (I848T, V1316A). V1316A is a novel mutation and has not been characterized yet. Topologically, I136V is located in DI/S1 segment and both I848T and V1316A are located in S4-S5 linker region of DII and DIII domains, respectively. To characterize the elelctrophysiological manifestations, the channel conductance with whole-cell patch clamp was recorded on the over-expressed Chinese hamster overy cells. As compared with wild type, the mutant channels showed a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage dependent activation and a depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation. The recovery time from channel inactivation is faster in the mutant than in the wild type channels. Since warmth can trigger and exacerbate symptoms, we then examine the influence of tempearture on the sodium channel conduction. At 35°C, I136V and V1316A mutant channels exhibit a further hyperpolarizing shift at activation as compared with wild type channel, even though wild type channel also produced a significant hyperpolarizing shift compared to that of 25°C. High temperature caused a significant depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation in all three mutant channels. These findings may confer to the hyperexcitability of sensory neurons, especially at high temperature. In order to identifying an effective treatment, we tested the IC?? values of selective sodium channel blockers, lidocaine and mexiletine. The IC?? for mexiletine is lower for I848T mutant channel as compared to that of the wild type and other two mutants which is comparable to the clinical observations. PMID:23383113

Wu, Min-Tzu; Huang, Po-Yuan; Yen, Chen-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Jen

2013-01-01

326

Development and testing of SREX flowsheets for treatment of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant sodium-bearing waste using centrifugal contactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning 90Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A baseline flowsheet has been proposed for the treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) which includes extraction of strontium from liquid SBW into the SREX solvent (0.15 M 4',4'(5')-di-(tert-butyldicyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.2 M TBP in Isopar L), a 0.01 M nitric acid strip section to back-extract components from the loaded solvent, and a 2.0 M HNO3 solvent acidification section to equilibrate the solvent with HNO3 prior to recycle to the extraction section. The flowsheet was designed to provide a decontamination factor (DF) of >103 which will reduce the 90Sr activity in the waste solution to below the NRC Class A LLW limit of 0.04 Ci 90Sr/m3. SREX flowsheet testing was performed using sixteen stages of 5.5-cm diameter centrifugal contactors. The behavior of stable Sr and other components which are potentially extracted by the SREX solvent were evaluated. Specifically, the behavior of the matrix components including Pb, K, Hg, Na, Ca, Zr, and Fe was studied. The described flowsheet achieved 99.98% Sr removal (DF=4250) with one cycle of SREX. Potassium and Zr were partially extracted into the SREX solvent with 35% and 21%, respectively, exiting in the strip product. Sodium, Ca, and Fe were essentially inextractable. Lead was determined to extract and accumulate in the SREX solvent and in the strip section. As a result, a Pb precipitate formed in the strip stages of the contactors. Mercury was also determined to extract and accumulate in the SREX solvent

1995-10-22

327

Combined Sodium Hypochlorite and 940 nm Diode Laser Treatment Against Mature E. Faecalis Biofilms in-vitro  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laser irradiation has been introduced in endodontic treatment due to its bactericidal effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of a 940 nm diode laser alone or in combination with 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl against mature biofilms of E. Faecalis.METHODS: Sixty-eight (60 for the three groups, 4 for SEM and 4 as negative controls single-rooted human central incisors were prepared and contaminated with E. Faecalis. After two weeks of incubation, specimens were randomly divided in three groups; group 1 (n =20, the teeth were irradiated with a 940 nm diode laser; group 2 (n=20, specimens were rinsed with 5% NaOCl; group 3 (n=20, the teeth were rinsed with 5% NaOCl and then were irradiated with 940 nm diode laser. Four teeth were used to observe the biofilms by SEM. Intracanal bacteria sampling was done, and the samples were plated to determinate the CFU count.RESULTS: At 24 hours and 7 days, group 3 showed a significant difference (P=0,02; P=0,00 in disinfection if compared to group 1 but did not show this difference if compared to group 2 (P=1, P=0,66, although group 3 obtaining a more extensive disinfection. Groups 1 and 2 did not show difference after 24 hours (P=0,09 but showed a significant difference 7 days afterwards (P=0,04.CONCLUSION: The combination of sodium hypochlorite and diode laser light (940 nm has a synergistic effect, intensifying the bactericidal action.

Roeland De Moor

2012-07-01

328

Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-48h found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE5048h 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE5096h found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE5015min of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

2011-01-01

329

Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

2008-12-01

330

Fatal Accident Circumstances and Epidemiology (FACE) Report: Three Contract Workers Die While Repairing a Sodium Hypochlorite Tank at a Wastewater Treatment Plant, Virginia, September 25, 1992.  

Science.gov (United States)

The case involved the death of three contract workers who were killed while repairing the interior rubber lining of an 18,000 gallon sodium-hypochlorite tank located at a municipal treatment facility for wastewater. The victims, a male foreman and two mal...

1993-01-01

331

Effects of Duration of Pre-Soaking Treatments on the Frequency and Spectrum of Mutations Induced by Sodium Azide in CES 14 Mungbean Variety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds of mungbean variety CES 14 were treated with 10 exp -3 sodium azide for 2 hours buffered at pH 3 after various pre-soaking treatment durations of 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 hours. The biological parameters that were significantly affected by the ...

A. B. Asencion

1982-01-01

332

TREATMENT OF A SATURATED ZONE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA USING A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE MIXTURE: A FIELD PILOT STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

A field pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a combined ferrous sulfate/sodium dithionite solution for in situ treatment of a saturated zone hexavalent chromium source area at a former ferrochromium alloy production facility in Charleston, S.C. The saturate...

333

Catalytic Studies of Sodium Hydroxide and Carbon Monoxide Reaction  

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We have studied the effect of ball milling on alumina mixed nickel, magnetite and Raney nickel on the reaction: 2NaOH(s) + CO (g) = Na2CO3 (s) + H2 (g) and determined the optimum particle size for the catalysts. The best performance was shown by a 2 h ball milled Raney nickel with average crystallite size of 209 Å. This reaction serves the dual purpose of carbon sequestration and yielding hydrogen gas.

2012-01-01

334

Kinetics of oxygen reduction in sodium (hydroxide + borohydride ) electrolyte.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Brno : University of Technology Brno, 2006, s. 23-27. ISBN 80-214-3181-4.[International Conference Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /7./. Brno (CZ), 04.06.2006-08.06.2006]Grant CEP: GA MŽP SN/3/171/05; GA AV ?R(CZ) KJB208130604Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z40320502Klí?ová slova: electrolyteKód oboru RIV: CA - Anorganická chemie

Chatenet, M.; Micoud, F.; Roche, I.; Chainet, E.; Vondrák, Ji?í

335

Carbon dioxide capture from atmospheric air using sodium hydroxide spray.  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast to conventional carbon capture systems for power plants and other large point sources, the system described in this paper captures CO2 directly from ambient air. This has the advantages that emissions from diffuse sources and past emissions may be captured. The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of a NaOH spray-based contactor for use in an air capture system by estimating the cost and energy requirements per unit CO2 captured. A prototype system is constructed and tested to measure CO2 absorption, energy use, and evaporative water loss and compared with theoretical predictions. A numerical model of drop collision and coalescence is used to estimate operating parameters for a full-scale system, and the cost of operating the system per unit CO2 captured is estimated. The analysis indicates that CO2 capture from air for climate change mitigation is technically feasible using off-the-shelf technology. Drop coalescence significantly decreases the CO2 absorption efficiency; however, fan and pump energy requirements are manageable. Water loss is significant (20 mol H2O/mol CO2 at 15 degrees C and 65% RH) but can be lowered by appropriately designing and operating the system. The cost of CO2 capture using NaOH spray (excluding solution recovery and CO2 sequestration, which may be comparable) in the full-scale system is 96 $/ton-CO2 in the base case, and ranges from 53 to 127 $/ton-CO2 under alternate operating parameters and assumptions regarding capital costs and mass transfer rate. The low end of the cost range is reached by a spray with 50 microm mean drop diameter, which is achievable with commercially available spray nozzles. PMID:18497115

Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Keith, David W; Lowry, Gregory V

2008-04-15

336

Sodium Oxybate: A Potential New Pharmacological Option for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome  

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Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a common disorder, characterized by diffuse pain and tenderness, stiffness, fatigue, affective disorders and significant sleep pathology. A new set of diagnostic criteria have been developed which should make it easier for a busy clinician to diagnose the condition. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications for the treatment of FMS have, for the most part, been geared to modulate the pain pathways to give the patient some degree of relief. A dif...

2011-01-01

337

Rhenium-188 as an alternative to Iodine-131 for treatment of breast tumors expressing the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), which transports iodine into the cell, is expressed in thyroid tissue and was recently found to be expressed in approximately 80% of human breast cancers but not in healthy breast tissue. These findings raised the possibility that therapeutics targeting uptake by NIS may be used for breast cancer treatment. To increase the efficacy of such therapy it would be ideal to identify a radioactive therapy with enhanced local emission. The feasibility of using the powerful beta-emitting radiometal 188Re in the form of 188Re-perrhenate was therefore compared with 131I for treatment of NIS-expressing mammary tumors. In the current studies, using a xenografted breast cancer model induced by the ErbB2 oncogene in nude mice, 188Re-perrhenate exhibited NIS-dependent uptake into the mammary tumor. Dosimetry calculations in the mammary tumor demonstrate that 188Re-perrhenate is able to deliver a dose 4.5 times higher than 131I suggesting it may provide enhanced therapeutic efficacy

2002-01-01

338

Rhenium-188 as an alternative to Iodine-131 for treatment of breast tumors expressing the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), which transports iodine into the cell, is expressed in thyroid tissue and was recently found to be expressed in approximately 80% of human breast cancers but not in healthy breast tissue. These findings raised the possibility that therapeutics targeting uptake by NIS may be used for breast cancer treatment. To increase the efficacy of such therapy it would be ideal to identify a radioactive therapy with enhanced local emission. The feasibility of using the powerful beta-emitting radiometal {sup 188}Re in the form of {sup 188}Re-perrhenate was therefore compared with {sup 131}I for treatment of NIS-expressing mammary tumors. In the current studies, using a xenografted breast cancer model induced by the ErbB2 oncogene in nude mice, {sup 188}Re-perrhenate exhibited NIS-dependent uptake into the mammary tumor. Dosimetry calculations in the mammary tumor demonstrate that {sup 188}Re-perrhenate is able to deliver a dose 4.5 times higher than {sup 131}I suggesting it may provide enhanced therapeutic efficacy.

Dadachova, E. E-mail: edadacho@aecom.yu.edu; Bouzahzah, B.; Zuckier, L.S.; Pestell, R.G

2002-01-01

339

Rapid induction of colorectal tumors in rats initiated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine followed by dextran sodium sulfate treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

To establish a rapid bioassay system with neoplastic end-points for detection of colorectal carcinogenesis modifiers, we evaluated the effects of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment on the different stages of carcinogenesis in rats initiated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). F344 male rats were given three subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg body weight) in a week, and were administered drinking water containing 1.0% DSS ad libitum either during or after the initiation period for a week, or both during and after initiation periods for 2 weeks. At the 10th week of the experiment, although the numbers of aberrant crypt foci were significantly decreased in all groups treated with DSS and given DMH-initiation as compared with DMH alone, dysplastic foci/adenomas/adenocarcinomas were increased. The incidences and multiplicities of these lesions were highest in rats treated with DSS after DMH-initiation period. At the 26th week, the incidences of adenocarcinomas (100 vs. 20% in DMH alone) and their multiplicities (6.6 +/- 0.8/rat vs. 0.2 +/- 0.4/rat in DMH alone) were also highest in this group. These results indicate that short-term DSS-treatment in the post-initiation period significantly accelerates DMH-induced colorectal tumor development in rats, so that this protocol may effective for establishment of a rapid bioassay system with neoplastic end-points. PMID:12957352

Onose, Jun-ichi; Imai, Toshio; Hasumura, Mai; Ueda, Makoto; Hirose, Masao

2003-08-20

340

Effect of chronic oral administration of a low dose of captopril on sodium appetite of hypothyroid rats: Influence of aldosterone treatment  

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Full Text Available Rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with methimazole develop an exaggerated sodium appetite. We investigated here the capacity of hypothyroid rats (N = 12 for each group to respond to a low dose of captopril added to the ration, a paradigm which induces an increase in angiotensin II synthesis in cerebral areas that regulate sodium appetite by increasing the availability of circulating angiotensin I. In addition, we determined the influence of aldosterone in hypothyroid rats during the expression of spontaneous sodium appetite and after captopril treatment. Captopril significantly increased (P<0.05 the daily intake of 1.8% NaCl (in ml/100 g body weight in hypothyroid rats after 36 days of methimazole administration (day 36: 9.2 ± 0.7 vs day 32: 2.8 ± 0.6 ml, on the 4th day after captopril treatment. After the discontinuation of captopril treatment, daily 1.8% NaCl intake reached values ranging from 10.0 ± 0.9 to 13.9 ± 1.0 ml, 48 to 60 days after treatment with methimazole. Aldosterone treatment significantly reduced (P<0.05 saline intake before (7.3 ± 1.6 vs day 0, 14.4 ± 1.3 ml and after captopril treatment. Our results demonstrate that, although hypothyroid rats develop a deficiency in the production of all components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, their capacity to synthesize angiotensin II at the cerebral level is preserved. The partial reversal of daily 1.8% NaCl intake during aldosterone treatment suggests that sodium retention reduces both spontaneous and captopril-induced salt appetite.

R.R. Ventura

2001-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Apparent improvement of antisera for radioimmunoassay by treatment with sodium iodide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept that antisera for radioimmunoassay can be improved by treatment with NaI and dialysis is challenged. Some antisera are little affected by NaI. Even when NaI does dissociate endogenous antigenic material from crude antiserum, in the subsequent dialysis NaI is dialysed at a much faster rate than antigen, allowing reassociation to occur. The reported improvement of antisera by the NaI method cannot be attributed to the effect of NaI but can be explained by the dilution which occurs during dialysis

1977-01-01

342

Apparent improvement of antisera for radioimmunoassay by treatment with sodium iodide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept that antisera for radioimmunoassay can be improved by treatment with NaI and dialysis is challenged. Some antisera are little affected by NaI. Even when NaI does dissociate endogenous antigenic material from crude antiserum, in the subsequent dialysis NaI is dialysed at a much faster rate than antigen, allowing reassociation to occur. The reported improvement of antisera by the NaI method cannot be attributed to the effect of NaI but can be explained by the dilution which occurs during dialysis. PMID:915297

Skrabanek, P; Kirrane, J; Powell, D

1977-01-01

343

[Effects of local treatment with sodium fluoride mouthrinse on peroxidase and hypothiocyanite saliva levels in adolescent]/.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work describes and analyzes the results of a randomized clinical trial on adolescents (age 18.2 +/- 0.6) carried out in order to evaluate the effects of a twice daily mouthrinse application containing xylitol, sorbitol, sacarine, ciclamate, aspartame, chlorhexidine, hexetidine or NaF for 14 days on amylase, peroxidase, thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, secretory IgA and total proteins in whole saliva. No significative changes were observed in health and bucodental parameters nor in flow salivary rate, protein, secretory Ig A, or thiocyanate levels as a consequence of the mouthrinses application. On the other hand, NaF treatment (0.02%, 0.05% or 0.1%) did cause an increase in salivary peroxidase and hypothiocyanite, being the former increase higher than the second one. Peroxidase increase was proportional to the mouthrinse dose (r = 0.78; p < 0.01), but not to the hypothiocyanite increase (r = 0.407; p = 0.12). Since the adolescents' health condition was the adequate, it is suggested that the peroxidase increase was due to a higher enzyme synthesis and/or secretion by the parotid and/or submaxillar glands. It is concluded that the increases in salivary peroxidase and hypothiocyanite caused by the NaF treatment favour the host, as they potentiate one of the mechanisms that modulate dental plaque composition, preventing in such a way the colonization by cariogenic pathogens. PMID:9504181

Azcurra, A I; Calamari, S E; Yankilevich, E R; Battellino, L J; Cattoni, S T; Colantonio, G

1997-01-01

344

The various sodium purification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified

2000-05-14

345

Effects of pre-treatment with sodium butyrate on the frequencies of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of sodium butyrate-mediated alterations in chromatin structure on the yields of X-ray-induced chromosomal abberrations were studied in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results show that sodium butyrate pre-treatment leads to a significant increase in the frequencies of dicentrics and rings, but not of fragments. The data from biochemical studies suggest that the numbers and rates of repair of X-ray-induced DNA-strand breaks are the same in butyrate-treated and untreated cells. The authors suggest that the observed effect is probably a consequence of butyrate-induced conformational changes in the chromatin of G_0 lymphocytes. (Auth.)

1985-09-01

346

Treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with sodium diclofenac: a pilot study Tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves leve a moderada com diclofenato de sódio: um estudo piloto  

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OBJECTIVE: To report the use of sodium diclofenac, an antagonist of PPAR-gamma and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor in the treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with clinical activity score (CAS) 2 to 7 were treated during a period ranging from 3 to 12 months (mean 7.8 ± 3.4) with oral sodium diclofenac, 50 mg every 12 hours. RESULTS: Extra-ocular muscle restriction and CAS improved significantly, p = 0.003 and = 0.004, respectively. ...

Walter Bloise; Lidia Yuri Mimura; Janete Moura; Wilian Nicolau

2011-01-01

347

Clinical effect of addition of beraprost sodium to pioglitazone treatment on the blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus caused by insulin resistance has continued to increase in Japan. Insulin resistance is considered to be closely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerotic diseases, represented by arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). Therefore, improvement of insulin resistance is one of the important strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. At present, ?-glucosidase inhibitors, incretin-related drugs, and thiazolidinediones are among the most important oral hypoglycemic drugs used to improve insulin resistance. In this study, the effect of beraprost sodium, a prostaglandin I2 derivative, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus was investigated. In type 2 diabetic patients with ASO who were under treatment with pioglitazone, additional treatment with beraprost sodium exerted a significant synergistic effect in reducing the serum HbA1c levels as compared to treatment with pioglitazone alone. This result indicates that concomitant administration of pioglitazone and beraprost sodium may be useful in the treatment of diabetes -mellitus. PMID:24002894

Chen, T; Kusunoki, M; Sato, D; Tsutsui, H; Nakamura, T; Miyata, T; Oshida, Y

2013-11-01

348

Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS, has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. Methods We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Results MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. Conclusions These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma.

Hutzen Brian

2012-11-01

349

Alternative solvent wash process using tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution as salt-free wash reagent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solvent wash procedure employing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) as an alternative to sodium carbonate was investigated in order to minimize the volume of radioactive waste resulting from solvent regeneration in the Purex process. The wash efficiency of tetramethylammonium base solutions was measured in comparison with sodium carbonate solution on a 30 % TBP-70 % dodecane mixture containing zirconium-dibutyl phosphate complex. The experimental evidence showed tetrametylammonium base solutions to be as effective as sodium carbonate solution. In particular, addition of oxalic acid which complexes strongly with zirconium enhanced the wash efficiency. The 31P NMR spectra of dibutyl phosphate (DBP) indicated that the cleanup of DBP depended mainly on ionization of DBP. As tetrametylammonium hydroxide can be decomposed by heating at about 200deg C, it is considered to have good applicability as a salt-free wash reagent. (author)

1989-01-01

350

Alternative solvent wash process using tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution as salt-free wash reagent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solvent wash procedure employing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) as an alternative to sodium carbonate was investigated in order to minimize the volume of radioactive waste resulting from solvent regeneration in the Purex process. The wash efficiency of tetramethylammonium base solutions was measured in comparison with sodium carbonate solution on a 30 % TBP-70 % dodecane mixture containing zirconium-dibutyl phosphate complex. The experimental evidence showed tetrametylammonium base solutions to be as effective as sodium carbonate solution. In particular, addition of oxalic acid which complexes strongly with zirconium enhanced the wash efficiency. The /sup 31/P NMR spectra of dibutyl phosphate (DBP) indicated that the cleanup of DBP depended mainly on ionization of DBP. As tetrametylammonium hydroxide can be decomposed by heating at about 200deg C, it is considered to have good applicability as a salt-free wash reagent.

Uetake, Naohito; Kawamura, Fumio; Yusa, Hideo

1989-02-01

351

Effect of sodium butyrate treatment on the granule morphology, histamine level and elemental content of the bone marrow-derived mast cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mast cells derived from the bone marrow of BALB/c mice (BMMC) were cultures and their growth ceased with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate treatment (1 mM, 4 days) caused maturation of the granules, and increased histamine content from approx. 1 pg/cell to 4 pg/cell. X-ray microanalysis revealed that maturation of the granules was accompanied by the increase in relative weight percent of sodium, phosphorus and sulphur, with concomitant decrease in chloride. The sulphur to potassium ratio increased three-fold in butyrate-treated mast cells. The existence of a different elemental composition during mast cell maturation may provide additional parameter for rapid discrimination of mast cell subpopulations. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs

1994-01-01

352

[Historical aspects and new formulations of levothyroxine sodium for hypothyroidism treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

At the end of the 19th century symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were described in the medical literature. At that time myxedema was a main clinical presentation of the hypothyroid patient. Today, the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is determined mainly by laboratory evaluation with most patients exhibiting only a few clinical signs of thyroid dysfunction. The treatment of hypothyroidism has progressed from partially purified extracts of bovine thyroid gland to an oral administration of synthetic hormone. Since 1981 the only thyroid hormone replacement drug approved by the Israeli Ministry of Health was the Eltroxin brand, made by GlaxoSmithKline. Levothyroxine has a narrow therapeutic range, thus a potential variance exists in the therapeutic efficacy among different levothyroxine preparations. In 2007 the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) announced that the difference in potency of various levothyroxine brands should not exceed ten percent. In 2007 the GSK Company moved the manufacturing of Eltroxin from Canada to Germany. This resulted in a change of the inert ingredients of the drug. It is of interest to know that since the arrival of the new thyroxine formulation in the Israeli pharmaceutical market there has been a dramatic increase in reports of adverse reactions. The media coverage of adverse effects associated with Eltroxin became widespread in television, newspapers and internet sites. This led to a burden on the healthcare system, manifesting itself by an increase in thyroid blood tests, physician follow-up visits, as well as the importing and distribution of a new brand of thyroxine. PMID:24364099

Shacham, Elena Chertok; Ishay, Avraham; Luboshitsky, Rafael

2013-09-01

353

A case report of the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers using a sodium hyaluronate and iodine complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic foot ulcers are difficult to heal due to defects in local microvasculature and persistent, concomitant infection. Despite the best medical care, amputation is often a management option for this problem. The authors have developed a new and unique system for wound treatment, which is based on a combination of high molecular weight sodium hyaluronate with an iodine complex-Hyiodine (Contipro C, Dolní Dobrouc, Czech Republic). In this case report, the authors present an observational study on a series of patients with diabetic foot disease with nonhealing wounds treated with Hyiodine. The effect of the HA-iodine complex was studied on 18 patients suffering from complicated foot diabetic wounds. The HA-iodine complex was either spread directly over the wound, or more frequently, gauze was immersed in the HA-iodine complex and then put on/into the wound. Then several layers of dry gauze covered the wound. This dressing was changed every 24 hours. Wound healing was monitored daily, and wound pictures were taken each second week. Clinical improvement was observed in the majority. This suggests that the HA-iodine complex dressing has potential that needs to be developed from controlled studies. PMID:17909172

Sobotka, Lubos; Smahelova, Alena; Pastorova, Jana; Kusalova, Marie

2007-09-01

354

Effective treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours transfected with the sodium iodide symporter gene by 186Re-perrhenate in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ReO4 - has similar kinetics regarding the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) to I- and TcO4 - in NIS-expressing tissue. We investigated the therapeutic potential of 186ReO4 - in NIS-transfected neuroendocrine tumour tissue. For experiments, the stably NIS-transfected pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer cell line Bon1C was used. NIS-mediated internalization and externalization experiments in vitro and a biodistribution study in nude mice bearing Bon1C xenografts were performed. A therapy study was also conducted consecutively in nude mice xenografted with Bon1C in which the mice were injected intravenously with Na186ReO4. In vitro studies showed exponential internalization and efflux kinetics of 186ReO4 - in the cell line. The biodistribution study showed high uptake of 186ReO4 - in NIS-expressing tumours. Tumour growth inhibition was significant after injection of 186ReO4 in two groups of animals treated with activity levels below the determined maximum tolerable activity as compared to controls. These results indicate that the use of 186ReO4 - in the treatment of NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumours is feasible and support the concept of using NIS as a therapeutic target for 186ReO4 -. (orig.)

2009-11-01

355

Sodium alginate microsphere combined with pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion for clinical treatment of cavernous hemangioma of the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To further reduce the adverse reactions of vascular embolization therapy for cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL) in order to find better embolizing agents. Methods: Sixty CHL patients were randomly and evenly divided into three groups: embolization therapy with sodium alginate microsphere(SAM) + pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion (PLE) (group SAM + PLE), PLE (group PLE) and SAM (group SAM). The routine postoperative symptomatic treatments were conducted, including odynolysis, liver-protection and antiinflammatory therapy. The liver function and the intraoperative or postoperative discomfort symptoms before and 7 days after operation, and the changes in tumors were examined with CT scan. Clinical symptoms 3 months after operation were respectively compared. Results: The greatest impact on liver function was seen in group PLE among the three groups. The maximum intraoperative or postoperative discomfort symptoms were seen in group SAM, but the therapeutic effectiveness of the three groups had no significant difference. Conclusion: SAM + PLE is a safe and effective embolizing agent, being user-friendly, minor in the effect on liver function and light in the intraoperative and postoperative reaction. It is recommended that SAM + PLE be widely used for cavernous hemangioma of the liver. (authors)

2010-04-01

356

Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet

2002-02-24

357

The impact of thermal treatment on the stability of freeze dried amorphous pharmaceuticals: I. Dimer formation in sodium ethacrynate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of heat treatment (annealing) on the molecular mobility and chemical stability of dried sodium ethacrynate (ECA). ECA was lyophilized with sucrose or trehalose, and some samples were held as control while others were annealed at temperatures below T(g). Enthalpy recovery was studied with DSC and free volume was estimated based on density measurements. Global mobility was measured by the thermal activity monitor (TAM), and fast local mobility was studied with neutron backscattering. Formation of ECA dimer was measured by reverse phase HPLC. Maximum enthalpy recovery and minimum fictive temperature were observed at about T(g)-15 degrees C for both ECA/saccharide formulations. Annealing ECA in amorphous solids improved chemical stability, as shown by the decrease in degradation rate constant relative to the control. Annealed samples exhibited larger structural relaxation time than the control, and thus annealing decreased global mobility in the system. However, annealing does not significantly impact the local mobility. Chemical stability correlates with structural relaxation time, fictive temperature, and free volume, which suggests that improved stability is mainly a result of the reduced global mobility upon annealing. PMID:19798753

Wang, Bingquan; Pikal, Michael J

2010-02-01

358

In vitro antitumor effect of sodium butyrate and zoledronic acid combined with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs: a paradigm of synergistic molecular targeting in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histone deacetylase inhibitors and bisphosphonates have a promising future in the treatment of cancer as targeted anticancer drugs, particularly when used together or in combination with other cytotoxic agents. However, the effects of these combined treatments have not yet been systematically evaluated in Ewing sarcoma. The in vitro effects on cellular proliferation, viability and survival were investigated in two Ewing sarcoma cell lines, SK-ES-1 and RD-ES. The cell lines were treated with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor and zoledronic acid, a bisphosphonate, alone, together or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs recommended for clinical treatment of Ewing sarcoma. The data demonstrated that the combination of sodium butyrate and zoledronic acid had a synergistic cytotoxic effect at 72 h following treatment, persisting for 10-14 days post-treatment, in both cell lines tested. All combinations between sodium butyrate or zoledronic acid and the traditional antineoplastic drugs (doxorubicin, etoposide and vincristine) demonstrated a synergistic cytotoxic effect at 72 h in SK-ES-1 and RD-ES cells, except for the combinations of sodium butyrate with vincristine and of zoledronic acid with doxorubicin, which showed only an additive effect in RD-ES cell lines as compared to each agent alone. These acute effects observed in both Ewing sarcoma cell lines were confirmed by the clonogenic assay. The present data suggest that combining histone deacetylase inhibitors and bisphosphonates with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Ewing sarcoma, and provides a basis for further studies in this field. PMID:24316794

Dos Santos, Michel Pinheiro; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Roesler, Rafael; Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi; Abujamra, Ana Lucia

2014-02-01

359

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Yttrium Hydroxide Nanotubes  

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Full Text Available Yttrium hydroxide nanotubes were synthesized by hydrothermal method using Y2O3 as raw materials. And then yttrium hydroxide nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction £¨XRD£©,scan electron microscope £¨SEM£©, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis£¨TG-DTA£©to investigate the phase, morphology, composition and heat stability of the products. Effects of reaction temperature and hydrothermal time on the formation of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes were studied. The results indicate that the optimal reaction conditions of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes are as follows: T=220¡?pH=11-12 and t=24h. The formation mechanism of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes is suggested to be twoª²step process£¬the initiative production of yttrium precursor and the successional achievement of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes.

TIAN Li,CHEN Wen-Chun,CHEN Lin,LIANG En-Xiang,ZHANG Xin

2009-03-01

360

Hydroxide complexes of lanthanides. 4. Ytterbium(III) in perchlorate medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the precipitation borderline in the pM'-pCsub(H) diagram, determined experimentally under CO/sub 2/-free conditions, the stability constants of the mononuclear species of ytterbium hydroxide have been established. The values found are reported. The data refer to fresh precipitates, prepared at room temperature (21.5 +- 0.2/sup 0/) in sodium perchlorate medium with an ionic strength of 1. The formation of polynuclear hydroxide complexes has been considered and rejected as unlikely to occur.

Kragten, J. (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Natuurkundig Lab.); Decnop-Weever, L.G. (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Lab. voor Analytische Chemie)

1982-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Hydroxide complexes of lanthanides-V Erbium(III) in perchlorate medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the precipitation borderline in the pM'-pC(H) diagram, determined experimentally under CO(2)-free conditions, stability constants for the mononuclear species of erbium hydroxide have been established. The values found were log ( *)beta(1) = -6.3, log ( *)beta(2) = -14.5, log ( *)beta(3) = -23.1, log ( *)beta(4) = -36.8 and log ( *)K(0) = 18.0. The data refer to precipitates prepared at room temperature (21.5 +/- 0.5 degrees ) in sodium perchlorate medium with an ionic strength of 1. The formation of polynuclear hydroxide complexes has been considered and rejected as unlikely to occur. PMID:18963332

Kragten, J; Decnop-Weever, L G

1983-02-01

362

On the possibility of extraction uranium(6) sorbed by iron hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigated are conditions of uranium(6) and iron(3) hydroxide coextraction using caprylic acid. Established is the increase in the degree of uranium(6) extraction with a kerosene solution of caprylic acid in the presence of iron (3) hydroxide which serves as a carrier. The degree of uranium extraction in the case of a 100-fold excess of the carrier in the interval pH 4-5 is 82%. The nature of curve distribution depends on pH, extraction duration and carrier-metal concentration. Sodium chloride (0.5 and 1.0 M) presence has no effect on uranium(6) extraction

1980-01-01

363

Treatment response of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania aethiopica to cryotherapy and generic sodium stibogluconate from patients in Silti, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia is caused mainly by Leishmania aethiopica. In this study, the response of L. aethiopica to sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and liquid nitrogen in Silti has been investigated. Patients were divided into two groups by the treating physician and were treated with either liquid nitrogen or SSG. Punch biopsy samples were collected from 54 patients with mean age of 20.61 (± 9.87 SD) years for histological characterization. The histological spectrum found to be type-1, type-2, type-3 and type-4 were 37.0%, 3.7%, 37.0% and 22.2% respectively. One hundred and three patients with a mean age of 18.4 (± 11.7 SD) years were treated with liquid nitrogen. The mean duration of the lesions before the onset of treatment was 8.5 months (± 6.7 SD). Of the 103 patients 80.6% (83/103) were cured, 13.6% (14/103) were dropouts and 5.8% (6/103) did not respond. Twenty patients with a mean age of 19.55 (+1.64 SD) years were treated with Pentostam on conventional dose. Of the 20 patients 85.0% (17/20) were cured, 10.0% (2/20) were unresponsive and 5.0% (1/20) were dropouts. The per protocol cure rate for cryotherapy and Pentostam was 93.3% and 89.5% respectively. Hence, liquid nitrogen can be used as one of the treatment options especially in resource poor settings. PMID:22503475

Negera, Edessa; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Hussein, Jemal; Engers, Howard; Kuru, Teklu; Gedamu, Lashitew; Aseffa, Abraham

2012-08-01

364

Clinical effect of calcium hydroxide paste combined with triple antibiotic paste on root canal disinfection  

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Full Text Available Objective?To compare the efficacy in disinfection and pain control of calcium hydroxide paste and triple antibiotic paste (ornidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline used individually or jointly for root canal disinfection. Methods?Two hundred and thirty-five patients with chronic apical periodontitis (235 teeth were involved in the present study and divided into 2 groups: fistula group (n=118 and no fistula group (n=117. Each group was then randomly divided into 4 subgroups: calcium hydroxide paste group, triple antibiotic paste group, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste group, and camphor phenol group. After regular root canal preparation, root canals of patients in 4 groups were filled with tiny paper ends impregnated with fore 4 different drugs respectively. Visual analogue scales (VAS of pain were given to the patients with a guide for filling the scale. One week later, both the data of the scales and the effects of root canal disinfection were recorded and analyzed. Results?Seven days after treatment, the clinical efficacy of calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste was similar (P>0.05 either in fistula group or in no fistula group, but all better than that of camphor phenol (P<0.05. VAS score analysis showed that, at least on the first 3 days after sealing medicine in the root canal, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste achieved better result of pain control than the other three groups (P<0.05 no matter with or without fistula. Conclusions ?Calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste are effective in treatment of chronic apical periodontitis whether with or without fistula. However, the combined use of calcium hydroxide and three antibiotic pastes is better for controlling the pain after root canal preparation than other treatments, which is therefore worthy of clinical application. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.12

Chen QU

2014-03-01

365

Properties and applications of calcium hydroxide in endodontics and dental traumatology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium hydroxide has been included within several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in a number of treatment modalities in endodontics. These include, inter-appointment intracanal medicaments, pulp-capping agents and root canal sealers. Calcium hydroxide formulations are also used during treatment of root perforations, root fractures and root resorption and have a role in dental traumatology, for example, following tooth avulsion and luxation injuries. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties and clinical applications of calcium hydroxide in endodontics and dental traumatology including its antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, effect on bacterial biofilms, the synergism between calcium hydroxide and other agents, its effects on the properties of dentine, the diffusion of hydroxyl ions through dentine and its toxicity. Pure calcium hydroxide paste has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. Its main actions are achieved through the ionic dissociation of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions and their effect on vital tissues, the induction of hard-tissue deposition and the antibacterial properties. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. It has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also an effective anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:21535021

Mohammadi, Z; Dummer, P M H

2011-08-01

366

[Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors: from the bark of apple trees and familial renal glycosuria to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].  

Science.gov (United States)

The therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus is still inadequate. We are currently witnessing the introduction of a new mode of hypoglycemic treatment through induction of glycosuria to decrease the availability of the metabolic substrate, i.e. glucose. Clinical trials have shown that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are as efficacious as other oral hypoglycemic drugs. This article discusses the basic features of this new treatment concept and the efficacy and safety of this new drug group. PMID:24444522

Mauricio, Dídac

2013-09-01

367

Antigen-induced bronchial anaphylaxis in actively sensitized guinea-pigs: effect of long-term treatment with sodium cromoglycate and aminophylline.  

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1 The effects of long-term treatment with sodium cromoglycate (SCG) and aminophylline on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction have been studied in guinea-pigs actively sensitized according to two different regimens (one producing IgE- and IgG-like antibodies and the other producing exclusively IgG-like antibodies). 2 Treatment for three weeks with SCG (10 mg/kg) and aminophylline (10, 30 or 60 mg/kg) led to a decreased bronchial response capacity which persisted even three days after treatment...

1981-01-01

368

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro  

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Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans is one of the mouth normal flora which may cause failures in endodontics. The resistance of C. albicans to intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide could reduce success rate root canal treatments .Objectives: Due to recivening some reports regarding resistance of C. albicans to calcium hydroxide from different parts of the world, the aim of this study was to evaluate anti candidal effects of Iranian and Korean made injectable calcium hydroxide and to compare the results.Materials and Methods: In the present research, the antifungal effects of calcium hydroxide on seven clinical isolates and one standard strain of C. albicans were evaluated. For this evaluation, two methods were used including: inhibition zone and colony count. In all experiments distilled water and clotrimazole were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In order to evaluate the effects of exposure time of calcium hydroxide on C. albicans growth, 30” , 5’ , 1 and 24 hours of incubation periods were applied. In addition, to evaluate role the effect of calcium hydroxide concentration samples with saturated, 1/10, 1/100 and 1/1000 dilutions and also a saturated one were used.Results: According to inhibition zone method, the mean diameters of C. albicans for Iranian and Korean made calcium hydroxide and clotrimazole were 17, 13 and 22 mm, respectively. Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide did not show any anti candidal effects. By colony counting method, it was found that in longer exposure time, Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide have more anti candidal effects , but no significant difference was observed between the two. Saturated and all other dilutions of calcium hydroxide base material indicated a significant statistical difference in anti candidal effect after 24 hours exposure in comparison with other periods.Conclusions: The Current study, confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide on C. albicans, up to 24 hours is within low range . Higher concentrations of base calcium hydroxide, showed greater inhibition zone on C. albicans ..--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:The results of present study indicated uncomplete compatibility of susceptibility of C. albicans strains to calcium hydroxide, therefoe, it seems continious evaluation is necessary in different geographical region..Please cite this paper as:Rafiei N, Eftekhar B, Rafiei A, Pourmahdi Borujeni M, Zarrin M. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2012;5(3:470-3. DOI: 10.5812/jjm.3409.

Neda Rafiei

2012-08-01

369

Detalhes da utilização do íon hidróxido, HO-, no tratamento de efluentes contaminados com metal pesado zinco=Details of hydroxide ion utilization in the treatment of contaminated effluents with zinc.  

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Full Text Available O estudo abordou o tratamento do efluente gerado num Espectrômetro de Absorção Atômica - EAA, no tocante ao metal pesado zinco, utilizando a propriedade do cátion formar o precipitado Zn(OH2(ppt. O assunto foi tratado teórica e praticamente. Teoricamente foram levantados parâmetros termodinâmicos e analisada matematicamente a solubilidade do Zn(OH2(ppt com a variação do pH. Experimentalmente foi analisado o comportamento da solução aquosa do Zn(OH2(ppt e da solução in natura do efluente descartado com o pH. As medidas da concentração de zinco nas diversas situações foram realizadas pelo método da EAA, com limite de detecção (LD de 0,030 mg L-1. Os resultados nas diferentes situações de solução e pH do meio, para a solubilidade mínima do Zn(OH(ppt, SMínima, em mg L-1, foram: valor teórico = 2,3; valor experimental para solução de Zn(OH(ppt = 0,92; valor para solução in natura = 0,092, respectivamente. Estes valores estão de conformidade com BRASIL-Resolução Conama n. 397/2008.This work analyzed the treatment of effluent produced by an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS containing the heavy metal zinc, utilizing the capacity of Zn2+ to react with hydroxide ion (HO-, forming Zn(OH2(ppt. The content was treated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, the thermodynamic parameters were assessed and the solubility of Zn(OH2(ppt with pH variation was analyzed mathematically. Experimentally, the study analyzed the behavior of the Zn(OH2(ppt aqueous solution and in natura solution of discarded effluent with the medium pH. The values of zinc concentration in the different situations were measured using AAS, flame modality, with detection limit (DL 0.030 mg L-1. The results in the different situations of solution and medium pH for the minimum solubility of Zn(OH2(ppt, in mg L-1, were: theoretical value = 2.3; experimental value for the Zn(OH2(ppt solution = 0.92; in natural effluent = 0.092, respectively. These values are in compliance with BRAZIL-Conama Resolution number 397/2008.

Ervim Lenzi

2011-07-01

370

The effect of heat treatment and metallurgical structure on decarburization behavior of 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel in high temperature sodium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel is a candidate for the construction materials of the LMFBR secondary system. The effect of heat treatment and metallurgical structure on the decarburization bahavior of the steel in sodium was studied. Fourteen kinds of heat treatment were performed on 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel sheets in order to obtain almost all the possible metallurgical structures. Test specimens cut from those sheets were immersed in a static sodium pot, in which titanium sponges were contained as carbon and oxygen absorbers. The tests were conducted at temperatures from 550 to 7000C, for up to 4000 hr. Carbon analysis, metallographic and X-ray diffraction examinations were done to interpret the decarburization behavior of the specimens in terms of heat treatments and metallurgical structures. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Heat treatment condition affects the decarburization rate of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel in sodium. This is more remarkable in the lower test temperatures. (2) Metallurgical structures can be ranked in the order of decarburization resistance as follows; tempered martensite, tempered bainite, pearlite, martensite, and bainite. Bainite of higher carbon content is less favorable. (3) The decarburization rate seems to be controlled by the dissolution process of carbides and accordingly is related to the stability of carbides. Dissolution of M3C is rapid and is considered to be controlled by carbon diffusion in the dissolution process. Heat treatment is considered one of the most important factors, when 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel is used in the high temperature sodium environment. (auth.)

1976-01-01

371

Relative effectiveness and efficiency of single and combination treatments using gamma rays and sodium azide in inducing chlorophyll mutations in rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seeds of rice cultivars, Jaya, IET 5656 and Fujiminori, were presoaked for 24 hours, then, irradiated with 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 kR of gamma ray, treated with 0.001, 0.002, 0.004 and 0.005 molar solutions of sodium azide at pH 3 for 4 hours, or subjected to the combination of the above, to study their relative effectiveness and efficiency for inducing chlorophyll mutation in rice. In all three varieties, the azide-treated subjects showed the higher frequency of chlorophyll mutants than the gamma ray-irradiated subjects in both single and combined treatments. In the variety Jaya, the sodium azide treatment showed higher efficiency and effectiveness than the gamma ray irradiation and the combined treatment, and also in the other two varieties, this tendency was more or less similar. The indica cultivars, Jaya and IET 5656, were more sensitive than the japonica cultivar, Fujiminori, to the generation of chlorophyll mutation. Sodium azide appeared to be more efficient than gamma ray in single or combined treatment. (Kako I.)

1988-01-01

372

Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate  

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Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA) and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reacti...

Edson Luiz Foletto; Ederson Gratieri; Leonardo Hadlich de Oliveira; Sérgio Luiz Jahn

2006-01-01

373

Sodium chloride as effective antifungal treatment for artificial egg incubation in Austropotamobius pallipes Le chlorure de sodium comme traitement antifongique efficace dans l’incubation artificielle des œufs d’Austropotamobius pallipes  

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Full Text Available In this study, sodium chloride at three different concentrations, 30 000 ppm (S30, 60?000 ppm (S60 and 90 000 ppm (S90, and formaldehyde at one concentration, 3000 ppm (F, were tested as antifungal chemicals during artificial incubation (AI of Austropotamobius pallipes eggs. Two treatments were tested without chemicals as control groups with (R and without (C the removal of dead eggs. After AI, formaldehyde treatment ensured high survival of stage 1 (89.7 ± 2.3% and stage 2 (85.5 ± 2.4% of juveniles. However, comparable survival rate to stage 1 and stage 2 (85.5 ± 5.5% and 80.6 ± 3.2% were also found in the treatment with the highest sodium chloride concentration (S90. Significantly lower survival rate of juveniles (stage 1: 60.6–70.3% and stage 2: 56.1–67.3% were evident in groups S60, S30 and R. However, group R demanded high labor and related costs. The lowest juvenile survival levels to stage 1 (46.4 ± 8.2% and stage 2 (45.2 ± 6.8% were observed in treatments without fungicide chemicals and removal of dead eggs (C. Dans cette étude, le chlorure de sodium à trois différentes concentrations, 30?000 ppm (S30, 60?000 ppm (S60 et 90?000 ppm (S90, et le formol à une concentration de 3000 ppm (F ont été testés comme produits antifongiques pendant l’incubation artificielle (AI d’œufs d’Austropotamobius pallipes. Deux traitements ont été testés sans produits antifongiques comme témoins avec (R et sans (C retrait des œufs morts. Après incubation artificielle, le traitement au formol assure une survie élevée au stade 1 (89 7 ± 2 3 % et au stade 2 (85 5 ± 2 4 % des juvéniles. Toutefois, un taux de survie comparable au stade 1 et 2 (85 5 ± 5 5 % et 80 6 ± 3 2 % a été trouvé avec le traitement à la plus forte concentration en chlorure de sodium (S90. Un taux de survie significativement plus faible des juvéniles (stade 1 : 60,6–70,3 % et stade 2 : 56,1– 67,3 % est observé pour les groupes S60, S30 et R. Mais le groupe R demande un gros travail coûteux. Les survies les plus faibles des juvéniles au stade 1 (46 4 ± 8 2 % et au stade 2 (45 2 ± 6 8 % sont observées en l’absence de traitement chimique et de retrait des œufs (C.

Policar T.

2011-06-01

374

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Research and Development FY-2002 Status Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering several optional processes for disposal of liquid sodium-bearing waste. During fiscal year 2002, immobilization-related research included of grout formulation development for sodium-bearing waste, absorption of the waste on silica gel, and off-gas system mercury collection and breakthrough using activated carbon. Experimental results indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be immobilized in grout at 70 weight percent and onto silica gel at 74 weight percent. Furthermore, a loading of 11 weight percent mercury in sulfur-impregnated activated carbon was achieved with 99.8% off-gas mercury removal efficiency.

Herbst, Alan Keith; Deldebbio, John Anthony; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Olson, Lonnie Gene; Scholes, Bradley Adams

2002-09-01

375

Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy  

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Full Text Available Mario Guidotti,1 Caterina Barrilà,1 Serena Leva,1 Claudio De Piazza,1 Stefano Omboni21Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, 2Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, ItalyBackground: Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study.Methods: Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine to 10 (severe migraine and use of rescue medication.Results: The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.8–5.9] than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1–6.4], P < 0.05 versus frovatriptan or no therapy (6.6 [6.2–7.0], P < 0.01 versus frovatriptan. The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5–2.3] versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0–4.2], P < 0.001 and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4–5.8], P < 0.001 and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P < 0.05 lower on frovatriptan (12.5% than on naproxen sodium (31.3% or no therapy (56.3%.Conclusion: This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine.Keywords: migraine, frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, weekend

Guidotti M

2013-01-01

376

Improvement in electrochromic stability of electrodeposited nickel hydroxide thin film  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrochromic nickel hydroxide thin film was anodically deposited from an aqueous solution. The effect of solution temperature, postheat-treatment temperature, and addition of cadmium on the electrochromic behavior (color/bleach durability cycle, response time, and coloration efficiency of the nickel hydroxide films in NaOH) were investigated. A significant increase in the color/bleach durability cycle from 500 (for the as-deposited film) to more than 5000 cycles (for the heat-treated film) was observed. The addition of cadmium increased the utilization of the active materials. It was found that the coloration efficiency was 40 cm{sup 2}/C and coloration and bleaching response time were 20 to 30 s and 8 to 10 s, respectively. The change in the electrochromic properties with heat-treatment temperature is discussed based on the physical and electrochemical analysis.

Natarajan, C.; Matsumoto, H.; Nogami, G. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1997-01-01

377

Phase IV, open-label assessment of the treatment of actinic keratosis with 3.0% diclofenac sodium topical gel (Solaraze).  

Science.gov (United States)

A clearance rate of all occurrences > or = 75% for actinic keratoses (AK) lesions is an accepted efficacy endpoint for topical agents. This efficacy endpoint has not been assessed for 3.0% diclofenac sodium gel (Solaraze). We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of 3.0% diclofenac sodium gel in the treatment of AK for a treatment period of 90 days and a 30-day follow-up period. This is a multicenter, single-arm, open-label study in patients diagnosed with five or more AK lesions contained in 1 to 3 blocks (5 cm2) on the forehead, central face, or scalp. Patients were treated twice daily with a topical application of 3.0% diclofenac sodium gel for a period of 90 days with a follow-up assessment at 30 days post-treatment. The presence or absence of target lesions and new lesions was assessed at each visit a long with a global improvement index score. Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 67 (88%) patients completed the study. At Day 90 of treatment, 78% of patients had > or = 75% AK lesion clearance based on the target lesion number score (TLNS). Improving to 85% of patients demonstrating > or = 75% AK lesion clearance at Day 120 (follow-up). Improvement was also demonstrated by 100% AK lesion clearance based on the TLNS clearance (Day 90 of treatment: 41%; Day 120 [follow-up]: 58%). Similar improvements were shown in cumulative lesion number score (CLNS), which included new as well as targeted AK lesions within the designated treatment areas, at Day 90 and Day 120 (follow-up). Investigators' assessment based on Investigator Global Improvement Index (IGII) confirmed the efficacy of 3.0% diclofenac gel in the clearance of AK lesions. A total of 39 patients (51%) experienced at least 1 adverse event considered to be related to 3.0% diclofenac sodium gel during the study. Dry skin and rash at the application site were most common reported adverse events, and most of these adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. The topical application of 3.0% diclofenac sodium gel provides a safe and effective approach for the treatment of AK. PMID:15303784

Nelson, Christopher; Rigel, Darrell; Smith, Stacy; Swanson, Neil; Wolf, John

2004-01-01

378

The Cured Immune Phenotype Achieved by Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the BALB/c Mouse with a Nonionic Surfactant Vesicular Formulation of Sodium Stibogluconate Does Not Protect against Reinfection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Single-dose treatment with sodium stibogluconate solution (SSG) and treatment with a nonionic surfactant vesicular formulation of sodium stibogluconate (SSG-NIV) were compared for the ability to protect BALB/c mice against infection with Leishmania donovani. Prophylactic treatment with SSG-NIV protected against infection, although its effects were time and organ dependent; protection was not obtained with SSG. Protection against reinfection with L. donovani was observed only in mice cured by ...

Carter, K. C.; Baillie, A. J.; Mullen, A. B.

1999-01-01

379

Preliminary results of a phase I/II study of sodium pentosanpolysulfate in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced proctitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a report of a phase I/II study of 13 patients treated with sodium pentosanpolysulfate (PPS) for chronic radiation-induced proctitis. A complete response was obtained in 82%, a partial response occurred in 9%, and 9% failed to respond to therapy. No significant toxicity was observed. It is concluded that PPS is an effective treatment for chronic radiation-induced proctitis and a phase III randomized, double-blind study of PPS versus placebo is planned

1990-01-01

380

A retrospective study of intravenous sodium stibogluconate alone and in combinations with allopurinol, rifampicin, and an immunomodulator in the treatment of Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aims: A retrospective analysis of treatment outcome using recommended dose of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) alone and in combination with other antileishmanial drugs in adults with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) attending as outpatients. Methods: A total of 61 patients seen over ten years were included in the report. All had polymorphic lesions. Diagnosis was based on clinical picture, hailing from kala-azar (KA) endemic area, exclusion of other dermatos...

Ramesh V; Kumar Joginder; Kumar Dhiraj; Salotra Poonam

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Comparison of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur sodium for the treatment of relapse of undifferentiated fever/bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This commercial field trial compared the efficacy of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur sodium in beef cattle at high risk of developing undifferentiated fever (UF), also known as bovine respiratory disease (BRD) that received tilmicosin at feedlot arrival, were diagnosed and initially treated for UF with tilmicosin, and subsequently required a second UF treatment (first relapse). Feedlot cattle (n = 463) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups: ENRO or CEF. Second UF relapse, 3rd UF relapse,...

2012-01-01

382

Evaluation of the nebulisation of sodium ceftiofur in the treatment of experimental Pasteurella haemolytica bronchopneumonia in calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe acute bronchopneumonia was induced in 24 conventional Friesian Holstein calves by inoculating them intratracheally with Pasteurella haemolytica type A1. Twelve of the calves were treated intramuscularly with sodium ceftiofur and 12 were treated with an aerosol of sodium ceftiofur. The mortality rate in the group of calves treated with the aerosol was significantly lower, and their clinical and haematological parameters returned to normal significantly faster than in the calves treated intramuscularly. PMID:8588104

Sustronck, B; Deprez, P; Muylle, E; Vermeersch, H; Vandenbossche, G; Remon, J P

1995-11-01

383

Online and offline sodium monitoring in feed/steam water of FBTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) utilizes Once Through Steam Generator (OTSG) for producing super heated steam at 480 deg C, 125 kg/cm2. In order to minimize corrosion related failures of tubes and ensure the SG tube integrity efficient water chemistry control is maintained in the feed/steam water system with All Volatile Treatment (AVT) and Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU). The high pH, low oxygen treatment is achieved by adding Ammonium hydroxide (500ppb) and Hydrazine (20-30ppb). Monitoring of sodium impurity in feed water and steam is highly important to assess the condenser tube leak and prevent possible caustic corrosion. The cationic impurities can be effectively controlled in the system by monitoring sodium at the outlet of CPU. A gradual and slow increase in sodium concentration indicates the exhaust/pre exhaust conditions of CPU whereas a rapidly increasing trend is an indication of cooling water tube leak in to the condenser. However, routine ultra trace level monitoring of sodium in presence of excess of ammonium ion and hydrazine, is a challenging task. This paper details the offline monitoring of sodium at ultra trace level using Reagent-Free Ion chromatograph (RFIC) wherein the high purity eluent is generated in situ. An on line sodium monitoring system using ion selective electrode (ISE) is also discussed here. The sodium concentration at Condensate Extraction Pump discharge (CEP) was always found to be less than 1.2 ppb ruling out the ingress of cooling water into the condensate due condenser