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Sample records for sodium hydroxide treatment

  1. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    2010-04-01

    ... solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  3. Complications of sodium hydroxide chemical matrixectomy: nail dystrophy, allodynia, hyperalgesia.

    Bostancı, Seher; Koçyiğit, Pelin; Güngör, Hilayda Karakök; Parlak, Nehir

    2014-11-01

    Ingrown toenails are seen most commonly in young adults, and they can seriously affect daily life. Partial nail avulsion with chemical matrixectomy, generally by using either sodium hydroxide or phenol, is one of the most effective treatment methods. Known complications of phenol matrixectomy are unpredictable tissue damage, prolonged postoperative drainage, increased secondary infection rates, periostitis, and poor cosmetic results. To our knowledge, there have been no reports about the complications related to sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. Herein, we describe three patients who developed nail dystrophy, allodynia, and hyperalgesia after sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. PMID:25514278

  4. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TREATMENTS ON UNRETTED KENAF FIBERS

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Laddha, Sachin; Chen, Feng; Wright, Katherine M.

    2010-05-17

    Kenaf fibers have been gaining great interest for use in the fabrication of both thermoset and thermoplastic composites. However, the inherent fiber surface properties limit their application. In response to the uneconomical, energy inefficient and environmentally unfavorable issues of the standard fiber retting process, we applied chemical modifications of kenaf fibers as alternative retting treatments and investigated the overall performance of the modified fibers. Alkaline solution and super critical alcohol were used as fiber treatments and their effects on the fiber properties were compared. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the thermal properties of fibers. The change of in chemical composition of the fibers with treatment is discussed in the context of the thermal decomposition behavior. The cellulose crystal structure and total crystallinity of the kenaf fibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the morphological changes of fiber surface and fiber cross-section after both alkaline and super critical alcohol treatments. The mechanical behavior of fibers before and after treatment was explored by tenacity testing and the fracture mechanism was evidenced by observing the fracture surfaces. The effect of chemical treatment duration on the fiber performance was also discussed. It was found that the alkaline treated kenaf fibers showed higher thermal stability than untreated fibers, while TGA results indicated that supercritical alcohol was more efficient in removing the non-cellulosic portions. XRD data confirmed the removal of amorphous structural components such as pectin, hemicellulose and lignin as well as amorphous cellulose for the treated kenaf fibers. SEM images showed that both treatments were effective in removing impurities and coating materials on the fiber surface. The rough fracture morphology

  5. Influence of Sodium Hydroxide Treatment on Enzyme Dehairing%氢氧化钠处理对酶脱毛的影响

    李小花; 彭海玲; 李书卿

    2014-01-01

    通过测定氢氧化钠处理液中总蛋白含量,处理后皮的膨胀率和收缩温度以及酶脱毛速度等研究了氢氧化钠处理对酶脱毛的影响。实验结果表明,氢氧化钠处理能加快酶脱毛的速度,有可能解决直接酶脱毛小毛不易脱净的问题,但可能更容易导致成革松面。%The influence of sodium hydroxide treatment on enzyme dehairing was studied through the mea-surement of the content of total proteins in the processed liquid, the expansion ratio and the shrinkage temper-ature of treated skins, and the enzyme dehairing speed. The results show that the treatment of sodium hydrox-ide makes the enzyme dehairing speed faster, and it is possible to solve one of the problems during direct en-zyme dehairing, which is small hair removed difficultly and incompletely. While this treatment is possible to cause the leather looser grain.

  6. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide

  7. Aqueous sodium hydroxide seasonal thermal energy storage

    Gantenbein, P.; Daguenet-Frick, X.; Frank, E. [Univ. of Applied Sciences Rapperswil (Switzerland). Inst. for Solar Technologies SPF; Weber, R.; Fumey, B. [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Williamson, T. [Kingspan Renewables Ltd, Portadown, Co. Armagh, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Seasonal storage of sensible thermal energy in materials is a challenge in respect to thermal loss corresponding to low volumetric energy density. In a process involving absorption and desorption lower heat losses and higher energy densities can be reached. The working pair sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and water can be employed to this purpose. A possible application of such a system can be a single family passive energy building that requires a maximum power output of approximately 8 kW. The required absorption/desorption zone can be designed as a falling film tube bundle, using either Hu's or Owens' correlations. To meet the required power the tube bundle can be built of 300 mm long tubes with an outer diameter of 12 mm in a configuration of either 3 rows of 18 tubes or 2 rows of 25 tubes. During desorption one row of 18 tubes or 3 rows of 6 tubes are sufficient. In the absorption or discharging process a mass flow of 2 to 4 kg/h of aqueous NaOH with a concentration of 50 wt% NaOH is required. In the reverse process 18 to 30 kg/h of aqueous NaOH at a concentration of 30 wt% are necessary. The mass transport is performed without recirculation, reducing the parasitic power consumption. Initial experiments conducted with a less reactive substitute liquid showed good homogeneous distribution.

  8. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C, formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate respectively. Statistical significance through methods like analysis of variance (ANOVA of some parameters on various concentrations of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was investigated. The effect of the varying compositions of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was also determined by using a gray scale (GS test, and also subjecting surfaces heavily stained with crude oil to determine and characterize the cleansing action of the degreaser. It was found that as the concentration of sodium hydroxide increases, the cleansing ability also increases, whereas the increase in concentration of sodium carbonate had no effect on the cleansing ability. The work would enable production of effective, useful and property controlled degreasers at moderate cost.

  9. Dissolution of gaseous methyl iodide into aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions

    Absorption process of gaseous methyl iodide by water or sodium hydroxide solutions was investigated using a semi-flow type experimental apparatus by measuring the concentration of all measurable chemical species in both the gas and the liquid phase. The experimental temperature ranged from 288 to 311 K and the gaseous methyl iodide and aqueous sodium hydroxide concentrations were approximately 0.6 x 10-3 to 7 x 10-3 and 0 to 0.2 mol/dm3, respectively. It is estimated that the dissolution of methyl iodide into the sodium hydroxide solution proceeds according to the following steps. Step (1) Methyl iodide in air dissolves physically into the aqueous phase. Physical dissolution process obeys Henry's law. Step (2) Methyl iodide dissolved into the aqueous phase is decomposed by a base catalytic hydrolysis and produces methyl alcohol and iodide ion. The equilibrium constants of physical dissolution were obtained from the steady concentration in both the gas and the liquid phases in the semi-flow type experiment because the hydrolysis reaction rate of methyl iodide is very slow in comparison with the physical dissolution in this experimental conditions. The obtained value of the standard heat of solution of methyl iodide into water was 7.2 kcal/mol. Salting-out effect was observed when the concentration of sodium hydroxide in the absorbent was over 0.01 mol/dm3. (auth.)

  10. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    Guangzai Nong; Zongwen Zhou; Shuangfei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents) consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas...

  11. European Union Summary Risk Assessment Report - Sodium Hydroxide

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a summary, with conclusions, of the risk assessment report of the substance sodium hydroxide that has been prepared by Portugal in the context of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 793/93 on the evaluation and control of existing substances. For detailed information on the risk assessment principles and procedures followed, the underlying data and the literature references, the reader is referred to the comprehensive Final Risk Assessment Report (Final RAR) that can be obta...

  12. Decomposition of Niobium Ore by Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Method

    Yang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Chang; Zheng, Shi-Li; Sun, Qing

    2013-02-01

    The decomposition kinetics of niobium ore in the NaOH system was studied experimentally. The results show that the reaction products are sodium metaniobate and sodium niobate formed by the reaction of pyrochlore with sodium hydroxide under roasting. The effects of temperature, particle size, and mass ratio of alkali-to-ore were studied. The conversion rate of niobium exceeded 99 pct after 20 minutes at 923 K (650 °C) with a mass ratio of alkali-to-ore 1.2:1 and with initial particle size 75 to 106 μm. The kinetic study indicates that the shrinking core model is applicable and the process is controlled by a chemical reaction. The activation energy was calculated to be 78.82 kJ mol-1.

  13. Cementing properties of steel slag activated by sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide

    Wen Ni; En Wang; Jianping Li; Han Sun

    2005-01-01

    Steel slag which is mainly composed of γ-CasSiO4 and other silicates or alumino-silicates is activated by sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide. The powders of such steel slag are usually inert to hydrate and subsequently have very low ability of cementing. But when sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide are used as activators the steel slag shows very good properties of cementing. When activated with NaOH solution the hardened slurry of the steel slag has a compressive strength of 11.13 MPa after being cured for 28 days. When activated with Na2SiO3 solution the samples after being cured for 28 days have an average compressive strength of 40.23 MPa. While the steel slag slurry which is only mixed with water has a compressive of 0.88 MPa after being cured for 28 days.

  14. Study of Zinc Leaching of EAF Flue Dust Using Sodium Hydroxide

    Ahsan Abdul Ghani; Junaid Saleem; Zeeshan Al Hameed; Hira Lal; Muhammad Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    During the production of steel from Electric Arc Furnace (EAF), large amount of by-product called EAF flue dust is generated. The major proportion of flue dust is comprised of Zn (41.5 % wt.). Different phases identified by XRD analysis are zincite, franklinite and magnetite with zincite being dominant. In this study, we have performed flue dust treatment using sodium hydroxide as leaching medium. Different concentrations of alkali were used to optimize maximum recovery of Zn. XRF and Wet Che...

  15. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated

  16. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S.

    2013-01-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4–5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4–2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1–5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01–0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) ...

  17. Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    1997-06-01

    Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2012-01-01

    The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provide...

  19. Process optimization of reaction of acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing and sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

    2009-01-01

    Silica is the major component of the acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing. The waterglass solution can be prepared by the reaction of the residue with sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. Compared to the high temperature reaction method, this process is environmental friendly and low cost. In this paper, the reaction process of the residue and the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution is optimized. The optimum reaction process parameters are as follows: the usage of sodium hydroxide is 26.4 g/100 g acid leaching residue, the reaction temperature is 90℃, the reaction time is 1 h, and the ratio of the liquid/solid is 2.0. The significance sequence of the process parameters to the alkali leaching reaction effect is the usage of sodium hydroxide > the ratio of the liquid/solid > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the leaching ratio of SiO2 is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the modulus of the sodium silicate is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. Under the optimum conditions, the leaching ratio of the SiO2 is 77.5%, and the modulus of the sodium silicate is 3.15. The XRD analysis result indicates that the major components of the alkali leaching residue are serpentine, talc, quartz and some albite.

  20. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    Guangzai Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provided that the resulting total sodium concentration in feed does not compromise the overall electrolyte balance. Sodium hydroxide in solid form and in aqueous solution at concentrations > 8.0 % is corrosive. At lower concentrations it is irritant to skin and eyes (0.5 % and 0.2 %, respectively and the respiratory tract (0.5 %. Exposure via inhalation is likely to be minimal. Sodium hydroxide is not considered to be a skin sensitiser. As sodium hydroxide is used in food as an acidity regulator, and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  2. Effect of different molarities of Sodium Hydroxide solution on the Strength of Geopolymer concrete

    Shivaji S. Bidwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the experimental study of strength of geopolymer concrete for different molarities of sodium hydroxide solution. This paper also contains results of the laboratory tests conducted to find out the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the strength of the geopolymer concrete. In these days the world is facing a major problem i.e. the environmental pollution. We can use fly ash instead of cement in the construction in order to reduce environmental pollution. The Concrete made by using Fly ash and alkaline liquid mixture as a binder is known as geopolymer concrete. In this study for the polymerization process alkaline liquids used are Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH and Sodium Silicate (Na2SiO3. Different molarities of sodium hydroxide solution i.e. 8M, 10M and 12M are taken to prepare different mixes and the compressive strength is calculated for each of the mix. The size of the cube specimens taken are 150mm X 150mm X 150mm. Curing of these cubes is done in an oven for 3 days and 28 days. The Compressive strength of these geopolymer concrete specimens is tested at 3 days and 28 days. The results show that there is increase in comp. strength of geopolymer concrete with increase in molarity of Sodium Hydroxide Solution. Ordinary Concrete Specimens are also manufactured with cement as binder. It is found that the Compressive strength of Geopolymer Concrete specimens is higher than the Compressive strength of Ordinary Concrete Specimens.

  3. Process optimization of reaction of acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing and sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

    DU GaoXiang; ZHENG ShuiLin; DING Hao

    2009-01-01

    Silica is the major component of the acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing. The waterglass solution can be prepared by the reaction of the residue with sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. Compared to the high temperature reaction method, this process is environmental friendly and low cost. In this paper, the reaction process of the residue and the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution is optimized. The op-timum reaction process parameters are as follows: the usage of sodium hydroxide is 26.4 g/100 g acid leaching residue, the reaction temperature is 90℃, the reaction time is 1 h, and the ratio of the liq-uid/solid is 2.0. The significance sequence of the process parameters to the alkali leaching reaction effect is the usage of sodium hydroxide > the ratio of the liquid/solid > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the leaching ratio of SiO2 is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the modulus of the sodium silicate is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. Under the optimum conditions, the leaching ratio of the SiO2 is 77.5%, and the modulus of the sodium silicate is 3.15. The XRD analysis result indicates that the major components of the alkali leaching residue are serpentine, talc, quartz and some albite.

  4. 氢氧化钠改性生物质作型煤粘结剂的研究%The effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on biomass binder preparation

    张香兰; 徐德平; 许志华; 陈清如

    2001-01-01

    探讨了以氢氧化钠改性的生物质作为型煤粘结剂的可能性.所选的生物质为价廉物广的稻草.笔者发现粘结剂制备中主要的影响因素是氢氧化钠的浓度,该粘结剂固相组分的粘结能力强于液体部分.氢氧化钠处理的稻草分解物粘结剂中掺加膨润土、焦油或聚丙烯酰胺后制得复合粘结剂,这种复合粘结剂不仅防水,而且使型煤的强度得到进一步提高,具有实用前景.%The possibility of rice straw treated with sodium hydroxide used as coal briquette binder was studied. The main factor influenced on binder preparation was sodium hydroxide concentration. The binding ability of the solid component is higher than the liquor part. The prepared rice straw binder was mixed with inorganic material, bentonite or/and high molecular synthetic organic materials to manufacture mixed coal briquette binder. This binder can further enhance the briquettes quality.

  5. Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes

    In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

  6. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    Y. Prawoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking was studied. The results show that for the same given stress relative to ultimate tensile strength, the susceptibility to SCC is greatly influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, it was also concluded that when expressed relative to the (ultimate tensile strength UTS, aluminum has similar level of SCC susceptibility to that of steel, although with respect to the same absolute value of applied stress, aluminum is more susceptible to SCC in sodium hydroxide environment than steel.

  7. Study of Zinc Leaching of EAF Flue Dust Using Sodium Hydroxide

    Ahsan Abdul Ghani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the production of steel from Electric Arc Furnace (EAF, large amount of by-product called EAF flue dust is generated. The major proportion of flue dust is comprised of Zn (41.5 % wt.. Different phases identified by XRD analysis are zincite, franklinite and magnetite with zincite being dominant. In this study, we have performed flue dust treatment using sodium hydroxide as leaching medium. Different concentrations of alkali were used to optimize maximum recovery of Zn. XRF and Wet Chemical method were used to characterize the dust samples both before and after leaching. The optimum alkali concentration for selective leaching of zinc was found to be 4 M with a zinc recovery of 90 %.

  8. Autopsy results of a case of ingestion of sodium hydroxide solution

    EMOTO, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; SHIKATA, NOBUAKI; Tsubura, Airo; Nagasaki, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide is a strongly corrosive alkali. We describe herein a case of suicide by ingestion of sodium hydroxide. A man in his 80s was found dead with a mug and a bottle of caustic soda. Macroscopically, liquefaction and/or disappearance of esophagus, trachea and lung tissue and a grayish discoloration of the mucosa of the stomach were seen along with blackish brown coloration of the skin, mouth, and oral cavity. The contents of the gastrointestinal tract showed a pH level of 7–8 on pH ...

  9. An empirical model to estimate density of sodium hydroxide solution: An activator of geopolymer concretes

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2016-02-01

    Geopolymer concrete is zero-Portland cement concrete containing alumino-silicate based inorganic polymer as binder. The polymer is obtained by chemical activation of alumina and silica bearing materials, blast furnace slag by highly alkaline solutions such as hydroxide and silicates of alkali metals. Sodium hydroxide solutions of different concentrations are commonly used in making GPC mixes. Often, it is seen that sodium hydroxide solution of very high concentration is diluted with water to obtain SHS of desired concentration. While doing so it was observed that the solute particles of NaOH in SHS tend to occupy lower volumes as the degree of dilution increases. This aspect is discussed in this paper. The observed phenomenon needs to be understood while formulating the GPC mixes since this influences considerably the relationship between concentration and density of SHS. This paper suggests an empirical formula to relate density of SHS directly to concentration expressed by w/w.

  10. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P. O.;

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was char...

  11. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not more than 1%. The titration and calculation takes less than 20 min.

  12. Kinetics of absorption of trace iodine vapor in aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, 1

    The absorption rate of iodine vapor in the air to water or aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide is varied considerably by the concentration of iodine vapor and sodium hydroxide in the solution. Here, experiments have been carried out on the short contact time absorption of trace iodine vapor contained in decarboxylated air into water or sodium hydroxide solution, using a laminar flow liquid column, and the absorption mechanism and the rate of iodine removal by a alkaline washing have been theoretically considered. In the case that water is used as absorbing liquid, it is necessary to evaluate the rate of hypoiodite formation in order to estimate the overall absorption rate, since hypoiodite reaction progresses at finite rate. While if aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide is used, the hypoiodite formation is fast enough to treat the absorption as the instantaneous reversible reaction at the interface. The main factors determining the reaction rate in a liquid film are the concentration of molecular iodine and hydroxyl ions, and the latter is mainly varied by electric charge balance condition in aqueous solution. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Iodine absorption in mixed solution of sodium hydroxide-boric acid

    In the absorption solution used for the removal of radioactive iodine in the exhaust gas from nuclear facilities by washing with water, boron compounds with large neutron capture cross section are mixed in many cases as nuclear reaction inhibitor. Generally sodium hydroxide aqueous solution in which boric acid is dissolved is employed. Therefore in practical point of view, absorption of iodine in the mixed solution of sodium hydroxide - boric acid is important, and the partition equilibrium of iodine in sodium hydroxide - boric acid, vapor - liquid overall dissolution equilibrium coefficient between the mixed solution and decarboxilated air, and iodine absorption rate in the mixed solution were experimented and discussed. Boric acid partly becomes ions by hydrolysis in the mixed solution of sodium hydroxide - boric acid and acts as a pH control agent. It only affects the partition of iodine in liquid phase through its dissociation and electric charge equilibrium. Overall absorption rate of iodine decreases by adding the boric acid. Alkaline water of 9.5 to 10 pH containing boric acid of 1 to 3 g-boron/kg-water is very often used as the absorption solution for the removal of radioactive iodine by washing with alka- line water. This condition of boric acid concentration is higher than the condition in this investigation, and hence the detailed examination by the experiments over a wide range of concentration will be necessary. (Wakatsuki, Y

  14. Autopsy results of a case of ingestion of sodium hydroxide solution.

    Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo; Nagasaki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide is a strongly corrosive alkali. We describe herein a case of suicide by ingestion of sodium hydroxide. A man in his 80s was found dead with a mug and a bottle of caustic soda. Macroscopically, liquefaction and/or disappearance of esophagus, trachea and lung tissue and a grayish discoloration of the mucosa of the stomach were seen along with blackish brown coloration of the skin, mouth, and oral cavity. The contents of the gastrointestinal tract showed a pH level of 7-8 on pH indicator strips. Histopathologically, liquefactive necrosis of remnant lung tissue and the stomach were seen. As biological reactions such as vasodilatation and inflammation were not detected in these organs, only a short number of hours must have passed between ingestion and death. This human case provides valuable information concerning the direct irritation induced by systemic exposure to corrosive substances. PMID:26989301

  15. Experimental study on reactivity of structural concrete with sodium-hydroxide in sodium-cooled fast reactor

    For countermeasure against sodium leak, structural concrete is protected by steel liner in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). However, if considering severe and unexpected accidental condition such as breach of steel liner by intensive sodium leak, the reaction of concrete with liquid sodium potentially may occur. For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of sodium-concrete reaction in SFR, kinetic study of the sodium-hydroxide (NaOH)-silica (SiO2) reaction was carried out by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The parameters, including melting point of NaOH, phase transition temperature of NaOH and SiO2, and NaOH-SiO2 reaction temperature were identified from DSC curves. From visualization test, sample eruption was observed during reaction. It was found that rate of NaOH-SiO2 reaction was quite fast from DSC curves, which was similar with that of the reaction between NaOH and aggregate of practical concrete. Thermal analysis results indicated that NaOH-SiO2 reaction could occur in the timeframe of sodium-concrete reaction. (author)

  16. Effect of High Temperature Sodium Hydroxide Immersion on Fusion Bond Epoxy Coating

    Amal Al-Borno; Xianyi Chen; Shailesh Kewaldas Dhoke

    2015-01-01

    Fusion Bond Epoxy (FBE) coating system was exposed to 5% sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature for 30 days. The result of exposure showed formation of adhere deposit layer, a discolored zone underneath and remaining un-affected bulk of the coating. The deterioration of the coating was characterized using analytical techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), ...

  17. Mechanism and rate of dilute iodine vapor absorption by aqueous sodium hydroxide solution

    The rates of absorption of iodine vapor contained in air by aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions were measured at 298K using a liquid jet column that established a contacting time between 0.006 and 0.025 sec. The overall mass transfer coefficient varies in a complex manner depending on the concentrations of both iodine in the feed gas and sodium hydroxide in the absorbent solution. This results from the variation of the rate controlling step in the chemical reactions taking place in the liquid film. It was concluded from the present experimental work that the mechanism of iodine vapor absorption is as follows: Iodine in air dissolves into the aqueous phase through the gas liquid interface in conformity with Henry's law. This iodine in the aqueous phase forms hypoiodous acid and iodide ions through base catalytic hydrolysis, and then the resulting iodide ions react with the iodine to generate tri-iodide ions. The instantaneous dissociation reactions of water and of sodium hydroxide have to be taken into account. Iodate slowly forms from the hypoiodous acid, but this reaction has no influence upon the overall absorption rate under the conditions prevailing in the present instance. (auth.)

  18. Effect of Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide and Degree of Heat Curing on Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Subhash V. Patankar; Ghugal, Yuwaraj M.; Jamkar, Sanjay S.

    2014-01-01

    Geopolymer concrete/mortar is the new development in the field of building constructions in which cement is totally replaced by pozzolanic material like fly ash and activated by alkaline solution. This paper presented the effect of concentration of sodium hydroxide, temperature, and duration of oven heating on compressive strength of fly ash-based geopolymer mortar. Sodium silicate solution containing Na2O of 16.45%, SiO2 of 34.35%, and H2O of 49.20% and sodium hydroxide solution of 2.91, 5.6...

  19. Immobilization of heavy metals by asphalt-sulfur sodium hydroxide mixture

    Sawada, K.; Ozawa, S.; Matsuda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Research Center for Advanced Waste and Emission Management, Nagoya (Japan); Mizutani, M.; Matsubara, M.; Hidaka, S. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Central Research Laboratories, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Approximately 50 million tons of municipal solid waste is incinerated annually in Japan. The resulting fly ash contains potentially toxic metals originally found in the wastes. A study was conducted to treat fly ash using an asphalt-sulphur-sodium hydroxide mixture. The main objective was to change the metals into metal sulfides to decrease their solubility and then to incorporate the dissoluble components into asphalt to repel water.Sodium sulfide, produced from the reaction, reacts with heavy metals to form metal sulfides insoluble in water. Adding dissoluble components in asphalt physically prevents the leaching of heavy metals from the treated ash. A biaxial kneader at 403 K was used to mix the samples before carrying out the dissolution test. Results indicate that the lead compounds present in the sample fly ash changed into lead sulfide. The amount of lead that was leached from the treated mixture passed Japan's standard for lead emissions which is 0.3 mg/L. It was concluded that this new immobilization method effectively stabilizes lead found in wastes such as fly ash. However, because sodium hydroxide is an expensive chemical, the amounts of additives will have to be optimized for practical use. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.

    Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.

  1. Froth flotation pretreatment for enhancing desulfurization of coal with sodium hydroxide

    Abdurrahman Saydut; Yalcin Tonbul; Akin Baysal; M. Zahir Duz; Candan Hamamci [Iowa State University, Ames, IO (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    Froth flotation (FF) pretreatment of coal from Hazro, Turkey, for enhancing desulfurization with sodium hydroxide was investigated. FF reduced following contents of coal: ash, 58.54; pyritic sulfur, 79.34; and volatile matter, 56.98%. The coal flotation was 69.59%. FF could not remove organic sulfur. Coal concentration obtained from flotation was leached using aqueous Nah. and its organic sulfur content was reduced by 59.27%. Hence using combination of two methods, total sulfur, ash and volatile matter contents was reduced by 88.06%, 63.13% and 77.32%, respectively.

  2. The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions

    Clark, Boyd Arthur

    Formation of sulfoaluminate compounds was investigated by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tricalcium aluminate/gypsum mixtures with a molar ratio of 1:1 sulfate-to-aluminate were hydrated at constant temperatures from 30 to 90°C; in de-ionized water, in 200mM and in 500mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Hydration in de-ionized water produced ettringite and monosulfate as the dominant crystalline phases, regardless of temperature. Complex assemblages of phases formed in 200mM and 500mM sodium hydroxide including ettringite, monosulfate and U-phase, at all temperatures. Hydration of monosulfate and gypsum was also carried out at constant temperatures from 30° to 80°C using de-ionized water and 0.2M, 0.5M, and 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Ettringite was found to be the dominant crystalline phase over the entire temperature range and at all sodium hydroxide concentrations. A sodium-substituted monosulfate phase was formed as a hydration product in the 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution regardless of temperature. Sulfoaluminate compounds formed by tricalcium aluminate hydration in magnesium sulfate solution were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydration was carried out in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions and isothermally at temperatures from 30 to 80°C. Monosulfate, ettringite, gypsum and a hydrogarnet phase (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O) were all observed as hydration products. Monosulfate and hydrogarnet were the only phases observed for hydration in 0.5 and 1.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Ettringite was the dominant crystalline phase after hydration in 3.0M solution, regardless of temperature. To investigate the rate of hydration, reactions at 60°C in 3.0M magnesium sulfate solution were quenched after 26 minutes, 73 minutes, 2.5 hours and 12 hours to establish the evolution of hydrated phases. Depending on hydration times ettringite, monosulfate, gypsum, hydrogarnet and residual

  3. The Chemical Etching of Fission Tracks in the Thin Polycarbonate Film using Sodium Hydroxide Solution

    The thin 15 μm Polycarbonate film was irradiated by fission fragments of uranium-235 in thermal column tube at the TRR-1/M1 (Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1) for 30 seconds that producing the latent tracks on the PC film. Tracks in the irradiated film was etched in the chemical etchant by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution in the condition of 6N at 70oC for 30, 60 90 and 120 minutes. Track diameters are 1.14, 3.73, 4.02 and 4.62 micron respectively when etched in 6N sodium hydroxide solution at 70oC for 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. At pressure 111.11 kPa, the flow rate of water are 1.9x10-4, 1.12 x 10-4 and 2.39 x 10-4 L/min.cm-2 at 60, 90 and 120 minutes, respectively. Water cannot penetrate for 30 minutes etching time

  4. Ternary diffusion of carbon dioxide in alkaline solutions of aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous sodium carbonate

    Leaist, D.G.

    1985-07-01

    Carbon dioxide dissolved in alkaline solutions diffuses as bicarbonate and carbonate ions produced by the reactions CO/sub 2/+OH/sup -/=HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and CO/sub 2/+2OH/sup -/=CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/+H/sub 2/O. Ternary diffusion coefficients of the systems NaHCO/sub 3/+Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/+H/sub 2/O and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/+NaOH+H/sub 2/O have been measured by a conductimetric technique at 298.15 K. The mixed electrolyte data are transformed by use of the solution equilibria to ternary diffusion coefficients of the systems CO/sub 2/+Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/+H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/+NaOH+H/sub 2/O. Unlike the binary diffusivity of CO/sub 2/ in water (1.9 . 10/sup -9/ m/sup 2/ s/sup -1/), the ternary diffusivity of CO/sub 2/ in alkaline solutions is sensitive to concentration and varies from 0.9 . 10/sup -9/ to 3.5 . 10/sup -9/ m/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ at 298.15 K. Expressions are derived to estimate the transport coefficients of the components from the concentrations and diffusion coefficients of the constituent ions. At high pH values hydroxide-coupled transport leads to rapid diffusion of CO/sub 2/ as CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/. The results are consistent with the Onsager reciprocal relation for isothermal ternary diffusion.

  5. Oxidation states of molybdenum in oxide films formed in sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the oxidation states of molybdenum in thin films formed potentiostatically, over a range of potentials, in either 1 mol dm−3 H2SO4 or 10 mol dm−3 NaOH at 20 °C. Mo 3d spectra suggested that MoO2 and Mo(OH)2 were the main components of the films, with smaller amounts of MoO3 and possibly Mo2O5. O 1s spectra indicated the presence of oxygen as oxide and hydroxide species and as bound water. Ion beam analysis revealed the formation of thin films at all potentials, with significant losses of oxidized molybdenum to the electrolyte. - Highlights: ► Oxides are formed on molybdenum in sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions. ► Molybdenum IV and VI are identified by XPS, with MoO2 species dominating. ► Thicknesses of films are determined by ion beam analysis for a range of potentials. ► Films form at low efficiency due to loss of molybdenum species to electrolyte.

  6. Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment of UOP IONSIV IE-911 Crystalline Silicotitanate Sorbent

    Use of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to remove cesium represents one of the alternatives identified for High Level Waste pretreatment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Previous deployment of CST in the Department of Energy complex subjected the material to mildly caustic environments. Processing of SRS waste will expose CST to very alkaline solutions for extended period of time (typically 12 months in the proposed design). Results of elevated temperature stability tests showed that silicon and one of the proprietary materials leached from the CST. UOP personnel indicated to SRS personnel that these materials exist in the sorbent in excess of required stoichiometry. The authors examined the pretreatment of CST with sodium hydroxide to remove these components prior to placing the CST in radioactive service. Additionally, researchers analyzed solids discovered in the feed line during a test by non-destructive techniques

  7. Convenient synthetic method of starch/lactic acid graft copolymer catalyzed with sodium hydroxide

    Qingling Wang; Yingmo Hu; Jianhua Zhu; Yang Liu; Xue Yang; Jing Bian

    2012-06-01

    Copolymer of starch grafted with lactic acid (LA) could be directly prepared by reaction of cornstarch with lactic acid and with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst. The structure of starch/LA copolymer was characterized by IR, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The effects of NaOH concentration, ratios of starch and LA, reaction temperature and reaction time on the grafting degree were also investigated and the results showed that the highest grafting degree of starch could reach 33.60% when the graft copolymerization was carried out in 0.40 mol l-1 NaOH aqueous solution for 9 h at 90°C with 1: 6 ratio of starch and lactic acid.

  8. Comparison of efficacy of phenol and sodium hydroxide matricectomies for management of ingrown toenails

    To compare the efficacy of Phenol and Sodium Hydroxide Matricectomies in terms of frequency of pain and wound healing in the management of Ingrown Toenails. Study Design: Randomized Clinical Trial Place of Duration of Study: Out Patient Department of Surgery Combined Military Hospital Kharian from Aug 2010 to Feb 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 140 cases with Ingrown Toenails were selected and randomly divided into two groups of 70 each. Cases of Group A and B were subjected to Phenol Matricectomy (PMC) and Sodium Hydroxide Matricectomy (SHMC) respectively. Postoperative pain was comparatively and Southampton Wound Grade for wound healing were analyzed at 2nd and 10th postop day. Results: Mean age of Group A was 28.86 ± 6.423 whereas that of Group B was 28.80 ± 5.997. Group A had 58 (83%) males and 12 (17%) females. Group B had 48 (69%) males and 22 (31%) females. Postoperative pain was comparatively less in group A with statistical difference between two groups on 2nd day (p = 0.014), whereas it was less intense in group B with no statistical significant difference on 10th day (p=0.662). Wound healing was better in group B with statistical difference between two groups on 2nd (p = 0.022) and 10th day (p = 0.024). Group B (91.4%) had more statistically significant efficacy than Group A (71.4%) (p = 0.004). Conclusion: SHMC is superior to PMC in reducing pain and improving wound healing for managing Ingrown Toenails. (author)

  9. From Zn-Al layered double hydroxide to ZnO nanostructure:Gradually etching by sodium hydroxide

    Gang Qiang Wan; Dong Xiang Li; Chun Fang Li; Jie Xu; Wan Guo Hou

    2012-01-01

    Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was used as precursor to produce ZnO nanostructures through dissolution of aluminum hydroxide in caustic soda.The Zn-Al LDH could transform into different nanostructures of ZnO on LDH nanosheets and even pure ZnO nanorods under various NaOH concentration.The formed ZnO nanorods vertically aligned on both LDH sides.UV-vis diverse reflectance spectra show that the obtained ZnO nanorods have a band gap of approximately 3.05 eV.Such ZnO/LDH nanostructures might be used as photocatalyst in the organic pollutant decomposition.

  10. Computed phase diagrams for the system: Sodium hydroxide-uric acid-hydrochloric acid-water

    Brown, W. E.; Gregory, T. M.; Füredi-Milhofer, H.

    1987-07-01

    Renal stone formation is made complex by the variety of solid phases that are formed, by the number of components in the aqueous phase, and by the multiplicity of ionic dissociation and association processes that are involved. In the present work we apply phase diagrams calculated by the use of equilibrium constants from the ternary system sodium hydroxide-uric acid-water to simplify and make more rigorous the understanding of the factors governing dissolution and precipitation of uric acid (anhydrous and dihydrate) and sodium urate monohydrate. The system is then examined in terms of four components. Finally, procedures are described for fluids containing more than four components. The isotherms, singular points, and fields of supersaturation and undersaturation are shown in various forms of phase diagrams. This system has two notable features: (1) in the coordinates -log[H 2U] versus -log[NaOH], the solubility isotherms for anhydrous uric acid and uric acid dihydrate approximate straight lines with slopes equal to +1 over a wide range of concentrations. As a result, substantial quantities of sodium acid urate monohydrate can precipitate from solution or dissolve without changing the degree of saturation of uric acid significantly. (2) The solubility isotherm for NaHU·H 2O has a deltoid shape with the low-pH branch having a slope of infinity. As a result of the vertical slope of this isotherm, substantial quantities of uric acid can dissolve or precipitate without changing the degree of saturation of sodium acid urate monohydrate significantly. The H 2U-NaOH singular point has a pH of 6.87 at 310 K in the ternary system.

  11. Study of corrosion of sodium-zirconium-silicate glass in sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate solutions at 90-150 deg C

    Examined are the time- and temperature dependencies of glass corrosion (glass composition: 20.48% mole Na2Ox6.65% molexZrO2x72.87% mole SiO2) in aqueous solutions of sodium hydrate and sodium carbonate with concentrations of 2g-equiv/l at 90-150 deg C. The measurements are made by two methods: estimation of glass weight losses in the course of corrosion; and estimation of the amounts of SiO2 and ZrO2 that had passed from the glass surface to the solution. Glass dissolution in NaOH was found to occur non-uniformly. Increased alkali-stability was caused not only by low ZrO2 solubility, but also by formation on the glass surface of a hydrolysis film, chiefly composed of zirconium hydroxide. A leached layer containing a considerable amount of zirconium dioxide in hydrolyzed state was noted to form on the glass surface when the glass interacted with the sodium carbonate solution. The presence of this layer made the glass increasingly resistant to sodium carbonate and had a positive effect on the kinetic characteristics of the corrosion process

  12. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  13. High-temperature sodium hydroxide impinging experiment for investigating tube wastage phenomena caused by sodium-water reaction in FBR steam generator

    Sodium reacts chemically with water in case of unexpected heat transfer tube failure in a steam generator (SG) of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs), exoergic reaction produces reaction field with high temperature and high corrosive action (sodium-water reaction). Adjacent tubes are damaged due to erosive and corrosive environment of the reaction field. Therefore, it is integral to evaluate such sodium-water reaction phenomena with high accuracy for the safety assessment of FBRs. For the purpose of understanding the wastage mechanism, an experiment was carried out in which sodium hydroxide (NaOH) collided with the tube material under high temperature conditions simulating the reaction field. We confirmed that the erosion-corrosion rate of tube material has a tendency to increase as the temperature and velocity of NaOH are raised. (author)

  14. High-temperature sodium hydroxide impinging experiment for investigating tube wastage phenomena caused by sodium-water reaction in FBR steam generator

    Sodium reacts chemically with water in case of unexpected heat transfer tube failure in a steam generator (SG) of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and exothermic reaction produces reaction field with high temperature and high corrosive action (sodium-water reaction). Adjacent tubes are damaged due to erosive and corrosive environment of the reaction field (wastage). Therefore, it is integral to evaluate the sodium-water reaction phenomena with high accuracy for the safety assessment of FBRs. For the purpose of understanding the wastage mechanism, an experiment was carried out in which sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the main reaction product collided with the tube material under high temperature conditions to simulate the reaction field. We confirmed that the erosion-corrosion rate of tube material has a tendency to increase as the temperature and velocity of NaOH are raised. (author)

  15. Effect of Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide and Degree of Heat Curing on Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Subhash V. Patankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer concrete/mortar is the new development in the field of building constructions in which cement is totally replaced by pozzolanic material like fly ash and activated by alkaline solution. This paper presented the effect of concentration of sodium hydroxide, temperature, and duration of oven heating on compressive strength of fly ash-based geopolymer mortar. Sodium silicate solution containing Na2O of 16.45%, SiO2 of 34.35%, and H2O of 49.20% and sodium hydroxide solution of 2.91, 5.60, 8.10, 11.01, 13.11, and 15.08. Moles concentrations were used as alkaline activators. Geopolymer mortar mixes were prepared by considering solution-to-fly ash ratio of 0.35, 0.40, and 0.45. The temperature of oven curing was maintained at 40, 60, 90, and 120°C each for a heating period of 24 hours and tested for compressive strength at the age of 3 days as test period after specified degree of heating. Test results show that the workability and compressive strength both increase with increase in concentration of sodium hydroxide solution for all solution-to-fly ash ratios. Degree of heating also plays vital role in accelerating the strength; however there is no large change in compressive strength beyond test period of three days after specified period of oven heating.

  16. Sodium hydroxide injection passivation work for the reactor water clean-up system in a new ABWR plant

    Several studies have identified that Co-58 and Co-60 as the primary source of radiation build up on out-of-core components in new BWR plants. The deposition rate of Co on stainless steel and carbon steel is shown to be controlled mainly by the thickness of oxide films and its morphology formed through pretreatment. The passivation treatment was implemented accordingly at Lungmen unit 1 in an ABWR plant in September 2010. It is determined that the passivation conditions should be maintained at the temperature of 180∼230 deg. C, pH of 8.0∼8.5 and dissolved oxygen content over 400 ppb. The films would provide effective protection against radioactive deposition. The application of the pre-filming process on piping before the pre-operation is done during the flow induced vibration test (FIV) period. The protectiveness of stable magnetite can be increased by the pH control under the specific condition. The pre-filming control process and evaluation of passivation effectiveness is discussed in detail based on the surface analysis of the passivated specimens. Many efforts have been devoted to sodium hydroxide injection method for pH control of the system through the filter demineralizer under smooth operation. A comparison of test specimens on the properties of oxide film formed between laboratory and in-plant tests through alkaline treatment are also shown in this report. (authors)

  17. Kinetics and leaching behaviors of aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters in sodium hydroxide solution

    王重庆; 王晖; 顾帼华; 符剑刚; 刘又年

    2015-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for recycling pharmaceutical blisters. Leaching aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions was investigated with respect to leaching behaviors and kinetics. A L9(34) orthogonal design of experiments suggests that the most significant factor is NaOH concentration followed by temperature and leaching time. Factorial experiments demonstrate that the leaching rate of aluminum increases with increasing of the factors. The optimum conditions are temperature of 70 °C, leaching time of 20 min, NaOH concentration of 1.25 mol/L, liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 15:1 and agitation speed of 400 r/min. Under optimum conditions, the leaching rate is up to 100%, implying that aluminum and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in pharmaceutical blisters are separated completely. Kinetics of leaching aluminum is best described by the product layer diffusion control model, and the activation energy is calculated to be 19.26 kJ/mol.

  18. Fabrication and corrosion behavior of fresh porous silicon in sodium hydroxide solution

    The corrosion behavior of fresh porous silicon (f-PS) in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution in the presence and absence of ethanol was studied by weight loss measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. The phenomena and progress of f-PS corrosion in 1.0 M NaOH at 318 K was obtained and described. Weight loss measurements show that the corrosion rate increases with increasing temperature and concentration of NaOH solution. Meanwhile, the corrosion rate first increases with increasing volume ratio of ethanol in 1.0 M NaOH, and then decreases. Additionally, the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (Ea, A, ΔHa and ΔSa) for f-PS corrosion were obtained and discussed. And the effect factors (T, c and v) of f-PS corrosion in NaOH solution were studied in this paper. - Highlights: • The corrosion behavior of f-PS in NaOH solution was studied for the first time. • Phenomena and progress of f-PS corrosion in NaOH solution was obtained and described. • The effect factors (T, c and v) of f-PS corrosion in NaOH solution were studied. • The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained and discussed. • The corrosion rate can be improved by adding ethanol into NaOH solution

  19. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    Yilmaz, Ceren [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Unal, Ugur [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Yagci Acar, Havva, E-mail: fyagci@ku.edu.tr [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-03-15

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  20. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn–Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: ► In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. ► Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. ► Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. ► Growth mechanism was discussed. ► Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  1. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43 (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  2. Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment

    Bishop, P.L.; Wu, Q.; Keener, T.; Zhuang, L.A.; Gurusamy, R.; Pehkonen, S.

    1999-07-01

    Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to evaluate neutralization capacity and buffering intensity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide; (3) to study the efficacy of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment processes; (4) to investigate whether and how the magnesium hydroxide influences the characteristics of the activated sludge floc; (5) to determine whether magnesium hydroxide improves the anaerobic sludge digestion process and associated mechanisms; and (6) to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the application of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide in wastewater treatment and the possibility of marketing this product. Research results to date show that the purity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide depends largely on the recovery hydroxide slurry. This product proved to be very effective for wastewater neutralization, compared with other commonly used chemicals, both for its neutralization capacity and its buffering intensity. Due to its relatively low solubility in water and its particle size distribution characteristics, magnesium hydroxide behaves like a weak base, which will be very beneficial for process control. The authors also found that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from the wastewater using magnesium hydroxide due to their complexation and precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Magnesium hydroxide also greatly enhanced the settleability of the activated sludge. Intensive research on the mechanisms associated with these phenomena reveals that sweep flocculation and magnesium ion bridging between exopolymeric substances (EPS) of

  3. Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin

    Eduardo Rodrigues de Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3 tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm.The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to develop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane

  4. Ecological comparison of calcium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate as sorbents; Oekologischer Vergleich der Sorptionsmittel Calciumhydroxid und Natriumhydrogencarbonat

    Pacher, Christian; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Rohstoff- und Energietechnologie; Mocker, Mario [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Faulstich, Martin [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Straubing (Germany). Wissenschaftszentrum Straubing

    2009-07-01

    Lime products have long been used with success for flue gas purification in waste incineration plants, where they serve to eliminate acid gas pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. This article presents excerpts of a study commissioned by the German lime industry association for the purpose of obtaining an unbiased well-founded comparison of the environmental impact of the two sorbents calcium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. The following questions were addressed by the study: Which of the two flue gas additives provides greater environmental benefit under specified conditions? What parameters influence the outcome? How can the results be viewed in regard to different plant configurations?.

  5. Sodium Hydroxide (CAS No. 62-53-3 [Hidróxido de Sodio (CAS No. 62-53-3

    Illana Muniz Canto Brum da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda, is an inorganic solid which provides an extremely important role for the manufacture of heavy chemical. This Arrhenius’ base is used for the production of textiles and paper, and participates as an input the manufacture of various products. This article presents a brief history of the production of caustic soda, describes in detail the electrolytic processes currently used for their production and, finally, shows how is the outlook for brazilian and worldwide production and consumption of this basis.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  7. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in the one-pot synthesis of intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides

    Fengzhu Lv; Zilin Meng; Penggang Li; Yihe Zhang; Guocheng Lv; Qian Zhang; Zhilei Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Anion surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium lauric acid (SLA), with almost the same chain length but different anion groups were used together as intercalates to prepare intercalated ZnAl–layered double hydroxides (ZnAl–LDHs). Their composition, structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated SDS intended to maintain the lamellae structure of LDHs, but SLA was more likely to expand the basal spacings of LDHs in the present system. The arrangement of the surfactants in the interlayer of ZnAl–LDHs was also simulated by Materials Studio. The basal spacings of the LDHs calculated based on simulated structure consisted with that from XRD.

  8. Influence of ortho-substituted phenols as Corrosion Inhibitors on the Corrosion of Aluminium in Sodium Hydroxide

    The inhibition of corrosion of the commercial aluminium in solutions of sodium hydroxide, by o-substituted phenols(o-cresol, o-chlorophenol, o-aminophenol and o-nitrophenol), has been studied with respect to concentration of inhibitor and alkali, period of immersion and temperature the results are as follows: 1. The order of inhibitive efficiency in 0.1 M NaOH containing 0.01-0.5 wt % of inhibitor was o-nitrophenol (-15∼%) o-aminophenol>o-chlorophenol>o-cresol (89.6%). 2. O-substituted phenols, except for o-aminophenol, were effective as corrosion inhibitors in sodium hydroxide lower than 0.2 M. 3. Although the weight loss due to corrosion increased with rise in temperature (from 30 .deg. C to 60 .deg. C), the inhibitive efficiency remained almost constant. 4. Depletion of inhibitor appeared in 0.1 M NaOH containing 1.0% inhibitor by the corrosion process after immersion period of 45 minutes. 5. Inhibitive efficiency of substituent groups was different from the results by weight concentration of the inhibitor and there was very little correlation between pka values of the inhibitor or its molecular weight or solubility and its efficiency

  9. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1134 Sodium Nitrite Injection and... products containing sodium nitrite labeled for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and unapproved injectable... products containing sodium nitrite or sodium thiosulfate that are labeled for the treatment of...

  10. Doping magnesium hydroxide with sodium nitrate: a new approach to tune the dehydration reactivity of heat-storage materials.

    Shkatulov, Alexandr; Krieger, Tamara; Zaikovskii, Vladimir; Chesalov, Yurii; Aristov, Yuri

    2014-11-26

    Thermochemical energy storage (TES) provides a challenging approach for improving the efficiency of various energy systems. Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, is known as a suitable material for TES at temperature T>300 °C. In this work, the thermal decomposition of Mg(OH)2 in the absence and presence of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is investigated to adapt this material for TES at T300 °C in vapor atmosphere) than a pure Mg(OH)2; (3) the morphology of the dehydration product (MgO) dramatically changes. Differential scanning calorimetry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman) are used to study the observed effects and to elucidate possible ways the NaNO3 influences the Mg(OH)2 dehydration and morphology of the dehydration product. The mechanism involving a chemical interaction between the salt and the hydroxide accompanied by nitrate embedding into brucite layers is discussed. PMID:25333760

  11. Technology Readiness Evaluation For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regenration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  12. Influence of zeolite treated with sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide on the coagulation-flocculation process of drainage. Influencia de la zeolita tratada con acido sulfurico y con hidroxido de sodio en el proceso de coagulacion floculacion en aguas superficiales

    Gutierrez Duque, M.; Herrera Vasconcelos, T.; Laria Piedra, N.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper has had as objective the treatment of natural zeolite from Tasajera with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide (residuals acid and basic from the regeneration of cationic and anionic resins of the ''Otto Parallada'' thermoelectric plant) at different times and concentrations, with a further comparison and testing of the effectiveness of the obtained zeolite in respect to the natural one as a coadyuvant of the coagulation-flocculation process in the treatment of superficial water. (Author)

  13. Influence of calcium hydroxide on the post-treatment pain in Endodontics: A systematic review

    K Anjaneyulu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain of endodontic origin has been a major concern to the patients and the clinicians for many years. Post-operative pain is associated with inflammation in the periradicular tissues caused by irritants egressing from root canal during treatment. It has been suggested that calcium hydroxide intra-canal medicament has pain-preventive properties because of its anti-microbial or tissue altering effects. Some dispute this and reasoned that calcium hydroxide may initiate or increase pain by inducing or increasing inflammation. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of calcium hydroxide in reducing the post-treatment pain when used as an intra-canal medicament Materials and Methods: The following databases were searched: PubMed CENTRAL (until July 2013, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Bibliographies of clinical studies and reviews identified in the electronic search were analyzed for studies published outside the electronically searched journals. The primary outcome measure was to evaluate the post-treatment pain reduction when calcium hydroxide is used as an intra-canal medicament in patients undergoing root canal therapy. Results: The reviews found some clinical evidence that calcium hydroxide is not very effective in reducing post-treatment pain when it is used alone, but its effectiveness can be increased when used in combination with other medicaments like chlorhexidine and camphorated monochlorophenol (CMCP. Conclusion: Even though calcium hydroxide is one of the most widely used intra-canal medicament due to its anti-microbial properties, there is no clear evidence of its effect on the post-treatment pain after the chemo-mechanical root canal preparation.

  14. Root canal treatment of pulpless immature teeth using calcium hydroxide paste. Roentgenographic study

    Calcium hydroxide paste was used as a temporary dressing and the renewal was done each three months in the root treatment of immature teeth with open apex and necrotic pulps. Clinical and radiographic controls were made to observe foraminal closure. After that, the root canals were filled, employing the conventional technique with gutta-percha cones and zinc oxide eugenol cements. The calcium hydroxide paste was applied in the apical region before the root canal filling. The follow-up was done periodically and the cases have more than two years of control. (author)

  15. A basis for the development of new ammonia-water-sodium hydroxide absorption chillers

    Steiu, Simona; Salavera, Daniel; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Mechanical Engineering, CREVER - Group of Applied Thermal Engineering, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Adding NaOH to ammonia/water improves the separation of ammonia in the generator and reduces both chiller driving temperature and rectification losses. In this paper the main disadvantages for the implementation of these new mixtures are addressed: a) few experimental data or reliable correlations of the fluid mixture properties exist; b) selection of an adequate system for separating the hydroxide; and c) evaluation of potential corrosion problems. Our results show that the separation of NaOH from an ammonia/water solution with a maximum approximate mass fraction of 0.05 (5% weight) is viable when reverse osmosis is used with membranes BW30 and SW30HR LE. Cycle simulation using experimental data to calculate the vapour-liquid equilibrium properties shows that the COP is approximately 20% higher than with a conventional ammonia/water chiller working under the same conditions and using a hydroxyl separation efficiency of 99% for NaOH, which is feasible according to the experimental tests. (author)

  16. USING OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE FOR TREATMENT OF SMALL PETS

    Zholobova I. S.; Starkov V. I.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we show the results of treatment of surgical diseases of the small domestic animals sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite is an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying agent. We used it in a topical treatment for dogs and cats with allergic, infected wounds and in the post operative period. A solution of sodium hypochlorite is produced by activation of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by electrochemical method using electrometers and "Key", produced by the NGO Pyr...

  17. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. PMID:26342336

  18. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  19. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  20. Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: efficacy of treatment on zooplankton

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Barenburg, Amber; Henquinet, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Effective and economical tools are needed for treating ship ballast to meet new regulatory requirements designed to reduce the introduction of invasive aquatic species from ship traffic. We tested the efficacy of hydroxide stabilization as a ballast disinfection tool in replicated, sequential field trials on board the M/V Ranger III in waters of Lake Superior. Ballast water was introduced into each of four identical 1,320 L stainless steel tanks during a simulated ballasting operation. Two tanks were treated with NaOH to elevate the pH to 11.7 and the remaining two tanks were held as controls without pH alteration. After retention on board for 14–18 h, CO2-rich gas recovered from one of two diesel propulsion engines was sparged into tanks treated with NaOH for 2 h to force conversion of NaOH ultimately to sodium bicarbonate, thereby lowering pH to about 7.1. Prior to gas sparging, the engine exhaust was treated by a unique catalytic converter/wet scrubber process train to remove unwanted combustion byproducts and to provide cooling. The contents of each tank were then drained and filtered through 35-µm mesh plankton nets to collect all zooplankton. The composition and relative survival of zooplankton in each tank were evaluated by microscopy. Zooplankton populations were dominated by rotifers, but copepods and cladocerans were also observed. Hydroxide stabilization was 100% effective in killing all zooplankton present at the start of the tests. Our results suggest hydroxide stabilization has potential to be an effective and practical tool to disinfect ship ballast. Further, using CO2 released from the ship engine reduces emissions and the neutralized by product, sodium bicarbonate, can have beneficial impacts on the aquatic environment.

  1. Production of Biodiesel (B100 from Jatropha Oil Using Sodium Hydroxide as Catalyst

    Joshua Folaranmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work is about the production of biodiesel from jatropha oil. Other oils can also be used for the production, but jatropha was chosen because it is not edible therefore, it will not pose a problem to humans in terms of food competition. Before the transesterification process was carried out, some basic tests such as free fatty acid content, iodine value, and moisture content were carried out. This was done so as to ascertain quality yield of the biodiesel after the reaction. The production of the biodiesel was done with standard materials and under standard conditions which made the production a hitch-free one. The jatropha oil was heated to 60°C, and a solution of sodium methoxide (at 60°C was added to the oil and stirred for 45 minutes using a magnetic stirrer. The mixture was then left to settle for 24 hours. Glycerin, which is the byproduct, was filtered off. The biodiesel was then thoroughly washed to ensure that it was free from excess methanol and soap. The characterization was done at NNPC Kaduna refinery and petrochemicals. The result shows that the product meets the set standard for biodiesel.

  2. Effect of culture complex of BMSCs and sodium hydroxide- and GRGDSPC-treated PET on the reconstruction of injured anterior cruciate ligament in a rabbit model.

    Huang, Jianming; Chen, Fengrong; Jian, Guojian; Ye, Zhiyang; Wang, Zimin; Liu, Haoyuan; Kang, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Ligament reconstruction is an effective therapy for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligaments have recently gained popularity in clinical ACL reconstruction for its advantage in the improvement of keen function. However, the application of PET in clinical treatment is limited by its poor bioactivity and biocompatibility. Recently, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been widely studied in regenerative medical therapy due to their multi-lineage differentiation. Previous study also indicated that BMSCs may promote the healing of tendon-bone interface of injured ligament. We speculate that BMSCs may enhance the curative effect of PET artificial ligament on the tendon-bone-healing in ligament reconstruction. In this study, the PET materials were first modified with sodium hydroxide hydrolysis and GRGDSPC peptide which was able to improve its bioactivity and biocompatibility. Then, the effects of modified PET materials on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs were examined. The in vitro co-culture of BMSCs and modified PET showed the modified PET promoted the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs. Further, the effect of culture complex of BMSCs and modified PET artificial ligament co-culture system on the injured ligament reconstruction was investigated in vivo. Results showed not only better growth and differentiation of BMSCs but also satisfactory healing of the injured ligament was observed after implantation of this culture complex into the injured ligament of rabbits. Our study provides a brand-new solution for ACL reconstruction. PMID:26221227

  3. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite in concentrated sodium hydroxide at platinum and nickel electrodes

    Hu Lin Li [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Robertson, D.H.; Chambers, J.Q. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hobbs, D.T. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This work describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrate in alkaline solutions. Conditions which maximize the current efficiency for the production of dinitrogen and/or ammonia gases could be very important for the treatment of radioactive waste solutions.

  4. Effects of irrigation solutions and Calcium hydroxide dressing on root canal treatments of periapical lesions

    Vita Nirmala

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of root canal in endodontic treatment plays an important role in treating non vital teeth with periapical lesion. Some factors influence the success of root canal treatment in short and long terms are the irrigation of root canal using antiseptic solution and the use of root canal medicament. The aim of this literature study is to determined the effect of irrigation solution and Calcium hydroxide dressing in root canal treatment of periapical lesions. The use of root canal medicament during the endodontic treatment could sterilized and decreased the number of pathogenic microorganism of root canal. An effective root canal irrigation solution must be able to dissolve organic and anorganic debris, lubricate endodontic instruments, disinfect microorganisms, non toxic and economical. The best irrigation solution has maximum antimicrobial effect with minimum toxicity. Division of calcium hydroxide into Calcium and hydroxyl ions is responsible for alkalinization of cavity, subsequently it makes the condition of cavity to be inappropriate for bacterial endotoxin in vitro as well as in vivo, and considered as the only clinically effective medicament in inactivating bacterial endotoxin. Calcium hydroxide is the only medication which has the ability to clinically inactive bacterial endotoxin in vitro in vivo and accepted as the best of root canal medication.

  5. Solidification Of The Hanford Law Waste Stream Produced As A Result Of Near-Tank Continuous Sludge Leaching And Sodium Hydroxide Recovery

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  6. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  7. TREATMENT OF SODIUM DISORDERS AFTER SURGERY OF CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA

    黄文宇; 石祥恩

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the treatment of the patients with blood sodium disorder after cramophatyrgioma stagery.Method. The blood sodium in 44 patients with craniopharyngiomas was daily examined from operative to post-op-erative days. Hypematremia is defined as [Na] > 145 mmol/l, and hyponatremia as [Na] < 135 nmml/L.Results. Of the 44 patients, 36 developed sodium disorder. Among them, simple hyponatremia was 16 patients,simple hypematremia was 9 patients, and alternative sodium disorder was 11 patients. Condusion. The blood sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery appears to present com-plicated changes. Three types of blood sodium disorder could be determined as simple hyponatremia, simple hyperna-tremia, and alternative sodium disorder. Treatment of the sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery could be carried in accordance with the above three types.

  8. Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar L Modified with 1-Octanol

    Pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE) was investigated for recovery of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from alkaline process solutions. PHE relies on the deprotonation of a lipophilic weak acid by hydroxide ion with concomitant transfer of sodium ion into an organic phase. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and NaOH in the aqueous phase, thus leading to a process in which NaOH equivalents are transferred from an alkaline feed solution to an aqueous stripping solution. In this work, we researched PHE using a process-friendly diluent Isopar L. The lipophilic cation exchanger 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) was used as the extractant. The Isopar L diluent was modified with 1-octanol to improve its solvation properties and the solubility of 35-DTBP so that practical Na+ concentrations could be achieved in the process solvent. The PHE mechanism at process-relevant conditions was explored by Raman and FTIR spectroscopic measurements. Electrospray mass spectroscopic results indicated extensive aggregation of the sodium phenolate at high Na+ loading. An equilibrium computer modeling suggested that the Na+ extraction behavior can be largely explained by the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 Na/35-DTBP species in the organic phase. Extraction isotherms obtained using caustic leaching simulant solutions indicate the potential utility of this approach for recycling NaOH from complex alkaline mixtures

  9. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  10. Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues

    Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved

  11. Double-blind clinical, endoscopic and histological comparison of hydrotalcite/dimethicone suspension and magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension in the treatment of symptomatic gastritis.

    Cobden, I; McMahon, M J; Dixon, M F; Axon, A T

    1981-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized trial was undertaken to compare the clinical, endoscopic and histological response to 6-weeks' treatment with hydrotalcite/dimethicone suspension or magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension in 36 patients with symptomatic gastritis. Significantly more patients (P less than 0.05) showed symptomatic improvement in the antacid-treated group than in the hydrotalcite/dimethicone-treated group and more had a reduction in histological inflammatory scores (P less than 0.01), although there was little correlation between histology and symptoms. There was no evidence from this study that the bile acid binding and anti-foaming properties of hydrotalcite/dimethicone suspension were of any benefit in the treatment of patients with symptomatic gastritis. PMID:7267678

  12. TREATMENT OF SODIUM DISORDERS AFTER SURGERY OF CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA

    黄文宇; 石祥恩

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the treatment of the patients with blood sodium disorder after craniopharyngioma surgery. Method. The blood sodium in 44 patients with craniopharyngiomas was daily examined from operative to post-op erative days. Hypernatremia is defined as [Na] > 145 mmol/1, and hyponatremia as [Na] < 135 mmol/L. Results. Of the 44 patients, 36 developed sodium disorder. Among them, simple hyponatremia was 16 patients, simple hypernatremia was 9 patients, and alternative sodiu m disorder was 11 patients. Conclusion. The blood sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery appears to present com plicated changes. Three types of blood sodium disorder could be determined as simple hyponatremia, simple hyperna tremia, and alternative sodium disorder. Treatment of the sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery could be carried in accordance with the above three types.

  13. Industrial technology of preparing sodium sulfide from absorption of hydrogen sulfide with sodium hydroxide solution%用氢氧化钠溶液吸收硫化氢制取硫化钠工业技术

    尚方毓

    2012-01-01

    An industrial technology of using sodium hydroxide solution to absorb hydrogen sulfide generated from barium chloride production to produce sodium sulfide was introduced and its feasibility was discussed from technical and economic perspectives respectively:sodium hydroxide solution with 380-420 g/L absorbed hydrogen sulfide in the packed tower,the reaction was end when mass concentration of sodium sulfide was at 330~350 g/L and the absorption rate of hydrogen sulfide reached at 95%~98%.It not only protects the environment, but also creates benefits for enterprises.%详细阐述了在氯化钡生产过程中,将产生的硫化氢用氢氧化钠溶液吸收并制取硫化钠的生产工艺,分别从技术和经济的角度讨论其可行性:用380~420 g/L氢氧化钠溶液在填料塔中吸收硫化氢,反应终点控制硫化钠质量浓度为330~350 g/L,硫化氢吸收率达95%~98%.该工艺不仅可有效保护环境,而且可为企业创造效益.

  14. 氢氧化钠浸出含砷金矿中砷%Leaching the Arsenic in the Gold Ore by Sodium Hydroxide

    马红周; 燕超; 王耀宁; 仵宇轩; 张向昭

    2015-01-01

    随着易处理金矿的减少,含砷金矿已成为金提取的重要资源,但砷对金浸出有不利影响,需要在浸金之前进行去除。进行了氢氧化钠溶液浸出金矿中砷的研究,考察了浸出时间、氢氧化钠用量及液固比等因素对金矿中砷浸出的影响。氢氧化钠溶液可以将金矿中的 FeAsS 及 AsS 分解为FeS2和 As2O3,通过正交实验及单因素实验获得了较优的砷浸出条件。在温度100℃、氢氧化钠用量500 kg/t、浸出时间2.5 h、液固比5:1的条件下,砷的浸出率达到80.10%。%With the increasingly reduction of easily leachable gold ores, the gold ore contain arsenic has become an important resource. The arsenic in the gold ore must be removed before leaching because it will have negative effect on leaching gold in the ore. The sodium hydroxide solution was used to leaching the arsenic in the gold ore. The effects of influential factors on the leaching arsenic in the gold ore were investigated. These factors included leaching time, sodium hydroxide concentration and ratio of liquid to solid. Sodium hydroxide solution can decompose FeAsS and AsS into FeS2 and As2O3. The optimal leaching conditions were worked out through orthogonal test and single factor test. The optimal conditions are as follows:temperature 100℃, sodium hydroxide concentration 500 kg/t, leaching time 2.5 hours and ratio of liquid to solid is 5:1, the leaching rate of arsenic up to 80.10%.

  15. Simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by sodium hydroxide solution in a packed bed and studying the effect of operating parameters on absorption

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In this study. simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by Sodium Hydroxide solution in a packed bed has been investigated. At first, mass and energy balances were applied around a differential height of the bed. So, the governing equations were obtained. Surface renewal theory by Danckwerts was used to represent the mass transfer operation Finally, by changing the operating parameters like solvent temperature, inlet gas composition pressure and height of the bed, the effect of these parameters on the absorption and the composition of carbon dioxide in exit stream have been investigated. (authors)

  16. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  17. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure

  18. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    Mendoza, Oscar, E-mail: oamendoz@unal.edu.co [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia); Giraldo, Carolina [Cementos Argos S.A., Medellín (Colombia); Camargo, Sergio S. [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tobón, Jorge I. [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-08-15

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure.

  19. Precipitation of the rare earth double sodium and rare earths from the sulfuric liquor and the conversion into rare earth hydroxides through meta ethic reaction

    This work presents the purification study of the rare earths through precipitation of rare earth and sodium (Na TR (SO4)2. x H2O)) double sulfate and his conversion to rare earths hydroxide TR(OH)3 by meta ethic reaction through the addition of sodium hydroxide solution to the solid double sulfate. The study used the sulfuric liquor as rare earth sample, generated in the chemical processing of the monazite with sulfuric acid by the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB, Brazil, after the thorium and uranium extraction. The work investigated the influence of the main variables involved in the precipitation of Na TR(SO4)2.xH2O and in the conversion for the TR(OH)3, as follows: type and excess of the precipitation agent, temperature and time reaction. The obtained solid composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared and chemical analysis. The double sulfate diffractogram indicated the Na TR(SO4)2 mono-hydrated. The characterization of the metatese products has shown that, for obtaining the complete conversion of NaTR(SO4)2.H2O into TR(OH)3, the reaction must be hot processed (∼70 deg C) and with small excess of Na OH (≤ 5 percent). (author)

  20. Flowsheet Modeling and Testing of Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar(regsign) L Modified with Exxal(regsign) 8

    A conceptual counter-current process flowsheet was developed for sodium hydroxide recovery from alkaline solutions via pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE). PHE relies on a simple sodium ion/proton exchange mechanism at elevated pH using a weak organic acid extractant. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. In this work, the 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) cation exchanger was used in the Isopar(regsign) L diluent modified with isooctyl alcohol Exxal(regsign) 8. Equilibrium isotherms determined for PHE from pure sodium hydroxide solutions and simulated radioactive waste leachate were used to develop a semi-empirical model that could be used for designing PHE process flowsheets. Using this model, a conceptual PHE flowsheet was developed for recovering NaOH from solutions generated by caustic leaching of radioactive tank sludges. The flowsheet consists of extraction, scrub, and strip processes, each employing four equilibrium stages. Modeling of this flowsheet indicates 97% recovery of the sodium hydroxide from the waste leachate feed solution. An experimental demonstration, performed with a simulated radioactive waste leachate using batch contacts in a co-current analog of the counter-current flowsheet, confirmed the potential for practical application of PHE technology

  1. Flowsheet Modeling and Testing of Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar® L Modified with Exxal® 8

    Arm, Stuart T.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2007-09-01

    A conceptual counter-current process flowsheet was developed for sodium hydroxide recovery from alkaline solutions via pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE). PHE relies on a simple sodium ion/proton exchange mechanism at elevated pH using a weak organic acid extractant. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. In this work, the 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) cation exchanger was used in the Isopar® L diluent modified with isooctyl alcohol Exxal® 8. Equilibrium isotherms determined for PHE from pure sodium hydroxide solutions and simulated radioactive waste leachate were used to develop a semi-empirical model that could be used for designing PHE process flowsheets. Using this model, a conceptual PHE flowsheet was developed for recovering NaOH from solutions generated by caustic leaching of radioactive tank sludges. The flowsheet consists of extraction, scrub, and strip processes, each employing four equilibrium stages. Modeling of this flowsheet indicates 97% recovery of the sodium hydroxide from the waste leachate feed solution. An experimental demonstration, performed with a simulated radioactive waste leachate using batch contacts in a co-current analog of the counter-current flowsheet, confirmed the potential for practical application of PHE technology.

  2. Radioactive sodium waste treatment and conditioning. Review of main aspects

    This publication reviews the main aspects relating to the treatment and conditioning of radioactive sodium waste. This waste arises from the operation of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). In this type of reactor, sodium (Na) or sodium-potassium alloys (NaK) are used as a low-effect neutron moderating coolant medium for extracting and transferring thermal energy from the core and they represent a significant technical and safety challenge during operation and decommissioning. This publication provides the reader with technologically oriented information on the present status of sodium waste management approaches and recent achievements related to treatment and conditioning, with the objective of facilitating planning and preparatory work for the decommissioning of LMFRs. This publication provides a comprehensive review of the hazards associated with sodium waste management. Given the large quantities of sodium waste arising during decommissioning or reactor refurbishment, as well as the challenges and varied techniques associated with removal of 100% of all sodium and NaK bulk quantities and residues during decommissioning, a hazards review and analysis is a critical component in planning the dismantling and waste management activities. Roughly half of this publication focuses on sodium waste generating, handling and treatment processes. This includes draining sodium and NaK from plant systems; in situ treatment of residual sodium; cutting techniques for pumps, valves, piping and other components; cleaning of components; potential reuse of sodium; and removal of selected radionuclides from sodium waste with the objective of reducing the waste classification or converting it to exempt waste. The focus is on proven techniques and technologies, and each discussed method includes a review of the associated principle or theory, practical applications, advantages and disadvantages, limitations, industry experience, and final waste products. A review is provided of final

  3. The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na2O and NaH. The most important contaminant is 137Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide

  4. The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study

    Van Alsenoy, V; Rahier, A.

    1996-07-01

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na{sub 2}O and NaH. The most important contaminant is {sup 137}Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide.

  5. Effects of Sodium Sulfate and Sodium Chloride on Ca2+ , Mg2+ Removal from Glauber Type Brine by Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate%芒硝型卤水中盐硝组分对碱法脱除钙镁的影响

    董泽亮; 张琦; 王俐聪; 蔡荣华; 马来波; 黄西平

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ 、Mg2+ removal from Glauber type brine by sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate has been studied.The effects of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride on removal efficiency of Ca2+,Mg2+ at room temperature were investigated in detail when addition amount of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was theoretical value,reaction time was 30 min,aging time was 60 min.The experimental results show that the presence of sodium sulfate has large effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+.The removal rate of Ca2+ is more than 90% when the concentration of sodium sulfate is below 30 g/L.The presence of sodium sulfate has good but little effect on removal efficiency of Mg2+.The presence of sodium chloride has small effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+ and Mg2+.When the concentration of sodium chloride increases,the removal rate of Ca2+ increases significantly,but the removal rate of Mg2+ declines slightly.%采用“烧碱-纯碱”法,对芒硝型卤水中Ca2+和Mg2+的脱除进行了研究,在常温、两碱用量为理论用量、反应时间为30 min和陈化时间为60 min的条件下详细考察了卤水中氯化钠和硫酸钠含量的变化对Ca2+和Mg2脱除效果的影响.结果表明,硫酸钠组分对Ca2+的脱除效果影响较大,当硫酸钠含量在30 g/L以下时,Ca2+脱除率在90%以上,硫酸钠浓度增加有利于Mg2+的脱除,但影响不大.氯化钠组分对Ca2、Mg2+脱除效果的影响相对较小,氯化钠含量增加,Ca2+脱除率明显增加,而Mg2+脱除率略有下降.

  6. Endodontic treatment for necrotic immature permanent teeth using MTA and calcium hydroxide. A retrospective study

    Fabio de Almeida Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic treatment of young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp has been a challenge for the dentist. It is necessary to induce the formation of apical barrier (apical plug, enabling the complete root canal filling. Objective: This retrospective clinical study compared the protocols for treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation, using calcium hydroxide (CH or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Material and methods: 28 patients with incomplete root formation have undergone root canal treatments in the period from 2000 to 2009 were selected. The procedures for cleaning, shaping and intracanal medication (CH paste were performed in a standardized manner. In 13 patients, after using the CH paste (14 days, apical plugs with MTA were made. In the remaining 15 teeth monthly exchanges with CH paste were executed until it was observed radiographically the formation of the apical barrier. In all cases the canals were filled conventionally with gutta-percha and sealer. Initially, follow-ups were made on a quarterly and semiannually at the end of first year. Results: All apical lesions showed apical healing between 4 and 13 months after starting treatment. There was not noted the continuing process of root formation. Conclusion: It was concluded that the treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp with the use of MTA as apical plug has the same clinical results compared with the use of CH, with the advantage of less clinical time.

  7. [Effects of the treatment of coffee pulp, fresh or ensilaged, with calcium hydroxide, on its nutritive value].

    Gómez-Brenes, R; Bendaña, G; González, J M; Jarquín, R; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1988-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the chemical composition and nutritive value of fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp. Fresh or ensilaged pulp were mixed with 1, 2 and 3% of calcium hydroxide. The process was carried out during 0 and 16 hr, after which time the treated pulp was sun-dried for 36 hr until moisture content reached 12%. These samples were then analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and for some minerals (Ca, P, Na, K), as well as for caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids content. Diets were then prepared from these materials, containing 15% protein and 15 or 30% fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp, and offered to weanling rats during six weeks. Information required on weight gain, food conversion, apparent digestibility and toxicity of the diets was recorded. Results of the chemical analysis revealed that the main changes found in both types of pulp as a result of the calcium hydroxide treatment were the following: a decrease in ether extract (from 4.0 to 2.5 g/100 g), crude fiber (from 18.3 to 11.9 g/100 g) and protein content (from 12.3 to 8.6 g/100 g) in an inverse relation to the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The amount of ash increased, fluctuated between 5.5 and 15.4%, depending on the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The latter affected the Ca:P ratio in the diets, where an average ratio of 7.2:1 was found in the control pulp (0% calcium hydroxide) and 59.0:1 in those treated with the highest amount of calcium hydroxide (3%). Regarding the caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids contents, calcium hydroxide was effective in decreasing only tannins, more so in the fresh than in the ensilaged pulp; the decrease was in direct proportion to the amount of calcium hydroxide added and to the length of the Ca(OH)2 treatment. The results of the biological assays showed that the addition of Ca(OH)2 in either of the two time periods used and at either of the

  8. Sodium valproate and clonazepam for treatment-resistant panic disorder.

    Ontiveros, A; Fontaine, R.

    1992-01-01

    Sodium valproate (VA) and clonazepam (CLZ) were combined in the treatment of 4 patients with panic disorders (PD) who were resistant to several antipanic drug treatments. A significant improvement was found in the symptomatology of these patients, but relapses occurred when CLZ dosage was reduced. A potentiation of the GABAergic properties of VA and clonazepam is postulated. This combined treatment could be advantageous for some treatment-resistant PD patients but needs to be studied further.

  9. USING OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE FOR TREATMENT OF SMALL PETS

    Zholobova I. S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we show the results of treatment of surgical diseases of the small domestic animals sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite is an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying agent. We used it in a topical treatment for dogs and cats with allergic, infected wounds and in the post operative period. A solution of sodium hypochlorite is produced by activation of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by electrochemical method using electrometers and "Key", produced by the NGO Pyrolyzer in St. Petersburg. The resulting solution is a colorless transparent liquid, one liter contains 600 mg of the active substance is sodium hypochlorite. In the treatment of surgical diseases in medicine apply modern systemic therapies (drug therapy - physiotherapy - operation-pharmacotherapy, uses the latest drugs targeted actions (antibiotics, immunomodulators, probiotics, enzymes and hormones. There are other methods, including alternative medicine. It is known that increased therapeutic effect on wound process leads to the reduction of the inflammatory response, which can sometimes block local regeneration processes; for dogs and cats moderate inflammatory response in the wound is a necessary condition for successful healing. A certain degree of inflammation of the wound is starting mechanism of reparative processes. These features were considered during the experiment and the selection of treatment regimens

  10. 2-氯酚在超临界水-NaOH体系中的脱氯特性%Dechlorination characteristics of o-chlorophenol in supercritical water-sodium hydroxide system

    孙治荣; 马林; 韩延波

    2012-01-01

    The dechlorination characteristics of o-chlorophenol in supercritical water-sodium hydroxide system were studied.The conversion of o-chlorophenol,the yield of chloride ion and the dechlorination selectivity were investigated in the presence of sodium hydroxide.Results indicated that sodium hydroxide could significantly improve the conversion of o-chlorophenol,the yield of chloride ion and the dechlorination selectivity.The conversion of o-chlorophenol was improved with the increase of the additive amount of sodium hydroxide.o-chlorophenol conversed completely at residence time of 27 s under the conditions of 460 ℃,25 MPa,and the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to o-chlorophenol of 1 to 1.%研究了2-氯酚在超临界水-NaOH体系中的脱氯特性,考察了NaOH添加对2-氯酚转化率、Cl-生成率、脱氯选择性等的影响。实验结果表明,NaOH的添加能够显著提高2-氯酚的转化率、Cl-的生成率和脱氯选择性。2-氯酚的转化率随着NaOH添加量的增大而增大,460℃、25 MPa条件下,NaOH添加量与2-氯酚的摩尔比为1∶1时,停留时间27 s时可实现2-氯酚的完全转化。

  11. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    Alam, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)]. E-mail: mralam@royalten.net.bd; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh); McNeill, D.M. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)

    2005-08-19

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated

  12. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated

  13. Treatment with coated layer double hydroxide clays decreases the toxicity of copper-contaminated water.

    Blake, Deanne; Nar, Mangesh; D'Souza, Nandika Anne; Glenn, J Brad; Klaine, Stephen J; Roberts, Aaron P

    2014-05-01

    Copper is a common pollutant found in watersheds that exerts toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are able to adsorb a wide range of contaminants through ion-exchange mechanisms. Coating LDH clays with various materials alters the aggregation of clay particles into the nano-size range, thus increasing relative surface area and offering great potential for contaminant remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment with coated LDH clays decreases the toxicity of copper-containing solutions to Daphnia magna. Four LDH clays with different coatings used to alter hydrophobicity were as follows: used: Na(+) montmorillonite, Zn-Al LDH-nitrate, Zn-Al LDH-stearate, and Zn-Al LDH-carbonate. It was determined that coated LDH clays decreased copper toxicity by decreasing bioavailability and that smaller aggregate sizes decreased bioavailability the most. 96 h LC50 values increased by as much as 4.2 times with the treatment of the solutions with 100 mg/L LDH clay. Copper analysis of the clay and solutions indicated that the clays work by decreasing copper bioavailability by way of a binding mechanism. Coated LDH clays hold promise as a small-scale remediation tool or as an innovative tool for toxicity identification and evaluation characterization of metals. PMID:24442186

  14. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology

  15. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  16. Microstructural transformation with heat-treatment of aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite structure

    Aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite structure was prepared, and the microstructural transformation of the sample heat-treated at various temperatures was investigated. The sample was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and BET surface area. The shape of the grains in the prepared sample was hexagonal prism-like morphology. The prepared sample kept a metastable state of alumina phase at higher temperatures than the commercially available gibbsite powders. The prepared gibbsite grains underwent characteristic structural change depending on the calcination temperature. The transformation of the surface morphology was initiated at 400degC, leading to the formation of cracks with the direction parallel to the basal plane. After calcination at 1200degC, a large number of grooves were formed on the surface of the lateral planes. The specific structural change of gibbsite induced by the heat treatment was strongly related to the topotactic dehydration from gibbsite and subsequent phase transition to aluminum oxides. (author)

  17. Magnesium Hydroxide

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  18. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  19. Accidental injury of the inferior alveolar nerve due to the extrusion of calcium hydroxide in endodontic treatment: a case report.

    Shin, Yooseok; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Kim, Yemi; Kim, Taehyeon; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-02-01

    During clinical endodontic treatment, we often find radiopaque filling material beyond the root apex. Accidental extrusion of calcium hydroxide could cause the injury of inferior alveolar nerve, such as paresthesia or continuous inflammatory response. This case report presents the extrusion of calcium hydroxide and treatment procedures including surgical intervention. A 48 yr old female patient experienced Calcipex II extrusion in to the inferior alveolar canal on left mandibular area during endodontic treatment. After completion of endodontic treatment on left mandibular first molar, surgical intervention was planned under general anesthesia. After cortical bone osteotomy and debridement, neuroma resection and neurorrhaphy was performed, and prognosis was observed. But no improvement in sensory nerve was seen following surgical intervention after 20 mon. A clinician should be aware of extrusion of intracanal medicaments and the possibility of damage on inferior alveolar canal. Injectable type of calcium hydroxide should be applied with care for preventing nerve injury. The alternative delivery method such as lentulo spiral was suggested on the posterior mandibular molar. PMID:26877992

  20. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions

  1. Sorbents based on asbestos with a layer of an hydroxyethylcyclam derivative of PVC containing aquacomplexes of sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide with aza-crown groups

    Tsivadze, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Petukhova, G. A.; Bardyshev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Titova, V. N.; Yavich, A. A.; Novikov, A. K.; Petrova, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    Aquacomplexes of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide with aza-crown groups are synthesized in cavities of a sorbent from the porous layer of a PVC cyclam-derivative grafted onto fibers of asbestos fabric. The structure of sorbents with complexes is studied and their adsorption characteristics are determined. It is shown that the affinity of the developed surface toward ethanol, benzene, and hexane depends on the nature of complexes in the pore walls, and the volume of cavities formed as a result of the pores on the developed asbestos surface being coated with networks of aza-crown groups is larger than that of cavities with walls of aza-crown groups in the layers of a PVC cyclam derivative. Indicators of H+- and OH--conductivity of sorbents with complexes as electrochemical bridges are determined. It is shown that the major part of H+- and OH--ions moves through complexes with aza-crown groups in the region of cavities formed of pores on the surface of asbestos.

  2. Evaluation of topical potassium hydroxide solution for treatment of plane warts

    Khalil I Al-Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plane wart is a common dermatological disease that is caused by human papilloma virus; although the rate of spontaneous recovery is high, it usually takes a long time to occur. Many modalities of treatments have been used but none of them proved to be uniformly effective. Potassium hydroxide (KOH solution is a well-known keratolytic agent with many dermatological uses. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topical KOH solution in the treatment of plane warts. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 patients with plane warts, consulting the department of Dermatology and Venereology of Basra Teaching Hospital between March 2008 and October 2009, were enrolled in this opened therapeutic trial study. Patients were divided into two age and sex cross-matched equal groups; patients in group (A were treated with topical 5% KOH solution once at night, while patients in group (B were treated with topical 10% KOH solution once nightly. Only 107 patients from group (A and 95 patients from group (B completed the study, while the remainders were defaulted for unknown reasons. The patients were evaluated at second and fourth week to assess the cure rates and side effects, those patients who showed complete cure were followed up for 3 months to detect any recurrence. Results: At the end of second week, 9.3% of group (A patients showed complete disappearance of their warts, vs 66.3% of group (B patients. At the end of fourth week, 80.3% of group (A patients showed complete response in comparison with 82.1% of group (B patients. The side effects for the treating solution in both concentrations include itching, burning sensation, erythema, and temporary dyspigmentations, that were reported in 77.6% of group (A patients in comparison with 90.5% of group (B patients. Recurrence rate was reported in 5.8% of group (A patients vs 5.1% of group (B patients during the three months period of follow-up. Conclusions: Topical KOH solution is

  3. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    Ronan Jacques Rezende Delgado; Thaís Helena Gasparoto; Carla Renata Sipert; Claudia Ramos Pinheiro; Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes; Roberto Brandāo Garcia; Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte; Clóvis Monteiro Bramante; Sérgio Aparecido Torres; Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet; Ana Paula Campanelli; Norberti Bernardineli

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0-100 and 100-200 μm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the number of colony forming units and for the percentage of viable C. albicans using fluorescence microscopy. First, the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and the 2% chlorhexidine gel was evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. After 14 days of intracanal medication, there was a significant decrease in the number of C. albicanscolony forming units at a depth of 0-100 lzm with chlorhexidine treatment either with or without calcium hydroxide compared with the calcium hydroxide only treatment. However, there were no differences in the number of colony forming units at the 100-200 μm depth for any of the medications investigated. C. albicans viability was also evaluated by vital staining techniques and fluorescence microscopy analysis. Antifungal activity against C. albicans significantly increased at both depths in the chlorhexidine groups with and without calcium hydroxide compared with the groups treated with calcium hydroxide only. Treatments with only chlorhexidine or chlorhexidine in combination with calcium hydroxide were effective for elimination of C. albicans.

  4. 氢氧化钠梯度浓度浸泡制备乌鸡皮蛋工艺研究%Study on the Major Factors for Making Preserved Dark Eggs with Gradient Concentration Sodium Hydroxide

    刘中科; 黄姝洁; 卢晓黎

    2011-01-01

    以乌鸡蛋为原料,以感官评价为指标,采用正交试验研究了氢氧化钠梯度浓度浸泡制备乌鸡皮蛋的工艺方法,优化出的关键工艺参数为:食盐4%、红茶末2.5%、硫酸锌0.4%,浸泡初期温度25℃~27℃、氢氧化钠6%;进入转色期后,温度21℃~23℃、氢氧化钠浓度2.5%.%Dark egg was taken as the research object, taking the sense organs assess as the test indices, the orthogonal experiment as the means of analyzing, the level of main factors for making preserved dark eggs with gradient concentration sodium hydroxide have been selected. The results show that optimum conditions were: salt concentration was 4%, black tea amount was 2.5%, zinc sulfate concentration was 0.4%, the initial curing temperature was 25-27℃, the initial sodium hydroxide concentration was 6%, the temperature of turning stage was 21-23℃, the sodium hydroxide concentration of turning stage was 2.5%.

  5. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L−1) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn2+ + Cd2+)/Al3+ molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS−) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by the SDS concentration which

  6. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    Ahmed, Abdullah Ahmed Ali, E-mail: abdullah2803@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Applied Science, Thamar University, Dhamar 87246 (Yemen); Talib, Zainal Abidin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor 43400 (Malaysia); Hussein, Mohd Zobir [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor 43400 (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L{sup −1}) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn{sup 2+} + Cd{sup 2+})/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS{sup −}) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by

  7. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows

    Hymøller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions...... supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments...

  8. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  9. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  10. 多金属金矿氢氧化钠焙烧热力学研究%Thermodynamics study of sodium hydroxide roasting in a poly-metallic gold mine

    王瑞祥; 曾斌; 余攀; 毛继勇; 谢博毅; 王志刚; 阮建国

    2013-01-01

    Roasting is an effective pre-treatment technology to improve gold and silver recovery rate for poly-metallic gold mine. ΔG0T-T function of the main chemical reaction during NaOH roasting process in the poly-metallic gold mine by thermodynamic calculations. ΔG0T-T is drawn accordingly. Thermodynamics calculation results show that NaOH roasting lowers the generating chances of copper ferrite, zinc ferrite, zinc silicate and lead silicate, whose binding forces to Au and Ag decreases accordingly. The appropriate temperature of roasting sodium hydroxide is higher than 834.33 K.%焙烧是一种提高多金属金矿中金、银回收率的有效预处理方法,通过热力学计算,得到了多金属金矿NaOH焙烧过程主要化学反应的△G0T-T函数,并绘制了△G0T-T图.热力学分析结果表明NaOH焙烧能降低CuO· Fe2O3、ZnO·Fe2O3、PbO· SiO2、2ZnO·SiO2的生成几率,从而降低了以上物质对Au、Ag的包裹作用.多金属金矿NaOH焙烧的适宜温度为T≥834.33 K.

  11. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  12. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  13. Influence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide treatment on the electrical characteristics of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky barrier diode

    The effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes have been investigated by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) techniques. The barrier heights and ideality factors measured from I–V characteristics are found to be 0.70 eV and 1.32 for without TMAH treatment, and 0.78 eV and 1.14 for with TMAH treatment, respectively. Cheung method is used to measure the series resistance and barrier height of the Schottky diodes, and the barrier height consistency is checked using the Norde method. The magnitude of interface state density for the diodes without and with TMAH treatment are varied from 7.45 × 1013 eV−1 cm−2 to 6.09 × 1012 eV−1 cm−2 and 4.03 × 1013 eV−1 cm−2 to 1.79 × 1012 eV−1 cm−2 in the below the conduction band from EC-0.19 eV to EC-0.63 eV and EC-0.22 eV to EC-0.73 eV. Based on the results, the TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (GaxOy) layer, formed due to the incorporation of the residual oxygen with Ga atom at the GaN surface during the plasma etching. The decrease in interface state density at the Ni/Au/GaN interface could be the reason for the improvement in the electrical properties. - Highlights: • The effect of TMAH treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes is studied. • The magnitude of NSS for the diode with TMAH treatment is low compared to without treatment. • The TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (GaxOy) layer

  14. French sodium waste storage rules

    In the frame of Superphenix Plant decommissioning, CEA and EDF had to determine the rules to applied for safe sodium waste storage. Even if sodium waste storage has been monitored for some decades (but only during Operational Plant phases), some recent events showed that this item had to be secured before beginning large decommissioning operations. Of course, the best way would be an on-line treatment but operational constraints always imply a delay in this operation. Indeed, a number of sodium wastes will be produced during the period before the end of Superphenix sodium treatment (planned in 2013) and will have to wait for further treatment. The events to be avoided, or at least taken into account, are uncontrolled sodium reaction with air moisture (large hydrogen production, important overheating) and sodium reaction with liquid water (pressure waves, large hydrogen production, important overheating). Careful analysis of all abnormal events in sodium waste storage disposal was performed and led to rule evolution. In 2004, experimental studies were undertaken, in order to know how solid sodium at room temperature reacts with air humidity: the conditions of aqueous sodium hydroxide production (which is the main risk source in sodium waste storage) have been observed. On this basis, new general safe rules for sodium waste storage have been raised: - Waste classifying: pure sodium and soda to be separated, bulk and residues to be separated - Sodium waste containers: tight, dry, easy to refill with gas, protected against overpressure effect, with specific marking and reference - Dedicated rooms: dry, with specific markings, with specific sodium fire extinguishers - Maximum duration: three months before next refill with inert dry gas, in an over-container if more than one year - Dry gas feeling: inert gas except for sodium film residues (dry air) 395 For Superphenix application, packaging and storage conditions of sodium wastes have been defined, in accordance with

  15. Enhanced biomethane potential from wheat straw by low temperature alkaline calcium hydroxide pre-treatment.

    Reilly, Matthew; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2015-08-01

    A factorially designed experiment to examine the effectiveness of Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, enzyme addition and particle size, on the mesophilic (35 °C) anaerobic digestion of wheat straw was conducted. Experiments used a 48 h pre-treatment with Ca(OH)2 7.4% (w/w), addition of Accellerase®-1500, with four particle sizes of wheat straw (1.25, 2, 3 and 10mm) and three digestion time periods (5, 15 and 30 days). By combining particle size reduction and Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, the average methane potential was increased by 315% (from 48 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1) to 202 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1)) after 5 days of anaerobic digestion compared to the control. Enzyme addition or Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment with 3, 2 and 1.25 mm particle sizes had 30-day batch yields of between 301 and 335 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1). Alkali pre-treatment of 3mm straw was shown to have the most potential as a cost effective pre-treatment and achieved 290 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1), after only 15 days of digestion. PMID:25898087

  16. Evaluation of sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 in the treatment of primary liver cancer

    Hejun Shao; Guohu Hong; Xinhua Luo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluated the treatment effectiveness of sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 in patient with middle/late stage primary liver cancer. Materials and Methods: A 3-month follow-up study on 104 patients with primary liver cancer was carried out. Regular medication treatment was applied to 41 patients and sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 combined with the regular medication was applied to 63 patients. The treatment effectiveness and prognosis were evaluated using the s...

  17. Influence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide treatment on the electrical characteristics of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky barrier diode

    Siva Pratap Reddy, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, LED-IT Fusion Technology Research Center (LIFTRC), Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-Si 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Dong-Hyeok [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Hee, E-mail: jlee@ee.knu.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ja-Soon, E-mail: jsjang@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, LED-IT Fusion Technology Research Center (LIFTRC), Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-Si 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Rajagopal Reddy, V. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University (India)

    2014-01-15

    The effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes have been investigated by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) techniques. The barrier heights and ideality factors measured from I–V characteristics are found to be 0.70 eV and 1.32 for without TMAH treatment, and 0.78 eV and 1.14 for with TMAH treatment, respectively. Cheung method is used to measure the series resistance and barrier height of the Schottky diodes, and the barrier height consistency is checked using the Norde method. The magnitude of interface state density for the diodes without and with TMAH treatment are varied from 7.45 × 10{sup 13} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} to 6.09 × 10{sup 12} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and 4.03 × 10{sup 13} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} to 1.79 × 10{sup 12} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in the below the conduction band from E{sub C}-0.19 eV to E{sub C}-0.63 eV and E{sub C}-0.22 eV to E{sub C}-0.73 eV. Based on the results, the TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (Ga{sub x}O{sub y}) layer, formed due to the incorporation of the residual oxygen with Ga atom at the GaN surface during the plasma etching. The decrease in interface state density at the Ni/Au/GaN interface could be the reason for the improvement in the electrical properties. - Highlights: • The effect of TMAH treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes is studied. • The magnitude of N{sub SS} for the diode with TMAH treatment is low compared to without treatment. • The TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (Ga{sub x}O{sub y}) layer.

  18. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.; Frenkel, A. I.;

    2000-01-01

    their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leaching tests, and extractions with oxalate and weak hydrochloric acid. It was found that at 600 and 900 °C the iron...... oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat...... treatment caused a part of the metals bound in the oxides to be released, thus increasing metals leachability by 1-2 orders of magnitude depending on the metal. Pb and Cd were released in particularly significant concentrations, suggesting less incorporation into the iron oxides after heat...

  19. Low temperature calcium hydroxide treatment enhances anaerobic methane production from (extruded) biomass.

    Khor, Way Cern; Rabaey, Korneel; Vervaeren, Han

    2015-01-01

    Ca(OH)2 treatment was applied to enhance methane yield. Different alkali concentration, incubation temperature and duration were evaluated for their effect on methane production and COD conversion efficiency from (non-)extruded biomass during mesophilic anaerobic digestion at lab-scale. An optimum Ca(OH)2 pretreatment for grass is found at 7.5% lime loading at 10°C for 20h (37.3% surplus), while mild (50°C) and high temperatures perform sub-optimal. Ca(OH)2 post-treatment after fast extrusion gives an additional surplus compared to extruded material of 15.2% (grass), 11.2% (maize straw) and 8.2% (sprout stem) regarding methane production. COD conversion improves accordingly, with additional improvements of 10.3% (grass), 9.0% (maize straw) and 6.8% (sprout stem) by Ca(OH)2 post-treatment. Therefore, Ca(OH)2 pretreatment and post-treatment at low temperature generate an additional effect regarding methane production and COD conversion efficiency. Fast extrusion gives a higher energy efficiency ratio compared to slow extrusion. PMID:25461001

  20. Evaluation of a consolidation treatment in dolostones by mean of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in high relative humidity conditions

    In this article, the results of a treatment applied to dolomitic stones using an isopropyl colloidal solution based on calcium hydroxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 2.0g/l are presented. The consolidation process in the stone has been checked before and after 28 days of exposure to 75% relative humidity. Morphologic and structural studies of the consolidating product confirmed the carbonation process. X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (TEM and ESEM), and electron diffraction carried out on the consolidating product have confirmed the transformation of portlandite phase to calcium carbonate polymorph, calcite, aragonite and vaterite. Petrophysical tests performed on the stone before and after the application of the product have shown the improvement in the physical and hydrical properties due to the increase in the ultrasound velocity and density of the material, and a decrease in the capillarity coefficient and open porosity without significant changes in colour and brightness. The application of the consolidating product in the proposed experimental conditions is a natural method, compatible with the petrological characteristics of the substrate, without secondary damages on the stone, being an effective method to improve the durability of carbonate stones. (Author) 26 refs.

  1. Anticancer Drug-Incorporated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids and Their Enhanced Anticancer Therapeutic Efficacy in Combination Cancer Treatment

    Tae-Hyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Layered double hydroxide (LDH nanoparticles have been studied as cellular delivery carriers for anionic anticancer agents. As MTX and 5-FU are clinically utilized anticancer drugs in combination therapy, we aimed to enhance the therapeutic performance with the help of LDH nanoparticles. Method. Anticancer drugs, MTX and 5-FU, and their combination, were incorporated into LDH by reconstruction method. Simply, LDHs were thermally pretreated at 400°C, and then reacted with drug solution to simultaneously form drug-incorporated LDH. Thus prepared MTX/LDH (ML, 5-FU/LDH (FL, and (MTX + 5-FU/LDH (MFL nanohybrids were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, and so forth. The nanohybrids were administrated to the human cervical adenocarcinoma, HeLa cells, in concentration-dependent manner, comparing with drug itself to verify the enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion. All the nanohybrids successfully accommodated intended drug molecules in their house-of-card-like structures during reconstruction reaction. It was found that the anticancer efficacy of MFL nanohybrid was higher than other nanohybrids, free drugs, or their mixtures, which means the multidrug-incorporated LDH nanohybrids could be potential drug delivery carriers for efficient cancer treatment via combination therapy.

  2. A Literature Review of the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of QRS Widening.

    Bruccoleri, Rebecca E; Burns, Michele M

    2016-03-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a well-known antidote for tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) poisoning. It has been used for over half a century to treat toxin-induced sodium channel blockade as evidenced by QRS widening on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this review is to describe the literature regarding electrophysiological mechanisms and clinical use of this antidote after poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants and other agents. This article will also address the literature supporting an increased serum sodium concentration, alkalemia, or the combination of both as the responsible mechanism(s) for sodium bicarbonate's antidotal properties. While sodium bicarbonate has been used as a treatment for cardiac sodium channel blockade for multiple other agents including citalopram, cocaine, flecainide, diphenhydramine, propoxyphene, and lamotrigine, it has uncertain efficacy with bupropion, propranolol, and taxine-containing plants. PMID:26159649

  3. Treatment of Residual Sodium and Sodium Potassium from Fast Reactors. Review of Recent Accomplishments, Challenges and Technologies

    In addition to the usual radiation and conventional hazards present during the decommissioning of disused nuclear installations, the presence of residual sodium or the alloy sodium potassium — used in primary, secondary and support systems in reactors using liquid metal as a coolant — presents additional technical, safety and cost challenges for decommissioning. This results from the propensity of these materials to react exothermically with water and moisture in the air potentially resulting in toxic and explosive reactionsThis publication discusses a variety of treatment methods to be considered when dismantling components that still contain residual quantities of sodium or sodium potassium, several of which were presented as contributed papers to the IAEA session during the 5. International Conference and Exhibition on Decommissioning Challenges, in Avignon, France, 7–11 April 2013. The publication provides a synthesis of information presented during the session, which was developed further at a consultants meeting held in Vienna, 2–6 December 2013. Decommissioning challenges faced at eight different facilities in five different countries are discussed, as well as the achievements and lessons learned that are of value to the worldwide decommissioning community

  4. Thermal-radiation treatment of sodium-boron-silica glass

    Full text: The Na2O ·19B2O3 ·30SiO2 glass was studied after 60Co γ-irradiation to the dose of 5· 104 Gy at the ambient 25oC and elevated temperatures 100-500oC with the step of 50oC. Upon each step of the treatment the optical absorption spectra were taken at the room temperature in the range of 200† 1200 nm with spectrometer Lambda-35 (Perkin Elmer). Non-irradiated samples did not have any absorption bands in the wave-length interval from 250 to 1200 nm. The spectra of the sample irradiated at 25oC contained the bands at 305 and 480 nm caused by E'(B) and =B-O* centers respectively. The irradiation temperature increase effects on the centers concentrations: at 100o C the number of E'(B) centers increases with its peak at 305 nm moving towards the short wave length side, and the number of =B-O* centers almost doesn't change, at 150oC the both centers amount decrease significantly. At 200oC the number of E'(B) centers grows much as compared with that at 150oC. At higher temperatures from 250 to 400oC the intensities of the number of both centers decreases monotonously. At 350oC a new weak absorption band appears near 600 nm, which relates to [BO4] centers, while the band at 480 nm (=B-O* centers) disappears. All the gamma-induced centers anneal at 450oC. The mechanism is suggested for the observed thermal-radiation induced transformations of optical centers in the sodium-boron silica glasses: the new [BO4] centers are formed from two =B-O* centers at 350oC. The work was done by the CST RUz grant F2.1.17

  5. Effect of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment of Eucalyptus.

    Ishiguro, Maki; Endo, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The effect of Ca(OH)2 addition on optimization of hydrothermal-mechanochemical pretreatment, which combines hydrothermal and milling treatments, was examined. The highest glucose yield of 90% was achieved in the ball-milled specimen previously treated at 170°C in the presence of 20% Ca(OH)2 per substrate weight. The specific surface area of the substrate was closely correlated with glucose yield, and a larger specific surface area was obtained when treating the specimen at 170°C in the presence of Ca(OH)2 compared to treatment at 170°C without Ca(OH)2. Although the Ca(OH)2-treated specimen was relatively unaffected by delignification, the cleavage of the ester bonds between lignin and hemicellulose was confirmed by FT-IR. This suggests that Ca(OH)2 weakens the substrate structure by loosening the bonds between lignin and hemicellulose as the mechanism to increase the specific surface area regardless of the high lignin content, facilitating the fibrillation of fibers with mechanical milling. PMID:25496951

  6. In-situ precipitation and flocculation of iron hydroxides. A novel alternative to gel treatments

    Lakatos, I.; Lakatos-Szabo, J. [Miskolch Univ. (Hungary). Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry; Kosztin, B.; Palasthy, Gy. [Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Szolnok (Hungary)

    2002-01-01

    Development of a new well treatment method was stimulated by recognizing that some inorganic compounds, particularly Fe(III) compounds, can be transformed into gel-like precipitate by in-situ hydrolysis which is then immobilized by flocculation or spontaneous aging. These blocking materials have excellent stability under field conditions, but in case of technological failure the gel phase can easily be broken up into mobile sols. Further, the novel method is characterized by outstanding placement selectivity; self-controlling chemical mechanism and injectivity problems may not arise even in low permeable porous systems. During a field tests, extending over four years, 10 oil producing and 7 water injection wells were treated. The well responses were different: ration of the technical success was about 60%, while 40% of treatment was definitely profitable. In special reservoir blocks the injectors were simultaneously treated with the oil producing wells. The primary aim of these projects was to enhance the effect of profile correction around the producers and to improve the frontal displacement mechanism. The novel method proved to be compatible with the reservoir system and technical failure was not encountered during the past five years. The positive results contributed significantly to a recent decision of the operator that, parallel with other profile correction and water shut-off (e.g. polymer/silicate) techniques, application of the novel method will be extended to other reservoirs of the Algyo field, Hungary. (orig.)

  7. Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Drug Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs of Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles

    Zi Gu; Aihua Wu; Li Li; Zhi Ping (Gordon) Xu

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen) using a co-precipitation method with or without hy...

  8. Water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit of unit 3 at the rovno nuclear power station involving correction treatment of working medium with lithium hydroxide and ethanolamine

    Kozlov, V. Ya.; Vlasenko, N. I.; Kozlova, T. Yu.

    2011-03-01

    The all-volatile water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit involving correction treatment of the steam generator's boiler water with lithium hydroxide and the ethanolamine water chemistry are analyzed from the viewpoint of their effect on the erosion-corrosion wear of equipment used in the secondary coolant system and damageability of heat-transfer tubes used in PGV-1000M steam generators.

  9. Efficacy and tolerance of the topical application of potassium hydroxide (10% and 15% in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum: Randomized clinical trial: Research protocol

    Galindo Gisela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molluscum contagiosum is a non-severe pediatric viral infection. Because it is highly contagious and current treatments have negative aesthetic and psychological effects, we want to test an alternative treatment in the primary care setting, consisting of two different concentrations of potassium hydroxide solution. Methods/design The study design is a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, using three types of topical treatment. The treatment consist of daily applications of potassium hydroxide (KOH in aqueous solution at 10% and 15% concentration, and a placebo administered in the control group. Four follow-up visits (at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days are planned to evaluate treatment effectiveness and patient tolerance. The main outcome measure of the trial will be the healing rate, defined as lesion disappearance in the affected zones after the topic application of the experimental treatment. Secondary measures will be the principal characteristics and evolution of the affected zone (surface area, number of lesions, size and density of lesions, treatment tolerance (hyperpigmentation, itching, burning, pain, recurrence rate and the natural evolution of lesions in the control group. Discussion KOH can potentially be an effective and safe treatment for MC in primary care, and can also reduce referrals to dermatologists and hospital pediatric departments. In addition, KOH may be a valid and less expensive alternative to current invasive treatments (surgical excision. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348386

  10. Biological and genetic effects of combined treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and EMS in barley

    Dry seeds of diploid barley were subjected to mutagenic treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and EMS alone or in combination. Damage (reduction in seedling height, plant height and fertility), the frequency of chimeras in the M1 generation, and the frequency of chlorophyll-deficient mutations as well as morphological mutations in the M2 generation induced by combined treatments were greater than those by either of the single treatments. Synergistic increase in the frequency of chimeras, chlorphyll-deficient mutations and morphological mutations were observed in both sodium azide post-irradiation treatments and pre-EMS treatments; interaction among the mutagens in the treatment combinations on M1 damage was generally subtractive. An 8- to 16-hr soaking period of irradiated seeds in distilled water prior to sodium azide treatment significantly increased chlorophyll mutation frequency, as compared to that from the non-soaking treatment. Damage and frequency of chimeras, chlorophyll mutations and morphological mutations were consistently reduced by the soaking treatment in sodium azide plus EMS treatments. (author)

  11. Contrast of the Effect of Alomide and Sodium Cromoglycate in the Treatment of Allergic Eye Diseases

    Wenlan Zhang; Zhende Lin

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the clinical effect of alomide and sodium cromoglycate eyedrops in the treatment of atopic conjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis and giant papillary conjunctivitis.Methods: Randomized control study was used. Alomide and sodium cromoglycate eyedrops used to treat two groups of patients for two weeks. The effects of the two groups were compared.Results: With respect of comprehensive therapeutic effect, the effectiveness rate was 83.6% in alomide group, and 63.3% in sodium cromoglycate group, which was not significantly different statistically. With respect of itching alleviation, alomide is more effective than sodium cromoglycate. No adverse effects were found in both groups.Conclusion: Our study suggests that alomide is a safe and effective drug in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.

  12. Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.

    Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance. PMID:22456234

  13. The Use of Sodium Sulfacetamide 10%-Sulfur 5% Emollient Foam in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder encountered in ambulatory clinical practice comprising 11.3 percent of office visits to dermatologists in 2005.1 By comparison, eczematous dermatoses, psoriasis, and skin cancer accounted for 6.2, 3.5, and 10 percent of office visits, respectively.1 A variety of topical therapeutic options are available for treatment of acne vulgaris, including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur.2,3 Sodium sulfaceta...

  14. Anti-obesity sodium tungstate treatment triggers axonal and glial plasticity in hypothalamic feeding centers.

    Marta Amigó-Correig; Sílvia Barceló-Batllori; Guadalupe Soria; Alice Krezymon; Alexandre Benani; Luc Pénicaud; Raúl Tudela; Anna Maria Planas; Eduardo Fernández; Maria del Carmen Carmona; Ramon Gomis

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]: This study aims at exploring the effects of sodium tungstate treatment on hypothalamic plasticity, which is known to have an important role in the control of energy metabolism. [Methods]: Adult lean and high-fat diet-induced obese mice were orally treated with sodium tungstate. Arcuate and paraventricular nuclei and lateral hypothalamus were separated and subjected to proteomic analysis by DIGE and mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging...

  15. New treatment method for boron in aqueous solutions using Mg-Al layered double hydroxide: Kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    Kameda, Tomohito; Oba, Jumpei; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-08-15

    Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated with NO3(-) (NO3 · Mg - Al LDHs) and with Cl(-) (Cl · Mg - Al LDHs) were found to take up boron from aqueous solutions. Boron was removed by anion exchange of B(OH)4(-) in solution with NO3(-) and Cl(-) intercalated in the interlayer of the LDH. Using three times the stoichiometric quantity of NO3 · Mg-Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 1.9 mg L(-1) in 120 min. Using five times the stoichiometric quantity of Cl · Mg - Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 5.6 mg L(-1) in 120 min. It must be emphasized that, in both cases, the residual concentration of B was less than the effluent standards in Japan (10 mg L(-1)). The rate-determining step of B removal by the NO3 · Mg - Al and Cl · Mg - Al LDHs was found to be chemical adsorption involving anion exchange of B(OH)4(-) with intercalated NO3(-) and Cl(-). The removal of B was well described by a pseudo second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption of B by NO3 · Mg - Al LDH and Cl · Mg - Al LDH followed a Langmuir-type adsorption. The values of the maximum adsorption and the equilibrium adsorption constant were 3.6 mmol g(-1) and 1.7, respectively, for NO3 · Mg - Al LDH, and 3.8 mmol g(-1) and 0.7, respectively, for Cl · Mg-Al LDH. The B(OH)4(-) in B(OH)4 · Mg - Al LDH produced by removal of B was found to undergo anion exchange with NO3(-) and Cl(-) in solution. The NO3 · Mg - Al and Cl · Mg - Al LDHs obtained after this regeneration treatment were able to remove B from aqueous solutions, indicating the possibility of recycling NO3 · Mg - Al and Cl · Mg - Al LDHs for B removal. PMID:25827268

  16. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on properties of Ni-Al layered double hydroxides and related mixed oxides

    Kovanda, F.; Rojka, T.; Bezdička, Petr; Jirátová, Květa; Obalová, L.; Pacultová, K.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Grygar, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 182, č. 1 (2009), s. 27-36. ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * hydrotalcite-like compounds * thermal decomposition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.340, year: 2009

  17. Anti-obesity sodium tungstate treatment triggers axonal and glial plasticity in hypothalamic feeding centers.

    Marta Amigó-Correig

    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the effects of sodium tungstate treatment on hypothalamic plasticity, which is known to have an important role in the control of energy metabolism.Adult lean and high-fat diet-induced obese mice were orally treated with sodium tungstate. Arcuate and paraventricular nuclei and lateral hypothalamus were separated and subjected to proteomic analysis by DIGE and mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging were also performed.Sodium tungstate treatment reduced body weight gain, food intake, and blood glucose and triglyceride levels. These effects were associated with transcriptional and functional changes in the hypothalamus. Proteomic analysis revealed that sodium tungstate modified the expression levels of proteins involved in cell morphology, axonal growth, and tissue remodeling, such as actin, CRMP2 and neurofilaments, and of proteins related to energy metabolism. Moreover, immunohistochemistry studies confirmed results for some targets and further revealed tungstate-dependent regulation of SNAP25 and HPC-1 proteins, suggesting an effect on synaptogenesis as well. Functional test for cell activity based on c-fos-positive cell counting also suggested that sodium tungstate modified hypothalamic basal activity. Finally, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed that tungstate treatment can affect neuronal organization in the hypothalamus.Altogether, these results suggest that sodium tungstate regulates proteins involved in axonal and glial plasticity. The fact that sodium tungstate could modulate hypothalamic plasticity and networks in adulthood makes it a possible and interesting therapeutic strategy not only for obesity management, but also for other neurodegenerative illnesses like Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Comparative Efficacy of 10% Sodium Sulfacetamide Lotion and 1% Clotrimazole Lotion in Treatment of Tinea versicolor

    F Rad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Tinea versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection caused by normal skin flora and many topical and oral anti-fungal medications have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effects of 10% sodium sulfacetamide lotion with 1% clotrimazole lotion in treatment of tinea versicolor. Materials & Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial 67 patients were divided into two groups using block randomization method. The first group consisted of 33 patients who were treated with 1% clotrimazole lotion. The second group included 34 patients who received 10% sodium sulfacetamide lotion. After 2 weeks of treatment, both groups were evaluated for clinical and paraclinical responses. The collected data were recorded in a data sheet and analyzed by X2 and independent T tests, using SPSS software. Results: After 2 weeks of treatment, clinical and paraclinical responses were seen in 22 patients (66.7% and 28 patients (84.8% in the first group (clotrimazole lotion and in 7 (20.6% and 8 (23.5% patients of the second group (sodium sulfacetamide lotion, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the differences are significant. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of 10% sodium sulfacetamide lotion is much less than that of 1% clotrimazole lotion in treatment of tinea versicolor.

  19. New treatment method for boron in aqueous solutions using Mg–Al layered double hydroxide: Kinetics and equilibrium studies

    Kameda, Tomohito, E-mail: kameda@env.che.tohoku.ac.jp; Oba, Jumpei; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al LDHs and Cl·Mg–Al LDHs could take up boron from aqueous solutions. • Boron was removed by anion exchange of B(OH){sub 4}{sup −} with intercalated NO{sub 3}{sup −} and Cl{sup −}. • The residual concentration of B was less than the effluent standards in Japan. • The removal of B was well described by a pseudo second-order kinetic equation. • The adsorption of B followed a Langmuir-type adsorption. - Abstract: Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated with NO{sub 3}{sup −} (NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al LDHs) and with Cl{sup −} (Cl·Mg–Al LDHs) were found to take up boron from aqueous solutions. Boron was removed by anion exchange of B(OH){sub 4}{sup −} in solution with NO{sub 3}{sup −} and Cl{sup −} intercalated in the interlayer of the LDH. Using three times the stoichiometric quantity of NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 1.9 mg L{sup −1} in 120 min. Using five times the stoichiometric quantity of Cl·Mg–Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 5.6 mg L{sup −1} in 120 min. It must be emphasized that, in both cases, the residual concentration of B was less than the effluent standards in Japan (10 mg L{sup −1}). The rate-determining step of B removal by the NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al and Cl·Mg–Al LDHs was found to be chemical adsorption involving anion exchange of B(OH){sub 4}{sup −} with intercalated NO{sub 3}{sup −} and Cl{sup −}. The removal of B was well described by a pseudo second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption of B by NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al LDH and Cl·Mg–Al LDH followed a Langmuir-type adsorption. The values of the maximum adsorption and the equilibrium adsorption constant were 3.6 mmol g{sup −1} and 1.7, respectively, for NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al LDH, and 3.8 mmol g{sup −1} and 0.7, respectively, for Cl·Mg–Al LDH. The B(OH){sub 4}{sup −} in B(OH){sub 4}·Mg–Al LDH produced by removal of B was found to undergo

  20. The renal handling of sodium and water is not affected by the standard-dose cisplatin treatment for testicular cancer

    Daugaard, G; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1987-01-01

    Renal clearances of 51Cr-EDTA, lithium, sodium and potassium were measured before and after each of four consecutive treatment series with cisplatin in 15 men with testicular cancer. Since lithium is reabsorbed like sodium and water in the proximal tubules, but not reabsorbed to any measurable...... all other parameters of glomerular filtration and renal sodium handling remained normal throughout the study (with the exception of a fall in fractional sodium excretion after the first treatment series). Plasma magnesium declined during all four treatment periods, signifying renal magnesium wasting....

  1. Pegaptanib sodium treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: clinical experience in Germany

    Nikolaus Feucht

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaus Feucht, Huebner Matthias, Chris P Lohmann, Mathias MaierAugenklinik rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, GermanyBackground: The VEGF Inhibition Study In Ocular Neovascularisation (VISION reported the efficacy of intravitreal (ITV vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibition with pegaptanib sodium (Macugen® for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. This paper reports clinical experience with pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of occult or minimally classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to AMD.Material and methods: The study included 50 eyes (in 49 patients with either occult CNV or minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD who were not eligible for photodynamic therapy (PDT. Study data were analyzed retrospectively. During the 6-month study, patients were administered an average 2.74 injections of 0.3 mg ITV pegaptanib sodium. Angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT examinations were carried out and intraocular pressure (IOP and visual acuity (VA were measured at baseline, at 3 months and at 6 months. An eye examination was performed and VA was measured the 2 days following treatment and then again at weeks 4–6, and at 3 and 6 months. OCT, VA, and IOP were also assessed at 1 month.Results: ITV pegaptanib sodium was well tolerated and no treatment complications arose. Mean VA was measured as: 0.37 ± 0.24 at baseline; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 1 month; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 3 months and 0.40 ± 0.26 at 6 months. VA was stabilized in approximately 90% of eyes treated with pegaptanib sodium. OCT examination showed a minimal change in central retinal thickness (CRT during the course of the study, from 251.19 µm at baseline to 251.63 µm at 6 months. No elevation in IOP was measured during treatment at 4–6 months in patients receiving pegaptanib sodium.Conclusions: ITV therapy with pegaptanib sodium for occult and minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD offered good

  2. Evaluation of sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 in the treatment of primary liver cancer

    Hejun Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study evaluated the treatment effectiveness of sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 in patient with middle/late stage primary liver cancer. Materials and Methods: A 3-month follow-up study on 104 patients with primary liver cancer was carried out. Regular medication treatment was applied to 41 patients and sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 combined with the regular medication was applied to 63 patients. The treatment effectiveness and prognosis were evaluated using the statistical methods. Results: At the end of the treatment, no significant difference was detected between the two groups; 1-month follow-up survey showed that in the treatment group, the death rate was lower, the treatment gain was maintained longer and the tumor morphology was maintained better, compared with the control group; 3-month follow-up study showed that there was not significance difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 might be used as auxiliary drug in patients with primary liver cancer and could improve the treatment outcomes for a short-term period.

  3. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  4. A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors

    Asfandyar Khan Niazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

  5. A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors

    Asfandyar Khan Niazi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods : Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

  6. Effects of sodium ferrous chlorophyll treatment on anemia of hemodialysis patients and relevant biochemical parameters.

    Xu, X F; Hu, J P; Cheng, X; Yu, G J; Luo, F; Zhang, G S; Yang, N; Shen, P

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the effects of sodium ferrous chlorophyll treatment on the anemia of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, as well as the relevant biochemical parameters. We selected 72 patients who had received regular MHD treatment two or three times a week for more than 3 months in the Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Zhengzhou City of Henan Province from March 2014 to March 2016. They were equally divided into a treatment group and a control group. Haemoglobin (HB) and hematocrit (HCT) of the treatment group increased significantly after treatment (p 0.05). Albumin (ALB) dosage of the treatment group increased after treatment (p 0.05). ALB level of the treatment group increased more significantly than in the control group (p MHD patients and their quality of life. PMID:27049084

  7. 采用钠盐调酸发酵生产D乳酸的工艺研究%Production of D-lactic Acid Using Sodium Hydroxide as Neutralizing Agent

    李媛; 徐书景; 张庆; 王丽敏; 于波; 鞠建松; 赵宝华

    2014-01-01

    Efficient D-lactate production by S porolactobacillus sp .strain CASD using sodium hydroxide as neutralizing agent was demonstrated .High D-lactate production (118 .2 g/L) was achieved using peanut meal as the sole nitrogen source in fed-batch fermentation , with the conversion rate from glucose at 89 .1% and the optical purity at 99 .3 % w hich meets the requirements for polymerization of lactic acid . T he NaO H-based fermentation strategy employed here is suitable for separation of lactic acid by electrodi-alysis .Thus ,the production of high concentration of optically pure D-lactate from cheap substrates ,with the NaO H-based fermentation strategy ,has laid a technical foundation for developing a new cost-effective and integrated method for continuous fermentation of D-lactate coupled with separation .%对芽孢乳杆菌CASD采用钠盐调酸发酵生产 D 乳酸的工艺进行了探索.以廉价花生粕为唯一氮源,采用氢氧化钠为中和剂,D 乳酸的发酵质量浓度达到118.2 g/L ,糖酸转化率为89.1%,光学纯度达到99.3%,满足乳酸聚合要求.钠盐调酸适用于电渗析分离纯化乳酸工艺,该研究为开发新型的连续发酵分离耦合生产 D 乳酸工艺提供了技术基础.

  8. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3

    Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2003-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  9. Combined treatment with sodium butyrate and PD153035 enhances keratinocyte differentiation

    Carrion, Sandra Leon; Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Sutter, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling is a critical determinant of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in both normal and diseased skin. Here we explore the effects of combined treatment with the differentiation-promoting agent sodium butyrate (SB) and the EGFR inhibitor (EGFRI) PD153035 on terminal differentiation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Cells treated with SB showed increased expression of the levels of mRNA and protein of the differentia...

  10. Cyclooxygenase-1 as the Main Source of Proinflammatory Factors After Sodium Orthovanadate Treatment

    Korbecki, Jan; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium is a metal present in air pollution. Its compounds may have both anticancer and carcinogenic properties. Vanadium compounds are tested in treatment of diabetes and cancer. An important research direction aimed at better understanding of the mechanisms of action of the vanadium compounds is a more detailed insight into their impact on inflammatory reactions. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of micromolar concentrations of sodium orthovanadate, Na3VO4, on the activity an...

  11. Crystalline structure analysis of cellulose treated with sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide by means of X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy.

    Oh, Sang Youn; Yoo, Dong Il; Shin, Younsook; Kim, Hwan Chul; Kim, Hak Yong; Chung, Yong Sik; Park, Won Ho; Youk, Ji Ho

    2005-10-31

    Crystalline structures of cellulose (named as Cell 1), NaOH-treated cellulose (Cell 2), and subsequent CO2-treated cellulose (Cell 2-C) were analyzed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Transformation from cellulose I to cellulose II was observed by X-ray diffraction for Cell 2 treated with 15-20 wt% NaOH. Subsequent treatment with CO2 also transformed the Cell 2-C treated with 5-10 wt% NaOH. Many of the FTIR bands including 2901, 1431, 1282, 1236, 1202, 1165, 1032, and 897 cm(-1) were shifted to higher wave number (by 2-13 cm(-1)). However, the bands at 3352, 1373, and 983 cm(-1) were shifted to lower wave number (by 3-95 cm(-1)). In contrast to the bands at 1337, 1114, and 1058 cm(-1), the absorbances measured at 1263, 993, 897, and 668 cm(-1) were increased. The FTIR spectra of hydrogen-bonded OH stretching vibrations at around 3352 cm(-1) were resolved into three bands for cellulose I and four bands for cellulose II, assuming that all the vibration modes follow Gaussian distribution. The bands of 1 (3518 cm(-1)), 2 (3349 cm(-1)), and 3 (3195 cm(-1)) were related to the sum of valence vibration of an H-bonded OH group and an intramolecular hydrogen bond of 2-OH ...O-6, intramolecular hydrogen bond of 3-OH...O-5 and the intermolecular hydrogen bond of 6-O...HO-3', respectively. Compared with the bands of cellulose I, a new band of 4 (3115 cm(-1)) related to intermolecular hydrogen bond of 2-OH...O-2' and/or intermolecular hydrogen bond of 6-OH...O-2' in cellulose II appeared. The crystallinity index (CI) was obtained by X-ray diffraction [CI(XD)] and FTIR spectroscopy [CI(IR)]. Including absorbance ratios such as A1431,1419/A897,894 and A1263/A1202,1200, the CI(IR) was evaluated by the absorbance ratios using all the characteristic absorbances of cellulose. The CI(XD) was calculated by the method of Jayme and Knolle. In addition, X-ray diffraction curves, with and without amorphous halo correction, were resolved into portions of cellulose I and

  12. RUMINAL DEGRADATION KINETIC PARAMETERS OF COFFEE HULLS (Coffea arabica, L. TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NAOH PARÂMETROS CINÉTICOS DA DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica, L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO (NAOH

    Luciano Fernandes de Sousa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate dry matter ruminal degradation kinetics of coffee hulls treated with increasing sodium hydroxide quantities. Two rumen fistulated cows were used to incubate samples in nylon bags for 12. 24, 36. 48 and 72 hours. Four ruminal incubation periods were used, in a complete randomized block design. Coffee hulls were treated with 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% of sodium hydroxide (dry matter basis, corresponding to treatments T1 to t4 respectively. Experimental results were compared using Tukey test, at 5% probability level, as follows for treatments 1 to 4 respectively: soluble fraction (9.35d; 17.65c; 31.93b; 32.28a, de (34.40d; 40.50c; 43.28b; 50.35a, potential degradability (44.33d; 50.33c; 52.35b; 57.70a and lag time in hours (4.03a; 3.93a; 4.33a; 2.55a. The results indicate that increasing the levels of NaOH in the coffee hulls treatments increased significantly their ruminal solubility, as well as their effective and potential degradabilities. However that increase had no effect upon coffee hulls lag time in the rumen.KEY WORDS: by-product feedstuffs, rumen degradability, ruminant.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de determinar a cinética de degradação ruminal da matéria seca da casca de café, tratada com diferentes quantidades de hidróxido de sódio. Utilizaram-se duas vacas fistuladas no rúmen, incubando-se as amostras em sacolas de náilon por 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas, por quatro rodadas seqüenciais, sendo que cada uma destas representou um bloco, dentro de um delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados. Tratou-se a casca de café com 0%, 3%, 6% e 9 % de hidróxido de sódio (base seca constituindo assim os tratamentos t1

  13. Enhanced removal performance by the core-shell zeolites/MgFe-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Guo, Lu; Zhang, Xiangling; Chen, Qiaozhen; Ruan, Congying; Leng, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    The application of powdered layer double hydroxides (LDHs) in constructed rapid infiltration system (CRIS) appears to be an appreciable problem still unsolved due to the small particle size and the low density. Therefore, the core-shell zeolites/MgFe-LDHs composites were prepared via using co-precipitation method in present study. To investigate the practical applicability, a detailed organics, ammonia, and total phosphorus removal study were carried out in columns to treat the municipal wastewater. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) results confirmed the successful synthesis of core-shell zeolites/MgFe-LDHs through coating on the surface of zeolites. Accordingly, the zeolites/MgFe-LDHs largely reduced the COD by 81.14 %, NH4 (+)-N by 81.50%, and TP by 83.29%. Phosphate adsorption study revealed that the equilibrium adsorption data were better fitted by Langmuir isothermal model, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 79.3651 mg/kg for zeolites/MgFe-LDHs and 38.4615 mg/kg for the natural zeolites. In addition, economic analysis indicated that the reagent cost of synthesis of zeolites/MgFe-LDHs was economical. Herein, the zeolites/MgFe-LDHs solved the natural zeolites problem for poor P removal and the application of powdered LDHs in the solid/liquid separation process, suggesting that it was applicable as potential substrates for the removal of organics, ammonia, and total phosphorus in CRIS. PMID:26662562

  14. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  15. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    Linda Rozenfelde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

  16. Oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides.

    Mao, Linqiang; Gao, Bingying; Deng, Ning; Liu, Lu; Cui, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during the thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2) was investigated. The amounts of Cr(III) oxidized at various temperatures and heating times were determined, and the Cr-containing species in the residues were characterized. During the transformation of chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3 at 300 °C approximately 5% of the Cr(III) was oxidized to form intermediate compounds containing Cr(VI) (i.e., CrO3), but these intermediates were reduced to Cr2O3 when the temperature was above 400 °C. Alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly promoted the oxidation of Cr(III) during the thermal drying process. Two pathways were involved in the influences the alkali and alkaline earth metals had on the formation of Cr(VI). In pathway I, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to act as electron transfer agents and to interfere with the dehydration process, causing more intermediate Cr(VI)-containing compounds (which were identified as being CrO3 and Cr5O12) to be formed. The reduction of intermediate compounds to Cr2O3 was also found to be hindered in pathway I. In pathway II, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to contribute to the oxidation of Cr(III) to form chromates. The results showed that the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly increases the degree to which Cr(III) is oxidized during the thermal drying of chromium-containing sludge. PMID:26650573

  17. Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Drug Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs of Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles

    Zi Gu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen using a co-precipitation method with or without hydrothermal treatment (150 °C, 4 h. After being hydrothermally treated, LDH–drug crystallites increased in particle size and crystallinity, but did not change in the interlayer anion orientation, gallery height and chemical composition. The drug release patterns of all studied LDH–drug hybrids were biphasic and sustained. LDHs loaded with diclofenac had a quicker drug release rate compared with those with naproxen and ibuprofen, and the drug release from the hydrothermally-treated LDH–drug was slower than the freshly precipitated LDH–drug. These results suggest that the drug release of LDH–drugs is influenced by the crystallite size of LDHs, which can be controlled by hydrothermal treatment, as well as by the drug molecular physicochemical properties.

  18. Sodium conversion experiments in the Inert Carrier Process demonstration plant

    The purpose of the sodium treatment studies reported here was to evaluate the use of the Inert Carrier Process (ICP) for converting sodium metal to a stable disposal form. The ICP demonstration plant consists of a closed loop of silicone oil that is circulated through a reservoir called a disperser. Solid sodium particles were fed to the disperser and kept suspended in the silicone oil carrier by turbulence. The sodium did not react with the silicone oil carrier. The dispersion of sodium in silicone oil was fed to an in-line mixer (''jet'' mixer) where it was mixed with a reactant. Water was used as the reactant in most of the tests, generating sodium hydroxide and hydrogen as the initial products. Analysis of the final solid product from the reaction indicated that the sodium hydroxide initial product interacted with the silicone oil. Complete reaction of the sodium in the demonstration plant required at least a 6/1 molar ratio of water to sodium. Good separation of the product solution was difficult because of the small difference in density between the aqueous product phase and the organic carrier phase. Emulsification of the silicone oil-aqueous solution was minimized by applying heat to the separator. Foaming of the silicone oil in the separator occurred, aggravated by the evolution of hydrogen from the sodium conversion reaction. Bench-scale tests were conducted to analyze and resolve several problems encountered in the plant experiments, such as incomplete reaction in the jet mixer, poor separation of the product from the silicone oil, formation of an oil aqueous solution emulsion in the separator, and oil foaming in the separator. Solidification tests were carried out to immobilize the sodium conversion product by mixing it with various binders. The most satisfactory binder was EPON 828, an epoxy resin

  19. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    Nicholas R. Soelberg

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

  20. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system

  1. Intravitreal Combination of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate and Bevacizumab in The Treatment of Exudative AMD

    Vakalis, N.; Echiadis, G.; Pervena, A.; Deligiannis, I.; Kavalarakis, E.; S. Giannikakis; I. Papaefthymiou

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) combined with bevacizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this non comparative case study, 30 eyes of 27 patients with CNV due to AMD received intravitreal DSP (0.2 mg) and bevacizumab (1.25 mg) during a 6-month PRN (pro re nata) dosing regimen. Visual acuity, macular thickness and intraocular pressure (IOP) were monitored and rec...

  2. Electro-oxidation treatment of Sn/PANI electrode and electrocatalytic activity of Pt/Sn hydroxide/PANI composite electrodes

    ZHOU Hai-hui; PENG Zheng; JIAO Yong-gang; LIAO Jie; KUANG Ya-fei

    2008-01-01

    After being electro-oxidized by cyclic voltammetry(CV) method in 0.5 mol/L H2504 solution or in 0.2mol/L H2O2+0.5 mol/L H2SO4 solution, the Sn/polyaniline (PANI) electrodes were modified with Pt microparticles by pulse galvanostatic method, thus Pt/Sn hydroxide/PANI electrodes were prepared. The electrocatalytic activities of the Pt/Sn/PANI electrode and Pt/Sn hydroxide/PANI electrode for formaldehyde electro-oxidation were investigated by CV method. The effects of deposition charges (Qdep) of PANI, Sn and Pt, scan rate and formaldehyde concentration on the electrocatalytic activity of Pt/Sn hydroxide/PANI electrode were also studied. The results show that the electrocatalytic activities of the Pt/Sn hydroxide/PANI electrodes are much higher than those of the Pt/Sn/PANI electrode.

  3. Treatment of Industrial Liquid Waste of Steel Plating by Coagulation-Flocculation Using Sodium Biphosphate

    Research about treatment of industrial liquid waste of steel plating by coagulation-flocculation using sodium biphosphate have been conducted. The purpose of the treatment was the content reduction of Cr, Ni, and Cu in the liquid waste, so that produced effluent with Cr, Ni, and Cu content until they laid under mutual standard. The variables studied in this process were the solution pH, the coagulant/waste volume comparison, the speed of the fast stirring, and the time of the fast stirring. Optimum separation efficiency on coagulation-flocculation process of liquid waste of steel plating using sodium biphosphate at the condition of solution ph 9, coagulant/waste volume comparation 1.50, the speed of the fast stirring 400 rpm, and the time of fast stirring is 5 minute. Low stirring was conducted at 60 rpm for 60 minute. The yields of optimum separation efficiency in this condition were 99.48 % for Cr, 99.51 % for Ni, and 99.03 % for Cu. (author)

  4. Topical diclofenac sodium for treatment of postoperative inflammation in cataract surgery

    Reddy Manjoo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the effect of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an alternative to topical steroids for postoperative control of inflammation in cataract surgery. Methods: The effect of diclofenac sodium 0.1% following cataract surgery was studied and compared to routine corticosteroid, dexamethasone phosphate 1% in a prospective, double-blind randomized study. Both groups were similar in baseline parameters. Postoperative inflammatory response, intraocular pressure and best-corrected visual acuity following standard extracapsular cataract extraction were assessed in both groups in the initial 21 days and the severity of these parameters was graded. The severity of postoperative inflammatory response to the two drugs was graded at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. Intraocular pressure and visual acuity at baseline and endpoint were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: The two groups did not differ statistically in treatment effect for any of the variables including aqueous cells, flare, ciliary congestion, Descemet′s folds, visual acuity and intraocular pressure (p< 0.001. However there seemed to be a trend towards quicker improvement with corticosteroid when cells in the anterior chamber were considered. There were no side effects from topical diclofenac, and it was well tolerated. Conclusion: Dicfofenac sodium is as effective as topical corticosteroid and can be used as an alternative in routine postoperative treatment following uncomplicated cataract surgery.

  5. Pulp response to high fluoride releasing glass ionomer, silver diamine fluoride, and calcium hydroxide used for indirect pulp treatment: An in-vivo comparative study

    Atish Korwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The study aims at determining pulp response of two high fluoride releasing materials silver diamine fluoride (SDF and Type VII glass ionomer cement (GIC when used as indirect pulp treatment (IPT materials. Materials and Methods: Deep Class V cavities were made on four first premolars indicated for extraction for orthodontic reasons. SDF, Type VII GIC, and calcium hydroxide base are given in three premolars, and one is kept control. Premolars were extracted 6 weeks after the procedure and subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pulp response. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: No inflammatory changes were observed in any of the groups. Significantly more number of specimens in SDF and Type VII GIC groups showed tertiary dentin deposition (TDD when compared to control group. No significant difference was seen in TDD when intergroup comparison was made. Odontoblasts were seen as short cuboidal cells with dense basophilic nucleus in SDF and Type VII GIC group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated TDD inducing ability of SDF and Type VII GIC and also established the biocompatibility when used as IPT materials.

  6. Potential and limits of sodium hydroxide as an additive to the binary system ammonia/water in absorption heat pumps; Potenzial und Grenzen von Natriumhydroxid als Zusatz zum Stoffpaar Ammoniak/Wasser in Absorptions-Waermepumpen

    Kotenko, Oleksandr; Moser, Harald; Fenzl, Thomas; Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik

    2011-07-01

    Several authors proposed the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an additive to the ammonia/water working fluid mixture (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O), especially in solar air conditioners. Measured vapour-liquid equilibrium data of this tertiary mixture are found in the relevant literature. Thermodynamic calculations carried out with these data show that the efficiency (COP) will be enhanced in theory while the rectification time will decrease. To verify these theoretical considerations and to gain practical experience with the tertiary mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH, a test stand was constructed at the Institut fuer Waermetechnik, and measurements were carried out on the mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, i.e. without NaOH, and with 5% NaOH. The technical feasibility of the process was established, although NaOH depositions in the refrigerating circuit caused operational disturbances, so that the mixture had to be renewed regularly and the plant had to be flushed with water. The expected efficiency improvement was not observed. Analyses using ''ASPEN Plus'' showed that this was the result of lower absorber efficiency, which may be due to the higher circulation rate and higher viscosity of the working fluid mixture. Measurements showed a moderate improvements of heat transfer in the expeller after addition of NaOH; no effects were found in the evaporator, solvent heat exchanger and rectification column. The findings suggest that fast implementation of NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP is not realistic. Considerable research and development will still be required for optimisation of the absorber for operation with NaOH. [German] Die Verwendung von Natriumhydroxid (NaOH) als Zusatz zum Arbeitsstoffgemisch Ammoniak / Wasser (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O) wurde von verschiedenen Autoren insbesondere fuer das Anwendungsgebiet der solaren Klimatisierung vorgeschlagen. In der einschlaegigen Literatur wurden gemessene Dampf-Fluessig-Gleichgewichts-Daten von diesem

  7. Lithium clearance and renal tubular sodium handling during acute and long-term nifedipine treatment in essential hypertension

    Bruun, N E; Ibsen, H; Skøtt, P; Toftdahl, D; Giese, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    1. In two separate studies the lithium clearance method was used to evaluate the influence of acute and long-term nifedipine treatment on renal tubular sodium reabsorption. 2. In the acute study, after a 4 week placebo period two doses of 20 mg of nifedipine decreased supine blood pressure from 155....../101 (20.6/13.5) +/- 11/4 (1.5/0.5) to 139/88 (18.5/11.7) +/- 16/9 (2.1/1.2) mmHg (kPa) (means +/- SD; P less than 0.01). Lithium clearance, glomerular filtration rate and sodium clearance did not change. Therefore the calculated values of absolute proximal and absolute distal sodium reabsorption rates...... reabsorption did not change. Sodium clearance, fractional sodium excretion, potassium clearance, plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume were also unchanged. 4. In conclusion, we found no changes of renal tubular sodium reabsorption during acute nifedipine treatment, whereas long-term nifedipine treatment...

  8. [Sodium hypochlorite disinfection on effluent of MBR in municipal wastewater treatment process].

    Du, Jing-Ru; Li, Kui-Xiao; Zhou, Jun; Gan, Yi-Ping; Huang, Guo-Zhong

    2011-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) used in wastewater disinfection was assessed by examining its performances in lab fed by the effluent from a MBR treatment plant. The influence of sodium hypochlorite initial concentrations (0.5-3.0 mg/L) on the presence of indicator microorganisms (total coliforms, fecal coliforms), disinfection by-products (DBPs) concentrations and the acute toxicity were evaluated. Results indicate the total coliforms and the fecal coliform were 1500-2400 and 10-40 CFU/L, which is difficult to meet the present reclaimed water quality standards. A chlorine dose of 2.0 mg/L and contact for 1 h could achieve a 3 lg indicator bacteria reduction in MBR effluent samples. THMs (trihalomethanes) analysis indicated that concentrations of THMs increase with the raise of the active chlorine dose. After adding sodium hypochlorite 1 h the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) were 16.22, 7.35 microg/L respectively and chloroform (TCM) accounted for 87% of THMs, the haloacetic acids (HAAs) was involved trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) 2.01 microg/L, dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) 1.58 microg/L and under the national limits. Luminescence bacteria acute toxicity analysis showed that the chlorinated effluent has higher inhibition rate (48%) in comparison to the control with a chlorine dosage of 3.0 mg/L. The results which could provide theoretical basis to production show that NaClO disinfection not only can inactivate microbe with the DBPs and acute toxicity of the effluent under the safety limits, but also meet the requirement of health and safety. PMID:22619952

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    Mohammadi, Z; Shalavi, S.; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5...

  10. Growth responses of the halophyte selicornia herbacea l. (=S. europaea) under different treatments of sodium chloride and fertilizers

    The growth respose of the halophyte Salicornia herbacea was examined under different treatments using sodium chloride, nitrogenous and phosphorous sources and irrigation in the field. The data revealed that the growth. in terms of dry weight and shoot length, of the plants was inhanced by sodium chloride and maximum growth was obtained at 1000 mol concentration. Plant growth was retarded under other treatments. However, growth was greatly reduced in nitrogen (urea) application. The major ions constituents of shoots was Na and Cl. The levels of these ions were highly affected by the treatments.Highest levels of Na and CI was found at 1000 mol sodium chloride and lowest at irrigated plants. (authors). 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste

    Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack

  12. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    Jacques Rezende Delgado, Ronan; Helena Gasparoto, Thaís; Renata Sipert, Carla; Ramos Pinheiro, Claudia; Gomes de Moraes, Ivaldo; Brandão Garcia, Roberto; Antônio Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Monteiro Bramante, Clóvis; Aparecido Torres, Sérgio; Pompermaier Garlet, Gustavo; Paula Campanelli, Ana; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0–100 and 100–200 µm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the ...

  13. The Administration and Effect of Sodium Nitroprusside in the Treatment of Chronic Congestive Heart Failure

    Sun Ming; Wang Wenmeng; Wu Qiong

    2000-01-01

    To prove the effectiveness and safety of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure, 58 patients with heart failure and normal renal and hepatic function were selected and divided into 3 groups and treated differently. Group A was treated with routine vasodilators; Group B was treaeted intermittently with SNP (12.5 -75mg/24hrs);Group C was treated continuously with SNP (continuous infusion of 100-300mg/24hrs) Positively inotropie agents and diuretic agents were used in each group.The results showed that the highly effective rates of the three groups were 46.9% (15/32), 90.5% (19/21)and 100% (12/12) respectively. The effective rates were 81.3% (26/32), 100% (21/21), 100%(12/12) respectively. The highly effective rates of group B and C were much higher than that of group A (P<0.005, P< 0.005) . The reduction of blood pressure of group B and C was greater than that of group A ( P < 0. 025) . Among the patients we studied, no body had severe side effects. We concluded that the use of SNP in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure is safe, with better effect than routine treatment,and continous infusion of SNP is the best choice.

  14. Simple Method for Simultaneous Determination of Carbonate, Sulfite and Hydroxide in Solution

    Hossam I. Al-Itawi; Hamdan Al-Ebaisat; Mazen Al-Garaleh

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide in a complex matrices. The method involves salvation of the tow gases in Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by simultaneous determination of the three species (carbonate, sulfite and hydroxide) using conductometric and potentiometric titration. What set this method apart from other determination methods it`s simplicity.

  15. Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue

    Acyr Wanderley de Paula Freitas

    2006-02-01

    (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6 cfu/g NM, 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis, or 10% of soybean crop residue added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments. For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1 "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2 "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3 "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1 "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2 "hydrogen potential" (pH; and 3 "protein degradation" (PD that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

  16. Divalproex Sodium for the Treatment of PTSD and Conduct Disordered Youth: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Steiner, Hans; Saxena, Kirti S.; Carrion, Victor; Khanzode, Leena A.; Silverman, Melissa; Chang, Kiki

    2007-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of divalproex sodium (DVP) for the treatment of PTSD in conduct disorder, utilizing a previous study in which 71 youth were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Twelve had PTSD. Subjects (all males, mean age 16, SD 1.0) were randomized into high and low dose conditions. Clinical Global Impression (CGI)…

  17. Medicine Of Water Treatment

    This book deals with the medicine of water handling, which includes medicine for dispersion and cohesion, zeta-potential, congelation with Shalze Hardy's law, inorganic coagulants, inorganic high molecule coagulants, aid coagulant such as fly ash and sodium hydroxide, and effect of aluminum and iron on cohesion of clay suspension, organic coagulants like history of organic coagulants, a polyelectrolyte, coagulants for cation, and organic polymer coagulant, heavy metal and cyan exfoliants, application of drugs of water treatment.

  18. Efficacy of Topical Sodium Sulfacetamide in the Treatment of Mild and Moderate Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized, Comparative Study

    Ayşegül Turan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Clindamycin and erythromycin are the most widely used topical antibiotics in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. The combination of topical antibiotics with benzoyl peroxide increases the efficacy of the treatment and reduces antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. Sodium sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic. Although it has been known for many years, it is not widely used in acne treatment. However, it has recently acquired currency again. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of sodium sulfacetamide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris and to compare with the other widely used topical antibiotics. Material and Method: In our comparative study, 60 patients with acne vulgaris were randomly assigned into 3 groups, wherein the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd groups were applied sodium sulfacetamide 10% lotion, clindamycin 1% lotion, and erythromycin 2% gel, respectively, twice daily for 12 weeks. Each group consisted of 20 subjects. The treatment was combined with benzoyl peroxide in all groups. The patients were assessed for noninflammatory (open and closed comedones and inflammatory (papules and pustules lesion counts at 4, 8, and 12 weeks and, adverse events were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for age, sex and acne duration (p>0.05. Statistically significant decrease was obtained with all 3 treatment regimens at the end of the study (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, topical sodium sulfacetamide was found to be as effective and safe as erythromycin and clindamycin when combined with benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. These results should be supported by studies with larger cohorts.

  19. Treatment of waste sodium/NaK; decommissioning hardware and facilities

    The decline in government interest (both in USA and abroad) in further developing liquid metal cooled reactors has left a legacy of unneeded and unused government owned sodium and NaK component test facilities, including nuclear reactors. These facilities will have to have their inventories of sodium drained and the equipment and piping treated to passivate the residual reactive metal. The bulk drained sodium (estimated at 1,4 million kg that will be radioactive, and 0.9 million that will be nonradioactive) will also have to be treated to convert the chemically active metallic sodium into a nonhazardous chemical form or possibly reused (nonradioactive sodium). A review of the past experience with the various techniques for safely handling and disposing of reactive metals and facilities and equipment containing these materials is presented with emphasis on both the technical basis and practical requirements involved. (author)

  20. The reference value for blood sodium in inhabitants of Brazil: harmonization of statistical treatment

    The objective of this study is the establishment of reliable sodium reference value in whole blood of Brazilians, living in two regions (Northeast and Southeast) using NAA, with emphasis on the statistical treatment. These results included: mean Na levels (1.77 g/l), the standard deviation (0.29 g/l), median (1.75 g/l), mode (2.05 g/l) and also the reference intervals - for general population (1.48 - 2.06 g/l), for male (1.47 - 2.05 g/l) and for female (1.53 - 2.07 g/l). Also, the influence of sex and age on Na in blood was evaluated by the analyse of variance between males and females and considering several range for age (18-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, ≥ 51 years). These results show small differences when a comparison is performed in function of age, sex and geographic occupation. (author)

  1. Comparison between one-session root canal treatment with aPDT and two-session treatment with calcium hydroxide-based antibacterial dressing, in dog's teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Hidalgo, Lidia Regina da Costa; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabrício Kitazono; Lucisano, Marília Pacífico; Novaes, Arthur Belem

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate one-session endodontic treatment with aPDT and two-session treatment with calcium hydroxide (CH)-based dressing in dog's teeth with apical periodontitis. After experimental induction of apical periodontitis, 48 teeth were randomly assigned to the following groups: groups OS/aPDT120d and OS/aPDT180d (one-session treatment with aPDT) and groups TS/CH120d and TS/CH180d (two-session treatment with CH-based dressing-control groups). The animals were euthanized after 120 and 180 days. After histotechnical processing, microscopic and radiographic analyses were performed. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's exact tests (α = 0.05). Groups TS/CHs presented repaired resorbed cemental areas, with collagen bundles and few inflammatory cells. In groups OS/aPDTs, the areas of cemental resorption were not repaired with reduced presence of cells and fibers. In the analysis of the apical closure, fluorescence microscopy and percentage of radiographic reduction of lesions, there was significant difference between groups TS/CH120d and OS/aPDT120d and between TS/CH180d and OS/aPDT180d (p < 0.05). Groups TS/CHs had weak RANKL expression and positive immunostaining for RANK and OPG. In OS/aPDT120d, there was positive immunostaining for RANKL. In OS/aPDT180d, the three osteoclastogenesis markers were expressed. The results using aPDT were worse than those obtained with two-session endodontic treatment using a CH-based dressing in teeth with apical periodontitis. PMID:27389365

  2. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  3. Disinfection of herbal spa pool using combined chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite treatment.

    Hsu, Ching-Shan; Huang, Da-Ji

    2015-02-01

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in public spa pools poses a serious threat to human health. The problem is particularly acute in herbal spas, in which the herbs and microorganisms may interact and produce undesirable consequences. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effectiveness of a combined disinfectant containing chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite in improving the water quality of a public herbal spa in Taiwan. Water samples were collected from the spa pool and laboratory tests were then performed to measure the variation over time of the microorganism content (total CFU and total coliforms) and residual disinfectant content given a single disinfection mode (SDM) with disinfectant concentrations of 5.2 × 10, 6.29 × 10, 7.4 × 10, and 11.4 × 10(-5) N, respectively. Utilizing the experience gained from the laboratory tests, a further series of on-site investigations was performed using three different disinfection modes, namely SDM, 3DM (once every 3 h disinfection mode), and 2DM (once every 2 h disinfection mode). The laboratory results showed that for all four disinfectant concentrations, the CFU concentration reduced for the first 6 h following SDM treatment, but then increased. Moreover, the ANOVA results showed that the sample treated with the highest disinfectant concentration (11.4 × 10(-5) N) exhibited the lowest rate of increase in the CFU concentration. In addition, the on-site test results showed that 3DM and 2DM treatments with disinfectant concentrations in excess of 9.3 × 10 and 5.5 × 10(-5) N, respectively, provided an effective reduction in the total CFU concentration. In conclusion, the experimental results presented in this study provide a useful source of reference for spa businesses seeking to improve the water quality of their spa pools. PMID:25632897

  4. Effects of ferric hydroxid sludge dosage on sludge treatment/-disposal. Final report; Einfluesse einer Eisenschlammzugabe auf die Klaerschlammbehandlung/-entsorgung. Schlussbericht

    Dammann, E.; Benzinger, S.

    1997-12-01

    A pilot plant consisting of two gravity thickeners, two sludge digesters and sludge dewatering by laboratory-frame filter press was operated on two different sewage water treatment plants. Ferric hydroxide sludge (FS) was treated together as with surplus sludge from enhanced biological removal of phosphorus (SS{sub EBPR}) as together with a mixture of primary and surplus sludge including precipitation sludge (PS+SS). One sludge treatment system was dosed with FS, the other serving as control unit operated without FS. In combined thickening in view of filterable solids, COD and P the quality of supernatant improved in most cases as well as the dried solid matter of the thickened sludge increased. In thickening of SS{sub EBPR} 45-70% P was refixed more than in the control system. Scum caused by hydrogen sulphide could be avoided in particular cases. There were no negative influences on the process of combined digestion with SS{sub EBPR} observed as well as with PS+SS. The degradation of organic solid matter was increased by FS-dosage>30 g Fe/kg TR{sub RS}. If present SS{sub EBPR}, hydrogen sulphide was reduced significantly; the content of methane in digester gas increased. Re-dissolved poly-P was refixed nearly completely. Sludge dewatering process was not influenced by FS, independent of the kind of post sludge conditioning. Nor was the sludge disposal restricted by FS. P-feedback from combined thickening, digestion and dewatering of SS{sub EBPR} decreased in comparison to the control unit with 16,8% (in relation to P{sub tot} influent) to 11,2 resp. 1,4% depending on the dosage of FS. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine halbtechnische Versuchsanlage mit Schwerkrafteindickern, Faulbehaeltern und Entwaesserung mit einer Labor-Rahmenfilterpresse wurde auf zwei kommunalen Klaeranlagen betrieben. Eisenhydroxidschlamm (ES) wurde zum einen mit Ueberschussschlamm aus der erhoehten biologischen P-Elimination (UeSS{sub BIO-P}) und zum anderen mit einem Gemisch aus Primaer- und

  5. Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete

    Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 8700C (950 to 16000F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium

  6. Successful treatment in the patient with serum sodium level greater than 200 mEq/L.

    Park, Y. J.; Kim, Y C; Kim, M O; Ruy, J. H.; Han, S W; Kim, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    Hypernatremia developing in nonhospitalized adults is predominantly a disease of the elderly and mentally handicapped patients, possibly revealing inadequate nursing care of these patients. It has long been claimed that the duration of hypernatremia and its rate of correction are correlated with improvement in patients' neurologic status. Since there are only a handful of cases with serum sodium levels greater than 200 mEq/L until recently, it is not clear at what rate plasma sodium concentra...

  7. COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN PATIENTS WITH COMPLEX ABSENCE FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH SODIUM VALPROATE

    Shobini L Rao; Satischandra, P.; Devi, M. Gourie

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY The association of sodium valproate with cognitive functions was studied in 29 patients with complex absence seizures. Seventeen patients were on monotherapy and twelve on polypharmacy with sodium valproate. Cognitive functions assessed were attention, speech, visuo-speciat perception, memory and intelligence. Behavioral disturbances were also assessed. Two assessments were made six months apart; in the first assessment, attention and speech were adequate, while memory, visuo-spatial ...

  8. Effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide on treatment of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    Ozer Cakir, Ozlem; Esen, Hasan; Toker, Aysun; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali; Polat, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research continues to develop novel therapeutic modalities that particularly focus on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to assess the effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide, alone or in combination, on pancreatic enzymes, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas cells, using a model of experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Objectives: We aimed to demonstrate effects of diclofenac sodium, octreotide and their com...

  9. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. PMID:22841594

  10. Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice

    Kadam, Shilpa D.; Charles Rohde; Smith, Dani R.; Anne Marie Comi

    2013-01-01

    Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate) and trichostatin A (TSA) treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development o...

  11. Insight of the removal of nickel and copper ions in fixed bed through acid activation and treatment with sodium of clay

    A. F. de Almeida Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bentonitic clays show good adsorptive characteristics, being used as alternative material for removing metals. This study evaluates several treatments (calcination, acid activation and treatment with sodium of bentonite type Bofe in the removal of nickel and copper. Analyses were performed for physicochemical characterization of clay using the techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF, thermal analysis (TG and DTA, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME method, N2 adsorption (BET and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Among the changes induced by acid activation and sodium transformations, the treatment with sodium chloride in fixed bed showed the highest performance in the monocomponent removal of nickel and copper.

  12. Multi-stage absorption of rendering plant odours using sodium hypochlorite and other reagents

    Pope, D.; Davis, B. J.; Moss, R. L.

    Conditions for using sodium hypochlorite solution as the main component of a multi-stage absorption system for the treatment of malodorous process emissions were studied, together with the additional reagents needed for effective odour control. In laboratory experiments, mixtures containing vpm levels in air of trimethylamine, hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulphide, n-butanal and sometimes ammonia were passed through three bubble-plate columns containing some of the following: water, dilute sulphuric acid, sodium hypochlorite solutions (varying in pH and available chlorine content) sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen sulphite. Odour removal was monitored by Chromatographic and sensory methods. Conclusions from laboratory experiments were supported by field-tests at four rendering plants in the U.K., treating both ventilation and process gases. Alkaline hypochlorite with considerable excess available chlorine removes many sulphur-compounds and aldehydes but effective odour control requires an acid pre-wash to prevent the generation of odorous chlorinated compounds from ammonia and amines. Acidic hypochlorite solution followed by sodium hydrogen sulphite (to remove aldehyde) and sodium hydroxide was a most effective combination in both laboratory and field tests. Odour generated in chlorination reactions involving acidic hypochlorite solution was analysed by GC-MS and GC-MPD-odour-port and the odour key compounds identified.

  13. Fondaparinux sodium.

    Keam, Susan J; Goa, Karen L

    2002-01-01

    black triangle Fondaparinux sodium, a selective factor Xa inhibitor, is the first in a new class of antithrombotics. It binds selectively with high affinity to antithrombin III and specifically catalyses the inactivation of factor Xa. The elimination half-life of fondaparinux sodium permits once daily treatment. black triangle A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-ranging, multicentre phase IIb study in 933 eligible patients established that a subcutaneous dose of between 1.5 and 3mg of fondaparinux sodium has the optimum efficacy and safety profile for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery. black triangle Fondaparinux sodium, given to more than 3600 patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery who participated in prospective, randomised, double-blind, multicentre phase III clinical trials, significantly reduced the incidence of venous thromboembolism, with an overall risk reduction of 55.2% compared with enoxaparin. black triangle Fondaparinux sodium was well tolerated by patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery, and at the recommended clinical dose of 2.5mg has a similar tolerability profile, including bleeding events, to standard enoxaparin regimens. Fondaparinux sodium has not been reported to cause antibody-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:12109927

  14. Comparision of the Efficacy of Two Combinations;Sodium Valproate with Lithium & Sodium Valproate with Olanzapine in Treatment of Acute Mania

    S Amanat

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute mania is a psychiatric emergency state that often requires rapid management. There are many different therapeutic protocols for this emergent situation. One of them is combination of moodstabilizers and antipsychotics. Olanzapine which is now available in our country can be used for this purpose. Methods and Materials: In this study, we compared the effectiveness, rapidity of response and side effects of sodium valproate plus olanzapine (group I with sodium valproate plus lithium (group II in acutely manic or mixed bipolar patients. In this randomized, double blind, parallel group study, 44 acutely manic or mixed patients according to DSM IV-TR criteria were randomly assigned to receive combinations of sodium valproate (20mg/kg per day with either olanzapine (5-15mg/day or lithium (900mg/day during a ten-day course. Efficacy was measured with Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS. Effectiveness measures included YMRS response (YMRS reduction ³ 50% and YMRS remission (YMRS<=12. Data was entered in SPSS11 software program and analyzed by Mann-Whitney, Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon tests (P-values < 0.05 were significant. Results: Total number of patients were 44 (mean age 27.18±7.34, 21 in group I and 23 in group II. Response rate was 85.7% (18 patients and 73.9% (17 patients in group I and II, respectively; with no significant differences between the two groups(P=0.33. Remission rate was 42.9 %(9 patients and 43.5% (10 patients in group I and II, respectively; with no significant differences between two groups(P=0.97. The reduction in total scores in YMRS on the 2nd, 7th and 10th days of study were significant in both groups (P<0.05, but the rapidity of response was similar. The rates of adverse effects between two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Both combinations of drugs were effective in acutely manic or mixed patients. Both treatments were safe and well tolerated

  15. Comparison of auranofin, gold sodium thiomalate, and placebo in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Subsets of responses.

    Ward, J R; Williams, H J; Boyce, E; Egger, M J; Reading, J C; Samuelson, C O

    1983-12-30

    A comparison of placebo, auranofin, and parenteral gold sodium thiomalate therapy in 209 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis was performed in a 21-week prospective, controlled, double-blind multicenter trial. When the 161 patients who completed at least 20 weeks of treatment were analyzed for different degrees of response, no remissions were identified. When 50 percent or greater improvement of pain/tenderness scores were compared for end of trial versus entry values, 9 percent of placebo-treated patients, 34 percent of auranofin-treated patients, and 48 percent of gold sodium thiomalate-treated patients showed important improvement that was statistically significant for both gold treatments. When 50 percent improvement for joint swelling was analyzed, 12 percent of the placebo-treated group, 28 percent in the auranofin-treated group, and 37 percent in the gold sodium thiomalate-treated group showed this degree of improvement. Auranofin almost achieved statistical significance for improvement in joint swelling when compared with placebo (p = 0.07), but gold sodium thiomalate was much better than placebo (p = 0.009). There was no statistically significant difference between the two gold treatments. Thus it appears that a subset of patients had an important response to gold therapy that would not be evident by the usual analyses of mean or median changes. Analysis for predictors of response did not discriminate between responders and nonresponders. Because the trial was limited to 21 weeks of therapy, no prediction of the longer-term-effects, especially for auranofin, should be inferred. PMID:6419595

  16. Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Nitrite And/Or Glutathione Treatment On Male Rats

    Eman Helal; *Zahkok, S; **Ghada Z A Soliman; * Al-Kassas, M;

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using food preservatives as sodium nitrite are increased in industrial food productions. Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects have been related to using of some food preservatives. Purpose: To study the effect of sodium nitrite (food additives and treated with glutathione (nature antitoxic on rats. Material And Methods: Certain parameters were measured as percentage of body weight change, body temperature, heart rates, Red & white blood cells count (RBCs & WBCs, hemoglobin (Hb level, hematocrite (Hct value, serum total lipids, serum cholesterol, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum glucose, serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase (ALT & AST activity and serum total cholinesterase. The organs, body weight were detected. Organs were prepared for biochemical analysis. Results: Body weight, respiration rate, hepatosomatic index, RBCs & WBCs count, Hb, Hct, serum total lipids, protein, albumin, A/G ratio, liver and muscle total lipids and cholesterol were significantly reduced while serum cholesterol, kidney total lipids and cholesterol, serum ALT & AST was significantly increased. Supplementation of sodium nitrite to rats had no effect on serum glucose level or cholinesterase activity Conclusion: Due to the hazardous effect of food additives as sodium nitrite, it is recommended that the use of sodium nitrite as food additives must be limited and gluathione has the ability to prevent its toxic effect

  17. Combined effects of high pressure and sodium hydrogen carbonate treatment on pork ham: improvement of texture and palatability

    Kim, Yun-Jung; Nishiumi, Tadayuki; Fujimura, Shinobu; Ogoshi, Hiro; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the combined effects of high pressure and sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) treatment on the physical and chemical properties, and palatability of pork ham, a tough and under-utilized meat, were investigated. Assessment of meat properties with heat treatment, after exposure to NaHCO3 and high pressure treatment, revealed an increase in water content, and decreased weight reduction and rupture stress. The free amino acid content of meat samples increased with NaHCO3 and high pressure treatment. The effect of high pressure processing was especially notable at a pressure of 300 MPa. Sensory evaluation showed that meat subjected to high pressure processing after NaHCO3 treatment was tender and juicy. In addition, the sample produced minimal residue in the mouth and was characterized by a good taste.

  18. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji

    2014-05-01

    Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

  19. Evaluation of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings leachates. Laboratory progress report

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions. Highly acidic tailings solutions (pH3) reagent grade; Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] reagent grade; Magnesium oxide (MgO) reagent grade; Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) reagent grade; and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reagent grade. Evaluation of the effectiveness for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions for the selected neutralizing agents under controlled laboratory conditions was based on three criteria. The criteria are: (1) treated effluent water quality, (2) neutralized sludge handling and hydraulic properties, and (3) reagent costs and acid neutralizing efficiency. On the basis of these limited laboratory results calcium hydroxide or its dehydrated form CaO (lime) appears to be the most effective option for treatment of uranium tailings solutions

  20. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    2010-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, from ammonium hydroxide -...

  1. Chronic ciguatoxin treatment induces synaptic scaling through voltage gated sodium channels in cortical neurons.

    Martín, Víctor; Vale, Carmen; Rubiolo, Juan A; Roel, Maria; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luís M

    2015-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channels activators that cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents with long-term neurological alterations. In central neurons, chronic perturbations in activity induce homeostatic synaptic mechanisms that adjust the strength of excitatory synapses and modulate glutamate receptor expression in order to stabilize the overall activity. Immediate early genes, such as Arc and Egr1, are induced in response to activity changes and underlie the trafficking of glutamate receptors during neuronal homeostasis. To better understand the long lasting neurological consequences of ciguatera, it is important to establish the role that chronic changes in activity produced by ciguatoxins represent to central neurons. Here, the effect of a 30 min exposure of 10-13 days in vitro (DIV) cortical neurons to the synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on Arc and Egr1 expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction approaches. Since the toxin increased the mRNA levels of both Arc and Egr1, the effect of CTX 3C in NaV channels, membrane potential, firing activity, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and glutamate receptors expression in cortical neurons after a 24 h exposure was evaluated using electrophysiological and western blot approaches. The data presented here show that CTX 3C induced an upregulation of Arc and Egr1 that was prevented by previous coincubation of the neurons with the NaV channel blocker tetrodotoxin. In addition, chronic CTX 3C caused a concentration-dependent shift in the activation voltage of NaV channels to more negative potentials and produced membrane potential depolarization. Moreover, 24 h treatment of cortical neurons with 5 nM CTX 3C decreased neuronal firing and induced synaptic scaling mechanisms, as evidenced by a decrease in the amplitude of mEPSCs and downregulation in the protein level of glutamate receptors that was also prevented by tetrodotoxin

  2. Possibly enhanced Gd excretion in dialysate, but no major clinical benefit of 3-5 months of treatment with sodium thiosulfate in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    Marckmann, P.; Sloth, J.J.; Nielsen, Arne Høj

    2008-01-01

    motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd......Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3...

  3. Possibly enhanced Gd-excretion in dialysate, but no clinical benefit of 3-5 months treatment with sodium thiosulfate in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    Marckmann, P.; Nielsen, A.H.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd......Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3...

  4. Abatacept and Sodium Thiosulfate for Treatment of Recalcitrant Juvenile Dermatomyositis Complicated by Ulceration and Calcinosis

    Arabshahi, Bita; Silverman, Robert A.; Jones, Olcay Y.; Rider, Lisa G

    2012-01-01

    We report the successful use of abatacept and sodium thiosulfate in a patient with severe recalcitrant juvenile dermatomyositis complicated by ulcerative skin disease and progressive calcinosis. This combination therapy resulted in significant reduction in muscle and skin inflammation, decreased corticosteroid dependence, and halted the progression of calcinosis.

  5. The potential role of sodium glucose co‐transporter 2 inhibitors in the early treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Brunton, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Sodium glucose co‐transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of pharmacologic agents developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Their unique mechanism of action is independent of pancreatic beta‐cell function or the degree of insulin resistance, giving these agents the potential for use in combination with any of the existing classes of glucose‐lowering agents, including insulin. This makes SGLT2 inhibitors an option for patients with long‐standin...

  6. The local heat treatment technology for not easily accessible welded joints of sodium-conducting pipes in nuclear power stations

    Experimental works results in local heat treatment of not easily accessible welded joints for the nuclear power stations sodium-conducting pipes using flexible wired resistance heaters are described. Vertical welded joints 820x13, 630x13, 219x10 and 245x11 were studied. It was found out that for the tubes welded joints 219x10 and 245x11mm the normal process of austenization without reflectors inside the welded joint is achieved under heating by means of one electric heater. It was suggested that the electric heater capacity should be increased for tubes welded joints 820x13 and 630x13 mm

  7. Inactivation of HIV-1 in breast milk by treatment with the alkyl sulfate microbicide sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)

    Berlin Cheston M; Neely Elizabeth B; Wigdahl Brian; Urdaneta Sandra; Schengrund Cara-Lynne; Lin Hung-Mo; Howett Mary K

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Reducing transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk is needed to help decrease the burden of pediatric HIV/AIDS in society. We have previously reported that alkyl sulfates (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) are microbicidal against HIV-1 at low concentrations, are biodegradable, have little/no toxicity and are inexpensive. Therefore, they may be used for treatment of HIV-1 infected breast milk. In this report, human milk was artificially infected by adding to it HIV-1 (cel...

  8. Effect of heat treatment on the infrared absorption spectra of strontium-sodium-borosilicate glass

    Infrared absorption spectra of the prepared strontium-sodium-borosilicate glass (SiO2 80%-Na2O 12.5%-B2O3 5%-SrO 2.5%) are studied in the frequency range 200-4000 cm-1, where strontium oxide was introduced on partial replacement of soda in sodium-borosilicate glass, to show the effect of divalent metal oxide introduced on the structural units SiO4, BO4, and BO3 within the network structure of strontium-sodium-borosilicate glass, in the temperature range 27-800 degC. The deformation of SiO4 tetrahedra is investigated by using the baseline method, the temperature dependence of the relative integrated intensity, the relaxation time, and rotational energy barrier of this glass proved that the glassy phase is transformed to crystalline phase at 500 degC. A slight shift occurs in the strongest bands of SiO4 tetrahedra to higher frequencies, with temperature increase, which indicates an increase in the force constants between the components of the glass network structure. The increase of the absorbance in the temperature range 600-800 degC indicates strengthening of the SiO4 bonds. (author)

  9. Clinical application of Betamethasone-calcium hydroxide paste in one-time root canal treatment%倍他米松—氢氧化钙糊剂在一次法根管治疗的临床应用

    王坚; 袁淑琴

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨倍他米松—氢氧化钙糊剂在一次法根管治疗的应用及疗效.方法 选择160颗行一次法根管治疗的患牙,随机分为试验组(倍他米松—氢氧化钙糊剂组)和对照组(碧兰糊剂组),每组各80例.两组病例在根管预备、干燥后,立即用两种糊剂分别充满根管,用侧方加压法紧密充填牙胶尖,摄片确定恰充后,再行永久性充填.结果 一次法根管充填治疗后,试验组和对照组术后3日疼痛率的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),术后6个月、12个月复查,二组治愈率分别为70.0%,90.0%和71.3%,88.8%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 倍他米松—氢氧化钙糊剂在一次法根管治疗中,可以获得和碧兰糊剂基本相同的临床治疗效果.%Objective To study the clinical application and efficacy of betamethasone-calcium hydroxide paste in one-time root canal treatment.Methods 160 teeth were randomly divided into the experimental group (betamethasone-calcium hydroxide) and the control group (cortisomol) with 80 cases in each group.Two kinds of cataplasm were sent into the root canals by using screw conveyor in each group after root canal preparation and drying.Then we filled the canals tightly with gutta-percha by lateral condensation.Permanent filling were operated after X-ray determination of canal filling.3 days later,pain of the tooth was recorded.6 and 12 months later,the cure rate of each group was observed.Results The pain rates and the cure rates were no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05).Conclusion Betamethasone-calcium hydroxide cataplasm and cortisomol have the basical same clinical effect in one-time root canal treatment.

  10. Sodium Azide

    ... Matters What's New A - Z Index Facts About Sodium Azide What sodium azide is Sodium azide is a rapidly acting, ... give people sufficient warning of the danger. Where sodium azide is found and how it is used ...

  11. Comparision of the Efficacy of Two Combinations;Sodium Valproate with Lithium & Sodium Valproate with Olanzapine in Treatment of Acute Mania

    S Amanat; M Nuri; HR Rouh Afza; Afshar, H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Acute mania is a psychiatric emergency state that often requires rapid management. There are many different therapeutic protocols for this emergent situation. One of them is combination of moodstabilizers and antipsychotics. Olanzapine which is now available in our country can be used for this purpose. Methods and Materials: In this study, we compared the effectiveness, rapidity of response and side effects of sodium valproate plus olanzapine (group I) with sodium valproate plus...

  12. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent

  13. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant

  14. Multi-laminated metal hydroxide nanocontainers for oral-specific delivery for bioavailability improvement and treatment of inflammatory paw edema in mice.

    Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Kuthati, Yaswanth; Sie, Huei-Wun; Shih, Hung-Yuan; Lue, Sheng-I; Kankala, Shravankumar; Jeng, Chien-Chung; Deng, Jin-Pei; Weng, Ching-Feng; Liu, Chen-Lun; Lee, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-15

    Multiple layers of pH-sensitive enteric copolymers were coated over layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles for controllable drug release and improved solubility of hydrophobic drugs. The nano-sized LDH carriers significantly improved the accessibility of sulfasalazine molecules that have positively charged frameworks. In addition, the successful encapsulation of negatively charged enteric copolymers was achieved via electrostatic attractions. The multi-layered enteric polymer coating could potentially protect nanoparticle dissolution at gastric pH and accelerate the dissolution velocity, which would improve the drug bioavailability in the colon. Next, biological studies of this formulation indicated a highly protective effect from the scavenging of superoxide free radicals and diethyl maleate (DEM) induced lipid peroxidation, which are major cell signalling pathways for inflammation. The histological view of the liver and kidney sections revealed that the nanoformulation is safe and highly biocompatible. The animal studies conducted via paw inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) revealed that enteric-coated LDH-sulfasalazine nanoparticles provided a sustained release that maintained the sulfasalazine concentrations in a therapeutic window. Therefore, this nanoformulation exhibited preferential efficacy in reducing the CFA-induced inflammation especially at day 4. PMID:26225492

  15. Effect of chronic oral administration of a low dose of captopril on sodium appetite of hypothyroid rats: Influence of aldosterone treatment

    Ventura R.R.; Olivares E.L.; Passos Junior D.B.; Ramalho M.J.; Antunes-Rodrigues J.; Reis L.C.

    2001-01-01

    Rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with methimazole develop an exaggerated sodium appetite. We investigated here the capacity of hypothyroid rats (N = 12 for each group) to respond to a low dose of captopril added to the ration, a paradigm which induces an increase in angiotensin II synthesis in cerebral areas that regulate sodium appetite by increasing the availability of circulating angiotensin I. In addition, we determined the influence of aldosterone in hypothyroid rats during the exp...

  16. Comparison of auranofin, gold sodium thiomalate, and placebo in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A controlled clinical trial.

    Ward, J R; Williams, H J; Egger, M J; Reading, J C; Boyce, E; Altz-Smith, M; Samuelson, C O; Willkens, R F; Solsky, M A; Hayes, S P

    1983-11-01

    A prospective controlled, double-blind multicenter trial compared placebo, auranofin (an orally administered gold complex), and parenteral gold sodium thiomalate (GST) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Of 193 patients who received any treatment, the only important improvement identified for either auranofin or GST was for pain/tenderness scores. When 161 patients who completed 20 weeks of treatment were examined, both auranofin and GST treatments were superior to placebo as measured by improvement in number of painful and/or tender joints, joint pain/tenderness scores, physician's assessment of disease activity, and decrease in erythrocyte sedimentation rate when elevated at entry. GST was superior to placebo in improvement of joint swelling scores, anemia, thrombocytosis, and rheumatoid factor. No drug-related remissions were observed. The only statistically significant advantages of GST over auranofin for efficacy were an increase in hemoglobin concentration and decrease of thrombocytosis with GST. Withdrawals for adverse effects were 5 times more frequent with GST treatment. Thrombocytopenia, proteinuria, elevated liver enzymes, "nitritoid" reactions, and "gold pneumonitis" were observed only in the GST treatment group. These results confirm that both parenteral and oral gold may be effective for the treatment of RA, that GST tends to show greater efficacy than auranofin, and that auranofin has fewer significant adverse effects than GST. However, long-term benefits, tolerability, and safety cannot be inferred from this study. PMID:6416259

  17. Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika

    Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (p<0.05). Therefore, in this study, the synergistic disinfection effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was investigated to reduce the gamma irradiation dose. In an artificial inoculation experiment of B. cinerea isolated from naturally-infected postharvest paprika, fungal symptoms were observed in the stem and exocarp of paprika after conidial inoculation. From the sensitivity of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, B. cinerea conidia were fully inactivated by 4 kGy of gamma irradiation (D10 value 0.99 kGy), and were fully inactivated by 50 ppm NaDCC treatment. The fungal symptoms were not detected by the dose-dependent gamma irradiation (>4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (p<0.05). Moreover, fungal symptoms were more significantly reduced in combined treatment groups (gamma irradiation and NaDCC) than single treatment groups (gamma irradiation or NaDCC). These results suggest that combined treatment with irradiation and NaDCC treatment can be applied to preserve quality of postharvest paprika or other fruits. - Highlights: • Paprikas were treated with irradiation and NaDCC to control gray mold. • We confirmed that the combined treatment was synergistically affected. • The treatment can contribute to a reduction of postharvest losses caused by fungi. • This combined treatment can also reduce the doses of irradiation

  18. A comparative study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and freezing/thawing treatment on wheat starch: The role of water absorption.

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Bao; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-01

    The effect of freezing on functionality of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-treated wheat starches was investigated, with the aim of understanding the role of water absorption during freezing process. SDS is one of most efficient detergents to remove non-starch components (such as proteins and lipids) for starches but does not cause any apparent damage on granular structure. Slow swelling could be converted to rapid swelling by SDS washing, indicating higher water absorption. Freezing process induced slight roughness on starch granules but the non-starch components content was little affected. Combined SDS+freezing treatment significantly decreased both amylose and proteins non-starch components contents, which was accompanied with high gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from SDS+freezing-treated starches while the crumb firmness significantly increased (pstarch granules, leading to high water absorption and making granules sensitive to the freezing treatment. PMID:27083354

  19. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. , 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 221-8755 (Japan); Harada, Kenji [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Nishii, Junji, E-mail: nishii@es.hokudai.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Corona discharge formed an alkali depletion layer on a glass surface. • Introduction of hydrogen accelerated the depletion layer thickness. • Thickness was doubled compared with that in air. • Efficient formation of proton at an anode needle end was one cause. • Applied voltage across the glass plate in hydrogen was 2.7 times that in air. - Abstract: Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H{sub 2} atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H{sup +} with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

  20. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    Highlights: • Corona discharge formed an alkali depletion layer on a glass surface. • Introduction of hydrogen accelerated the depletion layer thickness. • Thickness was doubled compared with that in air. • Efficient formation of proton at an anode needle end was one cause. • Applied voltage across the glass plate in hydrogen was 2.7 times that in air. - Abstract: Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air

  1. Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content

    Felix Daume

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Long term stability is crucial to maturing any photovoltaic technology. We have studied the influence of sodium, which plays a key role in optimizing the performance of Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGSe solar cells, on the long-term stability of flexible CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil. The standardized procedure of damp heat exposure (85% relative humidity at 85 °C was used to simulate aging of the unencapsulated cells in multiple time steps while they were characterized by current-voltage analysis, capacitance-voltage profiling, as well as electroluminescence imaging. By comparing the aging process to cells that were exposed to heat only, it could be confirmed that moisture plays the key role in the degradation process. We found that cells with higher sodium content suffer from a more pronounced degradation. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate the superposition of an enhancing and a deteriorating mechanism during the aging process. We propose an explanation based on the corrosion of the planar contacts of the solar cell.

  2. Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition

    Wasanapiarnpong, T; Thueploy, A; Arayaphong, D [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramic, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Nilpairach, S, E-mail: thanakorn.w@chula.ac.t [National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)

    2011-10-29

    Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 deg. C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 deg. C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 deg. C had lower water absorption as 12.22%, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

  3. The disinfection effect of calcium hydroxides dressing using different vehicles on clinical root canal treatment%不同赋形剂氢氧化钙根管消毒效果的临床研究

    付国祥; 骆鸣宇; 高倩华; 廖雪峰; 王瑛

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较生理盐水、碘甘油、樟脑对氯苯酚、樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油等赋形剂对氢氧化钙消毒根管效果的影响,以期为临床工作提供参考.方法 选择单根管慢性根尖周炎患牙80颗,随机分成氢氧化钙加生理盐水、氢氧化钙加碘甘油、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油等4组,观察封药1周后的临床疗效、封药1周前后的细菌学培养菌落数变化以及达到临床可充填的封药时间等评价指标.结果 氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油组明显优于氢氧化钙加生理盐水、氢氧化钙加碘甘油、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚组(P<0.01);在封药1周的临床疗效(评分差值)方面,氢氧化钙加生理盐水组、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在达到临床可充填封药时间上,氢氧化钙加碘甘油组、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 在生理盐水、碘甘油、樟脑对氯苯酚、樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油等赋形剂中,樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油可能是最为有效的赋形剂.%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of root canal disinfection with calcium hydroxides dressing respectively in four different vehicles (physiological saline, iodine glycerin, camphorated para-monochlorophenol and camphorated para-monochlorophenol/iodine glycerin), in order to provide reference for clinical root canal treatment. Methods To divide 80 teeth of single-root canal teeth having chronic apical periodontitis randomly into four groups according to the vehicles (physiological saline, iodine glycerin, camphorated para-monochlorophenol and camphorated para-monochlorophenol/iodine glycerin), observing the clinical effect after 7 days, bacterial colony numbers of root canal contents before and 7 days after calcium hydroxides dressing, clinical duration of root canal treatment. Results The camphorated para

  4. Sodium carbonate facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    The Sodium Carbonate Facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was designed and built as an addition to the existing Sodium Processing Facility. The Sodium Process and Sodium Carbonate Facilities will convert radioactive sodium into a product that is acceptable for land disposal in Idaho. The first part of the process occurs in the Sodium Process Facility where radioactive sodium is converted into sodium hydroxide (caustic). The second part of the process occurs in the Sodium Carbonate Facility where the caustic solution produced in the Sodium Process Facility is converted into a dry sodium carbonate waste suitable for land disposal. Due to the radioactivity in the sodium, shielding, containment, and HEPA filtered off-gas systems are required throughout both processes

  5. Influence of Surface Treatments on the Bioactivity of Ti

    Lindahl, Carl; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Several techniques have been described to modify the surface of titanium to make it more bioactive. Heat treatment (HT) and sodium hydroxide treatment (NaOH) have been used and can change the crystallinity and surface chemistry of titanium implants. However, no studies have systemically focused on comparing these different methods and their effect on the bioactivity of Ti. Therefore, in this study, Ti substrates were systematically treated using HT, NaOH, and a combination of HT and NaOH. The...

  6. Adsorption behavior of condensed phosphate on aluminum hydroxide

    GUAN Xiao-hong; CHEN Guang-hao; SHANG Chii

    2007-01-01

    Sodium pyrophosphate(pyro-P,Na4P207),sodium tripolyphosphate(tripoly-P,NasP3010),and sodium hexametaphosphate(metaP,(NaP03)6)were selected as the model compounds of condensed phosphate to investigate the adsorption behavior of condensed phosphate on aluminum hydroxide.The adsorption was found to be endothermic and divisible into two stages:(1)fast adsorption within 1 h:and(2)slow adsorption between 1 and 24 h.The modified Freundlich model simulated the fast adsorption stage well;the slow adsorption stage was described well by the first-order kinetics.The activation energies of pyro-P,tripoly-P,and meta-P adsorption on aluminum hydroxide were determined to be 20.2,22.8 and 10.9 kJ/mol P adsorbed,respectively,in the fast adsorption stage and to be 66.3.53.5 and 72.5 kJ/tool P adsorbed,respectively,in the slow adsorption stage.The adsorption increased the negative charge of the aluminum hydroxide surface.Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis analyses provided evidence that the adsorption was not uniform on the surface and that the small crystals contfibuted more to the fast adsorption than the normal sites did.The results from X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy tests also revealed the uneven adsorption of condensed phosphate as a function of the penetration depth.More condensed phosphates were adsorbed on the outer surface of aluminum hydroxide than in its inner parts.

  7. Sodium retention and insulin treatment in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Nørgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1994-01-01

    The hypothesis that total body exchangeable sodium (ENa) is elevated in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with short-duration diabetes and no signs of microangiopathy was tested. Also tested was whether peripheral hyperinsulinaemia, in terms of the amounts of insulin injected...... subcutaneously, contributes to the increased ENa. Three studies were performed. Study 1 was a cross-sectional study comprising 28 type 1 diabetic men (aged 18-35 years) with short-duration diabetes (< 5 years) and no signs of diabetic complications, and 22 control subjects. Study 2 was a prospective study of 17...... newly diagnosed diabetic patients (aged 20-35 years, median 27 years) who were studied on two occasions on different insulin doses. Study 3 was a 12-month prospective intervention study of 21 type 1 diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy, who had been randomized either to receive continuous...

  8. Composição química e perdas fermentativas de silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio Chemical composition and fermentative losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide

    Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química e as perdas fermentativas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio (NaOH. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar (CB 45-3 e RB 72-454 e quatro aditivos (controle, NaOH, ureia ou NaOH + ureia, compondo as seguintes silagens: cana-de-açúcar sem aditivo; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 4% de ureia; cana-de-açúcar tratada 4% de NaOH; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2% de ureia + 2% de NaOH. Os procedimentos foram realizados em ambas as variedades e as doses aplicadas com base na matéria seca. A cana-de-açúcar foi picada e misturada, acescida dos aditivos e armazenada em silos de PVC com 50 cm de altura por 10 cm de diâmetro, providos de válvula de Bunsen. Adotou-se uma compactação de 750 kg de matéria natural/m³. Os silos foram pesados no início e ao final do período experimental para quantificar as perdas por gases e efluente. Não foi observado efeito de interação entre variedades de cana-de-açúcar e doses para perdas por efluente, pH, celulose, lignina e cinza. O hidróxido de sódio contribui para redução de perdas,manutenção do grau brixa e elevação do pH da silagem da cana-de-açúcar, independentemente da utilização da ureia, além de promover redução dos constituintes da parede celular, ocasionando melhoria na qualidade da silagem de cana-de-açúcar.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide (NaOH. It was used a completely randomized design with four replicates, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two varieties of cane sugar (CB 45-3, RB 72-454 and four additives (Control, NaOH, urea or NaOH + urea, composing the following silages: sugar cane without additive; sugar cane treated with 4% urea; sugar cane treated

  9. Effect of potassium sodium dehydroandroan drographolide succinate combined with sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of eczema%炎琥宁联合硫代硫酸钠治疗湿疹的效果

    崔乐

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of potassium sodium dehydroandroan drographolide succinate combined with sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of eczema. Methods 80 patients with eczema were randomly allocated to the control group receiving sodium thiosulfate and the observation group receiving potassium sodium dehydroandroan dro-grapholide succinate combined with sodium thiosulfate,with 40 patients in each group. Clinical efficacy and incidence of side effect of drugs were compared between the two groups. Results Score of clinical symptoms,score of area of skin rash and total score of clinical symptom before treatment in the two groups were not statistically different (P>0.05).The above-mentiond score after treatment in the two groups significantly improved (P0.05). Conclusion Potassium sodium dehydroandroan drographolide succinate combined with sodium thiosulfate can significantly improve the curative effect in the treatment of eczema,and at the same time it does not increase the incidence rate of side effect of drugs.%目的:探讨炎琥宁联合硫代硫酸钠治疗湿疹的效果。方法随机将80例湿疹患者分为接受硫代硫酸钠治疗的对照组及接受炎琥宁联合硫代硫酸钠治疗的观察组,每组各40例。对比两组的临床疗效及药物副作用发生率。结果两组治疗前的临床症状计分、皮疹面积计分及临床症状总积分比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),治疗后,两组的上述评分均明显改善(P0.05)。结论炎琥宁联合硫代硫酸钠可显著改善治疗湿疹的效果,且不增高药物副作用发生率。

  10. Technology of mine water treatment in uranium ore mining

    The most commonly used method of radioactive water treatment is the sedimentation method based on the adsorption mechanism. Iron, aluminium and calcium hydroxides are used for removal of uranium. Thorium, polonium and lead 210 are removed using the said hydroxides and also barium chloride and sodium phosphate. The mining solutions are mixed with chemicals and cleaning proceses take place including sedimentation, decantation and filtration. The treated water is partially returned into technological operations, partially discharged. Hygiene regulations have so far been missing governing other uses. (M.D.). 3 refs