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Sample records for sodium hydroxide treatment

  1. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2...empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by...solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium...

  2. Rapeseed-straw enzymatic digestibility enhancement by sodium hydroxide treatment under ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we carried out sodium hydroxide and sonication pretreatments of rapeseed straw (Brassica napus) to obtain monosugar suitable for production of biofuels. To optimize the pretreatment conditions, we applied a statistical response-surface methodology. The optimal pretreatment conditions using sodium hydroxide under sonication irradiation were determined to be 75.0 °C, 7.0 % sodium hydroxide, and 6.8 h. For these conditions, we predicted 97.3 % enzymatic digestibility. In repeated experiments to validate the predicted value, 98.9 ± 0.3 % enzymatic digestibility was obtained, which was well within the range of the predicted model. Moreover, sonication irradiation was found to have a good effect on pretreatment in the lower temperature range and at all concentrations of sodium hydroxide. According to scanning electron microscopy images, the surface area and pore size of the pretreated rapeseed straw were modified by the sodium hydroxide pretreatment under sonication irradiation. PMID:23124436

  3. Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on rate of passage and rate of ruminal fiber digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, L L; Klopfenstein, T J; Britton, R A

    1980-04-01

    Ruminally fistulated lambs were used to measure the effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on rate of passage and rate of ruminal fiber digestion. Corncobs were raised to 60% moisture and treated to a final concentration of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% NaOH on a dry matter basis. The diets fed contained 80% cobs and 20% supplement, giving a complete mixed diet containing 0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0% NaOH (dry basis). Chromic oxide was used as an external marker, and rumen samples were collected at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hr post-dosing. As level of NaOH treatment increased, rate of passage increased linearly (P less than .05). Mean ruminal retention time decreased from 32.4 hr for the control diet to 20.7 hr for the 8% NaOH diet. When rate of passage was regressed against NaOH level, the slope of the line was .142%/hr per unit NaOH, with r2 = .733. In another trial, sodium concentrations equal to the 4% NaOH diet were obtained by the addition of 7.3% NaCl to the basal diet. Rates of passage for lambs fed the diet containing NaCl were faster (P less than .05) than for lambs fed the control diet but slower (P less than .05) than for lambs on the 4% NaOH diet. These data suggest that both sodium intake and NaOH treatment affect rate of passage and are additive. Nylon bags containing .15 g cotton were used to measure the rate of ruminal fiber digestion in lambs fed the five NaOH-treated diets. Bags were removed from the rumen after 12, 24, 36 and 48 hr, and the loss in weight were used to estimate ruminal digestion. As level of NaOH increased, the rate of ruminal cotton digestion decreased linearly (P less than .05). When rate of cotton digestion was regressed against NaOH level, the slope of the line was -.488%/hr per unit NaOH, with r2 = .934. PMID:6246060

  4. Investigation by bioassay of the efficacy of sodium hydroxide treatment on the inactivation of mouse-adapted scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, A; Thyer, J; Uren, E; Middleton, D; Braun, M; Maher, D

    2007-06-01

    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) has been shown to reduce the infectivity of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents. This study investigated the efficacy of sodium hydroxide at 0.1M, 0.25M and 0.5M concentrations for the inactivation of mouse-adapted scrapie strain ME7. Times and temperatures modelled conditions used in an industrial plasma fractionation plant for sanitisation of ultrafilters, and the sodium hydroxide component of Clean In Place sanitisation. The concentration of scrapie ME7 brain homogenate in NaOH test solutions was 1% (w/v). At the end of incubation periods, the samples were adjusted to neutral pH prior to intracerebral inoculation into mice for bioassay. The conditions of 0.1M NaOH at 60 degrees C for 2min and 0.25M NaOH at 30 degrees C for 60min were found to inactivate 3.96 and 3.93logs of scrapie, respectively. Use of 0.5M NaOH at 30 degrees C for 60 or 75min was found to inactivate >or=4.23 and 4.15logs of scrapie. This indicates that the use of these conditions in an industrial process would substantially reduce prion infectivity. PMID:17074508

  5. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide

  6. Comparison of Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide Followed by Heat Treatment on Rice Straw for Cellulase Production under Solid State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    A.L. Chew; C. Chuah; L. G. A. Ong

    2010-01-01

    Rice straw is the major agricultural by-product in the world. Its low digestibility made it unsuitable as livestock feed which lead to the mass disposal and burning of rice straw. The main objective of this study were to optimise the alkali concentration and soaking time on rice straw for the alkali pretreatment followed by heat treatment for cellulose production and to compare the effectiveness of both alkali used. The rice straws were subjected to two treatments, which were Treatment A and ...

  7. An evaluation of the residual toxicity and chemistry of a sodium hydroxide-based ballast water treatment system for freshwater ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kemble, Nile E; Echols, Kathy R; Brumbaugh, William G; Henquinet, Jeffrey W; Watten, Barnaby J

    2015-06-01

    Nonnative organisms in the ballast water of freshwater ships must be killed to prevent the spread of invasive species. The ideal ballast water treatment system (BWTS) would kill 100% of ballast water organisms with minimal residual toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. In the present study, the residual toxicity and chemistry of a BWTS was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was added to elevate pH to >11.5 to kill ballast water organisms, then reduced to pH diesel exhaust (the source of CO2 ). Cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 2 d to BWTS water under an air atmosphere (pH drifted to ?9) or a 2.5% CO2 atmosphere (pH 7.5-8.2), then transferred to control water for 5?d to assess potential delayed toxicity. Chemical concentrations in the BWTS water met vessel discharge guidelines with the exception of concentrations of copper. There was little to no residual toxicity to cladocerans or fish, but the BWTS water was toxic to amphipods. Maintaining a neutral pH and diluting BWTS water by 50% eliminated toxicity to the amphipods. The toxicity of BWTS water would likely be minimal because of rapid dilution in the receiving water, with subsurface release likely preventing pH rise. This BWTS has the potential to become a viable method for treating ballast water released into freshwater systems. PMID:25693486

  8. Engineering evaluation of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, D. G.; Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of thermal energy storage prototypes was performed in order to assess the development status of latent heat storage media. The testing and the evaluation of a prototype sodium hydroxide module is described. This module stored off-peak electrical energy as heat for later conversion to domestic hot water needs.

  9. Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovi? Ljubica J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

  10. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

    1996-10-01

    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  11. Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct oxidation of sodium borohydride in concentrated sodium hydroxide medium has been studied by cyclic and linear voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry for silver and gold electrocatalysts, either bulk and polycrystalline or nanodispersed over high area carbon blacks. Gold and silver yield rather complete utilisation of the reducer: around 7.5 electrons are delivered on these materials, versus 4 at the most for platinum as a result of the BH4- non-negligible hydrolysis taking place on this latter material. The kinetic parameters for the direct borohydride oxidation are better for gold than for silver. A strong influence of the ratio of sodium hydroxide versus sodium borohydride is found: whereas the theoretical stoichiometry does forecast that eight hydroxide ions are needed for each borohydride ion, our experimental results prove that a larger excess hydroxide ion is necessary in quasi-steady state conditions. When the above-mentioned ratio is unity (1 M NaOH and 1 M NaBH4), the tetrahydroborate ions direct oxidation is limited by the hydroxide concentration, and their hydrolysis is no longer negligible. The hydrolysis products are probably BH3OH- ions, for which gold displays a rather good oxidation activity. Additionally, silver, which is a weak BH4- oxidation electrocatalyst, exhibits the best activity of all the studied materials towards the BH3OH- direct oxidation. Finally, carbon-supported gold nanoparticles seem promising as anode material to be used in direct borohydride fuel cells

  12. Kinetics of cubic boron nitride reaction with molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of cubic boron nitride (different makes) interaction with sodium hydroxide melt in the temperature range of 380-480 deg C was studied by the gravimetric method. It was ascertained that the reaction order at 440 deg C makes up 3.5, while the value of apparent activation energy is 92.3 ± 12.9 kJ/mol, which suggests occurrence of the process in kinetic range. It is shown that different makes of cubic boron nitride differ in their chemical resistance to alkali melt

  13. Comparison of tissue solubility of human umbilical cord by sodium hypochlrorite and calcium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Barati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As biomechanical preparation of root canal system is not always completely accomplished because of morphological and physical barriers, to obtain a sterile root canal for the success of endodontic treatment, use of chemical solvents is essential. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare effects of Ca (OH2 and NaOCl in single and combination usage for this purpose.Methods and Materials: In this experimental study, five groups of 40 pieces of human umbilical cord samples were placed in 10 ml of different solvents for 1 wk. The weight of samples was adjusted to 0.03 g. Experimental solvents included: 1 Calcium hydroxide solution (0.6g per ml, 2 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 3 5% sodium hypochlorite, and 4 calcium hydroxide solution for 1 wk and then 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min, 5 Normal saline. Tissue solubility of these solvents was compared by weight changes of samples after 1 wk. Data was analyzed with Kruscal- wallis and t- student tests.Results: There was no significant difference between calcium hydroxide (Group 1 and salin (Group 5. Other groups had significant differences (p value < 0.01.Conclusion: According to findings of this study, tissue solubilizing of 0.5% NaOCl is less than 5% although both have more solubilizing power than Ca (OH2. Pretreatment with Ca (OH2 could not enhance the tissue dissolving effect of 0.5% NaOCl.Key words: Root canal therapy- Irrigators- Sodium hypochlorite- Calcium hydroxide- Tissue solubility

  14. Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, Marian; Micoud, Fabrice; Roche, Ivan; Chainet, Eric [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Vondrak, Jiri [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-28

    In order to mimic the operation of the air-cathode in a direct borohydride alkaline fuel cell, we studied the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in sodium hydroxide solution containing traces of borohydride. The activity of several ORR electrocatalysts, namely carbon-supported platinum, gold, silver and manganese oxide, has been investigated using slow-scan linear voltammetry. Whereas platinum is one of the best electrocatalyst in pure sodium hydroxide, none of the classical electrocatalysts: gold, silver and platinum, exhibit sufficient selectivity towards the ORR. When BH{sub 4}{sup -} is present in solution, the potential taken by electrodes using such materials is a mixed potential, following the competition between the ORR and the NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis and/or oxidation. Conversely, manganese oxide-based electrocatalysts exhibit very interesting behaviour towards the ORR in alkaline medium; while their intrinsic ORR activity in pure sodium hydroxide is quite as good as that for platinum, they still display a remarkable selectivity for this reaction when the electrolyte contains traces of sodium borohydride. As a result, carbon-supported manganese oxide-based nanoparticles seem very interesting materials to be used in direct borohydride fuel cell. (author)

  15. Extended development of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Rowny, P. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    The post-test evaluation of a single heat exchanger sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module for use in solar electric generation is reported. Chemical analyses of the storage medium used in the experimental model are presented. The experimental verification of the module performance using an alternate heat transfer fluid, Caloria HT-43, is described. Based on these results, a design analysis of a dual heat exchanger concept within the storage module is presented. A computer model and a reference design for the dual system (storage working fluid/power cycle working fluid) were completed. The dual system is estimated to have a capital cost of approximately one half that of the single heat exchanger concept.

  16. Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Mechanical Property of Non Sodium Silicate Fly Ash Based Geopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    R.H. Abdul Rahim; K.A. Azizli; Man, Z.; T. Rahmiati; M. F. Nuruddin

    2014-01-01

    Alkali activator and materials rich in Si and Al are the requirements for the geopolymer synthesis. The common activator use is sodium hydroxide with silicate solution. There is limited literature on the mechanical property of geopolymer in the absence of silicate solution. In this study, fly ash was used as the raw material to provide Si and Al and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the only activator for the synthesis of geopolymer. This study describes the effect of varying the sodium hydroxide co...

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provided that the resulting total sodium concentration in feed does not compromise the overall electrolyte balance. Sodium hydroxide in solid form and in aqueous solution at concentrations > 8.0 % is corrosive. At lower concentrations it is irritant to skin and eyes (0.5 % and 0.2 %, respectively and the respiratory tract (0.5 %. Exposure via inhalation is likely to be minimal. Sodium hydroxide is not considered to be a skin sensitiser. As sodium hydroxide is used in food as an acidity regulator, and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  18. Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodrigues de Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3 tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm.The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to develop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3 with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

  19. Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina / Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Rodrigues de, Lima; Ricardo Araújo, Oliveira; Miriam Carla Bonicontro, Ambrosio-Ugri; Sueli Teresa Davantel de, Barros; Carlos de, Barros Júnior.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitand [...] o seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3) tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm. Abstract in english The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to d [...] evelop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3) with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

  20. Effect of different molarities of Sodium Hydroxide solution on the Strength of Geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji S. Bidwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the experimental study of strength of geopolymer concrete for different molarities of sodium hydroxide solution. This paper also contains results of the laboratory tests conducted to find out the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the strength of the geopolymer concrete. In these days the world is facing a major problem i.e. the environmental pollution. We can use fly ash instead of cement in the construction in order to reduce environmental pollution. The Concrete made by using Fly ash and alkaline liquid mixture as a binder is known as geopolymer concrete. In this study for the polymerization process alkaline liquids used are Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH and Sodium Silicate (Na2SiO3. Different molarities of sodium hydroxide solution i.e. 8M, 10M and 12M are taken to prepare different mixes and the compressive strength is calculated for each of the mix. The size of the cube specimens taken are 150mm X 150mm X 150mm. Curing of these cubes is done in an oven for 3 days and 28 days. The Compressive strength of these geopolymer concrete specimens is tested at 3 days and 28 days. The results show that there is increase in comp. strength of geopolymer concrete with increase in molarity of Sodium Hydroxide Solution. Ordinary Concrete Specimens are also manufactured with cement as binder. It is found that the Compressive strength of Geopolymer Concrete specimens is higher than the Compressive strength of Ordinary Concrete Specimens.

  1. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description...

  2. Anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive wastes, primarily consisting of concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions, are stored in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated solutions of 10 M NaOH and various concentrations of NaNO3 (0.01-2.0 M) was determined in order to predict the caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) susceptibility of the tanks. The active-passive transition peak exhibited during anodic polarization of low-carbon steel in 10 M NaOH, typically associated with CSCC, at -0.25 and -0.75 VSCE, is still present at the lower and higher concentrations of nitrate. However, there is a mid-range of nitrate concentrations (0.5-1 M) within which the peak is suppressed by the strongly oxidizing nitrate in the presence of oxygen, a cathodic depolarizer. Temperature also affects the magnitude of this mid-range of nitrate concentrations where CSCC is seen to be electrochemically prevented. The data suggest that the oxygen solubility at the relatively low temperatures tested (corr is driven more noble than the active-passive transition peak

  3. Application of inorganic sorbents in production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of application of inorganic sorbents in production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide is studied. It is defined that sorbents on the basis of titanium phosphate can be used for water conditioning. The sorption properties, mechanical strength, chemical stability of these sorbents as well as optimal conditions of their operation are defined.

  4. Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Mechanical Property of Non Sodium Silicate Fly Ash Based Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkali activator and materials rich in Si and Al are the requirements for the geopolymer synthesis. The common activator use is sodium hydroxide with silicate solution. There is limited literature on the mechanical property of geopolymer in the absence of silicate solution. In this study, fly ash was used as the raw material to provide Si and Al and sodium hydroxide (NaOH as the only activator for the synthesis of geopolymer. This study describes the effect of varying the sodium hydroxide concentration with respect to curing time and temperature on mechanical properties of non-sodium silicate fly ash based geopolymer. The samples were prepared by mixing fly ash with 8, 10 and 12 M of NaOH concentration and cured in room temperature and 60°C for 1, 7 and 28 days. The highest alkali concentration of 12 M showed the fastest setting time and the highest compressive strength regardless of days of curing. The highest compressive strength obtained for curing at 60°C was 59.81 MPa and 45 min was recorded for the setting time. Meanwhile, at room temperature, the highest strength obtained was 17.71 MPa and 248 min for setting time.

  5. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P. O.; Frandsen, Cathrine; Mørup, Steen; Geckeis, H.; Katerinopoulou, A.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was characterised using Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established...

  6. Bioethanol production from hydrothermally pretreated coconut fibre mature catalyzed with sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Gon??alves, F. A.; Ru??z, H??ctor A.; Santos, E. S. dos; Teixeira, J. A.; Macedo, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    In search to increase the offer of liquid energy, clean, renewable and sustainable in the world energy matrix, arises the alternative in the use lignocellulosic materials in bioethanol production. The objective of this work was evaluated the bioethanol production using different strategies as simultaneous (SSF) and semi-simultaneous (SSSF) saccharification on hydrothermally pretreated coconut fibre mature as raw material catalyzed with sodium hydroxide. The bioethanol production was performed...

  7. Experimental study on reactivity of structural concrete with sodium-hydroxide in sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For countermeasure against sodium leak, structural concrete is protected by steel liner in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). However, if considering severe and unexpected accidental condition such as breach of steel liner by intensive sodium leak, the reaction of concrete with liquid sodium potentially may occur. For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of sodium-concrete reaction in SFR, kinetic study of the sodium-hydroxide (NaOH)-silica (SiO2) reaction was carried out by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The parameters, including melting point of NaOH, phase transition temperature of NaOH and SiO2, and NaOH-SiO2 reaction temperature were identified from DSC curves. From visualization test, sample eruption was observed during reaction. It was found that rate of NaOH-SiO2 reaction was quite fast from DSC curves, which was similar with that of the reaction between NaOH and aggregate of practical concrete. Thermal analysis results indicated that NaOH-SiO2 reaction could occur in the timeframe of sodium-concrete reaction. (author)

  8. The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.

  9. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layereddouble hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bo C.; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Petit, Pierre-Olivier; Frandsen, Cathrine; Mørup, Steen; Geckeis, Horst; Katerinopoulou, Anna; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was characterised usingMo¨ssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established...

  10. Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Izzati Iberahim; Jamaliah Md. Jahim; Shuhaida Harun; Mohd Tusirin Mohd Nor; Osman Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was carried out with NaOH from 2% to 10% (w/v) at temperature 500C and 700C. The performances of pretreatments were evaluated based on total carbohydrate and reducing sugar including glucose, xylose and arabinose after enzymatic hydrolysis on the pretreated biomass. It was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis had significantly improved when 6% NaOH in 700C applied in the pretreatment process. The highest total reducing sugars prod...

  11. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC. The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 hours and then kept in room temperature until the day of testing. Compressive strength test was carried out at the ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that concentration variation of sodium hydroxide had least effect on the fresh properties of SCGC. With the increase in sodium hydroxide concentration, the workability of fresh concrete was slightly reduced; however, the corresponding compressive strength was increased. Concrete samples with sodium hydroxide concentration of 12 M produced maximum compressive strength.

  12. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  13. Effect of peracetic acid, sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid on cellulosic materials as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farid, M.A.; Shaker, H.M.; El-Diwany, A.I.

    1983-11-01

    Crystalline cellulose and cellulosic wastes have been treated with various concentrations of peracetic acid and other reagents at 100 degrees C for various times, washed with water, ethanol and air dried. For each treated cellulose, the degree of enzymatic solubilization was measured with Trichoderma viride cellulase (1,4-(1,3;1,4)-..beta..-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.4). Cellulosic wastes such as sunflower stalks, wheat straw and sugar-cane bagasse were solubilized effectively by the enzyme. Delignification of wheat straw with 1% sodium hydroxide and treatment of this straw with peracetic acid enhanced the degree of enzymatic solubilization. Infrared spectra of the untreated and treated cellulosic wastes were recorded. 18 references.

  14. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    FAREED AHMED MEMON; MUHD FADHIL NURUDDIN; SADAQATULLAH KHAN; NASIR SHAFIQ; TEHMINA AYUB

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC). The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 ...

  15. Influence and hydrolysis kinetics in titanyl sulfate solution from the sodium hydroxide molten salt method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijing; Chen, Desheng; Chu, Jinglong; Li, Jie; Xue, Tianyan; Wang, Lina; Wang, Dong; Qi, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Hydrated titanium dioxide (HTD) was precipitated by thermal hydrolysis in purified titanyl sulfate solution (TSS) obtained through the sodium hydroxide molten salt clean method. Various factors including the stirring speed and initial concentrations of TiOSO4, sulfuric acid, and sodium ion were studied. The main influence factors in the hydrolysis process were the initial concentrations of TiOSO4 and sulfuric acid. Contrary to the ferrous ion, the sodium ion improved the ionic activity of Ti4+, but did not decrease the crystal size. The Boltzman growth model (x=A2+(A1-A2)/{1+exp[(t-t0)/dt)]}, which focuses on two main parameters (CTiOSO4 and CH2SO4), fits the hydrolysis process well with R2>0.97. An increase in sulfuric acid concentration negatively affected the hydrolysis rates and the value of A2, while t0 increased. An increase in titanyl sulfate concentration directly reduced the hydrolysis rates and particle size of HTD, contrary to the trend for the value of t0. A simulation software called 1stopt was used to observe the relationship between Z (A1, A2, t0, dt) and a, b (CTiO2 and CH2SO4).

  16. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was characterised using Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established by mass and absorption spectroscopy. The sulphate form of green rust is composed of brucite-like layers with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in an ordered distribution. The interlayers contain sulphate, water and sodium in an arrangement characteristic for the nikischerite group. The crystal structure is highly disordered by slacking faults. The composition, formula and crystallographic parameters are: NaFe(II)(6)Fe(III)(3)(SO4)(2)(OH)(18)center dot 12H(2)O, space group P-3, a = 9.528(6) angstrom, c = 10.968(8) angstrom and Z = 1.Green rust sodium sulphate, GR(Na,SO4) crystallizes in thin, hexagonal plates. Particles range from less than 50 nm to 2 mu m in diameter and are 40 nm thick or less. The material is redox active and reaction rates are fast. Extremely small particle size and high surface area contribute to rapid oxidation, transforming green rust to an Fe(III)-phase within minutes.

  17. Convenient synthetic method of starch/lactic acid graft copolymer catalyzed with sodium hydroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qingling Wang; Yingmo Hu; Jianhua Zhu; Yang Liu; Xue Yang; Jing Bian

    2012-06-01

    Copolymer of starch grafted with lactic acid (LA) could be directly prepared by reaction of cornstarch with lactic acid and with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst. The structure of starch/LA copolymer was characterized by IR, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The effects of NaOH concentration, ratios of starch and LA, reaction temperature and reaction time on the grafting degree were also investigated and the results showed that the highest grafting degree of starch could reach 33.60% when the graft copolymerization was carried out in 0.40 mol l-1 NaOH aqueous solution for 9 h at 90°C with 1: 6 ratio of starch and lactic acid.

  18. Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Izzati Iberahim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF was carried out with NaOH from 2% to 10% (w/v at temperature 500C and 700C. The performances of pretreatments were evaluated based on total carbohydrate and reducing sugar including glucose, xylose and arabinose after enzymatic hydrolysis on the pretreated biomass. It was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis had significantly improved when 6% NaOH in 700C applied in the pretreatment process. The highest total reducing sugars produced by means of commercial enzymes was achieved with the overall conversions of glucan and xylan of 87% and 60.73% respectively. The compositions of OPMF in this study are as follows (% g/g dry biomass: glucan, 28.8, xylan, 25.3, arabinan, 1.91, ethanol extractive, 6.32 and ash, 2.60.

  19. Comparison of efficacy of phenol and sodium hydroxide matricectomies for management of ingrown toenails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the efficacy of Phenol and Sodium Hydroxide Matricectomies in terms of frequency of pain and wound healing in the management of Ingrown Toenails. Study Design: Randomized Clinical Trial Place of Duration of Study: Out Patient Department of Surgery Combined Military Hospital Kharian from Aug 2010 to Feb 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 140 cases with Ingrown Toenails were selected and randomly divided into two groups of 70 each. Cases of Group A and B were subjected to Phenol Matricectomy (PMC) and Sodium Hydroxide Matricectomy (SHMC) respectively. Postoperative pain was comparatively and Southampton Wound Grade for wound healing were analyzed at 2nd and 10th postop day. Results: Mean age of Group A was 28.86 ± 6.423 whereas that of Group B was 28.80 ± 5.997. Group A had 58 (83%) males and 12 (17%) females. Group B had 48 (69%) males and 22 (31%) females. Postoperative pain was comparatively less in group A with statistical difference between two groups on 2nd day (p = 0.014), whereas it was less intense in group B with no statistical significant difference on 10th day (p=0.662). Wound healing was better in group B with statistical difference between two groups on 2nd (p = 0.022) and 10th day (p = 0.024). Group B (91.4%) had more statistically significant efficacy than Group A (71.4%) (p = 0.004). Conclusion: SHMC is superior to PMC in reducing pain and improving wound healing for managing Ingrown Toenails. (author)

  20. Novel hypertonic saline-sodium hydroxide (HS-SH) method for decontamination and concentration of sputum samples for Mycobacterium tuberculosis microscopy and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ganoza, C. A.; Ricaldi, J. N.; J. Chauca; Rojas, G; Munayco, C.; Agapito, J.; Palomino, J. C.; H GUERRA

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a new decontamination and concentration (DC) method for sputum microscopy and culture. Sputum samples from patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) (n=106) were tested using the proposed hypertonic saline–sodium hydroxide (HS–SH) DC method, the recommended N-acetyl-L-cysteine–sodium citrate–sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH) DC method and unconcentrated direct smear (Ziehl–Neelsen) techniques for the presence of mycobacteria using Löwenstein-Jensen culture and light ...

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  2. Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com hidróxido de sódio Sugarcane bagasse treated with sodium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (MS do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar contendo 60% de MS submetido a doses crescentes de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH (0; 2,5; 5 e 7,5% de uma solução 2:1 de água:NaOH na MS em diferentes períodos de tratamento (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias. Foram utilizados baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10 L, mantidos em uma câmara climática à temperatura constante de 25ºC. Não foi verificado efeito dos tratamentos (dose de NaOH e dias de tratamento sobre os teores de PB, que apresentaram valor médio de 1,6%. A MS aumentou com os dias de tratamento, não sendo observadas alterações para essa variável em relação às doses crescentes de NaOH. Foi observada redução das frações de FDN, FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HEM e lignina (LIG. A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e o teor de sódio aumentaram quando o bagaço de cana foi submetido a doses crescentes de NaOH, mas não foi observado efeito do período de tratamento sobre essas variáveis. O valor nutritivo do bagaço de cana é melhorado com a adição de NaOH, comprovado pela redução nos constituintes da parede celular e pelo aumento na DIVMS.The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sugar-cane bagasse containing 60% dry matter submited to increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% NaOH on a dry matter basis. NaOH was applied as a 2:1 water:NaOH solution, over different treatment times (1, 3, 5, and 7 days. Plastic pails with 10 L capacity were utilized and stocked in climatic chamber at 25ºC constant temperature. The experimental treatments had no effect on the crude protein content of the sugar cane bagasse which averaged 1.6% CP. The dry matter content of the bagasse increased over of the days of treatment, without any effect of the NaOH solution concentration. Mean values for the bagasse neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents declined in response to NAOH solution concentration. NaOH treatment improved the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and sodium content of the bagasse. Time of treatment had no effect on these variables. The treatment of sugar cane bagasse with the NaOH solution improved its nutritive value in terms of its reduced cell wall constituents and increased IVDMD.

  3. Environmental Stress Cracking of Poly(3-hydroxibutyrate) Under Contact with Sodium Hydroxide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rômulo Freitas, Farias; Eduardo Luís, Canedo; Renate Maria Ramos, Wellen; Marcelo Silveira, Rabello.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress cracking (ESC) is one of the most important causes of polymer premature failure, occurring when a combination of mechanical load and an aggressive fluid is applied. The phenomenon is well know by polymer producers and product designers but its mechanisms are not very well unders [...] tood. Although the ESC effects of many commercial polymers are well known, this type of failure in biopolymers were not studied yet. In the current work, the stress cracking behaviour of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with 4,0 and 6,2% of hydroxyvalerate (HV) was investigated in injection-moulded bars under contact with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. The experiments were conducted using two different types of stress arrangements: (i) an ordinary tensile testing and (ii) a relaxation experiment. In both situations the injection-moulded bars were exposed to the NaOH solution and some testing conditions where varied, like the cross-head speed of the tensile test and the maximum load of the relaxation arrangement. The results showed that NaOH acted as a strong stress cracking agent for PHB, causing surface cracking and reducing significantly the mechanical properties. Catastrophic failure with an extensive surface damage was also observed by photographed and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The magnitude of the effects increased with decreasing crosshead speed and increasing loading level.

  4. Fabrication and corrosion behavior of fresh porous silicon in sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of fresh porous silicon (f-PS) in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution in the presence and absence of ethanol was studied by weight loss measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. The phenomena and progress of f-PS corrosion in 1.0 M NaOH at 318 K was obtained and described. Weight loss measurements show that the corrosion rate increases with increasing temperature and concentration of NaOH solution. Meanwhile, the corrosion rate first increases with increasing volume ratio of ethanol in 1.0 M NaOH, and then decreases. Additionally, the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (Ea, A, ?Ha and ?Sa) for f-PS corrosion were obtained and discussed. And the effect factors (T, c and v) of f-PS corrosion in NaOH solution were studied in this paper. - Highlights: • The corrosion behavior of f-PS in NaOH solution was studied for the first time. • Phenomena and progress of f-PS corrosion in NaOH solution was obtained and described. • The effect factors (T, c and v) of f-PS corrosion in NaOH solution were studied. • The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained and discussed. • The corrosion rate can be improved by adding ethanol into NaOH solution

  5. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43 (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  6. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber

  7. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn–Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: ? In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. ? Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. ? Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. ? Growth mechanism was discussed. ? Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  8. Pancreatitis during sodium valproate treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, L H; Reynolds, R. P.; Emery, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A girl aged 1 year died of acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis while taking sodium valproate. Necropsy showed widespread vascular disease that may have contributed to the onset of pancreatitis. Previous reports of pancreatitis in children receiving valproic acid are reviewed and although the association is rare, a causal relation between pancreatitis and valproic acid seems to have been established.

  9. Sodium Hydroxide (CAS No. 62-53-3 [Hidróxido de Sodio (CAS No. 62-53-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Muniz Canto Brum da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda, is an inorganic solid which provides an extremely important role for the manufacture of heavy chemical. This Arrhenius’ base is used for the production of textiles and paper, and participates as an input the manufacture of various products. This article presents a brief history of the production of caustic soda, describes in detail the electrolytic processes currently used for their production and, finally, shows how is the outlook for brazilian and worldwide production and consumption of this basis.

  10. THE BACTERIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT: NORMAL SALINE 5.25% AND 0.5%, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Farhad; A AVAEI; S.Z FARHAD; F POURSINA

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this invitro investigation was to compare the anti-bacterial effect of normal saline and sodium hypochlorite (5.25 percent and 0.5 percent) with calcium hydroxide used as intra canal dressing used in different time periods. Methods: 180 single-rooted freshly extracted teeth were selected. The crowns were resected of CEJ and the canal were flared to the same length using a number one Gates-Glidden. A suspension of selected strict and facultative anaerobic bact...

  11. SUCCESS RATE OF THE ENDODONTIC TREATMENT OF YOUNG PERMANENT TEETH WITH CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    J. Vojinovi?; S. ?upi?; O. Doli?; ?. Mirjani?; S. Sukara; M. Obradovi?

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a comparative analysis of success rates of treatment of apical periodontitis with Calcium Hydroxide paste compared to the conventional method. The course of recovery was observed with 185 treated permanent teeth with either finished or unfinished root growth, of which 68 teeth fall within the control group. It is noted that the success rate of the group treated with Calcium Hydroxide is considerably higher (85% as opposed to 67%).

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 ?g/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  13. Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com hidróxido de sódio / Sugarcane bagasse treated with sodium hydroxide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Ricardo Andrade, Reis; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Gustavo Rezende, Siqueira; Thiago Fernandes, Bernardes.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (MS) do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar contendo 60% de MS submetido a doses crescentes de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) (0; 2,5; 5 e 7,5% de uma solução 2:1 de água:NaOH na MS) em diferentes [...] períodos de tratamento (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias). Foram utilizados baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10 L, mantidos em uma câmara climática à temperatura constante de 25ºC. Não foi verificado efeito dos tratamentos (dose de NaOH e dias de tratamento) sobre os teores de PB, que apresentaram valor médio de 1,6%. A MS aumentou com os dias de tratamento, não sendo observadas alterações para essa variável em relação às doses crescentes de NaOH. Foi observada redução das frações de FDN, FDA, celulose (CEL), hemicelulose (HEM) e lignina (LIG). A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) e o teor de sódio aumentaram quando o bagaço de cana foi submetido a doses crescentes de NaOH, mas não foi observado efeito do período de tratamento sobre essas variáveis. O valor nutritivo do bagaço de cana é melhorado com a adição de NaOH, comprovado pela redução nos constituintes da parede celular e pelo aumento na DIVMS. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sugar-cane bagasse containing 60% dry matter submited to increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% NaOH on a dry matter basis). NaOH was applied as a 2:1 [...] water:NaOH solution, over different treatment times (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). Plastic pails with 10 L capacity were utilized and stocked in climatic chamber at 25ºC constant temperature. The experimental treatments had no effect on the crude protein content of the sugar cane bagasse which averaged 1.6% CP. The dry matter content of the bagasse increased over of the days of treatment, without any effect of the NaOH solution concentration. Mean values for the bagasse neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents declined in response to NAOH solution concentration. NaOH treatment improved the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and sodium content of the bagasse. Time of treatment had no effect on these variables. The treatment of sugar cane bagasse with the NaOH solution improved its nutritive value in terms of its reduced cell wall constituents and increased IVDMD.

  14. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in the one-pot synthesis of intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fengzhu Lv; Zilin Meng; Penggang Li; Yihe Zhang; Guocheng Lv; Qian Zhang; Zhilei Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Anion surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium lauric acid (SLA), with almost the same chain length but different anion groups were used together as intercalates to prepare intercalated ZnAl–layered double hydroxides (ZnAl–LDHs). Their composition, structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated SDS intended to maintain the lamellae structure of LDHs, but SLA was more likely to expand the basal spacings of LDHs in the present system. The arrangement of the surfactants in the interlayer of ZnAl–LDHs was also simulated by Materials Studio. The basal spacings of the LDHs calculated based on simulated structure consisted with that from XRD.

  15. Standard state thermodynamic properties of completely dissociated hydrochloric acid and aqueous sodium hydroxide at extreme temperatures and pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamali, Essmaiil; Cobble, James W

    2009-08-01

    Standard state thermodynamic properties for completely dissociated hydrochloric acid were fixed by ionic additivity, using the data from other strong electrolytes perrhenic acid, sodium perrhenate, and sodium chloride from 298.15 to 598.15 K and at p(sat). The standard electrode potential for the important silver-silver chloride electrode system and the equilibrium constants for the volatility of HCl from aqueous solutions were then calculated and compared with literature data. Using the experimental data from this study and auxiliary data from literature, the logarithm of the molal association constant of HCl at the critical temperature of water and at 673.15 K up to 1000 MPa was predicted from the unified theory of electrolytes (UTE). The standard state thermodynamic properties for completely dissociated aqueous sodium hydroxide were also calculated by ionic additivity over the same temperature range from aqueous sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and the dissociation constant of water. The results were compared with literature data. PMID:19606908

  16. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HymØller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2014-01-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions, was not different when comparing MCS, SHW and barley.

  17. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

  18. Solidification Of The Hanford Law Waste Stream Produced As A Result Of Near-Tank Continuous Sludge Leaching And Sodium Hydroxide Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of 2O7 also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Stone monoliths to verify PA compliance. Based on testin

  19. Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio Valmor, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Sodré, Barroso; Patrícia Alvarez, Ruiz.

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de soluções irrigadoras de canais radiculares contendo hidróxido de cálcio e lauril sulfato de sódio em linhagem de fibroblastos L929. Solução aquosa saturada de hidróxido de cálcio, lauril sulfato de sódio e HCT20 (lauril sulfato de sódio e hid [...] róxido de cálcio) foram diluídos em água destilada em concentrações de 50%, 20%, 10% e 5%. O grupo controle foi representado por meio de cultura de células (MEM - minimum essential medium). A citotoxicidade das soluções sobre os fibroblastos foi avaliada em 4 e 24 h de contato, pelo método do cromo radioativo. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Em todas as análises, o intervalo de confiança referente às médias entre os grupos foi estabelecido em 95%. As soluções saturadas de hidróxido de cálcio e o HCT20 apresentaram toxicidade nas concentrações de 50%. O lauril sulfato de sódio foi tóxico em todas as concentrações. As soluções de hidróxido de cálcio em concentrações menores que 50% apresentaram tolerância celular, assim como combinadas ao lauril sulfato de sódio. Tal comportamento não foi observado na solução pura de lauril sulfato de sódio em todas as concentrações. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calciu [...] m hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxicity of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution.

  20. Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2011-02-04

    Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

  1. Influence of zeolite treated with sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide on the coagulation-flocculation process of drainage. Influencia de la zeolita tratada con acido sulfurico y con hidroxido de sodio en el proceso de coagulacion floculacion en aguas superficiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Duque, M.; Herrera Vasconcelos, T.; Laria Piedra, N.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper has had as objective the treatment of natural zeolite from Tasajera with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide (residuals acid and basic from the regeneration of cationic and anionic resins of the ''Otto Parallada'' thermoelectric plant) at different times and concentrations, with a further comparison and testing of the effectiveness of the obtained zeolite in respect to the natural one as a coadyuvant of the coagulation-flocculation process in the treatment of superficial water. (Author)

  2. Doping magnesium hydroxide with sodium nitrate: a new approach to tune the dehydration reactivity of heat-storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkatulov, Alexandr; Krieger, Tamara; Zaikovskii, Vladimir; Chesalov, Yurii; Aristov, Yuri

    2014-11-26

    Thermochemical energy storage (TES) provides a challenging approach for improving the efficiency of various energy systems. Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, is known as a suitable material for TES at temperature T>300 °C. In this work, the thermal decomposition of Mg(OH)2 in the absence and presence of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is investigated to adapt this material for TES at TNaNO3 content. The Td decrease by 25 °C is revealed at a salt content Y?2.0 wt %. The maximum Td depression of some 50 °C is observed at Y=15-20 wt %; (2) the NaNO3-doped Mg(OH)2 decomposes considerably faster under conditions typical for closed TES cycles (at T>300 °C in vapor atmosphere) than a pure Mg(OH)2; (3) the morphology of the dehydration product (MgO) dramatically changes. Differential scanning calorimetry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman) are used to study the observed effects and to elucidate possible ways the NaNO3 influences the Mg(OH)2 dehydration and morphology of the dehydration product. The mechanism involving a chemical interaction between the salt and the hydroxide accompanied by nitrate embedding into brucite layers is discussed. PMID:25333760

  3. Technology Readiness Evaluation For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regenration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  4. The Corrosion Behavior of Nickel and Inconel 600 in Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrochloric Acid Solution at 280 .deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of nickel and Inconel 600 has been investigated by the weight change measurement method at pH ranges 3?13 of the solution. The specimens were exposed to aqueous solutions in a static autoclave at 280 .deg. C for 210 hours. The pH of the solutions was adjusted by hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide and the dissolved oxygen concentration was fixed as 10 ppb by using pure nitrogen gas. Weight loss of Inconel 600 was much less than that of nickel over the tested pH ranges. At pH 9.5, nickel and Inconel 600 showed the minimum weight loss phenomenon and the values of weight loss were 1.5mg/dm2 and 0.9mg/dm2, respectively. Microscopic examination showed that nickel surface was attacked uniformly, whereas Inconel 600 surface was not greatly

  5. Root canal treatment of pulpless immature teeth using calcium hydroxide paste. Roentgenographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium hydroxide paste was used as a temporary dressing and the renewal was done each three months in the root treatment of immature teeth with open apex and necrotic pulps. Clinical and radiographic controls were made to observe foraminal closure. After that, the root canals were filled, employing the conventional technique with gutta-percha cones and zinc oxide eugenol cements. The calcium hydroxide paste was applied in the apical region before the root canal filling. The follow-up was done periodically and the cases have more than two years of control. (author)

  6. Current Status on Development of Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of sodium as a coolant necessitates the development of special post-operation procedures for the treatment of waste sodium, sodium contaminated equipment, or other purposes. Only a few power and research reactors with sodium coolant have been constructed and operated worldwide. They are close to the end of their design lifetime and, in some cases, the decommissioning is in progress. Conducted by countries that have operational experience with sodium cooled fast reactor, R and D programmes are intended to provide a solid basis for design and operation of sodium waste processing facilities as well as for decommissioning planning. Sodium waste, which has been generated from the test facilities related to the sodium since the beginning of the 1990s, requires now the safe sodium treatment in Korea. Each work activity with sodium should be properly planned and managed to avoid potential chemical reactions or explosions with a high risk of consequent environmental contamination. Special procedures should be implemented for removing and processing bulk quantities of sodium and sodium residuals in internal spaces and on internal surfaces of equipment. The objective of the report is to provide researchers with technical information necessary for the design and construction of technological facilities for sodium waste treatment by reviewing the current state of technical developments for advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and hazards of a sodium waste treatment process. Based on these results, a future plan for development of a sodium waste treatment process can be established

  7. ASSOCIATION OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE AND METRONIDAZOLE IN THE TREATMENT OF DOG'S TEETH WITH CHRONIC PERIAPICAL LESION

    OpenAIRE

    Sônia Regina Panzarini; Valdir de Souza; Roberto Holland; Eloi Dezan Júnior

    2006-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings...

  8. Optimization of alkaline sulfite pretreatment and comparative study with sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Pang, Bo; Wang, Haisong; Li, Haiming; Lu, Jie; Niu, Meihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover was optimized. The influences of pretreatments on solid yield, delignification, and carbohydrate recovery under different pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of pretreatment was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and the total sugar yield. The optimum pretreatment conditions were obtained, as follows: the total titratable alkali (TTA) of 12%, liquid/solid ratio of 6:1, temperature of 140 °C, and holding time of 20 min. Under those conditions, the solid yield was 55.24%, and the removal of lignin was 82.68%. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan for pretreated corn stover were 85.38% and 70.36%, and the total sugar yield was 74.73% at cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g and ?-glucosidase loading of 10 IU/g for 48 h. Compared with sodium hydroxide pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 10.43%. Additionally, the corn stover pretreated under the optimum pretreatment conditions was beaten by PFI at 1500 revolutions. After beating, enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were 89.74% and 74.06%, and the total sugar yield was 78.58% at the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Compared with 1500 rpm of PFI beating after sodium pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 14.05%. PMID:25773993

  9. Split of sodium and sulfur in a Kraft mill and internal production of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The removal of lignin in a Kraft pulp mill, with the aim to utilize the lignin as more value added green product than just firing lignin in black liquor, is possible with a LignoBoost plant. The LignoBoost plant uses sulfuric acid in the process and this results in an increased net input of sulfur to the pulp mills recovery cycle. The sodium/sulfur balance in a Kraft pulp mill is an important factor to be able to run a mill optimal. The increased input of sulfur into the mill when implementin...

  10. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. PMID:26342336

  11. Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with sodium lauryl sulfate as a sorbent for 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with nitrate anions (LDH-NO3) was synthesized, modified with the anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate, and applied for the removal of 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions. Modification of the as-synthesized Mg-Al layered double hydroxide was carried out at surfactant concentration of 0.01 M (the organo-LDH produced denoted LDH-NaLS). The as-synthesized and surfactant-intercalated LDHs were characterized by FT-IR and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The effect of some variables such as solution pH, contact time and sorbate concentration on removal of 152+154Eu was investigated. The kinetic data obtained were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model rather than the pseudo-first-order model. Intraparticle diffusion model showed that sorption of 152+154Eu proceed by intraparticle diffusion together with boundary layer diffusion. Experimental isotherm data were well described by Langmuir model. Organo-LDH was found to have higher capacity (156.45 mg g-1) for europium than the as-synthesized LDH-NO3 (119.56 mg g-1). Comparing LDHs capacities obtained for Eu(III) in the present work with other sorbents reported in literature indicated that LDHs have the highest capacities. Application of the developed process for removal of 152+154Eu(III) from radioactive process wastewaters was also studied and the obtained results revealed that these LDHs are promising materials for treatment of radioactive wastewaters. (author)

  12. A basis for the development of new ammonia-water-sodium hydroxide absorption chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiu, Simona; Salavera, Daniel; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Mechanical Engineering, CREVER - Group of Applied Thermal Engineering, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Adding NaOH to ammonia/water improves the separation of ammonia in the generator and reduces both chiller driving temperature and rectification losses. In this paper the main disadvantages for the implementation of these new mixtures are addressed: a) few experimental data or reliable correlations of the fluid mixture properties exist; b) selection of an adequate system for separating the hydroxide; and c) evaluation of potential corrosion problems. Our results show that the separation of NaOH from an ammonia/water solution with a maximum approximate mass fraction of 0.05 (5% weight) is viable when reverse osmosis is used with membranes BW30 and SW30HR LE. Cycle simulation using experimental data to calculate the vapour-liquid equilibrium properties shows that the COP is approximately 20% higher than with a conventional ammonia/water chiller working under the same conditions and using a hydroxyl separation efficiency of 99% for NaOH, which is feasible according to the experimental tests. (author)

  13. Nonsurgical Treatment of Two Periapical Lesions with Calcium Hydroxide Using Two Different Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Seema; Dixit, Ashutosh; Kumar, Pravin

    2014-01-01

    Calcium hydroxide is used extensively as an intracanal medicament in endodontics for many years. It is used in various clinical situations such as to promote apexification, to repair perforation, to enhance healing of periapical lesions, to control root resorption, and to control exudation in teeth with persistent periapical inflammation. This paper presents a case report in which Ca(OH)2 was used as an intracanal medicament for treatment of periradicular lesions using two different vehicles ...

  14. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  15. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  16. Chemical Decontamination with N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine–Sodium Hydroxide Improves Recovery of Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Organisms from Cultured Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Bradner, L.; Robbe-Austerman, S.; Beitz, D.C.; Stabel, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is shed into the milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne's disease, allowing the transmission of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk. The parameters investigated included chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-l-cysteine–sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), alone and in combination with antibiotics (vancomycin, a...

  17. Optimization of hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids production from sugarcane filter cake: Effects of urea supplementation and sodium hydroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Batista, Karla; Weinrich, Sören; Sträuber, Heike; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Different methods for optimization the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugarcane filter cake (FC) with a special focus on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were studied. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment at different concentrations was investigated in batch experiments and the cumulative methane yields fitted to a dual-pool two-step model to provide an initial assessment on AD. The effects of nitrogen supplementation in form of urea and NaOH pretreatment for improved VFA production were evaluated in a semi-continuously operated reactor as well. The results indicated that higher NaOH concentrations during pretreatment accelerated the AD process and increased methane production in batch experiments. Nitrogen supplementation resulted in a VFA loss due to methane formation by buffering the pH value at nearly neutral conditions (?6.7). However, the alkaline pretreatment with 6g NaOH/100g FCFM improved both the COD solubilization and the VFA yield by 37%, mainly consisted by n-butyric and acetic acids. PMID:26278994

  18. Multi-elemental determination of heavy elements in plastics using X-ray fluorescence after destruction of the polymer by molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a method is proposed for the multielemental analysis of Sb(III), Ba, Cd, Cr(III), Hg, Pb and As(III) in plastics, using X-ray fluorescence after alkaline decomposition and preconcentration by (co)precipitation. The organic matrix is destroyed by decomposition with sodium hydroxide melted in a silver crucible by the open system technique, using sodium nitrate as auxiliary oxidant. The variables which influence preconcentration are optimized: Digestion time, pH, salinity, carrier and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and sodium rhodizonate (R) as precipitants. The calibration curves were linear up to 200 ?g of the element present, except for lead (150 ?g) antimony(III) (100 ?g) and barium (1000 ?g). The proposed method has been applied to several different industrial plastics. The procedure is quick and leads to results comparable with those obtained when using a recommended decomposition for each element separately. (orig.)

  19. Effect of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentration on the optical property of chitosan-ZnO nanostructure prepared in chitin deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandhavelu, S. [Department of Industrial chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Thambidurai, S., E-mail: sthambi01@yahoo.co.in [Department of Industrial chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro addition of sodium hydroxide induced the nano particles crystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano crystals with maximum Zn/O ratio of 77:23 was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline size with 16-53 nm was estimated by XRD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study, nanocrystalline powders with band gap of 3.32 eV was prepared. - Abstract: Chitosan-ZnO nanostructures are prepared by eco-friendly way of synthesis. With same amount of chitin, three different ratios of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentrations are used for preparation. The hexagonal shape of chitosan-ZnO nanostructures with size range of 40-100 nm are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface morphology is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Maximum Zn/O atomic ratio of 77:23 is noticed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis. Presence of chitosan and ZnO structure are confirmed with FTIR spectra. Absorbance at 364 nm in the UV-vis spectra indicates the presence of ZnO. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the size of crystallites are in 16-53 nm range. Optical studies revealed that chitosan-ZnO nanostructure with band gap of 3.4 eV have been prepared by slow addition of 45% sodium hydroxide into 15% zinc chloride and chitin solution.

  20. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  1. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.; Frenkel, A. I.; Bordia, R. K.; Korshin, G.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leachin...

  2. Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2005-06-01

    Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

  3. Accumulation of experiences and knowledge for sodium cleaning treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In O-arai Research and Development Center/JAEA, lots of sodium test facilities had been constructed and lots of tests using sodium had been carried out for the development of sodium component systems, the evaluation of sodium environmental effect for structural materials and the development of sodium technologies for the experimental reactor JOYO and the prototype reactor MONJU. As the first stage of research and development came to an end for these reactors, those sodium test facilities were dismantled and attached sodium was cleaned. Thus lots of experiences and knowledge of sodium cleaning treatment technologies has accumulated. In order to use those experiences and knowledge effectively for future maintenance and repair sodium technology and research on the next generation fast reactors, those of sodium cleaning treatment technologies for typical systems and components have been evaluated and knowledge related important topics has been rearranged. Based on those evaluation and rearrangement, technical guidelines of sodium cleaning treatment are proposed for the purpose of effective reference of the past experiences and knowledge. (author)

  4. Treatment of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits with dysprosium-165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dysprosium-165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (165Dy-FHMA) was used as an agent of radiation synovectomy in an antigen-induced arthritis model in New Zealand white rabbits. Animals were killed up to 6 months after treatment. 165Dy-FHMA was found to have a potent but temporary antiinflammatory effect on synovium for up to 3 months after treatment. Treated knees also showed significant preservation of articular cartilage architecture and proteoglycan content compared with untreated controls, but only during the first 3 months after treatment. In animals killed 3 and 6 months after treatment there were only minimal differences between the treated and untreated knees, indicating that the antiinflammatory effects on synovial tissue and articular cartilage preservation were not sustained

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs

  6. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  7. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caio Lamunier de Abreu, Camargo; Walter, Belda Junior; Luiz Jorge, Fagundes; Ricardo, Romiti.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection [...] and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE: A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS: Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. Result: In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION: Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

  8. Simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by sodium hydroxide solution in a packed bed and studying the effect of operating parameters on absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In this study. simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by Sodium Hydroxide solution in a packed bed has been investigated. At first, mass and energy balances were applied around a differential height of the bed. So, the governing equations were obtained. Surface renewal theory by Danckwerts was used to represent the mass transfer operation Finally, by changing the operating parameters like solvent temperature, inlet gas composition pressure and height of the bed, the effect of these parameters on the absorption and the composition of carbon dioxide in exit stream have been investigated. (authors)

  9. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aquarium products Clinitest tablets Drain cleaners Hair straighteners Metal polishes Oven cleaners Note: This list is not ... Severe pain in the throat Severe pain or burning in the nose, eyes, ears, lips, or tongue ...

  10. Treatment of rheumatoid synovitis of the knee with intraarticular injection of dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred eight knees of 93 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and persistent synovitis of the knee were treated with an intraarticular injection of 270 mCi of dysprosium 165 bound to ferric hydroxide macroaggregate. Leakage of radioactivity from the injected joint was minimal. Mean leakage to the venous blood 3 hours after injection was 0.11% of the injected dose; this corresponds to a mean whole body dose of 0.2 rads. Mean leakage to the liver 24 hours after injection was 0.64% of the injected dose; this corresponds to a mean liver dose of 3.2 rads. In 7 additional patients examined, there was negligible or near negligible activity found in the draining inguinal lymph nodes. One-year followup was possible for 74 knees (63 patients). Sixty-one percent of the knees had good results, 23% had fair results, and 16% had poor results. There was a direct correlation between the radiographic stage and response to treatment. In knees with stage I radiographic changes, 72% showed good results; 93% showed improvement. In knees with stage II changes, 59% showed good results; 81% showed improvement. These preliminary results indicate that dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregate is an effective agent for radiation synovectomy. The low leakage rates observed offer a definite advantage over agents previously used

  11. Radioactive sodium waste treatment and conditioning. Review of main aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication reviews the main aspects relating to the treatment and conditioning of radioactive sodium waste. This waste arises from the operation of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). In this type of reactor, sodium (Na) or sodium-potassium alloys (NaK) are used as a low-effect neutron moderating coolant medium for extracting and transferring thermal energy from the core and they represent a significant technical and safety challenge during operation and decommissioning. This publication provides the reader with technologically oriented information on the present status of sodium waste management approaches and recent achievements related to treatment and conditioning, with the objective of facilitating planning and preparatory work for the decommissioning of LMFRs. This publication provides a comprehensive review of the hazards associated with sodium waste management. Given the large quantities of sodium waste arising during decommissioning or reactor refurbishment, as well as the challenges and varied techniques associated with removal of 100% of all sodium and NaK bulk quantities and residues during decommissioning, a hazards review and analysis is a critical component in planning the dismantling and waste management activities. Roughly half of this publication focuses on sodium waste generating, handling and treatment processes. This includes draining sodium and NaK from plant systems; in situ treatment of residual sodium; cutting techniques for pumps, valves, piping and other components; cleaning of components; potential reuse of sodium; and removal of selected radionuclides from sodium waste with the objective of reducing the waste classification or converting it to exempt waste. The focus is on proven techniques and technologies, and each discussed method includes a review of the associated principle or theory, practical applications, advantages and disadvantages, limitations, industry experience, and final waste products. A review is provided of final management practices for treated sodium and NaK wastes, including conditioning of radioactive sodium waste and subsequent storage/disposal considerations. The review of conditioning practices includes those designed for the nuclear industry, as well as industrial conditioning technologies which are directly applicable or readily adaptable to nuclear applications. This review includes both successes, failures, and failure analysis. Throughout this publication, emphasis is placed on industry experience and application of sodium and NaK and industry experience with the techniques and technologies used to manage sodium waste. Reactor-specific examples are abundant and include both successes and failures. Throughout the publication, the emphasis is on proven methodologies, including their advantages, disadvantages, limitations and hazards. In fact, sodium-related hazards and associated safety considerations are extensively annotated throughout. This publication can be used most effectively during the planning stages for sodium and NaK removal and treatment activities, including in situ treatment for the purpose of conversion to non-reactive species (e.g. salts, acids). Once radioactive sodium waste or sodium-contaminated components are removed for disposition, this publication is best used as a review of conditioning and dispositioning options, as well as for developing the associated waste management plan. With regard to planning in general, this publication is especially useful in identifying the potential hazards and hazard mitigation considerations at each stage of the removal, treatment, handling and conditioning activities

  12. Aluminium oxide-hydroxides obtained by hydrothermal synthesis: influence of thermal treatment on phase composition and textural characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykova, A.; Livanova, A.; Kosova, N.; Godymchuk, A.; Mamontov, G.

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium oxide-hydroxides obtained by means of the hydrothermal synthesis of aluminium nanopowder are of great interest in terms of the potential supports for heterogeneous catalysts due its high specific surface area (200...300 m2/g) and pore size of 4...17 nm. In this work the influence of thermal treatment (150...1300 °C) on structural and phase composition, specific surface area and porosity of aluminium oxide-hydroxides has been investigated. Nanostructured ?-Al2O3 (T=400 °C) was found to have the specific surface area of 328 m2/g and average pore size of ?9 nm. The thermal treatment of aluminium oxide- hydroxides at the temperature of higher and lower than 400 °C has caused the reduction of specific surface area and overall pore volume.

  13. Endodontic treatment for necrotic immature permanent teeth using MTA and calcium hydroxide. A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Almeida Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic treatment of young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp has been a challenge for the dentist. It is necessary to induce the formation of apical barrier (apical plug, enabling the complete root canal filling. Objective: This retrospective clinical study compared the protocols for treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation, using calcium hydroxide (CH or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Material and methods: 28 patients with incomplete root formation have undergone root canal treatments in the period from 2000 to 2009 were selected. The procedures for cleaning, shaping and intracanal medication (CH paste were performed in a standardized manner. In 13 patients, after using the CH paste (14 days, apical plugs with MTA were made. In the remaining 15 teeth monthly exchanges with CH paste were executed until it was observed radiographically the formation of the apical barrier. In all cases the canals were filled conventionally with gutta-percha and sealer. Initially, follow-ups were made on a quarterly and semiannually at the end of first year. Results: All apical lesions showed apical healing between 4 and 13 months after starting treatment. There was not noted the continuing process of root formation. Conclusion: It was concluded that the treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp with the use of MTA as apical plug has the same clinical results compared with the use of CH, with the advantage of less clinical time.

  14. 3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.D. Reena, Kumari; Jagannath, Nayak; A. Nityananda, Shetty.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT) on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic [...] techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr), and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp). It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

  15. The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na2O and NaH. The most important contaminant is 137Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide

  16. Dietary sodium reduction for hypertension prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, P J; Grimm, R H; Flack, J; Laing, B

    1991-01-01

    Nutritional-nonpharmacological approaches for the treatment and prevention of hypertension are of great interest. Sodium reduction is one of the primary methods recommended for these purposes. The general public is interested in the reduction of dietary sodium intake and has responded with a decrease in table salt use, the purchase of lowered sodium food products, and the use of food labels to help guide food purchases. Countervailing trends in the use of convenience foods and dining out increase the difficulty for individuals to lower sodium intake. Clinical trials that have used sodium reduction alone or in combination with other lifestyle therapies have demonstrated the feasibility of reducing dietary sodium intake from 30% to 50% for up to 4 years, in a variety of populations. Trials that used lifestyle and weight loss interventions have also achieved significant reductions in body weight and alcohol consumption and increases in physical activity. A variety of studies indicate that long-term sodium reduction is feasible and that it is acceptable to patients. No negative consequences of these interventions have been observed, and in some cases improvement in the intake of other nutrients has occurred. Nonpharmacological interventions have resulted in hypertension control in significant proportions of the trial populations. These studies demonstrate that the foregoing types of interventions can significantly contribute to hypertension treatment and prevention. PMID:1987001

  17. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leaching tests, and extractions with oxalate and weak hydrochloric acid. It was found that at 600 and 900 °C the iron oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat treatment caused a part of the metals bound in the oxides to be released, thus increasing metals leachability by 1-2 orders of magnitude depending on the metal. Pb and Cd were released in particularly significant concentrations, suggesting less incorporation into the iron oxides after heat-induced transformation. For Pb, this transformation of the chemical state of the bound metal was clearly supported by the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies. A fraction of the bound Cr remained stable even after treatment at the highest temperature used in the study. It was concluded that the heat treatment of iron oxides may be advantageous to improve the thermodynamic stability of the product but that thermal treatment at both 600 and 900 °C significantly reduced the binding capacity for heavy metals.

  18. The role of sodium thiosulphate in the treatment of calciphylaxis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    James R, Smith; Mark D, Findlay; Colin C, Geddes; Jonathan G, Fox.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Calciphylaxis is a rare but important cause of severe morbidity, which predominantly affects patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. It is associated with mortality in excess of 50% at one year, and this has changed little over the last 20 years despite advances in our understanding of its un [...] derlying pathophysiology, and evolving treatment strategies. Sodium thiosulphate has played a prominent role in the treatment of calciphylaxis since its first use in 2004, with reports of success both in improving the severe pain associated with the condition and in the healing of calciphylaxis lesions. The literature documenting the use of sodium thiosulphate in the treatment of calciphylaxis is reviewed here, along with a detailed summary of case reports and case series. While there is reason to be optimistic with regard to the efficacy of sodium thiosulphate within a multifaceted and multidisciplinary approach to treatment, there is clearly much yet to be learned

  19. The Effect of Formaldehyde or Sodium Hydroxide on In situ Rumen Degradation of Low and High Fat Sunflower Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine in situ dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability of sunflower meal containing 25 and 165 g fat kg-1 DM and untreated and treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 40 g kg-1 DM and formaldehyde ( 30 and 60 g kg-1 DM. DM and CP degradation of the samples were determined using in situ technique in two fistulated Holstein steers (400±12 kg, body weight and data were analysed to estimate soluble fraction (a, potentially degradable fraction (b, degradation rate (c and effective degradability (ED. Formaldehyde decreased (a fraction of DM (p<0.05. NaOH treated high fat sunflower meal had the highest (a fraction and the lowest of (b fraction of DM, (0.43 and 0.31, respectively. Formaldehyde and NaOH significantly decreased degradation rate (c of DM. Formaldehyde (30 g kg-1 DM treated low fat sunflower meal had the lowest ED of DM (0.44, k = 0.03 h-1 (p<0.05. Fraction of (a and ED of DM of low fat sunflower meal was less than high fat sunflower meal. Formaldehyde and NaOH significantly were affected fractions of a, b, c and ED of CP (p<0.05. Fraction of (a of CP decreased by formaldehyde and NaOH. Treatment of sunflower meal (low and high fat with formaldehyde at 60 g kg-1 DM resulted in the highest (b fraction and the lowest of (c fraction and ED of CP. Crude protein (b fraction of low fat sunflower meal was more than high fat sunflower meal but there was not any significant difference for (a fraction and ED. DM and CP disappearance after 24 h was decreased by formaldehyde and NaOH. Therefore, it is appears that formaldehyde, NaOH and fat content of sunflower meal can affect DM and CP degradability parameters.

  20. USING OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE FOR TREATMENT OF SMALL PETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova I. S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we show the results of treatment of surgical diseases of the small domestic animals sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite is an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying agent. We used it in a topical treatment for dogs and cats with allergic, infected wounds and in the post operative period. A solution of sodium hypochlorite is produced by activation of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by electrochemical method using electrometers and "Key", produced by the NGO Pyrolyzer in St. Petersburg. The resulting solution is a colorless transparent liquid, one liter contains 600 mg of the active substance is sodium hypochlorite. In the treatment of surgical diseases in medicine apply modern systemic therapies (drug therapy - physiotherapy - operation-pharmacotherapy, uses the latest drugs targeted actions (antibiotics, immunomodulators, probiotics, enzymes and hormones. There are other methods, including alternative medicine. It is known that increased therapeutic effect on wound process leads to the reduction of the inflammatory response, which can sometimes block local regeneration processes; for dogs and cats moderate inflammatory response in the wound is a necessary condition for successful healing. A certain degree of inflammation of the wound is starting mechanism of reparative processes. These features were considered during the experiment and the selection of treatment regimens

  1. Treatment with coated layer double hydroxide clays decreases the toxicity of copper-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Deanne; Nar, Mangesh; D'Souza, Nandika Anne; Glenn, J Brad; Klaine, Stephen J; Roberts, Aaron P

    2014-05-01

    Copper is a common pollutant found in watersheds that exerts toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are able to adsorb a wide range of contaminants through ion-exchange mechanisms. Coating LDH clays with various materials alters the aggregation of clay particles into the nano-size range, thus increasing relative surface area and offering great potential for contaminant remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment with coated LDH clays decreases the toxicity of copper-containing solutions to Daphnia magna. Four LDH clays with different coatings used to alter hydrophobicity were as follows: used: Na(+) montmorillonite, Zn-Al LDH-nitrate, Zn-Al LDH-stearate, and Zn-Al LDH-carbonate. It was determined that coated LDH clays decreased copper toxicity by decreasing bioavailability and that smaller aggregate sizes decreased bioavailability the most. 96 h LC50 values increased by as much as 4.2 times with the treatment of the solutions with 100 mg/L LDH clay. Copper analysis of the clay and solutions indicated that the clays work by decreasing copper bioavailability by way of a binding mechanism. Coated LDH clays hold promise as a small-scale remediation tool or as an innovative tool for toxicity identification and evaluation characterization of metals. PMID:24442186

  2. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated into a 35% improvement in growth rate (40, 36 g/day versus 26, 29 g/day). Calcium hydroxide alone did not improve the feeding value of Albizia. These data highlight the danger of assuming an assayable reduction in tannin, such as that observed in the calcium hydroxide treatment, will translate into an improvement in nutritive value and subsequent animal performance. Since the performance of the goats improved maximally when PEG was added to the calcium hydroxide-treated Albizia it was clear that the tannins were still as active as in the untreated Albizia. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide does not deactivate the tannins in Albizia. (author)

  3. Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  4. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  5. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions

  6. Treatment of spinal muscular atrophy by sodium butyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jan-Gowth; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu-Mei; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Wang, Nancy M.; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Li, Hung

    2001-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, leading to muscular paralysis with muscular atrophy. No effective treatment of this disorder is presently available. Studies of the correlation between disease severity and the amount of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein have shown an inverse relationship. We report that sodium butyrate effectively increases the amount of exon 7...

  7. Rapid formation of nanocrystalline HfO2 powders from amorphous hafnium hydroxide under ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of hafnium hydroxide hydrothermal decomposition were studied by in situ heat flux calorimetry for the first time. It was shown that this process occurs in one exothermal stage (?H = -17.95 kJ mol-1) at 180-250 deg. C resulting in complete crystallization of amorphous phase with formation of pure monoclinic HfO2. It was found that the rate of m-HfO2 formation can be significantly increased by combining hydrothermal treatment with simultaneous ultrasonic activation

  8. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  9. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L?1) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn2+ + Cd2+)/Al3+ molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS?) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by the SDS concentration which indicated changes to the environment around the DS molecule in LDH interlayer

  10. Intracanal dressing paste composed by calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide for the treatment of immature and mature traumatized teeth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana de Jesus, Soares; Thiago Farias Rocha, Lima; Juliana Yuri, Nagata; Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida, Gomes; Alexandre Augusto, Zaia; Francisco José de, Souza-Filho.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To evaluate clinical and radiographic aspects before and after endodontic treatment with an intracanal dressing paste composed of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide in traumatized teeth followed-up for 1 year. METHODS : Patients (n=105) treated at the Dental Trauma Service of [...] Piracicaba School of Dentistry, Brazil were enrolled in the study. Two groups of teeth were formed: immature (G1) (n=28) and completely developed teeth (G2) (n=174). All teeth were endodontically treated and received an intracanal dressing with a paste composed by calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel and zinc oxide at a 2:1:2 rate. Clinical and radiographic aspects were evaluated initially, monthly and after 1-year. RESULTS : Most of the immature teeth suffered extrusive luxation (39.3%), whereas intrusive luxation (40.8%) was more common in completely developed teeth. There was a significant reduction in pain on percussion and mobility (p=0.0001) for immature teeth. Mature teeth showed reduction of spontaneous pain, fistula, mobility and pain on percussion (p

  11. RUMINAL DEGRADATION KINETIC PARAMETERS OF COFFEE HULLS (Coffea arabica, L. TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NAOH PARÂMETROS CINÉTICOS DA DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica, L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO (NAOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fernandes de Sousa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate dry matter ruminal degradation kinetics of coffee hulls treated with increasing sodium hydroxide quantities. Two rumen fistulated cows were used to incubate samples in nylon bags for 12. 24, 36. 48 and 72 hours. Four ruminal incubation periods were used, in a complete randomized block design. Coffee hulls were treated with 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% of sodium hydroxide (dry matter basis, corresponding to treatments T1 to t4 respectively. Experimental results were compared using Tukey test, at 5% probability level, as follows for treatments 1 to 4 respectively: soluble fraction (9.35d; 17.65c; 31.93b; 32.28a, de (34.40d; 40.50c; 43.28b; 50.35a, potential degradability (44.33d; 50.33c; 52.35b; 57.70a and lag time in hours (4.03a; 3.93a; 4.33a; 2.55a. The results indicate that increasing the levels of NaOH in the coffee hulls treatments increased significantly their ruminal solubility, as well as their effective and potential degradabilities. However that increase had no effect upon coffee hulls lag time in the rumen.KEY WORDS: by-product feedstuffs, rumen degradability, ruminant.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de determinar a cinética de degradação ruminal da matéria seca da casca de café, tratada com diferentes quantidades de hidróxido de sódio. Utilizaram-se duas vacas fistuladas no rúmen, incubando-se as amostras em sacolas de náilon por 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas, por quatro rodadas seqüenciais, sendo que cada uma destas representou um bloco, dentro de um delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados. Tratou-se a casca de café com 0%, 3%, 6% e 9 % de hidróxido de sódio (base seca constituindo assim os tratamentos t1  a t4. os resultados médios encontrados foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, como se segue para os tratamentos de 1 a 4, respectivamente: fração solúvel (9,35d; 17,65c; 31,93b; 32,28a, de (34,40d; 40,50c; 43,28b; 50,35a, degradabilidade potencial (44,33d; 50,33c; 52,35b; 57,70a e tempo de colonização em horas (4,03a; 3,93a; 4,33a; 2,55a. Os resultados indicam que o aumento dos níveis percentuais de NaOH utilizados nos tratamentos eleva a solubilidade ruminal, a degradabilidade potencial e efetiva da casca de café, não influenciando significativamente o tempo de colonização
    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: degradabilidade ruminal, resíduos agrícolas, ruminante

  12. Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acyr Wanderley de Paula Freitas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade nutricional e as características fermentativas da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante microbiano (Lactobacillus plantarum nas doses 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 x 10(6 ufc/g MN e hidróxido de sódio (solução 40% na base de 3% da MS e acrescida de 10% de resíduo da colheita de soja, com base no peso verde da cana. Foi utilizada a variedade RB855536, colhida em soca aos 11 e 13 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (duas idades e oito tratamentos da massa ensilada. Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de fatores. Para as variáveis de composição e cinética de degradação, foram obtidos três fatores: QN - qualidade nutritiva, incluindo MS, PB, DIVMS, FDN, FDA e LIG; MF - maturidade fisiológica, incluindo carboidratos solúveis, LIG e fração indegradável da FDN; e VDF - velocidade de degradação dos carboidratos fibrosos, contemplando o kdFDN. Às variáveis de características de fermentação atribuíram-se os fatores: PFS - perdas e fermentação secundária, incluindo perda de MS, concentração de ácido acético, ácido propiônico e etanol; PH - potencial hidrogeniônico, pH; e DP - degradação protéica, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal. O resíduo da colheita da soja na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade nutritiva e reduzir as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol das silagens. O tratamento com hidróxido de sódio diminuiu a produção de etanol, mas não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva e não reduziu as perdas de MS das silagens. A utilização de inoculante microbiano contendo L. plantarum também não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva da silagem nem reduziu as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the nutritional quality and fermentation characteristics of sugarcane silages treated with inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6 cfu/g NM, 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis, or 10% of soybean crop residue added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments. For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1 "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2 "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3 "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1 "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2 "hydrogen potential" (pH; and 3 "protein degradation" (PD that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

  13. Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja / Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Acyr Wanderley de Paula, Freitas; José Carlos, Pereira; Fernanda Cipriano, Rocha; Edenio, Detmann; Marinaldo Divino, Ribeiro; Marcone Geraldo, Costa; Fernando de Paula, Leonel.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade nutricional e as características fermentativas da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante microbiano (Lactobacillus plantarum nas doses 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 x 10(6) ufc/g MN) e hidróxido de sódio (solução 40% na base de 3% da MS) e acrescida de 10% [...] de resíduo da colheita de soja, com base no peso verde da cana. Foi utilizada a variedade RB855536, colhida em soca aos 11 e 13 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (duas idades e oito tratamentos da massa ensilada). Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de fatores. Para as variáveis de composição e cinética de degradação, foram obtidos três fatores: QN - qualidade nutritiva, incluindo MS, PB, DIVMS, FDN, FDA e LIG; MF - maturidade fisiológica, incluindo carboidratos solúveis, LIG e fração indegradável da FDN; e VDF - velocidade de degradação dos carboidratos fibrosos, contemplando o kdFDN. Às variáveis de características de fermentação atribuíram-se os fatores: PFS - perdas e fermentação secundária, incluindo perda de MS, concentração de ácido acético, ácido propiônico e etanol; PH - potencial hidrogeniônico, pH; e DP - degradação protéica, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal. O resíduo da colheita da soja na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade nutritiva e reduzir as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol das silagens. O tratamento com hidróxido de sódio diminuiu a produção de etanol, mas não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva e não reduziu as perdas de MS das silagens. A utilização de inoculante microbiano contendo L. plantarum também não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva da silagem nem reduziu as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol. Abstract in english The objective of this trial was to evaluate the nutritional quality and fermentation characteristics of sugarcane silages treated with inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6) cfu/g NM), 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis), or 10% of soybean crop residu [...] e added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment) with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments). For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1) "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2) "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3) "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1) "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2) "hydrogen potential" (pH); and 3) "protein degradation" (PD) that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

  14. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office's (NE-ID) and State of Idaho's top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work

  15. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  16. Differential ERK activation during autophagy induced by europium hydroxide nanorods and trehalose: Maximum clearance of huntingtin aggregates through combined treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng-Fei; Jin, Pei-Pei; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ji-Qian; Shi, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Hou-Rui; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Ruan, Ren-Quan; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Wen, Long-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Accelerating the clearance of intracellular protein aggregates through elevation of autophagy represents a viable approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In our earlier report, we have demonstrated the enhanced degradation of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates through autophagy process induced by europium hydroxide nanorods [EHNs: Eu(III)(OH)3], but the underlying molecular mechanism of EHNs mediated autophagy was unclear. The present report reveals that EHNs induced autophagy does not follow the classical AKT-mTOR and AMPK signaling pathways. The inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation using the specific MEK inhibitor U0126 partially abrogates the autophagy as well as the clearance of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates mediated by EHNs suggesting that nanorods stimulate the activation of MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway during autophagy process. In contrast, another mTOR-independent autophagy inducer trehalose has been found to induce autophagy without activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the combined treatment of EHNs and trehalose leads to more degradation of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates than that obtained with single treatment of either nanorods or trehalose. Our results demonstrate the rational that further enhanced clearance of intracellular protein aggregates, needed for diverse neurodegenerative diseases, may be achieved through the combined treatment of two or more autophagy inducers, which stimulate autophagy through different signaling pathways. PMID:26409001

  17. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: a literature review - Part I. In vitro studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dohyun; Kim, Euiseong

    2014-01-01

    The goal of endodontic treatment is the prevention and control of pulpal and periradicular infections. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been widely used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament to eliminate the remaining microorganisms after chemomechanical preparation. The purpose of this article is to review the antimicrobial properties of Ca(OH)2 as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment. The first part of this review details the characteristics of Ca(OH)2 and summarizes the res...

  18. Influence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide treatment on the electrical characteristics of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky barrier diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siva Pratap Reddy, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, LED-IT Fusion Technology Research Center (LIFTRC), Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-Si 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Dong-Hyeok [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Hee, E-mail: jlee@ee.knu.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ja-Soon, E-mail: jsjang@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, LED-IT Fusion Technology Research Center (LIFTRC), Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-Si 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Rajagopal Reddy, V. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University (India)

    2014-01-15

    The effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes have been investigated by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) techniques. The barrier heights and ideality factors measured from I–V characteristics are found to be 0.70 eV and 1.32 for without TMAH treatment, and 0.78 eV and 1.14 for with TMAH treatment, respectively. Cheung method is used to measure the series resistance and barrier height of the Schottky diodes, and the barrier height consistency is checked using the Norde method. The magnitude of interface state density for the diodes without and with TMAH treatment are varied from 7.45 × 10{sup 13} eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?2} to 6.09 × 10{sup 12} eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?2} and 4.03 × 10{sup 13} eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?2} to 1.79 × 10{sup 12} eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?2} in the below the conduction band from E{sub C}-0.19 eV to E{sub C}-0.63 eV and E{sub C}-0.22 eV to E{sub C}-0.73 eV. Based on the results, the TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (Ga{sub x}O{sub y}) layer, formed due to the incorporation of the residual oxygen with Ga atom at the GaN surface during the plasma etching. The decrease in interface state density at the Ni/Au/GaN interface could be the reason for the improvement in the electrical properties. - Highlights: • The effect of TMAH treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes is studied. • The magnitude of N{sub SS} for the diode with TMAH treatment is low compared to without treatment. • The TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (Ga{sub x}O{sub y}) layer.

  19. Enhanced biomethane potential from wheat straw by low temperature alkaline calcium hydroxide pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2015-08-01

    A factorially designed experiment to examine the effectiveness of Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, enzyme addition and particle size, on the mesophilic (35 °C) anaerobic digestion of wheat straw was conducted. Experiments used a 48 h pre-treatment with Ca(OH)2 7.4% (w/w), addition of Accellerase®-1500, with four particle sizes of wheat straw (1.25, 2, 3 and 10mm) and three digestion time periods (5, 15 and 30 days). By combining particle size reduction and Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, the average methane potential was increased by 315% (from 48 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1) to 202 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1)) after 5 days of anaerobic digestion compared to the control. Enzyme addition or Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment with 3, 2 and 1.25 mm particle sizes had 30-day batch yields of between 301 and 335 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1). Alkali pre-treatment of 3mm straw was shown to have the most potential as a cost effective pre-treatment and achieved 290 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1), after only 15 days of digestion. PMID:25898087

  20. French sodium waste storage rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of Superphenix Plant decommissioning, CEA and EDF had to determine the rules to applied for safe sodium waste storage. Even if sodium waste storage has been monitored for some decades (but only during Operational Plant phases), some recent events showed that this item had to be secured before beginning large decommissioning operations. Of course, the best way would be an on-line treatment but operational constraints always imply a delay in this operation. Indeed, a number of sodium wastes will be produced during the period before the end of Superphenix sodium treatment (planned in 2013) and will have to wait for further treatment. The events to be avoided, or at least taken into account, are uncontrolled sodium reaction with air moisture (large hydrogen production, important overheating) and sodium reaction with liquid water (pressure waves, large hydrogen production, important overheating). Careful analysis of all abnormal events in sodium waste storage disposal was performed and led to rule evolution. In 2004, experimental studies were undertaken, in order to know how solid sodium at room temperature reacts with air humidity: the conditions of aqueous sodium hydroxide production (which is the main risk source in sodium waste storage) have been observed. On this basis, new general safe rules for sodium waste storage have been raised: - Waste classifying: pure sodium and soda to be separated, bulk and residues to be separated - Sodium waste containers: tight, dry, easy to refill with gas, protected against overpressure effect, with specific marking and reference - Dedicated rooms: dry, with specific markings, with specific sodium fire extinguishers - Maximum duration: three months before next refill with inert dry gas, in an over-container if more than one year - Dry gas feeling: inert gas except for sodium film residues (dry air) 395 For Superphenix application, packaging and storage conditions of sodium wastes have been defined, in accordance with container fluxes to sodium waste treatment cell: it was decided to initially fill the containers (packaging phase) with dry air (dew point less than -10 deg C) whatever are the sodium waste types, because any gas in the container is rapidly and totally dried by sodium itself. Then, renewal of gas in the containers will be done with dry argon (storage phase), except for sodium film residues (dry air filling). On site feedback experience will confirm the efficiency of these recent rules which have to be adapted to each specific case (sodium waste type, containers) and which can evolve with on site feedback experience. (author)

  1. Evaluation of a consolidation treatment in dolostones by mean of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in high relative humidity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the results of a treatment applied to dolomitic stones using an isopropyl colloidal solution based on calcium hydroxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 2.0g/l are presented. The consolidation process in the stone has been checked before and after 28 days of exposure to 75% relative humidity. Morphologic and structural studies of the consolidating product confirmed the carbonation process. X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (TEM and ESEM), and electron diffraction carried out on the consolidating product have confirmed the transformation of portlandite phase to calcium carbonate polymorph, calcite, aragonite and vaterite. Petrophysical tests performed on the stone before and after the application of the product have shown the improvement in the physical and hydrical properties due to the increase in the ultrasound velocity and density of the material, and a decrease in the capillarity coefficient and open porosity without significant changes in colour and brightness. The application of the consolidating product in the proposed experimental conditions is a natural method, compatible with the petrological characteristics of the substrate, without secondary damages on the stone, being an effective method to improve the durability of carbonate stones. (Author) 26 refs.

  2. The Effect of Feed Supplemented with Different Sodium Bentonite Treatments on Broiler Performance

    OpenAIRE

    PASHA, Talat Naseer; Mahmood, Amir; KHATTAK, Farina Malik

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of rations containing different sodium bentonite treatments on broiler performance. The study included 280 broiler chicks (1-day-old) that were randomly allocated to 7 experimental groups designated as follows: A (control); B and C (0.5% and 1.0% sodium bentonite, respectively); D and E (0.5% and 1.0% sodium bentonite + 0.5% and 1.0% gentian violet, respectively); F and G (0.5% and 1.0% sodium bentonite + 0.5% and 1.0% acetic acid, respe...

  3. Thermal-radiation treatment of sodium-boron-silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Na2O ·19B2O3 ·30SiO2 glass was studied after 60Co ?-irradiation to the dose of 5· 104 Gy at the ambient 25oC and elevated temperatures 100-500oC with the step of 50oC. Upon each step of the treatment the optical absorption spectra were taken at the room temperature in the range of 200† 1200 nm with spectrometer Lambda-35 (Perkin Elmer). Non-irradiated samples did not have any absorption bands in the wave-length interval from 250 to 1200 nm. The spectra of the sample irradiated at 25oC contained the bands at 305 and 480 nm caused by E'(B) and =B-O* centers respectively. The irradiation temperature increase effects on the centers concentrations: at 100o C the number of E'(B) centers increases with its peak at 305 nm moving towards the short wave length side, and the number of =B-O* centers almost doesn't change, at 150oC the both centers amount decrease significantly. At 200oC the number of E'(B) centers grows much as compared with that at 150oC. At higher temperatures from 250 to 400oC the intensities of the number of both centers decreases monotonously. At 350oC a new weak absorption band appears near 600 nm, which relates to [BO4] centers, while the band at 480 nm (=B-O* centers) disappears. All the gamma-induced centers anneal at 450oC. The mechanism is suggested for the observed thermal-radiation induced transformations of optical centers in the sodium-boron silica glasses: the new [BO4] centers are formed from two =B-O* centers at 350oC. The work was done by the CST RUz grant F2.1.17

  4. French sodium waste storage rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of Superphenix Plant decommissioning, CEA and EDF had to determine the rules to apply for safe sodium waste storage. Even if sodium waste storage has been monitored for some decades (but only during Operational Plant phases), some recent events showed that this item had to be secured before beginning large decommissioning operations. Of course, the best way would be an on-line treatment but operational constraints always imply a delay in this operation. Indeed, a number of sodium wastes will be produced during the period before the end of Superphenix sodium treatment (planned in 2013) and will have to wait for further treatment. The events to be avoided, or at least taken into account, are uncontrolled sodium reaction with air moisture (large hydrogen production, important overheating) and sodium reaction with liquid water (pressure waves, large hydrogen production, important overheating). Careful analysis of all abnormal events in sodium waste storage disposal was performed and led to rule evolution. In 2004, experimental studies were undertaken, in order to know how solid sodium at room temperature reacts with air humidity: the conditions of aqueous sodium hydroxide production (which is the main risk source in sodium waste storage) have been observed. Waste classifying: pure sodium and soda to be separated, bulk and residues to be separated; Sodium waste containers: tight, dry, easy to refill with gas, protected against overpressure effect, with specific marking and reference; Dedicated rooms: dry, with specific markings, with specific sodium fire extinguishers; Maximum duration: three months before next refill with inert dry gas, in an over-container if more than one year; Dry gas feeling: inert gas except for sodium film residues (dry air). For Superphenix application, packaging and storage conditions of sodium wastes have been defined, in accordance with container fluxes to sodium waste treatment cell: it was decided to initially fill the containers (packaging phase) with dry air (dew point less than -10 deg. C) whatever are the sodium waste types, because any gas in the container is rapidly ant totally dried by sodium itself. Then, renewal of gas in the containers will be done with dry argon (storage phase), except for sodium film residues (dry air filling). On site feedback experience will confirm the efficiency of these recent rules which have to be adapted to each specific case (sodium waste type, containers) and which can evolve with on site feedback experience. (author)

  5. Osteoinductive porous titanium implants: effect of sodium removal by dilute HCl treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Neo, Masashi; Suzuki, Jun; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2006-05-01

    In a previous study, we observed that chemically and thermally treated plasma-sprayed porous titanium possesses intrinsic osteoinductivity and that bone formation occurs after 12 months in the muscles of beagle dogs. The aim of this study was to optimize the surface treatment and to accelerate the osteoinductivity. Previous studies have reported that sodium removal converts the sodium titanate layer on the surface of an alkali-treated titanium plate into a more bioactive titania layer. In this study, we developed a dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) treatment for porous titanium, which removed sodium from the complexly shaped porous structure more effectively than conventional hot water treatment. Three types of surface treatments were applied: (a) alkali and heat treatment (AH treatment); (b) alkali, hot water, and heat treatment (Water-AH treatment); and (c) alkali, dilute HCl, hot water, and heat treatment (HCl-AH treatment). The osteoinductivity of the materials implanted in the back muscles of adult beagle dogs was examined at 3, 6, and 12 months. The HCl-AH-treated porous bioactive titanium implant had the highest osteoinductivity, with induction of a large amount of bone formation within 3 months. The dilute HCl treatment was considered to give both chemical (titania formation and sodium removal) and topographic (etching) effects on the titanium surface, although we cannot determine which is the predominant factor. Nevertheless, adding the dilute HCl treatment to the conventional chemical and thermal treatments is a promising candidate for advanced surface treatment of porous titanium implants. PMID:16413052

  6. Efficacy and tolerance of the topical application of potassium hydroxide (10% and 15% in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum: Randomized clinical trial: Research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Gisela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molluscum contagiosum is a non-severe pediatric viral infection. Because it is highly contagious and current treatments have negative aesthetic and psychological effects, we want to test an alternative treatment in the primary care setting, consisting of two different concentrations of potassium hydroxide solution. Methods/design The study design is a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, using three types of topical treatment. The treatment consist of daily applications of potassium hydroxide (KOH in aqueous solution at 10% and 15% concentration, and a placebo administered in the control group. Four follow-up visits (at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days are planned to evaluate treatment effectiveness and patient tolerance. The main outcome measure of the trial will be the healing rate, defined as lesion disappearance in the affected zones after the topic application of the experimental treatment. Secondary measures will be the principal characteristics and evolution of the affected zone (surface area, number of lesions, size and density of lesions, treatment tolerance (hyperpigmentation, itching, burning, pain, recurrence rate and the natural evolution of lesions in the control group. Discussion KOH can potentially be an effective and safe treatment for MC in primary care, and can also reduce referrals to dermatologists and hospital pediatric departments. In addition, KOH may be a valid and less expensive alternative to current invasive treatments (surgical excision. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348386

  7. Effect of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Maki; Endo, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The effect of Ca(OH)2 addition on optimization of hydrothermal-mechanochemical pretreatment, which combines hydrothermal and milling treatments, was examined. The highest glucose yield of 90% was achieved in the ball-milled specimen previously treated at 170°C in the presence of 20% Ca(OH)2 per substrate weight. The specific surface area of the substrate was closely correlated with glucose yield, and a larger specific surface area was obtained when treating the specimen at 170°C in the presence of Ca(OH)2 compared to treatment at 170°C without Ca(OH)2. Although the Ca(OH)2-treated specimen was relatively unaffected by delignification, the cleavage of the ester bonds between lignin and hemicellulose was confirmed by FT-IR. This suggests that Ca(OH)2 weakens the substrate structure by loosening the bonds between lignin and hemicellulose as the mechanism to increase the specific surface area regardless of the high lignin content, facilitating the fibrillation of fibers with mechanical milling. PMID:25496951

  8. Dry matter and fiber fraction degradability of sugar cane treated with calcium oxide or sodium hydroxide Degradabilidade da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa da cana-de-açúcar tratada com hidróxido de sódio ou óxido de cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the parameters of ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM and the constituents of the cell wall of sugar cane treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH or calcium oxide (CaO by in situ technique. Three crossbred steers were used, with rumen cannulas, which were incubated in nylon bags containing sugar cane treated with NaOH or CaO, in treatments: Sugar cane in natura; Sugar cane treated with 2.25% NaOH; Sugar cane treated with 2.25% of CaO. The doses of NaOH and CaO were applied based on natural material (weight/weight of sugar cane and corresponded to 8.5% based on DM, with constant homogenization within the polyethylene buckets. A great and effective potential degradability was observed for all components of the cell wall of sugar cane treated with 2.25% NaOH, compared to in natura treatment, with 2.25% of CaO. To degradability of dry matter and fiber fraction of sugar cane, we observed higher rates of degradation in the treatment with 2.25% NaOH, at all periods, followed by treatment with 2.25% of CaO and in nature. Therefore, the chemical treatment of sugar cane with 2.25% NaOH promotes more effective and potent degradability of dry matter and fiber fraction, suggesting the possibility of a better utilization of nutrients.Objetivou-se avaliar os parâmetros de degradação ruminal da matéria seca (MS e dos constituintes da parede celular da cana-de-açúcar tratada com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH ou óxido de cálcio (CaO pela técnica in situ. Foram utilizados três novilhos mestiços, canulados no rúmen, nos quais foram incubados sacos de náilon contendo cana-de-açúcar tratada com NaOH ou CaO, conforme os tratamentos: Cana-de-açúcar in natura; Cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2,25% de NaOH; Cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2,25% de CaO. As doses de NaOH e CaO foram aplicadas com base na matéria natural (peso/peso da cana-de-açúcar e correspondeu a 8,5% com base na MS, com homogeneização constante dentro dos baldes de polietileno. Verificou-se maior degradabilidade potencial e efetiva para todos os componentes da parede celular da cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2,25% de NaOH, em comparação ao tratamento in natura e com 2,25% de CaO. Para degradabilidade da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa da cana-de-açúcar, observaram-se maiores taxas de degradação no tratamento com 2,25% de NaOH, em todos os tempos, seguido do tratamento com 2,25% de CaO e do in natura. O tratamento químico da cana-de-açúcar, com 2,25% de NaOH, promove maior degradabilidade potencial e efetiva da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa, sugerindo a possibilidade de um melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes.

  9. Treatment of Residual Sodium and Sodium Potassium from Fast Reactors. Review of Recent Accomplishments, Challenges and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the usual radiation and conventional hazards present during the decommissioning of disused nuclear installations, the presence of residual sodium or the alloy sodium potassium — used in primary, secondary and support systems in reactors using liquid metal as a coolant — presents additional technical, safety and cost challenges for decommissioning. This results from the propensity of these materials to react exothermically with water and moisture in the air potentially resulting in toxic and explosive reactionsThis publication discusses a variety of treatment methods to be considered when dismantling components that still contain residual quantities of sodium or sodium potassium, several of which were presented as contributed papers to the IAEA session during the 5. International Conference and Exhibition on Decommissioning Challenges, in Avignon, France, 7–11 April 2013. The publication provides a synthesis of information presented during the session, which was developed further at a consultants meeting held in Vienna, 2–6 December 2013. Decommissioning challenges faced at eight different facilities in five different countries are discussed, as well as the achievements and lessons learned that are of value to the worldwide decommissioning community

  10. Creys-Malville (Superphenix) decommissioning program and sodium treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Creys-Malville or Superphenix NPP is a 3000 MWth sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor, with four secondary sodium loops and 2 x 620 MWe turbogenerators. Superphenix is a pool-type reactor, with 3,300 tons of primary sodium and 2,500 tons of secondary and auxiliary sodium. The Fast Reactor design requires the use of a non-moderator coolant, which explains why water is de facto eliminated. Most of the Fast Reactor designs worldwide, and that includes Superphenix, use sodium as coolant, based on the following criteria: - non moderator, - small neutron capture cross section, - high power density removal capacity, - easy pumping, - large operating range in the liquid state without pressurization, - good radiation behaviour, - limited piping corrosion, - limited noxiousness, - high industrial availability and low cost. Superphenix is the largest Fast Reactor in the world. It reached first criticality in September 1985 and first grid connection in January 1986. Following a French governmental decision to abandon the FBR technology, Superphenix was officially shutdown in February 1998. The decommissioning of Creys-Malville is part of the EDF industrial strategy, which aims at dismantling its 8 'first-generation' reactor units and Superphenix, over a 25-year period. To this end, EDF has established a specific unit dedicated to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, waste management and environment protection: the Engineering Center for Decommissioning and Environment (CIDEN, Lyon). The Creys-Malville site is part of the CIDEN organization. The aim of the Creys-Malville decommissioning project is to achieve the complete dismantling of the plant by 2026. The regulatory frame is now fully set (statutory decrees of March 2006) and allows the dismantling of the reactor and all decommissioning-related operations until the end. (author)

  11. Creys-Malville (Superphenix) decommissioning program and sodium treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settimo, D. [EDF - Centre d' Ingenerie Deconstruction Environnement (CIDEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Creys-Malville or Superphenix NPP is a 3000 MWth sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor, with four secondary sodium loops and 2 x 620 MWe turbogenerators. Superphenix is a pool-type reactor, with 3,300 tons of primary sodium and 2,500 tons of secondary and auxiliary sodium. The Fast Reactor design requires the use of a non-moderator coolant, which explains why water is de facto eliminated. Most of the Fast Reactor designs worldwide, and that includes Superphenix, use sodium as coolant, based on the following criteria: - non moderator, - small neutron capture cross section, - high power density removal capacity, - easy pumping, - large operating range in the liquid state without pressurization, - good radiation behaviour, - limited piping corrosion, - limited noxiousness, - high industrial availability and low cost. Superphenix is the largest Fast Reactor in the world. It reached first criticality in September 1985 and first grid connection in January 1986. Following a French governmental decision to abandon the FBR technology, Superphenix was officially shutdown in February 1998. The decommissioning of Creys-Malville is part of the EDF industrial strategy, which aims at dismantling its 8 'first-generation' reactor units and Superphenix, over a 25-year period. To this end, EDF has established a specific unit dedicated to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, waste management and environment protection: the Engineering Center for Decommissioning and Environment (CIDEN, Lyon). The Creys-Malville site is part of the CIDEN organization. The aim of the Creys-Malville decommissioning project is to achieve the complete dismantling of the plant by 2026. The regulatory frame is now fully set (statutory decrees of March 2006) and allows the dismantling of the reactor and all decommissioning-related operations until the end. (author)

  12. Biological and genetic effects of combined treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and EMS in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of diploid barley were subjected to mutagenic treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and EMS alone or in combination. Damage (reduction in seedling height, plant height and fertility), the frequency of chimeras in the M1 generation, and the frequency of chlorophyll-deficient mutations as well as morphological mutations in the M2 generation induced by combined treatments were greater than those by either of the single treatments. Synergistic increase in the frequency of chimeras, chlorphyll-deficient mutations and morphological mutations were observed in both sodium azide post-irradiation treatments and pre-EMS treatments; interaction among the mutagens in the treatment combinations on M1 damage was generally subtractive. An 8- to 16-hr soaking period of irradiated seeds in distilled water prior to sodium azide treatment significantly increased chlorophyll mutation frequency, as compared to that from the non-soaking treatment. Damage and frequency of chimeras, chlorophyll mutations and morphological mutations were consistently reduced by the soaking treatment in sodium azide plus EMS treatments. (author)

  13. Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fütterer, S; Andrusenko, I; Kolb, U; Hofmeister, W; Langguth, P

    2013-12-01

    Drug products containing iron oxide and hydroxide nanoparticles (INPs) are important for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Pharmaceuticals prepared by the complexation of different kinds of INPs and carbohydrates have different physicochemical and biopharmaceutic characteristics. The increasing number of parenteral non-biological complex drugs (NBCD) containing iron requires physicochemical methods for characterization and enabling of cross comparisons. In this context the structure and the level of crystallinity of the iron phases may be connected to the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates, which etiologically determine the therapeutic and toxic effects. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and electron diffraction (ED) methods were used in order to investigate the nine different parenteral iron formulations Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)), sodium ferric gluconate sucrose (Ferrlecit(®)), iron sucrose (Venofer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (Infed(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Ironate(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Dexferrum(®)), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®)) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(®)). The iron phase in CosmoFer(®), Ferinject(®), Monofer(®), Infed(®), Ironate(®) and Dexferrum(®) was identified as Akaganéite/Akaganéite-like (?-FeOOH), with low amounts of chloride. By combining results of both methods the iron oxide in Feraheme(®) was identified as Magnetite (Fe3O4) with spinel-like structure. Ferrlecit(®) and Venofer(®) were difficult to analyze due to the low degree of crystallinity, but the iron phase seems to fit Lepidocrocite/Lepidocrocite-like (?-FeOOH) or an amorphous kind of structure. The structural information on the type of iron oxide or hydroxide together with the particle size allows predicting the stability of the different complexes including their labile iron content. The combination of ED and XRPD methods is a very helpful approach especially for structural analysis of nanoscopic or low crystalline materials. PMID:23998966

  14. Changes in Sodium-lithium Countertransport Activity Following Aluminium Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between aluminium and rabbit erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport (SLC activity has been investigated in vivo and in vitro. Male rabbits (1350±50 g were used for the experiments. In vivo studies were performed by intrapritoneally injection of aluminium chloride (ALCL3.6H2O every other day for 2 weeks (25 mg kg-1 body weight as acute dose and for 7 weeks (12.5 mg kg-1 as chronic dose and then the activity of SLC was evaluated. It was shown that aluminium increased maximal efflux rate, Vmax/Km, Vmax and decreased Km of the transporter leading to increasing of the activity when compared with control group. The effects of incubation times (30, 60 and 90 min, different sodium concentrations (0 upto 150 mM and different aluminium concentrations (2.5 upto 200 ?M on SLC activity were studied in vitro which indicated a positive relationship between the activation of erythrocyte SLC and incubation time, sodium and aluminium concentrations (p<0.05. These observations suggest that abnormalities in SLC activity may be a causal factor in the pathogenesis of aluminium-induced hypertension.

  15. Treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with sodium diclofenac: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bloise

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the use of sodium diclofenac, an antagonist of PPAR-gamma and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor in the treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with clinical activity score (CAS 2 to 7 were treated during a period ranging from 3 to 12 months (mean 7.8 ± 3.4 with oral sodium diclofenac, 50 mg every 12 hours. RESULTS: Extra-ocular muscle restriction and CAS improved significantly, p = 0.003 and = 0.004, respectively. Ocular pain and diplopia disappeared, except for one patient who reported improvement of these symptoms. No recurrence was found after interruption of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with oral sodium diclofenac is a good, safe and less expensive therapeutic option. Like others new treatment trials, findings must be confirmed in a greater number of patients in a controlled study.

  16. Contaminated sodium disposal Noah process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final shutdown of the FBRs and the contaminated sodium loop dismantling bring a large problem which is the radioactivated sodium becoming. The corresponding quantity can reach several thousands of tonnes for the commercial units. The characteristics of the sodium to be disposed can be very different depending on its origin. We can distinguish two main sources: - the primary and secondary circuits in case of fast breeder reactor final shutdown or some test loops. The quantities can be very large (several hundreds or thousands of tonnes) but the sodium is chemically clean, i.e. with a low concentration of oxides and particles. - some tests facilities or dismantling operations which supply smaller quantities of sodium but it is usually chemically dirty with a high concentration of oxides and particles. NOAH process has been developed by CEA/DRN to dispose sodium coming from the first origin. To be able to dispose large quantities of sodium, continuous operating has been chosen and, to be able to treat easily the resulting product, they have selected the aqueous caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) which can be sent in all contaminated effluent treatment units. The safety, the functional simplicity and the compactness have been also integrated in the technical choices. (authors). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 1 ref

  17. Oxidative treatment of fentanyl compounds in water by sodium bromate combined with sodium sulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Ren, Lijun; Wang, Zhihua; Tian, Xingtao; Qi, Lihong; Fan, Qiping; Xiang, Yulian

    2015-01-01

    As narcotic analgesics, fentanyl compounds have been commonly produced and widely used during surgical procedures. The residual and waste of fentanyl compounds have potential harmful impacts on the environment and human health. The oxidative degradation of fentanyl compounds by sodium bromate mixed systems was studied. Factors influencing the oxidation reaction, including molar ratio of NaBrO3/H(+)/SO3(2-), molar ratio of NaBrO3/fentanyl and pH, were investigated. Fentanyl, carfentanil and 3-methylfentanyl were able to be completely degraded in 30 minutes by a NaBrO3 mixed system under optimum conditions, the molar ratio of NaBrO3/H(+)/SO3(2-) equal to 20:3:10, the molar ratio of NaBrO3:fentanyl compounds 50:1 and pH = 4. Sufentanil was only able to be degraded by 74% under the same conditions. The degradation products of the fentanyl compounds detected and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry suggested several possible degradation pathways. PMID:26114269

  18. Sulfanegen Sodium Treatment in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transfe...

  19. Comparison of Decontamination Efficacy between the Rapid Hygrothermal Pasteurization and Sodium Hypochlorite Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuya Shimoda; Noriyuki Igura; Dusida Tirawat; Seiji Noma; Hiromizu Kunimoto

    2013-01-01

    We developed a novel rapid hygrothermal pasteurization (RHP) method using saturated water vapor with a dew point of 100?. The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of RHP treatment versus conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatments on inactivation of natural mesophilic bacteria and quality attributes on fruits and vegetables. The RHP treatment was performed within a second by free-falling samples (cabbage, cucumber, carrot, bell pepper, pineapple and melon) through cylindrical pr...

  20. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1134...treatment of cyanide poisoning are new drugs that require approved new drug class="hlt">applications (NDAs) or abbreviated new drug class="hlt">applications (ANDAs) in order to be...

  1. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Zeinaly; Jalal Shakhes; Mohammadreza Dehghani Firozabadi; Alireza Shakeri

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF) wer...

  2. Treatment with 89SrCl and Sodium Ibandronate for pain relief of multiple bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the palliative effect on pain relief in patients with multiple bone metastases treated with 89SrCl2 together with Sodium Ibandronate,Sodium Ibandronate alone and 89SrCl2 alone. Methods: Eighty-four patients with bone pain secondary to bone metastases were divided into three groups. Thirty patients were treated with combined 89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate, 26 with 89SrCl2 alone and 28 with Sodium Ibandronate alone. The ?2 test was used in data analysis. Results: The overall palliative pain relief rate in the combined treatment group was 96.6 % (29/30). For the groups using Sodium Ibandronate or 89SrCl2 only, the palliative rates were 71.4% (20/28) and 73.1% (19/26), respectively. There are statistically significant differences between the combined treatment group and the other 2 groups with single treatment modalities in the overall palliative pain relief rate (?2=7.497), in terms of improvement in (1) whole body Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score (80.0% (24/30) vs 50.0% (14/28)/53.8% (14/26), ?2 =35.476) and (2) focal palliative rate (47.6% (50/105) vs 11.2% (11/98)/22.2% (20/90), ?2 =6. 564, all P89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate is more effective than single treatment modalities to relieve bone pain secondary to multiple bone metastases. (authors)

  3. Comparison of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Elinore

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with confirmed kala-azar were treated in a mission hospital in West Pokot region, Kenya, with sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days - either as Pentostam® (PSM or generic sodium stibogluconate (SSG; 51 patients were allocated alternately to each treatment group. FINDINGS: There were no significant differences in baseline demographic characteristics or disease severity, or in events during treatment. There were 3 deaths in the PSM group and 1 in the SSG group; 2 patients defaulted in each group. Only 1 out of 80 test-of-cure splenic aspirates was positive for Leishmania spp.; this patient was in the SSG group. Follow-up after > 6 months showed that 6 out of 58 patients had relapsed, 5 in the SSG group and 1 in the PSM group. No outcome variable was significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The availability of cheaper generic sodium stibogluconate, subject to rigid quality controls, now makes it possible for the health authorities in kala-azar endemic areas to provide treatment to many more patients in Africa.

  4. Pegaptanib sodium treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: clinical experience in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Feucht

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaus Feucht, Huebner Matthias, Chris P Lohmann, Mathias MaierAugenklinik rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, GermanyBackground: The VEGF Inhibition Study In Ocular Neovascularisation (VISION reported the efficacy of intravitreal (ITV vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibition with pegaptanib sodium (Macugen® for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. This paper reports clinical experience with pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of occult or minimally classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to AMD.Material and methods: The study included 50 eyes (in 49 patients with either occult CNV or minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD who were not eligible for photodynamic therapy (PDT. Study data were analyzed retrospectively. During the 6-month study, patients were administered an average 2.74 injections of 0.3 mg ITV pegaptanib sodium. Angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT examinations were carried out and intraocular pressure (IOP and visual acuity (VA were measured at baseline, at 3 months and at 6 months. An eye examination was performed and VA was measured the 2 days following treatment and then again at weeks 4–6, and at 3 and 6 months. OCT, VA, and IOP were also assessed at 1 month.Results: ITV pegaptanib sodium was well tolerated and no treatment complications arose. Mean VA was measured as: 0.37 ± 0.24 at baseline; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 1 month; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 3 months and 0.40 ± 0.26 at 6 months. VA was stabilized in approximately 90% of eyes treated with pegaptanib sodium. OCT examination showed a minimal change in central retinal thickness (CRT during the course of the study, from 251.19 µm at baseline to 251.63 µm at 6 months. No elevation in IOP was measured during treatment at 4–6 months in patients receiving pegaptanib sodium.Conclusions: ITV therapy with pegaptanib sodium for occult and minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD offered good efficacy with a favorable adverse events profile. The majority of patients showed stabilization in all assessed parameters. In clinical practice, careful consideration should be given to the use of nonselective VEGF inhibition in patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile or in those with a history of thromboembolic events.Keywords: Intravitreal (ITV injection, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, choroidal neovascularization (CNV, anti-VEGF therapy, pegaptanib sodium

  5. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Mandryk; Alexander Rapoport; Emily Kolomiets; Linda Rozenfelde; Galina Khroustalyova

    2012-01-01

    The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl) treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings co...

  6. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  7. Effect of Plasma Treatment and Cross-Linking on the Over Voltage Positive Temperature Coefficient of High Density Polyethylene/carbon Black/magnesium Hydroxide Nano Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. Y.; Tsai, C. S.

    2008-08-01

    The Argon (Ar) plasma pretreated high-density polyethylene (PHDPE) was blended with the nano-degree conductive carbon black (CB) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) to formed the over-voltage positive temperature coefficient (PTC) composite. Effect of the CB content, plasma treatment time, power of plasma, initiator (dicumyl peroxide, DCP), and dosage of 60Co Y-ray irradiation on PTC behaviors of composites were studied. The results showed that the CB dispersion could be increased with increasing the amount free radicals of PHDPE and then not only the room-temperature volume resistivity of composite decreased, but also the PTC intensity of composite increased. The best plasma treatment condition was 20W, 1min. As the initiator was added into PHDPE composites and passed the 60Co Y-ray radiation, the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect of composites was eliminated, the PTC intensity of composite markedly increased and composite passes over-voltage resistance test.

  8. Separation of strontium from calcium by the use of sodium hydroxide and its application for the determination of long-term background activity concentrations of 90Sr in 100 km area around Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for the determination of 90Sr which employs sodium hydroxide for the separation of strontium from calcium was further improved introducing the use of elevated temperatures. The results from 11-year study of background activity concentrations of 90Sr in different environmental objects in 100 km zone around Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (Bulgaria) are presented as an application of the analytical method. The measured mean values are as follows: air precipitation - 0.0015±0.0009 Bq/(m2 x d), tap water - 0.0017±0.0012 Bq/L, soil - 1.90±1.26 Bq/kg, grass - 1.54±0.80 Bq/kg, milk - 0.023±0.012 Bq/L and for the Danube river: water - 0.0046±0.0026 Bq/L, bottom sediments - 0.64±0.60 Bq/kg, algae - 1.99±1.56 Bq/kg. The calculated transfer coefficients (soil-grass) are in the range of 0.33-0.84. Between 2 and 5 times reduction in actual background activities of 90Sr is observed compared to 1972-1974. (author)

  9. A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfandyar Khan Niazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

  10. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 C, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process

  11. Chronic Temporomandibular Pain Treatment Using Sodium Diclofenac / Tratamiento crónico del dolor temporomandibular con diclofenaco sódico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Kurita Varoli; Sandra, Sato; Murillo, Sucena Pita; Cássio, do Nascimento; Vinícius, Pedrazzi.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evaluó el dolor espontáneo antes y después de la administración de diclofenaco sódico, aislado o asociado a carisoprodol, paracetamol y cafeína, en pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares crónicos (TTM). Se seleccionaron dieciocho voluntarios, hombres y mujeres, entre 35-70 años de [...] edad (edad media 50 años). Los criterios de inclusión fueron dolor muscular masticatorio, y los criterios diagnósticos para trastornos temporomandibulares (RDC / TMD) como diagnóstico. La selección del tratamiento para cada individuo se llevó a cabo mediante una metodología de cruce triple ciego completo al azar. Por lo tanto, todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a todos los tratamientos en diferentes momentos, en una secuencia no estandarizada, evitando los resultados tendenciosos. Los tratamientos fueron: A (diclofenaco sódico + carisoprodol + acetaminofen + cafeína), B (diclofenaco sódico) y C (placebo), todos asociados a una férula oclusal. Cada período de tratamiento fue seguido por once días. No se encontraron diferencias entre los valores inicial y final de los tratamientos. Sin embargo, hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los grupos de evaluación sensorial y después del tratamiento B, y en los grupos de calificación sensorial, afectivo, y el total después de los tratamientos B y C. Dentro de las limitaciones de esta investigación, se concluye que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico aislado en pacientes con TTM musculares promueve una mayor analgesia que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico más asociaciones o placebo, cuando se asocia a una férula oclusal. Abstract in english This study evaluate spontaneous pain after and before administration of sodium diclofenac, isolated or associated to carisoprodol, acetaminophen and caffeine, in chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. Were selected eighteen volunteers, both men and women, between 35-70 years of age (mea [...] n age 50 years). The inclusion criteria was masticatory muscle pain, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was used on the diagnose. The selection of treatment for each individual was done by a triple-blind full-randomized crossover methodology. Thus, all patients were submitted to all treatment at different moments, in a non standardized sequence, avoiding tendentious results. The treatments were: A (sodium diclofenac + carisoprodol + acetaminophen + caffeine), B (sodium diclofenac) and C (placebo), all associated with an occlusal splint. Each treatment period was followed by an eleven-day washout. There weren't observed differences between initial and final values of treatments. However, there were statistically significant differences in evaluative and miscellaneous sensorial groups after B treatment; and in sensorial, affective, and total score groups after B and C treatments. Within the limitations of this investigation, we conclude that treatment of muscular TMD patients with sodium diclofenac isolated promoted higher analgesia than treatment with sodium diclofenac more associations or placebo, when associated to an occlusal splint.

  12. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2003-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  13. Synthesis of high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries by morphology-tailored hydroxide co-precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Belharouak, Ilias; Ortega, Luis H.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Dehua; Zhou, Guangwen; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Nickel manganese hydroxide co-precipitation inside a continuous stirred tank reactor was studied with sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as the precipitation agents. The ammonium hydroxide concentration had an effect on the primary and secondary particle evolution. The two-step precipitation mechanism proposed earlier was experimentally confirmed. In cell tests, Li- and Mn-rich composite cathode materials based on the hydroxide precursors demonstrated good electrochemical performance in terms of cycle life over a wide range of lithium content.

  14. Intramuscular diclofenac sodium versus intravenous Baralgin in the treatment of renal colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanahuja, J; Corbera, G; Garau, J; Plá, R; Carmen Carré, M

    1990-04-01

    A comparative, randomized, double-blind study of diclofenac sodium 75 mg im versus Baralgin (a combination drug composed of dipyrone and two spasmolytics) 5 mL iv was performed on 57 patients with renal colic. Both groups were comparable as to age, sex, pain evolution time before treatment, and no treatment for renal colic in the six hours preceding trial drug administration. No significant differences were found between the two groups with respect to the evolution of pain after the first dose or in the frequency of administration of a second dose. Tolerability was good in both groups, but sweating and pain throughout the vein were observed in one patient in the Baralgin group. We concluded that diclofenac sodium constitutes an excellent alternative to pyrazolone analgesics, with the advantages of being monotherapy and having good tolerability, when used as intramuscular injection in ambulatory patients. PMID:2183488

  15. Comparison of efficacy between sodium morrhuate and lauromacrogol as sclerosing agents in treatment of hepatic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Zuyun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the efficacy of sodium morrhuate versus lauromacrogol in the treatment of hepatic cyst. MethodsSeventy-four patients with hepatic cyst who were admitted to our hospital from January 2009 to May 2013 were enrolled as subjects and divided into two groups. After the cystic fluid was drained by percutaneous liver biopsy, sodium morrhuate solution was injected into the cystic cavity for adhesion and sclerosis in 46 patients in group A, and lauromacrogol solution was injected in 28 patients in group B. The incidence rates of pain in patients during and after surgery were compared between the two groups. The follow-up comparison of hepatic cyst recurrence rates within one year after surgery was performed between the two groups. Between-group comparison was performed by ?2 test. ResultsFive patients (10.87% in group A and two patients (7.14% in group B had recurrence within one year after treatment. There was no significant difference in recurrence rate between the two groups (?2=0.283, P?0.05. The incidence of pain in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (?2=5.258, P?0.05. ConclusionWith the same efficacy as sodium morrhuate in the treatment of hepatic cyst, lauromacrogol can be routinely used as a sclerosing agent due to its mild side effects.

  16. Composição química e perdas fermentativas de silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio Chemical composition and fermentative losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química e as perdas fermentativas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio (NaOH. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar (CB 45-3 e RB 72-454 e quatro aditivos (controle, NaOH, ureia ou NaOH + ureia, compondo as seguintes silagens: cana-de-açúcar sem aditivo; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 4% de ureia; cana-de-açúcar tratada 4% de NaOH; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2% de ureia + 2% de NaOH. Os procedimentos foram realizados em ambas as variedades e as doses aplicadas com base na matéria seca. A cana-de-açúcar foi picada e misturada, acescida dos aditivos e armazenada em silos de PVC com 50 cm de altura por 10 cm de diâmetro, providos de válvula de Bunsen. Adotou-se uma compactação de 750 kg de matéria natural/m³. Os silos foram pesados no início e ao final do período experimental para quantificar as perdas por gases e efluente. Não foi observado efeito de interação entre variedades de cana-de-açúcar e doses para perdas por efluente, pH, celulose, lignina e cinza. O hidróxido de sódio contribui para redução de perdas,manutenção do grau brixa e elevação do pH da silagem da cana-de-açúcar, independentemente da utilização da ureia, além de promover redução dos constituintes da parede celular, ocasionando melhoria na qualidade da silagem de cana-de-açúcar.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide (NaOH. It was used a completely randomized design with four replicates, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two varieties of cane sugar (CB 45-3, RB 72-454 and four additives (Control, NaOH, urea or NaOH + urea, composing the following silages: sugar cane without additive; sugar cane treated with 4% urea; sugar cane treated with 4% NaOH; sugar cane treated with 2% urea + 2% NaOH. The procedures were performed in both varieties and the doses applied in the dry matter basis. The sugar cane was chopped and then mixed, added with additives and stored in PVC silos with 50 cm of height by 10 cm of diameter, provided with Bunsem valve. It was adopted a compression of 750 kg of natural matter/m³. The silos were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the trial period to quantify the losses by gases and effluent. There was no interaction effect among varieties of sugar cane and doses for effluent losses, pH, cellulose, lignin and ash. Sodium hydroxide contributes for the reduction of losses, maintenance of Brix and pH raising of the silage of sugar cane, regardless to the use of urea, in addition to promote reduction of the constituents of the cell wall causing improvement on the quality of silage from sugar cane.

  17. Comparison of Treatment Effect of Sodium Valprovate, Propranolol and Tricyclic Antidepressants in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasami K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy and treatment effect of sodium valprovate with propranolol and tricyclic antidepressive drugs. This piece is a rarandomized clinical trial conducted on 126 migraine patients admitted to brain and nerves clinic in Arak, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups then randomized to study treatments. Data were gathered using a checklist and a complete examination. They were analyzed by Chi square and exact test. In patients with normal and abnormal encephalogram the effectiveness rate of two treatments were 35, 61.9, 95.6 and 28.6%, respectively. This difference between two treatments was statistically significant (p<0.001. But didn't observe significant differences between two sex groups (p>0.05. For treatment and control of the migraine, in patients with normal encephalogram, propranolol with tricyclic antidepressive drugs advised and for abnormal encephalogram sodium valprovate can be the better treatment for management and reduction of headache attacks.

  18. Treatment of water contaminated with radiocesium using novel complexes between Prussian-blue and bivalent transition metal hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of technologies are applied to the decontamination of radiocesium from water using inorganic adsorbents such as zeolites, Prussian blue (PB) and its analogues. However, these adsorbents are difficult to apply. Although zeolites work as good adsorbents for cesium (Cs) in freshwater, their adsorption ability is extremely low in seawater and fly ash extracts with a high salt concentration. In contrast, PB and its analogues maintain their selective adsorption ability for Cs even in water containing salts, but a high level of cyan remains in the treated water. In this study, we introduce a new technology that utilizes complexes between PB and hydroxides of transition metals (PB-X) for the decontamination of Cs from water and report results of demonstration tests on simulated seawater and fly ash extract. Furthermore, the excellent results of the PB-X method applied to the extracts from fly ash contaminated with radiocesium (more than 8000 Bq/kg) are also shown. It has been proved that radiocesium activities are not only below the detection limit (<10 Bq/kg) and the content of cyan can be controlled under the regulation value of tap water in the water treated with PB-X. (author)

  19. Inhibition of atmospheric corrosion of mild steel by sodium benzoate treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Ramazan

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sodium benzoate as an inhibitor to slow down or prevent atmospheric corrosion/discoloration of the local mild steel during storage in the Arabian Gulf region. Test specimens were prepared from locally produced reinforcing steel products. The inhibitor solution was applied on steel specimens at a concentration of 100 mM for 1 day at room temperature. Wooden exposure racks were used to hold as-received and inhibitor-treated specimens during atmospheric exposure for different periods. Corrosion was evaluated through weight loss determination and electrochemical technique. As expected, the Arabian Gulf atmosphere was corrosive on the as-received local mild steel. On the other hand, treatment of steel with sodium benzoate lowered its corrosion rate during initial days of its exposure to atmosphere. However, atmospheric corrosion inhibition performance of sodium benzoate deteriorated with exposure time after 30 or more days of atmospheric exposure, and the corrosion rates of sodium benzoate-treated specimens reached that of the unprotected specimens at the end of 90 days of atmospheric exposure.

  20. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rozenfelde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

  1. Determination of the biodistribution and biokinetics of radiopharmaca like 166Ho-ferric-hydroxide or 153Sm-EDTMP used for therapeutic treatment by energy dispersive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity distribution of beta-emitting radionuclides in the human body and the respective therapeutic dose distribution in the target and the unwanted leakage in the other organs was determined by measurement of corresponding gamma-lines. The measurement was done by scanning in a whole-body counter in the General Hospital Vienna. It is possible to localize activity and dose distribution by means of the detected activity profiles of the four detectors. Two typical treatments are reported: the treatment of synovitis using radiation of 166Ho-Ferric-Hydroxide (characteristic gamma-line: 81 keV) and radionuclide therapy focused at the palliative treatment of bone metastases with 153Sm-EDTMP, a bone seeking beta-emitting radionuclide (characteristic gamma-line: 103 keV). For the determination of the applied dose, the leakage and the quality assurance spectroscopic data of a clinical whole-body counter can be a useful tool for controlling and monitoring in health care. (authors)

  2. Adverse Reaction of Sodium Hypochlorite during Endodontic Treatment of Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaugule, Vishwas Bhausaheb; Panse, Amey Manohar; Gawali, Pritesh Namdeo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most common and effective intracanal medicament used in root canal treatments, because of its low-cost and a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. Sodium hypochlorite is an effective intracanal irrigant and is used in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5.25%. At these concentrations, it is highly hypertonic and strongly alkaline with pH 11 to 13. Despite its safe properties, serious complications can result from inadvertent use due to its cytotoxic features. Most of the complications are the result of accidental extrusion of the solution from the apical foramen or accessory canals or perforations into the periapical area. Although it is an effective solution for disinfection of root canal system, fewer incidence of complications are reported, especially in primary teeth. Present article highlights one of such cases of NaOCl accident and its successful management in a 4-year-old child. How to cite this article: Chaugule VB, Panse AM, Gawali PN. Adverse Reaction of Sodium Hypochlorite during Endo-dontic Treatment of Primary Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):153-156. PMID:26379387

  3. Another Base, Another Solvent? Desalinating Iron Finds with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Friederike Kuhn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The desalination processes commonly applied to improve the corrosion stability of archaeological iron artifacts are based on immersion treatments in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Faster and more efficient chloride extraction in solutions based on organic solvents with a lower surface tension can be expected. Furthermore, the danger of new corrosion forming during the subsequent washing out of residual chemicals from the desalinating solution could be minimised, if organic solvents would replace the water, commonly used for this process. Only alkali metal hydroxide (LiOH and NaOH solutions in organic solvents have been tested so far. Their comparatively low chloride extraction efficiency was ascribed to the low solubility of the alkali metal hydroxides and the corresponding chlorides in the solvents used. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH is readily soluble in alcohols and has been tested in aqueous and/or methanolic solutions as an alternative. Neither improved overall chloride extraction efficiency, nor a higher chloride extraction rate could be observed using methanolic solutions. However, aqueous TMAH showed a trend towards higher overall chloride extraction efficiency than the common alkaline treatments. These results could be explained by the different solubility of corrosion products, in particular akaganéite, ?-FeO(OH, in the tested solutions.

  4. Sodium chloride as effective antifungal treatment for artificial egg incubation in Austropotamobius pallipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Policar T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sodium chloride at three different concentrations, 30 000 ppm (S30, 60?000 ppm (S60 and 90 000 ppm (S90, and formaldehyde at one concentration, 3000 ppm (F, were tested as antifungal chemicals during artificial incubation (AI of Austropotamobius pallipes eggs. Two treatments were tested without chemicals as control groups with (R and without (C the removal of dead eggs. After AI, formaldehyde treatment ensured high survival of stage 1 (89.7 ± 2.3% and stage 2 (85.5 ± 2.4% of juveniles. However, comparable survival rate to stage 1 and stage 2 (85.5 ± 5.5% and 80.6 ± 3.2% were also found in the treatment with the highest sodium chloride concentration (S90. Significantly lower survival rate of juveniles (stage 1: 60.6–70.3% and stage 2: 56.1–67.3% were evident in groups S60, S30 and R. However, group R demanded high labor and related costs. The lowest juvenile survival levels to stage 1 (46.4 ± 8.2% and stage 2 (45.2 ± 6.8% were observed in treatments without fungicide chemicals and removal of dead eggs (C.

  5. Recent Sodium Technology Development for the Decommissioning of the Rapsodie and Superphenix Reactors and the Management of Sodium Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has recently developed and/or conducted experiments on several processes in support of the decommissioning of two French liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), Rapsodie and Superphenix, as well as on the treatment of CEA sodium wastes. CEA has demonstrated that it is possible to define appropriate and efficient processes to meet the different situations encountered in decommissioning LMFRs. Mechanical techniques derived from standard technologies have been successfully applied to fast reactor decommissioning to complete primary vessel draining from sodium. In addition, specific chemical processes have been developed to deal safely with metallic sodium reactivity. Sodium-contaminated equipment has been successfully cleaned by reacting sodium with water mist in an atmosphere with carbon dioxide to form inert sodium carbonate. Bulk sodium has been successfully converted into aqueous caustic soda by injection of liquid-metallic sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. Several processes were also defined to deal with specific sodium wastes. In all cases the principle is based on a sodium/water chemical reaction where the released hydrogen and heat are controlled. With the development of a wide variety of processes, all steps in the decommissioning of LMFRs are assumed to be now properly mastered

  6. Oral and topical sodium cromoglicate in the treatment of diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alan Martin; Capková, Stepánka

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis (DCM) is a rare, severe, variant of cutaneous mastocytosis. The authors report the case of a male infant who developed maculae and maculopapulae on his legs and abdomen when aged 3.5 months, which spread to all body surfaces within weeks. Diagnosis of DCM was made at the age of 6 months when he had developed extensive bullous eruptions, generalised pruritus, flushing and abdominal pain. Treatment was started with oral dimethindine maleate. At the age of 18 months, oral sodium cromoglicate (SCG) was introduced. At the age of 23 months, additional treatment was started with a cutaneous emulsion containing 4% SCG. Continued treatment with oral dimethindine maleate, oral SCG with the dose maintained at 25 mg/kg/day, and SCG 4% cutaneous emulsion applied two to four times daily has resulted in a steady improvement of symptoms and skin appearance. PMID:22693187

  7. Sodium conversion experiments in the Inert Carrier Process demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the sodium treatment studies reported here was to evaluate the use of the Inert Carrier Process (ICP) for converting sodium metal to a stable disposal form. The ICP demonstration plant consists of a closed loop of silicone oil that is circulated through a reservoir called a disperser. Solid sodium particles were fed to the disperser and kept suspended in the silicone oil carrier by turbulence. The sodium did not react with the silicone oil carrier. The dispersion of sodium in silicone oil was fed to an in-line mixer (''jet'' mixer) where it was mixed with a reactant. Water was used as the reactant in most of the tests, generating sodium hydroxide and hydrogen as the initial products. Analysis of the final solid product from the reaction indicated that the sodium hydroxide initial product interacted with the silicone oil. Complete reaction of the sodium in the demonstration plant required at least a 6/1 molar ratio of water to sodium. Good separation of the product solution was difficult because of the small difference in density between the aqueous product phase and the organic carrier phase. Emulsification of the silicone oil-aqueous solution was minimized by applying heat to the separator. Foaming of the silicone oil in the separator occurred, aggravated by the evolution of hydrogen from the sodium conversion reaction. Bench-scale tests were conducted to analyze and resolve several problems encountered in the plant experiments, such as incomplete reaction in the jet mixer, poor separation of the product from the silicone oil, formation of an oil aqueous solution emulsion in the separator, and oil foaming in the separator. Solidification tests were carried out to immobilize the sodium conversion product by mixing it with various binders. The most satisfactory binder was EPON 828, an epoxy resin

  8. Sodium pivalate treatment reduces tissue carnitines and enhances ketosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, P B; Davis, A T

    1991-12-01

    Sodium pivalate, a compound conjugated to carnitine and excreted in the urine was used to induce a secondary carnitine deficiency. In the first series of experiments, rats received in their drinking water either 20 mmol/L sodium pivalate (experimental) or 20 mmol/L sodium bicarbonate (control) for 4 d, 2 wk, or 8 wk. Tissues and urine were collected, and carnitine concentrations in liver, skeletal muscle, heart, plasma and urine were determined. The total carnitine concentrations in tissues and plasma of pivalate-treated rats were significantly depressed (P less than 0.05) at all time points, except at 4 d for skeletal muscle and at 4 d and 2 wk for liver. The acylcarnitine:free carnitine ratios in urine and plasma of the pivalate-treated animals were significantly higher at all time points relative to the controls. In the second experiment, rats received either the pivalate or the bicarbonate treatments for 15 d followed by a 2-d fast. After fasting, the plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate of pivalate-treated rats was significantly higher relative to controls, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose concentrations. The reduced plasma and tissue carnitine concentrations, increased acylcarnitine:free carnitine ratio in plasma and urine, and fasting ketosis found in pivalate-treated rats are findings also reported for human secondary carnitine deficiency due to organic acidurias. PMID:1941267

  9. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

  10. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for the routine treatment of drinking water at the household level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas; Edmondson, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Household water treatment using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been recognized as a cost-effective means of reducing the heavy burden of diarrhea and other waterborne diseases, especially among populations without access to improved water supplies. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), which is widely used in emergencies, is an alternative source of chlorine that may present certain advantages over NaOCl for household-based interventions in development settings. We summarize the basic chemistry and possible benefits of NaDCC, and review the available literature concerning its safety and regulatory treatment and microbiological effectiveness. We review the evidence concerning NaDCC in field studies, including microbiological performance and health outcomes. Finally, we examine studies and data to compare NaDCC with NaOCl in terms of compliance, acceptability, affordability and sustainability, and suggest areas for further research. PMID:16387550

  11. TREATMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: SODIUM FLUORIDE OR CALCITONIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mowla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical controversy and lack of controlled clinical trial study comparing the effects of sodium fluoride and calcitonin therapies in osteoporosis of patients with RA made us to conduct this study to clarify which one of the above treatments would be more useful and effective in the treatment of osteoporosis.From subjects who turned to Ahwaz Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinic during 2000, all women who met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR 1987 criteria for RA (7, WHO 1994 criteria for osteoporosis (8 and signed the written consent were enrolled into the study. Considering these inclusion criteria, 70 women were enrolled into the study. They were randomized into two groups. Age, BMI (body mass index and BMD (bone mineral density were the adjusted variables during randomization. Thirty-four patients were treated with 20 mg sodium fluoride daily and 36 patients with 200 units nasal calcitonin per day. All patients were treated for 12 months.Patients who received Fluoride showed significant higher BMD in femoral neck (0.74 vs. 0.65, p<0.01 and in lumbar spine (0.90 vs. 0.79, p<0.05 than who received calcitonin after 12 months of therapy.

  12. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Mohammadi; Shalavi, S.; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5...

  14. Ammonium hydroxide treatment of A? produces an aggregate free solution suitable for biophysical and cell culture characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Ryan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Pathologically it is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neuronal loss within the brain tissue of affected individuals. It is now widely hypothesised that fibrillar structures represent an inert structure. Biophysical and toxicity assays attempting to characterize the formation of both the fibrillar and the intermediate oligomeric structures of A? typically involves preparing samples which are largely monomeric; the most common method by which this is achieved is to use the fluorinated organic solvent 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP. Recent evidence has suggested that this method is not 100% effective in producing an aggregate free solution. We show, using dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography and small angle X-ray scattering that this is indeed the case, with HFIP pretreated A? peptide solutions displaying an increased proportion of oligomeric and aggregated material and an increased propensity to aggregate. Furthermore we show that an alternative technique, involving treatment with strong alkali results in a much more homogenous solution that is largely monomeric. These techniques for solubilising and controlling the oligomeric state of A? are valuable starting points for future biophysical and toxicity assays.

  15. Potential and limits of sodium hydroxide as an additive to the binary system ammonia/water in absorption heat pumps; Potenzial und Grenzen von Natriumhydroxid als Zusatz zum Stoffpaar Ammoniak/Wasser in Absorptions-Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotenko, Oleksandr; Moser, Harald; Fenzl, Thomas; Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik

    2011-07-01

    Several authors proposed the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an additive to the ammonia/water working fluid mixture (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O), especially in solar air conditioners. Measured vapour-liquid equilibrium data of this tertiary mixture are found in the relevant literature. Thermodynamic calculations carried out with these data show that the efficiency (COP) will be enhanced in theory while the rectification time will decrease. To verify these theoretical considerations and to gain practical experience with the tertiary mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH, a test stand was constructed at the Institut fuer Waermetechnik, and measurements were carried out on the mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, i.e. without NaOH, and with 5% NaOH. The technical feasibility of the process was established, although NaOH depositions in the refrigerating circuit caused operational disturbances, so that the mixture had to be renewed regularly and the plant had to be flushed with water. The expected efficiency improvement was not observed. Analyses using ''ASPEN Plus'' showed that this was the result of lower absorber efficiency, which may be due to the higher circulation rate and higher viscosity of the working fluid mixture. Measurements showed a moderate improvements of heat transfer in the expeller after addition of NaOH; no effects were found in the evaporator, solvent heat exchanger and rectification column. The findings suggest that fast implementation of NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP is not realistic. Considerable research and development will still be required for optimisation of the absorber for operation with NaOH. [German] Die Verwendung von Natriumhydroxid (NaOH) als Zusatz zum Arbeitsstoffgemisch Ammoniak / Wasser (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O) wurde von verschiedenen Autoren insbesondere fuer das Anwendungsgebiet der solaren Klimatisierung vorgeschlagen. In der einschlaegigen Literatur wurden gemessene Dampf-Fluessig-Gleichgewichts-Daten von diesem Dreistoffgemisch publiziert. Die mit diesen Daten durchgefuehrten thermodynamischen Rechnungen zeigen, dass die Effizienz (COP) durch die Zugabe von Natriumhydroxid in einer Ammoniak / Wasser-Absorptionswaermepumpe theoretisch erhoeht werden kann und der Rektifikationsaufwand sinkt. Um diese theoretischen Berechnungen zu ueberpruefen und praktische Erfahrungen mit dem Dreistoffgemisch NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH zu sammeln, wurde am Institut fuer Waermetechnik ein Pruefstand aufgebaut. Mit diesem Pruefstand wurden Messungen mit dem Gemisch NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, d.h. ohne NaOH, und mit 5% NaOH durchgefuehrt. Dabei konnte die technische Machbarkeit dieses Prozesses gezeigt werden. Allerdings fuehrten Ablagerungen von NaOH im Kaeltekreis zu Betriebsstoerungen bzw. dazu, dass das Arbeitsgemisch regelmaessig gewechselt und die Anlage mit Wasser gespuelt werden musste. Die erwartete Verbesserung bezueglich der Prozess-Effizienz konnte bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden. Die Analyse der Messergebnisse mit dem Softwareprogram ''ASPEN Plus'' hat gezeigt, dass dies vor allem an einer geringeren Absorber-Effizienz lag, welche wahrscheinlich auf den bei gleicher Leistung notwendigen hoeheren Loesungsumlauf und die hoehere Viskositaet des Arbeitsgemisches zurueckzufuehren ist. In Bezug auf den Einfluss von NaOH auf die anderen Komponenten, fuehrt die NaOH-Zugabe laut Messungen zu einer moderaten Verbesserung des Waermeueberganges im Austreiber. Bei der Analyse des Einflusses von NaOH auf den Verdampfer, den Loesungsmittelwaermetauscher und die Rektifikationskolonne konnten keine signifikanten Veraenderungen zwischen den Betriebspunkten mit und ohne NaOH festgestellt werden. Aus heutiger Sicht scheint die rasche technische Umsetzung einer NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP aus den oben genannten Gruenden nicht realistisch zu sein. Es besteht noch erheblicher Forschungs- und Entwicklungsbedarf in Bezug auf die Optimierung des Absorbers fuer den Betrieb mit NaOH und die oben genannten Betriebsstoerungen.

  16. Role of pegaptanib sodium in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobha Sivaprasad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sobha SivaprasadLaser and Retinal Research Unit, King’s College Hospital, UKAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is responsible for more than half the blind registration in the United Kingdom. Retinal manifestations of AMD can be categorized as either atrophic or neovascular. The hallmark of AMD is the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV. Until recently, there have been few, limited treatment modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy [PDT] for this condition and the mainstay of treatment has comprised social and lifestyle support. However, increased understanding of the molecular processes at work in neovascular AMD and CNV in recent years has led to the introduction of new antiangiogenic agents that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. These agents either inhibit a selected VEGF isoform (eg, VEGF165 inhibition by pegaptanib sodium or inhibit all forms of the VEGF isoform (eg, non-selective VEGF blockade by ranibizumab. The trial data suggest that non-selective inhibition of VEGF offers better treatment outcomes in neovascular AMD. As a result, agents that inhibit all VEGF isoforms are now widely used as first-line therapy for this condition. However, it is known that VEGF plays an important role in maintaining the intergrity of the cardiovascular system and, particularly as the age of patients with AMD places them at an elevated risk of thromboembolic events, long-term post-marketing surveillance data are essential to determining whether non-selective VEGF blockade confers any increased risk. Theoretically, selective VEGF inhibition may reduce any risk associated with pan-VEGF blockade, yet on the basis of initial trials, their use remains more limited at this time. However, clinical practice suggests that initial trials may have under-estimated the efficacy of selective-VEGF inhibition. Observational studies also indicate that better treatment outcomes may be possible by combining VEGF inhibitors sequentially with each other, or with existing therapies (eg, photodynamic therapy [PDT]. The optimum role and indications of anti-VEGF agents will come through careful consideration of the available efficacy and safety data, from the outcomes of long-term follow-up studies, and through assessment of the relative merits of the two approaches to VEGF inhibition in clinical practice. At this time, further head-to-head trials, and economic evaluations, comparing the treatment alternatives are needed.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD, choroidal neovascularization (CNV, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, cardiovascular, ranibizumab, pegaptanib sodium

  17. Delayed sodium pyruvate treatment improves working memory following experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Nobuhiro; Ghavim, Sima S; Hovda, David A; Sutton, Richard L

    2011-03-17

    Prior work indicates that cerebral glycolysis is impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and that pyruvate treatment acutely after TBI can improve cerebral metabolism and is neuroprotective. Since extracellular levels of glucose decrease during periods of increased cognitive demand and exogenous glucose improves cognitive performance, we hypothesized that pyruvate treatment prior to testing could ameliorate cognitive deficits in rats with TBI. Based on pre-surgical spatial alternation performance in a 4-arm plus-maze, adult male rats were randomized to receive either sham injury or unilateral (left) cortical contusion injury (CCI). On days 4, 9 and 14 after surgery animals received an intraperitoneal injection of either vehicle (Sham-Veh, n=6; CCI-Veh, n=7) or 1000 mg/kg of sodium pyruvate (CCI-SP, n=7). One hour after each injection rats were retested for spatial alternation performance. Animals in the CCI-SP group showed no significant working memory deficits in the spatial alternation task compared to Sham-Veh controls. The percent four/five alternation scores for CCI-Veh rats were significantly decreased from Sham-Veh scores on days 4 and 9 (pglucose and regional cytochrome oxidase activity at day 15 post-injury did not differ between CCI-SP and CCI-Veh groups. These results show that spatial alternation testing can reliably detect temporal deficits and recovery of working memory after TBI and that delayed pyruvate treatment can ameliorate TBI-induced cognitive impairments. PMID:21241774

  18. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Rezende Delgado, Ronan; Helena Gasparoto, Thaís; Renata Sipert, Carla; Ramos Pinheiro, Claudia; Gomes de Moraes, Ivaldo; Brandão Garcia, Roberto; Antônio Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Monteiro Bramante, Clóvis; Aparecido Torres, Sérgio; Pompermaier Garlet, Gustavo; Paula Campanelli, Ana; BERNARDINELI, Norberti

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0–100 and 100–200 µm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the ...

  19. A combination of topical antiseptics for the treatment of sore throat blocks voltage-gated neuronal sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foadi, Nilufar; de Oliveira, Regina Campos; Buchholz, Vanessa; Stoetzer, Carsten; Wegner, Florian; Pilawski, Igor; Haeseler, Gertrud; Leuwer, Martin; Ahrens, Jörg

    2014-10-01

    Amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol are ingredients of lozenges used for the treatment of sore throat. In a former in vitro study, a local anaesthetic-like effect of these substances has been described. Since amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol are co-administered in over-the-counter lozenges, the intention of this study is to evaluate the in vitro effects of the combination of these compounds on the voltage-gated sodium channel. We analysed the block of inward sodium currents induced by the combination of amylmetacresol, dichloro-benzylalcohol and the local anaesthetic lidocaine. Tonic and use-dependent block and effects on the inactivated channel state of the neuronal sodium channel were examined. Therefore, the ?-subunit of the voltage-gated NaV1.2 sodium channel was heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells in vitro. Inward sodium currents were investigated in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The combination of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol and the combination of amylmetacresol and lidocaine induced a block of resting and inactivated sodium channels both displaying a pronounced block at the inactivated channel state. In addition, the combination of all three compounds also resulted in a voltage-dependent block of inward sodium currents. While use-dependent block by co-application of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol was moderate (amylmetacresol induced a robust use-dependent block (up to 50 %). This study demonstrates local anaesthetic-like effects of a combination of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol as established ingredients of lozenges. In the presence of amylmetacresol, dichloro-benzylalcohol and lidocaine, a prominent block of inward sodium currents is apparent. PMID:25012093

  20. Morphological changes in the rat carotid body following acute sodium nitrite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Dimitrinka Y; Lazarov, Nikolai E

    2016-01-15

    The carotid body (CB) is a small neural crest-derived chemosensory organ that detects the chemical composition of the arterial blood and responds to its changes by regulating breathing. The effects of acute nitrite treatment on the CB morphology in rats were examined by morphometry. We found that 1h after administrating a single dose of sodium nitrite, the CB underwent structural changes characterized by a prominent increase in its size with a marked, several-fold dilation of the blood vessels. The obvious CB enlargement mostly due to apparent vasodilation and glomus cell hypertrophy was at its highest one day later and persisted until the fifth day. 20 days after the treatment, the CB regained its size to the normoxic control state. Morphometric analysis revealed that the CB size increase in treated animals is statistically significant when compared to that of untreated controls. It can be inferred that the nitrite-exposed CB displays remarkable structural plasticity and enlarges its size mostly through vascular expansion. PMID:26528896

  1. Method of processing radioactive sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To semi-continuously process through an on-line system in a safe and rapid manner great quantity of radioactive sodium discharged from a fast breeder reactor. Structure: Radioactive sodium is poured into a heating dish within a reduced pressure sealed container and steam is blown onto the radioactive sodium while controlling the reaction speed. The resultant sodium hydroxide waste liquid is thermally condensed. The reaction speed control is effected through control of the sodium temperature by the heater of the reaction dish and through control of the processing tank inner pressure. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. The renal handling of sodium and water is not affected by the standard-dose cisplatin treatment for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Frederiksen, P L; Svendsen, U G; Munck, O; Leyssac, P P

    1987-01-01

    Renal clearances of 51Cr-EDTA, lithium, sodium and potassium were measured before and after each of four consecutive treatment series with cisplatin in 15 men with testicular cancer. Since lithium is reabsorbed like sodium and water in the proximal tubules, but not reabsorbed to any measurable degree in the remainder of the nephron, lithium clearance equals the amount of fluid delivered from the end of the proximal straight segment to the thin descending limb of the loop of Henle. From the clear...

  3. Efficacy of Topical Sodium Sulfacetamide in the Treatment of Mild and Moderate Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized, Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ay?egül Turan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Clindamycin and erythromycin are the most widely used topical antibiotics in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. The combination of topical antibiotics with benzoyl peroxide increases the efficacy of the treatment and reduces antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. Sodium sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic. Although it has been known for many years, it is not widely used in acne treatment. However, it has recently acquired currency again. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of sodium sulfacetamide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris and to compare with the other widely used topical antibiotics. Material and Method: In our comparative study, 60 patients with acne vulgaris were randomly assigned into 3 groups, wherein the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd groups were applied sodium sulfacetamide 10% lotion, clindamycin 1% lotion, and erythromycin 2% gel, respectively, twice daily for 12 weeks. Each group consisted of 20 subjects. The treatment was combined with benzoyl peroxide in all groups. The patients were assessed for noninflammatory (open and closed comedones and inflammatory (papules and pustules lesion counts at 4, 8, and 12 weeks and, adverse events were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for age, sex and acne duration (p>0.05. Statistically significant decrease was obtained with all 3 treatment regimens at the end of the study (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, topical sodium sulfacetamide was found to be as effective and safe as erythromycin and clindamycin when combined with benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. These results should be supported by studies with larger cohorts.

  4. Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Dotto Sottovia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8, had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (pEm reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste trabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extraído e mantido sobre bancada para ressecamento por 60 min. Posteriormente, os dentes do grupo I foram imersos em soro fisiológico por 2 min. No grupo II, os dentes tiveram a superfície radicular friccionada com gaze embebida em soro fisiológico por 2 min e no grupo III a fricção foi feita empregando-se solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Todos os dentes tiveram então a superfície radicular tratada com ácido fosfórico a 37% seguido de imersão em solução de fluoreto de sódio fosfato acidulado a 2%, pH 5,5. Os canais foram obturados com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e os dentes foram reimplantados. Os animais foram sacrificados 60 dias depois e as peças contendo os dentes foram processadas em laboratório. Cortes transversais semi-seriados do terço médio da raiz, foram obtidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina para análise histomorfométrica. Os dados obtidos foram confrontados pela análise de variância empregando-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis, quando este indicou diferença estatisticamente significante, utilizou-se o teste de Dunn para as comparações individuais. Os resultados demonstraram que a estrutura radicular e a extensão de cemento foram mais afetadas pela reabsorção no grupo III (p<0.05. Todos os grupos foram comprometidos pela reabsorção radicular sendo que o tratamento realizado no grupo III foi o menos efetivo para o seu controle. O tratamento realizado nos grupos I e II proporcionou resultados semelhantes entre si.

  5. A Comparison Between the Treatment and Side Effect of Sodium Valproate and Propranolol in Preventing Migraine Headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Taghdiri

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of frequent headaches in children is migraine headache. The prevention of headaches , will improve life equality in children. This study was designed to compare between treatment and side effects of sodium valproate and propranolol in preventing migraine headaches. This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial which carried out on 52 children who were reffered to out patient neurology clinic of the Ekbatan and Sina hospitals. All children with migraine who had headache during last 6 months were enrolled, and those who had received sodium valproate and propranolol previously, were excluded. The method was convenience sampling and the patients were divided into two groups with 26 patients: A and B for propranolol and sodium valproate respectively. Group A treated with propranolol and group B with sodium valproate for 8 weeks. The response to treatment was evaluated after 4 weeks. The study evaluated 52 children with migraine from 7-15 year’s old , 38.5% of cases were male and 61.5% female. Before treatment , the mean number of attacks was 5.61 months in group A and 8.73 months in group B. After treatment the number of attacks was declined in 21 cases (80.8% of group A and 19 cases (73.1% of group B. Severity of pain was improved in 18 cases (69.2% of group A and 15 cases (57.7% of group B. The incidence of vertigo was 3 cases (11.5% in group A and 2 cases (7.7% in group B. Abnormal liver enzymes test were detected in 11.5% of cases in the group B. CBC was abnormal in 7.7% of cases in the group B Sodium valproate and propranolol , both have the same therapeutic effects in prevention of migraine headeache in children. But side effects are different , and choice of either one depended on the effects consideration and contraindications of each one.

  6. Chondroitin sulfate and sodium hialuronate in treatment of the degenerative joint disease in dogs. Clinical and radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate in the knee joint of dogs with experimentally induced degenerative joint disease (DJD). Fifteen mongrel dogs, weighing 18 to 25kg were used. DJD was induced by cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) arthroscopical transection. After three weeks, CCL was repaired by an intrarticular technique, which uses fascia lata. The dogs were then divided into three groups as follows: group I received no other treatment, but the CCL reconstitution, group II received 24mg/animal of chondroitin sulfate/IM every five days, totaling six injections, and group III received 20mg/animal of sodium hyaluronate /IV every five days, totaling three injections. All dogs were examined clinically and radiographically for 90 days after the repairment surgery. The clinical evaluation was performed by assessment of lameness, weight-bearing, limb muscle atrophy and range of motion. The results demonstrated that the group treated with sodium hyaluronate had lower degree of lameness in comparison with other groups. The radiographic evaluation showed marginal osteophytes and subchondral bone sclerosis. These changes were more severe in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate. The better clinical results observed in this group, compared with the others, was probably due to the greater action of the drug in the synovium, decreasing the pain and lameness. Radiographic findings correlated poorly with the clinical signs in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate

  7. Association of calcium hydroxide and metronidazole in the treatment of dog's teeth with chronic periapical lesion Associação do hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol no tratamento de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Panzarini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I - no root canal dressing; group II - calcium hydroxide; group III - metronidazole; group IV - calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (alpha = 0.01. Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing.Um dos principais objetivos do tratamento endodôntico de dentes com polpa necrosada é a eliminação máxima possível dos microrganismos presentes no sistema de canal radicular, principalmente nos casos que apresentam lesões periapicais crônicas. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a resposta dos tecidos periapicais de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica ao tratamento endodôntico utilizando como curativo de demora o metronidazol, o hidróxido de cálcio e a associação das duas substâncias. METODOLOGIA: Foram empregados 44 canais radiculares de 2 cães adultos, portadores de lesão periapical crônica induzida experimentalmente. Após o preparo biomecânico os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo com o curativo de demora empregado: Grupo I - controle - sem curativo de demora; Grupo II - hidróxido de cálcio; Grupo III - associação de hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol e Grupo IV - metronidazol. Após 15 dias todos os canais foram obturados com cimento Fill Canal e passados 90 dias os animais foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o hidróxido de cálcio apresentou resultado superior aos demais tratamentos, com diferença estatísticamente significante (alfa = 0.01 e o metronidazol resultado semelhante à associação do hidróxido de cálcio com o metronidazol. Os piores resultados foram obtidos pelo grupo sem curativo de demora. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de metronidazol ou da sua associação com hidróxido de cálcio, não proporcionou melhoras no reparo quando comparado ao curativo de hidróxido de cálcio.

  8. Association of calcium hydroxide and metronidazole in the treatment of dog's teeth with chronic periapical lesion / Associação do hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol no tratamento de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sônia Regina, Panzarini; Valdir, Souza; Roberto, Holland; Eloi, Dezan Júnior.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Um dos principais objetivos do tratamento endodôntico de dentes com polpa necrosada é a eliminação máxima possível dos microrganismos presentes no sistema de canal radicular, principalmente nos casos que apresentam lesões periapicais crônicas. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisa [...] r a resposta dos tecidos periapicais de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica ao tratamento endodôntico utilizando como curativo de demora o metronidazol, o hidróxido de cálcio e a associação das duas substâncias. METODOLOGIA: Foram empregados 44 canais radiculares de 2 cães adultos, portadores de lesão periapical crônica induzida experimentalmente. Após o preparo biomecânico os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo com o curativo de demora empregado: Grupo I - controle - sem curativo de demora; Grupo II - hidróxido de cálcio; Grupo III - associação de hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol e Grupo IV - metronidazol. Após 15 dias todos os canais foram obturados com cimento Fill Canal e passados 90 dias os animais foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o hidróxido de cálcio apresentou resultado superior aos demais tratamentos, com diferença estatísticamente significante (alfa = 0.01) e o metronidazol resultado semelhante à associação do hidróxido de cálcio com o metronidazol. Os piores resultados foram obtidos pelo grupo sem curativo de demora. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de metronidazol ou da sua associação com hidróxido de cálcio, não proporcionou melhoras no reparo quando comparado ao curativo de hidróxido de cálcio. Abstract in english One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periap [...] ical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I - no root canal dressing; group II - calcium hydroxide; group III - metronidazole; group IV - calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (alpha = 0.01). Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: a literature review - Part II. in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dohyun; Kim, Euiseong

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this study reviewed the characteristics of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and summarized the results of in vitro studies related to its antimicrobial effects. The second part of this review covers in vivo studies including human clinical studies and animal studies. The use of Ca(OH)2 as an intracanal medicament represented better histological results in animal studies. However, human clinical studies showed limited antimicrobial effects that microorganisms were reduced but not ...

  10. VALOR NUTRITIVO DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO E/OU URÉIA SUPLEMENTADA COM FENO DE ALFAFA (Medicago sativa L. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF COFFEE (Coffea arabica L. HULLS TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND/OR UREA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L. HAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Afonso Leitão

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutritivo da casca de café tratada ou não com hidróxido de sódio e/ou uréia. Foram utilizados vinte carneiros, em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e cinco tratamentos constituídos de 50% de feno de alfafa e 50% de casca de café tradada ou não, assim distribuídos: T1-feno de alfafa e casca de café pura; T2-feno e casca de café + 5% uréia; T3-feno e casca de café + 1,5% NaOH; T4-feno e casca de café + 1,5% NaOH + 5% uréia; T5-100% feno de alfafa. O tratamento da casca de café com uréia propiciou apenas aumento no teor de proteína bruta (PB, e com NaOH não provocou alterações na composição química. A casca tratada ou não provocou depressão no consumo. Houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto ao consumo de proteína digestível (CPD, consumo de energia digestível (CED e digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta (DAPB. Considerando-se a composição bromatológica e a digestiblidade da casca de café pura, ela é um subproduto que pode ser aproveitado pelos ruminantes. Devido ao baixo consumo da casca de café tratada ou não, deve-se fornecêla junto a outro alimento de melhor valor nutritivo, principalmente com um melhor teor de energia.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Consumo; digestibilidade; ruminantes; subprodutos agrícolas.

    The aim of this work was to assess the nutritive value of coffee hulls treated with sodium hydroxide and urea. Twenty sheeps were utilized in a randomized block design, with four blocks and five treatments combining 50% alfalfa hay and 50% treated or untreated coffee hulls, as follows: T1-alfalfa hay and pure coffee hulls; T2-hay and coffee hulls + 5% urea; T3-hay + coffee hulls + 1.5% NaOH; T4-hay + coffee hulls + 1.5% NaOH + 5% urea; T5-100% hay. The treatment coffee hulls with urea resulted only in increased crude protein content. The treatment with NaOH did not resulted in any changes in the chemical composition. Hulls, whether treated or not, caused intake reduction. There were differences among treatments as the digestible protein intake, digestible energy intake, and apparent digestibility of crude protein. Given the bromatological composition and digestibility of pure coffee hulls, we can conclude that it is a byproduct can be utilized by ruminants. For low consumption of coffee hulls, it should only be used together with another fodder with higher nutritional value, particularly with a higher energy content.

    KEY-WORDS: Agricultural byproducts; digestibility; intake; ruminants.

  11. The reference value for blood sodium in inhabitants of Brazil: harmonization of statistical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is the establishment of reliable sodium reference value in whole blood of Brazilians, living in two regions (Northeast and Southeast) using NAA, with emphasis on the statistical treatment. These results included: mean Na levels (1.77 g/l), the standard deviation (0.29 g/l), median (1.75 g/l), mode (2.05 g/l) and also the reference intervals - for general population (1.48 - 2.06 g/l), for male (1.47 - 2.05 g/l) and for female (1.53 - 2.07 g/l). Also, the influence of sex and age on Na in blood was evaluated by the analyse of variance between males and females and considering several range for age (18-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, ? 51 years). These results show small differences when a comparison is performed in function of age, sex and geographic occupation. (author)

  12. Sodium thiosulfate for the treatment of warfarin-induced calciphylaxis in a nondialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Carrell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calciphylaxis or uremic arteriolopathy is a complex process typically seen in patients with end-stage renal disease, but has also been reported in patients with normal renal function. However, therapies for calciphylaxis are based on reports of traditional patients (i.e., end-stage renal disease. A mainstay of therapy, sodium thiosulfate (STS, has been shown to be effective for the treatment of calciphylaxis. Without a standardized therapy reported for nondialysis patients there is a need for evidence-based therapy. Here, we report a case of a 63-year-old woman with an acute injury on chronic kidney disease (CrClBaseline = 48 mL/min, CrClAKI = 36 mL/min, not requiring dialysis, with warfarin-induced calciphylaxis. After 4 weeks of therapy with STS, sevelamer, alendronate, and enzymatic debridement the patient subjectively reported slight improvement of the necrotic ulcers but developed cellulitis on her nonaffected limb. Additionally, after 12 weeks of therapy she was readmitted for renal failure and subsequently required dialysis.

  13. Effects of ferric hydroxid sludge dosage on sludge treatment/-disposal. Final report; Einfluesse einer Eisenschlammzugabe auf die Klaerschlammbehandlung/-entsorgung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, E.; Benzinger, S.

    1997-12-01

    A pilot plant consisting of two gravity thickeners, two sludge digesters and sludge dewatering by laboratory-frame filter press was operated on two different sewage water treatment plants. Ferric hydroxide sludge (FS) was treated together as with surplus sludge from enhanced biological removal of phosphorus (SS{sub EBPR}) as together with a mixture of primary and surplus sludge including precipitation sludge (PS+SS). One sludge treatment system was dosed with FS, the other serving as control unit operated without FS. In combined thickening in view of filterable solids, COD and P the quality of supernatant improved in most cases as well as the dried solid matter of the thickened sludge increased. In thickening of SS{sub EBPR} 45-70% P was refixed more than in the control system. Scum caused by hydrogen sulphide could be avoided in particular cases. There were no negative influences on the process of combined digestion with SS{sub EBPR} observed as well as with PS+SS. The degradation of organic solid matter was increased by FS-dosage>30 g Fe/kg TR{sub RS}. If present SS{sub EBPR}, hydrogen sulphide was reduced significantly; the content of methane in digester gas increased. Re-dissolved poly-P was refixed nearly completely. Sludge dewatering process was not influenced by FS, independent of the kind of post sludge conditioning. Nor was the sludge disposal restricted by FS. P-feedback from combined thickening, digestion and dewatering of SS{sub EBPR} decreased in comparison to the control unit with 16,8% (in relation to P{sub tot} influent) to 11,2 resp. 1,4% depending on the dosage of FS. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine halbtechnische Versuchsanlage mit Schwerkrafteindickern, Faulbehaeltern und Entwaesserung mit einer Labor-Rahmenfilterpresse wurde auf zwei kommunalen Klaeranlagen betrieben. Eisenhydroxidschlamm (ES) wurde zum einen mit Ueberschussschlamm aus der erhoehten biologischen P-Elimination (UeSS{sub BIO-P}) und zum anderen mit einem Gemisch aus Primaer- und Ueberschussschlamm mit Faellschlammanteilen (PRS+UeSS) gemeinsam behandelt. Eine Strasse wurde mit verschiedenen ES-Dosierungen beschickt. Die zweite Strasse diente zu Referenzzwecken. Bei der gemeinsamen Eindickung konnte zumeist eine Verbesserung der Ueberstandswasserqualitaet bezueglich der Parameter AFS, CSB und P durch die ES-Zugabe festgestellt werden. Gleichfalls wurden hoehere Feststoffgehalte nach der Eindickung erzielt. Bei der UeSS{sub BIO-P} Eindickung wurde zusaetzlich 45-70% P fixiert. Schwefelwasserstoffbedingte Schwimmschlammbildung konnte z.T. voellig unterbunden werden. Die gemeinsame Ausfaulung, sowohl mit UeSS{sub BIO-P} als auch mit PRS+UeSS wurde nicht negativ beeinflusst. Bei ES-Dosierungen >30 g Fe/kg TR{sub KS} war ein verbesserter oTR-Abbau festzustellen. Schwefelwasserstoff wurde, soweit vorhanden, deutlich reduziert; der Methangehalt des Faulgases wurde erhoeht. Rueckgeloestes Polyphosphat konnte fast vollstaendig refixiert werden. Die ES-Zugabe wirkte sich nur in geringem Masse auf das Entwaesserungverhalten aus. Dies gilt fuer die anorganische Konditionierung genauso, wie fuer die Konditionierung mit organischen FHM. Die Entsorgungsmoeglichkeiten wurden durch die ES-Dosierung nicht eingeschraenkt. Aus den Teilergebnissen der gemeinsamen Eindickung, Faulung Entwaesserung mit UeSS{sub BIO-P} laesst sich eine Abnahme der P-Rueckbelastung infolge Schlammwasserrueckfuehrung von 16,8% (bezogen auf P{sub ges} im Zulauf) in der Referenzanlage auf 11,2 bzw, 1,4% in Abhaengigkeit von der Eisendosierung errechnen. (orig.)

  14. Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 2: Cook yield, tenderness, and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A N; VanOverbeke, D L; Goad, C L; Mireles DeWitt, C A

    2011-01-01

    The impact of 2 different brines on the palatability and tenderness of select beef strip loin steaks was evaluated. Brines were differentiated by the type of alkaline agent, 4.5% sodium-based phosphate (control brine; CON) or 1% ammonium hydroxide (ammonium hydroxide treatment; AHT), incorporated into the formula. Injected steaks were placed in high oxygen (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) MAP, stored 4 d at 4 °C in dark storage to simulate transportation, and then placed in retail display. Steaks were selected randomly on day 0, 7, and 14 retail display to measure pH, cook loss, shear force, and sensory characteristics. The pH for AHT steaks (pH 5.96) was slightly higher than CON steaks (pH 5.86; P 0.05). Sensory evaluation indicated that on day 0, retail display the initial juiciness, sustained juiciness, tenderness 1st impression, tenderness overall impression, and connective tissue in AHT steaks was not different from CON steaks (P > 0.05). A day effect (decrease) for those sensory parameters was observed only for sustained juiciness (P ingredient in brines injected into fresh meats. Successful replacement of sodium phosphate with ammonium hydroxide would allow processors to significantly reduce the sodium content of injected fresh meat. PMID:21535721

  15. Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 1: Fluid loss, oxidation, color, and microbial plate counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A N; VanOverbeke, D L; Goad, C L; Mireles Dewitt, C A

    2011-01-01

    Select beef loin pairs (n = 10) were injected (10% pump) with brine containing either 4.5% sodium-based phosphates, (CON), or 1% ammonium hydroxide treatment (AHT). Both brines also contained 3.6% NaCl and 1% Rosemary Herbalox. Steaks cut from loins were high oxygen (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) modified atmosphere packaged, stored 4 d at 4 °C in the dark to simulate transportation, and then placed in retail display for 14 d (4 °C). On day 0, 7, and 14 of retail display steak properties were measured. Purge from AHT steaks was higher than CON (P 0.05). Microbial counts increased more rapidly for AHT steaks than CON steaks (P fresh meat. However, results also indicated the AHT and CON steaks were no longer acceptable by day 14 in terms of color, were questionable in terms of microbial load, and likely were beyond their reasonable shelf life. Based on retail display properties, results indicated 1% AHT could successfully replace 4.5% SP in a meat injection brine. Practical Application: The research in this report compares steaks that have been injected with a commercial brine formulated with SP to steaks that have been injected with a brine, where the SP in the formulation are replaced with 1% AHT. Ammonium hydroxide is an USDA-FSIS approved ingredient in brines injected into fresh meats. Successful replacement of sodium phosphate with ammonium hydroxide would allow processors to significantly reduce the sodium content of injected fresh meat. PMID:21535717

  16. Insight of the removal of nickel and copper ions in fixed bed through acid activation and treatment with sodium of clay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. F. de, Almeida Neto; M. G. A., Vieira; M. G. C. da, Silva.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bentonitic clays show good adsorptive characteristics, being used as alternative material for removing metals. This study evaluates several treatments (calcination, acid activation and treatment with sodium) of bentonite type Bofe in the removal of nickel and copper. Analyses were performed for [...] physicochemical characterization of clay using the techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermal analysis (TG and DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) method, N2 adsorption (BET) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Among the changes induced by acid activation and sodium transformations, the treatment with sodium chloride in fixed bed showed the highest performance in the monocomponent removal of nickel and copper.

  17. Sodium Glucose Co transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: A New Sword for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    R.Rajesh,; Patel Naren; Sudha vidyasagar,; Unnikrishnan; Sureshwar Pandey,; Manju Varghese; Sagar Gang

    2010-01-01

    The low affinity sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT2) plays a major role in physiology of glucose reabsorption from proximal part of kidney. Almost all glucose excreted through glomerular filtration, isreabsorbed via SGLT2 until blood glucose level reaches to its hreshold value for glucose excretion i.e. ~180mg/dl. Increasing the glucose excretion by inhibiting the SGLT2 is the novel approach for the treatment of diabetes. Safe and normal life of patients having familial renal glucosuria due...

  18. Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation) from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major sources of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation , also there is a potential for exposure via contamination.Precautions are necessary to limit the radiation dose to family members, nursing staff and members of public and waste treatment workers to less than 1mSv. Patients received Sodium Iodide-131 may come into close contact with other persons. In order to derive appropriate recommendations, dose rates were measured from the anterior mid-trunk of 29 patients in the upright position with 15 minutes post-dose administration at 3 meters and just before they left the nuclear medicine department at 0.5, 1, and 3 meters. We have also measured urinary iodide excretion in 29 patients to estimate Sodium Iodide-131 urinary excretion pattern in iranian patients. Based on results, the maximum cumulative dose to nursing staff was on third day (leaving day) still less than recommended dose bye ICRP. The cumulative dose family members will be more but regarding the time and distance in close contact it will be also less than recommended dose by ICRP.Radiation dose rate was decreased significantly on third day. The urinary excretion patterns in all patients were similar. The urinary excretion rate-time curve in all patients showed multiple peaks due to retention and redistribution of Iodine-131 or enterohepatic cycle of radioiodinated thyroid hormones, which didn't allow calculation of urinary excretion rate constant. The results also showed that 67 hours post administration of Sodium Iodide-131 about 70% of radiopharmaceutical was excreted through urine, 28% physically decayed or eliminated through other biological routes

  19. Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 8700C (950 to 16000F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium

  20. Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Nitrite And/Or Glutathione Treatment On Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Helal; *Zahkok, S; **Ghada Z A Soliman; * Al-Kassas, M;

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Using food preservatives as sodium nitrite are increased in industrial food productions. Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects have been related to using of some food preservatives. Purpose: To study the effect of sodium nitrite (food additives) and treated with glutathione (nature antitoxic) on rats. Material And Methods: Certain parameters were measured as percentage of body weight change, body temperature, heart rates, Red & white blood cells count (RBCs & WBCs), he...

  1. Multi-stage absorption of rendering plant odours using sodium hypochlorite and other reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, D.; Davis, B. J.; Moss, R. L.

    Conditions for using sodium hypochlorite solution as the main component of a multi-stage absorption system for the treatment of malodorous process emissions were studied, together with the additional reagents needed for effective odour control. In laboratory experiments, mixtures containing vpm levels in air of trimethylamine, hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulphide, n-butanal and sometimes ammonia were passed through three bubble-plate columns containing some of the following: water, dilute sulphuric acid, sodium hypochlorite solutions (varying in pH and available chlorine content) sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen sulphite. Odour removal was monitored by Chromatographic and sensory methods. Conclusions from laboratory experiments were supported by field-tests at four rendering plants in the U.K., treating both ventilation and process gases. Alkaline hypochlorite with considerable excess available chlorine removes many sulphur-compounds and aldehydes but effective odour control requires an acid pre-wash to prevent the generation of odorous chlorinated compounds from ammonia and amines. Acidic hypochlorite solution followed by sodium hydrogen sulphite (to remove aldehyde) and sodium hydroxide was a most effective combination in both laboratory and field tests. Odour generated in chlorination reactions involving acidic hypochlorite solution was analysed by GC-MS and GC-MPD-odour-port and the odour key compounds identified.

  2. Genetically targeted radiotherapy using the sodium-iodide symporter for treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts at using gene therapy for cancer treatment have achieved limited success. Traditional in vivo gene therapy techniques are limited by relatively inefficient gene transfer, with only a small fraction of tumor cells transfected with the gene of interest. Gene therapy strategies yielding substantial bystander cytotoxicity are preferable and could yield significant clinical effect despite a lack of gene transfer to the entire tumor. We report the successful use of such a strategy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene, expressed primarily in the thyroid, is responsible for physiologic iodide accumulation. Expression of NIS in non-thyroid cell lines has been shown to confer iodide-concentrating ability. Using a recombinant adenovirus-NIS construct (Ad-NIS) delivered to HNSCC cell lines, we demonstrate radioiodide accumulation 15- to 30-fold higher than that of cell lines transduced with a control (Ad-Bgl II) adenovirus. Consistent with NIS-mediated uptake, this accumulation is inhibited by treatment with perchlorate. Using a clonogenic cell survival assay, we demonstrate a statistically significant, dose-dependent decrease in cell survival after delivery of Ad-NIS followed by administration of varying doses of I-131. Compared to a control, Ad-Bgl II-treated group, absolute survival was reduced by 80% at the highest dose of I-131 in Ad-NIS-treated cells. We also demonstrate the ability of NIS gene transfer followed by systemic administration of I-131 to dramatically attenuate tumor formation in nude mice. Three weeks after subcutaneous injection of tumor cells, tumors treated with Ad-NIS had decreased in size by 0.7±0.1 mm, whereas control tumors treated with Ad-Bgl II had increased in size by 7.4±1.7 mm. The relative accessibility of head and neck cancers make them attractive targets for gene therapy. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of genetically targeted radiotherapy using the NIS gene as a possible therapeutic intervention. Supported by NIH CA91709

  3. Development of Sodium Technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the experiments to investigate the characteristics of the free surface fluctuation in a vessel, the experimental correlation was modeled to describe the free surface fluctuation in the upper plenum of a liquid metal reactor within 95% reliability and 2.4% error. The correlation was used to verify the computational model. The new conceptual flowmeters were suggested to measure the sodium flow for the reliability enhancement. The electromagnetic flowmeter with permanent magnet showed a good linearity and repeatability. For reuse of the sodium contaminated component, CO2 bubbling method was developed. Sodium in 0.3mm crevice specimen was removed completely. The optimum condition for the used sodium treatment was deduced to estimate which reaction is more safe and adequate for operation condition by analyzing the reactivity alleviation condition and the reaction rate with the control of sodium hydroxide concentration A series of tests were carried out to investigate the enlargement rate of the nozzle hole itself and the sodium-water reaction temperature associated with needle-like jets of a high-pressure water/steam into the sodium side of a steam generator. The size of the nozzle hole became larger with an increased duration of the steam injection both for the 2.25Cr-1Mo and M9Cr-1Mo steels by a self-wastage phenomenon. For developing the SWR acoustic leak detection technology, the tool prepared by the LabVIEW was installed with the system, and confirmed the performance of the on-line acoustic leak detection tool using the SWR leak signal acquired in the KAERI facility

  4. Synthesize of hierarchical sisal-like cobalt hydroxide and its electrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xi; Gao, Hongyi; Yang, Mu; Luan, Yi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Dong, Wenjun [Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Jin, Zhaokui; Yu, Jie; Qi, Yue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Feng, Yanhui [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Ge, E-mail: gewang@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Sisal-shaped hierarchical cobalt hydroxide was obtained by a simple hydrothermal method, and cobalt oxide was also easily obtained by heating the cobalt hydroxide in air. The obtained cobalt oxide possessed a similar hierarchical structure to the cobalt hydroxide. The prepared cobalt hydroxide samples were made of building blocks which took the shape of tower of Hanoi. The prepared samples exhibited promising electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional sisal-shaped ?-cobalt hydroxide and oxide are synthesized. • The products are assembled from building blocks with the shape of tower of Hanoi. • The morphologies, structures and sizes of products could be easily controlled. • The products exhibited promising electrochemical applications. - Abstract: Sisal-shaped hierarchical cobalt hydroxide was obtained by a simple hydrothermal method, and cobalt oxide was also easily obtained by heating the cobalt hydroxide in air. The obtained cobalt oxide possessed a similar hierarchical structure to the cobalt hydroxide. The prepared cobalt hydroxide samples were made of building blocks which took the shape of tower of Hanoi. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), field scanning electron microscope (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and thermogravimetry analysis (TG), which implied that various morphologies and structures of the samples could be easily obtained by changing the molar ratio of cobalt nitrate to TETA, the amount of sodium hydroxide added and reaction temperature. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms were explained. Finally, the electrochemical properties were evaluated and the prepared samples exhibited promising electrochemical applications.

  5. Synthesize of hierarchical sisal-like cobalt hydroxide and its electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Sisal-shaped hierarchical cobalt hydroxide was obtained by a simple hydrothermal method, and cobalt oxide was also easily obtained by heating the cobalt hydroxide in air. The obtained cobalt oxide possessed a similar hierarchical structure to the cobalt hydroxide. The prepared cobalt hydroxide samples were made of building blocks which took the shape of tower of Hanoi. The prepared samples exhibited promising electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional sisal-shaped ?-cobalt hydroxide and oxide are synthesized. • The products are assembled from building blocks with the shape of tower of Hanoi. • The morphologies, structures and sizes of products could be easily controlled. • The products exhibited promising electrochemical applications. - Abstract: Sisal-shaped hierarchical cobalt hydroxide was obtained by a simple hydrothermal method, and cobalt oxide was also easily obtained by heating the cobalt hydroxide in air. The obtained cobalt oxide possessed a similar hierarchical structure to the cobalt hydroxide. The prepared cobalt hydroxide samples were made of building blocks which took the shape of tower of Hanoi. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), field scanning electron microscope (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and thermogravimetry analysis (TG), which implied that various morphologies and structures of the samples could be easily obtained by changing the molar ratio of cobalt nitrate to TETA, the amount of sodium hydroxide added and reaction temperature. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms were explained. Finally, the electrochemical properties were evaluated and the prepared samples exhibited promising electrochemical applications

  6. Observation of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Hua Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the effects of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis. METHODS:Forty patients with ocular herpes zoster were divided into two groups, 20 cases in the observation group, 20 cases in the control group. Observation group was treated with 200mg oral acyclovir for 5 times a day and sodium hyaluronate eye drops for 4 times a day. When stromal keratitis, disciform keratitis or corneal endotheliitis occurred, fluorometholone was used for 4 times a day. The control group was treated with ganciclovir ophthalmic gel for 4 times a day. The efficacy of two groups was observed, patients were followed up for 3-4wk. RESULTS:The observation group of local pain and photophobia in remission time and corneal damage healing time were better than control group, and there were significant differences(PCONCLUSION: Effects of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis are satisfactory.

  7. Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Nitrite And/Or Glutathione Treatment On Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Helal; *Zahkok, S; **Ghada Z A Soliman; * Al-Kassas, M;

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using food preservatives as sodium nitrite are increased in industrial food productions. Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects have been related to using of some food preservatives. Purpose: To study the effect of sodium nitrite (food additives and treated with glutathione (nature antitoxic on rats. Material And Methods: Certain parameters were measured as percentage of body weight change, body temperature, heart rates, Red & white blood cells count (RBCs & WBCs, hemoglobin (Hb level, hematocrite (Hct value, serum total lipids, serum cholesterol, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum glucose, serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase (ALT & AST activity and serum total cholinesterase. The organs, body weight were detected. Organs were prepared for biochemical analysis. Results: Body weight, respiration rate, hepatosomatic index, RBCs & WBCs count, Hb, Hct, serum total lipids, protein, albumin, A/G ratio, liver and muscle total lipids and cholesterol were significantly reduced while serum cholesterol, kidney total lipids and cholesterol, serum ALT & AST was significantly increased. Supplementation of sodium nitrite to rats had no effect on serum glucose level or cholinesterase activity Conclusion: Due to the hazardous effect of food additives as sodium nitrite, it is recommended that the use of sodium nitrite as food additives must be limited and gluathione has the ability to prevent its toxic effect

  8. Chronic ciguatoxin treatment induces synaptic scaling through voltage gated sodium channels in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Víctor; Vale, Carmen; Rubiolo, Juan A; Roel, Maria; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luís M

    2015-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channels activators that cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents with long-term neurological alterations. In central neurons, chronic perturbations in activity induce homeostatic synaptic mechanisms that adjust the strength of excitatory synapses and modulate glutamate receptor expression in order to stabilize the overall activity. Immediate early genes, such as Arc and Egr1, are induced in response to activity changes and underlie the trafficking of glutamate receptors during neuronal homeostasis. To better understand the long lasting neurological consequences of ciguatera, it is important to establish the role that chronic changes in activity produced by ciguatoxins represent to central neurons. Here, the effect of a 30 min exposure of 10-13 days in vitro (DIV) cortical neurons to the synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on Arc and Egr1 expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction approaches. Since the toxin increased the mRNA levels of both Arc and Egr1, the effect of CTX 3C in NaV channels, membrane potential, firing activity, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and glutamate receptors expression in cortical neurons after a 24 h exposure was evaluated using electrophysiological and western blot approaches. The data presented here show that CTX 3C induced an upregulation of Arc and Egr1 that was prevented by previous coincubation of the neurons with the NaV channel blocker tetrodotoxin. In addition, chronic CTX 3C caused a concentration-dependent shift in the activation voltage of NaV channels to more negative potentials and produced membrane potential depolarization. Moreover, 24 h treatment of cortical neurons with 5 nM CTX 3C decreased neuronal firing and induced synaptic scaling mechanisms, as evidenced by a decrease in the amplitude of mEPSCs and downregulation in the protein level of glutamate receptors that was also prevented by tetrodotoxin. These findings identify an unanticipated role for ciguatoxin in the regulation of homeostatic plasticity in central neurons involving NaV channels and raise the possibility that some of the neurological symptoms of ciguatera might be explained by these compensatory mechanisms. PMID:25945544

  9. Protein Response of K562 Cells to Treatment with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Sodium Butyrate.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halada, Petr; Grebe?ová, D.; Pešlová, G.; Havlí?ek, Vladimír; Hrkal, Z.

    Insbruck, 2005, P04. [Igler MS Tage /6./. Insbruck (CH), 16.02.2005-18.02.2005] R&D Projects: GA MZd NL7681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : sodium butyrate * apoptosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. Divalproex Sodium Versus Valproic Acid in Hospital Treatment of Psychotic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Thomas L; Massa, Jose L.; Gupta, Sanjay; Al-Samarrai, Sadiq; Devitt, Patrick; Masand, Prakash S.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Approximately 50% of pharmacy prescriptions in the United States are filled with generic drugs, which have improved substantially in quality owing to increased governmental regulations. The remaining medicoeconomic question regards whether or not brand-name medications are worth the price. This study evaluates these questions for the brand-name mood stabilizer divalproex sodium and its generic counterpart, valproic acid.

  11. Place of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2), such as canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents lower blood glucose mainly by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels by an average of 0.5%-0.8% when used as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Advantages of this drug class include modest weight loss of approximately 2 kg, low risk of hypoglycemia, and d...

  12. Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate Tablets for Routine Treatment of Household Drinking Water in Periurban Ghana: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Seema; Sahanoon, Osman K.; Blanton, Elizabeth; Schmitz, Ann; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded trial to determine the health impact of daily use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets for household drinking water treatment in periurban Ghana. We randomized 240 households (3,240 individuals) to receive either NaDCC or placebo tablets. All households received a 20-liter safe water storage vvessel. Over 12 weeks, 446 diarrhea episodes (2.2%) occurred in intervention and 404 (2.0%) in control households (P = 0.38). Resid...

  13. The efficacy of paracetamol in the treatment of ankle sprains in comparison with diclofenac sodium.

    OpenAIRE

    Cemil Kayali; Haluk Agus; Levent Surer; Ali Turgut

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy of paracetamol in comparison with diclofenac sodium. METHODS Between February - November 2006, a prospective, double blinded, parallel group study of 100 patients suffering from first or second degree lateral ankle sprain within 48-hours of admission in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. Patients with bilateral injury, ipsilateral knee injury, third degree sprain, previous sprain within 6 months, and ankle pain less than 45 accor...

  14. Topical diclofenac sodium for treatment of postoperative inflammation in cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy Manjoo; N.SUNEETHA; Thomas Reji; Battu R

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effect of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an alternative to topical steroids for postoperative control of inflammation in cataract surgery. Methods: The effect of diclofenac sodium 0.1% following cataract surgery was studied and compared to routine corticosteroid, dexamethasone phosphate 1% in a prospective, double-blind randomized study. Both groups were similar in baseline parameters. Postoperative inflammatory response, intraocular pres...

  15. Stability and preservation of a new formulation of epoprostenol sodium for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert O; Bandilla D

    2012-01-01

    Olivier Lambert, Dirk BandillaActelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, SwitzerlandBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and microbiological properties of a formulation of epoprostenol sodium with L-arginine and sucrose excipients (epoprostenol AS).Methods: The stability of the reconstituted solutions after storage at 5°C and 25°C, diluted solutions (3000–60,000 ng/mL) at controlled room temperature, and diluted solutions (3000–60,0...

  16. Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (p<0.05). Therefore, in this study, the synergistic disinfection effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was investigated to reduce the gamma irradiation dose. In an artificial inoculation experiment of B. cinerea isolated from naturally-infected postharvest paprika, fungal symptoms were observed in the stem and exocarp of paprika after conidial inoculation. From the sensitivity of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, B. cinerea conidia were fully inactivated by 4 kGy of gamma irradiation (D10 value 0.99 kGy), and were fully inactivated by 50 ppm NaDCC treatment. The fungal symptoms were not detected by the dose-dependent gamma irradiation (>4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (p<0.05). Moreover, fungal symptoms were more significantly reduced in combined treatment groups (gamma irradiation and NaDCC) than single treatment groups (gamma irradiation or NaDCC). These results suggest that combined treatment with irradiation and NaDCC treatment can be applied to preserve quality of postharvest paprika or other fruits. - Highlights: • Paprikas were treated with irradiation and NaDCC to control gray mold. • We confirmed that the combined treatment was synergistically affected. • The treatment can contribute to a reduction of postharvest losses caused by fungi. • This combined treatment can also reduce the doses of irradiation

  17. Multi-laminated metal hydroxide nanocontainers for oral-specific delivery for bioavailability improvement and treatment of inflammatory paw edema in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Kuthati, Yaswanth; Sie, Huei-Wun; Shih, Hung-Yuan; Lue, Sheng-I; Kankala, Shravankumar; Jeng, Chien-Chung; Deng, Jin-Pei; Weng, Ching-Feng; Liu, Chen-Lun; Lee, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-15

    Multiple layers of pH-sensitive enteric copolymers were coated over layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles for controllable drug release and improved solubility of hydrophobic drugs. The nano-sized LDH carriers significantly improved the accessibility of sulfasalazine molecules that have positively charged frameworks. In addition, the successful encapsulation of negatively charged enteric copolymers was achieved via electrostatic attractions. The multi-layered enteric polymer coating could potentially protect nanoparticle dissolution at gastric pH and accelerate the dissolution velocity, which would improve the drug bioavailability in the colon. Next, biological studies of this formulation indicated a highly protective effect from the scavenging of superoxide free radicals and diethyl maleate (DEM) induced lipid peroxidation, which are major cell signalling pathways for inflammation. The histological view of the liver and kidney sections revealed that the nanoformulation is safe and highly biocompatible. The animal studies conducted via paw inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) revealed that enteric-coated LDH-sulfasalazine nanoparticles provided a sustained release that maintained the sulfasalazine concentrations in a therapeutic window. Therefore, this nanoformulation exhibited preferential efficacy in reducing the CFA-induced inflammation especially at day 4. PMID:26225492

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Ola; Eksborg, Staffan; Wallenberg, Marita; Asker-Hagelberg, Charlotte; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Mohlkert, Dag; Lenneby-Helleday, Clara; Jacobsson, Hans; Linder, Stig; Misra, Sougat; Bjornstedt, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients' refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. Patients received first line of chemotherapy following selenite treatment to investigate altered sensitivity to these drugs and preliminary assessment of any clinical benefits. Materials and Method...

  19. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. , 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 221-8755 (Japan); Harada, Kenji [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Nishii, Junji, E-mail: nishii@es.hokudai.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Corona discharge formed an alkali depletion layer on a glass surface. • Introduction of hydrogen accelerated the depletion layer thickness. • Thickness was doubled compared with that in air. • Efficient formation of proton at an anode needle end was one cause. • Applied voltage across the glass plate in hydrogen was 2.7 times that in air. - Abstract: Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H{sub 2} atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H{sup +} with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

  20. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corona discharge formed an alkali depletion layer on a glass surface. • Introduction of hydrogen accelerated the depletion layer thickness. • Thickness was doubled compared with that in air. • Efficient formation of proton at an anode needle end was one cause. • Applied voltage across the glass plate in hydrogen was 2.7 times that in air. - Abstract: Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air

  1. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Zhen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Antiplatelet aggregation treatment has become a regular treatment of ischemic stroke. The affirmation of antiplatelet therapy is mainly derived from patients with clinical use, which can not provide the laboratory indexes for evaluation of a recognized accuracy. Studies have confirmed that the degree of platelet activation is associated with atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke, and recognized that both CD62p (?-platelet granule membrane glycoprotein and CD63 (lysosomal membrane glycoprotein were important indexes of platelet activation. This study aims to explore the differences of efficacy between combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium and monotherapy by aspirin in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke by investigating the expression of CD62p and CD63. Methods Flow cytometry was employed to detect CD62p and CD63 expression on circulating platelet in patients with ischemic stroke and normal control group. The positive rate of CD62p and CD63 was detected in patients with ischemic stroke who were treated with aspirin 0.15 g (single drug therapy and clopidogrel 75 mg + ozagrel sodium 80 mg (combination therapy before and after one and two weeks' treatment. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores were measured in patients with ischemic stroke at the same time in three periods respectively to evaluate the improvement of neural function. Results Platelet CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate in ischemic stroke group were higher than normal control group before treatment (P = 0.001, 0.032. CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score were measured at different times, and the differences were statistically significant (F = 56.693, P = 0.000; F = 21.544, P = 0.000; F = 216.271, P = 0.000, respectively. Compared with before treatment, CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score decreased significantly after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but the differences between aspirin group and combination group were not statistically significant (P > 0.05, for all. There was no interaction between the treatment groups and measuring time with CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate (F = 1.403, P = 0.250; F = 2.830, P = 0.063, while there was interaction between treatment groups and measuring time with NIHSS score (F = 4.518, P = 0.013. Conclusion Antiplatelet drug treatment of acute ischemic stroke is effective. The curative effect of combined treatment (clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium is not superior to aspirin alone. CD62p positive expression rate in acute stage of ischemic stroke can measure the effect of antiplatelet therapy, while the determination of CD63 needs further research.

  2. Treatment of lung cancer with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous sodium thiosulfate rescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-nine patients with primary lung cancer were treated with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous injection of an antidote, sodium thiosulfate. More than 50% reduction of tumor size (PR) was observed in 8 of 9 small cell carcinomas (SCLC) and in 16 of 40 non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). In NSCLC patients PR was obtained in 71% (12/17) after repeated infusions (? 200 mg cisplatin) and in 17% (4/23) after a single infusion (? 150 mg cisplatin). There was a significant linear relationship between cisplatin dose and tumor reduction in this group. No severe adverse effects were encountered. (orig.)

  3. Dialysate sodium, serum sodium and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Causland, Finnian R.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Waikar, Sushrut S.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Individuals with end-stage kidney disease appear to have stable pre-dialysis serum sodium concentrations over time, with lower values associating with increased mortality. Dialysate sodium concentrations have increased over many years in response to shorter treatments, but the relationship between serum sodium, dialysate sodium and outcomes in chronic hemodialysis patients has not yet been systematically examined.

  4. Rice mutants obtained through sodium azide (NaN3) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful utilization of sodium azide to generate genetic variability in plant breeding has been reported in barley, rice, and other crops. Rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce', Brazilian upland cultivar, were treated with 5x10-3 M of sodium azide, prepared in buffer solution of pH 3,0, for 8 hours at laboratory temperature. Ten short culm mutant lines were selected in the M2, M3 and M4 generations. In the M5 generation, the mutant lines were evaluated for flowering and maturing cycles, tiller number per plant, plant height, panicle number per m2 , panicle length, fertility of panicle, weight of 1.000 grains, productivity, percentage of intact grains after milling, width and thickness of peeled and polished grains and length/width grain ratio. The experiment was conducted in the Centro Experimental of Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the period of 1993/94, utilizing randomized block design with four replications. Each experimental plot consisted of five rows of four meters in length, 50 cm between rows, with 75 seeds sown per meter. The cultivar 'IAC 201' and the original Dourado Precoce were planted as checks. All observations were made on the three central rows of each experimental plot. The data was analysed by the SANEST statistical program and the mean values were discriminated by the Tukey's test at the level 5% of probability

  5. Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Daume

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Long term stability is crucial to maturing any photovoltaic technology. We have studied the influence of sodium, which plays a key role in optimizing the performance of Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGSe solar cells, on the long-term stability of flexible CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil. The standardized procedure of damp heat exposure (85% relative humidity at 85 °C was used to simulate aging of the unencapsulated cells in multiple time steps while they were characterized by current-voltage analysis, capacitance-voltage profiling, as well as electroluminescence imaging. By comparing the aging process to cells that were exposed to heat only, it could be confirmed that moisture plays the key role in the degradation process. We found that cells with higher sodium content suffer from a more pronounced degradation. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate the superposition of an enhancing and a deteriorating mechanism during the aging process. We propose an explanation based on the corrosion of the planar contacts of the solar cell.

  6. Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 deg. C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 deg. C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 deg. C had lower water absorption as 12.22%, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

  7. Radiation studies of aqueous alkali-metal hydroxide systems at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation initially involves the study of electron trapping in gamma-irradiated alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses. The study was conducted using electron spin resonance (esr) and optical spectroscopy techniques at about 77K. The hydroxides of lithium, sodium and potassium were looked at briefly as these have been covered in previous work. Rubidium and caesium hydroxides have been investigated in more detail, and results presented here clearly show that a second electron trapped centre exists for gamma-irradiated Rb aqueous glasses. Results for irradiated CsOH aqueous glasses are less conclusive, but certainly show divergence from the pattern established in lithium, sodium and potassium systems. Other systems studied are the aqueous hydroxide glasses of sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium (by pulse-radiolysis) irradiated aqueous glasses containing halide salts (by esr and optical spectroscopy), irradiated aqueous hydroxide glasses of caesium or rubidium mixed with sodium or potassium (esr spectroscopy), gamma-irradiated glasses of mixed ammonia-water systems at 77K (esr and optical spectroscopy) and gamma irradiated KOH pellets at 77K (esr spectroscopy). (UK)

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Rafiei; Behrooz Eftekhar; Abdollah Rafiei; Mahdi Pourmahdi Borujeni; Majid Zarrin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is one of the mouth normal flora which may cause failures in endodontics. The resistance of C. albicans to intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide could reduce success rate root canal treatments .Objectives: Due to recivening some reports regarding resistance of C. albicans to calcium hydroxide from different parts of the world, the aim of this study was to evaluate anti candidal effects of Iranian and Korean made injectable calcium hydroxide and to compa...

  9. Thorium recovery as mantle grade nitrate using a crude thorium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of the industrial treatment of monazite sand in S. Paulo, Brazil, several concentrates containing thorium and rare earth elements were produced. A typical thorium concentrate, named 'crude thorium hydroxide' TBR, has the following composition: thorium oxide 50-60%, rare earth oxides: 20-26% and minor impurities like iron, lead, silicon, sodium and others. A reasonable amount of the above mentioned concentrate is available today. Having in mind an alternative process in substitution of the until recently used thorium sulfate as the raw material, now completely consumed, work with this HTBR thorium concentrate is being worked out. A process of fractional hydroxides precipitation has been studied for separation of thorium from the rare earth. The fractional precipitation is based upon the warm nitric acid dissolution aiming the insolubilization of the great majority of the silica and the maximum solubilization of thorium and rare earth elements. The resultant filtered acid solution is then treated with a neutralizing agent in a controlled condition for the precipitation of the whole thorium content and keeping the rare earth nitrates in the solution. The precipitate has high concentration of thorium and 4% rare earths. Thorium nitrate solution containing 200-250 g L-1 ThO2 is obtained by dissolution of this fraction with nitric acid. Thorium nitrate obtained from the HTBR is adequate for the use in the gas mantle manufacture. (author)

  10. Adsorption of phosphonate antiscalant from reverse osmosis membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, Luciaan; Keesman, Karel J; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2012-09-01

    Adsorptive removal of antiscalants offers a promising way to improve current reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment processes and enables the reuse of the antiscalant in the RO desalination process. This work investigates the adsorption and desorption of the phosphonate antiscalant nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from RO membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), a material that consists predominantly of akaganéite. The kinetics of the adsorption of NTMP onto GFH was predicted fairly well with two models that consider either combined film-pore or combined film-surface diffusion as the main mechanism for mass transport. It is also demonstrated that NTMP is preferentially adsorbed over sulfate by GFH at pH 7.85. The presence of calcium causes a transformation in the equilibrium adsorption isotherm from a Langmuir type to a Freundlich type with much higher adsorption capacities. Furthermore, calcium also increases the rate of adsorption substantially. GFH is reusable after regeneration with sodium hydroxide solution, indicating that NTMP can be potentially recovered from the RO concentrate. This work shows that GFH is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of NTMP antiscalant from RO membrane concentrates. PMID:22873428

  11. Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium-Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site 1. SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THORR process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. The IWTU is being constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF). Detailed design of the IWTU has been completed and DOE has approved the CD-3 detailed design. The State of Idaho has approved the RCRA and construction air permits. Construction of the IWTU started in April 2007 with civil and foundation work. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

  12. Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected as the technology of choice for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). SBW is an acidic tank waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at INL. It consists primarily of waste from decontamination activities and laboratory wastes. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, alkali and aluminum nitrates, with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium and strontium. The THORR steam reforming process will convert the SBW tank waste feed into a dry, solid, granular product. The THORR technology was selected to treat SBW, in part, because it can provide flexible disposal options to accommodate the final disposition path selected for SBW. THORR can produce a final end-product that will meet anticipated requirements for disposal as Remote-Handled TRU (RH-TRU) waste; and, with modifications, THORR can also produce a final end-product that could be qualified for disposal as High Level Waste (HLW). SBW treatment will be take place within the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), a new facility that will be located at the INTEC. This paper provides an overview of the THORR process chemistry and process equipment being designed for the IWTU. (authors)

  13. Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THORR process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. Design of the IWTU is nearing completion. The IWTU will be constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF), with planned fabrication and construction to start in early 2007 upon receipt of needed permits and completion of design and engineering. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

  14. Comparison between Intravenous Sodium Valproate and Subcutaneous Sumatriptan for Treatment of Acute Migraine Attacks; Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Rahimdel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium valproate (SV has been approved for migraine prophylaxis and its intravenous form is used to treat acute migraine attacks. We compared the efficacy and safety of intravenous SV and subcutaneous Sumatriptan in managing acute migraine attacks. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial divided 90 patients into two groups: one group received 400 mg of intravenous SV and the second group received 6 mg of subcutaneous Sumatriptan. Headache severity before treatment and half an hour, one hour, and two hours after treatment was measured based on the VNRS in the groups. Associated symptoms, i.e., photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting, were assayed on admission and 2 hours after treatment. Side effects of the drugs were checked 2 hours after injection. Obtained data from the groups were compared. Results: In both groups, pain decrement at the mentioned time points was significant (P0.05, indicating the similar effect of both drugs on pain improvement. In the SV group, photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting were improved significantly, while in the Sumatriptan group, only photophobia and vomiting were decreased significantly, indicating the advantage of SV in improving the associated symptoms. Nausea, vomiting, facial paresthesia, and hypotension were more significantly frequent in the Sumatriptan group than in the SV group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Intravenous SV (400 mg was as effective as subcutaneous Sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks, but with more improvement in associated symptoms and with fewer side effects. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201108025943N4

  15. Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luciana Segura de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control. Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with chloramphenicol presented higher survival than the treatment with oxytetracycline and both showed significantly higher survival than control. Swimming activity was higher in the fish treated with antibiotics and salt compared to control fish. A combination of the studied antibiotics plus salt is more effective to treat both A. hydrophila infection and I. multifiliis infestation in silver catfish, but since the use of chloramphenicol is not allowed in Brazil, oxytetracycline plus salt seems to be the best treatment option.

  16. [Research progress of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hui-Xin; Shen, Jing-Kang

    2012-06-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporters are a family of glucose transporter found in the intestinal mucosa of the small intestine (SGLT-2) and the proximal tubule of the nephron (SGLT-1 and SGLT-2). They contribute to renal glucose reabsorption and most of renal glucose (about 90%) is reabsorbed by SGLT-2 located in the proximal renal tubule. Selectively inhibiting activity of SGLT-2 is an innovative therapeutic strategy for treatment of type 2 diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion from the body. Therefore SGLT-2 inhibitors are considered to be potential antidiabetic drugs with an unique mechanism. This review will highlight some recent advances and structure-activity relationships in the discovery and development of SGLT-2 inhibitors including O-glycoside, C-glycoside, C, O-spiro glycoside and non glycosides. PMID:22919717

  17. High pressure treatments combined with sodium lactate to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and spoilage microbiota in cured beef carpaccio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masana, Marcelo Oscar; Barrio, Yanina Ximena; Palladino, Pablo Martín; Sancho, Ana Maria; Vaudagna, Sergio Ramón

    2015-04-01

    High-pressure treatments (400 and 600 MPa) combined with the addition of sodium lactate (1 and 3%) were tested to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) and spoilage microbiota contamination in a manufactured cured beef carpaccio in fresh or frozen conditions. Counts of spoilage microorganisms and STEC O157 were also examined during the curing step to prepare the carpaccio. STEC O157 counts remained almost unchanged through the curing process performed at 1 ± 1 °C for 12 days, with a small decrease in samples with 3% of sodium lactate. High-pressure treatments at 600 MPa for 5 min achieved an immediate reduction of up to 2 logarithmic units of STEC O157 in frozen carpaccio, and up to 1.19 log in fresh condition. Counts of spoilage bacteria diminished below detection limits in fresh or frozen carpaccio added with sodium lactate by the application of 400 and 600 MPa. Maximum injury on STEC O157 cells was observed at 600 MPa in carpaccio in fresh condition without added sodium lactate. Lethality of high-pressure treatments on STEC O157 was enhanced in frozen carpaccio, while the addition of sodium lactate at 3% reduced the lethality on STEC O157 in frozen samples, and the degree of injury in fresh carpaccio. PMID:25475335

  18. The sodium process facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters (180,000 gallons) of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The SPF was designed to react elemental sodium to sodium carbonate through two-stages involving caustic process and carbonate process steps. The sodium is first reacted to sodium hydroxide in the caustic process step. The caustic process step involves the injection of sodium into a nickel reaction vessel filled with a 50 wt% solution of sodium hydroxide. Water is also injected, controlling the boiling point of the solution. In the carbonate process, the sodium hydroxide is reacted with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate. This dry powder, similar in consistency to baking soda, is a waste form acceptable for burial in the State of Idaho as a non-hazardous, radioactive waste. The caustic process was originally designed and built in the 1980s for reacting the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of primary sodium from the Fermi-1 Reactor to sodium hydroxide. The hydroxide was slated to be used to neutralize acid products from the PUREX process at the Hanford site. However, changes in the DOE mission precluded the need for hydroxide and the caustic process was never operated. With the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), the necessity for a facility to react sodium was identified. In order to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the sodium had to be converted into a waste form acceptable for disposal in a Sub-Title D low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Sodium hydroxide is a RCRA regulated waste. It was decided to convert the hydroxide to sodium carbonate, a substance that is not RCRA regulated. ANL-W undertook the task of upgrading the SPF, and designing and constructing the additional carbonate process. At the time of preparation of this paper, the facilities were undergoing testing and startup activities. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters (13,000 gallons) of the EBR-II secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters (87,000 gallons) of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-levels of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter (71 gallon) barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal. (author)

  19. Stability and preservation of a new formulation of epoprostenol sodium for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Olivier Lambert, Dirk BandillaActelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, SwitzerlandBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and microbiological properties of a formulation of epoprostenol sodium with L-arginine and sucrose excipients (epoprostenol AS.Methods: The stability of the reconstituted solutions after storage at 5°C and 25°C, diluted solutions (3000–60,000 ng/mL at controlled room temperature, and diluted solutions (3000–60,000 ng/mL stored at 5°C and then at room temperature were evaluated. Solutions were prepared using sterile water for injection or sterile saline (sodium chloride 0.9% for injection. Shelf-life was assessed by determining potency over time relative to initial potency. In this context, potency is synonymous with content. The antimicrobial activity of reconstituted (100,000 ng/mL for 0.5 mg vial, 300,000 ng/mL for 1.5 mg vial and diluted (3000 ng/mL epoprostenol AS was measured using an antimicrobial effectiveness test after inoculation with six species of bacteria, yeast, and mold.Results: Reconstituted epoprostenol AS was stable for up to one day’s storage at 25°C or 7 days’ storage at 5°C. Epoprostenol AS was stable for up to 72 hours when diluted, depending on temperature and concentration. The maximum shelf-life of the diluted solution if the reconstituted solution had been stored for up to one day at room temperature or up to 7 days at 5°C, was between 24 and 72 hours, depending on concentration. Following storage of diluted solutions at 5°C for up to 8 days, maximum shelf-life was between one and 2 days, depending on temperature and concentration. Potency was not dependent on diluents. Preservative testing confirmed no microbial growth for any of six organisms tested for at least 14 days at 5°C or 25°C for the reconstituted solution and for at least 16 days at 5°C followed by one day at 25°C for the diluted solutions.Conclusion: Epoprostenol AS has favorable thermal stability and does not support the growth of any micro-organism tested for up to 17 days. This extended stability under ambient conditions has the potential to improve convenience further for patients.Keywords: epoprostenol, pulmonary arterial hypertension, potency, stability, shelf-life, microbiological activity

  20. Delayed sodium pyruvate treatment improves working memory following experimental traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Nobuhiro; Ghavim, Sima S.; Hovda, David A.; Sutton, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior work indicates that cerebral glycolysis is impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and that pyruvate treatment acutely after TBI can improve cerebral metabolism and is neuroprotective. Since extracellular levels of glucose decrease during periods of increased cognitive demand and exogenous glucose improves cognitive performance, we hypothesized that pyruvate treatment prior to testing could ameliorate cognitive deficits in rats with TBI. Based on pre-surgical spatial alternation...

  1. Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    André Dotto Sottovia; Celso Koogi Sonoda; Wilson Roberto Poi; Sônia Regina Panzarini; José Roberto Pereira Lauris

    2006-01-01

    In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had thei...

  2. Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

  3. Effects of treatment with sodium fluoride and subsequent starvation on fluoride content of earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    The two experiments described here originated during a long-term investigation into the occurrence and movement of pollutant fluoride in a terrestrial ecosystem. Moles (Talpa europaea) whose diet consist largely of various species of earthworm Lumbricidae, are one of the species under investigation. Bone fluoride in moles was found to be higher, on average, than in foxes or small rodents. Moles probably acquire fluoride from their earthworm diet. Earthworms do not have any readily identifiable tissue in which to store large amounts of fluoride but, for their size, they have a considerable amount of soil in their gut, up oto 20% of their dry weight. Preliminary measurements of fluoride in whole earthworms suggested that observed levels could probably be accounted for by fluoride bound in the mineral part of contained soil and released during preparatory ashing. Two experiments to investigate this situation are described; here their aims were: to expose earthworms kept in soil to different concentrations of sodium fluoride; to measure resulting fluoride in earthworms when soil was removed from their gut by starvation for varying periods of time; and to compare amounts of fluoride in whole starved earthworms with those in starved earthworms from which remaining soil had also been physically removed by dissection and washing.

  4. Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

  5. Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, Andrea; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Kertesz, Tereza; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F. [University Hospital, Goettingen (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Pradier, Olivier [University Hospital, Brest (France). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

  6. Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

  7. Manual on early medical treatment of possible radiation injury with an appendix on sodium burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manual covers the following topics: 1) Background information and general principles; 2) New methods in the treatment of internal contamination by alpha emitters; 3) Emergency local decontamination; 4) Precautions to be taken in the event of hospitalization; 5) Assessment of fitness to resume work after contamination of irradiation accidents; 6) Organization, planning and training. The appendixes are concerned with: A) Samples to be taken in cases of external irradiation or internal contamination; B) Techniques for local decontamination of the skin; C) Basic treatment information for the physician; D) Standard first-aid kits; E) Decontamination room supplies

  8. Radiation-electron spin resonance studies on alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiated alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses were investigated using electron spin-resonance (esr) technique at a temperature range 92-163 K. The study was also conducted on these systems using chemical additives as electron scavengers including potassium ferricyanide, potassium nitrate, and sodium selenite and selenate. Sodium, potassium and rubidium hydroxide containing SeO42- and NO3- as scavengers have been investigated in detail over a range of temperatures (92-163 K). An attempt has been made to analyse the scavenging yields and the results have been treated in terms of scavenging efficiencies. Irradiated aqeuous hydroxide glasses of sodium mixed with potassium or rubidium were studied using NO3- and SeO42- as a scavenger. The esr study of rubidium and caesium hydroxide at 163 K gave rise to a characteristic spectrum similar to the one assigned to NO32-not present in the original systems at 92 K. Interesting results were obtained when the samples containing SeO32-were photobleached with white light. Possible mechanisms for the reactions of the scavenger ion in the alkaline glass are discussed in the light of previous studies. The work with caesium hydroxide has reinforced recent ideas that electrons are trapped within the matrix of the glass on irradiation. (author)

  9. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-48h found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE5048h 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE5096h found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE5015min of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

  10. Steam Reforming Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. The SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates, along with many other inorganic compounds, including substantial levels of radionuclides. As part of the implementation of the THORR process at INTEC, an engineering-scale test demonstration (ESTD) was conducted using a specially designed pilot plant located at Hazen Research, Inc. in Golden Colorado. The purpose of the ESTD was to confirm and optimize operation of the THORR dual fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) process for treating the SBW. The performance of the integrated FBSR thermal and off-gas systems was demonstrated while treating waste simulants representative of the actual SBW. Simulants were utilized that consisted of highly acidic nitrate solutions, with both dissolved and undissolved solids (UDS). The SBW simulant solutions were converted into a dry, granular solid, consisting of carbonate and aluminate product compounds. The successful performance of the integrated FBSR system was verified and demonstrated. (authors)

  11. Rhenium-188 as an alternative to Iodine-131 for treatment of breast tumors expressing the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), which transports iodine into the cell, is expressed in thyroid tissue and was recently found to be expressed in approximately 80% of human breast cancers but not in healthy breast tissue. These findings raised the possibility that therapeutics targeting uptake by NIS may be used for breast cancer treatment. To increase the efficacy of such therapy it would be ideal to identify a radioactive therapy with enhanced local emission. The feasibility of using the powerful beta-emitting radiometal 188Re in the form of 188Re-perrhenate was therefore compared with 131I for treatment of NIS-expressing mammary tumors. In the current studies, using a xenografted breast cancer model induced by the ErbB2 oncogene in nude mice, 188Re-perrhenate exhibited NIS-dependent uptake into the mammary tumor. Dosimetry calculations in the mammary tumor demonstrate that 188Re-perrhenate is able to deliver a dose 4.5 times higher than 131I suggesting it may provide enhanced therapeutic efficacy

  12. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant from the Parsons process in the CRU. The modular CRU is easily scalable as a standalone system for caustic recycling, or for NTTS integration or for use as an In-Tank Treatment System to process sodium bearing waste to meet LLW processing needs at the Hanford site. The standalone pilot operation of the CRU to recycle sodium from NTCR effluent places the technology demonstration at TRL level 6. Multiple operations were performed with the CRU to process up to 500 gallons of the NTCR effluent and demonstrate an efficient separation of up to 70 % of the sodium without solids precipitation while producing 10 M caustic. Batch mode operation was conducted to study the effects of chemistry variation, establish the processing rate, and optimize the process operating conditions to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent. The performance of the CRU was monitored by tracking the density parameter to control the concentration of caustic produced. Different levels of sodium were separated in tests from the effluent at a fixed operating current density and temperature. The voltage of the modules remained stable during the unit operation which demonstrated steady operation to separate sodium from the NTCR effluent. The sodium transfer current efficiency was measured in testing based on the concentration of caustic produced. Measurements showed a current efficiency of 99.8% for sodium transfer from the NTCR effluent to make sodium hydroxide. The sodium and hydroxide contents of the anolyte (NTCR feed) and catholyte (caustic product) were measured before and after each batch test. In two separate batch tests, samples were taken at different levels of sodium separation and analyzed to determine the stability of the NTCR effluent after sodium separation. The stability characteristics and changes in physical and chemical properties of the NTCR effluent chemistry after separation of sodium hydroxide as a function of storage time were evaluated. Parameters such as level of precipitated alumina, total alkalinity, analysis of Al, Na, K, Cs, Fe, OH, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved and

  13. Effects of pre-treatment with sodium butyrate on the frequencies of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sodium butyrate-mediated alterations in chromatin structure on the yields of X-ray-induced chromosomal abberrations were studied in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results show that sodium butyrate pre-treatment leads to a significant increase in the frequencies of dicentrics and rings, but not of fragments. The data from biochemical studies suggest that the numbers and rates of repair of X-ray-induced DNA-strand breaks are the same in butyrate-treated and untreated cells. The authors suggest that the observed effect is probably a consequence of butyrate-induced conformational changes in the chromatin of G0 lymphocytes. (Auth.)

  14. Role of pegaptanib sodium in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobha Sivaprasad

    2008-01-01

    Sobha SivaprasadLaser and Retinal Research Unit, King’s College Hospital, UKAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is responsible for more than half the blind registration in the United Kingdom. Retinal manifestations of AMD can be categorized as either atrophic or neovascular. The hallmark of AMD is the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Until recently, there have been few, limited treatment modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy [PDT]) for this condition an...

  15. Oral and topical sodium cromoglicate in the treatment of diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis in an infant

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Alan Martin; ?apková, Št?pánka

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis (DCM) is a rare, severe, variant of cutaneous mastocytosis. The authors report the case of a male infant who developed maculae and maculopapulae on his legs and abdomen when aged 3.5 months, which spread to all body surfaces within weeks. Diagnosis of DCM was made at the age of 6 months when he had developed extensive bullous eruptions, generalised pruritus, flushing and abdominal pain. Treatment was started with oral dimethindine maleate. At the age of 18 month...

  16. Treatment of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis by adoptive transfer of peritoneal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xia-wei; Shen, Guo-bo; Liu, Yan-tong; Luo, Min; Xu, Guang-chao; Shao, Bin; Deng, Sen-yi; He, Zhi-yao; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan-Zhu; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li; Deng, Hong-xin; Wei, Yu-quan

    2015-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of the natural regulatory B cells and macrophages should be a useful treatment for inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, it is usually difficult to isolate these cells from the tissues and expand them. Here, we investigated the feasibility of adoptively transferring peritoneal cells (PCs) as a treatment for DSS-induced colitis. We found that peritoneal cavity can provide an easily accessible site for harvesting enough number of PCs, namely, two-dose PCs for the treatment from a mouse in one operation. Adoptive therapy of these cells from healthy mice or those with disease is effectively in reducing the disease activity score. The natural B cells and macrophages of the infused PCs can selectively migrate to lesion sites and regulate the expression of Stat3, NF??B, Smad3 and Smad7. Additionally, PCs exert dual activity of IL-10 and TGF-? secreted spontaneously by both peritoneal B cells and macrophages, which in turn enhance the induction of regulatory B cells and Macrophages in microenvironment of inflammation. Moreover, PCs can re-establish immunological tolerance in the OVA-immunized mice. Thus, our findings provide a new strategy for colitis therapy and could be of importance in additional exploration of other inflammation and autoimmune diseases therapy. PMID:26565726

  17. Effects of magnesium-aluminum hydroxide antacid on absorption of rufloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzaroni, M.; Imbimbo, B P; Bargiggia, S; Sangaletti, O; Dal Bo, L; Broccali, G; Porro, G B

    1993-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of an antacid suspension containing magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide (30 ml of Maalox) on the oral bioavailability of rufloxacin (400 mg). Rufloxacin was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers according to a randomized, balanced, crossover design. Three treatments were administered to each subject, with a 10-day washout period between treatments; the treatments included rufloxacin alone, rufloxacin taken 5 min after antac...

  18. Effect of reduced oxygen atmosphere and sodium acetate treatment on the microbial quality changes of seer fish (Scomberomorus commerson) steaks stored in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C O; Ravishankar, C N; Srinivasa Gopal, T K; Lalitha, K V; Asok Kumar, K

    2010-06-01

    The effect of reduced oxygen atmosphere and sodium acetate treatment on the microbial quality of seer fish (Scomberomorus commerson) steaks was determined during chilled storage (1-2 degrees C). The O2 absorber reduced the oxygen content in the pack to less than 0.01% corresponding to 99.96% reduction within 24 h. The use of O2 absorber with sodium acetate dip treatment (2% w/v) extended the sensory shelf life up to 25 days compared to only 12 days for control air packs and 20 days for untreated samples with O2 absorber. A prominent lag phase was observed for many bacterium studied, particularly for the sodium acetate treated samples with O2 absorber. On the day of sensory rejection, both the total mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts reached 7.7-8.1 and 7.1-7.9 log cfu/g, respectively. The sodium acetate treatment and reduced O2 atmosphere affected the type of major spoilers. In air packed samples, H2S-producers predominated followed by Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., where as in the untreated samples with O2 absorber, H2S-producers predominated the microbial flora followed by Lactobacillus spp. For treated samples with O2 absorber, B. thermosphacta formed the major micro-flora followed by Lactobacillus spp. The use of O2 absorber inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas spp., and total Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:20417403

  19. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  20. Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV) can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS), has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease) or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease) and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma

  1. Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutzen Brian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS, has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. Methods We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Results MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. Conclusions These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma.

  2. Oxidative leaching of chromium from layered double hydroxides: Mechanistic studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A V Radha; P Vishnu Kamath

    2004-08-01

    The layered double hydroxide (LDH) of Zn with Cr on treatment with a hypochlorite solution releases chromate ions as a result of oxidative leaching by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism. The residue is found to be -Zn(OH)2. The LDH of Mg with Cr on the other hand is resistant to oxidative leaching. In contrast, a X-ray amorphous gel of the coprecipitated hydroxides of Mg and Cr yields chromate ions. These results suggest that the oxidation potential of Cr(III) in LDHs is determined by the nature of the divalent ion and the crystallinity of the phase while being unaffected by the nature of the intercalated anions.

  3. Regulation of apoptosis in human melanoma and neuroblastoma cells by statins, sodium arsenite and TRAIL: a role of combined treatment versus monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N; Hei, Tom K

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of melanoma cells by sodium arsenite or statins (simvastatin and lovastatin) dramatically modified activities of the main cell signaling pathways resulting in the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and in a downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels. Through heme degradation and the production of carbon monoxide and biliverdin, HO-1 plays a protective role in different scenario of oxidative stress followed by mitochondrial apoptosis. Both sodium arsenite and statins could be efficient inducers of apoptosis in some melanoma cell lines, but often exhibited only modest proapoptotic activity in others, due to numerous protective mechanisms. We demonstrated in the present study that treatment by sodium arsenite or statins with an additional inhibition of HO-1 expression (or activation) caused a substantial upregulation of apoptosis in melanoma cells. Sodium arsenite- or statin-induced apoptosis was independent of BRAF status (wild type versus V600E) in melanoma lines. Monotreatment required high doses of statins (20-40 ?M) for effective induction of apoptosis. As an alternative approach, pretreatment of melanoma cells with statin at decreased doses (5-20 ?M) dramatically enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis, due to suppression of the NF-?B and STAT3-transcriptional targets (including COX-2) and downregulation of cFLIP-L (a caspase-8 inhibitor) protein levels. Furthermore, combined treatment with sodium arsenite and TRAIL or simvastatin and TRAIL efficiently induced apoptotic commitment in human neuroblastoma cells. In summary, our findings on enhancing effects of combined treatment of cancer cells using statin and TRAIL provide the rationale for further preclinical evaluation. PMID:21910007

  4. REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

    2010-05-11

    A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

  5. [Influence of sodium alginate on the intestinal transit in low birth weight newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouraqui, J P; Morer, I; Renard, P; Bielsky, M C; Richard-Berthe, C; Rambaud, P

    1993-01-01

    Sodium alginate (Gaviscon) is used in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants. No digestive disadvantages have as yet been reported with the use of the Gaviscon formula available in France, which contains neither aluminium hydroxide nor thickener. Twenty-two healthy neonates were prospectively studied before and after Gaviscon treatment in order to characterize their whole gut transit time with the use of a carmine index. The head of the marker appeared within the same time in both experiments but the appearance of the tail was earlier in the treated infants (P Gaviscon can be regarded as having no deleterious effect on transit time in neonates. PMID:8247649

  6. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ash with sodium salt additives for phosphorus fertilizer production - Analysis of underlying chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemann, Jan; Peplinski, Burkhard; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Stocks of high grade phosphate rock are becoming scarce, and there is growing concern about potentially harmful impurities in conventional phosphorus fertilizers. Sewage sludge ash is a promising secondary phosphorus source. However, to remove heavy metals and convert the phosphorus contained in sewage sludge ash into mineral phases available to plants, an after-treatment is required. Laboratory-scale calcination experiments of sewage sludge ash blended with sodium salts using dried sewage sludge as a reducing agent were carried out at 1000°C. Thus, the Ca3(PO4)2 or whitlockite component of raw sewage sludge ash, which is not readily plant available, was converted to CaNaPO4 (buchwaldite). Consequently, nearly complete phosphorus solubility in ammonium citrate (a well-established indicator for plant availability) was achieved. Moreover, it was shown that Na2CO3 may be replaced by moderately priced Na2SO4. However, molar ratios of Na/P>2 were required to achieve >80% phosphorus solubility. Such over-stoichiometric Na consumption is largely caused by side reactions with the SiO2 component of the sewage sludge ash - an explanation for which clear evidence is provided for the first time. PMID:26219587

  7. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets for routine treatment of household drinking water in periurban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Seema; Sahanoon, Osman K; Blanton, Elizabeth; Schmitz, Ann; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded trial to determine the health impact of daily use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets for household drinking water treatment in periurban Ghana. We randomized 240 households (3,240 individuals) to receive either NaDCC or placebo tablets. All households received a 20-liter safe water storage vvessel. Over 12 weeks, 446 diarrhea episodes (2.2%) occurred in intervention and 404 (2.0%) in control households (P = 0.38). Residual free chlorine levels indicated appropriate tablet use. Escherichia coli was found in stored water at baseline in 96% of intervention and 88% of control households and at final evaluation in 8% of intervention and 54% of control households (P = 0.002). NaDCC use did not prevent diarrhea but improved water quality. Diarrhea rates were low and water quality improved in both groups. Safe water storage vessels may have been protective. A follow-up health impact study of NaDCC tablets is warranted. PMID:20064989

  8. Minimizing Concentration of Sodium Hypochlorite in Root Canal Irrigation by Combination of Ultrasonic Irrigation with Photodynamic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhuang; Xiao, Suli; Ma, Dianfu; Huang, Xiaojing; Cai, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    Concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is positively correlated with its effectiveness in root canal disinfection but negatively correlated with its biocompatibility. The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the bactericidal effects among ultrasonic irrigation with different concentration of NaOCl alone or together with photodynamic treatment (PDT) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in infected root canals. One hundred and twenty bovine root canals contaminated with E. faecalis were randomly distributed into 12 groups treated with different disinfection methods: PDT, ultrasonic irrigation with NaOCl at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 5.25%), and ultrasonic irrigation with NaOCl at different concentrations plus PDT. Data of microorganism load were collected before and after disinfection and analyzed by one-way ANOVA and LSD tests. Significantly enhanced antibacterial effects were noticed in groups treated by PDT plus 2.0% or 2.5% NaOCl irrigation (P  0.05). Our study confirmed the feasibility to reduce the concentration of NaOCl to a safer level while maintaining its antibacterial efficiency through synergistic effect of PDT with NaOCl ultrasonic irrigation. PMID:25892274

  9. Topical antiseptics for the treatment of sore throat block voltage-gated neuronal sodium channels in a local anaesthetic-like manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Vanessa; Leuwer, Martin; Ahrens, Jörg; Foadi, Nilufar; Krampfl, Klaus; Haeseler, Gertrud

    2009-08-01

    Lozenges for the treatment of sore throat provide relief of discomfort in cases of oral inflammation. This effect has not been fully explained so far. Here, we have examined the proposition that key components of pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of sore throat which are routinely regarded antiseptics might have sodium channel-blocking, i.e. local anaesthetic-like effects. We investigated the effects of hexylresorcinol, amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol on voltage-operated neuronal (Na(V)1.2) sodium channels heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells in vitro. Hexylresorcinol, amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol reversibly blocked depolarisation-induced whole-cell sodium inward currents. The half-maximum blocking concentrations (EC(50)) at -150 mV were 23.1, 53.6 and 661.6 microM, respectively. Block induced by hexylresorcinol and amylmetacresol was increased at depolarised potentials and use-dependent during trains of depolarisations applied at high frequency (100 Hz) indicating that both drugs bind more tightly to inactivated conformations of the channel. Estimates for the inactivated state affinity were 1.88 and 35 microM for hexylresorcinol and amylmetacresol, respectively. Hexylresorcinol and amylmetacresol are 10-20 fold more potent than the local anaesthetic lidocaine in blocking sodium inward current. Both drugs show an increased effect at depolarised membrane potentials or in conditions of high-frequency discharges. PMID:19367399

  10. A hybrid liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) process in conjunction with membrane distillation (MD) for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel hybrid system combining liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) and membrane distillation (MD) is integrated for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste. The integrated system provides a 'full separation' approach that consists of three main processing stages. The first stage is focused on the separation and recovery of nitric acid from the bulk of the waste stream using vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). In the second stage, polyvalent cations (mainly TRU elements and their fission products except cesium along with aluminum and other toxic metals) are separated from the bulk of monovalent anions and cations (dominantly sodium nitrate) by a front-end LPP. In the third stage, MD is used first to concentrate sodium nitrate to near saturation followed by a rear-end LPP to precipitate and separate sodium nitrate along with the remaining minor species from the bulk of the aqueous phase. The LPP-MD hybrid system uses a small amount of an additive and energy to carry out the treatment, addresses multiple critical species, extracts an economic value from some of waste species, generates minimal waste with suitable disposal paths, and offers rapid deployment. As such, the LPP-MD could be a valuable tool for multiple needs across the DOE complex where no effective or economic alternatives are available

  11. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Brodin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients’ refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. Patients received first line of chemotherapy following selenite treatment to investigate altered sensitivity to these drugs and preliminary assessment of any clinical benefits. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with different therapy resistant tumors received iv sodium selenite daily for consecutive five days either for two weeks or four weeks. Each cohort consisted of at least three patients who received the same daily dose of selenite throughout the whole treatment. If 0/3 patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs, the study proceeded to the next dose-level. If 2/3 had DLT, the dose was considered too high and if 1/3 had DLT, three more patients were included. Dose-escalation continued until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD was reached. MTD was defined as the highest dose-level on which 0/3 or 1/6 patients experienced DLT. The primary endpoint was safety, dose-limiting toxic effects and the MTD of sodium selenite. The secondary endpoint was primary response evaluation. Results and Conclusion: MTD was defined as 10.2 mg/m2, with a calculated median plasma half-life of 18.25 h. The maximum plasma concentration of selenium from a single dose of selenite increased in a nonlinear pattern. The most common adverse events were fatigue, nausea, and cramps in fingers and legs. DLTs were acute, of short duration and reversible. Biomarkers for organ functions indicated no major systemic toxicity. In conclusion, sodium selenite is safe and tolerable when administered up to 10.2 mg/m2 under current protocol. Further development of the study is underway to determine if prolonged infusions might be a more effective treatment strategy.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Ola; Eksborg, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients' refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. Patients received first line of chemotherapy following selenite treatment to investigate altered sensitivity to these drugs and preliminary assessment of any clinical benefits. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with different therapy resistant tumors received iv sodium selenite daily for consecutive five days either for two weeks or four weeks. Each cohort consisted of at least three patients who received the same daily dose of selenite throughout the whole treatment. If 0/3 patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), the study proceeded to the next dose-level. If 2/3 had DLT, the dose was considered too high and if 1/3 had DLT, three more patients were included. Dose-escalation continued until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was reached. MTD was defined as the highest dose-level on which 0/3 or 1/6 patients experienced DLT. The primary endpoint was safety, dose-limiting toxic effects and the MTD of sodium selenite. The secondary endpoint was primary response evaluation. Results and Conclusion: MTD was defined as 10.2 mg/m(2), with a calculated median plasma half-life of 18.25 h. The maximum plasma concentration of selenium from a single dose of selenite increased in a nonlinear pattern. The most common adverse events were fatigue, nausea, and cramps in fingers and legs. DLTs were acute, of short duration and reversible. Biomarkers for organ functions indicated no major systemic toxicity. In conclusion, sodium selenite is safe and tolerable when administered up to 10.2 mg/m(2) under current protocol. Further development of the study is underway to determine if prolonged infusions might be a more effective treatment strategy.

  13. [Historical aspects and new formulations of levothyroxine sodium for hypothyroidism treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Elena Chertok; Ishay, Avraham; Luboshitsky, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    At the end of the 19th century symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were described in the medical literature. At that time myxedema was a main clinical presentation of the hypothyroid patient. Today, the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is determined mainly by laboratory evaluation with most patients exhibiting only a few clinical signs of thyroid dysfunction. The treatment of hypothyroidism has progressed from partially purified extracts of bovine thyroid gland to an oral administration of synthetic hormone. Since 1981 the only thyroid hormone replacement drug approved by the Israeli Ministry of Health was the Eltroxin brand, made by GlaxoSmithKline. Levothyroxine has a narrow therapeutic range, thus a potential variance exists in the therapeutic efficacy among different levothyroxine preparations. In 2007 the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) announced that the difference in potency of various levothyroxine brands should not exceed ten percent. In 2007 the GSK Company moved the manufacturing of Eltroxin from Canada to Germany. This resulted in a change of the inert ingredients of the drug. It is of interest to know that since the arrival of the new thyroxine formulation in the Israeli pharmaceutical market there has been a dramatic increase in reports of adverse reactions. The media coverage of adverse effects associated with Eltroxin became widespread in television, newspapers and internet sites. This led to a burden on the healthcare system, manifesting itself by an increase in thyroid blood tests, physician follow-up visits, as well as the importing and distribution of a new brand of thyroxine. PMID:24364099

  14. Unique layered double hydroxide morphologies using reverse microemulsion synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, G.(Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, U.S.A.); O'Hare, D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first controlled synthesis of a layered double hydroxide (LDH) in a water-in-oil reverse microemulsion system. This synthesis of Mg2Al-LDHs was carried out in the reverse microemulsion of NaDDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate)-water-isooctane with water/surfactant molar ratio = 24. This enables us to obtain nanometer sized LDH platelets typically with a 40-50 nm diameter and 10 nm thickness. Further modification of the reverse microemulsion using triblock copolymers during crystallizati...

  15. Telmisartan treatment targets inflammatory cytokines to suppress the pathogenesis of acute colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Sreedhar, Remya; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Afrin, Mst Rejina; Miyashita, Shizuka; Nomoto, Mayumi; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-08-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is essential for the regulation of cardiovascular and renal functions to maintain the fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Recent studies have demonstrated a locally expressed RAS in various tissues of mammals, which is having pathophysiological roles in those organ system. Interestingly, local RAS has important role during the inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Further to delineate its role and also to identify the potential effects of telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, we have used a mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium. We have used 0.01 and 5mg/kg body weight doses of telmisartan and administered as enema to facilitate the on-site action and to reduce the systemic adverse effects. Telmisartan high dose treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index score when compared with the colitis control mice. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers expression were also significantly reduced when compared with the colitis control mice. Subsequent experiments were carried out to investigate some of the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory effects and identified that the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1?, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 as well as cellular DNA damage were significantly suppressed when compared with the colitis control mice. Similarly the apoptosis marker proteins such as cleaved caspase 3 and 7 levels were down-regulated and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 level was significantly upregulated by telmisartan treatment. These results indicate that blockade of RAS by telmisartan can be an effective therapeutic option against acute colitis. PMID:25873126

  16. Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidotti M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mario Guidotti,1 Caterina Barrilà,1 Serena Leva,1 Claudio De Piazza,1 Stefano Omboni21Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, 2Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, ItalyBackground: Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study.Methods: Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine to 10 (severe migraine and use of rescue medication.Results: The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.8–5.9] than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1–6.4], P < 0.05 versus frovatriptan or no therapy (6.6 [6.2–7.0], P < 0.01 versus frovatriptan. The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5–2.3] versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0–4.2], P < 0.001 and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4–5.8], P < 0.001 and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P < 0.05 lower on frovatriptan (12.5% than on naproxen sodium (31.3% or no therapy (56.3%.Conclusion: This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine.Keywords: migraine, frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, weekend

  17. Kinetics of oxygen reduction in sodium (hydroxide + borohydride ) electrolyte.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chatenet, M.; Micoud, F.; Roche, I.; Chainet, E.; Vondrák, Ji?í

    Brno : University of Technology Brno, 2006, s. 23-27. ISBN 80-214-3181-4. [International Conference Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /7./. Brno (CZ), 04.06.2006-08.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SN/3/171/05; GA AV ?R(CZ) KJB208130604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : electrolyte Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  18. The Performance of Geopolymers Activated by Sodium Hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeontaek; Kang, Seunggu

    2015-08-01

    Geopolymers, a group of promising environmentally friendly materials that can work as cement substitutes, should be fabricated from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO mixtures containing large amounts of amorphous phases to ensure optimal chemical and physical properties. In this study, it was shown that geopolymers with enhanced mechanical strengths, as high as 115 MPa, could be obtained from perfectly amorphous slag from spent catalyst (SSC) discharged during automobile catalyst recycling. Geopolymer processing involved alkali-activation using a 16 M NaOH solution of pH13. The varying SSC grain size was the main experimental factor of interest, in combination with curing temperature and aging time. Variations in the mechanical strengths of the resulting geopolymers are explained by the occurrence of 10-50 nm-sized crystals and the presence of voids and pores dozens to hundreds of micrometers in size. PMID:26369225

  19. Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment of Switchgrass for Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulose-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to supplement corn-based ethanol production. However, the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic material is a major obstacle to the efficient conversion. To improve the enzymatic digestibility of switchgrass for the fermentable sugar...

  20. Atmospheric Dispersion of Sodium Aerosol due to a Sodium Leak in a Fast Breeder Reactor Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model does not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions.

  1. Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

  2. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of CO2 from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide [Ba(OH)2] or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. Such a process would be applied to scrub 14CO2 from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)2 slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)2. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated

  3. Phosphate Adsorption onto Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH) for Wastewater Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Adsorption onto Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH), a commercially available, synthetic adsorbent is studied as treatment process for phosphorus removal from wastewater. The objective is to evaluate the suitability of this process alternative for advanced wastewater treatment and reuse. Within this scope, the present work focusses on quantification of competitive adsorption of phosphate and development of a regeneration process that allows multiple application of GFH. Furthermore, breakthrough p...

  4. Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, E; Ruiz de la Rosa, M; Louzara, G; Ruiz, J M; Marín-Guirao, L; Quesada, J; González, J C; Roque, F; González, N; Mendoza, H

    2014-03-15

    Reverse osmosis membranes at many desalination plants are disinfected by periodic shock treatments with sodium metabisulphite, which have potentially toxic effects to the environment for marine life, although no empirical and experimental evidence for this is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterise for the first time, the physico-chemical modification of the marine environment and its biological effects, caused by hypersaline plumes during these membrane cleaning treatments. The case study was the Maspalomas II desalination plant, located in the south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Toxicity bioassays were performed on marine species characteristic for the infralittoral soft bottoms influenced by the brine plume (Synodus synodus and Cymodocea nodosa), and revealed a high sensitivity to short-term exposure to low sodium metabisulphite concentrations. The corrective measure of incorporating a diffusion system with Venturi Eductors reduced nearly all the areas of influence, virtually eliminating the impact of the disinfectant. PMID:24495930

  5. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT

  6. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT.

  7. Indirect pulp capping using different calcium hydroxide products: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanovi?-Radman Irena; ?eri Aleksandra; Arbutina Adriana; Jankovi? Ognjenka; Josipovi? Renata; Kneževi? Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Indirect pulp capping is a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of deep carious lesion in order to stimulate odontoblasts to produce tertiary dentin using different biomaterials based mainly on calcium hydroxide. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hard-setting (Dycal) and a suspension of calcium hydroxide (Calcipulp) in the treatment of deep carious lesion (caries profunda). Materials and Methods. Clinical study included 29...

  8. Online and offline sodium monitoring in feed/steam water of FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) utilizes Once Through Steam Generator (OTSG) for producing super heated steam at 480 deg C, 125 kg/cm2. In order to minimize corrosion related failures of tubes and ensure the SG tube integrity efficient water chemistry control is maintained in the feed/steam water system with All Volatile Treatment (AVT) and Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU). The high pH, low oxygen treatment is achieved by adding Ammonium hydroxide (500ppb) and Hydrazine (20-30ppb). Monitoring of sodium impurity in feed water and steam is highly important to assess the condenser tube leak and prevent possible caustic corrosion. The cationic impurities can be effectively controlled in the system by monitoring sodium at the outlet of CPU. A gradual and slow increase in sodium concentration indicates the exhaust/pre exhaust conditions of CPU whereas a rapidly increasing trend is an indication of cooling water tube leak in to the condenser. However, routine ultra trace level monitoring of sodium in presence of excess of ammonium ion and hydrazine, is a challenging task. This paper details the offline monitoring of sodium at ultra trace level using Reagent-Free Ion chromatograph (RFIC) wherein the high purity eluent is generated in situ. An on line sodium monitoring system using ion selective electrode (ISE) is also discussed here. The sodium concentration at Condensate Extraction Pump discharge (CEP) was always found to be less than 1.2 ppb ruling out the ingress of cooling water into the condensate due condenser tube leak. Comparisons of sodium analysis with both the techniques are also presented in this paper. (author)

  9. Treatment of mid-late stage NSCLC using sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6/GP regimen in clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoli Wang

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6/GP regimen had fair effectiveness and synergistically improved the clinical outcomes. It lowered the toxic/adverse effects and its application is worth further investigation and promotion.

  10. Homogeneous nucleation of magnesium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D H; Smith, M D; Driy, J A

    1967-08-01

    The rate of homogeneous nucleation of magnesium hydroxide has been determined as a function of solution concentration, using a quasi-homogeneous precipitation technique and electronic particle counting. The nucleation rate becomes measurable at super-saturations of about 4, and is dependent on the 33rd power of the product aMgaOH(2). The experimental results are consistent with nucleation theory. The nucleus-solution interfacial energy is calculated to be 115 erg/cm(2). PMID:18960187

  11. Sodium-glucose cotransport inhibitors: mechanisms, metabolic effects and implications for the treatment of diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlotides, George; Mertens, Peter R

    2015-08-01

    Remarkable progress has been achieved in the field of diabetes with the development of incretin analogues, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors and novel insulin analogues; nevertheless, there is an unmet need for additional therapeutic options. Individualization of HbA1c target levels is a recent progress within the field. Approximately 50% of diabetics do not reach a previously aspired treatment goal of glycosylated HbA1 levels below 7% and often face a vicious circle with accelerated weight gain. Current antidiabetic therapeutics mainly target the decline in insulin secretion and ameliorate insulin resistance. In this regard a new generation of drugs, denoted gliflozines, that specifically interfere with sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLT)-2 and exhibit a favourable impact on glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes are emerging as hopeful avenues. The resultant negative energy balance caused by glucosuria results in long-term weight losses, significantly reduced HbA1c levels approximating 0.5-1.0% and may in addition exert beneficial effects on blood pressure, reactive oxygen products and inflammatory mediators. Recent studies indicate improvement in ?-cell glucose sensitivity and insulin sensitivity in patients treated with gliflozines, a decrease in tissue glucose disposal and interestingly an increase in endogenous glucose production. The list of side effects observed under SGLT2 inhibition includes increased rates of genitourinary infections, balanitis, vulvovaginitis, hypotensive episodes and acute deterioration of kidney function. Main questions towards the safety profile are still unanswered given that long-term clinical outcome data with SGLT2 inhibition are lacking and the cardiovascular safety profile is under scrutiny in large trials. Thus, the successful development of selective SGLT2 inhibitors for therapeutic use in diabetics has a huge potential to meet patients' needs. However, it awaits quick results from clinical trials with meaningful clinical endpoints. PMID:25230708

  12. Reduced concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and sodium-potassium pumps in human skeletal muscle during treatment with diuretics

    OpenAIRE

    Dørup, I; Skajaa, K; Clausen, T; Kjeldsen, K.

    1988-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that potassium depletion induced by diuretics or potassium deficient fodder leads to a selective decrease in the concentrations of potassium and in the concentration of sodium-potassium pumps in skeletal muscle. In 25 patients who had received diuretics for 2-14 years the mean concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and sodium-potassium pumps were measured in skeletal muscle biopsy specimens and were significantly lower than in those from a group of age matched contr...

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Yttrium Hydroxide Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Li,CHEN Wen-Chun,CHEN Lin,LIANG En-Xiang,ZHANG Xin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium hydroxide nanotubes were synthesized by hydrothermal method using Y2O3 as raw materials. And then yttrium hydroxide nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction £¨XRD£©,scan electron microscope £¨SEM£©, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis£¨TG-DTA£©to investigate the phase, morphology, composition and heat stability of the products. Effects of reaction temperature and hydrothermal time on the formation of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes were studied. The results indicate that the optimal reaction conditions of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes are as follows: T=220¡?pH=11-12 and t=24h. The formation mechanism of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes is suggested to be twoª²step process£¬the initiative production of yttrium precursor and the successional achievement of hydroxide yttrium nanotubes.

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Rafiei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans is one of the mouth normal flora which may cause failures in endodontics. The resistance of C. albicans to intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide could reduce success rate root canal treatments .Objectives: Due to recivening some reports regarding resistance of C. albicans to calcium hydroxide from different parts of the world, the aim of this study was to evaluate anti candidal effects of Iranian and Korean made injectable calcium hydroxide and to compare the results.Materials and Methods: In the present research, the antifungal effects of calcium hydroxide on seven clinical isolates and one standard strain of C. albicans were evaluated. For this evaluation, two methods were used including: inhibition zone and colony count. In all experiments distilled water and clotrimazole were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In order to evaluate the effects of exposure time of calcium hydroxide on C. albicans growth, 30” , 5’ , 1 and 24 hours of incubation periods were applied. In addition, to evaluate role the effect of calcium hydroxide concentration samples with saturated, 1/10, 1/100 and 1/1000 dilutions and also a saturated one were used.Results: According to inhibition zone method, the mean diameters of C. albicans for Iranian and Korean made calcium hydroxide and clotrimazole were 17, 13 and 22 mm, respectively. Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide did not show any anti candidal effects. By colony counting method, it was found that in longer exposure time, Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide have more anti candidal effects , but no significant difference was observed between the two. Saturated and all other dilutions of calcium hydroxide base material indicated a significant statistical difference in anti candidal effect after 24 hours exposure in comparison with other periods.Conclusions: The Current study, confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide on C. albicans, up to 24 hours is within low range . Higher concentrations of base calcium hydroxide, showed greater inhibition zone on C. albicans ..--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:The results of present study indicated uncomplete compatibility of susceptibility of C. albicans strains to calcium hydroxide, therefoe, it seems continious evaluation is necessary in different geographical region..Please cite this paper as:Rafiei N, Eftekhar B, Rafiei A, Pourmahdi Borujeni M, Zarrin M. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2012;5(3:470-3. DOI: 10.5812/jjm.3409.

  15. Changes in regional brain levels of amino acid putative neurotransmitters after prolonged treatment with the anticonvulsant drugs diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbitone, sodium valproate, ethosuximide, and sulthiame in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsalos, P N; Lascelles, P T

    1981-02-01

    The effect of prolonged treatment (10 days) with the anticonvulsant drugs diphenylhydantoin (DPH), phenobarbitone, sodium valproate, ethosuximide and sulthiame, both singly and in combination, on regional rat brain amino acid neurotransmitter concentrations (GABA, glutamate, aspartate and taurine) were assessed. DPH had a major effect in the cerebellum and hypothalamus in that it significantly reduced cerebellar GABA, taurine and aspartate and hypothalamic GABA and aspartate. Sodium valproate significantly elevated GABA and taurine in most regions. Aspartate and glutamate were less affected. Phenobarbitone significantly elevated GABA concentrations in all brain regions, while taurine concentration was only elevated in the cerebral cortex. Ethosuximide induced changes were small compared to the other anticonvulsants while sulthiame produced complex changes. Anticonvulsant drugs administered in combination resulted in complex changes, suggesting that their mode of action is different. PMID:6109766

  16. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  17. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Crystal growth morphology of magnesium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    WU, Jian-Song; Du, Juan; GAO, Yi-Min

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the formation process of magnesium hydroxide unit cells, as well as the structural characteristics and growth morphology of magnesium hydroxide, is discussed from the perspective of growth units. The growth process of the hexagonal structure of the magnesium hydroxide is as follows: the growth units are first incorporated into a larger hexagonal dimension unit on the same plane, and then the hexagonal layers connect to each other in the z-axis direction for the hexagonal magnes...

  19. Combined eye gel containing sodium hyaluronate and xanthan gum for the treatment of the corneal epithelial defect after pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocatürk T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tolga Kocatürk,1 Ataman Gençgönül,2 Faruk Balica,1 Mehmet Özba?civan,1 Harun Çakmak1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Mevki Military Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the ophthalmic gels containing hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine with fusidic acid in terms of recovery periods of corneal epithelium in the patients who underwent pterygium surgery.Methods: Patients who underwent pterygium surgery were separated into two groups. Forty patients in group 1 were given eye gel containing sodium hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine, and 40 patients in group 2 were given one drop of eye gel containing fusidic acid. The patients in both groups were examined at the 12th, 24th, and 48th hours in the postoperative period by using slit-lamp technique. The subjective complaints of the patients such as pain and stinging, and the recovery periods of the corneal epithelial defect were evaluated comparatively by fluorescein staining.Results: The mean ages were 26±8 years (range: 18–35 and 24±6 years (range: 18–33 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The closure period of the corneal epithelial defect was observed as 24±8 hours (range: 16–42 and 36±12 hours (range: 18–48 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The number of the patients suffering from subjective complaints such as pain and stinging in the first 12 hours was six and 29 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The difference was significant both clinically and statistically (P=0.001.Conclusion: Combined eye gel containing hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine accelerates the recovery of corneal epithelial defect and reduces the complaints of the patients, when compared to the fusidic acid gel. Combined eye gel should be considered as an option for the treatment of the corneal epithelial defect related with pterygium surgery. Keywords: iatrogenic corneal epithelial defect, netilmycine, fusidic acid, ophthalmic gel

  20. ??Topical Treatment With Liposomal Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Complex in Subjects With Facial Redness and Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasily, David B

    2015-10-01

    Physicians are often presented with patients complaining of facial redness and difficult to control rosacea. The water soluble sodium copper chlorophyllin complex has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial activities in vitro and anti-redness, pore reduction, and anti-acne activities in pilot clinical studies. In these case studies, the safety and efficacy of a topical gel containing a liposomal suspension of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex was assessed in subjects with facial redness and erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(10):1157-1159. PMID:26461829

  1. Treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with sodium diclofenac: a pilot study / Tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves leve a moderada com diclofenato de sódio: um estudo piloto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter, Bloise; Lidia Yuri, Mimura; Janete, Moura; Wilian, Nicolau.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o uso do diclofenato de sódio, um antagonista do PPAR-gama e inibidor da ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) no tratamento da leve a moderada oftalmopatia de Graves. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Treze pacientes com CAS (clinical activity score) 2 a 7 foram tratados durante um período de 3 a 12 meses ( [...] média 7,6 ± 3,4) com diclofenaco de sódio por via oral na dose de 50 mg a cada 12 horas. RESULTADOS: A restrição da musculatura extraocular e o índice CAS melhoraram de modo significativo, respectivamente p = 0,003 e p = 0,004. A dor ocular e a diplopia desapareceram, com exceção de um paciente que referiu melhora desses sintomas. Não houve recidiva após a interrupção do tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves de média gravidade com diclofenaco de sódio por via oral é uma opção boa, segura e de baixo custo. Como outros novos tratamentos, ele deverá ser confirmado em um maior número de pacientes em estudos controlados. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the use of sodium diclofenac, an antagonist of PPAR-gamma and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor in the treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with clinical activity score (CAS) 2 to 7 were treated during a period ranging fr [...] om 3 to 12 months (mean 7.8 ± 3.4) with oral sodium diclofenac, 50 mg every 12 hours. RESULTS: Extra-ocular muscle restriction and CAS improved significantly, p = 0.003 and = 0.004, respectively. Ocular pain and diplopia disappeared, except for one patient who reported improvement of these symptoms. No recurrence was found after interruption of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with oral sodium diclofenac is a good, safe and less expensive therapeutic option. Like others new treatment trials, findings must be confirmed in a greater number of patients in a controlled study.

  2. Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Mário Roberto; Salgado Antônio Alberto Medeiros; Silva Léa Assed Bezerra da; Tanomaru Filho Mário

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation...

  3. Biodiesel production using tetramethyl- and benzyltrimethyl ammonium hydroxides as strong base catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Anastopoulos, Georgios; Karonis, Dimitrios; Stournas, Stamos [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., Zografou Campus, 157 80, Athens (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as an alternative fuel has rapidly grown in EU. The most common method for biodiesel production is based on triglyceride transesterification to methyl esters with dissolved sodium hydroxide in methanol as catalyst. In this study, cottonseed oil and used frying oil were subjected to the transesterification reaction with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide and benzyltrimethyl ammonium hydroxide as strong base catalysts. This work investigates the optimum conditions for biodiesel production using amine-based liquid catalysts. Biodiesel ester content was strongly related with the type of feedstock and the reaction variables, such as those of the catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, and reaction time. The overall results suggested that the transesterification of cottonseed oil achieved high conversion rates with both catalysts, while the use of waste oil resulted in lower yields of methyl esters due to the possible formation of amides. (author)

  4. Effects of aluminum hydroxide and calcium carbonate antacids on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, R W; Lasseter, K C; Noe, A J; Shamblen, E C; Lettieri, J T

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of an aluminum hydroxide antacid and a calcium carbonate antacid on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin (Cipro). Cipro (750 mg) was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers in a three-way randomized crossover design. The three treatments included Cipro alone, four 850-mg calcium carbonate tablets taken 5 min before Cipro, and three 600-mg aluminum hydroxide tablets taken 5 min before Cipro. The relative bioavailability of Cipro when given ...

  5. Ablation of prion protein immunoreactivity by heating in saturated calcium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzapple Mark T; Noyes Gary P; Hamir Amir N; Nicholson Eric M; Greenlee Justin J; Kehrli Marcus E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Prions, the infectious agents that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are relatively resistant to destruction by physical, enzymatic, and chemical treatments. Hydrolysis in boiling saturated calcium hydroxide (limewater) utilizes inexpensive chemicals to digest protein components of offal. The purpose of this work was to determine if incubating brain material from scrapie-infected sheep in near-boiling saturated calcium hydroxide solution (Ca(OH)2) wou...

  6. Response of HT115, a highly invasive human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, to sodium butyrate treatment and glucose deprivation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štokrová, Jitka; Sovová, Vlasta; Šloncová, Eva; Ku?erová, Dana; Tuhá?ková, Zdena; Korb, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 26, ?. 3 (2005), s. 793-799. ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) KSK5020115 Keywords : HT115 cells * sodium butyrate * glucose deprivation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.681, year: 2005

  7. Effect of combinations of gamma irradiation, hot water, Sodium chloride, and Acetic acid treatments on potato-dry rot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation increased the severity of dry rot in potato tubers when they were inoculated with any of 4 species of Fusarium, previously isolated either from irradiated or unirradiated tubers. Treating either irradiated or unirradiated tubers with warm water or sodium chloride solutions following inoculation with F. roseum also increased the severity of dry rot to some extent

  8. Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn2(OH)2(ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn3(OH)4(bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4'biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two ?2-OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers are pillared by ndc to form a three-dimensional structure. In CPO-7, the zinc hydroxide layers are containing four-, five- and six coordinated zinc atoms, and the layers are built like stairways running along the [001] direction. Each step is composed of three infinite chains running in the [010] direction. Both crystal structures were solved from conventional single crystal data. Crystal data for CPO-6: Monoclinic space group P21/c (No. 14), a=11.9703(7), b=7.8154(5), c=6.2428(4) A, ?=90.816(2) deg., V=583.97(6) A3 and Z=4. Crystal data for CPO-7: Monoclinic space group C2/c (No. 15), a=35.220(4), b=6.2658(8), c=14.8888(17) A, ?=112.580(4) deg., V=3033.8(6) A3 and Z=8. The compounds were further characterized by thermogravimetric- and chemical analysis

  9. Soil Washing and Effluent Treatment for Contaminated Soil with Toxic Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the optimal soil washing conditions for toxic metals considering the removal efficiency of toxic metals from contaminated soils as well as from soil washing effluents. In the contaminated soils, As was the major contaminant and extracted by sodium hydroxide solution better than by sulfuric acid. However, in the case of the treatment of soil washing effluents, sodium hydroxide was less effective extractant because soil organic matter extracted by sodium hydroxide prevented the solid-liquid phase separation and toxic metal removal. In the treatment of soil washing effluents with sulfuric acid, toxic metals in the effluents were mostly precipitated at the pH above 6.5. In addition, granular ferric oxide (GFO) as an adsorbent enhanced the removal of As and Pb indicating that toxic metals in the washing effluents can be removed almost completely by the use of combined adsorption-neutralization process. This study suggests that soil washing techniques for toxic metals should be optimized based on the physical and chemical properties of the contaminated soils, the nature of chemical extractant, and the removal efficiency and effectiveness of toxic metals from the soils as well as soil washing effluents

  10. Comparação da efetividade entre polietilenoglicol 4000 sem eletrólitos e hidróxido de magnésio no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional em crianças / Comparison of the effectiveness of polyethylene glycol 4000 without electrolytes and magnesium hydroxide in the treatment of chronic functional constipation in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia Boechat, Gomes; Marco Antônio, Duarte; Maria do Carmo Barros de, Melo.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a efetividade de dois medicamentos: hidróxido de magnésio e polietilenoglicol 4000 sem eletrólitos no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional em crianças. MÉTODOS: Trinta e oito crianças foram divididas, por processo randômico, em dois grupos para uso de polietileno [...] glicol 4000 sem eletrólitos ou de hidróxido de magnésio. As crianças foram acompanhadas em consultas periódicas até completarem 6 meses de tratamento. Em todas as consultas, foram investigados: consistência das fezes, frequência evacuatória, presença de escape fecal, dor abdominal, esforço evacuatório e aceitação desses fármacos. RESULTADOS: Dezessete crianças fizeram uso de polietilenoglicol, e 21 utilizaram o hidróxido de magnésio. Houve melhora clínica de todas as variáveis nos dois grupos, sem diferenças com significância estatística. Todas as crianças aceitaram o polietilenoglicol, enquanto 42,9% recusaram o hidróxido de magnésio. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença de efetividade no tratamento da constipação intestinal entre esses dois laxantes. Entretanto, a melhor aceitação do polietilenoglicol, por ser inodoro e insípido, torna-o melhor opção no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two drugs, polyethylene glycol 4000 without electrolytes and magnesium hydroxide, in the treatment of chronic functional constipation in children. METHODS: Thirty-eight children were randomly assigned to either of two groups, polyethylene glycol 4000 withou [...] t electrolytes or magnesium hydroxide. The children were followed through periodic appointments until they reached 6 months of treatment. In each medical appointment the following aspects were evaluated: stool consistency, frequency of bowel movements, fecal incontinence, abdominal pain, straining and acceptance of the drugs. RESULTS: Seventeen children made use of polyethylene glycol and twenty-one received magnesium hydroxide. All variables analyzed improved for both groups, with no statistically significant differences. All children accepted polyethylene glycol, while 42.9% refused magnesium hydroxide. CONCLUSION: The two laxatives showed no difference in effectiveness for the treatment of constipation. However, due to its better acceptance, because it is odorless and tasteless, polyethylene glycol proved to be a better option for treating chronic functional constipation.

  11. Monitoring treatment of field cancerisation with 3% diclofenac sodium 2.5% hyaluronic acid by reflectance confocal microscopy: a histologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvehy, Josep; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Iglesias-García, Pablo; Díaz, Alba; Puig, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Visual inspection may fail to accurately evaluate field cancerisation (subclinical actinic keratoses [AKs]). We aimed to describe field cancerisation by confocal reflectance microscopy and changes induced by the application of 3% diclofenac sodium gel in 2.5% hyaluronic acid. Fourteen male patients, >?50 years old, with AKs on the bald scalp were included. Clinical examination, confocal microscopy and histological study of clinically visible lesions and "normal appearing" adjacent skin before and after treatment was completed. Reflectance confocal microscopy showed a decrease in scaling (p?=?0.001) and atypia of the honeycomb pattern (p?=?0.001) at 2 weeks of treatment. Changes in parakeratosis, inflammation and dermal collagen remodelling were also observed. Histology correlated with confocal features in AK and subclinical AK. Reflectance confocal microscopy was useful in the evaluation of field cancerisation and monitoring of treatment response. A rapid improvement in epidermal atypia was observed. PMID:24696069

  12. The effects of duration of pre-soaking treatments on the frequency and spectrum of mutations induced by sodium azide in CES 14 Mungbean variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of mungbean variety CES 14 were treated with 10-3 sodium azide for 2 hours buffered at pH 3 after various pre-soaking treatment durations of 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 hours. The biological parameters that were significantly affected by the treatments in the M1 were germination, seedling height and survival. The chlorophyll and other morphological mutations in the M2 gradually increased with increasing pre-soaking time. The treatment that had the lowest mutation rate was the 16-hour pre-soaked seeds. No chlorophyll mutation was noted in both the water and buffer control. One variant was noted, however, in the buffer control. (author)

  13. Coprecipitation with metal hydroxides for the determination of beryllium in seawater by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coprecipitation first with magnesium hydroxide. next with tin(IV) hydroxide is developed for the determination of traces of beryllium in seawater. To a 200-ml sample is added a sodium hydroxide solution to form magnesium hydroxide at pH 11.5, on which beryllium is quantitatively coprecipitated. The precipitate is separated by centrifugation and dissolved in 2 ml of 12 mol/l hydrochloric acid. The resulting solution (ca. 10 ml) is mixed with 2 mg of tin(IV) carrier and the pH is adjusted to 5.0 to collect the beryllium on tin(IV) hydroxide, leaving magnesium ions in the solution. The tin(IV) hydroxide is centrifuged, dissolved in 0.1 ml of 5 mol/l hydrobromic acid, and then diluted to 1 ml with water. Magnesium is so added as to be 500 ?g/ml for increasing the sensitivity about four times, and the beryllium in the solution is determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The experiments with synthetic seawater samples showed that pg-?g amounts of beryllium can be coprecipitated on the metal hydroxides and beryllium at the low ng/l level can be determined with reasonable precision (RSD < 10%). The detection limit of the proposed method is 0.5 ng/l of beryllium in seawater. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721.4467 Section...Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a quaternary ammonium hydroxide (PMN...

  15. The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients [Corrigendum] Tsumura T, Yoshikawa K, Kimura T, et al. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014;8:1681–1687. The authors wish to advise of the following errors: on page 1684, right column, line 18, “10.72” should be replaced with “–10.72”; on page 1685, right column, line 2, “<–6D” should be replaced with “<–6dB”. Read the original article Previous corrigendum has been published

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The formation of yttrium hydroxide fluorides nanobundles can be expressed as a precipitation transformation from cubic NaYF4 to hexagonal NaYF4 and to hexagonal Y(OH)2.02F0.98 owing to ion exchange. - Highlights: • Novel Y(OH)2.02F0.98 nanobundles have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The branched nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles has been studied. • The growth mechanism is proposed to be ion exchange and precipitation transformation. - Abstract: This article presents the fabrication of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles via one-pot hydrothermal process, using yttrium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent. The X-ray diffraction pattern clearly reveals that the grown product is pure yttrium hydroxide fluoride, namely Y(OH)2.02F0.98. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized product is testified to be nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles as observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The chemical composition was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), confirming the phase transformation of the products which was clearly consistent with the result of XRD analysis. It is proposed that the growth of yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles be attributed to ion exchange and precipitation transformation

  17. Empagliflozin: a new sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Neumiller, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and hyperglycemia is often poorly controlled despite a number of therapeutic options. Unlike previously available agents, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer an insulin-independent mechanism for improving blood glucose levels, since they promote urinary glucose excretion (UGE) by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the kidney. In addition to glucose control, SGLT2 inhibitors are associated with weight loss and blood pr...

  18. Layered Metal Hydroxides Containing Calcium and Their Structural Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layered metal hydroxides (LMHs) containing calcium were synthesized by coprecipitation in solution having two different trivalent metal ions, iron and aluminum. Two mixed metal solutions (Ca2+/Al3+ and Ca2+/Fe3+ = 2/1) were added to sodium hydroxide solution and the final pH was adjusted to ?11.5 and ?13 for CaAl-and CaFe-LMHs. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the two LMH samples showed well developed (00l) diffractions indicating 2-dimensional crystal structure of the synthesized LMHs. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern, the local structure analysis through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and thermal analysis also confirmed that the synthesized precipitates show typical structure of LMHs. The chemical formulae, Ca2.04Al1(OH)6(NO3)·5.25H2O and Ca2.01Fe1(OH)6(NO3)·4.75H2O were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Particle morphology and thermal behavior for the synthesized LMHs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry

  19. Method of purifying oil soluble sodium sulfonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sereda, Ya.I.; Pavlik, T.S.; Serov, V.A.

    1979-12-05

    A method is tested for removal of inorganic salts from oil soluble sodium sulfonates in order to obtain purified oil concentrates of sodium sulfonate used as emulsifiers, for example in manufacture of lubricating-cooling liquid. Purification is carried out by washing with an aqueous solution of electrolyte in the presence of alcohol upon heating. In order to simplify the process and obtain a target product of high quality, the concentrate of sodium sulfonate is first dissolved in a hydrocarbon or chlorinated hydrocarbon. The aqueous solution used is obtained by mixing distilled water with 3-12 percent ethanol or isopropanol and 0.5-2 percent sodium hydroxide (per original concentrate). The process is carried out at a temperature 5-12 degrees lower than the boiling point of the azeotrope of the alcohol-water.

  20. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  1. Contribution to the study of hydrogenated and oxygenated impurities in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is made up essentially of two parts. The first is devoted to the development of dosage methods for selectively determining the oxygenated and hydrogenated impurities present in sodium, that is the oxide, the hydride and the hydroxide. The second makes use of these methods for a study of the Na-H2-O2 system, as well as of the related problem of the attack of pyrex glass by molten sodium. The conventional method for dosing oxygen by amalgamation was first adapted to the simultaneous measurement of the hydride. We then developed a method for dosing the total hydrogen by measuring successively the concentrations of gas present in the hydride and hydroxide form. This method is based on the thermal decomposition of the hydride and the reaction between sodium and the hydroxide. Our contribution to the study of the Na-H2-O2 System consists first of all in the study of the reaction between hydrogen and sodium in the temperature range from 150 to 250 deg C and at a pressure of about 150 mm of mercury. The study of the thermal decomposition of the hydride in sodium was then studied. It was possible to make some qualitative observations concerning the reaction between sodium and sodium hydroxide. Finally some complementary tests made it possible to define the nature of the phenomena occurring during the attack of pyrex glass by sodium. (author)

  2. Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinran; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile, aluminum hydroxide can only weakly or moderately potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1–20 µm. There is increasing evidence that nanoparticles around or less than 200 nm as vaccine or antigen carriers have a more potent adjuvant activity than large microparticles. In the prese...

  3. Deuterium and sodium quadrupole interactions in sodium hydroxide. II. The monoclinic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amm, D. T.; Segel, S. L.; Bastow, T. J.; Jeffrey, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the 23NaOH pure quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequency has been studied from 77 to 550 K and shows a change in slope and a discontinuous change in frequency of 6±2 kHz at the orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition at 505 K. At 292 K the 23Na NQR frequency is 1.778±0.001 MHz, ?<0.04. The temperature dependence of the deuterium quadrupole coupling was fit to a librating molecule model between 293 and 570 K (QCC=245±2 kHz, ?=0.05±0.01 at 293 K) and confirms that the frequency of the OD- libration decreases in the high temperature monoclinic phase.

  4. Deuterium and Sodium Quadrupole Interactions in Sodium Hydroxide. The Monoclinic Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amm, D. T.; Segel, S. L.; Bastow, T. J.; Jeffrey, K. R.

    1986-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the 23NaOH Pure Quadrupole Resonance Frequency has been studied from 77 K to 550 K and shows a change in slope and a discontinuous change in frequency of 6 ± 2 kHz at the orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition at 505 K At 292 K the 23Na NQR frequency is 1.778 ± 0.001 MHz, ? < 0 .04. The temperature dependence of the deuterium quadrupole coupling was fit to a librating molecule model between 293 K and 570 K (QCC = 245 ± 2 kHz, ? = 0.05 ± 0 .0 1 at 293 K) and confirms that the frequency of the libration decreases in the high temperature monoclinic phase. X-ray studies indicate that down to 10 K there are no further phase transitions in NaOH. On the other hand, it is now known that NaOD, orthorhombic at room temperature, monoclinic at high temperature, suffers another transition at 160 K to yet another monoclinic phase.

  5. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, D.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Hackley, K.C. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Strickland, R. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States); Berger, R.; Schanche, G. [Illinois Univ., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In this project, the ISGS is investigating the pelletization of fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur-capturing sorbent. The objective is to produce a readily-transportable fuel which will burn in compliance with the recently passed Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA). To improve the economics of pelletizing, carbonation, or, the reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, which produces a binding matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated as a method of hardening pelletized coal fines. This year, pellets were produced from 28 {times} 0 coal fines collected from an Illinois preparation plant using a laboratory version of a California Pellet Mill (CPM), a commercially available pellet machine. The CPM effectively pelletized coal fines at the moisture content they were dewatered to at the plant. Carbonation nearly doubled the strength of pellets containing 10 wt % calcium hydroxide. Other results from this year`s work indicate that inclusion of calcium hydroxide into pellets resulted in chlorine capture of approximately 20 wt % for combustion tests conducted at both 850 and 1100{degrees}C. Arsenic emissions were reduced from near 38 wt% at 850 C to essentially nil with inclusion of 10 wt % calcium hydroxide into the pellets. At 110{degrees}C, arsenic emissions were reduced from about 90 wt % to about 15 wt %. Sodium emissions, however, increased with the addition of calcium hydroxide. At 850{degrees}C, sodium capture dropped from about 98 wt % to 73 wt % for pellets containing 10 wt % calcium hydroxide; at 1100{degrees}C, capture dropped from about 92 wt % to about 20 wt %.

  6. Associative detachment of rubidium hydroxide

    CERN Document Server

    Byrd, Jason N; Montgomery, John A; Côté, Robin

    2013-01-01

    We performed calculations of the optimized structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies and dissociation energies of RbOH and its anion, and investigate the interactions between Rb and OH$^-$ leading to possible associative detachment pathways. The electron affinity of RbOH was computed to be 0.2890 eV, with a bond energy of Rb+OH$^-$ half that of Rb+OH. To determine other possible charge loss pathways, the Rb+OH and Rb+OH$^-$ dissociation curves were computed using couple cluster methods along all possible collisional angles. An adiabatic curve crossing between the neutral and charged molecule was found at the inner wall of the molecular potential curve for linear geometries. Associative detachment rates were estimated using the Langevin ion capture cross-section for hydroxide. We find for $v\\ge 2$ an associative detachment rate of $>2\\times 10^{-9}$ cm$^3$s$^{-1}$, while for $v=0$ and 1 no appreciable rate exists. This strong dependence on vibrational level suggests the ability to control the associative det...

  7. Eficacia de la carboximetilcelulosa sódica para el tratamiento del síndrome del ojo seco / Efficacy of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the treatment of dry eye syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Bruix; A., Adán; R.P., Casaroli-Marano.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de la carboximetilcelulosa sódica para el tratamiento del Síndrome de Ojo Seco (SOS). Material y métodos: Se realizó un ensayo clínico prospectivo randomizado unicéntrico y enmascarado de tipo grupo problema/control con 19 pacientes que padecían un SOS leve o moderado, [...] durante un período de 12 meses. Los pacientes fueron clínicamente evaluados cada 3 meses y tratados con una solución isotónica de carboximetilcelulosa sódica (CMC) al 0,5% o BSS. La toma de los síntomas subjetivos, las pruebas objetivas de funcionalidad clínica, y la citología de impresión conjuntival fueron realizadas según el protocolo preestablecido. Para la comparación de los datos entre los grupos se utilizó un análisis estadístico mediante prueba de chi cuadrado (?²). Resultados: Se ha observado una disminución significativa (p Abstract in english Aim: To assess the efficacy of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the treatment of dry eye. Material and methods: We carried out a prospective, randomized, masked-observer, control/problem group, single-center clinical assay during a period of 12 months in 19 patients that presented mild or moderate f [...] orms of dry eye. Patients were clinically evaluated each 3 months and treated with a 0.5% isotonic solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or balanced salt solution. Subjective symptoms, functional tests and conjunctival impression cytology were performed according preexistent schedule study visits. To compare data between groups chi squared (?2) analysis was applied. Results: We observed a significant (p

  8. Treatment with sodium hyaluronate eye drops in a patient who had early-onset bleb leakage after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, Hideto; Sekiryu, Tetsuju; Noji, Hiroki; Ogasawara, Masashi; Imaizumi, Kimihiro; Yago, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 47-year-old man who had bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma. Schirmer I test revealed tear secretions of 5 mm and 3 mm in the right and left eyes, respectively. Tear breakup times in the right and left eyes were 7 and 8 seconds, respectively. The ocular surface staining in both eyes was scored as Grade 1 as per the Oxford scheme. Retinal photocoagulation was performed for correction of the proliferative diabetic retinopathy and rubeosis iridis, which resolved with treatment. However, the intraocular pressure in the left eye could not be adequately controlled. Therefore, trabeculectomy with mitomycin C using limbal-based conjunctival flap was performed. Three hours after the surgery, the patient developed a large and diffuse filtering bleb, but no leakage occurred from the conjunctival scar. However, on the first postoperative day, leakage was noted and the conjunctiva was at the leakage point. The leakage resolved transiently, but recurred the next day. Severe keratoconjunctival epithelial failure was detected, and the patient was administrated 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops six times daily. The epithelial failure improved, and many microcysts were detected on the bleb surface where the epithelial failure improved. The leakage resolved 2 days after initiation of the sodium hyaluronate eye drops. The microcysts disappeared and the bleb surface became smooth 1 month later.

  9. The effect of extraction temperature on oil sand bitumen extraction and froth treatment effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanova, U.G.; Stasiuk, E.N.; Yarranton, H.W.; Valinasab, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Schramm, L. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Shelfantook, W.E. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    Extraction and froth treatment are the 2 stages of bitumen recovery. In order to further develop Alberta's oil sand deposits, poorer quality oil sands will have to be processed while maximizing bitumen recovery, minimizing the water and solids content of the product bitumen, and minimizing overall energy consumption. This study focused on the effect of process conditions in the Clark Hot Water Bitumen Extraction Process on froth treatment effectiveness. Laboratory studies were used to represent the following 2 commercialized froth treatment processes in Alberta: (1) the Syncrude process which involves dilution with an aromatic solvent followed by centrifugation, and (2) the Albian process which involves dilution with a paraffinic solvent followed by gravity settling. Oil sand quality, extraction shear, extraction temperature, sodium hydroxide addition in extraction, froth treatment temperature, and froth treatment residence time were the parameters considered during this study. The study showed that lowering the extraction temperature results in lower bitumen recovery, at least for low quality oil sands. Higher shear extraction improves bitumen recovery, but decreases the effectiveness of froth treatment. For paraffinic solvent based froth treatments, the addition of sodium hydroxide in extraction may be required to obtain optimum froth treatment of low quality oil sands. 22 refs., 9 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Indirect pulp capping using different calcium hydroxide products: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanovi?-Radman Irena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Indirect pulp capping is a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of deep carious lesion in order to stimulate odontoblasts to produce tertiary dentin using different biomaterials based mainly on calcium hydroxide. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hard-setting (Dycal and a suspension of calcium hydroxide (Calcipulp in the treatment of deep carious lesion (caries profunda. Materials and Methods. Clinical study included 29 patients of both genders, age 16 to 40, and 45 teeth of different morphological groups with verified caries profunda using clinical and radiographic examination. After the cavity preparation, calcium hydroxide materials (Dycal or Calcipulp were applied on the pulpal wall and cavities temporarily restored (phosphate cement for the period of two months. After this period cavities were restored with composite materials and clinically observed during twelve months, with mandatory check-ups after three and six months. Results. Obtained results showed that indirect pulp capping using calcium hydroxide suspension (90.0% was more successful than hard-setting material (84.0%, but with no statistically significant difference. Conclusion. Suspension and hard-setting calcium hydroxide were equally successful in the treatment of caries profunda.

  11. Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers Reparação apical e periapical de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica após tratamento endodôntico utilizando diferentes materiais obturadores

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Roberto Leonardo; Antônio Alberto Medeiros Salgado; Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva; Mário Tanomaru Filho

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation...

  12. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs134 and Cs137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  13. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best known as the chemical found in automobile airbags. An electrical charge triggered by automobile impact causes ... explode and convert to nitrogen gas inside the airbag. Sodium azide is used as a chemical preservative ...

  14. Eficacia del valproato de sodio en el tratamiento profiláctico de la migraña / Efficacy of sodium valproate in the prophylactic treatment of migraine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Fernando, Lizárraga Luyo; Pilar Milagros, Jara Pinto; Leónidas E., Unzueta Rozas.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La migraña es un síndrome doloroso recurrente crónico acompañado de características neurológicas, objetivos: evaluar la eficacia del valproato de sodio en la profilaxis de la migraña a través de cambios en intensidad, dolor y frecuencia. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, longi [...] tudinal, experimental y aleatorio en 30 pacientes que recibieron en la 1ra semana 1 tableta/dia de valproato de sodio 500 mg vía oral y 2 tabletas/dia de 500 mg por 7 semanas más. Resultados: 97% refirió disminución de la intensidad del dolor. 97% estuvieron en la categoría 3 de frecuencia de crisis de migraña al mes 0; durante el 1er mes de tratamiento, se redujo al 0% y se mantuvo durante el 2do mes. Conclusiones: El tratamiento profiláctico de la migraña con valproato de sodio produce una disminución de la frecuencia e intensidad del dolor Abstract in english Introduction: migraine is a chronic recurrent pain syndrome accompanied by neurological features. Objectives: evaluate the efficacy of sodium valproate in the migraine prophylactic, measuring pain intensity and frequency. Material and Methods: prospective, longitudinal, experiemental and randomized [...] in 30 patients, each patient received in the 1st week 1 table/day of 500 mg orally and 2 table/day of 500 mg for the next 7 weeks Results: 97% reported decreased pain intensity. 97% were in category 3 of frequency of migraine attacks per month 0. during the 1 st month of treatment, it was reduced to 0% and remained during the 2nd month. Conclusions: prophylactic treatment of migraine with sodium valproate causes a decrease in pain intensity and frequency.

  15. The impact of low serum sodium on treatment outcome of targeted therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Database Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutz, Fabio A B; Xie, Wanling

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia has been associated with poor survival in many solid tumors and more recently found to be of prognostic and predictive value in metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) patients treated with immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of baseline hyponatremia in mRCC patients treated with targeted therapy in the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data on 1661 patients treated with first-line vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) targeted therapy for mRCC were available from 18 cancer centers to study the impact of hyponatremia (serum sodium level <135 mmol/l) on clinical outcomes. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary objective was overall survival (OS) and secondary end points included time to treatment failure (TTF) and the disease control rate (DCR). The chi-square test was used to compare the DCR in patients with and without hyponatremia. OS and TTF were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and differences between groups were examined by the log-rank test. Multivariable logistic regression (for DCR) and Cox regression (for OS and TTF) were undertaken adjusted for prognostic risk factors. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Median OS after treatment initiation was 18.5 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.5-19.8 mo), with 552 (33.2%) of patients remaining alive on a median follow-up of 22.1 mo. Median baseline serum sodium was 138 mmol/l (range: 122-159 mmol/l), and hyponatremia was found in 14.6% of patients. On univariate analysis, hyponatremia was associated with shorter OS (7.0 vs 20.9 mo), shorter TTF (2.9 vs 7.4 mo), and lower DCR rate (54.9% vs 78.8%) (p<0.0001 for all comparisons). In multivariate analysis, these effects remain significant (hazard ratios: 1.51 [95% CI, 1.26-1.80] for OS, and 1.57 [95% CI, 1.34-1.83] for TTF; odds ratio: 0.50 [95% CI, 34-0.72] for DCR; adjusted p<0.001). Results were similar if sodium was analyzed as a continuous variable (adjusted p<0.0001 for OS, TTF, and DCR). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest multi-institutional report to show that hyponatremia is independently associated with a worse outcome in mRCC patients treated with VEGF- and mTOR-targeted agents.

  16. Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser (?= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm2 during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

  17. Effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of dental nickel-titanium files in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of commercial dental alloy, in the form of helical nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files, when treated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. The surface of dental helical Ni-Ti files was modified using nitriding treatment at 200 deg. C, 250 deg. C and 300 deg. C in an NH3-containing environment. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the Ni-Ti files were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti files when treated with a clinical solution of 5.25% NaOCl was evaluated using the linear polarization method and by potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement. The nitriding treatments at different temperatures created titanium nitride (TiN) on the surface of the helical Ni-Ti files. The Ni-Ti files nitrided at 200 deg. C and 250 deg. C showed higher polarization resistance and higher passive film breakdown potential together with a lower passive current than untreated files. The presence of TiN on dental Ni-Ti files significantly increased the corrosion resistance of the files in the presence of 5.25% NaOCl solution.

  18. LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES: NANOMATERIALS FOR APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíz Paulo Figueredo Benício

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to introduce Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH as nanomaterials to be used in agriculture, with particular reference to its use as storage and slow release matrix of nutrients and agrochemicals for plant growing. Structural characteristics, main properties, synthesis methods and characterization of LDH were covered in this study. Moreover, some literature data have been reported to demonstrate their potential for storage and slow release of nitrate, phosphate, agrochemicals, besides as being used as adsorbent for the wastewater treatment. This research aims to expand, in near future, the investigation field on these materials, with application in agriculture, increasing the interface between chemistry and agronomy.

  19. Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rodrigues de Lima; Ricardo Araújo de Oliveira; Miriam Carla Bonicontro Ambrosio-Ugri; Sueli Teresa Davantel de Barros; Carlos de Barros Júnior

    2008-01-01

    No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e t...

  20. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method.

  1. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method

  2. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method. PMID:21832599

  3. Thermal analysis experiment for elucidating sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in steam generator of sodium-cooled after reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. The parameters, including melting point of Na and NaOH, transition temperature of NaOH, Na-NaOH reaction temperature, and the decomposition temperature of sodium hydride (NaH) have been identified from DTA curves. Based on the measured reaction temperature, rate constant of Na2O generation was obtained. Thermal analysis results indicated that Na2O generation at the secondary overall reaction would be considered during the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  4. Efficacy of gastro-retentive forms of ecabet sodium in the treatment of gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Bae, Hyun-Ju; Choi, Jungsub; Lim, Jong-Rae; Kim, Sang-Wook; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Park, Eun-Seok

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of gastric retention of ecabet sodium (ECS) on its mucoprotective effect in rat ulcer models. Mini-tablets containing 9 mg ECS were prepared using the direct compression method. The release rates of ECS mini-tablets were controlled by the amount and viscosity grade of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose incorporated. Gastric retention of ECS mini-tablets after oral administration to rats was visually confirmed using a fluorescence imaging system. Because ECS mini-tablets exhibited size-dependent gastric retention, their gastric retention time was prolonged as the release rate decreased. In the in vivo efficacy study, gastro-retentive dosage forms of ECS did not influence the mucoprotective effect in the immediate irritation model but enhanced the effect in the delayed irritation model compared with ECS suspension. This finding indicates that the duration of the mucoprotective effect of ECS can be extended by the employment of gastro-retentive dosage formulations and provides a rationale for development of ECS gastro-retentive dosage forms. PMID:24254934

  5. Household water treatment using sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets: a randomized, controlled trial to assess microbiological effectiveness in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas; Saeed, Tanveer F; Boisson, Sophie; Edmondson, Paul; Shipin, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the microbiologic effectiveness of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets used on a routine basis at the household level by a vulnerable population. In a 4-month trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh, one half of the 100 participating households received NaDCC tablets and instructions on how to use the same; the other one half received a placebo and the same instructions. Monthly samples of stored drinking water from intervention households were significantly lower in thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) than those of control households (geometric mean, 2.8 [95% CI: 2.2, 3.6] versus 604.1 [95% CI: 463.2, 787.9]; P < 0.0001). While 61.7% (116/188) of samples from the intervention households met World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for 0 TTCs in drinking water, none of the 191 samples from control households met such a benchmark. Residual free chlorine in water samples suggested that householders consistently used the intervention, but 11.7% of samples exceeded the WHO guideline value of 5.0 mg/L, underscoring the need to ensure that tablet dose and vessel size are compatible. PMID:17255252

  6. O uso do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento das disfunções temporomandibulares articulares / The use of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Grossmann; Eduardo, Januzzi; Liogi, Iwaki Filho.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A disfunção temporomandibular compreende um termo coletivo que envolve alterações clínicas nos músculos da mastigação, das articulações temporomandibulares e/ou estruturas associadas.O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise crítica, utilizando as principais bases d [...] e dados, sobre a efetividade e a segurança do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento das disfunções temporomandibulares de origem articular, a fim de recomendar ou refutar seu uso na prática clínica. CONTEÚDO: Os estudos foram obtidos através das seguintes bases de dados: Medline, via PubMed (1966 - 2013), Registro de Ensaios Controlados Cochrane, (2012), Embase (1980 - 2013) e LILACS (1982 - 2013). A estratégia utilizada foi a busca ajustada para cada base, a fim de identificar o maior número possível de estudos envolvendo o uso do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento da disfunção temporomandibular de origem articular. Houve limitação do idioma, buscando artigos em língua inglesa. Cruzaram-se os seguintes descritores: tratamento da articulação temporomandibular versus hialuronato de sódio versus deslocamento agudo e crônico do disco com e sem redução versus ácido hialurônico versus osteoartrite e osteoartrose versus viscossuplementação. Como critérios de inclusão foram analisados estudos randomizados, uni ou duplamente encobertos, série de casos, com 15 ou mais participantes. Excluíram-se relato de caso, estudos abertos "open-label", estudos em modelos animais e artigos relacionados a tratamento da disfunção artrogênica que não possuíssem como uma das terapias a infiltração de hialuronato de sódio na articulação temporomandibular. A qualidade metodológica desses estudos foi avaliada e classificada conforme o nível de evidência do Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com a análise crítica dos estudos incluídos, pode-se afirmar que o uso do hialuronato de sódio é eficaz e seguro, sendo recomendado no tratamento das seguintes condições: deslocamento agudo e crônico do disco com redução e sem redução, osteoartrose, osteoartrite e doença articular degenerativa. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Temporomandibular disorder is a collective term involving clinical masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints and/or associated structures changes. This study aimed at reviewing, using major databases, the effectiveness and safety of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment [...] of temporomandibular joint disorders, aiming at recommending or discarding its clinical use. CONTENTS: The following databases were queried: Medline, via Pubmed (1966-2013), Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (2012), Embase (1980-2013) and LILACS (1982-2013). The strategy was a search adjusted to each database to identify the largest possible number of studies involving sodium hyalorunate to manage joint temporomandibular disorders. Language was limited to articles published in English. The following keywords were crossed: temporomandibular joint management, versus sodium hyalorunate, versus acute or chronic reducing or nonreducing disk displacement, versus hyaluronic acid, versus osteoarthritis, versus viscosupplementation. Inclusion criteria were randomized, blind or double-blind studies, and case series with 15 or more participants. Exclusion criteria were open label-label studies, animal model studies and articles related to arthrogenous disorders not being treated with sodium hyalorunate infiltration of the temporomandibular joint. Methodological quality of such studies was evaluated and classified according to the level of evidence of the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine. CONCLUSION: According to this review, one may state that sodium hyalorunate is effective and safe, being recommended to manage the following conditions: acute and chronic reducing and nonreducing disk displacement, osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease.

  7. Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Jung, Koo; Lee, Kwang-Youll; Jeong, Je-Yong; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hae-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (pNaDCC) was investigated to reduce the gamma irradiation dose. In an artificial inoculation experiment of B. cinerea isolated from naturally-infected postharvest paprika, fungal symptoms were observed in the stem and exocarp of paprika after conidial inoculation. From the sensitivity of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, B. cinerea conidia were fully inactivated by 4 kGy of gamma irradiation (D10 value 0.99 kGy), and were fully inactivated by 50 ppm NaDCC treatment. The fungal symptoms were not detected by the dose-dependent gamma irradiation (>4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (pNaDCC) than single treatment groups (gamma irradiation or NaDCC). These results suggest that combined treatment with irradiation and NaDCC treatment can be applied to preserve quality of postharvest paprika or other fruits.

  8. Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste

  9. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  10. Aluminum hydroxide dissolution in synthetic sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the revised Stage 1 Defense Waste Processing Facility, aluminum hydroxide dissolving has been moved from S Canyon to the waste tank farm. The maximum attainable temperature has been reduced from 1070C in the stainless steel dissolver to less than 900C in the large mild steel waste tanks. Also, caustic strength must be maintained below 6.5 molar to avoid caustic cracking. Studies at TNX indicate that 75% of the crystalline aluminum hydroxide can be dissolved while using about one-third of the caustic quantity specified for the S Canyon dissolver. Studies were made in laboratory-scale and large-scale equipment to determine optimum conditions for dissolving the most aluminum hydroxide with the least caustic. These studies showed that gibbsite Al(OH)3 is readily dissolved at low caustic strength, low addition rate, and at easily attainable in-tank temperatures. On the other hand, most of the boehmite AlOOH can be dissolved, but a lengthy digestion period is required at maximum temperatures and caustic strengths. Fortunately, 72% of the total aluminum hydroxide in the waste sludge is gibbsite and 28% is boehmite according to recent sludge analyses. Recommendations are made for the in-tank conditions needed to dissolve 75% of the aluminum hydroxide contacted. With low boehmite sludges, mild dissolving conditions are adequate while providing good caustic economy. With higher boehmite sludges, the harsher conditions within existing constraints are recommended

  11. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene with layered double hydroxide nano composites: In situ synthesis, morphology and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted interest, both in industry and in academia, because they often exhibit remarkable improvement in their properties when compared with pure polymer or conventional micro and macro-composites using low levels of reinforcements. In this work polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene reinforced with layered double hydroxide, which was intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized and compared by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test. The X-ray diffraction demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites showed a high global dispersion of layered double hydroxide, suggesting exfoliated morphology. The result of thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test for synthesized polystyrene/ layered double hydroxide nanocomposite presented a significant improvement in thermal stability and flammability property when compared with pure polymer. (author)

  12. Colistimethate sodium for the treatment of chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koerner-Rettberg C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cordula Koerner-Rettberg, Manfred Ballmann Department of Pediatric Pneumology, University Children’s Hospital of Ruhr University Bochum at St Josef-Hospital, Bochum, Germany Abstract: Chronic bacterial respiratory-tract infections are a major driving force in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease and promote chronic lung-function decline, destruction, and progression to respiratory failure at a premature age. Gram-negative bacteria colonizing the airways in CF are a major problem in CF therapy due to their tendency to develop a high degree of resistance to antibiotic agents over time. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominating bacterial strain infecting the CF lung from early childhood on, and multiresistant strains frequently develop after years of therapy. Colistin has been used for treating pulmonary bacterial infections in CF for decades due to its very good Gram-negative activity. However, drawbacks include concerns regarding toxicity when being applied systemically, and the lack of approval for application by inhalation in the USA for many years. Other antibiotic substances for systemic use are available with good to excellent Gram-negative and anti-Pseudomonas activity, while there are only three substances approved for inhalation use in the treatment of chronic pulmonary infection with proven benefit in CF. The emergence of multiresistant strains leaving nearly no antibiotic substance as a treatment option, the limited number of antibiotics with high activity against P. aeruginosa, the concerns about increasing the risk of antibiotic resistance by continuous antibiotic therapy, the development of new drug formulations and drug-delivery devices, and, finally, the differing treatment strategies used in CF centers call for defining the place of this “old” drug, colistimethate, in today’s CF therapy. This article reviews the available evidence to reflect on the place of colistimethate sodium in the therapy of chronic pulmonary infection in CF. Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, treatment, multiresistant strains, Gram-negative bacteria, colistin

  13. The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Toyoaki Tsumura,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Tairo Kimura,3 Hirotaka Suzumura,4 Miwako Kawashima,5 Mami Nanno,6 Kiyotaka Ishijima,7 Ryuji Takeda8 1Fussa Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ueno Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 4Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 5Nakano General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 6Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 7Irumagawa Hospital, Saitama, Japan; 8Department of Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan Background: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of newly formulated brimonidine (0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite: brimonidine as add-on therapy in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients.Methods: Brimonidine was added to on-treatment NTG patients with intraocular pressures (IOP of between 13 mmHg and 16 mmHg after three consecutive IOP measurements. The time courses of IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratitis, and adverse events were examined at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after brimonidine instillation.Results: Though 75 of 83 patients (31 males and 52 females; mean age: 63.4±11.6 years completed the study, six patients discontinued because of side effects and two patients withdrew. The mean IOP after brimonidine addition at week 4 (12.6±1.8 mmHg, P<0.001, week 8 (12.4±1.7 mmHg, P<0.001, and week 12 (12.6±1.8 mmHg, P<0.001 was significantly decreased compared with that before the addition of brimonidine (13.9±1.2 mmHg. No significant changes in superficial punctate keratitis or conjunctival hyperemia scores were observed throughout the study. Dizziness, sleepiness, eye pain, and itching (mild to moderate were noted in five, four, three, and three patients, respectively.Conclusions: The addition of newly formulated brimonidine to on-treatment Japanese NTG patients with IOP of 13–16 mmHg further reduced the levels of IOP with minimal side effects and adverse events. Keywords: normal-tension glaucoma, 0.1% brimonidine tartrate with sodium chlorite, additive intraocular pressure reduction, side effect, adverse event

  14. Performance testing of in-sodium sensors and simulated experiments in, sodium chemistry loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sodium chemistry loop operated with simulated reactor conditions. • Electrochemical sensors for measurement of H2, C and O2 in sodium tested. • Hydrogen sensor response studied by Na–NaOH and Na–H2O reactions. • Hydrogen and oxygen sensors response tested for cold trap temperature variation. - Abstract: Impurities like oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in sodium circuits of fast reactors need to be monitored and controlled within permissible levels. Toward this, electrochemical sensors are being developed in this Center for continuous monitoring of these impurities in sodium. A sodium chemistry loop (SCL), wherein reactor conditions can be simulated, was built and performance of the sensors was studied. The response of the hydrogen sensor for sodium hydroxide addition and simulated steam leak was studied in SCL. The responses of hydrogen and oxygen sensors for the variation of cold trap temperature are also discussed. Carbon activity in sodium was monitored using carbon sensor and foil equilibration technique and the results were used for testing a radionuclide trap, containing reticulated vitreous carbon, for the removal of cesium isotopes in sodium was tested in SCL. The results of these studies are presented in this paper

  15. Critical operating parameters for microwave solidification of hydroxide sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineers at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed an innovative technology for the treatment of homogeneous wet or dry solids which are contaminated with hazardous and/or radioactive materials. The process uses microwave energy to heat and melt the waste into a vitreous final form that is suitable for land disposal. The advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form; volume and toxicity reduction; favorable economics; in-container treatment; good public acceptance; isolated equipment; and instantaneous energy control. Regulatory certification of the final form is accomplished by meeting the limitation specified in US EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure. This paper presents the results from a series of tests performed on a surrogate hydroxide coprecipitation sludge spiked with heavy metals at elevated concentrations. The results are very encouraging and support RFP's commitment to the use of microwave technology for treatment of various waste streams

  16. Iodine Sequestration Using Delafossites and Layered Hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka; J.L. Krumhansl

    2006-03-28

    The objective of this document is to report on early success for sequestering {sup 129}I. Sorption coefficients (K{sub d}) for I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured in order to compare their applicability for sequestering {sup 129}I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain area. Delafossites generally exhibited relatively poor sorption coefficients (< 10{sup 1.7} mL/g). In contrast, the composition of the layered hydroxides significantly affects their ability to sorb I. Cu/Al and Cu/Cr layered hydroxide samples exhibit K{sub d}'s greater than 10{sup 3} mL/g for both I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -}.

  17. Thorium sorption by hydroxides of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of thorium microquantities by hydroxides of bi-, tri-, and tetravalent metals in coprecipitation conditions is investigated. It is shown that sorptive ability of of metal hydroxides relative to thorium decreases with increase of pH value of precipitation beginning, that is with decrease of acidic properties of the collectors in a row Sn(1.1)>Ti(1.1)>Zr(0.8)>Fe(2.0)>Ga(2.8)>In(3.4)>Al(4.0)>Cr(5.)>Be(6.0). It is determined that thorium sorption by metal hydroxides takes place as a result of acid-base interaction between micro- and macrocomponents through heterohydroxocomplex formation type

  18. A retrospective, pooled data analysis of the safety of pegaptanib sodium in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration in subjects with or without diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dombi Theresa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the safety of pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg intravitreal injection in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in subjects with or without diabetes mellitus. Methods A pooled, retrospective, analysis was conducted of data from 9 sponsor-administered, randomized, open-label trials. Subjects who received pegaptanib by randomization or change in dose assignment, crossover design, or protocol amendment, were included. Reports of endophthalmitis, increased intraocular pressure, retinal injury, intraocular hemorrhage, traumatic cataract, hypersensitivity reactions, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other arterial thromboembolic events defined by the Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration were identified by Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities preferred terms. Adverse events were summarized from the first injection to 42 days after the last injection. The incidence of adverse events was stratified by the presence/absence of diabetes. Results Of 1,586 subjects enrolled, 165 (10.4% had a history of diabetes mellitus and 1,421 (89.6% did not. The 2 populations were similar at baseline. Based on the comparison of prespecified ocular, hypersensitivity, and Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration event terms, the safety review did not identify any notable differences between the 2 populations. Conclusions This retrospective analysis found no increased safety risk resulting from treatment with pegaptanib 0.3 mg in individuals with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and concomitant diabetes mellitus.

  19. Cryogenic and room temperature strength of sapphire jointed by hydroxide-catalysis bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxide-catalysis bonding is a precision technique used for jointing components in opto-mechanical systems and has been implemented in the construction of quasi-monolithic silica suspensions in gravitational wave detectors. Future detectors are likely to operate at cryogenic temperatures which will lead to a change in test mass and suspension material. One candidate material is mono-crystalline sapphire. Here results are presented showing the influence of various bonding solutions on the strength of the hydroxide-catalysis bonds formed between sapphire samples, measured both at room temperature and at 77 K, and it is demonstrated that sodium silicate solution is the most promising in terms of strength, producing bonds with a mean strength of 63 MPa. In addition the results show that the strengths of bonds were undiminished when tested at cryogenic temperatures. (paper)

  20. Chromatographic separation of uranium(VI) by use of gel containing titanium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been made on the separation of uranium (VI) from various metals with a column, packed with the gel containing titanium hydroxide. Gel particles as carrier were prepared with acrylamide, N,N-methylenebisacrylamide and titanium hydroxide. Uranium (VI) was able to be eluted almost quantitatively from the gel column, which consisted of the gel particles ((20 -- 100) mesh), by 0.1 M sodium carbonate solution. On the other hand, dilute hydrochloric acid ((0.1 -- 0.2)M) was employed as eluting agent for nickel (II) and iron (III). It was observed that uranium (VI) was able to be separated from nickel (II) and iron (III), but could not be separated from barium (II) and lanthanum (III). Uranium (VI) could be recovered more than 90% when the solution containing 93 ?g of uranium (VI) as well as 200 ?g each of nickel (II) and iron (III) was used. (auth.)

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles by Hydroxide Mediated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Maheshwari Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles or nanoceria were synthesized by hydroxide mediated approach using cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO33.6H2O and sodium hydroxide (NaOH as precursors. Structural and morphological studies of the cerium oxide nanoparticles were carried out using X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. XRD pattern confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the cerium nanoparticles with face centered cubic structure. Crystallite size was calculated using Debye Scherrer formula and the size was found to be in the range of 9-16 nm. SEM studies revealed the formation of nanosized spherical particles around 18-30.4 nm. The absorption band at 550.84 cm-1 (Ce-O stretch in FTIR spectrum confirmed the formation of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Optical studies were carried out using UV-Visible absorbance spectrophotometry and a well defined absorbance peak was observed around 325 nm.

  2. Aluminum Solubility Model for Hanford Tank Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of aluminum in Hanford tank waste is a critical issue that fundamentally impacts the planning basis for treating waste at Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant. Dissolving or leaching aluminum from Hanford tank sludges and maintaining its solubility during pretreatment requires the addition of large amounts of sodium hydroxide. Recent estimates suggest that added sodium may result in nearly doubling the amount of Low-Activity Waste (LAW). On the other hand, aluminum (as aluminate) often shows very high solubility in Hanford tank waste supernatants. There are many reports of tank farm supernatants with aluminum concentrations in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 M, considerably higher than predicted by current models with the measured free hydroxide concentrations. This paper proposes an aluminum solubility model that is consistent with these observations by taking into account not only the free hydroxide, but three additional characteristics of these complex waste mixtures: 1) Low water activity that appears to stabilize aluminate in solution and is caused by high amounts of dissolved salts in waste concentrates; 2) Carbonate appears to further stabilize aluminate in solution; and 3) High TOC (total organic carbon) in waste also appears to stabilize soluble aluminate. This paper shows this 'water activity' aluminum solubility model is consistent with a large number of tank farm assays and may therefore be useful for Site planning. The well-known dependence of Al solubility on hydroxide concentration occurs by means of formation of soluble aluminate, Al(OH)4-. Although it has also been long recognized that changes in species activities are important for highly concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions, the role of water activity has not yet been well defined. The water-activity model herein developed seems to be consistent with the large amount of data for the simple system of NaOH, Al(OH)3, and H2O, including temperature. Moreover, this paper shows additional roles for carbonate (TIC) and TOC for enhancing Al solubility in Hanford waste concentrates. If validated, the water-activity model could prove very useful in waste treatment planning not only at Hanford, but at Savannah River Site as well. (authors)

  3. Chemical dispersants and pre-treatments to determine clay in soils with different mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil physical properties, including the clay content, is of utmost importance for agriculture. The behavior of apparently similar soils can differ in intrinsic characteristics determined by different formation processes and nature of the parent material. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of separate or combined pre-treatments, dispersion methods and chemical dispersant agents to determine clay in some soil classes, selected according to their mineralogy. Two Brazilian Oxisols, two Alfisols and one Mollisol with contrasting mineralogy were selected. Different treatments were applied: chemical substances as dispersants (lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and hexametaphosphate; pre-treatment with dithionite, ammonium oxalate, and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate organic matter; and coarse sand as abrasive and ultrasound, to test their mechanical action. The conclusion was drawn that different treatments must be applied to determine clay, in view of the soil mineralogy. Lithium hydroxide was not efficient to disperse low-CEC electropositive soils and very efficient in dispersing high-CEC electronegative soils. The use of coarse sand as an abrasive increased the clay content of all soils and in all treatments in which dispersion occurred, with or without the use of chemical dispersants. The efficiency of coarse sand is not the same for all soil classes.

  4. Ruminal parameters of bovines fed diets based on sugar cane with doses of calcium hydroxide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Menezes, Dias; Luís Carlos Vinhas, Ítavo; Julio Cesar, Damasceno; Geraldo Tadeu dos, Santos; Ériklis, Nogueira; Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira, Ítavo.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the administration of different doses of calcium hydroxide mixed with sugar cane fed to cows by the pH, ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids concentration in ruminal content. Four cows with fistulated rumen were distributed in a Latin square (4 × 4) i [...] n split plot. The treatments involved adding doses of 0, 8, 16 and 24 g/kg of calcium hydroxide to sugar cane in natura. Samples of rumen fluid were collected and the pH and concentration of N-NH3 was determined before (time zero) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 hours after the feeding time. The concentration of volatile fatty acids at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours was also determined. The calcium hydroxide contributed to maintain the pH of rumen fluid close to neutral. The average concentrations of N-NH3 in the ruminal fluid was 20.59, 20.49, 17.28 and 18.22 mg/100 mL for samples with calcium hydroxide at 0, 8, 16, 24 g/kg, respectively. There was an effect of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the volatile fatty acids concentration from before feeding until 12 hours after feeding time. There was an effect on doses tested for the concentration of volatile fatty acids. The calcium hydroxide added to the sugar cane influences on ruminal parameters. The dose of approximately 10 g of calcium hydroxide per kg sugar cane in natura is recommended.

  5. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO2 are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO2 present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs

  6. Formation of chromia from amorphous chromium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Musi?, Svetozar; Maljkovi?, Miroslava; Popovi?, Stanko; Trojko, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    Forced hydrolysis of Cr(NO3)(3) in a solution of decomposing urea was investigated. Chromium hydroxide precipitates were amorphous for the final pH values up to similar to 9 to 9.5. Heating of amorphous chromium hydroxide up to 360 degrees C produced Cr2O3 crystallites of the order of 20 nm, whereas after heating up to 825 degrees C the crystallite size of Cr2O3 increased to the order of 100 nm. Crystallization of Cr2O3 was also monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy. TGA/DTA curves, recorded in air...

  7. Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones: synthesis, facile morphological and structural modification, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Renzhi; Liang, Jianbo; Wang, Chengxiang; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhou, Kechao; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-10-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones intercalated with DS- have been synthesized for the first time via a convenient synthetic approach, using homogeneous precipitation in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS plays a significant role in controlling the morphologies of as-synthesized samples. Conical samples intercalated with various anions were transformed through an anion-exchange route in ethanol solution, and the original conical structure was perfectly maintained. Additionally, these DS--inserted nanocones can be transformed into square-like nanoplates in aqueous solution at room temperature, fulfilling the need for different morphology-dependent properties. Corresponding ZnO nanocones and nanoplates have been further obtained through the thermal calcination of NO3--intercalating zinc hydroxide nanocones/nanoplates. These ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies exhibit promising photocatalytic properties.Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones intercalated with DS- have been synthesized for the first time via a convenient synthetic approach, using homogeneous precipitation in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS plays a significant role in controlling the morphologies of as-synthesized samples. Conical samples intercalated with various anions were transformed through an anion-exchange route in ethanol solution, and the original conical structure was perfectly maintained. Additionally, these DS--inserted nanocones can be transformed into square-like nanoplates in aqueous solution at room temperature, fulfilling the need for different morphology-dependent properties. Corresponding ZnO nanocones and nanoplates have been further obtained through the thermal calcination of NO3--intercalating zinc hydroxide nanocones/nanoplates. These ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies exhibit promising photocatalytic properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Typical SEM images, TGA curves and XRD patterns of as-prepared samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04166f

  8. Physical, morphological and rheological alterations of properties by the calcination of aluminium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolution of physical, morphological and rheological characteristics resulted from several thermal treatments on national aluminium hydroxide, are evaluated and discussed after mercury porosimetry analysis, scanning electron microscopy, surface area and pressure curve compaction. The results may consider about the Kinetics of the reaction during the aglomerate calcination and to verify the better processing conditions to get products with superior performance. (Autor)

  9. Development of Drug Delivery Systems Based on Layered Hydroxides for Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Barahuie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Layered hydroxides (LHs have recently fascinated researchers due to their wide application in various fields. These inorganic nanoparticles, with excellent features as nanocarriers in drug delivery systems, have the potential to play an important role in healthcare. Owing to their outstanding ion-exchange capacity, many organic pharmaceutical drugs have been intercalated into the interlayer galleries of LHs and, consequently, novel nanodrugs or smart drugs may revolutionize in the treatment of diseases. Layered hydroxides, as green nanoreservoirs with sustained drug release and cell targeting properties hold great promise of improving health and prolonging life.

  10. Radioactive sludge and wastewater analysis and treatment in the Hungarian VVER-440/213-type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that in the Hungarian VVER-type nuclear power plant Paks the radioactive waste waters are collected in common tanks. These water streams contain radioactive isotopes in ultra-low concentration and inactive compounds as major components (borate 1.7 g/dm3, sodium-nitrate 0.4 g/dm3, sodium-hydroxide 0.16 g/dm3, and oxalate 0.25 g/dm3). These low salinity solutions were evaporated by adding sodium-hydroxide, until 400 g/dm3 salt content is reached. There is about 6000 m3 concentrated evaporator bottom residues in the tanks of the reactor. There are some tanks at the power plant containing sludge type radioactive waste containing more or less liquid phase too. The general physical and chemical characteristics (density, pH, total solid, dissolved solid etc.) and chemical and radiochemical composition are important information for volume reduction and solidification treatment of these wastes. We have investigated and constructed a complex analysis system for the radioactive sludge and supernatant analysis, including the physical, as well as the chemical and radiochemical analysis methods. Using well known analysis techniques as ion chromatography, ICP-MS, AAS, gamma-and alpha-spectrometry and chemical alkaline fusion digestion and acidic dissolution methods we could analyze the main inorganic, organic and radioactive components of the sludges and supernatants. Determination of the mass and charge balance for the sludge samples were more difficult then for the supernatant samples. Not only are there assumptions required about the chemical form and the oxidation state of the species present in the sludge, but many of the compounds in the sludge are mixed oxides which are not directly measured. Also, the sludge is actually a slurry with a high water content. The interstitial liquid is in close contact with the sludge, and there are many ionic solubility equilibriums. The anion data for the sludge samples are based on the water soluble anions that would be available to a water wash. The water wash would not account for the insoluble hydroxides, carbonates, and mixed oxides present. The insoluble species do not contribute to the charge balance, and the cation charge is not used in the calculation. Most of the nitrate reported for the sludge is due to the interstitial liquid. Considering the limitations of these calculations, the mass balance was within the analytical error (±20%) for the sludge samples. There were three sample preparation methods used to investigate the total anion content of the sludge samples, which included water leach, potassium-hydroxide and/or sodium peroxide/sodium hydroxide fusion and acidic dissolution. (author)

  11. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sugars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective production of hexitols (sorbitol and mannitol was achieved from sugars by means of nickel nanoparticles supported on aluminium hydroxide (NiNPs/AlOH catalyst. NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was prepared by a simple and benign environmentally procedure using less amount of sodium hydroxide. ICP-AES and XRD analyses confirmed that the NiNPs/AlOH catalysts comprised a large amount of remained aluminium hydroxide (i.e. bayerite and gibbsite. The presence of aluminium hydroxide caused a high dispersion Ni metal species. The average Ni crystallite sizes that derived from the Scherrer`s equation for former R-Ni and NiNPs/AlOH were 8.6 nm and 4.1 nm, respectively. The catalyst exhibited high activity and selectivity both hydrogenolysis of disaccharides (sucrose and cellobiose and monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and xylose at 403 K for 24 h. The NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was found to be reusable for at least five consecutive runs without any significant loss of activity and selectivity. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 21st December 2012; Revised: 7th February 2013; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Shimazu, S. (2013. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sug-ars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 40-46. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46] | View in  |

  12. Pre-harvest treatments with fungicides and post-harvest dips in sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest decay in stone fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Barberis, A; Satta, D; De Pau, L; Schirra, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different commercial formulations of fungicides containing one or more active ingredients in controlling postharvest decay of Thyrinthos and Boccuccia apricots, Red top peaches and Caldesi nectarines. Field treatments consisted of two sprays with cupric compounds, at the end of leaf fall and before bud swelling, one with sulfur compound, at fruit about half final size stage, and one with one of the following commercial formulations at the label suggested rates, one week before harvest: Teldor (fenexamid 50%; Bayer Crop Protection), Folicur (Tebuconazole 4.35%; Bayer Crop Protection), Signum (boscalid 26.7%, pyraclostrobin 6.7%; Basf Crop Protection), Score (difenoconazole 23.23%, Syngenta Crop Protection) and Switch (cyprodinil 37.5%, fludioxonil 25%, Syngenta Crop Protection). After harvest the fruit were stored for 1 week at 6 degrees C and 90% RH followed by 1 week at 20 degrees C and 60% RH to simulate retail conditions, or placed directly at 20 degrees C. All formulations significantly reduced decay in all cultivars. Switch, Signum and Folicur were the most active, while Score was slightly less effective. Teldor activity was low, especially in Thyrintos apricots, where the percentage of rotten fruit was slightly lower than in control fruit. Brown rot was the most representative disease, but in apricots a high percentage of fruit was affected by blue mold and grey mold. Rhizopus rot generally developed as a secondary disease on fruit previously affected by other pathogens and was more frequent in control and Teldor treated fruit. Preharvest sprays with Signum 3 days before harvest reduced postharvest decay after 1 week storage at 20 degrees C in Glo haven peaches and Venus nectarine harvested at advanced stage of maturity. Combining pre-harvest sprays with Signum and a 2-min postharvest dip in 2% sodium bicarbonate at 20 degrees C further reduced decay. In Sothern regions of Italy, the use of synthetic fungicides only immediately before harvest in years when the weather conditions are not favorable to brown rot and other pathogens inducing postharvest decay, combined with a postharvest treatment with sodium bicarbonate could be a feasible integrated approach to reduce the risk of selection of resistant strains of fungi to synthetic fungicides while controlling effectively postharvest decay. PMID:23878974

  13. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  14. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  15. Biocompatibility of Intracanal Medications Based on Calcium Hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Andolfatto; Guilherme Ferreira da Silva; Ana Livia Gomes Cornélio; Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru; Mario Tanomaru-Filho; Gisele Faria; Idomeo Bonetti-Filho; Paulo Sérgio Cerri

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue reaction to calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments, UltraCal XS (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, aqueous matrix), Hydropast (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, and propyleneglycol), and Calen (Calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, colophony, and polyethyleneglycol), used as a control. Methods. Forty-eight rats (Rattus Norvegicus Holtzman) were distributed in three groups: Calen, UltraCal XS, and Hydropast. Poly...

  16. Recycling Lithium Carbonate/Lithium Hydroxide Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, J.; Flowers, J.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste disposal problem eliminated by regeneration. Li2CO3/ LiOH recycling process relies on low solubility of alkali carbonates in corresponding hydroxides. Li2CO3 precipitate calcined to LI2O, then rehydrated LiOH. Regeneration eliminates need to dispose caustic waste and uses less energy than simple calcination of entire waste mass.

  17. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edson Luiz, Foletto; Ederson, Gratieri; Leonardo Hadlich de, Oliveira; Sérgio Luiz, Jahn.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produ [...] ced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA) and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reaction mixture (expressed in terms of molar ratios NaOH/SiO2 and H2O/SiO2). About 90% silica conversion contained in the RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in closed system at 200 °C. The results showed that sodium silicate production from RHA can generate aggregate value to this residue.

  18. Transcriptional response of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 sessile cells to treatments with high doses of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Hans

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria are opportunistic pathogens, which can cause severe respiratory tract infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. As treatment of infected CF patients is problematic, multiple preventive measures are taken to reduce the infection risk. Besides a stringent segregation policy to prevent patient-to-patient transmission, clinicians also advise patients to clean and disinfect their respiratory equipment on a regular basis. However, problems regarding the efficacy of several disinfection procedures for the removal and/or killing of B. cepacia complex bacteria have been reported. In order to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance of biofilm-grown Burkholderia cenocepacia cells against high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS, the present study focussed on the transcriptional response in sessile B. cenocepacia J2315 cells following exposure to high levels of H2O2 or NaOCl. Results The exposure to H2O2 and NaOCl resulted in an upregulation of the transcription of 315 (4.4% and 386 (5.4% genes, respectively. Transcription of 185 (2.6% and 331 (4.6% genes was decreased in response to the respective treatments. Many of the upregulated genes in the NaOCl- and H2O2-treated biofilms are involved in oxidative stress as well as general stress response, emphasizing the importance of the efficient neutralization and scavenging of ROS. In addition, multiple upregulated genes encode proteins that are necessary to repair ROS-induced cellular damage. Unexpectedly, a prolonged treatment with H2O2 also resulted in an increased transcription of multiple phage-related genes. A closer inspection of hybridisation signals obtained with probes targeting intergenic regions led to the identification of a putative 6S RNA. Conclusion Our results reveal that the transcription of a large fraction of B. cenocepacia J2315 genes is altered upon exposure of sessile cells to ROS. These observations have highlighted that B. cenocepacia may alter several pathways in response to exposure to ROS and they have led to the identification of many genes not previously implicated in the stress response of this pathogen.

  19. Digestibility and energetic value of agricultural wastes as affected by gamma irradiation and chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to study the changes in the values of in-vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy lactation (NEL) of wheat straw, sunflower seed shell, olive cake wood, date palm seeds and peanut shell after spraying with different concentrations of hydrobromic acid (HBr) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0,3,6 ml HBr and 3,6 g NaOH/25 ml water/100 g Dm) or after exposure to various doses of gamma radiation (0, 20, 40, 60 kGy). Results indicated that, except for the date palm seeds, the chemical treatments with either HBr or NaOH significantly (P<0.05) increased IVOMD, Me and NEL values for all treated samples. The experimental agricultural wastes did not respond equally to the chemical treatments investigated, i.e. they differ in the induced increases pertaining to their IVOMD, ME and NEL. The highest changes in the studied parameters due to chemical treatments were obtained when applying the 6% concentration. There was no significant effect (P<0.05) of irradiation on IVOMD, ME and NEL values for all treated samples. Moreover, the combined treatments of irradiation and hydrobromic acid or sodium hydroxide were found to have no significant affects on the IVOMD, ME and NEL values compared to the individual chemical treatments. (author)

  20. Digestibility and energetic value of some agricultural wastes as affected by gamma irradiation and chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to study the changes in the values of in-vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy lactation (NEL) of wheat straw, sunflower seed shell, olive cake wood, date palm seeds and peanut shell after spraying with different concentrations of hydrobromic acid (HBr) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0,3,6 ml HBr and 3,6 g NaOH/25 ml water/100 g DM) or after exposure to various doses of gamma radiation (0, 20, 40, 60 kGy). Results indicated that, except for the date palm seeds, the chemical treatments with either HBr or NaOH significantly (P<0.05) increased IVOMD, Me and NEL values for all treated samples. The experimental agricultural wastes did not respond equally to the chemical treatments investigated, i.e. they differ in the induced increases pertaining to their IVOMD, ME and NEL. The highest changes in the studied parameters due to chemical treatments were obtained when applying the 6% concentration. There was no significant effect (P<0.05) of irradiation on IVOMD, ME and NEL values for all treated samples. Moreover, the combined treatments of irradiation and hydrobromic acid or sodium hydroxide were found to have no significant affects on the IVOMD, ME and NEL values compared to the individual chemical treatments. (author)

  1. Phosphoric ore treatment by roasting it with sodium carbonate and leaching it with ammonium citrate for the recovery of soluble phosphate and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By thermal treatment of phosphoric ore, with low phosphorus contents and iron, aluminum, and silicon impurities, basic fertilizers with P2O5 soluble in citric acid or ammonium citrate, can be produced. The phosphoric ore lightly grinded with alkaline salts like CO3Na2 y SiO2 is roasted between 800 to 1 000°C in rotary kilns. The roasted material contains from 25–30% of alkaline phosphates soluble in citrates. Phosphoric ore from the province of Napo-Ecuador with 24% of P2O5, 40% CaO in form of apatite, 20% of SiO2 and 7 g/ton U is tested by thermic differential analysis, roasting at 800°C for 2 hours with 50% w/w of sodium carbonate and 2% w/w of SiO2 by using a Nichols pilot furnace with 15 L of capacity which uses gas (propane-butane) as fuel, and agitated leaching with ammonium citrate (5% w/w). The initial ore and products are characterized by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Perkin Elmer AA400) and x-ray diffraction (Bruker D8 Advance). In the best conditions, 32% of phosphorus soluble in water is obtained as well as 40% of phosphorus and 56% uranium soluble in ammonium citrate. (author)

  2. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary

  3. Ultrasound efficiency in relation to sodium hypochlorite and filtration adsorption in microbial elimination in a water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processes like ultrasound, chlorination and filtration-adsorption were compared to eliminate microorganisms and to adjust established parameters of public drinking water. A mini water treatment plant (WTP-CB, in pilot scale, was projected and built to evaluate each process influence as: decontamination, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. Total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and heterotrophic bacteria and physic/chemical parameters were quantified from water. Ultrasound, chlorination and filtration-adsorption were efficient to inactivate and/or eliminate bacteria. Ultrasound decontamination in addition to coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration, could be considered as an alternative treatment water solution where prechlorination, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration were used. The chlorination itself was efficient in inactivating bacteria despite of the coagulation-flocculation process; however, in the absence of the coagulation process, the resultant water did not achieve the established parameters. The filtration-adsorption was an important process to eliminate bacteria, showing that the filter retained particles, suspended solids, besides chemical substances and microorganisms.Comparou-se diferentes processos: ultra-som, cloração e filtração/adsorção para eliminação de microrganismos e adequação de outros parâmetros exigidos para água de abastecimento público. Para avaliar a influência de cada processo: desinfecção, coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração foi projetada e construída uma Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA-CB em escala piloto. Foram avaliados coliformes, bactérias heterotróficas e parâmetros físico/químicos. Ondas ultra-sônicas, cloração e filtração/adsorção mostraram-se eficientes na inativação e/ou eliminação de bactérias. O processo de desinfecção com ultra-som juntamente com a coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração, pode ser considerado como um tratamento alternativo do processo tradicional onde utiliza-se pré-cloração, coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração. A cloração mostrou-se eficiente na inativação de bactérias, independente da aplicação do processo de coagulação/floculação, porém na ausência desse processo à água resultante não atingiu a especificação de potabilidade. A filtração/adsorção mostrou-se importante na eliminação de bactérias, evidenciando que o filtro retém partículas, sólidos suspensos, substâncias químicas e microrganismos.

  4. Chemical treatment of roughage / Tratamento químico de volumosos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Leandro Sampaio Oliveira, Ribeiro.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento químico de volumosos tem sido objeto de estudos há muito tempo. Entretanto, até hoje muitas dúvidas são levantadas sobre a eficiência dos aditivos utilizados no que se refere à variação das respostas seja no valor nutritivo dos volumosos tratados, seja no desempenho dos animais alimenta [...] dos com dietas contendo estes volumosos. Esta revisão abordará os principais e mais utilizados produtos químicos, que são a amônia anidra, a uréia, o hidróxido de sódio e o óxido de cálcio. Tem-se verificado que a amonização (tanto com amônia anidra quanto uréia) tem apresentado resultados mais eficientes no desempenho animal quando comparada ao hidróxido de sódio ou óxido de cálcio. Entretanto, em relação ao valor nutritivo, tanto o hidróxido de sódio quanto o óxido de cálcio têm apresentado maior eficiência na redução da parede celular e no aumento da digestibilidade de volumosos tratados. Abstract in english Chemical treatment of roughage has been the aim of studies for a long time. However, until nowadays, many questions are arisen due to the efficiency of additives used in relation to the variation of answers, either in nutritive value of treated roughage or in performance of animals feed with diet co [...] ntaining such roughage. This revision will approach the main and most used products, which are anhydrous ammonia, urea, sodium hydroxide and calcium oxide. It has been noticed that ammonization (both for anhydrous ammonia and urea) has presented more efficient result in animal's performance when compared with sodium hydroxide or calcium oxide. However, regarding its nutritive value, both sodium hydroxide and calcium oxide have presented a higher efficiency in the decreasing of cell wall and in the increase of treated roughage' digestibility.

  5. A retrospective study of intravenous sodium stibogluconate alone and in combinations with allopurinol, rifampicin, and an immunomodulator in the treatment of Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A retrospective analysis of treatment outcome using recommended dose of sodium stibogluconate (SSG alone and in combination with other antileishmanial drugs in adults with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL attending as outpatients. Methods: A total of 61 patients seen over ten years were included in the report. All had polymorphic lesions. Diagnosis was based on clinical picture, hailing from kala-azar (KA endemic area, exclusion of other dermatoses, histopathology, and therapeutic response. Patients were distributed into two groups: Group I (n = 32, where SSG was given intravenously; in Group II (n = 29, they were allocated to one of four categories using SSG in combination with other drugs. In the first category, SSG was given along with allopurinol (n = 10; in second with rifampicin (n = 6; and in third with both allopurinol and rifampicin (n = 5. In the fourth category, SSG was administered with an immunomodulator (n = 8, Mw vaccine, known to enhance host Th1 response. Results: Only 12 out of 61 patients completed treatment till histopathologic evidence of cure, five in Group I and seven in Group II, no patient being from third category. None had taken SSG without interruptions. Time taken for papulonodules to subside was similar in both groups, but erythema and induration subsided earlier in Group II. Group I patients attained cure after 120 injections while in Group II it took 95 injections in SSG + allopurinol and Mw vaccine categories respectively, and 110 with SSG + rifampicin. Nevertheless this was insufficient to facilitate compliance. Poor performance and high dropouts related to long duration of therapy, thrombophlebitis, difficulty in accessing veins, disabling rheumatic side-effects and practical problems. Liver, renal and pancreatic functions and ECG remained normal. Conclusion: No major advantage was obtained using allopurinol, rifampicin or Mw vaccine along with SSG as compared to SSG alone.

  6. Comparative study of actinic keratosis treatment with 3% diclofenac sodium and 5% 5-fluorouracil / Estudo comparativo do tratamento de ceratoses actinicas com diclofenaco sodico 3% e 5-fluorouracil 5%

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Majorie Mergen, Segatto; Sergio Ivan Torres, Dornelles; Vera Bauer, Silveira; Gabriela de Oliveira, Frantz.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Ceratose actínica é uma lesão frequente que ocorre em áreas de exposição solar. Diclofenaco sódico e 5-Fluorouracil são opções de tratamento tópico efetivo, não invasivo e de fácil aplicação. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar e comparar a efetividade do diclofenaco sódico 3% associado ao ácido h [...] ialurônico 2,5% e do 5-fluorouracil 5% no tratamento de ceratose actínica, assim como a tolerabilidade e o grau de satisfação do paciente. MÉTODOS: 28 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de ceratoses actínicas foram randomizados para receber diclofenaco sódico ou 5-fluorouracil e foram avaliados clinicamente antes, ao término e após 8 semanas do tratamento. Utilizou-se o Escore de Melhora Global do Investigador e do Paciente, ambos modificados. RESULTADOS: A média de lesões no grupo do diclofenaco sódico antes e depois do tratamento foi de 13,6 e 6,6 (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis is a frequent lesion which occurs in sunlight exposed areas. Diclofenac sodium and 5-Fluorouracil are effective, non-invasive and easy-to-apply topical treatment options. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effectiveness of 3% diclofenac sodium associated with 2 [...] .5% hyaluronic acid and of 5% 5-Fluorouracil for the treatment of actinic keratosis, as well as the patient's degree of satisfaction and tolerability. METHODS: 28 patients with a clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis were randomized to receive diclofenac sodium or 5-Fluorouracil and were clinically assessed before and after treatment as well as 8 weeks after the end of treatment. Modified versions of the Investigator and Patient Global Improvement Scores were used. RESULTS: The average number of lesions in the diclofenac sodium group before and after treatment was 13.6 and 6.6 (p

  7. Pooled safety analysis of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w in the treatment of osteoarthritis in patients aged 75 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth SH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Phoenix, AZ, 2Medical Affairs, Mallinckrodt Inc, Hazelwood, MOBackground: This study aimed to determine the safety of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w in 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo for the treatment of knee or hand osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older.Methods: A pooled analysis of safety data from seven multicenter, randomized, blinded, Phase III clinical trials (4–12 weeks' duration of TDiclo was conducted. The analysis focused on a subset of patients (n = 280 aged 75 years or older with a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee (six trials or hand (one trial. Patients received one of three topical treatments: TDiclo (n = 138; placebo (2.33% or 4.55% dimethyl sulfoxide, n = 39; or control (45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide, n = 103. Treatment groups were compared using Chi-square analysis, Fisher's Exact test, or analysis of variance.Results: The most common adverse events involved the skin or subcutaneous tissue, primarily at the application site. The incidence of dry skin was higher in the TDiclo (36.2%; P < 0.0001 and dimethyl sulfoxide control (18.4%; P = 0.0142 groups than in the placebo group (2.6%; the incidence of other skin or subcutaneous tissue adverse events was similar between the groups. Relatively few patients (<18% experienced gastrointestinal adverse events, and group differences were not detected. In the TDiclo group, constipation (3.6%, diarrhea (3.6%, and nausea (3.6% were the most common gastrointestinal adverse events. Cardiovascular and renal/urinary adverse events were rare, and group differences were not detected. There was one case (0.7% each of hypertension, spider veins, and vasodilation in the TDiclo group. Changes from baseline to the final visit in blood pressure and hepatic/renal enzyme levels were also similar between the groups.Conclusion: TDiclo appears to be well tolerated for the treatment of osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older.Keywords: adverse events, analgesic, arthritis, gastrointestinal, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tolerability

  8. Non-spherical gold nanoparticles mediated surface plasmon resonance in Er{sup 3+} doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses: Role of heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, Asmahani; Ghoshal, S.K., E-mail: krishnasib@gmail.com; Sahar, M.R.; Arifin, R.; Nawaz, Fakhra

    2014-05-01

    Tuning the enhanced optical properties of rare earth (RE) doped inorganic glasses mediated via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by embedding metallic nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled sizes is ever-demanding in photonics. Erbium (Er{sup 3+}) doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses containing gold NPs are prepared and spectroscopic characterization are made. The heat treatment temperature dependent variations in refractive index, density, molar volume, molar refraction and polarizability are ascribed to the alteration in bonding of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) ions originates from annealing processes between 325 and 400 °C. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the glass samples. TEM micrograph reveals the nucleation of heat treated Au{sup 0} NPs and SAED manifest their growth along the (1 1 1) crystallographic planes having average diameter in the range 7.4–10.3 nm. The UV–vis spectra exhibit seven absorption bands corresponding to 4f–4f transitions of Er{sup 3+} ions. The SPR bands evidenced in the range 629–631 nm validate the growth of gold NPs in the glass matrix. The glass annealed at 350 °C displays maximum enhancement in the up-conversion (UC) emission intensity by a factor of 4.86 and 3.40 for green bands ({sup 2}H{sub 11/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) and a strong enhancement by a factor of 4.91 for red band ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}). The enhancement is primarily attributed to the local field effect of non-spherical NPs assisted SPR effects and the energy transfer processes between Er{sup 3+} ions and NPs. The excellent luminescence efficiency of proposed glasses nominates them potential for photonic devices and solid state lasers. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles embedded Er{sup 3+}-doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses heat treated with different annealing temperatures have been synthesized. • Growth of NPs modifies physical properties by alteration in bonding between ligands and glass structure. • Variations in size and shape of NPs stimulated the enhancement or quenching in luminescence intensity. • Plasmonic effect preferably SPR from gold NPs exert prominent enhancement in UC emission intensity.

  9. Non-spherical gold nanoparticles mediated surface plasmon resonance in Er3+ doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses: Role of heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuning the enhanced optical properties of rare earth (RE) doped inorganic glasses mediated via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by embedding metallic nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled sizes is ever-demanding in photonics. Erbium (Er3+) doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses containing gold NPs are prepared and spectroscopic characterization are made. The heat treatment temperature dependent variations in refractive index, density, molar volume, molar refraction and polarizability are ascribed to the alteration in bonding of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) ions originates from annealing processes between 325 and 400 °C. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the glass samples. TEM micrograph reveals the nucleation of heat treated Au0 NPs and SAED manifest their growth along the (1 1 1) crystallographic planes having average diameter in the range 7.4–10.3 nm. The UV–vis spectra exhibit seven absorption bands corresponding to 4f–4f transitions of Er3+ ions. The SPR bands evidenced in the range 629–631 nm validate the growth of gold NPs in the glass matrix. The glass annealed at 350 °C displays maximum enhancement in the up-conversion (UC) emission intensity by a factor of 4.86 and 3.40 for green bands (2H11/2?4I15/2 and 4S3/2?4I15/2) and a strong enhancement by a factor of 4.91 for red band (4F9/2?4I15/2). The enhancement is primarily attributed to the local field effect of non-spherical NPs assisted SPR effects and the energy transfer processes between Er3+ ions and NPs. The excellent luminescence efficiency of proposed glasses nominates them potential for photonic devices and solid state lasers. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles embedded Er3+-doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses heat treated with different annealing temperatures have been synthesized. • Growth of NPs modifies physical properties by alteration in bonding between ligands and glass structure. • Variations in size and shape of NPs stimulated the enhancement or quenching in luminescence intensity. • Plasmonic effect preferably SPR from gold NPs exert prominent enhancement in UC emission intensity

  10. Hydrogen production coupled to nuclear waste treatment: the safe treatment of alkali metals through a well-demonstrated process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the United Nations emphasised the urgent need to act against the perpetuation of disparities between and within nations, the worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy and the continuing deterioration of ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being. In this framework, taking into account the preservation of both worldwide energy resources and ecosystems, the use of nuclear energy to produce clean energy carriers, such as hydrogen, is undoubtedly advisable. However, coping fully with the Agenda 21 statements requires defining adequate treatment processes for nuclear wastes. This paper discusses the possible use of a well-demonstrated process to convert radioactively contaminated alkali metals into sodium hydroxide while producing hydrogen. We conclude that a synergy between Chlor-Alkali specialists and nuclear specialists may help find an acceptable solution for radioactively contaminated sodium waste. (author)

  11. Comparison of the effects of pre-treatment with sodium chloride, sucrose and trehalose on developmental competence porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, L; Kragh, P M

    2009-01-01

    Modified environmental stress was reported to improve the developmental competence and cryotolerance of porcine oocytes, such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP; Du et al. 2008 Cloning Stem Cells, Epub ahead of print) and osmotic stress (Lin et al. 2008 Reprod. Biomed. Online, in press). HHP also improved the cryotolerance of bovine and murine blastocysts (Pribenszky et al. 2005a Reprod. Dom. Anim. 40, 338-344; Pribenszky et al. 2005b Anim. Reprod. Sci. 87, 143-150). In the present study we compared the effects of NaCl with that of concentrated solutions of two non-permeable osmotic agents, sucrose and trehalose on in vitro maturated oocytes. A total of 2050 slaughterhouse-derived porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured for 41-42 h, and then put into 800 ?L T2 (HEPES-buffered TCM-199 [Earle's salts] with 2% cattle serum) supplemented with additional NaCl, sucrose or trehalose with the same osmotic level (588 mOsmol) in 4-well dishes and incubated for 1 h at 38.5°C in air. COCs incubated in T2 under the same conditions without supplementation were used as controls. Subsequently COCs were incubated in IVM medium for 1 h at 38.5°C in 5% CO2 with maximum humidity. After this recovery period cumulus cells were removed with 1 mg mL-1 hyaluronidase and pipetting, and oocytes were used as recipients for somatic nuclear transfer with handmade cloning (HMC) method. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were used as nuclear donor cells. Embryo culture was performed in PZM-3 medium (Yoshioka et al. 2002 Biol. Reprod. 66, 112-119) in 5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2 and maximum humidity. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were checked on Day 1 and Day 6, respectively. Cell numbers were counted after fixation in glycerol containing 20 ?g mL-1 Hoechst 33342 fluorochrome on Day 6. t-test was performed for statistical calculations with SPSS 11.0 program (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results are shown in Table 1. Osmotic stress with both permeable and non-permeable agents increased developmental competence of porcine IVM oocytes. NaCl seems to be more appropriate for the purpose, as the other two components resulted in decreased cell number in blastocysts after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In conclusion, a simple NaCl pre-treatment of oocytes has improved the in vitro efficiency of porcine SCNT

  12. Protective Activity of the Mixtures of Pine Oil and Copper Hydroxide against Bacterial Spot and Anthracnose on Red Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woo Soh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to examine the protective activities of the mixtures of pine oil and copper hydroxide against bacterial spot and anthracnose on pepper plants. As for bacterial spot, the treatment of pine oil alone displayed high disease incidence (59.6% and low protective effect (28.9%. In comparison, the treatments of mixtures and copper hydroxide alone showed protective activities of 66.8-76.1%. The mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 suppressed the most effectively bacterial spot on pepper. On the other hand, the mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 also showed the strongest protective effect against pepper anthracnose among the 4 treatments tested; its disease incidence and disease control value were 49.8% and 41.7%, respectively. The other treatments showed low protective activities with control values of 7.4-17.1%. These results suggested that the mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 can be used for the environmental-friendly disease control of bacterial spot and anthracnose on pepper.

  13. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost. PMID:25244259

  14. Tensile behavior contrast of basalt and glass fibers after chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basalt and glass fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid solutions respectively for different periods of time. Both the mass loss ratio and the strength maintenance ratio of the fibers were examined after the treatment. The morphologies of the fiber surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and their compositions were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. For the basalt fibers, the acid resistance was much better than the alkali resistance. Nevertheless, for the glass fibers, the acid resistance was nearly the same as the alkali resistance. Based on the experimental results, possible corrosion mechanisms are addressed.

  15. In situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) is constrained by the decomposition of species at the surface and the absence of OH bulk diffusion. Therefore, it is not possible to prepare such films simply by water exposure to a Calcium layer. We present four different approaches for the preparation of Ca(OH)2 films in an UHV. Two of these methods are found to be ineffective for the preparation, the other two are shown to produce Calcium hydroxide films. Both of the two effective procedures make use of H2 gas exposure. Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy are employed to verify quality and purity of the films.

  16. In situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, S.; Voigts, F. [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Maus-Friedrichs, W., E-mail: w.maus-friedrichs@pe.tu-clausthal.de [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Clausthaler Zentrum fuer Materialtechnik, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2011-10-31

    The in situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) is constrained by the decomposition of species at the surface and the absence of OH bulk diffusion. Therefore, it is not possible to prepare such films simply by water exposure to a Calcium layer. We present four different approaches for the preparation of Ca(OH){sub 2} films in an UHV. Two of these methods are found to be ineffective for the preparation, the other two are shown to produce Calcium hydroxide films. Both of the two effective procedures make use of H{sub 2} gas exposure. Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy are employed to verify quality and purity of the films.

  17. Single sheet metal oxides and hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer the possibility to gain precise control of the structure, composition, morphology, and property of desired nanostructures. In the present Ph.D. project, examples to produce 2D nanosheets with novel funct...

  18. Thermal behaviour of hydroxides, hydroxysalts and hydrotalcites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parthasarathi Bera; Michael Rajamathi; M S Hegde; P Vishnu Kamath

    2000-04-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of gases evolved during thermal decomposition of divalent metal hydroxides, hydroxysalts and hydrotalcites show that all these compounds undergo dehydration in the temperature range 30 < T < 220°C followed by decomposition at temperatures above 250°C. The latter step involves simultaneous deanation and dehydroxylation of the layers. Our observations conclusively prove that alternative mechanisms which envisage CO2 evolution due to deanation at lower temperatures proposed by Kanezaki to be wrong.

  19. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  20. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results indicated that the vaccine was to be held responsible for the formation of granulomas. A clinical trial was then performed to further substantiate the initial hypothesis, by comparing pigs, which were aseptically inoculated twice with either the original vaccine or the adjuvant alone (groups vaccine and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide was the cause of the granulomas.

  1. A phase 2/3, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, 2-year trial of pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Marla B; Zhou, Duo; Loftus, Jane; Dombi, Theresa; Ice, Kathleen S; Larsen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To confirm the safety and compare the efficacy of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg versus sham injections in subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the macula associated with vision loss not due to ischemia.

  2. Effect of three different calcium hydroxide mixtures (calcium hydroxide with glycerine, normal saline and distilled water on root dentin microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasheminia SM

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: During root canal therapy, it is necessary to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal. The use of medicaments is recommended to reduce the microbial population prior to root filling. Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used because of their antibacterial effects and the ability of tissue dissolving. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide/glycerine mixture, calcium hydroxide/normal saline mixture and calcium hydroxide/distilled water mixture on root dentin microhardness in storage times of 7 and 14 days.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, fifteen extracted maxillary canines and central incisors were selected. The crowns of the teeth were removed and the canals were prepared. Teeth were sectioned transversally to produce a total of 30 dentin discs from the middle third of the roots. Specimens were divided into three groups of 10 discs each. Dentin samples were subjected to calcium hydroxide/glycerine, calcium hydroxide/normal saline and calcium hydroxide/distilled water mixtures for 7 and 14 days. Dentin microhardness was measured by a Vickers indenter with a load of 200 g for 15 seconds. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Paired t-test and LSD with p<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: Statistical analysis showed that all three mixtures decreased dentin microhardness. After 7 days, reduction in dentin microhardness by calcium hydroxide/glycerine combination was significantly higher than calcium hydroxide/normal saline and calcium hydroxide/distilled water combinations. After 14 days, reduction in dentin microhardness by calcium hydroxide/distilled water combination was significantly higher than the other two groups.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the use of calcium hydroxide combinations for intracanal dressing reduces dentin microhardness. After 7 days calcium hydroxide/glycerine combination and after 14 days calcium hydroxide/distilled water combination are the most effective combinations.

  3. Characteristic and composition of smokes in sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation ratios of chemical principal compounds appear in smokes of fires up to 50 Kg of sodium in installations for fast reactor researches, were measured for a simulation in a scale of 1:1000. Relations of hydroxide concentrations, carbonate and bicarbonate appear in smokes retained in counter-current washing tower and in dry filters are presented. It is still presented the variation of the temperature profile and composition of burning wastes. (Author)

  4. The effects of potassium and rubidium hydroxide on the alkali-silica reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of mortar specimens prepared with an aggregate of mylonite from the Santa Rosa mylonite zone in southern California was studied to investigate the effect of different alkali ions on the alkali-silica reaction in concrete. The expansion tests indicate that mortar has a greater expansion when subjected to a sodium hydroxide bath than in a sodium-potassium-rubidium hydroxide bath. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of mortar bars at early ages show that rubidium ions, used as tracer, were present throughout the sample by the third day of exposure. The analysis also shows a high concentration of rubidium in silica gel from mortar bars exposed to bath solutions containing rubidium. The results suggest that expansion of mortar bars using ASTM C 1260 does not depend on the diffusion of alkali ions. The results indicate that the expansion of alkali-silica gel depends on the type of alkali ions present. Alkali-silica gel containing rubidium shows a lower concentration of calcium, suggesting competition for the same sites

  5. Structural Analysis Of Alfa Fibers After Chemical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mouallif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, natural fibers are used as reinforcement in composite materials. The Alfa fibers have undergone an alkaline treatment with sodium hydroxide NaOH at a concentration of 10%, during an immersion period of two days. After drying, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used for the analysis of the chemical properties of these fibers which were extracted from the plant Alfa of the region Al Haouz (Morocco in order to study the modifications resulting from the alkaline treatment. The results proved the presence of the cellulose, with an increase in its proportion in those fibers which have undergone an alkaline treatment with NaOH, the presence of lignin and pectin, as well as their disappearance after the alkaline extraction.

  6. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 6000C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-300C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-100C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na2CO3, Na2O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients

  7. Radiochemical study of hydroxide films. III. Deposition of ferric hydroxide films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin ferric hydroxide films with a homogeneous top layer were deposited from solutions on glass substrates. Radiochemical studies showed the manner in which difficulty soluble iron compounds are deposited in thin films and compositional changes in the product formed as a function of growth time. The films and species precipitated in the solutions were found to be ferric hydroxide contaminated with sulfur; and carbon-containing compounds. The composition of the thin films and precipitates varied with deposition time. Film growth, observed to be stepwise, was compared with results of electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and derivatographic studies

  8. The effect of alkaline treatment on tensile properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the effect of alkaline treatment on tensile properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites is presented in this paper. The treatment was carried out using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at two different concentrations and three different soaking times. The hydrophilic nature of sugar palm fibre makes it difficult to adhere to hydrophobic epoxy and therefore posed the problem of interfacial bonding between fibre and matrix and such treatment was needed to alleviate such problem. The composite specimens were tested for tensile property determination. Some fractured specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the microstructure of the materials. Inconsistent results were obtained for tensile strengths, which indicate that the treatment is not very effective yet to improve the interfacial bonding. However, for tensile modulus, the results are much higher than untreated fibre composite specimens, which proved the effectiveness of the treatment

  9. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

  10. Comparison of sodium naphthenate and air-ionization corona discharge as surface treatments for the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene polymer (ETFE) to improve adhesion between ETFE and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) in the presence of a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía Johanning-Solís, Ana; Stradi-Granados, Benito A.

    2014-09-01

    This study compares two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) surface activation treatments, namely chemical attack with a solution of sodium naphthenate and plasma erosion via air-ionization corona discharge in order to improve the adhesive properties of the ETFE. An experimental design was prepared for both treatments in order to assess the effect of the treatment characteristics on the tensile load needed to break the bond between the ETFE and the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) formed with a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA) applied between them. The reason for the selection of this problem is that both polymers are frequently used in the biomedical industry for their properties, and they need to be joined firmly in biomedical devices, and the cyanoacrylate adhesive is the adhesive traditionally used for fluoropolymers, in this case the ETFE, and the same CAA has also shown good adhesion with ABS. However, the strength of the bond for the triplet ETFE-CAA-ABS has not been reported and the improvement of the strength of the bond with surface treatments is not found in scholarly journals for modern medical devices such as stents and snares. Both treatments were compared based on the aforementioned design of experiments. The case where ETFE receives no surface treatment serves as the reference. The results indicated that the three factors evaluated (initial drying of the material, temperature of the chemical bath, and immersion time), and their interactions have no significant effect over the tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of the adhesive bond being evaluated. For the air-ionization corona discharge treatment, two factors were evaluated: discharge exposition time and air pressure. The results obtained from this experimental design indicate that there is no significant difference between the levels of the factors evaluated. These results were unexpected as the ranges used were representative of the maximum ranges permissible in manufacturing operations. As for the comparison of the treatments, it was determined that the treatments have statistically significant differences. It was also determined that there is a significant statistical difference between the processes where a surface treatment is performed and the process where no surface treatment is applied to the ETFE. The chemical treatment results in a higher tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of 276.6 N on average, the air ionization treatment has an average of 248.4 N, and the process with no treatment has the lower ultimate tensile strength average of 53 N. This comparison has demonstrated that the best treatment is the chemical treatment with sodium naphthenate under the conditions tested.

  11. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying, E-mail: clu@nchu.edu.tw; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: A comparison of TMAH adsorption capacity with GO, NaY and GAC is conducted and the result reveals that the magnitude of qe follows the order of GO > NaY > GAC. The adsorption capacity of GO is significantly higher than those of zeolite and activated carbon in this and reported studies, showing its encouraging potential. GO also exhibits good reversibility of TMAH adsorption through 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. This reflects that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of TMAH to GO, NaY and GAC are compared. • Thermodynamics of TMAH adsorption to GO, NaY and GAC is determined. • GO exhibits the highest TMAH adsorption capacity, followed by NaY and GAC. • Recyclabilities of NaY and GO remain above 95% but that of GAC dropped to 70%. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

  12. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A comparison of TMAH adsorption capacity with GO, NaY and GAC is conducted and the result reveals that the magnitude of qe follows the order of GO > NaY > GAC. The adsorption capacity of GO is significantly higher than those of zeolite and activated carbon in this and reported studies, showing its encouraging potential. GO also exhibits good reversibility of TMAH adsorption through 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. This reflects that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of TMAH to GO, NaY and GAC are compared. • Thermodynamics of TMAH adsorption to GO, NaY and GAC is determined. • GO exhibits the highest TMAH adsorption capacity, followed by NaY and GAC. • Recyclabilities of NaY and GO remain above 95% but that of GAC dropped to 70%. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment

  13. Chrysotile as a catalyst for sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate degradation : effect of surfactant concentration above C.M.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachini, A.; Joekes, I. [Universidade Estadual, Campinas (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2000-07-01

    A study of water chemistry was presented which focused on the degradation of the aromatic ring of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) in the presence of chrysotile. SDBS is an organic compound commonly used in many domestic, industrial, commercial and agricultural applications and is responsible for water pollution. Past studies have shown that chrysotile has the ability to degrade SDBS by nearly 84 per cent. In this study, concentrated SDBS aqueous solutions at 25 and 40 degrees C were examined in 4-hour reactions and the turnover number of the reactions was calculated. SDBS was obtained by dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid neutralization with sodium hydroxide. Alternatively, SDBS can be degraded in aerobic or anaerobic treatment plants. Advanced oxidative processes using ultraviolet radiation, ozone, photocatalysts and hydrogen peroxide are being developed to help remove SDBS from wastewater, but these commercial systems are not yet available because of their high costs and poor efficiency. This paper suggested that the use of chrysotile in SDBS degradation is a promising alternative for wastewater treatment. A continuous flow reactor is being developed to establish SDBS degradation to reduce treatment plants scale and residence time of effluent. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  14. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  15. Fabrication of thermoplastic polyester elastomer/layered zinc hydroxide nitrate nanocomposites with enhanced thermal, mechanical and combustion properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei; Ma, Liyan; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study is to explore the potential of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate modified with sodium benzoate as nanoparticle in thermoplastic polyester elastomer (TPEE). The organically modified zinc hydroxide nitrate was compounded with TPEE using solution blending method. The nanocomposite structure was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanoparticle was homogenously dispersed in TPEE matrix, and partially exfoliated structure was formed. The thermal behavior, mechanical and thermal combustion properties of the novel nanocomposite were studied respectively through differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC). For the nanocomposite containing 7 wt% nanoparticle, the crystallization temperature evaluated by DSC was increased by 10 °C. The storage modulus at ?95 °C measured by DMA was improved by around 26%. The heat release capacity (an indicator of a material fire hazard) from MCC testing was reduced by about 56% (compared to the results of neat TPEE). - Highlights: • We prepare zinc hydroxide nitrate modified by sodium benzoate (SB-ZHN). • We prepare and characterize thermoplastic polyester elastomer/SB-ZHN nanocomposites. • We investigate the thermal and combustion properties of the nanocomposites. • We study the thermodynamic properties of the nanocomposites.

  16. Fabrication of thermoplastic polyester elastomer/layered zinc hydroxide nitrate nanocomposites with enhanced thermal, mechanical and combustion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to explore the potential of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate modified with sodium benzoate as nanoparticle in thermoplastic polyester elastomer (TPEE). The organically modified zinc hydroxide nitrate was compounded with TPEE using solution blending method. The nanocomposite structure was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanoparticle was homogenously dispersed in TPEE matrix, and partially exfoliated structure was formed. The thermal behavior, mechanical and thermal combustion properties of the novel nanocomposite were studied respectively through differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC). For the nanocomposite containing 7 wt% nanoparticle, the crystallization temperature evaluated by DSC was increased by 10 °C. The storage modulus at ?95 °C measured by DMA was improved by around 26%. The heat release capacity (an indicator of a material fire hazard) from MCC testing was reduced by about 56% (compared to the results of neat TPEE). - Highlights: • We prepare zinc hydroxide nitrate modified by sodium benzoate (SB-ZHN). • We prepare and characterize thermoplastic polyester elastomer/SB-ZHN nanocomposites. • We investigate the thermal and combustion properties of the nanocomposites. • We study the thermodynamic properties of the nanocomposites

  17. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meeting the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal Restriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered Best Demonstrated Available Technologies, or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a multiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration

  18. Synthesis of polymer nanocomposites using layered hydroxide salts (LHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work latexes of poly (methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via emulsion polymerization using layered hydroxide salts (LHS) as reinforcements: zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) and copper hydroxide acetate (Cu2(OH)3CH3COO.H2O). The LHSs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Mastersizer analysis indicated the particle diameter of the latexes. Molecular weights and conversion data were also obtained. (author)

  19. Utilization of a waste from titanium oxide industry for the synthesis of sodium ferrate by gas–solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We studied the sodium ferrate (VI) synthesis by solid–gas reactions. • Thermal behavior of iron sulfate is followed through thermogravimetric analysis. • Synthesis of Na–ferrate is achieved at room temperature. • Water and chlorine content affect strongly the synthesis process. • Conversion efficiency of Fe(II) to Fe(VI) of the proposed process is about 30%. - Abstract: This work is focused on the preparation of alkali ferrates, especially sodium ferrate, using ferrous sulfate as iron bearing material and chlorine as oxidant. Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate is mainly generated during titanium oxide extraction from ilmenite through the sulfate route; it is considered as a waste for this industry. Obtained alkali ferrates belong to the compounds where iron is in the rare hexavalent state and they are becoming a substance of growing importance for water treatment and industrial effluent cleaning. Two methods are developed for the ferrate synthesis. The first method consists of simultaneous reactions of two solids (iron sulfate and sodium hydroxide) and one gaseous oxidant (diluted chlorine). The second method involves a homogenous premixing of both solids prior to the oxidation by diluted chlorine. The synthesis process is performed in a rotary reactor at room temperature; however, since the overall reaction is exothermic, temperatures as high as 150 °C are often recorded. The effects of several parameters such as hydration extent of raw materials, Na/Fe ratio, chlorine content of the reactive gases on the sodium ferrate synthesis are investigated to determine the optimal processing conditions. The conversion efficiency of Fe(II) to Fe(VI) during the sodium ferrate synthesis reaches about 30%

  20. Electrochemical deionization for chemicals-free treatment of boiler feedwater; Elektrochemische Entsalzung zur chemikalienfreien Aufbereitung von Kesselspeisewasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigl, G.; Schaber, R.; Sambach, J.; Hirschmann, S. [Ondeo Industrial Solutions GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Hager und Elsaesser Centre of Excellence

    2005-07-01

    The combination of the reverse osmosis (RO) and electrochemical deionisation processes allows feedwater to be generated with a minimum of chemicals. The paper describes the principles, technology and design of such an RO-EDI system. Different from the conventional demineralisation (demin) plant, the RO-EDI technology does not require chemicals such as sodium hydroxide solution and hydrochloric acid. These advantages open up opportunities for increased use of the RO-EDI technology for feedwater treatment in industry and in power stations. (orig.)

  1. Prediction of the rates of chemical transformation of sodium fire aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium fires resulting from accidental releases of liquid sodium from a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) would produce aerosols consisting of oxides of sodium, which would tend to react with available water vapor and carbon dioxide. The hydroxide aerosol particles thus formed would be particularly corrosive and hazardous likely exceeding the U.S. industrial hygiene threshold limit value of 2 mg/m3. Reaction of the hydroxide with carbon dioxide to form the carbonate would make the aerosol substantially less hazardous chemically. The analysis of Clough and Garland is extended to study the rates of transformation of the oxides to hydroxide and the hydroxide to the carbonate, assuming that mass transfer is limiting. The cases studied here are gas-phase transport to solid or liquid particles and the transport within particles which are liquids, solids, or agglomerates. For sodium fire aerosols less than 10 micrometers in diameter, mass-transfer rates in air are sufficiently fast that the particles should be converted to the carbonate within seconds, except those particles which are solid or have a solid shell (and are larger than 1 micrometer). Such non-porous particles would be expected only if the aerosol passes through a liquid state during or after agglomeration, due to melting or the absorption of water

  2. Mechanochemical changes in mixture of magnesium and aluminium hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxová Mária

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex oxides with the spinel structure often called ?spinels? belong to the group of strategic materials which are used in the wide area of modern technologies. They exhibit excellent magnetic, refractory, semiconducting, catalytic and sorption properties. Spinels based on magnesium aluminate (MA spinels are used for the preparation of refractory ceramic materials and bricks. Due to its good properties MA spinel is predestinated for special applications in electronics.Several methods and precursors for the synthesis of MA spinel have been studied experimentally. The conventional process of MA spinel preparation based on the high temperature solid state reaction of precursors is connected with the difficulty to obtain the high spinel phase purity required for its special applications. From the viewpoint of final material properties and of intensification of solid state reactions, the non-standard mechanochemical techniques are suitable.In the paper, results of the mechanochemical modification of the mixture of crystalline hydroxide precursors caused by the high-energy milling and subsequent heating in the temperature range 300-1500 °C are presented.Mixtures of brucite and gibbsite in the molar ratio 1:2 were submitted to grinding in a planetary mill using the corundum chamber for various milling times (0.5-12 hours. The specific surface area of the milled samples was determined by the BET method. Changes in the structure of mechanosynthesized products and the evolution of the spinel phase during the subsequent calcination of both mechanosynthesized samples and reference homogenised mixtures were monitored by the X-ray diffraction analysis and IR spectroscopy. The degree of conversion of hydroxide mixture to the MA spinel was determined by chelatometry.During the early stage of grinding (up to 1 hour, a considerable refinement of hydroxide mixture occurs. With the increasing grinding time, amorphisation of structure as well as a gradual mechanochemical dehydration and formation of aggregates take place. A structural metastability of high reactive products of dehydration and a large area of particle contacts lead to the solid state mechanochemical reaction with the formation of nucleation centres of amorphous magnesium aluminate. By the combination of mechanosynthesis with the subsequent thermal treatment, crystalline magnesium aluminate with the spinel structure is prepared at temperatures which are by 300 K lower than those at which the spinel is synthesized by conventional ceramic method.

  3. From cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate nanowires to porous Co3O4 nanorods for high performance lithium-ion battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a simple approach for the large-scale synthesis of cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate (Co(CO3)0.35(NO3)0.2(OH)1.1·1.74H2O) nanowires via the hydrothermal process using sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde as mineralizers at 120 deg. C. The porous Co3O4 nanorods 10-30 nm in diameter and hundreds of nanometres in length have been fabricated from the above-mentioned multicomponent nanowires by calcination at 400 deg. C. The morphology and structure of cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate nanowires and Co3O4 nanorods have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the porous Co3O4 nanorods have been applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, which exhibit high electrochemical performance

  4. Development of Drug Delivery Systems Based on Layered Hydroxides for Nanomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Farahnaz Barahuie; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Sharida Fakurazi; Zulkarnain Zainal

    2014-01-01

    Layered hydroxides (LHs) have recently fascinated researchers due to their wide application in various fields. These inorganic nanoparticles, with excellent features as nanocarriers in drug delivery systems, have the potential to play an important role in healthcare. Owing to their outstanding ion-exchange capacity, many organic pharmaceutical drugs have been intercalated into the interlayer galleries of LHs and, consequently, novel nanodrugs or smart drugs may revolutionize in the treatment ...

  5. Adsorption of Phosphonate Antiscalant from Reverse Osmosis Membrane Concentrate onto Granular Ferric Hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Boels, L.; Keesman, K.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Adsorptive removal of antiscalants offers a promising way to improve current reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment processes and enables the reuse of the antiscalant in the RO desalination process. This work investigates the adsorption and desorption of the phosphonate antiscalant nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from RO membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), a material that consists predominantly of akaganéite. The kinetics of the adsorption of NTMP onto ...

  6. Leaching of Arsenic from Granular Ferric Hydroxide Residuals under Mature Landfill Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Amlan; Mukiibi, Muhammed; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Ela, Wendell P.

    2006-01-01

    Most arsenic bearing solid residuals (ABSR) from water treatment will be disposed in non-hazardous landfills. The lack of an appropriate leaching test to predict arsenic mobilization from ABSR creates a need to evaluate the magnitude and mechanisms of arsenic release under landfill conditions. This work studies the leaching of arsenic and iron from a common ABSR, granular ferric hydroxide, in a laboratory-scale column that simulates the biological and physicochemical conditions of a mature, m...

  7. Preparation and Evaluation of Holmium-166 Ferric Hydroxide Macroaggregates for Radiation Synovectomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Argüelles, María Graciela.; Pereyra Molina, Vivian.; Rutty Solá, Gisela.; Cerizola, María Verónica.; Luppi Berlanga, Ignacio.; Bottazzini, Débora Lucrecia.

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiopahrmaceuticals is an important therapeutic approach, so we studied ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (FHMA) labeled with 166Ho as a radiation synovectomy agent.166Ho was produced by neutron irradiation of natural holmium (Ho-165). In order to produce labeled particles, a coprecipitation technique of Ho(OH)3 and Fe(OH)3 was used.Particles in vivo behavior was investigated following intra-articular injection into knees of normal rabbits and rabbi...

  8. Enhanced aerobic sludge granulation with layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhi Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge technology has been developed for the biochemical treatment of wastewater in the present study. A fast cultivation of aerobic granular sludge was realized in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR, where Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH was used as a carrier for granules growth. In comparison, the sludge particle size with LDH addition was bigger than those without LDH, with more than 50% of compact granular sludge >1.4 mm in size. This indicatestheLDH improved the growth ofthegranular sludge. The frequency of LDH addition had little effect on the granule growth. Moreover, the formation of granules led to the low sludge volume index (SVI and high mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS in SBR reactor. With the formation of granular sludge, more than 80% of COD was removed in SBR reactor. The high COD removal efficiency of wastewater was observed regardless of various COD loading strength. The results suggest that the growth of granular sludge with LDH as a carrier enhanced the treatment efficiency. Therefore, our results have provided a promising way to prepare the granular sludge for wastewater treatment.

  9. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  10. Treatment of radioactive wastes from uranium concentrating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes from uranium and thorium ore processing pose potential environmental and public health problems because of their radioactivity and chemical composition. The radionuclides exist in these wastes are those resulting from the uranium 238, uranium 235 and thorium 232 decay series. The most important radionuclide in U 238 decay series are uranium 234, thorium 230, radium 226 and some short lived radionuclides such as radon-222. Radium 226 is the nuclide of principal concern from the standpoint of the assessment and control of the radiological hazard associated with the wastes. Thus determination of uranium, thorium and radium concentration in wastes resulting from nuclear fuel cycle is very important because of its potential hazard. Various analytical methods such as fluorimetry, neutron activation analysis, radon emanation, spectrophotometry and spectroscopy are used for determination of these radionuclides. Uranium and thorium are separated from interfering element by ion exchange chromatography and measured by spectrophotometry method using arsenazo III and thorin as indicator. Radium is separated from interfering elements and ?-emitters by coprecipitation of radium barium sulphate and measured by counting ?-particles with surface barrier detector. Regarding to physical and chemical characteristic of waste being investigated, decontamination factors and treatment methods, chemical precipitation and coprecipitation procedure were carried out in this research work. By adding barium chloride, radium is separated from liquid waste and optimum condition were determined. Precipitation with lime and sodium-hydroxide were also studied and good result were obtained. The results show that by neutralization of waste by lime and sodium hydroxide more than 99.9% of activity was removed from stream. Advantage and disadvantage of each methods were studied and finally, effluent resulted from treatment were discharged after analysis with ?-spectroscopy and monitoring. A pilot plant for treating this type of waste were also suggested

  11. Sodium combustion suppressing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To rapidly contain leaked sodium and effectively suppress the combustion thereof. Constitution: If reactor cooling system equipments or reactor cooling system pipeways are damaged or ruptured, sodium contained therein leaks externally. In this case, leaked sodium drops to the wall of a cooling chamber and the sodium falling down passing through holes is recovered by a leaked sodium combustion suppressing plate disposed on the floor of a leaked sodium containing chamber and by way of a slanted sodium introduction plate into cells on the floor liner. Accordingly, leaked sodium is recovered only within specified cells previously disposed on the floor liner to thereby be prevented from prevailing on the entire floor surface. If sodium should leak in a great quantity, since it once fills a certain cell and then overflows to the succeeding cell, extension of the contact area between the sodium and air can be prevented. (Seki, T.)

  12. Role of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Arun A; Sangameshwar Sajjanshetty; Deepak Jain; Saujanya KP; Mohammed Mustafa; Laxmi Uppin; Mahnoor Kadri

    2012-01-01

    Calcium hydroxide is a multipurpose agent, and there have been an increasing number of indications for its use in endodontics. Some of its indications include inter-appointment intracanal medicaments, endodontic sealers, pulp capping agents, apexification, pulpotomy and weeping canals. The purpose of this article is to review the properties, advantages, disadvantages and various indications for the use of calcium hydroxide in endodontics.

  13. STRUCTURAL CHANGES DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the production of calcium hydroxides with surface areas of 6-74 sq m/g, in an attempt to develop more reactive sorbents for SO2 capture during furnace injection. It was found that adding alcohol to the water of hydration yielded hydroxides with surface areas u...

  14. Preparation of Magnesium Hydroxide and Nanofiber Polymer Composites to Reduce the Flammability and Melt Dripping Behaviour of Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Raza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale alumina fibers reduce the flammability and melt dripping behaviour of polymers. Magnesium hydroxide breaks the agglomerates by generating shear and iterative forces. Mixing was done with Brabender Plasticoder. The temperature and time of mixing greatly affects the mixing behaviour. At higher temperatures blow holes were observed. By increasing the mixing time agglomerates were broken to a greater extent. Different concentrations of nanofibers, Magnesium hydroxide and surface treatments are used to investigate the properties of polymer. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, optical microscopy and flame test was done to see the effect of different parameters on mixing and flame retardancy behaviour.

  15. Sodium removal from sodium wetted under sodium ultra sonic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Sodium wetted USUSS was subjected to sodium cleaning by water vapour–CO2 process. ? Hydrogen released during the process was monitored and regulated in safe limit. ? The temperature of USUSS was maintained below 80 °C to prevent caustic corrosion. ? The experiment revealed intricacies involved in the cleaning operation. ? The operational parameters for safe cleaning were optimised. - Abstract: Sodium is used as a coolant in primary and secondary heat transport systems of Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is in advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Under Sodium Ultra Sonic Scanner (USUSS) is used to image the components dipped in sodium and more specifically the gap between Sub Assembly (SA) heads and the control plug. This is essential to confirm that no SA is protruding from its position. USUSS has to be qualified in sodium before its use in the reactor. After sodium testing, sodium adhering to the USUSS needs to be removed to prevent reaction with oxygen and moisture present in air when it is taken out. The sodium removal process is based on the use of moist carbon-di-oxide (CO2) at a temperature of about 353 K. The reaction rate is controlled by varying the ratio of CO2 to moisture. Hydrogen released during the reaction of sodium with moisture is continuously monitored to ensure safe limits of hydrogen concentration. This paper describes the details of the experimental setup used in a cleaning pit for the removal of sodium adhering on USUSS and the technical details of the cleaning process.

  16. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn5(OH)8Cl2·2H2O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 °C and in the LDH at 276 °C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn5(OH)8Cl2·2H2O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 °C, and in the LDH it was at 276 °C. Highlights: ? Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. ? ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. ? NH3 molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. ? The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  17. Starch sodium dodecenyl succinate prepared by one-step extrusion and its properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yaoqi; Zhang, Xiwen; Sun, Binhua; Jin, Zhengyu; Wu, Shengjun

    2015-11-20

    One-step extrusion was developed to prepare starch sodium dodecenyl succinate (SSDS). Effects of screwing speed, reaction temperature, moisture content, sodium hydroxide amount (as catalyst), and dodecenly succinic anhydride (DDSA) amount on the degree of substitution (DS) were investigated. Optimum conditions were determined and found to be as follows: screwing speed, 110rpm; temperature, 120°C; moisture content, 30%; sodium hydroxide amount, 0.5%; DDSA amount, 3%. Under these conditions, the DS of SSDS was 0.014%, and the reaction efficiency was 78%. The structure of SSDS prepared by one-step extrusion was partially characterised. Infrared absorption spectra showed peaks of ester bond and carbonyl group at 1707 and 1564cm(-1), respectively, indicating that dodecenyl succinic groups were introduced into starch molecule backbone by esterification agent. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that compared with native starch, the particle morphology of SSDS prepared by extrusion became irregular, and its crystallinity was partially destroyed. PMID:26344259

  18. Mechano-hydrothermal synthesis of Mg2Al–NO3 layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mechano-hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize Mg2Al–NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) from MgO, Al2O3 and NaNO3 as starting materials. A two-step synthesis was conducted, that is, a mixture of MgO and Al2O3 was milled for 1 h, followed by hydrothermal treatment with NaNO3 solution. The resulting LDHs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and elemental analyses. Pre-milling played a key role in the LDH formation during subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The process is advantageous in terms of low reaction temperature and short reaction time compared with the conventional hydrothermal method, and the target products are of high crystallinity, good dispersion and regular shape compared with the conventional mechanochemical method. - Graphical abstract: The novel mechano-hydrothermal route to synthesize LDH has advantages in low reaction temperature and short reaction time, and the target product was of high crystallinity, good dispersion and regular shape. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A mechano-hydrothermal route was developed for layered double hydroxide synthesis. • Synthesis could be achieved at low temperature and in a short time. • Resulting layered double hydroxide samples were well dispersed and of regular shape. • A dissolution–recrystallization mechanism was proposed for the formation process

  19. Long-Term Treatment with the Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor, Dapagliflozin, Ameliorates Glucose Homeostasis and Diabetic Nephropathy in db/db Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Terami, Naoto; Ogawa, Daisuke; Tachibana, Hiromi; HATANAKA, TAKASHI; Wada, Jun; Nakatsuka, Atsuko; Eguchi, Jun; Horiguchi, Chikage Sato; Nishii, Naoko; YAMADA, HIROSHI; TAKEI, KOHJI; Makino, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) has been reported as a new therapeutic strategy for treating diabetes. However, the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on the kidney is unknown. In addition, whether SGLT2 inhibitors have an anti-inflammatory or antioxidative stress effect is still unclear. In this study, to resolve these issues, we evaluated the effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, using a mouse model of type 2 diabetes and cultured proximal tubular epithelial (mProx24) ...

  20. Effects of repeated long-term sodium hypochlorite disinfection treatment on surface hardness and roughness of self-polymerizing reline acrylic resins

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Rezende Pinto; Dayane Rubim; Paulo Maurício Batista Silva; Vinícius Carvalho Porto

    2014-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is the most common alteration on the palate of denture wearers and deficient denture hygiene is an important predisposing factor, because it facilitates both the presence of Candida albicans and bacteria in saliva and their colonization on the oral mucosa and denture surfaces. Sodium hypochlorite is an efficient chemical disinfectant to eliminate denture biofilm, but the effect of long-term disinfection on reline acrylic resins was not studied. Purpose: This study investiga...

  1. Proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel and therapeutic application of a serine protease inhibitor for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kenichiro; Tomita, Kimio

    2012-02-01

    Proteases are involved in numerous essential biological processes including blood clotting, controlled cell death, and tissue differentiation. Prostasin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored serine protease, has been identified as a potential regulator of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function in the kidney, lung, and airways. ENaC is composed of three homologous subunits ?, ?, and, ?. The dual cleavage of ? subunit by furin and ? subunit by prostasin and furin releases inhibitory segments from ENaC, leading to the channel activation. Protease nexin-1, an endogenous prostasin inhibitor, inhibits ENaC activity through the suppression of prostasin activity, strongly suggesting the possibility that a coordinated regulation of serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors plays a key role in the sodium handling in the kidney. Camostat mesilate (CM), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, reduced prostasin activity and subsequently decreased ENaC current. Oral administration of CM to Dahl salt-sensitive rats resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure with an elevation of the urinary sodium/potassium ratio. These findings suggest that synthetic serine protease inhibitors such as CM might represent a new class of antihypertensive drugs in patients with salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:22038264

  2. Synthesis and carbon dioxide sorption of layered double hydroxide/silica foam nanocomposites with hierarchical mesostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Liling

    2014-03-05

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a hierarchical mesostructure are successfully synthesized on mesoporous silica foams by simple impregnation and hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized LDH/silica foam nanocomposites show well-defined mesostructures with high surface areas, large pore volumes, and mesopores of 6-7 nm. The nanocomposites act as carbon dioxide (CO2) sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. They also exhibit significantly enhanced CO2 capacities under high-pressure conditions and high CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities. Respect the hierarchy: Hierarchical mesoporous layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites with high surface areas and large pore volumes are synthesized by controlled hydrothermal growth of LDH precursors on a mesoporous silica foam. The as-synthesized nanocomposites exhibit a significantly enhanced capacity and selectivity towards carbon dioxide, making them very promising candidates for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Calcium hydroxide induced apical barrier in fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellore K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of trauma to an immature permanent incisor is a challenge, especially when the pulp is necrotic. The aim of this study is to discuss the management of fractured maxillary right and left central incisors with immature root apex. Radiographic evaluation revealed that the tooth 11 had convergent apical walls, whereas tooth 21 had parallel apical walls; both the incisors were treated with pure calcium hydroxide paste to induce apical development. Follow-up clinical and radiographic examinations confirmed apical barrier at 3 months. Radiograph of tooth 11 with convergent roots showed continued apical development, whereas tooth 21 showed apical bridging, following which root canal was completed in both the teeth. Therefore, in view of the simplicity of this method, we believe that calcium hydroxide can be reemphasized as one of the treatment alternatives for fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors to induce apical barrier.

  4. Estudio comparativo entre el hialuronato sódico al 0,15% y el alcohol poliviníco como tratamiento para el ojo seco / A comparative study of 0.15% sodium hyaluronate versus polyvinyl alcohol in the treatment of dry eyes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Vico; A, Quereda; JM, Benítez-Del Castillo; C, Fernández; J, García-Sánchez.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de dos lágrimas artificiales: el hialuronato sódico 0,15% y el alcohol polivinílico como tratamiento en pacientes con ojo seco. Material y métodos: Se ha seleccionado una muestra de 30 pacientes con ojo seco, en los que hemos considerado cada ojo por separado (60 ojos). [...] A quince de ellos se les ha administrado como tratamiento alcohol polivinílico y a los otros quince hialuronato sódico 0,15%, en ambos casos 5 gotas al día durante un mes. Los parámetros que se han evaluado antes y después del tratamiento han sido: la agudeza visual, el test de Schirmer, el aclaramiento lagrimal, un cuestionario de sintomatología de ojo seco, la tinción corneal con fluoresceína, la tinción con rosa de bengala, la sensibilidad corneal así como la presencia de hiperemia bulbar, detritus en la lágrima, tapones en las glándulas de meibomio, eritema y edema en el borde libre palpebral. Resultados: Sólo hemos encontrado mejoría estadísticamente significativa tras el tratamiento en el valor del cuestionario, tinción con fluoresceína y tinción con rosa de bengala en el grupo de pacientes tratados con hialuronato sódico 0,15%. En el grupo de pacientes tratados con alcohol polivinílico no encontramos diferencia estadísticamente significativa en ninguno de los parámetros estudiados antes y después del tratamiento. Conclusiones: El hialuronato sódico 0,15% ha resultado ser más eficaz en el tratamiento de los pacientes con ojo seco que el alcohol polivinílico. Abstract in english Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of two artificial tears for the treatment of dry eyes: 0.15% sodium hyaluronate and polyvinyl alcohol. Methods: The study included 60 dry eyes in 30 patients. Fifteen of the patients were treated with 0.15% sodium hyaluronate and 15 with polyvinyl alcohol. Five drop [...] s a day for one month was given in both groups. Visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear clearance, dry eye symptoms questionnaire, fluorescein and rose bengal staining, corneal sensibility, bulbar hyperemia, tear detritus, meibomian gland plug, palpebral erythema and edema before and after treatment were evaluated. Results: Symptoms as judged by the dry eye questionnaire, as well as both fluorescein and rose bengal staining, were significantly improved by 0.15% sodium hyaluronate. The polyvinyl alcohol treated patients did not show a significant improvement in any parameter. Conclusion: Sodium hyaluronate was more effective than polyvinyl alcohol in the treatment of patients with dry eyes.

  5. Improvement on removal of radio-cobalt from waste water by ferric hydroxide coagulation-flocculation process using diethyldithiocarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By adding a small amount of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (Na-DDTC) in the ordinary decontamination process of low-level radioactive waste water by ferric hydroxide coagulation-flocculation, removal of radio-cobalt is remarkably improved. The quantity of Na-DDTC used is only 10 ppm in concentration, which does not affect the decontamination process, and no DDTC is detected in the treated water. High decontamination factors for radio-cobalt of 80 to 100 are obtained for the waste water containing 10-4 ?Ci/ml level of radio-cobalt, and the values are about five times that without DDTC. (author)

  6. Síntese e caracterização de nanocompósitos de poliestireno/hidroxissal lamelar / Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene/layered hydroxide salt nanocomposites

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samara Boaventura de, Moraes; Rodrigo, Botan; Liliane Maria Ferrareso, Lona.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Polystyrene/layered hydroxide salt (LHS) modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate was synthesized by in situ polymerization. The materials synthesized were characterized by gravimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the flammability [...] test (FT). XRD demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites in all compositions studied showed poor global dispersion of LHS in polystyrene. TGA showed a slight decrease in thermal stability. DSC curves showed that the glass transition temperature of polystyrene and nanocomposites were similar. The FT showed that the nanocomposite with low load of LHS exhibited good results.

  7. Transformation using peroxide of a crude thorium hydroxide in nitrate for mantle grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative process for the recovery and purification of thorium starting from a crude thorium hydroxide as the precursor is outlined in this paper. Its composition is 60.1% thorium oxide (ThO2), 18.6% rare earth oxides (TR2O3), and common impurities like silicium, iron, titanium, lead and sodium. This material was produced industrially from the monazite processing in Brazil and has been stocked since several years. The crude thorium hydroxide is treated with hot nitric acid and after the digestion and addition of floculant it is filtered for the separation of the insoluble fraction. Using this nitrate solution, the thorium peroxide is precipitated after adjustment of pH and controlled addition of hydrogen peroxide. The final thorium peroxide is dissolved with nitric acid and the resulting thorium nitrate is mantle grade quality. Rare earth elements are recovered from the thorium peroxide filtrate. The main process parameters for the peroxide precipitation, like pH and temperature and main the results are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Lyoluminescence of luminol in aqueous alkaline metal hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lyoluminescence emission spectra of luminol, induced by ?-irradiated NaCl in aqueous alkaline earth metal hydroxides, are recorded. Continuous emission bands are observed in the visible region from 390 to 535 nm. These emission bands on resolution showed two peaks at 430 and 460 nm, respectively in all hydroxides. An additional band of 490 appears in the case of calcium hydroxide. The colour centres released during disintegration of irradiated NaCl crystals in aqueous solution react with luminol to produce various excited molecular species, which are responsible for observed lyoluminescence of luminol. (author) 26 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Intercalation compounds of metal hydroxides with group V layered dichalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The layered dichalcogenides of Nb and Ta easily form intercalation compounds with metal hydroxides (alkali, alkaline earth, ammonium hydroxide, and their derivatives) in aqueous solution. The increase per unit layer in the C lattice parameter produced upon intercalation varies from 2 to 6 AA and is dependent on the host dichalcogenide, the metal hydroxide employed and its solvation number. A formula of the type TaS2(MoH)/sub 0.2-0.3/(H2O)/sub 0.5-0.8/ was obtained from chemical analyses data. The formation of different intercalation stages, structural aspects, and superconductivity of these compounds are described and discussed. 22 references

  10. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROXYAPATITECALCIUM HYDROXIDE FOR DENTAL COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    SEYED MORTEZA NAGHIB; AMIR SALATI; FATHOLLAH MOZTARZADEH; MOJTABA ANSARI

    2011-01-01

    In this work hydroxyapatite was precipitated from calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid. Calcium hydroxide forms in addition to hydroxyapatite in samples with calcium to phosphorus ratio more than the stoichiometric one (Ca/P = 1.67). The effect of changing the pH of the precipitation solution was investigated. Changing the pH of solution had no effect on the amount of compounds formed in the structure. In contrast, an increase in Ca/P ratio increases the total amount of calcium hydroxide whi...

  11. Zinc ion adsorption on montmorillonite-Al hydroxide polymer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, R.P.T.; Bruggenwert, M.G.M.; Riemsdijk, W.H., van

    2003-01-01

    Clay¿Al hydroxide polymers (CAlHO) can bind heavy metals effectively and may play an important role in the adsorption behaviour and metal binding capacity of soils. We studied the dependence of Al loading and pH on the adsorption of Zn on Na-saturated montmorillonite¿Al hydroxide polymer systems. The available binding sites on Al hydroxide polymers (AlHO) had a very strong affinity for Zn ions. Zinc binding on the clay surface became important when the binding sites on the AlHO were nearly al...

  12. Lead ion adsorption on montmorillonite-Al hydroxide polymer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, R.P.T.; Bruggenwert, M.G.M.; Dijk, G. van; Riemsdijk, W.H., van

    2007-01-01

    Clay¿Al hydroxide polymer systems (CAlHO) can bind heavy metals effectively. Their adsorption behaviour depends on the type of metal. We studied the dependence of Al-loading and pH on the adsorption of Pb to Na-saturated montmorillonite¿Al hydroxide polymer systems. The available binding sites on the Al hydroxide polymers (AlHO) had a strong affinity for Pb ions, whereas a minor amount of Pb was bound to the clay surface. The pH had a pronounced effect on the Pb binding to the AlHO. At pH 6.0...

  13. Effects of repeated long-term sodium hypochlorite disinfection treatment on surface hardness and roughness of self-polymerizing reline acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rezende Pinto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is the most common alteration on the palate of denture wearers and deficient denture hygiene is an important predisposing factor, because it facilitates both the presence of Candida albicans and bacteria in saliva and their colonization on the oral mucosa and denture surfaces. Sodium hypochlorite is an efficient chemical disinfectant to eliminate denture biofilm, but the effect of long-term disinfection on reline acrylic resins was not studied. Purpose: This study investigated the hardness and roughness of three self-polymerizing reline resins after repeated long-term sodium hypochlorite disinfections. Material and methods: Forty round specimens (30 x 6mm were made from each material: Jet, Kooliner and Tokuyama Rebase II Fast, and divided in 4 groups (n=10. The control group was stored in water and the others were disinfected with 1%, 2%, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, respectively. The specimens were tested for knoop hardness (KHN and roughness (Ra before disinfection and after 30, 90 and 180 disinfection cycles. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test at 5%. Results: The hardness of Jet resin varied from 18.74 ± 0.47 to 13.75 ± 0.95 KHN, Kooliner varied from 14.09 ± 1.63 to 7.52 ± 0.88 KHN, and Tokuyama Rebase II Fast from 12.57 ± 0.94 to 8.28 ± 0.39 KHN. Statistically significant decrease in hardness of the three reline acrylic resins was observed early after the first 30 disinfection cycles. Conclusion: The hardness of the tested materials decreased after immersion in water and after repeated long-term chemical disinfections

  14. Tratamento com hipoclorito de sódio para remoção do pergaminho e aceleração da germinação de sementes de café conilon / Sodium hypochlorite treatment to remove the parchment and accelerate germination of conilon coffee seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel Fialho, Rubim; Henrique Duarte, Vieira; Eduardo Fontes, Araújo; Alexandre Pio, Viana; Fábio Cunha, Coelho.

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com objetivo de avaliar o efeito do hipoclorito de sódio na remoção do pergaminho e na aceleração da germinação de sementes de café conilon. As sementes, cultivar Vitória, foram obtidas de frutos colhidos no estádio cereja e despolpados manualmente. As sementes foram s [...] ecadas em estufa de ventilação forçada até atingirem os graus de umidade de 35, 30 e 25% em base úmida. Em seguida, as sementes com pergaminho foram submetidas à solução de hipoclorito de sódio nas concentrações de 4, 5, 6 e 7% de cloro ativo por períodos de 3 e 6 horas. Para cada grau de umidade foram acrescentados três tratamentos adicionais, constituídos por sementes intactas com pergaminho e sementes cujo pergaminho foi removido mecânica e manualmente. As sementes foram avaliadas pelas seguintes determinações: grau de umidade, germinação, primeira contagem do teste de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 (graus de umidade inicial) x 4 (concentrações de hipoclorito de sódio) x 2 (tempos de imersão) + 9 (tratamentos adicionais), com quatro repetições. O hipoclorito de sódio na concentração de 6% por 3 horas proporciona germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação estatisticamente igual ao método de remoção manual do pergaminho, o qual é usado em laboratório. A remoção mecânica do pergaminho danifica as sementes de café, prejudicando a germinação. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium hypochlorite on the removal of the parchment and the acceleration of conilon coffee seed germination. Seeds of the Vitoria cultivar were obtained from fruits harvested at the cherry stage and pulped by hand. They were dried in a forced [...] ventilation oven until 35, 30 and 25% moisture content on a wet basis. Sodium hypochlorite solution in concentrations of 4, 5, 6 and 7% active chlorine was applied to those seeds with parchment for periods of 3 and 6 hours. For each moisture content, there were three additional treatments consisting of seeds with parchment and seeds whose parchments had been removed mechanically and manually. The seeds were evaluated for: moisture content, germination, first count of the germination test and speed of the germination index. The experiment was a completely randomized design in a factorial 3 (degrees of water content) x 4 (concentrations of sodium hypochlorite) x 2 (time of immersion) + 9 (additional treatments) with four replications. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 6% for 3 hours caused germination and a speed of germination index similar to the method of manual removal of the parchment, which is used in the laboratory. The mechanical removal of the parchment damaged coffee seeds, reducing their germination.

  15. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

  16. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  17. Monocolonization with Bacteroides ovatus protects immunodeficient SCID mice from mortality in chronic intestinal inflammation caused by long-lasting dextran sodium sulfate treatment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudcovic, Tomáš; Kozáková, Hana; Kolínská, Ji?ina; Št?pánková, Renata; Hrn?í?, Tomáš; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 58, ?. 1 (2009), s. 101-110. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA303/04/0849; GA ?R GA303/08/0367; GA ?R(CZ) GA303/05/2249; GA ?R GA303/06/0974; GA MŠk 2B06053; GA MŠk 2B06155; GA AV ?R 1QS500200572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bacteroides ovatus * ulcerative colitis * dextran sulfate sodium colitis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  18. Ternary mutual diffusion of isoniazid in aqueous sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and hydrochloric acid at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F., E-mail: anacfrib@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, Ana C.G., E-mail: anacatarinasantos123@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Lobo, Victor M.M., E-mail: vlobo@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Sobral, Abilio J.F.N., E-mail: asobral@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Cabral, Ana M.T.D.P.V., E-mail: acabral@ff.uc.p [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-295 Coimbra (Portugal); Esteso, Miguel A., E-mail: miguel.esteso@uah.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Ternary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by Taylor dispersion method (D{sub 11}, D{sub 22}, D{sub 12}, and D{sub 21}) are reported for aqueous solutions containing isoniazid and different electrolytes (NaCl, NaOH, or HCl) at T = 298.15 K at different carrier concentrations. These diffusion coefficients have been measured having in mind a better understanding of the structure of these systems and the thermodynamic behaviour of isoniazid in different media. For example, it is possible to make conclusions about the influence of these electrolytes in diffusion of isoniazid, and to obtain information concerning the number of moles of each component transported per mole of the other component driven by its own concentration gradient.

  19. Ternary mutual diffusion of isoniazid in aqueous sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and hydrochloric acid at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by Taylor dispersion method (D11, D22, D12, and D21) are reported for aqueous solutions containing isoniazid and different electrolytes (NaCl, NaOH, or HCl) at T = 298.15 K at different carrier concentrations. These diffusion coefficients have been measured having in mind a better understanding of the structure of these systems and the thermodynamic behaviour of isoniazid in different media. For example, it is possible to make conclusions about the influence of these electrolytes in diffusion of isoniazid, and to obtain information concerning the number of moles of each component transported per mole of the other component driven by its own concentration gradient.

  20. Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte - Part II. O-2 reduction.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chatenet, M.; Micoud, F.; Roche, I.; Chainet, E.; Vondrák, Ji?í

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 51, ?. 25 (2006), s. 5452-5458. ISSN 0013-4686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : oxygen reduction reaction selectivity * platinum * silver Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.955, year: 2006

  1. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora Mavis

    2003-12-12

    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni{sup 2+} precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni{sup 2+} form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni{sup 2+}. On the other hand, presence of Al{sup 3+} facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni{sup 2+} in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator{trademark}, Version 1.01) lets the user change the order of kinetic components of a reaction which was set to stoichiometric constant with which the species appear in the reaction in KINSIM by default. For instance, in the case of LDH precipitation, the new program allows to change the order of species in the reactions associated with Al{sup 3+} and let the Ni{sup 2+} reactions take over. This could be carried on iteratively until a good fit between the experimental data and the predictions were observed. However for such studies availability of accurate equilibrium constants (especially for the solubility products for the solid phase) is a prerequisite.

  2. Recycling processing method for radioactive liquid waste containing sodium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon recovering nitric acid by reacting sulfuric acid to liquid wastes containing sodium nitrate, the reaction is conducted within a range of a reaction forming sodium hydrogen sulfate in which the reaction can be kept at a low reaction temperature, and sodium hydrogen sulfate as the reaction product is crystallized to remove impurities. The crystallized sodium hydrogen sulfate is dissolved in water again and then electrolyzed by an electrolysis vessel using an ion exchange membrane. Resultant sodium hydroxide is recovered, the sulfuric acid is recycled for reutilizing in the reaction with radioactive liquid wastes containing sodium nitrate, and the residual liquid of the electrolysis is recycled and electrolyzed again. In addition, miscellaneous products accumulated in the processing liquid circulating in the recycling system are separated and removed by a chelate resin method. With such procedures, since the influence on the anodic corrosion of the electrolysis vessel is minimized, selection of the material for the electrolysis vessel is facilitated, and since the amount of the final solidification product can be minimized, great devoluming is enabled. (T.M.)

  3. Spooky sodium balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Jens; Dahlmann, Anke; Lerchl, Kathrin; Kopp, Christoph; Rakova, Natalia; Schröder, Agnes; Luft, Friedrich C

    2014-04-01

    Current teaching states that when sodium intake is increased from low to high levels, total-body sodium (TBNa) and water increase until daily sodium excretion again equals intake. When sodium intake is reduced, sodium excretion briefly exceeds intake until the excess TBNa and water are eliminated, at which point sodium excretion again equals intake. However, careful balance studies oftentimes conflict with this view and long-term studies suggest that TBNa fluctuates independent of intake or body weight. We recently performed the opposite experiment in that we fixed sodium intake for several weeks at three levels of sodium intake and collected all urine made. We found weekly (circaseptan) patterns in sodium excretion that were inversely related to aldosterone and directly to cortisol. TBNa was not dependent on sodium intake but instead exhibited far longer (? monthly) infradian rhythms independent of extracellular water, body weight, or blood pressure. The findings are consistent with our ideas on tissue sodium storage and its regulation that we developed on the basis of animal research. We are implementing (23)Na-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to pursue open questions on sodium balance in patients. Our findings could be relevant to therapeutic strategies for hypertension and target-organ damage. PMID:24107854

  4. Sodium urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary 24 hours sodium; Urine Na+ ... your kidneys are able to maintain or remove sodium from the urine. It may be used to ... For adults, normal urine sodium values are generally 20 mEq/L in a random urine sample and 40 to 220 mEq/L per day (mEq/ ...

  5. Effect of calcium hydroxide on the apical leakage of Resilon-filled root canals: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Mamak; Foroozia, Maryam; Rezaei, Mohammed-Hossein; Mahboobi, Nima

    2012-01-01

    Calcium hydroxide is used as an intracanal medication for root canal disinfection and to enhance periapical lesion healing. However, calcium hydroxide remnants can negatively affect the final apical seal of obturated canals. The current study investigated apical leakage in root canals filled with Resilon after calcium hydroxide treatment. Seventy human maxillary central incisors were instrumented to a master apical file size of 40. Teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (A and B; n = 30) and two control groups (n = 5). Root canals in group A received a calcium hydroxide dressing, while those in group B received no intracanal medication. One week after treatment, all root canals were obturated with Resilon/Epiphany using lateral compaction. Groups A and B were randomly divided into subgroups A1, A2, B1, and B2 (n = 15). All subgroups were stored in an incubator at 37 degrees C and 100% humidity; subgroups A1 and B1 were stored for one week, while subgroups A2 and B2 were stored for eight weeks. Dye penetration and clearing techniques were used to evaluate apical leakage. Data were analyzed using a Student t-test, with significance set at P Epiphany. PMID:22623468

  6. In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg-1 day-1) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

  7. Recycling of lubricating oil by using potassium hydroxide efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different processes for re-generation of base oil from used lubricant oil had been developed to over come two main issues, eliminate the pollution sources and the need of preserving crude oil reserves. Waste lubricating oils may be re-refined/re-generated by treatment with an organic solvent that dissolves base oil and flocculates the major part of additives and particulate matter. It is considered that the polar nature of the alcohol is the origin of the stabilization by electric repulsion of some of the particulate matter that provides an electrostatic media that encourage improving the solvent flocculating capability. An addition of KOH (Potassium Hydroxide) solution containing ions that neutralize those charge, break this stability. In this study, experiments were conducted on the use of KOH to enhance flocculation. The quantity of KOH addition was varied in order to know its effect on the sedimentation rate. The result from the study showed that, the introduction of KOH promotes fast sedimentation process and the particulate settling rate was directly proportional to the amount of KOH addition and the settling was finished within 40 minutes time. (author)

  8. Antisickling activity of sodium cromoglicate in sickle-cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppet, M; Fall, A B; Ferster, A; Fondu, P; Mélot, C; Vanhaelen-Fastré, R; Vanhaelen, M

    2000-07-22

    Two groups of patients with sickle-cell disease were given a single dose of sodium cromoglicate by inhalation or nasal route. The striking decrease in sickle cells after treatment by both routes lends support to the role of sodium cromoglicate in sickle-cell disease treatment. PMID:11071188

  9. Hydroxide precursors to produce nanometric YCrO{sub 3}: Characterization and conductivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durán, A., E-mail: dural@cnyn.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apartado Postal 14, C.P. 22800, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Meza F, C. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apartado Postal 14, C.P. 22800, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ? Y/Cr mixed hydroxide was precipitated with gaseous ammonia. ? The hydroxide treated at 1373 K formed YCrO{sub 3} crystals with 20 nm diameter. ? Electrical properties were different than those found in other methods of synthesis. ? E{sub act} suggests small-polarons as conduction mechanisms. -- Abstract: A precursor to produce perovskite-type YCrO{sub 3} was precipitated by bubbling gaseous ammonia into an yttrium/chromium salts solution. X-ray diffraction showed that the as-prepared powders were amorphous. Thermal treatment between 1273 and 1373 K, leads to formation of polycrystalline YCrO{sub 3} with crystal sizes around 20 nm. High resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra showed uniform chemical environment for yttrium and chromium in the amorphous hydroxide and crystalline YCrO{sub 3}. Shifts between Y 3d{sub 5/2} and Cr 2p{sub 3/2} binding energy suggest redistribution or charge transfer between yttrium and chromium ions in the YCrO{sub 3} structure. The electrical properties of YCrO{sub 3}, whose precursors were precipitated with gaseous ammonia are different than those prepared by combustion synthesis. Electrical conductivity presents a sudden increase at ?473 K, which is associated to the grain size and morphology of the crystallites. The redistribution of charge between Y(III) and Cr(III) is thermally activated by the hopping of small-polarons, which are characterized by the Arrhenius law as the conductive mechanism.

  10. Simvastatin versus Calcium Hydroxide Direct Pulp Capping of Human Primary Molars: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Asl Aminabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of present study was to investigate pulp-dentin complex reactions following direct pulp capping (DPC with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2] and simvastatin as pulp-capping materials in the primary human molars. Materials and methods. 120 primary molar teeth which had to be extracted for orthodontic reasons were randomly allocated into four groups. Group ? as a control, underwent DPC with calcium hydroxide. The dental pulp in group ??, ??? and ?V were directly capped with simvastatin-based materials at concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 µM, respectively. All of the teeth were restored with stainless steel crown. After a mean period of 7.41 months teeth were extracted and processed for histological examination and categorized in terms of hard tissue formation and pulp inflammation. Results. Teeth in group I had statistically favorable outcomes in hard tissue formation and pulp inflammation than did the groups ??, ??? and ?V (P < 0.001. Considering three different concentrations of simvastatin, the result showed a dose dependent trend. Teeth in group ?V showed significantly lower rates of hard tissue formation and higher rates of pulp inflammation and necrosis compared to those of groups ?? (P < 0.05. Conclusion. The findings of this study depicted that healing with no inflammation and hard tissue formation following statin treatment occurs with a lower rate than that with the calcium hydroxide.

  11. Hydroxide-Assisted Bonding of Ultra-Low-Expansion Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovici, Alexander; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    A process for hydroxide-assisted bonding has been developed as a means of joining optical components made of ultra-low-expansion (ULE) glass, while maintaining sufficiently precise alignment between. The process is intended mainly for use in applications in which (1) bonding of glass optical components by use of epoxy does not enable attainment of the required accuracy and dimensional stability and (2) conventional optical contacting (which affords the required accuracy and stability) does not afford adequate bond strength. The basic concept of hydroxide-assisted bonding is not new. The development of the present process was prompted by two considerations: (1) The expertise in hydroxide-assisted bonding has resided in very few places and the experts have not been willing to reveal the details of their processes and (2) data on the reliability and strength attainable by hydroxide-assisted bonding have been scarce.

  12. Conversion coatings prepared or treated with calcium hydroxide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating process that forms a stable and corrosion-resistant oxide layer on metal or metal oxide substrates or layers. Particularly, the conversion coating process involves contacting the metal or metal oxide substrate or layer with the aqueous calcium hydroxide solutions in order to convert the surface of the substrate to a stable metal oxide layer or coating. According to the present invention, the calcium hydroxide solution is prepared by removing carbon dioxide from water or an aqueous solution before introducing the calcium hydroxide. In this manner, formation of calcium carbonate particles is avoided and the porosity of the conversion coating produced by the calcium hydroxide solution is reduced to below about 1%.

  13. Does sodium restriction lower blood pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Grobbee, D.E.; Hofman, A.

    1986-01-01

    Data from 13 randomised trials on the effect of sodium restriction on blood pressure were analysed. The hypotensive effect of sodium restriction was found to be small and restricted largely to systolic blood pressure, which fell by an average of 3.6 mm Hg (range 0.5-10.0 mm Hg). The reduction increased with age and in those with higher blood pressure. Sodium restriction therefore seems to be of limited use in those who are most eligible for non-pharmacological treatment of high blood pressure...

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KALINICHEV,ANDREY G.; WANG,JIANWEI; KIRKPATRICK,R. JAMES; CYGAN,RANDALL T.

    2000-05-19

    The interlayer structure and the dynamics of Cl{sup {minus}} ions and H{sub 2}O molecules in the interlayer space of two typical LDH [Layered Double Hydroxide] phases were investigated by molecular dynamics computer simulations. The simulations of hydrocalumite, [Ca{sub 2}Al(OH){sub 6}]Cl{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O reveal significant dynamic disorder in the orientations of interlayer water molecules. The hydration energy of hydrotalcite, [Mg{sub 2}Al(0H){sub 6}]Cl{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O, is found to have a minimum at approximately n = 2, in good agreement with experiment. The calculated diffusion coefficient of Cl{sup {minus}} as an outer-sphere surface complex is almost three times that of inner-sphere Cl{sup {minus}}, but is still about an order of magnitude less than that of Cl{sup {minus}} in bulk solution. The simulations demonstrate unique capabilities of combined NMR and molecular dynamics studies to understand the structure and dynamics of surface and interlayer species in mineral/water systems.

  15. Surface tension of calcium hydroxide associated with different substances Tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estrela

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface tension of calcium hydroxide (CH associated with different substances (deionized distilled water, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, Otosporin, 3% sodium lauryl ether sulphate; Furacin, PMC Furacin using tensiometer. The action of the substances studied on the dentinal structure enhances the property of surface tension. This method consists in the application of force to separate a platinum ring immersed in the substances. Thus, torsion was applied to the screw until the platinum ring separated during substances testing. Considering the methodology applied, the following can be concluded: distilled water alone or associated with CH presented a high surface tension (70.00 and 68.40 dynes/cm; calcium hydroxide in association with anionic detergent showed low surface tension (31.60 dynes/cm; camphorated paramonochlorophenol plus CH presented low surface tension (37.50 dynes/cm; 2% chlorhexidine associated with calcium hydroxide showed high surface tension values (58.00 dynes/cm; Otosporin plus calcium hydroxide showed low surface tension (35.40 dynes/cm; paramonochlorophenol Furacin mixed with calcium hydroxide presented surface tension equal to 45.50 dynes/cm; sodium hypochlorite presented high surface tension (75.00 dynes/cm. Antimicrobial agents more indicated in endodontics, i.e. CH, chlorhexidine and hypochlorite, presented the highest surface tension.Estudou-se a tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias (água destilada deionizada, paramonoclorofenol canforado, digluconato de clorexidina 2%, Otosporin, sulfato éter lauril sódio 3%, furacin, PMC furacin usando tensiômetro. O modelo experimental consistiu na aplicação de uma força para separar um anel de platina imerso na superfície das substâncias, exercido por um tensiômetro. Considerando a metodologia aplicada, pode-se concluir: a água destilada isolada ou associada com o hidróxido de cálcio apresenta alta tensão superficial (70,00 e 68,40 dinas/cm; hidróxido de cálcio associado ao detergente aniônico mostrou baixa tensão superficial (31,60 dinas/cm; paramonoclorofenol canforado mais hidróxido de cálcio apresentou baixa tensão superficial (37,50 dinas/cm; clorexidina 2% associada com hidróxido de cálcio mostrou um alto valor de tensão superficial (58,00 dinas/cm; Otosporin mais hidróxido de cálcio mostrou baixa tensão superficial (35,40 dinas/cm; paramonoclorofenol furacin misturado com hidróxido de cálcio apresentou tensão superficial igual a 45,50 dinas/cm; hipoclorito de sódio apresentou alta tensão superficial (75,00 dinas/cm.

  16. Surface tension of calcium hydroxide associated with different substances / Tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Estrela; Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo, Estrela; Luiz Fernando, Guimarães; Reginaldo Santana, Silva; Jesus Djalma, Pécora.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias (água destilada deionizada, paramonoclorofenol canforado, digluconato de clorexidina 2%, Otosporin, sulfato éter lauril sódio 3%, furacin, PMC furacin) usando tensiômetro. O modelo experimental consistiu na apl [...] icação de uma força para separar um anel de platina imerso na superfície das substâncias, exercido por um tensiômetro. Considerando a metodologia aplicada, pode-se concluir: a água destilada isolada ou associada com o hidróxido de cálcio apresenta alta tensão superficial (70,00 e 68,40 dinas/cm); hidróxido de cálcio associado ao detergente aniônico mostrou baixa tensão superficial (31,60 dinas/cm); paramonoclorofenol canforado mais hidróxido de cálcio apresentou baixa tensão superficial (37,50 dinas/cm); clorexidina 2% associada com hidróxido de cálcio mostrou um alto valor de tensão superficial (58,00 dinas/cm); Otosporin mais hidróxido de cálcio mostrou baixa tensão superficial (35,40 dinas/cm); paramonoclorofenol furacin misturado com hidróxido de cálcio apresentou tensão superficial igual a 45,50 dinas/cm; hipoclorito de sódio apresentou alta tensão superficial (75,00 dinas/cm). Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface tension of calcium hydroxide (CH) associated with different substances (deionized distilled water, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, Otosporin, 3% sodium lauryl ether sulphate; Furacin, PMC Furacin) using tensiometer [...] . The action of the substances studied on the dentinal structure enhances the property of surface tension. This method consists in the application of force to separate a platinum ring immersed in the substances. Thus, torsion was applied to the screw until the platinum ring separated during substances testing. Considering the methodology applied, the following can be concluded: distilled water alone or associated with CH presented a high surface tension (70.00 and 68.40 dynes/cm); calcium hydroxide in association with anionic detergent showed low surface tension (31.60 dynes/cm); camphorated paramonochlorophenol plus CH presented low surface tension (37.50 dynes/cm); 2% chlorhexidine associated with calcium hydroxide showed high surface tension values (58.00 dynes/cm); Otosporin plus calcium hydroxide showed low surface tension (35.40 dynes/cm); paramonochlorophenol Furacin mixed with calcium hydroxide presented surface tension equal to 45.50 dynes/cm; sodium hypochlorite presented high surface tension (75.00 dynes/cm). Antimicrobial agents more indicated in endodontics, i.e. CH, chlorhexidine and hypochlorite, presented the highest surface tension.

  17. Comparison of methods for the isolation of mycobacteria from water treatment plant sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovcova, Jitka; Babak, Vladimir; Slany, Michal; Slana, Iva

    2015-05-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms in all natural ecosystems, including water environments. Several of these species are potential pathogens which affect human health. NTM most commonly cause pulmonary, skin or soft tissue infections. Primary sludge obtained from the water treatment plants of four drinking water reservoirs were subjected to analysis for mycobacteria. Five decontamination methods (5% oxalic acid, modified Petroff, HCl-NaOH, N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide and 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride), three growth media (Herrold's egg yolk medium with and without the antibiotic cocktail PANTA and Löwenstein-Jensen medium with sodium pyruvate) and three incubation temperatures (25, 30 and 37 °C) for isolation of mycobacteria were compared in the analysis of 18 sludge samples. To evaluate examined methods, the overall positive, negative, and contamination rate, and these rates in respect to localities are taken into account. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the best combination for the recovery of mycobacteria with the minimum number of contaminating microorganisms is 5% oxalic acid decontamination cultured on Herrold's egg yolk medium with the antibiotic cocktail PANTA at 25 °C. The least suitable is N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide decontamination cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium with sodium pyruvate at 25 °C. From 18 sludge samples we isolated 27 mycobacterial species or groups; Mycobacterium algericum, M. arabiense, M. heraklionense, M. minnesotense, M. moriokaense, M. salmoniphilum and M. vulneris were isolated from the natural water environment for the first time. Because the natural water environment is the main source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria for humans, it is important to direct particular focus to newly described mycobacterial species. PMID:25724128

  18. Ultrafast Dynamics for Electron Photodetachment from Aqueous Hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Crowell, Robert A.; Lian, Rui; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Bartels, David M.; Chen, Xiyi; Bradforth, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) reactions of hydroxide induced by 200 nm monophotonic or 337 nm and 389 nm biphotonic excitation of this anion in aqueous solution have been studied by means of pump-probe ultrafast laser spectroscopy. Transient absorption kinetics of the hydrated electron, eaq-, have been observed, from a few hundred femtoseconds out to 600 ps, and studied as function of hydroxide concentration and temperature. The geminate decay kinetics are bimodal, with ...

  19. Precipitation and aging of magnesium hydroxide before suspension polymerisation

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Therese

    2005-01-01

    A colloid of magnesium hydroxide is used to stabilize droplets of monomers before suspension polymerisation. The characteristics of precipitated magnesium hydroxide changes significantly during the first hours. The viscosity is high and flucctuating at first but decreases and becomes low and stable after a few hours. When the colloid ages the primary particles agglomerate into larger particles which increases in size by time due to, among other things, Oswald ripening and aggregation. This ca...

  20. Endodontic Release System for Apexification with Calcium Hydroxide Microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Strom, T.A.; A. Arora; Osborn, B.; Karim, N.; Komabayashi, T.; Liu, X.

    2012-01-01

    The use of calcium hydroxide (CH) as an intracanal medicament for apexification is widespread. However, because of a short residence time in the root canal, the CH must be refreshed frequently, increasing the number of appointments required and leading to patient non-compliance. We hypothesized that a core-/shell-structured CH microsphere system would lead to sustained slow release of calcium and hydroxide ions of CH for long periods of time, eliminating the need for multiple visits for apexi...

  1. Disposal of Creys Malville sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the fate decided for the sodium wastes from Superphenix and succinctly describes the method adopted for treating reactor sodium. After the declaration to the French National Assembly on June 19, 1997, of the decision to finally shut down the Creys power plant, the first structured strategic reflection for definitive shutdown began in February 1998. One of the main aims of this reflection was to prove the technical feasibility of this dismantling based on the assumption of reasonable costs and time limits. In this context of 'technical doubt', a very determined attitude had to be adopted. At the beginning of 1998, it was decided to make a total commitment to this project (fast studies and execution of sodium treatment and dismantling) while at the same time observing the safety and regulatory aspects. This option also met a keen requirement of the Department of the Environment for a technically irreversible operation so that reactor restart would no longer be an option. The decree of 31/12/98 finalized the immediate and definitive shutdown of Creys nuclear power station and authorized unloading of the fuel. It also covers sodium removal and storage operations and the dismantling of the non-nuclear installations within the framework of a safety report and general rules for monitoring and maintenance approved by the DSIN (French Nuclear Installations Safety Authority). At the EDF-CIDEN, a so-called reference scenario based on the discharge of sodium sulphate salts to the Rhone river (reflecting the Scottish approach used in the sodium disposal process, which is economically less expensive but 'sensitive' in terms of its acceptance by the media and the environmental lobby) has been developed and alternative solutions put forward. This scenario requires the installation of a primary sodium draining system as well as the treatment of certain significant retentions in the vessel, and the construction of a 'reactor' to transform the sodium into caustic soda. This would be of the same type as on the Sodium Disposal Process for PFR on Dounreay site, based on the principle developed by the CEA for the Rapsodie programme (NOAH process). An early commitment to sodium draining before the very specific competence for this complex operation are lost was another strong additional incentive drawn from the experience feedback from other sites. Faced with the risk relating to the discharge into the Rhone which this scenario involves, a fallback scenario for treatment involving caustic soda cementation and long-term storage was chosen (with several possible technical options). The possibility of intermediate storage of all sodium products, which would release the reactor from the monitoring requirements related to the liquid sodium, was not retained since the cost of this solution would cancel out the indirect gains made on the operating costs. In 2001, the scenario of sodium sulphate discharge into the Rhone was abandoned in favour of the scenario known as treatment by cementation. In spite of a significant difference in the cost, due to the climate surrounding the Public Inquiry File, it is no longer certain that a new application to discharge to water in this first solution would be looked at favourably or that it would be authorized within reasonable delays. This decision is consolidated by the desire on the part of EDF General Management to proceed to 'immediate' dismantling of the nine definitively shutdown nuclear sites, thereby reducing the programming for Creys Malville to a total duration of 25 years. The risk involved in an uncontrollable administrative delay therefore became unacceptable. To conclude this first part, the choice of the sodium treatment solution for Creys Malville is based on a so-called on-line drainage system (no buffer storage) using tools fabricated for this operation, followed in real time by treatment at 6 metric tonnes/day in two caustic soda transformation reactors (NOAH process) nearly identical to the SDP ones. A total of 13 860 m3 of caustic soda from primary sodium will be mixed

  2. Comparison of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya / Comparaison entre une spécialité et un générique de stibogluconate de sodium pour le traitement de la leishmaniose viscérale au Kenya / Comparación de las formas genérica y patentada de estibogluconato sódico como tratamiento de la leishmaniasis visceral en Kenya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elinore, Moore; Deidre, O’Flaherty; Hans, Heuvelmans; Jill, Seaman; Hans, Veeken; Sjoukje de, Wit; Robert N., Davidson.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar el uso del estibogluconato sódico genérico y patentado como tratamiento de la leishmaniasis visceral (kala-azar). MÉTODO: Un total de 102 pacientes con kala-azar confirmado fueron tratados en un hospital de misión en la región de West Pokot (Kenya) con estibogluconato sódico (20 m [...] g/kg/día durante 30 días), bien en forma de Pentostam® (PSM) o bien como preparado genérico (EGS). De forma alternativa, se asignó a 51 pacientes a cada grupo de tratamiento. RESULTADOS: No se observaron diferencias significativas en lo tocante a las características demográficas basales o la gravedad de la enfermedad, así como tampoco en lo que respecta a los eventos registrados durante el tratamiento. Hubo 3 defunciones en el grupo PSM y una en el grupo EGS; en cada grupo hubo dos pacientes que abandonaron el tratamiento. Sólo uno de los 80 aspirados esplénicos de confirmación de la curación fue positivo para Leishmania spp., y se trataba de un paciente del grupo EGS. El seguimiento realizado al cabo de un periodo mínimo de seis meses mostró que habían recaído seis de 58 pacientes: cinco en el grupo tratado con EGS y uno en el grupo tratado con PSM. No se observaron diferencias significativas en ninguna variable de resultado final entre los dos grupos. CONCLUSIÓN: Gracias a la disponibilidad de estibogluconato sódico genérico más barato, y siempre que se aplique un control de calidad estricto, las autoridades sanitarias de las zonas con kala-azar endémico pueden hoy suministrar tratamiento a muchos más pacientes en África. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). METHODS: A total of 102 patients with confirmed kala-azar were treated in a mission hospital in West Pokot region, Kenya, with sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day f [...] or 30 days) - either as Pentostam® (PSM) or generic sodium stibogluconate (SSG); 51 patients were allocated alternately to each treatment group. FINDINGS: There were no significant differences in baseline demographic characteristics or disease severity, or in events during treatment. There were 3 deaths in the PSM group and 1 in the SSG group; 2 patients defaulted in each group. Only 1 out of 80 test-of-cure splenic aspirates was positive for Leishmania spp.; this patient was in the SSG group. Follow-up after > 6 months showed that 6 out of 58 patients had relapsed, 5 in the SSG group and 1 in the PSM group. No outcome variable was significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The availability of cheaper generic sodium stibogluconate, subject to rigid quality controls, now makes it possible for the health authorities in kala-azar endemic areas to provide treatment to many more patients in Africa.

  3. Sodium and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents as objectively as possible, the advantages and disadvantages related to the use of sodium in fast reactors. As regards the difficulties found in the use of sodium, the hazards related to fires, to sodium-water reactions, and to interaction with concrete are the greastest. Using its own methods, nuclear industry took charge of these problems and solutions have been found for a safe utilization of sodium. Sodium, mated metal, in addition to its thermal and neutron properties, plays the role of a trap for radioactive products, particularly efficient during normal operation

  4. The role of calcium hydroxide in the formation of thaumasite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has recently been derived by thermodynamic calculation that the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide plays a vital role in the resistance of cement paste or concrete against the formation of thaumasite. To obtain experimental data on this matter, special binders have been mixed and used for the preparation of mortar bars. These specimens were exposed to moderate sulphate attack for a period of 18 months at a temperature of 8 deg. C. Mortar bars containing calcium hydroxide showed visual signs of attack a few months after exposure, leading to expansion, mass loss and complete failure. In contrast to this, no signs of attack were observed when no calcium hydroxide was present in the microstructure. These results confirm the conclusions of earlier thermodynamic calculations that the presence of calcium hydroxide has an important impact on the formation of thaumasite. Calcium-rich C-S-H formed in the presence of calcium hydroxide is vulnerable against sulphate attack and the formation of thaumasite. In the absence of calcium hydroxide, C-S-H has a much lower calcium/silicon ratio and a higher resistance against the formation of thaumasite

  5. The Treatment of Cancer by a Radioactive Drug: Tritium-Labelled Tetra-Sodium 2-Methyl-1:4-Naphthaquinol Diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of tetra-sodium 2-methyl-1: 4-naphthaquinoI diphosphate (''Synkavit''-Roche Products) as a radiosensitizer will be reviewed together with earlier methods of labelling this and similar molecules. The synthesis of this compound labelled with tritium has been accomplished so as to yield a radiochemically pure drug of specific activity 28 c/mmole (1 atom of tritium/molecule). It will be shown that this compound enters the living cell very rapidly both in-vivo and in-vitro and that cultures of malignant cells incorporate the label to a much greater extent than cultures of normal cells under identical conditions. Preliminary investigations on the use of this drug on patients with advanced, and often otherwise, refractory, malignant conditions will be described; uptake by the bone marrow is less than by the tumour, sometimes by a factor of 5. (author)

  6. A titration model for evaluating calcium hydroxide removal techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mark, PHILLIPS; Scott, McCLANAHAN; Walter, BOWLES.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament due to its antimicrobial effects and its ability to inactivate bacterial endotoxin. The inability to totally remove this intracanal medicament from the root canal system, however, may interfere with the s [...] etting of eugenol-based sealers or inhibit bonding of resin to dentin, thus presenting clinical challenges with endodontic treatment. This study used a chemical titration method to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left after different endodontic irrigation methods. Material and Methods Eighty-six human canine roots were prepared for obturation. Thirty teeth were filled with known but different amounts of Ca(OH)2 for 7 days, which were dissolved out and titrated to quantitate the residual Ca(OH)2 recovered from each root to produce a standard curve. Forty-eight of the remaining teeth were filled with equal amounts of Ca(OH)2 followed by gross Ca(OH)2 removal using hand files and randomized treatment of either: 1) Syringe irrigation; 2) Syringe irrigation with use of an apical file; 3) Syringe irrigation with added 30 s of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), or 4) Syringe irrigation with apical file and PUI (n=12/group). Residual Ca(OH)2 was dissolved with glycerin and titrated to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left in the root. Results No method completely removed all residual Ca(OH)2. The addition of 30 s PUI with or without apical file use removed Ca(OH)2 significantly better than irrigation alone. Conclusions This technique allowed quantification of residual Ca(OH)2. The use of PUI (with or without apical file) resulted in significantly lower Ca(OH)2 residue compared to irrigation alone.

  7. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; CHERTOW, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  8. Layered zinc hydroxide salts: Delamination, preferred orientation of hydroxide lamellae, and formation of ZnO nanodiscs.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demel, Jan; Pleštil, Josef; Bezdi?ka, Petr; Janda, Pavel; Klementová, Mariana; Lang, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 360, ?. 2 (2011), s. 532-539. ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09058; GA ?R GAP207/10/1447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : layered zinc hydroxide * delamination * exfoliation * hydroxide layer * ZnO Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2011

  9. Ageing behaviour of unary hydroxides in trivalent metal salt solutions: Formation of layered double hydroxide (LDH)-like phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Rajamathi; P Vishnu Kamath

    2000-10-01

    The hydroxides of Mg, Ni, Cu and Zn transform into layered double hydroxide (LDH)-like phases on ageing in solutions of Al or Cr salts. This reaction is similar to acid leaching and proceeds by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism offering a simple method of LDH synthesis, with implications for the accepted theories of formation of LDH minerals in the earth’s crust.

  10. INFLUENCE OF REACTION CONDITIONS ON LIGNIN HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JalelLabidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organosolv lignin, obtained from olive tree pruning under optimised conditions, was subjected to a hydrothermal depolymerisation process catalysed by sodium hydroxide. The depolymerisation of lignin was carried out at 300 ºC using different reaction times (20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 min in order to study the influence of this parameter on lignin depolymerisation. The resulting products (oil and residual lignin were measured and analysed by different techniques (GC/MS, HPSEC and pyrolysis-GC/MS in order to determine their nature and composition. Coke was also formed, at a lower quantity, incompetitive repolymerisation reactions during the lignin hydrothermal treatment. The maximum oil yield and concentration of monomeric phenolic compounds was obtained after80 min of reaction time. The highest reaction time studied (100 min had the worst results with the lowest oil yield and highest coke production.

  11. Mineral trioxide aggregate apical plug method for the treatment of nonvital immature permanent maxillary incisors: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Günes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of nonvital immature permanent teeth with calcium-hydroxide is associated with some difficulties such as weakened tooth fracture, root canal reinfection and long treatment time. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA apical plug method is an alternative treatment option for open apices, and has gained popularity in the recent times. In this case report, we have attempted to present successful treatment of three maxillary incisors with open apices and periapical lesions with MTA. After preparing the access cavity, the working length was determined. The root canals were irrigated with 2.5% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and disinfected with calcium-hydroxide for two weeks. MTA was then placed in the apical 3 millimeters of the root canal. The remaining part of the root canal was filled with gutta-percha and the coronal restoration was finished with composite resin. After six months the radiographic examination showed a decrease of periapical lesions. At a 1-year and 18-months follow up, radiological and clinical successful healing of the incisor teeth was seen. MTA seems as an effective material for the apical plug method for the treatment of nonvital immature permanent teeth with open apices.

  12. Test Program For Alumina Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  13. TEST PROGRAM FOR ALUMINA REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GEINESSE D

    2011-01-28

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  14. Development of a thermal storage module using modified anhydrous sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Rowny, P. E.

    1980-03-01

    The laboratory scale testing of a modified anhydrous NaOH latent heat storage concept for small solar thermal power systems such as total energy systems utilizing organic Rankine systems is discussed. A diagnostic test on the thermal energy storage module and an investigation of alternative heat transfer fluids and heat exchange concepts are specifically addressed. A previously developed computer simulation model is modified to predict the performance of the module in a solar total energy system environment. In addition, the computer model is expanded to investigate parametrically the incorporation of a second heat exchange inside the module wh