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Sample records for sodium hydroxide treatment

  1. Comparison of Alkaline Treatment of Lead Contaminated Wastewater Using Lime and Sodium Hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Sudhakar M; Raju, G. C.

    2010-01-01

    A lead-acid storage battery manufacturing industry in India produces several thousand liters of lead con-taminated acidic wastewater on a daily basis and uses hydrated lime to render the lead-contaminated acidic wastewater alkaline (pH = 8.0). Alkaline treatment of the acidic wastewater with lime though a cost-effective method, generates copious amount of lead-contaminated gypsum sludge. Other alkali agents such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dolomite are also used for alkali treat...

  2. Comparison of Alkaline Treatment of Lead Contaminated Wastewater Using Lime and Sodium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar M. Rao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A lead-acid storage battery manufacturing industry in India produces several thousand liters of lead con-taminated acidic wastewater on a daily basis and uses hydrated lime to render the lead-contaminated acidic wastewater alkaline (pH = 8.0. Alkaline treatment of the acidic wastewater with lime though a cost-effective method, generates copious amount of lead-contaminated gypsum sludge. Other alkali agents such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dolomite are also used for alkali treatment of the acid wastewaters. The present paper compares the relative efficiency of hydrated lime and 0.05 M to 1 M NaOH solutions with re-spect to 1 amounts of sludge produced, 2 immobilization of the soluble lead in the acidic wastewater (AWW and 3 increase in TDS (total dissolved solids levels upon treatment of AWW with NaOH solutions and lime. The study also performs equilibrium speciation upon alkaline treatment of AWW with lime and NaOH (sodium hydroxide solutions using the Visual MINTEQ program to understand the chemical reac-tions occurring during treatment process.

  3. Comparison of Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide Followed by Heat Treatment on Rice Straw for Cellulase Production under Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Chew

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is the major agricultural by-product in the world. Its low digestibility made it unsuitable as livestock feed which lead to the mass disposal and burning of rice straw. The main objective of this study were to optimise the alkali concentration and soaking time on rice straw for the alkali pretreatment followed by heat treatment for cellulose production and to compare the effectiveness of both alkali used. The rice straws were subjected to two treatments, which were Treatment A and Treatment B. In Treatment A, the rice straws were treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH followed by heat treatment (autoclaving at 121°C for an hour, whereas the rice straws were treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH followed by heat in Treatment B. Four different alkali concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% at four different soaking times (1, 2, 3 and 4 h were investigated. The treated rice straws were subjected to Solid State Fermentation (SSF with the condition of 1:1 moisture content, 1% ammonium sulphate and 1x107 spores mL-1 of locally isolated Aspergillus niger. The highest yield of filter paper enzyme (FPase and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase were obtained after 6 days of SSF, which were 7.85±0.18 U g-1 substrate and 11.73±0.27 U g-1 substrate, respectively; when the rice straw was pre-treated with 15% KOH with 1 h soaking time followed by heat. Conclusively, rice straw can be effectively bio-converted into valuable product such as cellulase in SSF.

  4. Sodium hydroxide permethylation of heparin disaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Heiss, Christian; Wang, Zhirui; Azadi, Parastoo

    2011-01-01

    Permethylation is a valuable and widely used tool for the mass spectrometry of carbohydrates, improving sensitivity and fragmentation and increasing the amount of information that can be obtained from tandem mass spectrometric experiments. Permethylation of most glycans is easily performed with sodium hydroxide and iodomethane in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). However, permethylation has not been widely used in the mass spectrometry of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides, partly because it h...

  5. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide

  6. Potential use of high-temperature and low-temperature steam treatment, sodium hydroxide and an enzyme mixture for improving the nutritional value of sugarcane pith

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Chaji; A.A., Naserian; R., Valizadeh; T., Mohammadabadi; Kh., Mirzadeh.

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of different treatment methods to improve the nutritional value of the sugarcane by-products (pith or bagasse) has been evaluated. The treatment methods included a high-pressure steam treatment (HPST; 19 bar, 3 min), treating the products with sodium hydroxide, sulphuric acid plus [...] an enzyme mixture, or low-temperature steam treatment (LTST) under different conditions. Gas production (GP), two-step in vitro digestibility (IVD) and in situ degradability (ISD) techniques were used to monitor the effectiveness of the treatments. HPST resulted in a significant increased in the total soluble sugar (TSS) content of unsteamed pith (USP), 20 vs. 123.75 mg/100 mL. Except for the enzyme treatment, the other treatments led to a significant improvement in the nutritional value of sugarcane by-products, as measured by the IVD method. LTST resulted in an increase in potential GP (B) at higher temperature, reaction time and amount of acid. The highest potential GP (110.92 mL/300 mg DM) was achieved under the conditions, 134 ºC, 18 g acid/kg DM, 120 min, and the lowest (72.4 mL/300 mg DM) under the conditions, 121 ºC, no acid, 40 min. In situ dry matter degradability (ISDMD) was unaffected by LTST. Dry matter digestibility results indicated that the optimal treatments for treating pith were HPST and NaOH, but that enzymes were ineffective. Furthermore, considering treatment cost (creating high-pressure are more expensive than low temperature treatments), potential environmental health problems and the relative improvement in the nutritional value of pith achieved by the LTST + acid method, compared to the HPST method (as measured using GP), these results suggested that the methods based on the use of LTST and acid (especially under harsher conditions), have the best potential to improve the nutritive value of sugarcane by-products.

  7. On the cathodic corrosion of iron in molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept of cathodic oxidation of iron and steels in molten sodium hydroxide is suggested. The rate of cathodic corrosion of St3 steel is comparable with the rate of chemical pickling of armco iron in NaOH meet, containing 16-32 mass% of sodium oxide. According to suggested concept, corrosion of steel and iron cathodes during technical electrolysis in molten sodium hydroxide proceeds independently of the presence of oxygen-containing atmosphere. 19 refs.; 2 figs

  8. In vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues, as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out to study the changes in the values of in vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (WS), cotton seed shell (CSS), peanut shell (PS), soybean shell (SS), extracted olive cake (EOC) and extracted unpeeled sunflower seeds (ESS) after irradiation by various doses of gamma radiation (0, 100, 150, 200 kGy) or after spraying with different amounts of sodium hydroxide (NaOH): 0, 2, 4, and 6 g NaOH/25 ml water/100 g DM. The results indicate that there were significant increases in IVOMD and IVDE values for all irradiated samples and for sodium hydroxide treatments except for SS and ESS. Combined treatment of irradiation and sodium hydroxide resulted in a larger increase in the digestible energy than the individual treatments

  9. Obstructive airway disease associated with occupational sodium hydroxide inhalation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, A. E.; Bentur, L.; Bentur, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is well known for its corrosive properties and its ability to generate heat on contact with water. The respiratory effects of industrial exposure to NaOH have, however, never been reported. A 63 year old man worked daily for 20 years cleaning large industrial jam containers by boiling lye (NaOH) solution without using respiratory protective equipment. Physical examination, chest x ray film, pulmonary function tests, and arterial blood gases were all compatible with sev...

  10. Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct oxidation of sodium borohydride in concentrated sodium hydroxide medium has been studied by cyclic and linear voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry for silver and gold electrocatalysts, either bulk and polycrystalline or nanodispersed over high area carbon blacks. Gold and silver yield rather complete utilisation of the reducer: around 7.5 electrons are delivered on these materials, versus 4 at the most for platinum as a result of the BH4 - non-negligible hydrolysis taking place on this latter material. The kinetic parameters for the direct borohydride oxidation are better for gold than for silver. A strong influence of the ratio of sodium hydroxide versus sodium borohydride is found: whereas the theoretical stoichiometry does forecast that eight hydroxide ions are needed for each borohydride ion, our experimental results prove that a larger excess hydroxide ion is necessary in quasi-steady state conditions. When the above-mentioned ratio is unity (1 M NaOH and 1 M NaBH4), the tetrahydroborate ions direct oxidation is limited by the hydroxide concentration, and their hydrolysis is no longer negligible. The hydrolysis products are probably BH3OH- ions, for which gold displays a rather good oxidation activity. Additionally, silver, which is a weak BH4 - oxidation electrocatalyst, exhibits the best activity of all the studied materials towards the BH3OH3OH- direct oxidation. Finally, carbon-supported gold nanoparticles seem promising as anode material to be used in direct borohydride fuel cells

  11. Behavior of Alloy 800 in sodium contaminated by sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of various metallic materials in NaOH-contaminated sodium was studied in the temperature range 475-5500C. It was observed that the presence of NaOH in sodium induced a generalized corrosion of ferritic steels while austenitic material were subjected to intergranular penetrations even without stress. In a second part, alloy 800 was specially investigated, since it was chosen as a standard material for Superphenix steam generators. Parametric tests were carried out under tensile stress to study susceptibility to cracking of this alloy. A device for introducing NaOH into sodium at the experiment temperature was specially designed. The results show that, for high concentration of NaOH (8 weight % and more), there is a real risk of stress cracking. So ruptures are observed in samples which show or not welded areas after 20 hours with 16% of NaOH under 130 N.mm-2 stress. On the other hand, for low initial concentrations (about 1%) and with the same stress conditions, no cracking occurs after 100 hours. Finally surface condition of material has an effect on the formation of the oxided surface layer but this parameter has no significant influence on the sample life-time

  12. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional to water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated

  13. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2?+?0.55 % lactic acid at 50°?±?2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50°?±?2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25°?±?2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities. PMID:25477655

  14. A study on oxide ions in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature by laser Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If high temperature sodium is burned in humid air, its compound will become high temperature melt of sodium hydroxide as a solvent. If this melt includes peroxide ion, it will be a considerably active aggressive and corrosive for steels. This study was carried out in order to investigate the ability of presence of peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature. Laser Raman Spectroscopy was employed to analyze the Raman spectra of sodium peroxide and mixed specimen of sodium hydroxide with sodium peroxide. These reagents were heated up to 1073K under Ar gas atmosphere in the specially made vessel. Detectability and stability of peroxide ion at high temperature were investigated. Also we investigated about superoxide ion by using sodium peroxide and potassium superoxide. Superoxide ion was included in sodium peroxide as an impurity. As the result, the stability of peroxide ion in high temperature melt was showed up to 873K for sodium peroxide and 823K for sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium peroxide. And as the results for superoxide ion, its stability was showed as up to 873K for unmixed potassium superoxide and up to 773K for sodium hydroxide mixed one. Additionally, it was considered that superoxide ion will not change into peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature. (author)

  15. Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Mechanical Property of Non Sodium Silicate Fly Ash Based Geopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    R.H. Abdul Rahim; K.A. Azizli; Man, Z.; T. Rahmiati; M.F. Nuruddin

    2014-01-01

    Alkali activator and materials rich in Si and Al are the requirements for the geopolymer synthesis. The common activator use is sodium hydroxide with silicate solution. There is limited literature on the mechanical property of geopolymer in the absence of silicate solution. In this study, fly ash was used as the raw material to provide Si and Al and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the only activator for the synthesis of geopolymer. This study describes the effect of varying the sodium hydroxide co...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish

    OpenAIRE

    Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

    2012-01-01

    The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provide...

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provided that the resulting total sodium concentration in feed does not compromise the overall electrolyte balance. Sodium hydroxide in solid form and in aqueous solution at concentrations > 8.0 % is corrosive. At lower concentrations it is irritant to skin and eyes (0.5 % and 0.2 %, respectively and the respiratory tract (0.5 %. Exposure via inhalation is likely to be minimal. Sodium hydroxide is not considered to be a skin sensitiser. As sodium hydroxide is used in food as an acidity regulator, and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  18. Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions

  19. Recovery of sodium hydroxide and silica from zirconium oxide plant effluent of Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium hydroxide (lye) and silica can be recovered in pure form from the alkaline sodium silicate waste of Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Electrolytic method was used to amalgamate the sodium present in an electrolyser with flowing mercury as cathode and nickel as anode. The amalgam is then denuded with water in a graphite packed tower to recover mercury for recycling to the electrolyser and sodium hydroxide lye. Sodium hydroxide lye can be recycled in the zirconium oxide plant. Silica is recovered from the spent electrolyte by ion exchange method using cation exchange resin. Both the process details are described in this paper, with experimental data useful for the scale up. The process converts waste to value products. (author)

  20. Effect of sodium hydroxide on anionic surfactant distribution in a two-phase system based on TBP in n-dodecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been made on the effects of sodium hydroxide on the distributions for the sodium salts of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA), di-n-butylphosphoric acid (DBPA), and lauric acid in a system composed of a 30% TBP solution in n-dodecane and aqueous sodium hydroxide. As the alkali concentration in the aqueous phase is reduced from 10 to 0.01 M, the distribution coefficients decrease for the anionic surfactants as well as TBP. Dilute sodium hydroxide solution thus enable one to remove extractant and diluent acid decomposition products from the organic phase, particularly ones having long alkyl chains, which tend to stabilize the emulsions in alkali-carbonate treatment. The distribution coefficients for these surfactants have appreciable effects on the type of stabilized emulsion. At 10 M alkali concentration, micellar aggregates are formed by sodium laurate in the organic phase

  1. Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodrigues de Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3 tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm.The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to develop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3 with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

  2. Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina / Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Rodrigues de, Lima; Ricardo Araújo, Oliveira; Miriam Carla Bonicontro, Ambrosio-Ugri; Sueli Teresa Davantel de, Barros; Carlos de, Barros Júnior.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitand [...] o seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3) tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm. Abstract in english The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to d [...] evelop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3) with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

  3. Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

  4. The solubility of uranium(IV) hydrous oxide in sodium hydroxide solutions under reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of hydrous UO2 in sodium hydroxide solutions containing sodium dithionite and/or Zn metal powder as reductants has been measured. The results provide no firm evidence for any amphoteric behavior of U(IV) but do set an upper limit of K -23 for the hypothetical reaction: U4+(aq) + 5H2OU(OH)5- + 5H+. The results provide no evidence for such a reaction. (author)

  5. Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Mechanical Property of Non Sodium Silicate Fly Ash Based Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkali activator and materials rich in Si and Al are the requirements for the geopolymer synthesis. The common activator use is sodium hydroxide with silicate solution. There is limited literature on the mechanical property of geopolymer in the absence of silicate solution. In this study, fly ash was used as the raw material to provide Si and Al and sodium hydroxide (NaOH as the only activator for the synthesis of geopolymer. This study describes the effect of varying the sodium hydroxide concentration with respect to curing time and temperature on mechanical properties of non-sodium silicate fly ash based geopolymer. The samples were prepared by mixing fly ash with 8, 10 and 12 M of NaOH concentration and cured in room temperature and 60°C for 1, 7 and 28 days. The highest alkali concentration of 12 M showed the fastest setting time and the highest compressive strength regardless of days of curing. The highest compressive strength obtained for curing at 60°C was 59.81 MPa and 45 min was recorded for the setting time. Meanwhile, at room temperature, the highest strength obtained was 17.71 MPa and 248 min for setting time.

  6. Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla H; Setia S; Gupta N; Gauba K; Goyal A.

    2008-01-01

    Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root c...

  7. The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.

  8. Study of hot nitrogen submerged impinging jets in molten sodium hydroxide: Mean penetration rate modelisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is carried out on a hot nitrogen jet submerged into a melt of sodium hydroxide. Experiments on wastage are thus simulated on AU/sub 4/GT/sub 4/ target in isothermal conditions (773 K). Maximum penetration at stagnation point appears to depend on injector-to-target distance, x, exit Reynolds number, Re/sub o/, and modified jet number : m/sub o/d/sub o/. Energy propagation in the jet is revealed at any cross section by evolution of craters along the axis

  9. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC. The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 hours and then kept in room temperature until the day of testing. Compressive strength test was carried out at the ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that concentration variation of sodium hydroxide had least effect on the fresh properties of SCGC. With the increase in sodium hydroxide concentration, the workability of fresh concrete was slightly reduced; however, the corresponding compressive strength was increased. Concrete samples with sodium hydroxide concentration of 12 M produced maximum compressive strength.

  10. Heat transfer characteristics of latent thermal storage units with sodium hydroxide-based molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes experimental and computer simulation results for horizontal U-tube latent thermal storage units with a eutectic of sodium hydroxide-sodium nitrate. Through 1000 melting-freezing (charge-discharge) cycle tests on two 30 kWh scale storage units of bare-tube and finned-tube types, the heat transfer characteristics were evaluated. Computer simulations of both types of storage units were performed with a two dimensional model. For the finned-tube type, the effect of fin was included in the effective thermal conductivity of molten salt around the tubes. The calculated results were in good agreement with experimental ones. The heat transfer characteristics were evaluated for various storage units with different parameters such as number of passes, and number of heat transfer pipes. (author)

  11. Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident. PMID:25687345

  12. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    FAREED AHMED MEMON; MUHD FADHIL NURUDDIN; SADAQATULLAH KHAN; NASIR SHAFIQ; TEHMINA AYUB

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC). The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48...

  13. Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-06-01

    The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

  14. Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment of UOP IONSIV IE-911 Crystalline Silicotitanate Sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to remove cesium represents one of the alternatives identified for High Level Waste pretreatment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Previous deployment of CST in the Department of Energy complex subjected the material to mildly caustic environments. Processing of SRS waste will expose CST to very alkaline solutions for extended period of time (typically 12 months in the proposed design). Results of elevated temperature stability tests showed that silicon and one of the proprietary materials leached from the CST. UOP personnel indicated to SRS personnel that these materials exist in the sorbent in excess of required stoichiometry. The authors examined the pretreatment of CST with sodium hydroxide to remove these components prior to placing the CST in radioactive service. Additionally, researchers analyzed solids discovered in the feed line during a test by non-destructive techniques

  15. Effect of Berry Size and Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on the Drying Characteristics of Blueberries under Infrared Radiation Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research studied the effect on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were...

  16. Wastage simulation with submerged impinging hot nitrogen jet in molten sodium hydroxide: Volume-loss wastage rate modelisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, experimental and parametric studies are carried out on submerged impinging hot nitrogen jet in a melt of sodium hydroxide. In isothermal conditions (773 K), a characteristic volume-loss is defined which depends on origin Reynolds and Froude numbers

  17. Sodium hydroxide effect on anionic surfactants distribution in two-phase system based on TBP in n-dodecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on distribution of sodium salts of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric (HDEMP), di-n-butyl phosphoric (DBP) and lauric acids in 30% TBP solution in the n-dodecane-sodium hydroxide aqueous solution system is investigated to improve tributyl phosphate (TBP) water washing technique during nuclear fuel extraction reprocessing. It is shown, that alkali concentration reduction in water phase from 10 to 0.01 mol/l results in decrease of distribution coefficients of the investigated anionic surfactants, and TBP as well. Thus, sodium hydroxide diluted solution usage allows to remove more effectively from the organic phase the decomposition products of extractant and deluent of acid nature with long alkyl chain, which are emulsion stabilizers at extractant alkali-carbonate processing. It is pointed out, that the investigated anionic surfactants distribution coefficients noticeably affect stabilized emulsion type. At 10 mol/l alkali concentration the formation of sodium salt of lauric acid micellar aggregates is noted in the organic phase

  18. The effect of flow-accelerated corrosion with high-temperature sodium hydroxide on tube target-wastage caused in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastage phenomena on adjacent tubes (target-wastage) arise from water/steam leak in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Target-wastage is likely to be caused by liquid droplet impingement erosion and flow-accelerated in an environment marked by high-temperature and high-alkali (reaction jet) due to sodium-water reaction. The static and flow-accelerated corrosion experiments have been carried out as a part of phenomena elucidation experiments for target-wastage by using actual tube material under high-temperature sodium-hydroxide and sodium monoxide conditions which are mainly generated by sodium-water reaction. The authors evaluated the dependence of liquid/tube material temperature and liquid velocity upon the flow-accelerated corrosion rate on the tube and derived the new correlation of flow-accelerated corrosion for target-wastage taking into account local wastage environment in this report. (author)

  19. The effect of flow-accelerated corrosion with high-temperature sodium hydroxide on tube target-wastage caused in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastage phenomena on adjacent tubes (target-wastage) arise from water/steam leak in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Target-wastage is likely to be caused by liquid droplet impingement erosion and flow-accelerated corrosion in an environment marked by high-temperature and high-alkali (reaction jet) due to sodium-water reaction. The static and flow-accelerated corrosion experiments have been carried out as a part of phenomena clarification experiments for target-wastage by using tube material under high-temperature sodium-hydroxide and sodium monoxide conditions which are mainly generated by sodium-water reaction. The authors evaluated the dependence of liquid/tube material temperature and liquid impingement velocity upon the flow-accelerated corrosion rate on the tube in this report. (author)

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    Efsa Panel On Food Contact Materials, Enzymes

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  1. Sodium Thiosulfate in the Treatment of Calciphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, George F.; Vyas, Nikki S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of calciphylaxis and also describe applications of a novel therapeutic option, sodium thiosulfate. Two cases of advanced uremic calciphylaxis from both clinic and hospital settings are presented. One patient, a 57-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease, was treated with surgical debridement and sodium thiosulfate 25g three times a week. After introducing sodium thiosulfate treatment, the affected sites continue to heal with en...

  2. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  3. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber

  4. Environmental Stress Cracking of Poly(3-hydroxibutyrate) Under Contact with Sodium Hydroxide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rômulo Freitas, Farias; Eduardo Luís, Canedo; Renate Maria Ramos, Wellen; Marcelo Silveira, Rabello.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress cracking (ESC) is one of the most important causes of polymer premature failure, occurring when a combination of mechanical load and an aggressive fluid is applied. The phenomenon is well know by polymer producers and product designers but its mechanisms are not very well unders [...] tood. Although the ESC effects of many commercial polymers are well known, this type of failure in biopolymers were not studied yet. In the current work, the stress cracking behaviour of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with 4,0 and 6,2% of hydroxyvalerate (HV) was investigated in injection-moulded bars under contact with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. The experiments were conducted using two different types of stress arrangements: (i) an ordinary tensile testing and (ii) a relaxation experiment. In both situations the injection-moulded bars were exposed to the NaOH solution and some testing conditions where varied, like the cross-head speed of the tensile test and the maximum load of the relaxation arrangement. The results showed that NaOH acted as a strong stress cracking agent for PHB, causing surface cracking and reducing significantly the mechanical properties. Catastrophic failure with an extensive surface damage was also observed by photographed and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The magnitude of the effects increased with decreasing crosshead speed and increasing loading level.

  5. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43 (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  6. Step enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium hydroxide-pretreated Chinese liquor distillers' grains for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-Hong; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yu-Ju; Zhang, Wen-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol. PMID:24397718

  7. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn–Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: ? In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. ? Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. ? Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. ? Growth mechanism was discussed. ? Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  8. IGA of alloy 600 in high-temperature solutions of sodium hydroxide contaminated with carbonate. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 600 was tested in sodium hydroxide contaminated with sodium carbonate at 3000C and 3150C to examine its resistance to intergranular attack (IGA) under controlled cathodic and anodic potentials. Specimens of alloy 600 were studied as C-rings under constant deflection, wires under constant load and wires without any applied tensile stress. The material was mainly used in its mill annealed condition, although some specimens were studied as solution annealed and solution annealed plus sensitized. Unlike the last two metallurgical states, the mill annealed alloy 600 material was rather sensitive to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in a range of anodic potentials

  9. Electrochemical screening of organic and inorganic inhibitors for the corrosion of ASTM A-470 steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion of ASTM A-470 turbine disk steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (10 mol/kg) containing sodium silicate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chromate, aniline and some of its derivatives, tannic acid, L-(-)-phenylalanine (aminopropionic acid) and octadecylamine as potential inhibitors has been studied using the potentiodynamic, AC impedance, and Tafel extrapolation techniques. All tests were performed at 115 + or - 2 C. The anodic and cathodic polarization data show that aniline and its derivatives, L-(-)-phenylalanine, NaH2PO4, Na2SiO3, and Na2CrO4 inhibit the anodic process, whereas tannic acid inhibits the cathodic reaction. Octadecylamine was found to inhibit both the anodic and cathodic processes. The mechanisms of inhibition for some of these compounds have been inferred from the wide band width frequency dispersions of the interfacial impedance

  10. Experiment on the Water Mock-up for a Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a treatment method of the waste sodium which was produced from a sodium facility, an investigation for a reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide has been developed. The sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a caustic soda through an atomizing nozzle to maintain the reaction uniformly. There were complex reacting phenomena in the system to observe with a naked eye. Therefore, a water mock-up was carried out for a practical use the data got in the waste sodium treatment test. The major experimental parameters are the flowrate of water through an atomizing nozzle and the recirculation rate. In addition, the positions and flow directions of the nozzles are important parameters, also. From this experiment, 300 sets of data were obtained by analyses of the phenomena of the photographic records, and the optimum flowing conditions

  11. 3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Reena Kumari, P. D.; Jagannath Nayak; Nityananda Shetty, A.

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT) on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide soluti...

  12. Efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio sobre a fração fibrosa, digestibilidade e tanino do feno de jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild) / Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on fiber fraction, digestibility and tannin of jurema-preta hay (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Morais, Pereira Filho; Ednéia de Lucena, Vieira; Aderbal Marcos de Azevedo, Silva; Marcílio Fontes, Cezar; Francisco Uchoa, Amorim.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) na fração fibrosa, no teor de tanino e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca do feno de jurema-preta. As folhas foram colhidas manualmente e desidratadas à sombra. O tratamento químico co [...] nsistiu na pulverização do feno com solução de 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8% de NaOH, na proporção de 1 litro da solução para 1 kg de feno. Amostras do feno foram submetidas à determinação da matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), tanino e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS), que se constituíram nas variáveis analisadas. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. O tratamento com NaOH proporcionou efeito linear decrescente nos teores de MS, hemicelulose e tanino, enquanto, para FDN e FDA, ocorreu efeito quadrático. A PB não foi afetada e a DIVMS melhorou com o aumento da concentração de NaOH. A estimativa da DIVMS pelo teor de tanino, apesar de significativa, carece de mais estudos. Abstract in english Experiment was carried out with the goal to evaluate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on fiber fraction, tannin level and dry matter in vitro digestibility of jurema-preta hay. Leaves were harvested by hand and dried under shadow. Chemical treatment was done by pulverization of hay with 0; 2; 4 [...] ; 6 and 8% NaOH solution following the proportion of 1 liter of solution to 1 kg of hay. Samples of hay were submitted to determinations of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), tannin and DM in vitro digestibility which were the variables analyzed. Design completely randomized was used with five treatments and four repetitions. NaOH treatment caused linear effect in DM, hemicellulose and tannin contents; while for NDF and ADF was observed quadratic effect. CP was not affected and DMIVD was improved by NaOH concentration increase. DMIVD estimated by tannin content need to be more studied, instead of its significance.

  13. Efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio sobre a fração fibrosa, digestibilidade e tanino do feno de jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on fiber fraction, digestibility and tannin of jurema-preta hay (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Morais Pereira Filho

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH na fração fibrosa, no teor de tanino e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca do feno de jurema-preta. As folhas foram colhidas manualmente e desidratadas à sombra. O tratamento químico consistiu na pulverização do feno com solução de 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8% de NaOH, na proporção de 1 litro da solução para 1 kg de feno. Amostras do feno foram submetidas à determinação da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, tanino e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, que se constituíram nas variáveis analisadas. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. O tratamento com NaOH proporcionou efeito linear decrescente nos teores de MS, hemicelulose e tanino, enquanto, para FDN e FDA, ocorreu efeito quadrático. A PB não foi afetada e a DIVMS melhorou com o aumento da concentração de NaOH. A estimativa da DIVMS pelo teor de tanino, apesar de significativa, carece de mais estudos.Experiment was carried out with the goal to evaluate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH on fiber fraction, tannin level and dry matter in vitro digestibility of jurema-preta hay. Leaves were harvested by hand and dried under shadow. Chemical treatment was done by pulverization of hay with 0; 2; 4; 6 and 8% NaOH solution following the proportion of 1 liter of solution to 1 kg of hay. Samples of hay were submitted to determinations of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, tannin and DM in vitro digestibility which were the variables analyzed. Design completely randomized was used with five treatments and four repetitions. NaOH treatment caused linear effect in DM, hemicellulose and tannin contents; while for NDF and ADF was observed quadratic effect. CP was not affected and DMIVD was improved by NaOH concentration increase. DMIVD estimated by tannin content need to be more studied, instead of its significance.

  14. Pancreatitis during sodium valproate treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, L. H.; Reynolds, R. P.; Emery, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A girl aged 1 year died of acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis while taking sodium valproate. Necropsy showed widespread vascular disease that may have contributed to the onset of pancreatitis. Previous reports of pancreatitis in children receiving valproic acid are reviewed and although the association is rare, a causal relation between pancreatitis and valproic acid seems to have been established.

  15. Sodium Hydroxide (CAS No. 62-53-3 [Hidróxido de Sodio (CAS No. 62-53-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Muniz Canto Brum da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda, is an inorganic solid which provides an extremely important role for the manufacture of heavy chemical. This Arrhenius’ base is used for the production of textiles and paper, and participates as an input the manufacture of various products. This article presents a brief history of the production of caustic soda, describes in detail the electrolytic processes currently used for their production and, finally, shows how is the outlook for brazilian and worldwide production and consumption of this basis.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACTED LIGNIN OF BAMBOO (NEOSINOCALAMUS AFFINIS) PRETREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE/UREA SOLUTION AT LOW TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Fei Li; Yong-Ming Fan; Feng Xu; Run-Cang Sun

    2010-01-01

    Ball-milled bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis) was first treated under ultrasound at 20 oC in 95% ethanol solution for 0 to 50 min, dissolved in sodium hydroxide/urea solution (7% NaOH/12% urea) at –12 oC, and then extracted with ethanol and dioxane to isolate lignin. The structure of the isolated lignin was characterized with a set of wet chemical and spectroscopic methods, including UV, FT-IR, 13C NMR, and HSQC spectroscopies. The results showed that the lignin extracted from bamboo consiste...

  17. Extração de amido em cavacos de bambu tratados com solução diluída de hidróxido de sódio Starch extraction from bamboo chips treated with sodium hydroxide diluted solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisio Azzini

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se, em colmos de bambu (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. de um e cinco anos, os teores de amido, a fração fibrosa e o resíduo parenquimatoso em função da concentração de hidróxido de sódio (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75%, do tempo de tratamento (5, 10 e 15 horas e do tempo de desfibramento (30, 60 e 90 segundos. 0 delineamento experimental utilizado foi um fatorial 3³. Pelos resultados, a concentração de hidróxido de sódio e o tempo de tratamento não influíram significativamente nos teores de amido, fração fibrosa e resíduo parenquimatoso. A maior quantidade de amido (75,22 g/kg foi obtida em colmos de cinco anos no maior tempo de desfibramento (90 segundos. Com este estudo, demonstrou-se que a extração de amido é tecnicamente viável como um pré-tratamento de cavacos de Bambusa vuigaris, utilizados na produção de celulose e papel.In culms of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. (1 and 5 years old, the contents of starch fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were determined in function of sodium hydroxide solution concentration (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%, treatment time (5, 10 and 15 hours and shredding time (30, 60 and 90 seconds. The experimental trial was a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial. The results showed the contents of starch, fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were not affected by sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time. The highest starch quantity (75.22 g/kg was obtained in the highest shredding time (90 seconds from the 5 years bamboo culms. This study showed the starch extraction is feasible technically as a pre-treatment of the bamboo chips employed to produce pulp and paper.

  18. Influence of ortho-substituted phenols as Corrosion Inhibitors on the Corrosion of Aluminium in Sodium Hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibition of corrosion of the commercial aluminium in solutions of sodium hydroxide, by o-substituted phenols(o-cresol, o-chlorophenol, o-aminophenol and o-nitrophenol), has been studied with respect to concentration of inhibitor and alkali, period of immersion and temperature the results are as follows: 1. The order of inhibitive efficiency in 0.1 M NaOH containing 0.01-0.5 wt % of inhibitor was o-nitrophenol (-15?%) o-aminophenol>o-chlorophenol>o-cresol (89.6%). 2. O-substituted phenols, except for o-aminophenol, were effective as corrosion inhibitors in sodium hydroxide lower than 0.2 M. 3. Although the weight loss due to corrosion increased with rise in temperature (from 30 .deg. C to 60 .deg. C), the inhibitive efficiency remained almost constant. 4. Depletion of inhibitor appeared in 0.1 M NaOH containing 1.0% inhibitor by the corrosion process after immersion period of 45 minutes. 5. Inhibitive efficiency of substituent groups was different from the results by weight concentration of the inhibitor and there was very little correlation between pka values of the inhibitor or its molecular weight or solubility and its efficiency

  19. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HymØller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2014-01-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions, was not different when comparing MCS, SHW and barley.

  20. In-vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues, as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of various doses of gamma irradiation (0,100,150,200 KGy) and different concentrations of sodium hydroxide on crude fibre (CF), Cell-wall constituents (NDF, ADF, ADL), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), gross energy (GE), in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (W.S) cotton seed shall (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (SB.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeeled seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that HaOH in the concentrations at (4 and 6%) had significant effects on the CF content of W.S and P.S, E.U.E, SB.S, C.S.S, O.C.E; respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaoH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the NDF level. Irradiation dose of 200 KGy decreased CF for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and SB.S. However, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S, P.S and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. The digestible energy values (kJ/Kg DM) increased by 1120,1 220, 2110 (W.S); 620, 830, 1000 for P.S; 240, 500, 580 for O.C.E; 500, 850, 870 for S.U.E; 550, 1060, 1200 for SB.S and 1260, 1710, 2070 for C.S.S using 100, 150, 200, KGy respectively, in comparison to unirradiated controls. Also, the IVDE values (Kj/Kg DM) increased by 560, 1050, 1590 for W.S; 310, 460, 650 for P.S; 170, 760, 1530 for C.S.S; 450, 990, 1190 for O.C.E using 2%, C.S.S; 450, 990, 1190 for O.C.E using 2%, 4%, 6% NaOH respectively, in comparison to controls. No changes in the IVDE values for S.U.E and SB.S. Combined treatment resulted in an even better increase in the digestible energy, except S.U.E and SB.S. (Author)

  1. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

  2. Solidification Of The Hanford Law Waste Stream Produced As A Result Of Near-Tank Continuous Sludge Leaching And Sodium Hydroxide Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) andsteam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of 2O7 also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Stone monolith

  3. Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio Valmor, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Sodré, Barroso; Patrícia Alvarez, Ruiz.

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de soluções irrigadoras de canais radiculares contendo hidróxido de cálcio e lauril sulfato de sódio em linhagem de fibroblastos L929. Solução aquosa saturada de hidróxido de cálcio, lauril sulfato de sódio e HCT20 (lauril sulfato de sódio e hid [...] róxido de cálcio) foram diluídos em água destilada em concentrações de 50%, 20%, 10% e 5%. O grupo controle foi representado por meio de cultura de células (MEM - minimum essential medium). A citotoxicidade das soluções sobre os fibroblastos foi avaliada em 4 e 24 h de contato, pelo método do cromo radioativo. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Em todas as análises, o intervalo de confiança referente às médias entre os grupos foi estabelecido em 95%. As soluções saturadas de hidróxido de cálcio e o HCT20 apresentaram toxicidade nas concentrações de 50%. O lauril sulfato de sódio foi tóxico em todas as concentrações. As soluções de hidróxido de cálcio em concentrações menores que 50% apresentaram tolerância celular, assim como combinadas ao lauril sulfato de sódio. Tal comportamento não foi observado na solução pura de lauril sulfato de sódio em todas as concentrações. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calciu [...] m hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxicity of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution.

  4. Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2011-02-04

    Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

  5. The Corrosion Behavior of Nickel and Inconel 600 in Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrochloric Acid Solution at 280 .deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of nickel and Inconel 600 has been investigated by the weight change measurement method at pH ranges 3?13 of the solution. The specimens were exposed to aqueous solutions in a static autoclave at 280 .deg. C for 210 hours. The pH of the solutions was adjusted by hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide and the dissolved oxygen concentration was fixed as 10 ppb by using pure nitrogen gas. Weight loss of Inconel 600 was much less than that of nickel over the tested pH ranges. At pH 9.5, nickel and Inconel 600 showed the minimum weight loss phenomenon and the values of weight loss were 1.5mg/dm2 and 0.9mg/dm2, respectively. Microscopic examination showed that nickel surface was attacked uniformly, whereas Inconel 600 surface was not greatly

  6. Technology Readiness Evaluation For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regenration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACTED LIGNIN OF BAMBOO (NEOSINOCALAMUS AFFINIS PRETREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE/UREA SOLUTION AT LOW TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fei Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ball-milled bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis was first treated under ultrasound at 20 oC in 95% ethanol solution for 0 to 50 min, dissolved in sodium hydroxide/urea solution (7% NaOH/12% urea at –12 oC, and then extracted with ethanol and dioxane to isolate lignin. The structure of the isolated lignin was characterized with a set of wet chemical and spectroscopic methods, including UV, FT-IR, 13C NMR, and HSQC spectroscopies. The results showed that the lignin extracted from bamboo consisted of p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G, and syringyl (S type lignins with minor cinnamate units. The predominate lignin inter-units were ?-O-4´ ether linkages, followed by phenylcoumaran and a lower proportion of resinol and spirodienone. It was also found that the ester groups of lignin were cleaved during the pretreatment process with cold alkaline solution.

  8. Root canal treatment of pulpless immature teeth using calcium hydroxide paste. Roentgenographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium hydroxide paste was used as a temporary dressing and the renewal was done each three months in the root treatment of immature teeth with open apex and necrotic pulps. Clinical and radiographic controls were made to observe foraminal closure. After that, the root canals were filled, employing the conventional technique with gutta-percha cones and zinc oxide eugenol cements. The calcium hydroxide paste was applied in the apical region before the root canal filling. The follow-up was done periodically and the cases have more than two years of control. (author)

  9. Low-cycle fatigue strength of 10Kh18N9 stainless steel at 773 K in sodium containing a hydroxide impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an atomic power plant runs on fast neutrons with sodium coolant, the second-loop intermediate heat exchanger, which is made of 10Kh18N9 stainless steel, operates under static and dynamic loads. In this case, the material experiences the action of two incompatible coolants: sodium and a steam-and-water medium, direct contact between which results in the formation of a highly aggressive reaction product: sodium hydroxide. This research investigated the effect of sodium containing a hydroxide impurity on the low-cycle fatigue strength of stainless steel 10Kh18N9 at 773 K. It was found that the presence of 5 wt. % hydroxide in sodium leads to a significant decrease in the cyclic strength of 10Kh18N9 steel at 773 K. This is explained by the elevated aggressivity of the medium with respect to the main components of steel under a tensile load. The corrosion products formed in this situation (complex oxides) act like a wedge in the case of a compressive load. The high stress concentration that arises at the crack tip causes further development of the crack and exposure of fresh surfaces that are subjected to corrosion

  10. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.; Frenkel, A. I.; Bordia, R. K.; Korshin, G.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area mea...

  11. Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawla H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root canal filling material from the root canals and the status of overpushed material, if any, as the tooth resorbed with the passage of time. At 6 months, endodontic treatment in 2 of the 25 teeth had failed and one tooth had exfoliated; the remaining 22 teeth were without any signs or symptoms. At the end of 2 years, 14 teeth could be evaluated; out of these 12 had physiologically exfoliated. It was observed that the rate of resorption of this new root canal obturating mixture was quite similar to the rate of physiologic root resorption in primary teeth. In three cases, where there was an overpush of the mixture, a gradual partial resorption was noted.

  12. Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, H S; Setia, S; Gupta, N; Gauba, K; Goyal, A

    2008-06-01

    Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root canal filling material from the root canals and the status of overpushed material, if any, as the tooth resorbed with the passage of time. At 6 months, endodontic treatment in 2 of the 25 teeth had failed and one tooth had exfoliated; the remaining 22 teeth were without any signs or symptoms. At the end of 2 years, 14 teeth could be evaluated; out of these 12 had physiologically exfoliated. It was observed that the rate of resorption of this new root canal obturating mixture was quite similar to the rate of physiologic root resorption in primary teeth. In three cases, where there was an overpush of the mixture, a gradual partial resorption was noted. PMID:18603728

  13. Current Status on Development of Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of sodium as a coolant necessitates the development of special post-operation procedures for the treatment of waste sodium, sodium contaminated equipment, or other purposes. Only a few power and research reactors with sodium coolant have been constructed and operated worldwide. They are close to the end of their design lifetime and, in some cases, the decommissioning is in progress. Conducted by countries that have operational experience with sodium cooled fast reactor, R and D programmes are intended to provide a solid basis for design and operation of sodium waste processing facilities as well as for decommissioning planning. Sodium waste, which has been generated from the test facilities related to the sodium since the beginning of the 1990s, requires now the safe sodium treatment in Korea. Each work activity with sodium should be properly planned and managed to avoid potential chemical reactions or explosions with a high risk of consequent environmental contamination. Special procedures should be implemented for removing and processing bulk quantities of sodium and sodium residuals in internal spaces and on internal surfaces of equipment. The objective of the report is to provide researchers with technical information necessary for the design and construction of technological facilities for sodium waste treatment by reviewing the current state of technical developments for advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and hazards of a sodium waste treatment process. Based on these results, a future plan for development of a sodium waste treatment process can be established

  14. Split of sodium and sulfur in a Kraft mill and internal production of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The removal of lignin in a Kraft pulp mill, with the aim to utilize the lignin as more value added green product than just firing lignin in black liquor, is possible with a LignoBoost plant. The LignoBoost plant uses sulfuric acid in the process and this results in an increased net input of sulfur to the pulp mills recovery cycle. The sodium/sulfur balance in a Kraft pulp mill is an important factor to be able to run a mill optimal. The increased input of sulfur into the mill when implementin...

  15. New System of Deprotection Step for the Hydroxide Radicals: Boron Trifluoride Etherate/Sodium Iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Cao

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new efficient method for dealkylation of ethers is reported. Ethers could transform into corresponding alcohols with boron trifluoride etherate and sodium iodide in acetonitrile after hydrolysis. This reaction can proceed at room temperature, and the yield is excellent. It’s useful for deprotection process in organic synthesis.

  16. 65 FR 56565 - Record of Decision for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-19

    ...and sodium hydroxide, a corrosive substance. Sodium is also pyrophoric (i.e., susceptible to spontaneous ignition and continuous combustion). Most (i.e., 99 percent by weight) of the sodium- [[Page 56567

  17. Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with sodium lauryl sulfate as a sorbent for 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with nitrate anions (LDH-NO3) was synthesized, modified with the anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate, and applied for the removal of 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions. Modification of the as-synthesized Mg-Al layered double hydroxide was carried out at surfactant concentration of 0.01 M (the organo-LDH produced denoted LDH-NaLS). The as-synthesized and surfactant-intercalated LDHs were characterized by FT-IR and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The effect of some variables such as solution pH, contact time and sorbate concentration on removal of 152+154Eu was investigated. The kinetic data obtained were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model rather than the pseudo-first-order model. Intraparticle diffusion model showed that sorption of 152+154Eu proceed by intraparticle diffusion together with boundary layer diffusion. Experimental isotherm data were well described by Langmuir model. Organo-LDH was found to have higher capacity (156.45 mg g-1) for europium than the as-synthesized LDH-NO3 (119.56 mg g-1). Comparing LDHs capacities obtained for Eu(III) in the present work with other sorbents reported in literature indicated that LDHs have the highest capacities. Application of the developed process for removal of 152+154Eu(III) from radioactive process wastewaters was also studied ande process wastewaters was also studied and the obtained results revealed that these LDHs are promising materials for treatment of radioactive wastewaters. (author)

  18. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2 , CAS Reg...of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient...

  19. [Calcific uremic arteriolopathy - treatment with sodium thiosulfate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysko?ilová, Markéta; Svojanovský, Jan; Blaštíková, Jana; Dvo?áková, Gabriela; Sou?ek, Miroslav

    2015-02-01

    Calcific uremic arteriolopathy or calciphylaxis is a rare disorder characterized by systemic medial calcification of arterioles that leads to ischemia and subcutaneous necrosis. It most commonly occurs in patients with end-stage renal disease who are on haemodialysis or who have received a renal transplant. Calciphylaxis is dangerous by its fast progression into tissue necrosis, difficult healing process and a great risk of secondary infection which is the most common cause of death in this condition. The reported mortality rates are as high as 60-80 % in a couple of months once it is diagnosed. The key to successful treatment of calciphylaxis is fast diagnosing of the disease and appropriate treatment management. On the examples of three patients from our haemodialysis centre we demonstrate typical clinical manifestation of calciphylaxis and its treatment, which requires close patient-medical staff cooperation. The basic principle of treatment of all our patients was normalization of calcium-phosphate metabolism and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Sodium thiosulfate had been administered to all patients at the end of haemodialysis session. The wound care played another major role with gentle debridement and intensive local care. After five to six months the skin defects resolved in the first patient, partially resolved in the second patient and deteriorated in the third patient. We have observed no side effects of sodium thiosulfate application. PMID:25813263

  20. Electrochemical study of the stress corrosion of type 316 steel and Sanicro 71 in sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a programme of work to elucidate the behaviour of boiler tubing under conditions in A.G.R. power stations, the stress corrosion behaviour of Type 316 and Sanicro 71 steels has been examined in sodium hydroxide solutions. The stress corrosion cracking was very dependent on electrode potential. Sanicro 71 cracked in a narrow range of potentials between 100 and 300 mV with respect to a cathodically polarized platinum electrode, the range being consistent with that found by previous workers for Inconel 600. Type 316 steel cracked over a much wider range, at least between -50 and 300 mV; crack propagation was particularly rapid at negative potentials. A rough correlation existed between potentials at which anodic activity was observed in potentiodynamic polarization curves and potentials where the materials were susceptible to stress corrosion. This supports an anodic mechanism of crack growth. However, absorbed hydrogen may play some role in cracking at negative potentials, but there was no evidence to suggest that hydrogen would cause cracking in the absence of a corrosion process. (author)

  1. Production of cellulosic ethanol from cotton processing residues after pretreatment with dilute sodium hydroxide and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fockink, Douglas Henrique; Maceno, Marcelo Adriano Corrêa; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2015-07-01

    In this study, production of cellulosic ethanol from two cotton processing residues was investigated after pretreatment with dilute sodium hydroxide. Pretreatment performance was investigated using a 2(2) factorial design and the highest glucan conversion was achieved at the most severe alkaline conditions (0.4g NaOH g(-1) of dry biomass and 120°C), reaching 51.6% and 38.8% for cotton gin waste (CGW) and cotton gin dust (CGD), respectively. The susceptibility of pretreated substrates to enzymatic hydrolysis was also investigated and the best condition was achieved at the lowest total solids (5wt%) and the highest enzyme loading (85mg of Cellic CTec2 g(-1) of dry substrate). However, the highest concentration of fermentable sugars - 47.8 and 42.5gL(-1) for CGD and CGW, respectively - was obtained at 15wt% total solids using this same enzyme loading. Substrate hydrolysates had no inhibitory effects on the fermenting microorganism. PMID:25841187

  2. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  3. Electrodeposition of nano-structured nickel-21% tungsten alloy and evaluation of oxygen reduction reaction in a 1% sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nano-structured nickel-21 at.% tungsten alloys were electrodeposited onto the copper substrates from unstirred sulfate-citrate-chloride-bromide-sodium tungstate electrolyte at 60 deg. C. The maximum particle sizes of the deposits, as estimated from the atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively were 125, 75, and 100 nm. The Tafel plot for oxygen reduction reaction in oxygenated unstirred 1% sodium hydroxide solution showed a Tafel slope of 130 mV/decade. There were minor variations in the limiting current density with a change in the particle size

  4. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  5. Effect of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentration on the optical property of chitosan–ZnO nanostructure prepared in chitin deacetylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Micro addition of sodium hydroxide induced the nano particles crystallization. ? Nano crystals with maximum Zn/O ratio of 77:23 was prepared. ? Crystalline size with 16–53 nm was estimated by XRD. ? In this study, nanocrystalline powders with band gap of 3.32 eV was prepared. - Abstract: Chitosan–ZnO nanostructures are prepared by eco-friendly way of synthesis. With same amount of chitin, three different ratios of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentrations are used for preparation. The hexagonal shape of chitosan–ZnO nanostructures with size range of 40–100 nm are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface morphology is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Maximum Zn/O atomic ratio of 77:23 is noticed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis. Presence of chitosan and ZnO structure are confirmed with FTIR spectra. Absorbance at 364 nm in the UV–vis spectra indicates the presence of ZnO. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the size of crystallites are in 16–53 nm range. Optical studies revealed that chitosan–ZnO nanostructure with band gap of 3.4 eV have been prepared by slow addition of 45% sodium hydroxide into 15% zinc chloride and chitin solution.

  6. Multi-elemental determination of heavy elements in plastics using X-ray fluorescence after destruction of the polymer by molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a method is proposed for the multielemental analysis of Sb(III), Ba, Cd, Cr(III), Hg, Pb and As(III) in plastics, using X-ray fluorescence after alkaline decomposition and preconcentration by (co)precipitation. The organic matrix is destroyed by decomposition with sodium hydroxide melted in a silver crucible by the open system technique, using sodium nitrate as auxiliary oxidant. The variables which influence preconcentration are optimized: Digestion time, pH, salinity, carrier and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and sodium rhodizonate (R) as precipitants. The calibration curves were linear up to 200 ?g of the element present, except for lead (150 ?g) antimony(III) (100 ?g) and barium (1000 ?g). The proposed method has been applied to several different industrial plastics. The procedure is quick and leads to results comparable with those obtained when using a recommended decomposition for each element separately. (orig.)

  7. [Magnesium hydroxide treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic hemodialysis patients with an aluminum overload].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujouleh, H; Lavaud, S; Toupance, O; Melin, J P; Chanard, J

    1987-01-01

    The control of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients is frequently achieved using aluminium hydroxide (A1(OH)3) and/or calcium carbonate (Ca CO3). However, this effect is counterbalanced by risk of aluminium intoxication and hypercalcemia. An alternative to the use of these phosphate binders is the prescription of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) in association with a magnesium free dialysate. 19 patients with subtoxic plasma aluminium concentration received such a therapy. 9 months after starting the essay 4 patients had been excluded for digestive intolerance (3 cases) and neuro-psychic symptoms related to hypermagnesemia (1 case) after therapy with maximal doses of 6 to 12 g/d. Plasma inorganic phosphorus was decreased from 2.47 +/- 0.32 to 1.86 +/- 0.40 mmol/l (P less than 0.05) and plasma aluminium from 3.03 +/- 0.93 to 1.52 +/- 0.15 mumol/l (P less than 0.05). The results have been obtained without any significant increase in plasma and red cell magnesium levels. Metabolic alkalosis has been observed in association with the increase of ion exchange resin (sodium polystyrene sulfonate: Kayexalate) to treat progressive hyperkalemia. With the exception of possible metabolic effects occurring on a long term basis, Mg(OH)2 in association with magnesium-free dialysate seems of value to treat dialysis hyperphosphatemia. PMID:3614505

  8. Nonsurgical Treatment of Two Periapical Lesions with Calcium Hydroxide Using Two Different Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Seema; Dixit, Ashutosh; Kumar, Pravin

    2014-01-01

    Calcium hydroxide is used extensively as an intracanal medicament in endodontics for many years. It is used in various clinical situations such as to promote apexification, to repair perforation, to enhance healing of periapical lesions, to control root resorption, and to control exudation in teeth with persistent periapical inflammation. This paper presents a case report in which Ca(OH)2 was used as an intracanal medicament for treatment of periradicular lesions using two different vehicles in two different teeth of same patient. PMID:25133000

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs

  10. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  11. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caio Lamunier de Abreu, Camargo; Walter, Belda Junior; Luiz Jorge, Fagundes; Ricardo, Romiti.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection [...] and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE: A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS: Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. Result: In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION: Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

  12. Simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by sodium hydroxide solution in a packed bed and studying the effect of operating parameters on absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In this study. simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by Sodium Hydroxide solution in a packed bed has been investigated. At first, mass and energy balances were applied around a differential height of the bed. So, the governing equations were obtained. Surface renewal theory by Danckwerts was used to represent the mass transfer operation Finally, by changing the operating parameters like solvent temperature, inlet gas composition pressure and height of the bed, the effect of these parameters on the absorption and the composition of carbon dioxide in exit stream have been investigated. (authors)

  13. [Clinical and laboratory rationale for galvanophoresis of hydroxide copper-calcium by root canals treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Double blind study presents clinical and laboratory estimation of root canal system (RC) cleaning by endodontic treatment of apical periodontitis by means of galvanophoresis of hydroxide copper-calcium (GP HCC). In 60 patients the amount and composition of RC fluid from incisors and canines by GP HCC were estimated within 2 weeks with three different galvano-pair and the efficiency of RC decontamination were compared by standard report irrigation and GP HCC. The intensity of electroosmotic allocation of RC liquid by GP HCC is gradually increased at 4-5 day, and then slowly reduced at 10-12 day. The RC liquid contained proteins and carbohydrates - typical rests of pulp and biofilm. GP HCC suppresses aerobic and anaerobic microflora in RC 65.5% more effectively than standard irrigation and may be seen as an alternative method of endodontic treatment of apical periodontitis. PMID:25909607

  14. Endodontic treatment for necrotic immature permanent teeth using MTA and calcium hydroxide. A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Almeida Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic treatment of young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp has been a challenge for the dentist. It is necessary to induce the formation of apical barrier (apical plug, enabling the complete root canal filling. Objective: This retrospective clinical study compared the protocols for treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation, using calcium hydroxide (CH or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Material and methods: 28 patients with incomplete root formation have undergone root canal treatments in the period from 2000 to 2009 were selected. The procedures for cleaning, shaping and intracanal medication (CH paste were performed in a standardized manner. In 13 patients, after using the CH paste (14 days, apical plugs with MTA were made. In the remaining 15 teeth monthly exchanges with CH paste were executed until it was observed radiographically the formation of the apical barrier. In all cases the canals were filled conventionally with gutta-percha and sealer. Initially, follow-ups were made on a quarterly and semiannually at the end of first year. Results: All apical lesions showed apical healing between 4 and 13 months after starting treatment. There was not noted the continuing process of root formation. Conclusion: It was concluded that the treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp with the use of MTA as apical plug has the same clinical results compared with the use of CH, with the advantage of less clinical time.

  15. 3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.D. Reena, Kumari; Jagannath, Nayak; A. Nityananda, Shetty.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT) on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic [...] techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr), and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp). It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

  16. 3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Reena Kumari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr, and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp. It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

  17. Radioactive sodium waste treatment and conditioning. Review of main aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication reviews the main aspects relating to the treatment and conditioning of radioactive sodium waste. This waste arises from the operation of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). In this type of reactor, sodium (Na) or sodium-potassium alloys (NaK) are used as a low-effect neutron moderating coolant medium for extracting and transferring thermal energy from the core and they represent a significant technical and safety challenge during operation and decommissioning. This publication provides the reader with technologically oriented information on the present status of sodium waste management approaches and recent achievements related to treatment and conditioning, with the objective of facilitating planning and preparatory work for the decommissioning of LMFRs. This publication provides a comprehensive review of the hazards associated with sodium waste management. Given the large quantities of sodium waste arising during decommissioning or reactor refurbishment, as well as the challenges and varied techniques associated with removal of 100% of all sodium and NaK bulk quantities and residues during decommissioning, a hazards review and analysis is a critical component in planning the dismantling and waste management activities. Roughly half of this publication focuses on sodium waste generating, handling and treatment processes. This includes draining sodium and NaK from plant systems; in situ treatment of residual sodium; cutting techniques for pumps, valves, piping and other components; cleaning of components; potential reuse of sodium; and removal of selected radionuclides from sodium waste with the objective of reducing the waste classification or converting it to exempt waste. The focus is on proven techniques and technologies, and each discussed method includes a review of the associated principle or theory, practical applications, advantages and disadvantages, limitations, industry experience, and final waste products. A review is provided of final management practices for treated sodium and NaK wastes, including conditioning of radioactive sodium waste and subsequent storage/disposal considerations. The review of conditioning practices includes those designed for the nuclear industry, as well as industrial conditioning technologies which are directly applicable or readily adaptable to nuclear applications. This review includes both successes, failures, and failure analysis. Throughout this publication, emphasis is placed on industry experience and application of sodium and NaK and industry experience with the techniques and technologies used to manage sodium waste. Reactor-specific examples are abundant and include both successes and failures. Throughout the publication, the emphasis is on proven methodologies, including their advantages, disadvantages, limitations and hazards. In fact, sodium-related hazards and associated safety considerations are extensively annotated throughout. This publication can be used most effectively during the planning stages for sodium and NaK removal and treatment activities, including in situ treatment for the purpose of conversion to non-reactive species (e.g. salts, acids). Once radioactive sodium waste or sodium-contaminated components are removed for disposition, this publication is best used as a review of conditioning and dispositioning options, as well as for developing the associated waste management plan. With regard to planning in general, this publication is especially useful in identifying the potential hazards and hazard mitigation considerations at each stage of the removal, treatment, handling and conditioning activities

  18. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leaching tests, and extractions with oxalate and weak hydrochloric acid. It was found that at 600 and 900 °C the iron oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat treatment caused a part of the metals bound in the oxides to be released, thus increasing metals leachability by 1-2 orders of magnitude depending on the metal. Pb and Cd were released in particularly significant concentrations, suggesting less incorporation into the iron oxides after heat-induced transformation. For Pb, this transformation of the chemical state of the bound metal was clearly supported by the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies. A fraction of the bound Cr remained stable even after treatment at the highest temperature used in the study. It was concluded that the heat treatment of iron oxides may be advantageous to improve the thermodynamic stability of the product but that thermal treatment at both 600 and 900 °C significantly reduced the binding capacity for heavy metals.

  19. The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na2O and NaH. The most important contaminant is 137Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide

  20. The Effect of Formaldehyde or Sodium Hydroxide on In situ Rumen Degradation of Low and High Fat Sunflower Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine in situ dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability of sunflower meal containing 25 and 165 g fat kg-1 DM and untreated and treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 40 g kg-1 DM and formaldehyde ( 30 and 60 g kg-1 DM. DM and CP degradation of the samples were determined using in situ technique in two fistulated Holstein steers (400±12 kg, body weight and data were analysed to estimate soluble fraction (a, potentially degradable fraction (b, degradation rate (c and effective degradability (ED. Formaldehyde decreased (a fraction of DM (p<0.05. NaOH treated high fat sunflower meal had the highest (a fraction and the lowest of (b fraction of DM, (0.43 and 0.31, respectively. Formaldehyde and NaOH significantly decreased degradation rate (c of DM. Formaldehyde (30 g kg-1 DM treated low fat sunflower meal had the lowest ED of DM (0.44, k = 0.03 h-1 (p<0.05. Fraction of (a and ED of DM of low fat sunflower meal was less than high fat sunflower meal. Formaldehyde and NaOH significantly were affected fractions of a, b, c and ED of CP (p<0.05. Fraction of (a of CP decreased by formaldehyde and NaOH. Treatment of sunflower meal (low and high fat with formaldehyde at 60 g kg-1 DM resulted in the highest (b fraction and the lowest of (c fraction and ED of CP. Crude protein (b fraction of low fat sunflower meal was more than high fat sunflower meal but there was not any significant difference for (a fraction and ED. DM and CP disappearance after 24 h was decreased by formaldehyde and NaOH. Therefore, it is appears that formaldehyde, NaOH and fat content of sunflower meal can affect DM and CP degradability parameters.

  1. Sodium valproate and clonazepam for treatment-resistant panic disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Ontiveros, A.; Fontaine, R.

    1992-01-01

    Sodium valproate (VA) and clonazepam (CLZ) were combined in the treatment of 4 patients with panic disorders (PD) who were resistant to several antipanic drug treatments. A significant improvement was found in the symptomatology of these patients, but relapses occurred when CLZ dosage was reduced. A potentiation of the GABAergic properties of VA and clonazepam is postulated. This combined treatment could be advantageous for some treatment-resistant PD patients but needs to be studied further.

  2. The role of sodium thiosulphate in the treatment of calciphylaxis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    James R, Smith; Mark D, Findlay; Colin C, Geddes; Jonathan G, Fox.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Calciphylaxis is a rare but important cause of severe morbidity, which predominantly affects patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. It is associated with mortality in excess of 50% at one year, and this has changed little over the last 20 years despite advances in our understanding of its un [...] derlying pathophysiology, and evolving treatment strategies. Sodium thiosulphate has played a prominent role in the treatment of calciphylaxis since its first use in 2004, with reports of success both in improving the severe pain associated with the condition and in the healing of calciphylaxis lesions. The literature documenting the use of sodium thiosulphate in the treatment of calciphylaxis is reviewed here, along with a detailed summary of case reports and case series. While there is reason to be optimistic with regard to the efficacy of sodium thiosulphate within a multifaceted and multidisciplinary approach to treatment, there is clearly much yet to be learned

  3. Treatment with coated layer double hydroxide clays decreases the toxicity of copper-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Deanne; Nar, Mangesh; D'Souza, Nandika Anne; Glenn, J Brad; Klaine, Stephen J; Roberts, Aaron P

    2014-05-01

    Copper is a common pollutant found in watersheds that exerts toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are able to adsorb a wide range of contaminants through ion-exchange mechanisms. Coating LDH clays with various materials alters the aggregation of clay particles into the nano-size range, thus increasing relative surface area and offering great potential for contaminant remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment with coated LDH clays decreases the toxicity of copper-containing solutions to Daphnia magna. Four LDH clays with different coatings used to alter hydrophobicity were as follows: used: Na(+) montmorillonite, Zn-Al LDH-nitrate, Zn-Al LDH-stearate, and Zn-Al LDH-carbonate. It was determined that coated LDH clays decreased copper toxicity by decreasing bioavailability and that smaller aggregate sizes decreased bioavailability the most. 96 h LC50 values increased by as much as 4.2 times with the treatment of the solutions with 100 mg/L LDH clay. Copper analysis of the clay and solutions indicated that the clays work by decreasing copper bioavailability by way of a binding mechanism. Coated LDH clays hold promise as a small-scale remediation tool or as an innovative tool for toxicity identification and evaluation characterization of metals. PMID:24442186

  4. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th wbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated into a 35% improvement in growth rate (40, 36 g/day versus 26, 29 g/day). Calcium hydroxide alone did not improve the feeding value of Albizia. These data highlight the danger of assuming an assayable reduction in tannin, such as that observed in the calcium hydroxide treatment, will translate into an improvement in nutritive value and subsequent animal performance. Since the performance of the goats improved maximally when PEG was added to the calcium hydroxide-treated Albizia it was clear that the tannins were still as active as in the untreated Albizia. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide does not deactivate the tannins in Albizia. (author)

  5. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  6. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  7. Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  8. Use of sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of calciphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calciphylaxis is an infrequent but severe entity found in chronic dialysis patients. Its clinical pattern consists of tissue ischemia with itchy and painful subcutaneous nodules and plaques, most often located on the abdomen, buttocks, thighs and/or legs. These injuries evolve to extensive superficial necrosis of the skin overlying the panniculitis, with ulceration, overinfection and consequent sepsis. Current treatment modalities used to counteract this pathology are not entirely effective. A new treatment reported for calciphylaxis, is the use of intravenous sodium thiosulfate. This inorganic salt is already used in the treatment of intoxication caused by cyanide, in patients with calcific nephrolithiasis and tumoral calcinosis, with very good and safe results. We herewith report a case of calciphylaxis that was cured using intravenous sodium thiosulphate treatment.

  9. Treatment of low level radioactive waste (LLW) stream with respect to alpha activity using ferric hydroxide-PMMA composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level waste is generated during concentration of condensate obtained during evaporation operation of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) at reprocessing plant as well as after removal of various radionuclides from the waste stream. The radioactive content of this stream is qualifying it for the discharge. However, to reduce the discharge level of alpha activity, treatment of this waste using ferric hydroxide precipitation was explored. The use of ferric hydroxide material in composite with Poly Methyl Methacrilate (PMMA) was also tried so that the composite material can be used in column mode of operation. This paper details the studies carried out to achieve good decontamination of the waste with respect to alpha activity. (author)

  10. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions

  11. Treatment of spinal muscular atrophy by sodium butyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jan-gowth; Hsieh-li, Hsiu-mei; Jong, Yuh-jyh; Wang, Nancy M.; Tsai, Chang-hai; Li, Hung

    2001-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, leading to muscular paralysis with muscular atrophy. No effective treatment of this disorder is presently available. Studies of the correlation between disease severity and the amount of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein have shown an inverse relationship. We report that sodium butyrate effectively increases the amount of exon 7...

  12. Comparison of the Sodium Hydroxide Specimen Processing Method with the C18-Carboxypropylbetaine Specimen Processing Method Using Independent Specimens with Auramine Smear, the MB/BacT Liquid Culture System, and the COBAS AMPLICOR MTB Test

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Eduardo; Manterola, José M.; González, Victoria; Thornton, Charles G.; Quesada, M. Dolores; Sánchez, M. Dolores; Pérez, Miguel.; Ausina, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to diagnose tuberculosis by smear, culture, and nucleic acid amplification. The study was comprised of two independent arms. Each arm used a different specimen processing method; in one arm, all specimens were processed with N-acetyl-l-cysteine-sodium hydroxide, and in the other arm, all specimens were processed with C18-carboxypropylbetaine and lytic enzymes. In each arm, all processed sediments were split for analysis by auramine smear, by culture using the MB/BacT liq...

  13. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  14. Carbon-13 isotope fractionation and carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of perdeuterated sodium butyrate with manganate in 3M sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon -13 kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of single methylene 13C-2H bond of perdeuterated sodium butyrate, CD3(CD2)COONa, has been determined by measuring the isotope composition of cumulative carbon dioxide derived from carbonates and oxalates obtained at partial oxidation's od perdeuterated butyrate with manganate, MnO42-, in 3M NaOH. The experimental 13C KI E have been reproduced by applying two quantum mechanical correlations to the absolute rates of chemical reaction; the first correction caused by the difference of zero point energy of (13C-2H/12C-2H) isotopic bonds and the quantum mechanical correlation for tunneling of 12C and 13C. The reaction energy barrier was approximated by the Bell inverted parabola. The good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was achieved already in the first approximation by taking the half width of the energy barrier equal 5x10-11 m. (author)

  15. Treatment of low-level radioactive liquid waste with uranium using sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes a decontamination method of acid solutions containing UO2Cl2. The precipitation of uranium is obtained with NaOH addition to the radwaste solution at ambient temperature. From the experimental data obtained it was observed that in the pH about 4,0 a greater quantify of uranium was precipitated and in pH above 4,0 the precitate was partially solubilized. Nowadays, we study the influence of pH and temperature on the precitation of uranium VI in radwaste solutions with NaOH as well as the compounds obtained in the various stages. This method showed a decontamination factor of about 94,7% and, as a whole, it is viable. (Author)

  16. Intracanal dressing paste composed by calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide for the treatment of immature and mature traumatized teeth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana de Jesus, Soares; Thiago Farias Rocha, Lima; Juliana Yuri, Nagata; Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida, Gomes; Alexandre Augusto, Zaia; Francisco José de, Souza-Filho.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To evaluate clinical and radiographic aspects before and after endodontic treatment with an intracanal dressing paste composed of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide in traumatized teeth followed-up for 1 year. METHODS : Patients (n=105) treated at the Dental Trauma Service of [...] Piracicaba School of Dentistry, Brazil were enrolled in the study. Two groups of teeth were formed: immature (G1) (n=28) and completely developed teeth (G2) (n=174). All teeth were endodontically treated and received an intracanal dressing with a paste composed by calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel and zinc oxide at a 2:1:2 rate. Clinical and radiographic aspects were evaluated initially, monthly and after 1-year. RESULTS : Most of the immature teeth suffered extrusive luxation (39.3%), whereas intrusive luxation (40.8%) was more common in completely developed teeth. There was a significant reduction in pain on percussion and mobility (p=0.0001) for immature teeth. Mature teeth showed reduction of spontaneous pain, fistula, mobility and pain on percussion (p

  17. Dosimetry of a (90)Y-hydroxide liquid brachytherapy treatment approach to canine osteosarcoma using PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jien Jie; Gonzalez, Arnulfo; Lenox, Mark W; Fossum, Theresa W; Frank, R Keith; Simon, Jaime; Stearns, Stan; Ruoff, Catherine M; Wendt, Richard E; Akabani, Gamal

    2015-03-01

    A new treatment strategy based on direct injections of (90)Y-hydroxide into the tumor bed in dogs with osteosarcoma was studied. Direct injections of the radiopharmaceutical into the tumor bed were made according to a pretreatment plan established using (18)F-FDG images. Using a special drill, cannulas were inserted going through tissue, tumor and bone. Using these cannulas, direct injections of the radiopharmaceutical were made. The in vivo biodistribution of (90)Y-hydroxide and the anatomical tumor bed were imaged using a time-of-flight (TOF) PET/CT scanner. The material properties of the tissues were estimated from corresponding CT numbers using an electron-density calibration. Radiation absorbed dose estimates were calculated using Monte Carlo methods where the biodistribution of the pharmaceutical from PET images was sampled using a collapsing 3-D rejection technique. Dose distributions in the tumor bed and surrounding tissues were calculated, showing significant heterogeneity with multiple hot spots at injection sites. Dose volume histograms showed that approximately 33.9% of bone and tumor and 70.2% of bone marrow and trabecular bone received an absorbed dose over 200Gy; approximately 3.2% of bone and tumor and 31.0% of bone marrow and trabecular bone received a total dose of over 1000Gy. PMID:25638490

  18. Sodium thiosulfate: an emerging treatment for calciphylaxis in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zanzhe; Gu, Leyi; Pang, Huihua; Fang, Yan; Yan, Hao; Fang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare but life-threatening complication seen in dialysis patients. We report a case with calciphylaxis and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Sodium thiosulfate (STS) was used for treatment in this case. The painful skin ulcers improved significantly soon after treatment, with a slight reduction in the calcium-phosphorus product. Total parathyroidectomy was carried out 6 months after the STS therapy, which successfully solved hyperparathyroidism and the high calcium-phosphorus profiles. Until now, no recurrence of calciphylaxis has been observed during the more than 7 years of follow-up. STS, as a chelating agent for calcium and iron, is an emerging treatment option for calciphylaxis; however, the mechanisms of STS in treating calciphylaxis are not clear. Our case demonstrates that STS treatment did not work through normalizing calcium-phosphorus profiles, although to optimize hyperparathyroidism and to control calcium and phosphorus levels is clearly part of the general treatment of calciphylaxis. The literature on STS treatment for calciphylaxis in dialysis patients was also reviewed. PMID:25874198

  19. Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acyr Wanderley de Paula Freitas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade nutricional e as características fermentativas da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante microbiano (Lactobacillus plantarum nas doses 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 x 10(6 ufc/g MN e hidróxido de sódio (solução 40% na base de 3% da MS e acrescida de 10% de resíduo da colheita de soja, com base no peso verde da cana. Foi utilizada a variedade RB855536, colhida em soca aos 11 e 13 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (duas idades e oito tratamentos da massa ensilada. Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de fatores. Para as variáveis de composição e cinética de degradação, foram obtidos três fatores: QN - qualidade nutritiva, incluindo MS, PB, DIVMS, FDN, FDA e LIG; MF - maturidade fisiológica, incluindo carboidratos solúveis, LIG e fração indegradável da FDN; e VDF - velocidade de degradação dos carboidratos fibrosos, contemplando o kdFDN. Às variáveis de características de fermentação atribuíram-se os fatores: PFS - perdas e fermentação secundária, incluindo perda de MS, concentração de ácido acético, ácido propiônico e etanol; PH - potencial hidrogeniônico, pH; e DP - degradação protéica, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal. O resíduo da colheita da soja na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade nutritiva e reduzir as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol das silagens. O tratamento com hidróxido de sódio diminuiu a produção de etanol, mas não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva e não reduziu as perdas de MS das silagens. A utilização de inoculante microbiano contendo L. plantarum também não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva da silagem nem reduziu as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the nutritional quality and fermentation characteristics of sugarcane silages treated with inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6 cfu/g NM, 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis, or 10% of soybean crop residue added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments. For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1 "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2 "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3 "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1 "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2 "hydrogen potential" (pH; and 3 "protein degradation" (PD that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

  20. RUMINAL DEGRADATION KINETIC PARAMETERS OF COFFEE HULLS (Coffea arabica, L. TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NAOH PARÂMETROS CINÉTICOS DA DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica, L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO (NAOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fernandes de Sousa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate dry matter ruminal degradation kinetics of coffee hulls treated with increasing sodium hydroxide quantities. Two rumen fistulated cows were used to incubate samples in nylon bags for 12. 24, 36. 48 and 72 hours. Four ruminal incubation periods were used, in a complete randomized block design. Coffee hulls were treated with 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% of sodium hydroxide (dry matter basis, corresponding to treatments T1 to t4 respectively. Experimental results were compared using Tukey test, at 5% probability level, as follows for treatments 1 to 4 respectively: soluble fraction (9.35d; 17.65c; 31.93b; 32.28a, de (34.40d; 40.50c; 43.28b; 50.35a, potential degradability (44.33d; 50.33c; 52.35b; 57.70a and lag time in hours (4.03a; 3.93a; 4.33a; 2.55a. The results indicate that increasing the levels of NaOH in the coffee hulls treatments increased significantly their ruminal solubility, as well as their effective and potential degradabilities. However that increase had no effect upon coffee hulls lag time in the rumen.KEY WORDS: by-product feedstuffs, rumen degradability, ruminant.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de determinar a cinética de degradação ruminal da matéria seca da casca de café, tratada com diferentes quantidades de hidróxido de sódio. Utilizaram-se duas vacas fistuladas no rúmen, incubando-se as amostras em sacolas de náilon por 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas, por quatro rodadas seqüenciais, sendo que cada uma destas representou um bloco, dentro de um delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados. Tratou-se a casca de café com 0%, 3%, 6% e 9 % de hidróxido de sódio (base seca constituindo assim os tratamentos t1  a t4. os resultados médios encontrados foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, como se segue para os tratamentos de 1 a 4, respectivamente: fração solúvel (9,35d; 17,65c; 31,93b; 32,28a, de (34,40d; 40,50c; 43,28b; 50,35a, degradabilidade potencial (44,33d; 50,33c; 52,35b; 57,70a e tempo de colonização em horas (4,03a; 3,93a; 4,33a; 2,55a. Os resultados indicam que o aumento dos níveis percentuais de NaOH utilizados nos tratamentos eleva a solubilidade ruminal, a degradabilidade potencial e efetiva da casca de café, não influenciando significativamente o tempo de colonização
    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: degradabilidade ruminal, resíduos agrícolas, ruminante

  1. Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja / Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Acyr Wanderley de Paula, Freitas; José Carlos, Pereira; Fernanda Cipriano, Rocha; Edenio, Detmann; Marinaldo Divino, Ribeiro; Marcone Geraldo, Costa; Fernando de Paula, Leonel.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade nutricional e as características fermentativas da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante microbiano (Lactobacillus plantarum nas doses 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 x 10(6) ufc/g MN) e hidróxido de sódio (solução 40% na base de 3% da MS) e acrescida de 10% [...] de resíduo da colheita de soja, com base no peso verde da cana. Foi utilizada a variedade RB855536, colhida em soca aos 11 e 13 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (duas idades e oito tratamentos da massa ensilada). Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de fatores. Para as variáveis de composição e cinética de degradação, foram obtidos três fatores: QN - qualidade nutritiva, incluindo MS, PB, DIVMS, FDN, FDA e LIG; MF - maturidade fisiológica, incluindo carboidratos solúveis, LIG e fração indegradável da FDN; e VDF - velocidade de degradação dos carboidratos fibrosos, contemplando o kdFDN. Às variáveis de características de fermentação atribuíram-se os fatores: PFS - perdas e fermentação secundária, incluindo perda de MS, concentração de ácido acético, ácido propiônico e etanol; PH - potencial hidrogeniônico, pH; e DP - degradação protéica, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal. O resíduo da colheita da soja na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade nutritiva e reduzir as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol das silagens. O tratamento com hidróxido de sódio diminuiu a produção de etanol, mas não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva e não reduziu as perdas de MS das silagens. A utilização de inoculante microbiano contendo L. plantarum também não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva da silagem nem reduziu as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol. Abstract in english The objective of this trial was to evaluate the nutritional quality and fermentation characteristics of sugarcane silages treated with inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6) cfu/g NM), 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis), or 10% of soybean crop residu [...] e added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment) with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments). For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1) "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2) "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3) "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1) "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2) "hydrogen potential" (pH); and 3) "protein degradation" (PD) that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

  2. Influence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide treatment on the electrical characteristics of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky barrier diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes have been investigated by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) techniques. The barrier heights and ideality factors measured from I–V characteristics are found to be 0.70 eV and 1.32 for without TMAH treatment, and 0.78 eV and 1.14 for with TMAH treatment, respectively. Cheung method is used to measure the series resistance and barrier height of the Schottky diodes, and the barrier height consistency is checked using the Norde method. The magnitude of interface state density for the diodes without and with TMAH treatment are varied from 7.45 × 1013 eV?1 cm?2 to 6.09 × 1012 eV?1 cm?2 and 4.03 × 1013 eV?1 cm?2 to 1.79 × 1012 eV?1 cm?2 in the below the conduction band from EC-0.19 eV to EC-0.63 eV and EC-0.22 eV to EC-0.73 eV. Based on the results, the TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (GaxOy) layer, formed due to the incorporation of the residual oxygen with Ga atom at the GaN surface during the plasma etching. The decrease in interface state density at the Ni/Au/GaN interface could be the reason for the improvement in the electrical properties. - Highlights: • The effect of TMAH treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes is studied. • The magnitude of NSS for the diode with TMAH treatment is low compared to without treatment. • The TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (GaxOy) layer

  3. Effects of Treatment of Sorghum Stover Residue With Ammonium Hydroxide on Cell Wall Composition and in vitro Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan B. Yousuf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to determine the effects of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH treatment of sorghum stover residue on composition and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD of two sorghum varieties, Dale (tall, sweet sorghum variety and Brown mid rib (BMR (Short, grain sorghum variety. The residue was treated with; water only (T00, 50 g NH4OH kg-1 residue dry matter (DM (T50, 100 g NH4OH kg-1 DM (T100, and untreated control (neither water nor NH4OH (TUN and allowed to react for one week before chemical analysis was performed. The fiber content (ADF and NDF were not affected by the levels of alkali treatment but the crude protein (CP and Soluble protein contents were both increased by alkali treatment. There was an increase (P < 0.05 in dry matter digestibility in vitro (IVDMD by NH4OH treatment from 529 g kg-1 to 651 g kg-1 in T50 and T100. The improvement in IVDMD may indicate that NH4OH helps disrupt the lignin–carbohydrate complexes. The development of more economical and safe procedures which improve digestibility of the structural cell wall components would be very beneficial for improving the use of crop residue as feedstock for livestock and bioethanol production.

  4. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  5. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ...unapproved injectable drug products containing sodium...unapproved injectable drug products containing sodium...persons who manufacture or cause the manufacture or distribution...risks and some unapproved drug products may lack Boxed...Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Addiction Products, Office of...

  6. Enhanced biomethane potential from wheat straw by low temperature alkaline calcium hydroxide pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2015-08-01

    A factorially designed experiment to examine the effectiveness of Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, enzyme addition and particle size, on the mesophilic (35°C) anaerobic digestion of wheat straw was conducted. Experiments used a 48h pre-treatment with Ca(OH)2 7.4% (w/w), addition of Accellerase®-1500, with four particle sizes of wheat straw (1.25, 2, 3 and 10mm) and three digestion time periods (5, 15 and 30days). By combining particle size reduction and Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, the average methane potential was increased by 315% (from 48NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1) to 202NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1)) after 5days of anaerobic digestion compared to the control. Enzyme addition or Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment with 3, 2 and 1.25mm particle sizes had 30-day batch yields of between 301 and 335NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1). Alkali pre-treatment of 3mm straw was shown to have the most potential as a cost effective pre-treatment and achieved 290NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1), after only 15days of digestion. PMID:25898087

  7. Successful treatment by exchange transfusion of a young infant with sodium nitroprusside poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jong Geun; Jeong, Hoar Lim; Park, Ji Sook; Seo, Ji Hyun; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae Young; Park, Chan Hoo; Woo, Hyang Ok; Youn, Hee Shang; Yeom, Jung Sook

    2010-01-01

    Although sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is often used in pediatric intensive care units, cyanide toxicity can occur after SNP treatment. To treat SNP-induced cyanide poisoning, antidotes such as amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, and hydroxycobalamin should be administered immediately after diagnosis. Here, we report the first case of a very young infant whose SNP-induced cyanide poisoning was successfully treated by exchange transfusion. The success of this alternative method may ...

  8. Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Drug Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs of Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Zi Gu; Aihua Wu; Li Li(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China); Zhi Ping Xu

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen) using a co-precipitation method with or withou...

  9. Efficacy and tolerance of the topical application of potassium hydroxide (10% and 15% in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum: Randomized clinical trial: Research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Gisela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molluscum contagiosum is a non-severe pediatric viral infection. Because it is highly contagious and current treatments have negative aesthetic and psychological effects, we want to test an alternative treatment in the primary care setting, consisting of two different concentrations of potassium hydroxide solution. Methods/design The study design is a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, using three types of topical treatment. The treatment consist of daily applications of potassium hydroxide (KOH in aqueous solution at 10% and 15% concentration, and a placebo administered in the control group. Four follow-up visits (at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days are planned to evaluate treatment effectiveness and patient tolerance. The main outcome measure of the trial will be the healing rate, defined as lesion disappearance in the affected zones after the topic application of the experimental treatment. Secondary measures will be the principal characteristics and evolution of the affected zone (surface area, number of lesions, size and density of lesions, treatment tolerance (hyperpigmentation, itching, burning, pain, recurrence rate and the natural evolution of lesions in the control group. Discussion KOH can potentially be an effective and safe treatment for MC in primary care, and can also reduce referrals to dermatologists and hospital pediatric departments. In addition, KOH may be a valid and less expensive alternative to current invasive treatments (surgical excision. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348386

  10. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on properties of Ni-Al layered double hydroxides and related mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ni-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Ni/Al molar ratio of 2, 3, and 4 were prepared by coprecipitation and treated under hydrothermal conditions at 180 deg. C for times up to 20 h. Thermal decomposition of the prepared samples was studied using thermal analysis and high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal treatment increased significantly the crystallite size of coprecipitated samples. The characteristic LDH diffraction lines disappeared completely at ca. 350 deg. C and a gradual crystallization of NiO-like mixed oxide was observed at higher temperatures. Hydrothermal treatment improved thermal stability of the Ni2Al and Ni3Al LDHs but only a slight effect of hydrothermal treatment was observed with the Ni4Al sample. The Rietveld refinement of powder XRD patterns of calcination products obtained at 450 deg. C showed a formation of Al-containing NiO-like oxide and a presence of a considerable amount of Al-rich amorphous component. Hydrothermal aging of the LDHs resulted in decreasing content of the amorphous component and enhanced substitution of Al cations into NiO-like structure. The hydrothermally treated samples also exhibited a worse reducibility of Ni2+ components. The NiAl2O4 spinel and NiO still containing a marked part of Al in the cationic sublattice were detected in the samples calcined at 900 deg. C. The Ni2Al LDHs hydrothermally treated for various times and related mixed oxides obtained at 450 deg. C shoed mixed oxides obtained at 450 deg. C showed an increase in pore size with increasing time of hydrothermal aging. The hydrothermal treatment of LDH precursor considerably improved the catalytic activity of Ni2Al mixed oxides in N2O decomposition, which can be explained by suppressing internal diffusion effect in catalysts grains. - Graphical Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment of Ni-Al LDH precursors influenced the porous structure of related mixed oxides and considerably improved their catalytic activity in N2O decomposition; the higher catalytic activity of hydrothermally treated samples can be explained by suppressing internal diffusion effect in catalysts grains

  11. The Effect of Feed Supplemented with Different Sodium Bentonite Treatments on Broiler Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pasha, Talat Naseer; Mahmood, Amir; Khattak, Farina Malik

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of rations containing different sodium bentonite treatments on broiler performance. The study included 280 broiler chicks (1-day-old) that were randomly allocated to 7 experimental groups designated as follows: A (control); B and C (0.5% and 1.0% sodium bentonite, respectively); D and E (0.5% and 1.0% sodium bentonite + 0.5% and 1.0% gentian violet, respectively); F and G (0.5% and 1.0% sodium bentonite + 0.5% and 1.0% acetic acid, respe...

  12. Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance. PMID:22456234

  13. Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fütterer, S; Andrusenko, I; Kolb, U; Hofmeister, W; Langguth, P

    2013-12-01

    Drug products containing iron oxide and hydroxide nanoparticles (INPs) are important for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Pharmaceuticals prepared by the complexation of different kinds of INPs and carbohydrates have different physicochemical and biopharmaceutic characteristics. The increasing number of parenteral non-biological complex drugs (NBCD) containing iron requires physicochemical methods for characterization and enabling of cross comparisons. In this context the structure and the level of crystallinity of the iron phases may be connected to the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates, which etiologically determine the therapeutic and toxic effects. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and electron diffraction (ED) methods were used in order to investigate the nine different parenteral iron formulations Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)), sodium ferric gluconate sucrose (Ferrlecit(®)), iron sucrose (Venofer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (Infed(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Ironate(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Dexferrum(®)), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®)) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(®)). The iron phase in CosmoFer(®), Ferinject(®), Monofer(®), Infed(®), Ironate(®) and Dexferrum(®) was identified as Akaganéite/Akaganéite-like (?-FeOOH), with low amounts of chloride. By combining results of both methods the iron oxide in Feraheme(®) was identified as Magnetite (Fe3O4) with spinel-like structure. Ferrlecit(®) and Venofer(®) were difficult to analyze due to the low degree of crystallinity, but the iron phase seems to fit Lepidocrocite/Lepidocrocite-like (?-FeOOH) or an amorphous kind of structure. The structural information on the type of iron oxide or hydroxide together with the particle size allows predicting the stability of the different complexes including their labile iron content. The combination of ED and XRPD methods is a very helpful approach especially for structural analysis of nanoscopic or low crystalline materials. PMID:23998966

  14. New treatment method for boron in aqueous solutions using Mg-Al layered double hydroxide: Kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tomohito; Oba, Jumpei; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-08-15

    Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated with NO3(-) (NO3·Mg-Al LDHs) and with Cl(-) (Cl·Mg-Al LDHs) were found to take up boron from aqueous solutions. Boron was removed by anion exchange of B(OH)4(-) in solution with NO3(-) and Cl(-) intercalated in the interlayer of the LDH. Using three times the stoichiometric quantity of NO3·Mg-Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 1.9mgL(-1) in 120min. Using five times the stoichiometric quantity of Cl·Mg-Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 5.6mgL(-1) in 120min. It must be emphasized that, in both cases, the residual concentration of B was less than the effluent standards in Japan (10mgL(-1)). The rate-determining step of B removal by the NO3·Mg-Al and Cl·Mg-Al LDHs was found to be chemical adsorption involving anion exchange of B(OH)4(-) with intercalated NO3(-) and Cl(-). The removal of B was well described by a pseudo second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption of B by NO3·Mg-Al LDH and Cl·Mg-Al LDH followed a Langmuir-type adsorption. The values of the maximum adsorption and the equilibrium adsorption constant were 3.6mmolg(-1) and 1.7, respectively, for NO3·Mg-Al LDH, and 3.8mmolg(-1) and 0.7, respectively, for Cl·Mg-Al LDH. The B(OH)4(-) in B(OH)4·Mg-Al LDH produced by removal of B was found to undergo anion exchange with NO3(-) and Cl(-) in solution. The NO3·Mg-Al and Cl·Mg-Al LDHs obtained after this regeneration treatment were able to remove B from aqueous solutions, indicating the possibility of recycling NO3·Mg-Al and Cl·Mg-Al LDHs for B removal. PMID:25827268

  15. The Use of Sodium Sulfacetamide 10%-Sulfur 5% Emollient Foam in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder encountered in ambulatory clinical practice comprising 11.3 percent of office visits to dermatologists in 2005.1 By comparison, eczematous dermatoses, psoriasis, and skin cancer accounted for 6.2, 3.5, and 10 percent of office visits, respectively.1 A variety of topical therapeutic options are available for treatment of acne vulgaris, including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur.2,3 Sodium sulfaceta...

  16. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on properties of Ni-Al layered double hydroxides and related mixed oxides.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Rojka, T.; Bezdi?ka, Petr; Jirátová, Kv?ta; Obalová, L.; Pacultová, K.; Bastl, Zden?k; Grygar, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 182, ?. 1 (2009), s. 27-36. ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA104/07/1400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * hydrotalcite-like compounds * thermal decomposition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.340, year: 2009

  17. Another Base, Another Solvent? Desalinating Iron Finds with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Friederike Kuhn; Christian Heinrich Wunderlich; Gerhard Eggert; Thomas Schleid

    2011-01-01

    The desalination processes commonly applied to improve the corrosion stability of archaeological iron artifacts are based on immersion treatments in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Faster and more efficient chloride extraction in solutions based on organic solvents with a lower surface tension can be expected. Furthermore, the danger of new corrosion forming during the subsequent washing out of residual chemicals from the desalinating solution could be minimised, if organic solvents wo...

  18. Electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, R.W.; McFarlane, H.F.; Goff, K.M. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2001-07-01

    For 20 years Argonne National Laboratory has been developing electrometallurgical technology for application to spent nuclear fuel. Progress has been rapid during the past 5 years as 1,6 tonnes spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II was treated and preparations were made for processing the remaining 25 tonnes of sodium-bonded fuel from the shutdown reactor. Two high level waste forms are being qualified for geologic disposal. Extension of the technology to oxide fuels or to actinide recycling has been on hold because of US policy on reprocessing. (author)

  19. Electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 20 years Argonne National Laboratory has been developing electrometallurgical technology for application to spent nuclear fuel. Progress has been rapid during the past 5 years as 1,6 tonnes spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II was treated and preparations were made for processing the remaining 25 tonnes of sodium-bonded fuel from the shutdown reactor. Two high level waste forms are being qualified for geologic disposal. Extension of the technology to oxide fuels or to actinide recycling has been on hold because of US policy on reprocessing. (author)

  20. Clinical benefits of cromolyn sodium aerosol (MDI) in the treatment of asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcow, J E; Mendelson, L M; Rosen, J P

    1989-03-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to determine the efficacy and safety of cromolyn sodium (Intal) administered to children by metered dose inhaler (MDI). Prior to entry, subjects were well controlled on cromolyn sodium capsules by Spinhaler turbo-inhaler plus beta 2 agonists. An active control interval of 2 weeks on cromolyn sodium capsules was followed by a 4-week single-blind period on placebo capsules. Those subjects whose asthma worsened significantly on placebo entered a 10-week double-blind phase, randomized to receive either cromolyn sodium (2 mg per dose) or placebo by MDI. Diary data, physician evaluation, and pulmonary function tests were used to assess efficacy, and scores were compared with the baseline value at 2-week intervals. Forty children with asthma, 8 to 20 years of age, entered the study and 32 qualified for the randomized phase. No significant differences existed between the treatment groups at baseline. Most comparative data favored the cromolyn sodium group over the course of the study. Significant differences (p less than .05) were noted for diary scores of breathlessness and overall asthma severity. There was significant improvement at the final visit favoring the cromolyn sodium group in restriction on normal activity, FEV1, and PEFR. The cromolyn sodium group also experienced a decreasing need for concomitant bronchodilators. Both groups preferred pressurized aerosol by MDI over powdered capsules by Spinhaler. (Intal and Spinhaler are registered trademarks of Fisons Corporation.) PMID:2493756

  1. Comparison of Decontamination Efficacy between the Rapid Hygrothermal Pasteurization and Sodium Hypochlorite Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuya Shimoda; Noriyuki Igura; Dusida Tirawat; Seiji Noma; Hiromizu Kunimoto

    2013-01-01

    We developed a novel rapid hygrothermal pasteurization (RHP) method using saturated water vapor with a dew point of 100?. The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of RHP treatment versus conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatments on inactivation of natural mesophilic bacteria and quality attributes on fruits and vegetables. The RHP treatment was performed within a second by free-falling samples (cabbage, cucumber, carrot, bell pepper, pineapple and melon) through cylindrical ...

  2. Sulfanegen Sodium Treatment in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transfe...

  3. Treatment with 89SrCl and Sodium Ibandronate for pain relief of multiple bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the palliative effect on pain relief in patients with multiple bone metastases treated with 89SrCl2 together with Sodium Ibandronate,Sodium Ibandronate alone and 89SrCl2 alone. Methods: Eighty-four patients with bone pain secondary to bone metastases were divided into three groups. Thirty patients were treated with combined 89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate, 26 with 89SrCl2 alone and 28 with Sodium Ibandronate alone. The ?2 test was used in data analysis. Results: The overall palliative pain relief rate in the combined treatment group was 96.6 % (29/30). For the groups using Sodium Ibandronate or 89SrCl2 only, the palliative rates were 71.4% (20/28) and 73.1% (19/26), respectively. There are statistically significant differences between the combined treatment group and the other 2 groups with single treatment modalities in the overall palliative pain relief rate (?2=7.497), in terms of improvement in (1) whole body Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score (80.0% (24/30) vs 50.0% (14/28)/53.8% (14/26), ?2 =35.476) and (2) focal palliative rate (47.6% (50/105) vs 11.2% (11/98)/22.2% (20/90), ?2 =6. 564, all P89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate is more effective than single treatment modalities to relieve bone pain secondary to multiple bone metastases. (authors)

  4. Separation of strontium from calcium by the use of sodium hydroxide and its application for the determination of long-term background activity concentrations of 90Sr in 100 km area around Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for the determination of 90Sr which employs sodium hydroxide for the separation of strontium from calcium was further improved introducing the use of elevated temperatures. The results from 11-year study of background activity concentrations of 90Sr in different environmental objects in 100 km zone around Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (Bulgaria) are presented as an application of the analytical method. The measured mean values are as follows: air precipitation - 0.0015±0.0009 Bq/(m2 x d), tap water - 0.0017±0.0012 Bq/L, soil - 1.90±1.26 Bq/kg, grass - 1.54±0.80 Bq/kg, milk - 0.023±0.012 Bq/L and for the Danube river: water - 0.0046±0.0026 Bq/L, bottom sediments - 0.64±0.60 Bq/kg, algae - 1.99±1.56 Bq/kg. The calculated transfer coefficients (soil-grass) are in the range of 0.33-0.84. Between 2 and 5 times reduction in actual background activities of 90Sr is observed compared to 1972-1974. (author)

  5. Pegaptanib sodium treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: clinical experience in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Feucht

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaus Feucht, Huebner Matthias, Chris P Lohmann, Mathias MaierAugenklinik rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, GermanyBackground: The VEGF Inhibition Study In Ocular Neovascularisation (VISION reported the efficacy of intravitreal (ITV vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibition with pegaptanib sodium (Macugen® for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. This paper reports clinical experience with pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of occult or minimally classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to AMD.Material and methods: The study included 50 eyes (in 49 patients with either occult CNV or minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD who were not eligible for photodynamic therapy (PDT. Study data were analyzed retrospectively. During the 6-month study, patients were administered an average 2.74 injections of 0.3 mg ITV pegaptanib sodium. Angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT examinations were carried out and intraocular pressure (IOP and visual acuity (VA were measured at baseline, at 3 months and at 6 months. An eye examination was performed and VA was measured the 2 days following treatment and then again at weeks 4–6, and at 3 and 6 months. OCT, VA, and IOP were also assessed at 1 month.Results: ITV pegaptanib sodium was well tolerated and no treatment complications arose. Mean VA was measured as: 0.37 ± 0.24 at baseline; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 1 month; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 3 months and 0.40 ± 0.26 at 6 months. VA was stabilized in approximately 90% of eyes treated with pegaptanib sodium. OCT examination showed a minimal change in central retinal thickness (CRT during the course of the study, from 251.19 µm at baseline to 251.63 µm at 6 months. No elevation in IOP was measured during treatment at 4–6 months in patients receiving pegaptanib sodium.Conclusions: ITV therapy with pegaptanib sodium for occult and minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD offered good efficacy with a favorable adverse events profile. The majority of patients showed stabilization in all assessed parameters. In clinical practice, careful consideration should be given to the use of nonselective VEGF inhibition in patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile or in those with a history of thromboembolic events.Keywords: Intravitreal (ITV injection, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, choroidal neovascularization (CNV, anti-VEGF therapy, pegaptanib sodium

  6. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Mandryk; Alexander Rapoport; Emily Kolomiets; Linda Rozenfelde; Galina Khroustalyova

    2012-01-01

    The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl) treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings co...

  7. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returnedr routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  8. Formation of transparent aluminum hydroxide film with mesoscopic surface roughness by hydrothermal treatment of incompletely-nitrided sputtered aluminum film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incompletely-nitrided Al films (Al-N film) are deposited on the glass substrate by rf sputtering with a metallic Al target and using Ar and N2 gas mixture. With increasing film thickness up to 300nm, the surface roughness increases. And the roughness is easily controlled. The size and the number density of surface protuberance are suitable to control diffusive optical properties in the visible and near infrared regions. The films become transparent with retained roughness by boiling in ultra pure water at 368K under atmospheric pressure. The films have been transformed from composite of Al and AlN to aluminum hydroxide (Boehmite). Total transmittance of the boiled specimens exceeded that of the glass substrate itself. These facts suggest that hydrothermally-treated Al-N films with the mesoscopic surface roughness have high potential to reduce the optical loss by reflection.

  9. Use of sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of calciphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Musso Carlos; Enz Paula; Vidal Flavia; Gelman Rodolfo; Lizarraga Aldana; Giuseppe Luis; Kowalczuk Alicia; Garfi Leonardo; Galimberti Ricardo; Algranati Luis

    2009-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is an infrequent but severe entity found in chronic dialysis patients. Its clinical pattern consists of tissue ischemia with itchy and painful subcutaneous nodules and plaques, most often located on the abdomen, buttocks, thighs and/or legs. These injuries evolve to extensive superficial necrosis of the skin overlying the panniculitis, with ulceration, overinfection and consequent sepsis. Current treatment modalities used to counteract this pathology are not entirely effective. ...

  10. Epoprostenol sodium for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Akagi, Satoshi; Sarashina, Toshihiro; Ejiri, Kentaro; Miura, Aya; Ogawa, Aiko; Matsubara, Hiromi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The release of endogenous prostacyclin (PGI2) is depressed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). PGI2 replacement therapy by epoprostenol infusion is one of the best treatments available for PAH. Here, we provide an overview of the current clinical data for epoprostenol. Epoprostenol treatment improves symptoms, exercise capacity, and hemodynamics, and is the only treatment that has been shown to reduce mortality in patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) in randomized clinical trials. We have reported that high-dose epoprostenol therapy (>40 ng/kg/min) also results in marked hemodynamic improvement in some patients with IPAH. High-dose epoprostenol has a pro-apoptotic effect on PAH-PASMCs via the IP receptor and upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL) in vitro. However, long-term intravenous administration of epoprostenol is sometimes associated with catheter-related infections and leads to considerable inconvenience for the patient. In the future, the development of new routes of administration or the development of powerful PGI2 analogs, IP-receptor agonists, and gene and cell-based therapy enhancing PGI2 production with new routes of administration is required. PMID:25999730

  11. Epoprostenol sodium for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yukihiro Saito,1 Kazufumi Nakamura,1 Satoshi Akagi,1 Toshihiro Sarashina,1 Kentaro Ejiri,1 Aya Miura,1 Aiko Ogawa,2 Hiromi Matsubara,2 Hiroshi Ito1 1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan; 2Division of Cardiology, National Hospital Organization Okayama Medical Center, Okayama, Japan Abstract: The release of endogenous prostacyclin (PGI2 is depressed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. PGI2 replacement therapy by epoprostenol infusion is one of the best treatments available for PAH. Here, we provide an overview of the current clinical data for epoprostenol. Epoprostenol treatment improves symptoms, exercise capacity, and hemodynamics, and is the only treatment that has been shown to reduce mortality in patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH in randomized clinical trials. We have reported that high-dose epoprostenol therapy (>40 ng/kg/min also results in marked hemodynamic improvement in some patients with IPAH. High-dose epoprostenol has a pro-apoptotic effect on PAH-PASMCs via the IP receptor and upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL in vitro. However, long-term intravenous administration of epoprostenol is sometimes associated with catheter-related infections and leads to considerable inconvenience for the patient. In the future, the development of new routes of administration or the development of powerful PGI2 analogs, IP-receptor agonists, and gene and cell-based therapy enhancing PGI2 production with new routes of administration is required. Keywords: pulmonary arterial hypertension, prostacyclin, apoptosis

  12. Investigating sodium valproate as a treatment for McArdle disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J McC; Dunton, E; Creed, K E; Quinlivan, R; Sewry, C

    2015-02-01

    McArdle disease is due to an absence of the enzyme muscle glycogen phosphorylase and results in significant physical impairment in humans. We hypothesised that sodium valproate, an HDAC inhibitor, might have the ability to up-regulate the enzyme. We treated McArdle sheep with sodium valproate given enterically at 20-60?mg/kg body wt. Compared with untreated control animals, there was increased expression of phosphorylase in muscle fibres. The response was dose dependent and reached a maximum 2 hours after the application and increased with repeated applications. Improvement in mobility could not be demonstrated. These findings suggest that sodium valproate is a potential therapeutic treatment for McArdle disease. PMID:25455802

  13. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: a literature review - Part II. in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The first part of this study reviewed the characteristics of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and summarized the results of in vitro studies related to its antimicrobial effects. The second part of this review covers in vivo studies including human clinical studies and animal studies. The use of Ca(OH)2 as an intracanal medicament represented better histological results in animal studies. However, human clinical studies showed limited antimicrobial effects that microorganisms were reduced but not eliminated through the treatment, and that some species had resistance to Ca(OH)2. Most of clinical outcome studies supported that there is no improvement in healing of periapical lesions when Ca(OH)2 was applied between appointments. Further studies are required for the antimicrobial effects of Ca(OH)2, and search for the ideal material and technique to completely clean infected root canals should be continued. PMID:25984470

  14. Treatment of cutaneous calciphylaxis with sodium thiosulfate: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Matteo; Carbone, Angelo; Di Liberato, Lorenzo; Cupaiolo, Antonietta; Caponio, Chiara; De Simone, Clara; Tulli, Antonio; Bonomini, Mario; Amerio, Paolo

    2011-10-01

    Cutaneous calciphylaxis is a potentially fatal condition characterized by calcium deposition in dermal arterioles and the subsequent development of livedo reticularis, plaques, and extremely painful ulcers. This condition may be present in up to 4% of end-stage renal disease patients. Several treatments, which mainly attempt to control calcium phosphate metabolism, are available for this condition. We describe two patients treated with sodium thiosulfate with good results. Moreover, we also performed a PubMed literature search of sodium thiosulfate treatment for calciphylaxis. We found 41 cases of which most (> 90%) presented a rapid and sustained resolution, indicating this drug is a very good candidate for the treatment of this condition. PMID:21834598

  15. Calcitonin, sodium alendronate and high intensity laser in the treatment of traumatized teeth: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Lage-Marques, José Luiz; Marotti, Juliana; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Apel, Christian; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser compared with traditional treatment on dentin permeability to calcitonin and sodium alendronate. Forty bovine roots were sectioned and divided into eight groups. Groups 1 and 2 (G1/G2) were immersed in saline solution; G1T/G2T were immersed in ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid plus sodium lauryl ether sulfate (EDTA-T) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G1I/G2I were irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94 microm, 6 Hz, 40.4 J/cm(2)); G1TI/G2TI were immersed in EDTA-T, NaOCl and subjected to Er:YAG irradiation. After 4 h the radioactivity of the saline solution was measured. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (P sodium alendronate through dentin. All groups showed calcitonin and sodium alendronate diffusion. PMID:19011951

  16. Synthesis of high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries by morphology-tailored hydroxide co-precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Belharouak, Ilias; Ortega, Luis H.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Dehua; Zhou, Guangwen; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Nickel manganese hydroxide co-precipitation inside a continuous stirred tank reactor was studied with sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as the precipitation agents. The ammonium hydroxide concentration had an effect on the primary and secondary particle evolution. The two-step precipitation mechanism proposed earlier was experimentally confirmed. In cell tests, Li- and Mn-rich composite cathode materials based on the hydroxide precursors demonstrated good electrochemical performance in terms of cycle life over a wide range of lithium content.

  17. Chronic Temporomandibular Pain Treatment Using Sodium Diclofenac / Tratamiento crónico del dolor temporomandibular con diclofenaco sódico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Kurita Varoli; Sandra, Sato; Murillo, Sucena Pita; Cássio, do Nascimento; Vinícius, Pedrazzi.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evaluó el dolor espontáneo antes y después de la administración de diclofenaco sódico, aislado o asociado a carisoprodol, paracetamol y cafeína, en pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares crónicos (TTM). Se seleccionaron dieciocho voluntarios, hombres y mujeres, entre 35-70 años de [...] edad (edad media 50 años). Los criterios de inclusión fueron dolor muscular masticatorio, y los criterios diagnósticos para trastornos temporomandibulares (RDC / TMD) como diagnóstico. La selección del tratamiento para cada individuo se llevó a cabo mediante una metodología de cruce triple ciego completo al azar. Por lo tanto, todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a todos los tratamientos en diferentes momentos, en una secuencia no estandarizada, evitando los resultados tendenciosos. Los tratamientos fueron: A (diclofenaco sódico + carisoprodol + acetaminofen + cafeína), B (diclofenaco sódico) y C (placebo), todos asociados a una férula oclusal. Cada período de tratamiento fue seguido por once días. No se encontraron diferencias entre los valores inicial y final de los tratamientos. Sin embargo, hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los grupos de evaluación sensorial y después del tratamiento B, y en los grupos de calificación sensorial, afectivo, y el total después de los tratamientos B y C. Dentro de las limitaciones de esta investigación, se concluye que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico aislado en pacientes con TTM musculares promueve una mayor analgesia que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico más asociaciones o placebo, cuando se asocia a una férula oclusal. Abstract in english This study evaluate spontaneous pain after and before administration of sodium diclofenac, isolated or associated to carisoprodol, acetaminophen and caffeine, in chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. Were selected eighteen volunteers, both men and women, between 35-70 years of age (mea [...] n age 50 years). The inclusion criteria was masticatory muscle pain, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was used on the diagnose. The selection of treatment for each individual was done by a triple-blind full-randomized crossover methodology. Thus, all patients were submitted to all treatment at different moments, in a non standardized sequence, avoiding tendentious results. The treatments were: A (sodium diclofenac + carisoprodol + acetaminophen + caffeine), B (sodium diclofenac) and C (placebo), all associated with an occlusal splint. Each treatment period was followed by an eleven-day washout. There weren't observed differences between initial and final values of treatments. However, there were statistically significant differences in evaluative and miscellaneous sensorial groups after B treatment; and in sensorial, affective, and total score groups after B and C treatments. Within the limitations of this investigation, we conclude that treatment of muscular TMD patients with sodium diclofenac isolated promoted higher analgesia than treatment with sodium diclofenac more associations or placebo, when associated to an occlusal splint.

  18. Development of sodium conversion technology. Method and basic features of sodium conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactor or an experimental facility which used radioactive sodium will bring a lot of radioactive sodium. However, technology to deal with such the radioactive sodium and decommission is not well established in Japan. Then, basic experimental study has been carried out in order to find and estimate an economic and safety process of the radioactive sodium decommission. Sodium is so active, that it is proposed to convert the sodium to more stable chemicals before the decommission. There were some examples in overseas to convert the sodium into sodium hydroxide via sodium-water reaction. This method was examined by a basic sodium conversion test apparatus. In the experiment, liquid metal sodium was injected into the sodium hydroxide. Influences of temperature and concentration of the sodium hydroxide were investigated. Nitrogen gas was injected into the sodium hydroxide as atomizing gas in order to protect the sodium injection nozzle and also to mix the sodium. Then the gas flow rate was also varied to see the desired effects. Injected sodium temperature and mass flow rate were fixed at 200 deg-C and 10 kg/h, respectively. The atomizing gas flow rate, the temperature and concentration of the sodium hydroxide were varied in ranges of 60-100 l/min, 70-100 deg-C and 40-60%, respectively. The influences of these parameters on the sodium conversion reaction were evaluated. The experiments showed that increase of the atomizing gas resulted in stable injection of the sodium and also larger reaction area. The temperature of the sodium hydroxide had small influences on the reaction, however, the sodium injection nozzle tended to choke up when the temperature was less than 70 deg-C. The lower concentration resulted in larger temperature fluctuation and also enlarged the reaction area. Unstable reaction, for example, sudden increase of reaction rate due to excess sodium, was not found under the conditions above listed ranges and stable sodium conversion was confirmed. (author)

  19. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2003-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  20. Composição química e perdas fermentativas de silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio Chemical composition and fermentative losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química e as perdas fermentativas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio (NaOH. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar (CB 45-3 e RB 72-454 e quatro aditivos (controle, NaOH, ureia ou NaOH + ureia, compondo as seguintes silagens: cana-de-açúcar sem aditivo; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 4% de ureia; cana-de-açúcar tratada 4% de NaOH; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2% de ureia + 2% de NaOH. Os procedimentos foram realizados em ambas as variedades e as doses aplicadas com base na matéria seca. A cana-de-açúcar foi picada e misturada, acescida dos aditivos e armazenada em silos de PVC com 50 cm de altura por 10 cm de diâmetro, providos de válvula de Bunsen. Adotou-se uma compactação de 750 kg de matéria natural/m³. Os silos foram pesados no início e ao final do período experimental para quantificar as perdas por gases e efluente. Não foi observado efeito de interação entre variedades de cana-de-açúcar e doses para perdas por efluente, pH, celulose, lignina e cinza. O hidróxido de sódio contribui para redução de perdas,manutenção do grau brixa e elevação do pH da silagem da cana-de-açúcar, independentemente da utilização da ureia, além de promover redução dos constituintes da parede celular, ocasionando melhoria na qualidade da silagem de cana-de-açúcar.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide (NaOH. It was used a completely randomized design with four replicates, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two varieties of cane sugar (CB 45-3, RB 72-454 and four additives (Control, NaOH, urea or NaOH + urea, composing the following silages: sugar cane without additive; sugar cane treated with 4% urea; sugar cane treated with 4% NaOH; sugar cane treated with 2% urea + 2% NaOH. The procedures were performed in both varieties and the doses applied in the dry matter basis. The sugar cane was chopped and then mixed, added with additives and stored in PVC silos with 50 cm of height by 10 cm of diameter, provided with Bunsem valve. It was adopted a compression of 750 kg of natural matter/m³. The silos were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the trial period to quantify the losses by gases and effluent. There was no interaction effect among varieties of sugar cane and doses for effluent losses, pH, cellulose, lignin and ash. Sodium hydroxide contributes for the reduction of losses, maintenance of Brix and pH raising of the silage of sugar cane, regardless to the use of urea, in addition to promote reduction of the constituents of the cell wall causing improvement on the quality of silage from sugar cane.

  1. Treatment of water contaminated with radiocesium using novel complexes between Prussian-blue and bivalent transition metal hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of technologies are applied to the decontamination of radiocesium from water using inorganic adsorbents such as zeolites, Prussian blue (PB) and its analogues. However, these adsorbents are difficult to apply. Although zeolites work as good adsorbents for cesium (Cs) in freshwater, their adsorption ability is extremely low in seawater and fly ash extracts with a high salt concentration. In contrast, PB and its analogues maintain their selective adsorption ability for Cs even in water containing salts, but a high level of cyan remains in the treated water. In this study, we introduce a new technology that utilizes complexes between PB and hydroxides of transition metals (PB-X) for the decontamination of Cs from water and report results of demonstration tests on simulated seawater and fly ash extract. Furthermore, the excellent results of the PB-X method applied to the extracts from fly ash contaminated with radiocesium (more than 8000 Bq/kg) are also shown. It has been proved that radiocesium activities are not only below the detection limit (<10 Bq/kg) and the content of cyan can be controlled under the regulation value of tap water in the water treated with PB-X. (author)

  2. Valor nutritivo de cana-de-açúcar tratada com hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de rolão-de-milho Nutritive value of sugarcane treated with sodium hydroxide and added of ground corn ears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista de Andrade

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o valor nutritivo de cana-de-açúcar tratada com 1,0% de hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg de rolão-de-milho/t de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi conduzido no Instituto de Zootecnia, em Nova Odessa, SP, e o delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O teste de consumo e digestibilidade foi efetuado com ovelhas em períodos de 10, 10 e 5 dias, que corresponderam, respectivamente, aos períodos de adaptação, controle do consumo e coleta de fezes e urina. O consumo de matéria seca e o coeficiente de digestibilidade da matéria seca aumentaram linearmente com a adição de rolão-de-milho. A ingestão de nutrientes digestíveis totais não foi alterada com a adição de rolão-de-milho.The objective of this work was to determine the nutritive value of sugarcane treated with 1,0% of sodium hydroxide plus 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg of ground corn ears/ton of chopped sugarcane. The experiment was carried out at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, SP, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. Intake and digestibility trials were conducted in 10, 10 and 5 day periods, corresponding respectively to adaptation, intake and feces collection of female sheep. Dry matter intake and dry matter digestibility increased linearly with the addition of ground corn ears. Total digestible nutrients was not altered with the addition of ground corn ears.

  3. Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Drug Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs of Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Gu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen using a co-precipitation method with or without hydrothermal treatment (150 °C, 4 h. After being hydrothermally treated, LDH–drug crystallites increased in particle size and crystallinity, but did not change in the interlayer anion orientation, gallery height and chemical composition. The drug release patterns of all studied LDH–drug hybrids were biphasic and sustained. LDHs loaded with diclofenac had a quicker drug release rate compared with those with naproxen and ibuprofen, and the drug release from the hydrothermally-treated LDH–drug was slower than the freshly precipitated LDH–drug. These results suggest that the drug release of LDH–drugs is influenced by the crystallite size of LDHs, which can be controlled by hydrothermal treatment, as well as by the drug molecular physicochemical properties.

  4. Determination of the biodistribution and biokinetics of radiopharmaca like 166Ho-ferric-hydroxide or 153Sm-EDTMP used for therapeutic treatment by energy dispersive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity distribution of beta-emitting radionuclides in the human body and the respective therapeutic dose distribution in the target and the unwanted leakage in the other organs was determined by measurement of corresponding gamma-lines. The measurement was done by scanning in a whole-body counter in the General Hospital Vienna. It is possible to localize activity and dose distribution by means of the detected activity profiles of the four detectors. Two typical treatments are reported: the treatment of synovitis using radiation of 166Ho-Ferric-Hydroxide (characteristic gamma-line: 81 keV) and radionuclide therapy focused at the palliative treatment of bone metastases with 153Sm-EDTMP, a bone seeking beta-emitting radionuclide (characteristic gamma-line: 103 keV). For the determination of the applied dose, the leakage and the quality assurance spectroscopic data of a clinical whole-body counter can be a useful tool for controlling and monitoring in health care. (authors)

  5. Comparison of Treatment Effect of Sodium Valprovate, Propranolol and Tricyclic Antidepressants in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasami K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy and treatment effect of sodium valprovate with propranolol and tricyclic antidepressive drugs. This piece is a rarandomized clinical trial conducted on 126 migraine patients admitted to brain and nerves clinic in Arak, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups then randomized to study treatments. Data were gathered using a checklist and a complete examination. They were analyzed by Chi square and exact test. In patients with normal and abnormal encephalogram the effectiveness rate of two treatments were 35, 61.9, 95.6 and 28.6%, respectively. This difference between two treatments was statistically significant (p<0.001. But didn't observe significant differences between two sex groups (p>0.05. For treatment and control of the migraine, in patients with normal encephalogram, propranolol with tricyclic antidepressive drugs advised and for abnormal encephalogram sodium valprovate can be the better treatment for management and reduction of headache attacks.

  6. Another Base, Another Solvent? Desalinating Iron Finds with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Friederike Kuhn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The desalination processes commonly applied to improve the corrosion stability of archaeological iron artifacts are based on immersion treatments in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Faster and more efficient chloride extraction in solutions based on organic solvents with a lower surface tension can be expected. Furthermore, the danger of new corrosion forming during the subsequent washing out of residual chemicals from the desalinating solution could be minimised, if organic solvents would replace the water, commonly used for this process. Only alkali metal hydroxide (LiOH and NaOH solutions in organic solvents have been tested so far. Their comparatively low chloride extraction efficiency was ascribed to the low solubility of the alkali metal hydroxides and the corresponding chlorides in the solvents used. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH is readily soluble in alcohols and has been tested in aqueous and/or methanolic solutions as an alternative. Neither improved overall chloride extraction efficiency, nor a higher chloride extraction rate could be observed using methanolic solutions. However, aqueous TMAH showed a trend towards higher overall chloride extraction efficiency than the common alkaline treatments. These results could be explained by the different solubility of corrosion products, in particular akaganéite, ?-FeO(OH, in the tested solutions.

  7. Inhibition of atmospheric corrosion of mild steel by sodium benzoate treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Ramazan

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sodium benzoate as an inhibitor to slow down or prevent atmospheric corrosion/discoloration of the local mild steel during storage in the Arabian Gulf region. Test specimens were prepared from locally produced reinforcing steel products. The inhibitor solution was applied on steel specimens at a concentration of 100 mM for 1 day at room temperature. Wooden exposure racks were used to hold as-received and inhibitor-treated specimens during atmospheric exposure for different periods. Corrosion was evaluated through weight loss determination and electrochemical technique. As expected, the Arabian Gulf atmosphere was corrosive on the as-received local mild steel. On the other hand, treatment of steel with sodium benzoate lowered its corrosion rate during initial days of its exposure to atmosphere. However, atmospheric corrosion inhibition performance of sodium benzoate deteriorated with exposure time after 30 or more days of atmospheric exposure, and the corrosion rates of sodium benzoate-treated specimens reached that of the unprotected specimens at the end of 90 days of atmospheric exposure.

  8. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mandryk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

  9. Association of calcium hydroxide and metronidazole in the treatment of dog's teeth with chronic periapical lesion Associação do hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol no tratamento de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica

    OpenAIRE

    Sônia Regina Panzarini; Valdir de Souza; Roberto Holland; Eloi Dezan Júnior

    2006-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings...

  10. Fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with sodium morrhuate for the treatment of lower extremity varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate in treating lower extremity varices. Methods: A total of 30 cases (39 diseased lower limbs) with lower extremity varices were enrolled in this study. Under fluoroscopic guidance foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate was carried out in all patients. The obstructed condition of the great saphenous vein was observed during the following three months. Results: The technical success was achieved in all 39 patients. The mean dose of foam sclerosant used for each diseased limb was 5.9 ml (3.4-8.2 ml). Disappearance of blood flow reflux in lower extremity vein immediately after the treatment was seen in 35 patients (90%). Three months after the therapy, vascular sonography showed that the great saphenous vein was obstructed, and no serious complications occurred. Conclusion: For the treatment of lower extremity varices, fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate is safe and effective with satisfactory results. This technique is a newly-developed micro-invasive therapy for lower extremity varices. (authors)

  11. Recent Sodium Technology Development for the Decommissioning of the Rapsodie and Superphenix Reactors and the Management of Sodium Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has recently developed and/or conducted experiments on several processes in support of the decommissioning of two French liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), Rapsodie and Superphenix, as well as on the treatment of CEA sodium wastes. CEA has demonstrated that it is possible to define appropriate and efficient processes to meet the different situations encountered in decommissioning LMFRs. Mechanical techniques derived from standard technologies have been successfully applied to fast reactor decommissioning to complete primary vessel draining from sodium. In addition, specific chemical processes have been developed to deal safely with metallic sodium reactivity. Sodium-contaminated equipment has been successfully cleaned by reacting sodium with water mist in an atmosphere with carbon dioxide to form inert sodium carbonate. Bulk sodium has been successfully converted into aqueous caustic soda by injection of liquid-metallic sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. Several processes were also defined to deal with specific sodium wastes. In all cases the principle is based on a sodium/water chemical reaction where the released hydrogen and heat are controlled. With the development of a wide variety of processes, all steps in the decommissioning of LMFRs are assumed to be now properly mastered

  12. Sodium chloride as effective antifungal treatment for artificial egg incubation in Austropotamobius pallipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Policar T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sodium chloride at three different concentrations, 30 000 ppm (S30, 60?000 ppm (S60 and 90 000 ppm (S90, and formaldehyde at one concentration, 3000 ppm (F, were tested as antifungal chemicals during artificial incubation (AI of Austropotamobius pallipes eggs. Two treatments were tested without chemicals as control groups with (R and without (C the removal of dead eggs. After AI, formaldehyde treatment ensured high survival of stage 1 (89.7 ± 2.3% and stage 2 (85.5 ± 2.4% of juveniles. However, comparable survival rate to stage 1 and stage 2 (85.5 ± 5.5% and 80.6 ± 3.2% were also found in the treatment with the highest sodium chloride concentration (S90. Significantly lower survival rate of juveniles (stage 1: 60.6–70.3% and stage 2: 56.1–67.3% were evident in groups S60, S30 and R. However, group R demanded high labor and related costs. The lowest juvenile survival levels to stage 1 (46.4 ± 8.2% and stage 2 (45.2 ± 6.8% were observed in treatments without fungicide chemicals and removal of dead eggs (C.

  13. Modelo experimental de estenose traqueal mediante ressecção cirúrgica submucosa de anéis traqueais combinada com instilações de hidróxido de sódio Experimental model of tracheal stenosis with submucosal resection of cartilaginous rings combined with sodium hydroxide instillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Guidi Saueressig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, experimentalmente, malácia e estenose traqueal para testar novos modelos de órteses traqueais. MÉTODOS: Ressecamos três anéis cartilaginosos da traqueia cervical de cães no grupo A (n=5 e seis anéis no grupo B (n=4 para produzir malácia. Logo após, a mucosa da região com malácia recebeu aplicações de uma solução de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH a 23%, e os animais eram acompanhados com exames broncoscópicos para observar o desenvolvimento de estreitamento da luz da via aérea. Quando a estenose era de mais de 50% da luz, ou havia sinais mínimos de insuficiência ventilatória, os animais eram sacrificados. O segmento de via aérea estreitada foi então coletado para análise histológica e era calculada a área de luz residual do segmento traqueal com estenose e malácia. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica, foi constatada fibrose na submucosa e adventícia, associada a granulomas na mucosa. A luz residual média dos segmentos com estenose foi de 9% e 12% nos grupos A e B, respectivamente, (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A combinação da ressecção de anéis cartilaginosos e da aplicação de NaOH 23% na mucosa respiratória promoveu uma estenose traqueal intensa, porém esteve associada à perda de animais. Novos estudos são necessários para verificar se o emprego isolado de uma das técnicas seria mais seguro e eficaz para desenvolver estenose traqueal.OBJECTIVE: To experimentally develop tracheal stenosis and malacia to test new models of tracheal stents. METHODS: We resected three cartilaginous rings from the cervical trachea of dogs in group A (n = 5 and six rings in group B (n = 4 to produce malacia. The mucosa of the region with malacia then received applications of a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH at 23%, and the animals were accompanied with bronchoscopic examinations to observe the development of luminal narrowing of the airway. When the stenosis was of more than 50% or there were minimal signs of ventilatory failure, the animals were sacrificed. The segment of narrowed airway was then collected for histological analysis and calculation of the area of residual lumen in the tracheal segment with stenosis and malacia. RESULTS: In histological analysis, fibrosis was found in the submucosa and adventitia, associated with granulomas in the mucosa. The average residual lumen of the segments with stenosis was 9% and 12% in groups A and B, respectively (p> 0.05. CONCLUSION: The combination of resection of the cartilaginous rings and the application of 23% NaOH in the respiratory mucosa promoted severe tracheal stenosis, but was associated with loss of animals. Further studies are needed to verify that the isolated use of one of the techniques would be safer and more effective to develop tracheal stenosis.

  14. Sodium conversion experiments in the Inert Carrier Process demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the sodium treatment studies reported here was to evaluate the use of the Inert Carrier Process (ICP) for converting sodium metal to a stable disposal form. The ICP demonstration plant consists of a closed loop of silicone oil that is circulated through a reservoir called a disperser. Solid sodium particles were fed to the disperser and kept suspended in the silicone oil carrier by turbulence. The sodium did not react with the silicone oil carrier. The dispersion of sodium in silicone oil was fed to an in-line mixer (''jet'' mixer) where it was mixed with a reactant. Water was used as the reactant in most of the tests, generating sodium hydroxide and hydrogen as the initial products. Analysis of the final solid product from the reaction indicated that the sodium hydroxide initial product interacted with the silicone oil. Complete reaction of the sodium in the demonstration plant required at least a 6/1 molar ratio of water to sodium. Good separation of the product solution was difficult because of the small difference in density between the aqueous product phase and the organic carrier phase. Emulsification of the silicone oil-aqueous solution was minimized by applying heat to the separator. Foaming of the silicone oil in the separator occurred, aggravated by the evolution of hydrogen from the sodium conversion reaction. Bench-scale tests were conducted to analyze and resolve several problems encountered in the plant experiments, such as incomplete reacplant experiments, such as incomplete reaction in the jet mixer, poor separation of the product from the silicone oil, formation of an oil aqueous solution emulsion in the separator, and oil foaming in the separator. Solidification tests were carried out to immobilize the sodium conversion product by mixing it with various binders. The most satisfactory binder was EPON 828, an epoxy resin

  15. Comparison of Decontamination Efficacy between the Rapid Hygrothermal Pasteurization and Sodium Hypochlorite Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuya Shimoda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel rapid hygrothermal pasteurization (RHP method using saturated water vapor with a dew point of 100?. The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of RHP treatment versus conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaClO treatments on inactivation of natural mesophilic bacteria and quality attributes on fruits and vegetables. The RHP treatment was performed within a second by free-falling samples (cabbage, cucumber, carrot, bell pepper, pineapple and melon through cylindrical processing chamber filled with steam. NaClO treatment was performed by washing samples with NaClO solution (100 mg/mL of free chlorine (pH 7, for 1 min. The RHP treatment showed a significantly higher inactivation effect than NaClO treatment on all tested samples. The RHP treatment had a slightly larger influence on color and vitamin C content than NaClO treatment in cabbage. Furthermore, the effects of treatment time and operated temperature were also determined using microbial model system. Elongation of treatment time did not significantly increase the microbial inactivation effect. Lowering of operated temperature by mixing air into steam tended to decrease the inactivation effect. From these results, RHP treatment could be used as an alternative method for decontaminating microorganisms on fruits and vegetables, except on leafy vegetable. In addition, it is suggested that microbial inactivation by RHP treatment was achieved through the initial condensation stage of water vapor on sample surface. By contrast, interfusion of air disturbed the effective condensation of water vapor.

  16. Topical antibiotics in the treatment of superficial skin infections in general practice--a comparison of mupirocin with sodium fusidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D G; Collins, P O; Rowsell, R B

    1989-05-01

    A total of 413 eligible patients took part in an observer-blind randomised multicentre clinical trial in order to compare the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of mupirocin (Bactroban) ointment with sodium fusidate (Fucidin) ointment for treating superficial skin infections seen in general practice. Mupirocin was applied twice daily and sodium fusidate thrice daily for a period of 7 days. Both treatments were similarly effective with 97% patients treated with mupirocin and 93% patients treated with sodium fusidate responding. Mupirocin was significantly more effective in the treatment of acute primary skin infections and in the treatment of a subgroup of patients with impetigo (P less than 0.01). Of the organisms detected before treatment began, 93% were not found after treatment with mupirocin compared with 89% after treatment with sodium fusidate. Staphylococcus aureus and/or beta-haemolytic streptococci appeared to be eliminated in significantly more patients treated with mupirocin (96%) compared with those treated with sodium fusidate (88%), (P = 0.03). Both treatments were well tolerated. PMID:2501394

  17. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

  18. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for the routine treatment of drinking water at the household level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas; Edmondson, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Household water treatment using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been recognized as a cost-effective means of reducing the heavy burden of diarrhea and other waterborne diseases, especially among populations without access to improved water supplies. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), which is widely used in emergencies, is an alternative source of chlorine that may present certain advantages over NaOCl for household-based interventions in development settings. We summarize the basic chemistry and possible benefits of NaDCC, and review the available literature concerning its safety and regulatory treatment and microbiological effectiveness. We review the evidence concerning NaDCC in field studies, including microbiological performance and health outcomes. Finally, we examine studies and data to compare NaDCC with NaOCl in terms of compliance, acceptability, affordability and sustainability, and suggest areas for further research. PMID:16387550

  19. Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated Thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Beiki D.; Shah Hosseini S "; Dadashzadeh S; Eftekhari M; Tayebi H; Moosazadeh Rashti G

    2004-01-01

    Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (Urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation) from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major source of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation, also there is a potential for exposure via contamination. Precautions are necessary...

  20. TREATMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: SODIUM FLUORIDE OR CALCITONIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mowla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical controversy and lack of controlled clinical trial study comparing the effects of sodium fluoride and calcitonin therapies in osteoporosis of patients with RA made us to conduct this study to clarify which one of the above treatments would be more useful and effective in the treatment of osteoporosis.From subjects who turned to Ahwaz Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinic during 2000, all women who met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR 1987 criteria for RA (7, WHO 1994 criteria for osteoporosis (8 and signed the written consent were enrolled into the study. Considering these inclusion criteria, 70 women were enrolled into the study. They were randomized into two groups. Age, BMI (body mass index and BMD (bone mineral density were the adjusted variables during randomization. Thirty-four patients were treated with 20 mg sodium fluoride daily and 36 patients with 200 units nasal calcitonin per day. All patients were treated for 12 months.Patients who received Fluoride showed significant higher BMD in femoral neck (0.74 vs. 0.65, p<0.01 and in lumbar spine (0.90 vs. 0.79, p<0.05 than who received calcitonin after 12 months of therapy.

  1. Treatment of Industrial Liquid Waste of Steel Plating by Coagulation-Flocculation Using Sodium Biphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research about treatment of industrial liquid waste of steel plating by coagulation-flocculation using sodium biphosphate have been conducted. The purpose of the treatment was the content reduction of Cr, Ni, and Cu in the liquid waste, so that produced effluent with Cr, Ni, and Cu content until they laid under mutual standard. The variables studied in this process were the solution pH, the coagulant/waste volume comparison, the speed of the fast stirring, and the time of the fast stirring. Optimum separation efficiency on coagulation-flocculation process of liquid waste of steel plating using sodium biphosphate at the condition of solution ph 9, coagulant/waste volume comparation 1.50, the speed of the fast stirring 400 rpm, and the time of fast stirring is 5 minute. Low stirring was conducted at 60 rpm for 60 minute. The yields of optimum separation efficiency in this condition were 99.48 % for Cr, 99.51 % for Ni, and 99.03 % for Cu. (author)

  2. Ammonium hydroxide treatment of A? produces an aggregate free solution suitable for biophysical and cell culture characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Ryan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Pathologically it is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neuronal loss within the brain tissue of affected individuals. It is now widely hypothesised that fibrillar structures represent an inert structure. Biophysical and toxicity assays attempting to characterize the formation of both the fibrillar and the intermediate oligomeric structures of A? typically involves preparing samples which are largely monomeric; the most common method by which this is achieved is to use the fluorinated organic solvent 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP. Recent evidence has suggested that this method is not 100% effective in producing an aggregate free solution. We show, using dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography and small angle X-ray scattering that this is indeed the case, with HFIP pretreated A? peptide solutions displaying an increased proportion of oligomeric and aggregated material and an increased propensity to aggregate. Furthermore we show that an alternative technique, involving treatment with strong alkali results in a much more homogenous solution that is largely monomeric. These techniques for solubilising and controlling the oligomeric state of A? are valuable starting points for future biophysical and toxicity assays.

  3. Modelo experimental de estenose traqueal mediante ressecção cirúrgica submucosa de anéis traqueais combinada com instilações de hidróxido de sódio / Experimental model of tracheal stenosis with submucosal resection of cartilaginous rings combined with sodium hydroxide instillations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício Guidi, Saueressig; Amarilio Vieira de, Macedo Neto; Julio de Oliveira, Espinel; Maria Isabel, Edelweiss; Paulo Roberto Stefani, Sanches; Rogério Gastal, Xavier.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, experimentalmente, malácia e estenose traqueal para testar novos modelos de órteses traqueais. MÉTODOS: Ressecamos três anéis cartilaginosos da traqueia cervical de cães no grupo A (n=5) e seis anéis no grupo B (n=4) para produzir malácia. Logo após, a mucosa da região com mal [...] ácia recebeu aplicações de uma solução de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) a 23%, e os animais eram acompanhados com exames broncoscópicos para observar o desenvolvimento de estreitamento da luz da via aérea. Quando a estenose era de mais de 50% da luz, ou havia sinais mínimos de insuficiência ventilatória, os animais eram sacrificados. O segmento de via aérea estreitada foi então coletado para análise histológica e era calculada a área de luz residual do segmento traqueal com estenose e malácia. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica, foi constatada fibrose na submucosa e adventícia, associada a granulomas na mucosa. A luz residual média dos segmentos com estenose foi de 9% e 12% nos grupos A e B, respectivamente, (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: A combinação da ressecção de anéis cartilaginosos e da aplicação de NaOH 23% na mucosa respiratória promoveu uma estenose traqueal intensa, porém esteve associada à perda de animais. Novos estudos são necessários para verificar se o emprego isolado de uma das técnicas seria mais seguro e eficaz para desenvolver estenose traqueal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To experimentally develop tracheal stenosis and malacia to test new models of tracheal stents. METHODS: We resected three cartilaginous rings from the cervical trachea of dogs in group A (n = 5) and six rings in group B (n = 4) to produce malacia. The mucosa of the region with malacia the [...] n received applications of a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 23%, and the animals were accompanied with bronchoscopic examinations to observe the development of luminal narrowing of the airway. When the stenosis was of more than 50% or there were minimal signs of ventilatory failure, the animals were sacrificed. The segment of narrowed airway was then collected for histological analysis and calculation of the area of residual lumen in the tracheal segment with stenosis and malacia. RESULTS: In histological analysis, fibrosis was found in the submucosa and adventitia, associated with granulomas in the mucosa. The average residual lumen of the segments with stenosis was 9% and 12% in groups A and B, respectively (p> 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of resection of the cartilaginous rings and the application of 23% NaOH in the respiratory mucosa promoted severe tracheal stenosis, but was associated with loss of animals. Further studies are needed to verify that the isolated use of one of the techniques would be safer and more effective to develop tracheal stenosis.

  4. Meclofenamate sodium in the treatment of post-traumatic edema. Report of a controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato Pérez, J; Martí Massó, R; Imizcoz Barriola, J L

    1983-01-01

    130 patients with edema as the sequel of a traumatic incident were selected for this study, 43 patients were treated with 300 mg N-(2,6-dichloro-m-tolyl)anthranilic acid, sodium salt (meclofenamate sodium, Meclomen) per day for one week, 44 patients received 600 mg oxyphenbutazone per day and 43 patients received placebo. Medication could be terminated if edema and pain disappeared or if deterioration or intolerance occurred. Extent of edema and degree of pain were assessed at entry into the study and on days 3, 5 and 8. Efficacy was assessed by the number of days elapsed before definite reduction and/or complete disappearance of edema and by the decrease and disappearance of pain. Meclofenamate sodium proved to be significantly superior to placebo in the treatment of patients with post-traumatic edema and post-traumatic pain. Reduction and disappearance of edema and cessation of pain occurred significantly more promptly in patients receiving meclofenamate sodium than in those receiving placebo. Although no statistically significant differences were observed between meclofenamate sodium and oxyphenbutazone, the results suggested that meclofenamate sodium might be clinically superior. Meclofenamate sodium was well tolerated. PMID:6349654

  5. Cutting efficiency of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments and the effect of sodium hypochlorite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haïkel, Y; Serfaty, R; Wilson, P; Speisser, J M; Allemann, C

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cutting efficiency of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files in the presence and absence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) treatment, and compare them to a conventional stainless-steel K-type file. NiTi files from four manufacturers were randomly selected and exposed to NaOCl for 12 or 48 h, or not at all. Their cutting efficiencies were then assessed, using a new methodology: "mass of Plexiglass cut per energy used over 50 linear cutting motions." In the absence of NaOCl, Brasseler (318 micrograms/J) and Maillefer (280 micrograms/J) NiTi files were most efficient, followed by JS Dental (71.4 micrograms/J) and McSpadden (40 micrograms/J). These differences were significant (p stainless steel files, all NiTi files tested were less efficient. PMID:9855824

  6. Simple Method for Simultaneous Determination of Carbonate, Sulfite and Hydroxide in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam I. Al-Itawi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide in a complex matrices. The method involves salvation of the tow gases in Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by simultaneous determination of the three species (carbonate, sulfite and hydroxide using conductometric and potentiometric titration. What set this method apart from other determination methods it`s simplicity.

  7. Thermal analysis of iron hydroxide microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal treatment is an important step in the preparative technology of the iron oxids microspheres with well established mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics. The first indications on the heating procedure have been obtained from the thermal analysis on iron hydroxide microspheres prepared by the support precipitation and internal gelification methods. (author)

  8. Erosion-inhibiting effect of sodium fluoride and titanium tetrafluoride treatment in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijkom, Hans; Ruben, Jan; Vieira, Ana; Huysmans, Marie Charlotte; Truin, Gert-Jan; Mulder, Jan

    2003-06-01

    The prevention of dental erosion with fluoride is still largely unknown territory. It was the aim of this study to determine the erosion-inhibiting effect of topical neutral 1% sodium fluoride (NaF) application and an application of a 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) solution compared with no treatment. Ten bovine incisors were selected and three enamel samples prepared from each tooth. One sample from each tooth was assigned to one of three experimental groups. The experimental treatments were: no fluoride application (control); 4 min application of neutral 1% NaF gel; and 4 min application of 4% TiF4 solution. All of the specimens were repeatedly exposed to 50 mm citric acid solution containing 0.4 mm CaCl2, and 2.2 mm KH2PO4 at pH 3.0 over four consecutive days. The acid exposure was performed in intervals and the intensity was increased over the days of the experiment. Enamel dissolution was determined by calcium content measurement of the acid solution after exposure, using atomic absorption spectroscopy. A statistically significant erosion-inhibiting effect was found for both NaF and TiF4 treatments compared with the control group from an erosion exposure time of 3 min. The reduction of calcium loss, however, was higher for the TiF4-treated specimens than the NaF-treated. From 16 min of erosion exposure, the erosion-inhibiting effect was significantly stronger in the TiF4 than the NaF group. The relative reduction of calcium loss compared with the control group remained stable for the TiF4 group, whereas for the NaF group the relative reduction decreased with cumulative erosion time. It is concluded that topical TiF4 application provides a potential treatment option in erosion prevention. PMID:12786957

  9. Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Dotto Sottovia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8, had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (pEm reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste trabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extraído e mantido sobre bancada para ressecamento por 60 min. Posteriormente, os dentes do grupo I foram imersos em soro fisiológico por 2 min. No grupo II, os dentes tiveram a superfície radicular friccionada com gaze embebida em soro fisiológico por 2 min e no grupo III a fricção foi feita empregando-se solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Todos os dentes tiveram então a superfície radicular tratada com ácido fosfórico a 37% seguido de imersão em solução de fluoreto de sódio fosfato acidulado a 2%, pH 5,5. Os canais foram obturados com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e os dentes foram reimplantados. Os animais foram sacrificados 60 dias depois e as peças contendo os dentes foram processadas em laboratório. Cortes transversais semi-seriados do terço médio da raiz, foram obtidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina para análise histomorfométrica. Os dados obtidos foram confrontados pela análise de variância empregando-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis, quando este indicou diferença estatisticamente significante, utilizou-se o teste de Dunn para as comparações individuais. Os resultados demonstraram que a estrutura radicular e a extensão de cemento foram mais afetadas pela reabsorção no grupo III (p<0.05. Todos os grupos foram comprometidos pela reabsorção radicular sendo que o tratamento realizado no grupo III foi o menos efetivo para o seu controle. O tratamento realizado nos grupos I e II proporcionou resultados semelhantes entre si.

  10. Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats / Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Dotto, Sottovia; Celso Koogi, Sonoda; Wilson Roberto, Poi; Sônia Regina, Panzarini; José Roberto Pereira, Lauris.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Em reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste t [...] rabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extraído e mantido sobre bancada para ressecamento por 60 min. Posteriormente, os dentes do grupo I foram imersos em soro fisiológico por 2 min. No grupo II, os dentes tiveram a superfície radicular friccionada com gaze embebida em soro fisiológico por 2 min e no grupo III a fricção foi feita empregando-se solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Todos os dentes tiveram então a superfície radicular tratada com ácido fosfórico a 37% seguido de imersão em solução de fluoreto de sódio fosfato acidulado a 2%, pH 5,5. Os canais foram obturados com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e os dentes foram reimplantados. Os animais foram sacrificados 60 dias depois e as peças contendo os dentes foram processadas em laboratório. Cortes transversais semi-seriados do terço médio da raiz, foram obtidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina para análise histomorfométrica. Os dados obtidos foram confrontados pela análise de variância empregando-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis, quando este indicou diferença estatisticamente significante, utilizou-se o teste de Dunn para as comparações individuais. Os resultados demonstraram que a estrutura radicular e a extensão de cemento foram mais afetadas pela reabsorção no grupo III (p Abstract in english In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this s [...] tudy evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p

  11. Some citogenetic effects of sodium azide treatments in caraway root meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Mihaela Campeanu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium azide (NaN3 still remains a popular plant mutagen. In the present investigation, its effects on the cytogenetic changes were studied in root tip cells of Carum carvi L., an important economical and medicinal crop plant. The study revealed that sodium azide decreased mitotic index, and caused increase of chromosomal aberrations. Altogether, sodium azide treated root tip cells exhibited an increased incidence of bridges, lagging and/or expulsed chromosomes and C-metaphases.

  12. Some citogenetic effects of sodium azide treatments in caraway root meristems

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Mihaela Campeanu; Gabriela Capraru; Elena Maxim

    2009-01-01

    Sodium azide (NaN3) still remains a popular plant mutagen. In the present investigation, its effects on the cytogenetic changes were studied in root tip cells of Carum carvi L., an important economical and medicinal crop plant. The study revealed that sodium azide decreased mitotic index, and caused increase of chromosomal aberrations. Altogether, sodium azide treated root tip cells exhibited an increased incidence of bridges, lagging and/or expulsed chromosomes and C-metaphases.

  13. A Comparison Between the Treatment and Side Effect of Sodium Valproate and Propranolol in Preventing Migraine Headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Taghdiri

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of frequent headaches in children is migraine headache. The prevention of headaches , will improve life equality in children. This study was designed to compare between treatment and side effects of sodium valproate and propranolol in preventing migraine headaches. This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial which carried out on 52 children who were reffered to out patient neurology clinic of the Ekbatan and Sina hospitals. All children with migraine who had headache during last 6 months were enrolled, and those who had received sodium valproate and propranolol previously, were excluded. The method was convenience sampling and the patients were divided into two groups with 26 patients: A and B for propranolol and sodium valproate respectively. Group A treated with propranolol and group B with sodium valproate for 8 weeks. The response to treatment was evaluated after 4 weeks. The study evaluated 52 children with migraine from 7-15 year’s old , 38.5% of cases were male and 61.5% female. Before treatment , the mean number of attacks was 5.61 months in group A and 8.73 months in group B. After treatment the number of attacks was declined in 21 cases (80.8% of group A and 19 cases (73.1% of group B. Severity of pain was improved in 18 cases (69.2% of group A and 15 cases (57.7% of group B. The incidence of vertigo was 3 cases (11.5% in group A and 2 cases (7.7% in group B. Abnormal liver enzymes test were detected in 11.5% of cases in the group B. CBC was abnormal in 7.7% of cases in the group B Sodium valproate and propranolol , both have the same therapeutic effects in prevention of migraine headeache in children. But side effects are different , and choice of either one depended on the effects consideration and contraindications of each one.

  14. A closed loop system for the conversion of uranium turnings to uranyl oxy-hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The machine shops at Los Alamos National Laboratory generate up to 5 Kgs of uranium turnings daily. Presently, the turnings are packed in diesel fuel in 55 gallon drums and shipped off site for treatment and disposal. In response to a request for an in-situ generator treatment plan, a three-part closed loop system has been designed to dissolve the turnings and leave them in a non-reactive form for either storage or disposal. The system uses electrochemically generated sodium hypochlorite to dissolve the turnings, converting them to uranyl oxy-hydroxide precipitate. The precipitate is continually centrifuged to separate the liquids from solids. The supernant, spent hypochlorite, feeds into the electrochemical cell, the hypochlorite is regenerated and pumped back into the dissolution reactor. This closed loop system accomplishes both conversion of the uranium turnings to an acceptable form and minimizes the treatment wastestream

  15. Chondroitin sulfate and sodium hialuronate in treatment of the degenerative joint disease in dogs. Clinical and radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate in the knee joint of dogs with experimentally induced degenerative joint disease (DJD). Fifteen mongrel dogs, weighing 18 to 25kg were used. DJD was induced by cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) arthroscopical transection. After three weeks, CCL was repaired by an intrarticular technique, which uses fascia lata. The dogs were then divided into three groups as follows: group I received no other treatment, but the CCL reconstitution, group II received 24mg/animal of chondroitin sulfate/IM every five days, totaling six injections, and group III received 20mg/animal of sodium hyaluronate /IV every five days, totaling three injections. All dogs were examined clinically and radiographically for 90 days after the repairment surgery. The clinical evaluation was performed by assessment of lameness, weight-bearing, limb muscle atrophy and range of motion. The results demonstrated that the group treated with sodium hyaluronate had lower degree of lameness in comparison with other groups. The radiographic evaluation showed marginal osteophytes and subchondral bone sclerosis. These changes were more severe in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate. The better clinical results observed in this group, compared with the others, was probably due to the greater action of the drug in the synovium, decreasing the pain and lameness. Radiographic findings correlated poorly with the clinical signs in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate

  16. Dietary sodium, potassium, and alcohol: key players in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    Western industrialized societies are currently experiencing an epidemic expansion of hypertension (HTN), which extends alarmingly even to children and adolescents. HTN constitutes an independent risk factor for cardiorenal disease and represents an extremely common comorbidity of diabetes and obesity. Numerous randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have provided robust scientific evidence that reduced dietary salt intake, increased dietary potassium intake, moderation of alcohol consumption, optimal weight maintenance, and the adoption of "heart-friendly" dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension or the Mediterranean diet can effectively lower blood pressure. Interestingly, the susceptibility of blood pressure to nutritional interventions is greatly variable among individuals, depending on age, race, genetic background, and comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of currently available scientific evidence in the constantly evolving field of diet and HTN, placing particular emphasis on the key role of dietary sodium, dietary potassium, and alcohol intake in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension. PMID:23731449

  17. Formulation and evaluation of Alendronate Sodium gel for the treatment of bone resorptive lesions in Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G Thirumal; Kumar, T M Pramod; Veena

    2005-01-01

    Alendronate sodium is formulated into gels and evaluated for the treatment of bone resorptive lesions in periodontitis. Carbopol 934P was used for the preparation of gels in three different concentrations. The prepared gel was evaluated for various properties such as preformulation, content uniformity, viscosity, compatibility, sterility, in vitro diffusion, and in vivo studies. The drug and the polymer were found to be compatible and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Viscosity of the gels increased with the increase in the polymer concentration. The formulations were found to be sterile. In vitro release study revealed that drug released from the gel follows non-Fickian diffusion followed by first-order release. In vivo studies were carried out for 6 months in patients. The results revealed a significant improvement in the clinical parameters such as gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and potent inhibitory effect on bone resorption by inhibition of osteoclasts. In addition, there was increase in the new bone formation. PMID:16044536

  18. The reference value for blood sodium in inhabitants of Brazil: harmonization of statistical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is the establishment of reliable sodium reference value in whole blood of Brazilians, living in two regions (Northeast and Southeast) using NAA, with emphasis on the statistical treatment. These results included: mean Na levels (1.77 g/l), the standard deviation (0.29 g/l), median (1.75 g/l), mode (2.05 g/l) and also the reference intervals - for general population (1.48 - 2.06 g/l), for male (1.47 - 2.05 g/l) and for female (1.53 - 2.07 g/l). Also, the influence of sex and age on Na in blood was evaluated by the analyse of variance between males and females and considering several range for age (18-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, ? 51 years). These results show small differences when a comparison is performed in function of age, sex and geographic occupation. (author)

  19. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  20. Effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate treatment in a rat model of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jude S; Quon, Anita; Cheung, Po-Yin; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Davidge, Sandra T

    2015-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy with a significant impact on maternal and fetal health. The complexity of this multifactorial condition has precluded development of effective therapies and, although many potential pathways have been investigated, the etiology still requires clarification. Our group has investigated the scavenger lectin-like oxidized LDL (LOX-1) receptor, which may respond to factors released from the distressed placenta that contribute to the vascular pathologies observed in preeclampsia. Given the known beneficial effects of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS; a component of Salvia miltiorrhiza) on vasodilation, reduction of oxidative stress, and lipid profiles, we have investigated its role as a potential treatment strategy. We hypothesized that STS would improve vascular endothelial function and, combined with a reduction in oxidative stress, would improve pregnancy outcomes in a rat model of preeclampsia (reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure, RUPP). We further hypothesized this may occur via the action of STS on the LOX-1 and/or platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor axes. The RUPP model increased maternal blood pressure, vascular oxidative stress, and involvement of the vascular PAF receptor. Treatment with STS during pregnancy decreased both oxidative stress and involvement of the PAF receptor; however, it also increased involvement of the LOX-1 receptor, which is in line with the concept that scavenger receptors, such as LOX-1 and PAF, are upregulated in response to ligand binding and/or under pathological conditions. In this model of preeclampsia, however, the vascular actions of STS did not lead to improvements in pregnancy outcome such as fetal biometrics or maternal blood pressure. PMID:25477421

  1. ROS generation and proline metabolism in calli of halophyte Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. to sodium nitroprusside treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Ding, Fan; Duan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Xiaoning; Yang, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a stress factor or a signal molecule involved in various plant physiological and developmental processes. In the present study, the generation of reactive oxygen species and the metabolism of proline due to different sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) concentrations were investigated in callus from halophyte Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. Treatment with SNP led to significant increases of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and cell viability but notable reductions in hydrogen radical level and lipid peroxidation degree, and superoxide onion (O2 (-)) content also enhanced in 100 ?M SNP-treated calli. Using a chemical inhibitor for plasma membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase diphenylene iodonium (DPI), we found low O2 (-) generation in untreated and 25 ?M SNP-treated calli, whereas in those treated with 100 ?M SNP O2 (-) level exhibited a very little alteration, comparable to the absence of DPI. These suggest a high activity of PM NADPH oxidase in untreated calli. H2O2 scavenging enzymes (catalase, peroxidase [POD] and ascorbate peroxidase) and H2O2 forming enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], cell wall-POD and diamine oxidase [DAO]) stimulated significantly in calli treated with different SNP concentrations while glutathione reductase activity decreased. In addition, a reduction in proline content was observed in SNP-treated calli. Moreover, different SNP concentrations stimulated proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and ornithine ?-aminotransferase but inhibited r-glutamyl kinase (GK). In conclusion, our results suggest that the increasing H2O2 generation was associated with the stimulation of SOD, cell wall-POD and DAO, and that the reduction of proline content might be the consequence of increased PDH activity and decreased GK activity in N. tangutorum Bobr. calli under SNP treatment. PMID:23838886

  2. Disinfection of herbal spa pool using combined chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Shan; Huang, Da-Ji

    2015-02-01

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in public spa pools poses a serious threat to human health. The problem is particularly acute in herbal spas, in which the herbs and microorganisms may interact and produce undesirable consequences. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effectiveness of a combined disinfectant containing chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite in improving the water quality of a public herbal spa in Taiwan. Water samples were collected from the spa pool and laboratory tests were then performed to measure the variation over time of the microorganism content (total CFU and total coliforms) and residual disinfectant content given a single disinfection mode (SDM) with disinfectant concentrations of 5.2?×?10, 6.29?×?10, 7.4?×?10, and 11.4?×?10(-5) N, respectively. Utilizing the experience gained from the laboratory tests, a further series of on-site investigations was performed using three different disinfection modes, namely SDM, 3DM (once every 3 h disinfection mode), and 2DM (once every 2 h disinfection mode). The laboratory results showed that for all four disinfectant concentrations, the CFU concentration reduced for the first 6 h following SDM treatment, but then increased. Moreover, the ANOVA results showed that the sample treated with the highest disinfectant concentration (11.4?×?10(-5) N) exhibited the lowest rate of increase in the CFU concentration. In addition, the on-site test results showed that 3DM and 2DM treatments with disinfectant concentrations in excess of 9.3?×?10 and 5.5?×?10(-5) N, respectively, provided an effective reduction in the total CFU concentration. In conclusion, the experimental results presented in this study provide a useful source of reference for spa businesses seeking to improve the water quality of their spa pools. PMID:25632897

  3. Experimental murine schistosomiasis: reduced hepatic morbidity after pre- and/or post-infection treatment with ibuprofen or diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, M M; Salama, M A; Abou-Basha, L

    1995-10-01

    Arachidonic-acid metabolites appear to participate in skin penetration by and transformation of schistosome cercariae and in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. With this in mind, mice were treated with one of two cyclooxygenase inhibitors before and/or after infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The effects of the treatment on liver morbidity and the parasitic infection were then evaluated, using infected, untreated and uninfected, treated mice as controls. Treatment with ibuprofen (20 mg/kg.day) or diclofenac sodium (2.5 mg/kg.day) for 7 days before infection led to significantly lower liver weights, worm loads and hepatic hydroxyproline contents than in the untreated mice. If treatment with either drug was continued after infection, for 28 days, there was an additional significant decrease in hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. All these parameters except liver weight were similarly affected when treatment with either drug was begun on the day of infection and continued for 28 days. There was no significant change in liver weight or worm load when treatment was delayed until day 28 post-infection but faecal egg counts were reduced in the treated groups. In additional experiments, using a smaller dose of diclofenac sodium (1.25 mg/kg.day), all the measured parameters of infection were significantly decreased when the treatment was initiated 7 days before infection and continued until day 28 post-infection. The results indicate that the treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with ibuprofen or diclofenac sodium was effective in reducing the severity of infection and in attenuating hepatic fibrosis, particularly when the treatment was started early in relation to the time of infection. PMID:7495363

  4. Evaluation of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings leachates. Laboratory progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions. Highly acidic tailings solutions (pH3) reagent grade; Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] reagent grade; Magnesium oxide (MgO) reagent grade; Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) reagent grade; and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reagent grade. Evaluation of the effectiveness for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions for the selected neutralizing agents under controlled laboratory conditions was based on three criteria. The criteria are: (1) treated effluent water quality, (2) neutralized sludge handling and hydraulic properties, and (3) reagent costs and acid neutralizing efficiency. On the basis of these limited laboratory results calcium hydroxide or its dehydrated form CaO (lime) appears to be the most effective option for treatment of uranium tailings solutions

  5. Insight of the removal of nickel and copper ions in fixed bed through acid activation and treatment with sodium of clay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. F. de, Almeida Neto; M. G. A., Vieira; M. G. C. da, Silva.

    1047-10-01

    Full Text Available The bentonitic clays show good adsorptive characteristics, being used as alternative material for removing metals. This study evaluates several treatments (calcination, acid activation and treatment with sodium) of bentonite type Bofe in the removal of nickel and copper. Analyses were performed for [...] physicochemical characterization of clay using the techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermal analysis (TG and DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) method, N2 adsorption (BET) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Among the changes induced by acid activation and sodium transformations, the treatment with sodium chloride in fixed bed showed the highest performance in the monocomponent removal of nickel and copper.

  6. Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice

    OpenAIRE

    AnneMarieComi; ShilpaDKadam; CharlesRohde; DaniRSmith

    2013-01-01

    Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate) and trichostatin A (TSA) treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development o...

  7. Sodium Glucose Co transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: A New Sword for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    R.Rajesh,; Patel Naren; Sudha vidyasagar,; Unnikrishnan; Sureshwar Pandey,; Manju Varghese; Sagar Gang

    2010-01-01

    The low affinity sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT2) plays a major role in physiology of glucose reabsorption from proximal part of kidney. Almost all glucose excreted through glomerular filtration, isreabsorbed via SGLT2 until blood glucose level reaches to its hreshold value for glucose excretion i.e. ~180mg/dl. Increasing the glucose excretion by inhibiting the SGLT2 is the novel approach for the treatment of diabetes. Safe and normal life of patients having familial renal glucosuria due...

  8. Synthesize of hierarchical sisal-like cobalt hydroxide and its electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Sisal-shaped hierarchical cobalt hydroxide was obtained by a simple hydrothermal method, and cobalt oxide was also easily obtained by heating the cobalt hydroxide in air. The obtained cobalt oxide possessed a similar hierarchical structure to the cobalt hydroxide. The prepared cobalt hydroxide samples were made of building blocks which took the shape of tower of Hanoi. The prepared samples exhibited promising electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional sisal-shaped ?-cobalt hydroxide and oxide are synthesized. • The products are assembled from building blocks with the shape of tower of Hanoi. • The morphologies, structures and sizes of products could be easily controlled. • The products exhibited promising electrochemical applications. - Abstract: Sisal-shaped hierarchical cobalt hydroxide was obtained by a simple hydrothermal method, and cobalt oxide was also easily obtained by heating the cobalt hydroxide in air. The obtained cobalt oxide possessed a similar hierarchical structure to the cobalt hydroxide. The prepared cobalt hydroxide samples were made of building blocks which took the shape of tower of Hanoi. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), field scanning electron microscope (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and thermogravimetry analysis (TG), which implied that various morphologies and structures of the samples could be easily obtained by changing the molar ratio of cobalt nitrate to TETA, the amount of sodium hydroxide added and reaction temperature. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms were explained. Finally, the electrochemical properties were evaluated and the prepared samples exhibited promising electrochemical applications

  9. Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated Thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiki D

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (Urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major source of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation, also there is a potential for exposure via contamination. Precautions are necessary to limit the radiation dose to family members, nursing staff and members of public and waste treatment workers to less than 1mSv. Patients received Sodium Iodide-131 may come into close contact with other persons. In order to derive appropriate recommendations, dose rates were measured from the anterior mid-trunk of 29 patients in the upright position within 15 minutes post-dose administration at 3 meters and just before they left the nuclear medicine department at 0.5, 1 and 3 meters. We have also measured urinary iodide excretion in 29 patients to estimate Sodium Iodide-131 urinary excretion pattern in Iranian patients. Based on results, the maximum cumulative dose to nursing staff was on third day (Leaving day still less than recommended dose by ICRP. The cumulative dose of family members will be more but regarding the time and distance in close contact it will also be less than recommended dose by ICRP. Radiation dose rate was decreased significantly on third day. The urinary excretion patterns in all patients were similar. The urinary excretion rate-time curve in all patients showed multiple peaks due to retention and redistribution of Iodine-131 or entrohepatic cycle of radioiodinated thyroid hormones, which didn’t allow calculation of urinary excretion rate constant. The results also showed that 67 hours post administration of Sodium Iodide-131 about 70% of radiopharmaceutical was excreted through urine, 28% physically decayed or eliminated through other biological routes.

  10. WOOD PRE-TREATMENT INFLUENCE ON THE HYDRATION OF PORTLAND CEMENT IN COMBINATION WITH SOME TROPICAL WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola SADIKU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three pre-treatment methods on the hydration characteristics of Portland cement in combination with three tropical hardwood species was investigated. The maximum hydration temperature and time to reach maximum hydration temperature were analysed for the wood-cement-water mixtures of the three species after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples by extraction with 5% Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, cold and hot water after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples. There were differences in the hydration reaction of the wood species with Portland cement using the different pre-treatment methods. The compatibility of the wood species with Portland cement improved following pre-treatment. Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment had the most significant effect followed by hot water. Terminalia ivorensis (Idigbo, and Antiaris africana (Oriro species showed considerable improvement in their compatibility with Portland cement at 5% Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment with maximum hydration temperature of 65oC where Arere had 60.5oC where both cold and hot water were unable to raise the hydration temperature beyond 55.5oC . This study shows that the wood species requires more than cold and hot water extraction to make them suitable for wood cement composite materials as extraction with sodium hydroxide (1% solution was found to be the most effective treatment for the wood species under investigation.

  11. Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 8700C (950 to 16000F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium

  12. COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN PATIENTS WITH COMPLEX ABSENCE FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH SODIUM VALPROATE

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Shobini L.; Satischandra, P.; Devi, M. Gourie

    1993-01-01

    The association of sodium valproate with cognitive functions was studied in 29 patients with complex absence seizures. Seventeen patients were on monotherapy and twelve on polypharmacy with sodium valproate. Cognitive functions assessed were attention, speech, visuo-speciat perception, memory and intelligence. Behavioral disturbances were also assessed. Two assessments were made six months apart; in the first assessment, attention and speech were adequate, while memory, visuo-spatial percepti...

  13. Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Nitrite And/Or Glutathione Treatment On Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Helal; *Zahkok, S; **Ghada Z A Soliman; * Al-Kassas, M;

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Using food preservatives as sodium nitrite are increased in industrial food productions. Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects have been related to using of some food preservatives. Purpose: To study the effect of sodium nitrite (food additives) and treated with glutathione (nature antitoxic) on rats. Material And Methods: Certain parameters were measured as percentage of body weight change, body temperature, heart rates, Red & white blood cells count (RBCs & WBCs), he...

  14. Genetically targeted radiotherapy using the sodium-iodide symporter for treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts at using gene therapy for cancer treatment have achieved limited success. Traditional in vivo gene therapy techniques are limited by relatively inefficient gene transfer, with only a small fraction of tumor cells transfected with the gene of interest. Gene therapy strategies yielding substantial bystander cytotoxicity are preferable and could yield significant clinical effect despite a lack of gene transfer to the entire tumor. We report the successful use of such a strategy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene, expressed primarily in the thyroid, is responsible for physiologic iodide accumulation. Expression of NIS in non-thyroid cell lines has been shown to confer iodide-concentrating ability. Using a recombinant adenovirus-NIS construct (Ad-NIS) delivered to HNSCC cell lines, we demonstrate radioiodide accumulation 15- to 30-fold higher than that of cell lines transduced with a control (Ad-Bgl II) adenovirus. Consistent with NIS-mediated uptake, this accumulation is inhibited by treatment with perchlorate. Using a clonogenic cell survival assay, we demonstrate a statistically significant, dose-dependent decrease in cell survival after delivery of Ad-NIS followed by administration of varying doses of I-131. Compared to a control, Ad-Bgl II-treated group, absolute survival was reduced by 80% at the highest dose of I-131 in Ad-NIS-treated cells. We also demonstrate the ability of NIS gene transfermonstrate the ability of NIS gene transfer followed by systemic administration of I-131 to dramatically attenuate tumor formation in nude mice. Three weeks after subcutaneous injection of tumor cells, tumors treated with Ad-NIS had decreased in size by 0.7±0.1 mm, whereas control tumors treated with Ad-Bgl II had increased in size by 7.4±1.7 mm. The relative accessibility of head and neck cancers make them attractive targets for gene therapy. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of genetically targeted radiotherapy using the NIS gene as a possible therapeutic intervention. Supported by NIH CA91709

  15. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of diclofenac sodium, prednisolone and an alpha blocker for the treatment of renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpay Sümer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we compare the efficacy of diclofenac sodium, methylprednisolone and alpha-blockers for the treatment of renal colic treatment.Material and methods: A total of 30 patients between the ages of 18-70 were included in this study. Patients were referred to the Meram Medical Faculty Urology Department or Department of Emergency Medicine at Selcuk University between October 2008 and January 2009. This prospective study was approved by the Selcuk University Meram Medical Faculty Ethics Committee. Patients were randomly divided into 3 cohorts of 10 patients each. The first group consisted of patients receiving diclofenac sodium and an alpha blocker, the second group of patients received diclofenac sodium and prednisolone, and the third group of patients received diclofenac sodium alone. Each patient was diagnosed and evaluated by the same clinician. Evaluation was based on the Numerical Classification Score (NCS and the Renal Colic Symptom Score (RCSS. Pain intensity was evaluated prior to medication administration and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 hours thereafter. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis test. P-value of ?0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Symptoms immediatiely prior to medication administration and after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 hours are evaluated. There are no significant differences between the groups (p>0.05. In group 1, stone expulsion occured in 4 patients (40%, a finding that is statistically significant (p=0.01. No adverse events occurred in any group during this study.Conclusion: Comparison of the therapeutic response among the 3 groups revealed no statistically significant difference. The most important aspects to consider in regard to a treatment modality include diminishing pain, dissolving blockage, a preservation of renal function and minimizing the side effects.

  16. Comparision of the Efficacy of Two Combinations;Sodium Valproate with Lithium & Sodium Valproate with Olanzapine in Treatment of Acute Mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Amanat

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute mania is a psychiatric emergency state that often requires rapid management. There are many different therapeutic protocols for this emergent situation. One of them is combination of moodstabilizers and antipsychotics. Olanzapine which is now available in our country can be used for this purpose. Methods and Materials: In this study, we compared the effectiveness, rapidity of response and side effects of sodium valproate plus olanzapine (group I with sodium valproate plus lithium (group II in acutely manic or mixed bipolar patients. In this randomized, double blind, parallel group study, 44 acutely manic or mixed patients according to DSM IV-TR criteria were randomly assigned to receive combinations of sodium valproate (20mg/kg per day with either olanzapine (5-15mg/day or lithium (900mg/day during a ten-day course. Efficacy was measured with Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS. Effectiveness measures included YMRS response (YMRS reduction ³ 50% and YMRS remission (YMRS<=12. Data was entered in SPSS11 software program and analyzed by Mann-Whitney, Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon tests (P-values < 0.05 were significant. Results: Total number of patients were 44 (mean age 27.18±7.34, 21 in group I and 23 in group II. Response rate was 85.7% (18 patients and 73.9% (17 patients in group I and II, respectively; with no significant differences between the two groups(P=0.33. Remission rate was 42.9 %(9 patients and 43.5% (10 patients in group I and II, respectively; with no significant differences between two groups(P=0.97. The reduction in total scores in YMRS on the 2nd, 7th and 10th days of study were significant in both groups (P<0.05, but the rapidity of response was similar. The rates of adverse effects between two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Both combinations of drugs were effective in acutely manic or mixed patients. Both treatments were safe and well tolerated

  17. Observation of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Hua Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the effects of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis. METHODS:Forty patients with ocular herpes zoster were divided into two groups, 20 cases in the observation group, 20 cases in the control group. Observation group was treated with 200mg oral acyclovir for 5 times a day and sodium hyaluronate eye drops for 4 times a day. When stromal keratitis, disciform keratitis or corneal endotheliitis occurred, fluorometholone was used for 4 times a day. The control group was treated with ganciclovir ophthalmic gel for 4 times a day. The efficacy of two groups was observed, patients were followed up for 3-4wk. RESULTS:The observation group of local pain and photophobia in remission time and corneal damage healing time were better than control group, and there were significant differences(PCONCLUSION: Effects of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis are satisfactory.

  18. Sodium valproate for the treatment of Tourette?s syndrome in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Song; Zhang, Ling-Li; Lin, Yun-Zhu; Guo, Qin

    2015-04-30

    The aims are to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium valproate for children with Tourette?s syndrome (TS). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, Cochrane Central, CBM, CNKI, VIP, WANG FANG database and relevant reference lists. Five RCTs (N=247) and five case series (N=163) studies were included. Only one RCT (93 patients) evaluated total YGTSS scores and there was significant difference in the reduction of total YGTSS scores between sodium valproate and the control group (3.50±4.59 vs 7.86±7.03, P<0.01). One RCT (30 patients) evaluated motor and vocal tics, and there was significant difference in the reduction of motor and vocal tics scores between sodium valproate and haloperidol (10.45±4.15 vs 14.92±3.01, P<0.01). Meta-analysis of three RCTs (N=124) showed there was no significant difference in the reduction of the number of tics between sodium valproate and the positive control group [Relative Risk (RR)=1.09, 95%CI (0.92, 1.30), P=0.30]. The pooled proportion in five case series studies which used tics symptom improvement self-defined by authors was 80.7% (95% CI: 73.7-86.2, I(2)=0). No fatal side effects were reported. In conclusion, based on the limited evidence, the routine use of sodium valproate for treatment of TS in children is not recommended. Further well-conducted trials that examine long-term outcomes are required. PMID:25724485

  19. Computer aided identification of sodium channel blockers in the clinical treatment of epilepsy using molecular docking tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Uzma; Akka, Jyothy; Hinore, Jitendra Singh; Girdhar, Amandeep; Bandaru, Srinivas; Sumithnath, Tharaparambil Gangadharan; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Munshi, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) and Carbamazepine (CBZ) are excellent sodium channel blockers administered in clinical treatment of epileptic seizures. However, the narrow therapeutic range and limited pharmacokinetics of these drugs have raised serious concerns in the proper management of epilepsy. To overcome this, the present study attempts to identify a candidate molecule with superior pharmacological profile than PHT and CBZ through In silico approaches. PHT and CBZ served as query small molecules for Tanimoto based similarity search with a threshold of 95% against PubChem database. Aided by MolDock algorithm, high affinity similar compound against each query was retrieved. PHT and CBZ and their respective similar were further tested for toxicity profiles, LC 50 values and biological activity. Compounds, NSC403438 and AGN-PC-0BPCBP respectively similar to PHT and CBZ demonstrated higher affinity to sodium channel protein than their respective leads. Of particular relevance, NSC403438 demonstrated highest binding affinity bestowed with least toxicity, better LC 50 values and optimal bioactivity. NSC403438 was further mapped for its structure based pharmacophoric features. In the study, we report NSC403438 as potential sodium channel blocker as a better candidate than PHT and CBZ which can be put forth for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. Abbreviations AEDs - Antiepileptic drugs, BLAST - Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, CBZ - Carbamazepine, GEFS+ - Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus, GPCR - G Protein Coupled Receptor, Nav - Sodium channel with specific voltage conduction, PDB - Protein Data Bank, PHT - Phenytoin, PIR - Protein Information resources, SAVES - Structural Analysis and Verification Server, VGSC - Voltage-gated Sodium channels. PMID:25914447

  20. Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Nitrite And/Or Glutathione Treatment On Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Helal; *Zahkok, S; **Ghada Z A Soliman; * Al-Kassas, M;

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using food preservatives as sodium nitrite are increased in industrial food productions. Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects have been related to using of some food preservatives. Purpose: To study the effect of sodium nitrite (food additives and treated with glutathione (nature antitoxic on rats. Material And Methods: Certain parameters were measured as percentage of body weight change, body temperature, heart rates, Red & white blood cells count (RBCs & WBCs, hemoglobin (Hb level, hematocrite (Hct value, serum total lipids, serum cholesterol, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum glucose, serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase (ALT & AST activity and serum total cholinesterase. The organs, body weight were detected. Organs were prepared for biochemical analysis. Results: Body weight, respiration rate, hepatosomatic index, RBCs & WBCs count, Hb, Hct, serum total lipids, protein, albumin, A/G ratio, liver and muscle total lipids and cholesterol were significantly reduced while serum cholesterol, kidney total lipids and cholesterol, serum ALT & AST was significantly increased. Supplementation of sodium nitrite to rats had no effect on serum glucose level or cholinesterase activity Conclusion: Due to the hazardous effect of food additives as sodium nitrite, it is recommended that the use of sodium nitrite as food additives must be limited and gluathione has the ability to prevent its toxic effect

  1. Tratamento da distrofia muscular progressiva com lactato de sódio Treatment of progressive muscular dystrophy with sodium lactate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base em trabalhos anteriores, 13 casos de distrofia muscular progressiva foram tratados com lactato de sódio 1/6 molar associado a ATP e complexo B. O exame da força muscular, realizado antes e após o tratamento — salvo em dois casos nos quais ocorreram melhoras muito discretas — não mostrou qualquer efeito favorável da medicação. Os autores sugerem a verificação de possíveis alterações enzimáticas provocadas pelo lactato de sódio, o que serviria para melhor avaliação do efeito terapêutico.Thirteen cases of progressive muscular dystrophy were treated with 1/6 M. sodium lactate plus ATP and B complex. Examinations of muscle strength, before and after the treatment, did not show any favourable effects, except in two of the cases which showed slight improvement. The authors suggest that possible enzimatic alterations caused by the sodium lactate be checked up on, since this checking could be employed in the evaluation of the therapeutic effects.

  2. Layered double hydroxides as nano additives in poly(?-caprolactone)

    OpenAIRE

    Manhique, Arao J.; Focke, Walter Wilhelm; Madivate, Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Poly(e-caprolactone) MgAl - layered double hydroxides (MgAl-LDH) nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation. Two organically modified MgAl-LDH, stearic acid (stearate) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), were used. Nanocomposites morphology was studied by XRD and TEM. Thermal properties were analysed by TG and DSC. Although both systems showed presence of a mixed morphology, exfoliated and intercalated, MgAl-LDH stearate nanocomposites showed a better dispersion of inorg...

  3. Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate Tablets for Routine Treatment of Household Drinking Water in Periurban Ghana: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Seema; Sahanoon, Osman K.; Blanton, Elizabeth; Schmitz, Ann; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded trial to determine the health impact of daily use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets for household drinking water treatment in periurban Ghana. We randomized 240 households (3,240 individuals) to receive either NaDCC or placebo tablets. All households received a 20-liter safe water storage vvessel. Over 12 weeks, 446 diarrhea episodes (2.2%) occurred in intervention and 404 (2.0%) in control households (P = 0.38). Resid...

  4. Repository performance assessment of waste forms from the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ceramic and metal waste forms produced by electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel are undergoing evaluation as to how they will perform within the geologic repository which is proposed to be built at Yucca Mountain. An initial assessment, making use of preliminary degradation models for the waste forms, is described. The analyses are performed with a simplified version of the Total System Performance Assessment--Viability Assessment repository model. Results indicate that the ability of the ceramic and metal waste forms to retain radionuclides is similar to and sometimes better than defense high-level waste glass

  5. Volumes of aqueous hydrogen and hydroxide ions at 0 to 200 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Yizhak

    2012-10-01

    The electrostriction of aqueous hydrogen and hydroxide ions at infinite dilution was calculated by the shell-by-shell method over the temperature range 0 to 200 °C. The calculation required an estimate of the ionic radius of these ions, and comparison with data for aqueous lithium, sodium, and fluoride ions provided values for the nominal sizes of the hydrogen and hydroxide ions in solution. From the volumetric standpoint, these sizes are surprisingly smaller than the size of a water molecule.

  6. Technology of mine water treatment in uranium ore mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used method of radioactive water treatment is the sedimentation method based on the adsorption mechanism. Iron, aluminium and calcium hydroxides are used for removal of uranium. Thorium, polonium and lead 210 are removed using the said hydroxides and also barium chloride and sodium phosphate. The mining solutions are mixed with chemicals and cleaning proceses take place including sedimentation, decantation and filtration. The treated water is partially returned into technological operations, partially discharged. Hygiene regulations have so far been missing governing other uses. (M.D.). 3 refs

  7. Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (p<0.05). Therefore, in this study, the synergistic disinfection effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was investigated to reduce the gamma irradiation dose. In an artificial inoculation experiment of B. cinerea isolated from naturally-infected postharvest paprika, fungal symptoms were observed in the stem and exocarp of paprika after conidial inoculation. From the sensitivity of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, B. cinerea conidia were fully inactivated by 4 kGy of gamma irradiation (D10 value 0.99 kGy), and were fully inactivated by 50 ppm NaDCC treatment. The fungal symptoms were not detected by the dose-dependent gamma irradiation (>4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (p<0.05). Moreover, fungal symptoms were more significantly reduced in combined treatment groups (gamma irradiation and NaDCC) than single treatment groups (gamma irradiation or NaDCC). These results suggest that combined treatment with irradiation and NaDCC treatment can be applied to preserve quality of postharvest paprika or other fruits. - Highlights: • Paprikas were treated with irradiation and NaDCC to control gray mold. • We confirmed that the combined treatment was synergistically affected. • The treatment can contribute to a reduction of postharvest losses caused by fungi. • This combined treatment can also reduce the doses of irradiation

  8. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corona discharge formed an alkali depletion layer on a glass surface. • Introduction of hydrogen accelerated the depletion layer thickness. • Thickness was doubled compared with that in air. • Efficient formation of proton at an anode needle end was one cause. • Applied voltage across the glass plate in hydrogen was 2.7 times that in air. - Abstract: Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air

  9. Conductivity measures coupled with treatment with ion-exchange resin for the assessment of sodium concentration in physiological fluids: analyses on artificial solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In humans, sodium is essential for the regulation of blood volume and pressure. During hemodialysis, sodium measurement is important to preserve the patient from hypo- or hyper-natremia Usually, sodium measurement is performed through laboratory equipment which is typically expensive, and requires manual intervention. We propose a new method, based on conductivity measurement after treatment of dialysate solution through ion-exchange resin. To test this method, we performed in vitro experiments. We prepared 40 ml sodium chloride (NaCl) samples at 280, 140, 70, 35, 17.5, 8.75, 4.375 mEq/l, and some mixed samples, i.e., with added potassium chloride (KCl) at different concentrations (4.375–17.5 mEq/l), to simulate the confounding factors in a conductivity-based sodium measurement. We measured the conductivity of all samples. Afterwards, each sample was treated for 1 min with 1 g of Dowex G-26 resin, and conductivity measured again. On average, the difference ? in the conductivity between mixed samples and corresponding pure NaCl samples (at the same NaCl concentration) was 20.9%. With treatment with the resin, it was 9.9%, only. We conclude that ion-exchange resin treatment coupled with conductivity measures may be a possible simple approach for continuous and automatic sodium measurement during hemodialysis

  10. Degradation of l-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Nathalie; Katiyar, Vimal

    2012-01-01

    PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesium–aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces and catalytically active Mg site centers are causative factors for PLA degradation. Interestingly, the release of water under the processing conditions was found to have a rather small effect on the PLA degradation. Low loadings of sodium laurate also caused PLA degradation indicating that carboxylate chain ends may be active degrading agents. Phosphate treatment of laurate-modified LDH was investigated and this may be a promising way of reducing PLA degradation, thereby making such processes more practically realistic.

  11. Degradation of L-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Nathalie Christiane; Katiyar, Vimal

    2012-01-01

    PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C-12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces and catalytically active Mg site centers are causative factors for PLA degradation. Interestingly, the release of water under the processing conditions was found to have a rather small effect on the PLA degradation. Low loadings of sodium laurate also caused PLA degradation indicating that carboxylate chain ends may be active degrading agents. Phosphate treatment of laurate-modified LDH was investigated and this may be a promising way of reducing PLA degradation, thereby making such processes more practically realistic. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wet reclamation of sodium silicate used sand and biological treatment of its wastewater by Nitzschia palea

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Shaoqiang; Fan Zitian; Wang Huafang

    2012-01-01

    The massive amount of sodium silicate in the used sand was a pollution source, especially in the waste water from the wet reclamation of used sand. A new process of wet reclamation by biologically treating the waste water produced during the wet reclamation process of used sand was studied in the paper. In the work, the pre-cultivation of N. palea was performed firstly, and three different scrubbing solutions: (1) tap water, (2) modified medium for N. palea, and (3) filtrate of the broth trea...

  13. Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Daume; Stefan Puttnins; Christian Scheit; Hendrik Zachmann; Andreas Rahm; Alexander Braun; Marius Grundmann

    2013-01-01

    Long term stability is crucial to maturing any photovoltaic technology. We have studied the influence of sodium, which plays a key role in optimizing the performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells, on the long-term stability of flexible CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil. The standardized procedure of damp heat exposure (85% relative humidity at 85 °C) was used to simulate aging of the unencapsulated cells in multiple time steps while they were characterized by current-voltage analysis...

  14. Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Daume

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Long term stability is crucial to maturing any photovoltaic technology. We have studied the influence of sodium, which plays a key role in optimizing the performance of Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGSe solar cells, on the long-term stability of flexible CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil. The standardized procedure of damp heat exposure (85% relative humidity at 85 °C was used to simulate aging of the unencapsulated cells in multiple time steps while they were characterized by current-voltage analysis, capacitance-voltage profiling, as well as electroluminescence imaging. By comparing the aging process to cells that were exposed to heat only, it could be confirmed that moisture plays the key role in the degradation process. We found that cells with higher sodium content suffer from a more pronounced degradation. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate the superposition of an enhancing and a deteriorating mechanism during the aging process. We propose an explanation based on the corrosion of the planar contacts of the solar cell.

  15. Mineral content of infant formula after treatment with sodium polystyrene sulfonate or calcium polystyrene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, N; Dabbagh, S; Mukhopadhyay, S; Lee, D Y

    1998-01-01

    Options for the management of infants with hyperkalemia secondary to renal insufficiency are limited for infants not maintained on dialysis. Precipitation of potassium (K+) from infant formula with sodium polystyrene sulfonate (KX) prior to feeding has been reported. However, its effect on calcium (Ca2+) and sodium (Na+) has not been quantitatively defined. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two K+ exchange resins: KX and calcium polystyrene sulfonate (RC) on Na+, K+, and Ca2+. Infant formula powder (Similac PM 60/40, Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH, USA) was prepared with deionized water (DW) and KX or RC (1 g/mEq of K+) was added. The formula was decanted after 50 minutes and Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were assayed in the supernatant. Na+ and K+ were also assayed in ready-to-feed PM 60/40 (RTF). KX decreased the K+ concentration by 4.5 fold (P < 0.001) and increased the Na+ content by 3.8 fold (P < 0.001). In RC there was a 1.6-fold increase in Ca2+ content (P < 0.001), and a 13% decrease in K+ concentrations (P < 0.05). Preparation of the formula with DW reduced the K+ concentration by 30% compared to ready-to-feed formula (P < 0.001). We conclude that, although KX significantly reduces the K+ content of formulas, DW may be a more practical and convenient method of preparing formula for the hyperkalemic infant. PMID:10649740

  16. Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 deg. C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 deg. C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 deg. C had lower water absorption as 12.22%, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

  17. Rice mutants obtained through sodium azide (NaN3) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful utilization of sodium azide to generate genetic variability in plant breeding has been reported in barley, rice, and other crops. Rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce', Brazilian upland cultivar, were treated with 5x10-3 M of sodium azide, prepared in buffer solution of pH 3,0, for 8 hours at laboratory temperature. Ten short culm mutant lines were selected in the M2, M3 and M4 generations. In the M5 generation, the mutant lines were evaluated for flowering and maturing cycles, tiller number per plant, plant height, panicle number per m2 , panicle length, fertility of panicle, weight of 1.000 grains, productivity, percentage of intact grains after milling, width and thickness of peeled and polished grains and length/width grain ratio. The experiment was conducted in the Centro Experimental of Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the period of 1993/94, utilizing randomized block design with four replications. Each experimental plot consisted of five rows of four meters in length, 50 cm between rows, with 75 seeds sown per meter. The cultivar 'IAC 201' and the original Dourado Precoce were planted as checks. All observations were made on the three central rows of each experimental plot. The data was analysed by the SANEST statistical program and the mean values were discriminated by the Tukey's test at the level 5% of probability

  18. Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Thueploy, A.; Nilpairach, S.; Arayaphong, D.

    2011-10-01

    Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 °C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 °C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 °C had lower water absorption as 12.22 %, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

  19. Chronic treatment with valproic acid or sodium butyrate attenuates novel object recognition deficits and hippocampal dendritic spine loss in a mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Yuta; Kataoka, Shunsuke; Kawanai, Takuya; Maeda, Yuko; Watanabe, Ryo; Takano, Erika; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Ago, Yukio; Matsuda, Toshio

    2014-11-01

    We recently showed that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in mice causes autism-like behavioral abnormalities, including social interaction deficits, anxiety-like behavior and spatial learning disability, in male offspring. In the present study, we examined the effect of prenatal VPA on cognitive function and whether the effect is improved by chronic treatment with VPA and sodium butyrate, histone deacetylase inhibitors. In addition, we examined whether the cognitive dysfunction is associated with hippocampal dendritic morphological changes. Mice given prenatal exposure to VPA exhibited novel object recognition deficits at 9 weeks of age, and that the impairment was blocked by chronic (5-week) treatment with VPA (30 mg/kg/d, i.p.) or sodium butyrate (1.2g/kg/d, i.p.) starting at 4 weeks of age. In agreement with the behavioral findings, the mice prenatally exposed to VPA showed a decrease in dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region, and the spine loss was attenuated by chronic treatment with sodium butyrate or VPA. Furthermore, acute treatment with sodium butyrate, but not VPA, significantly increased acetylation of histone H3 in the hippocampus at 30 min, suggesting the difference in the mechanism for the effects of chronic VPA and sodium butyrate. These findings suggest that prenatal VPA-induced cognitive dysfunction is associated with changes in hippocampal dendritic spine morphology. PMID:25240644

  20. Sorption properties of iron hydroxides and chromium with yttrium hydroxide additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of yttrium hydroxide additives on sorption properties of iron hydroxides and chromium is studied in present article. The values of sorption of silver ions, chromate and arsenite ions by sorbents with yttrium hydroxide additives are defined.

  1. Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnneMarieComi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate and Trichostatin A (TSA treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development of post-stroke epilepsy. Unilateral carotid ligation of P12 CD1 mice was followed by treatment with valproate, TSA, or vehicle for 2 weeks, BrdU administration for measurement of neurogenesis, and perfusion at P42 or P60. Behavior testing was conducted from P38-42. No detrimental effects on behavior testing were noted with TSA treatment, but mildly impaired cognitive function was noted with valproate-treated injured animals compared to normal animals. Significant increases in DG neurogenesis with both TSA and valproate treatment were noted with later administration of BrdU. Increased mortality and impaired weight gain was noted in the valproate-treated ligated animals, but not in the TSA-treated animals. In summary, the impact of HDAC inhibition upon post-stroke SGZ neurogenesis is likely to depend on the age of the animal at the time point when neurogenesis is assessed, duration of HDAC inhibition before BrdU labeling, and/or the stage in the evolution of the injury.

  2. Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Shanu; Kadam, Shilpa D; Irving, Natasha D; Markowitz, Geoffrey J; Raja, Saba; Kwan, Anthony; Tu, Yushan; Chen, Huigen; Rohde, Charles; Smith, Dani R; Comi, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate) and trichostatin A (TSA) treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development of post-stroke epilepsy. Unilateral carotid ligation of P12 CD1 mice was followed by treatment with valproate, TSA, or vehicle for 2 weeks, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) administration for measurement of neurogenesis, and perfusion at P42 or P60. Behavior testing was conducted from P38-42. No detrimental effects on behavior testing were noted with TSA treatment, but mildly impaired cognitive function was noted with valproate-treated injured animals compared to normal animals. Significant increases in DG neurogenesis with both TSA and valproate treatment were noted with later administration of BrdU. Increased mortality and impaired weight gain was noted in the valproate-treated ligated animals, but not in the TSA-treated animals. In summary, the impact of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition upon post-stroke subgranular zone neurogenesis is likely to depend on the age of the animal at the time point when neurogenesis is assessed, duration of HDAC inhibition before BrdU labeling, and/or the stage in the evolution of the injury. PMID:23966909

  3. [Effect of treatments of hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate on clay minerals of red earth sediments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Biao; Hong, Han-Lie; Yin, Ke; Wang, Chao-Wen; Gao, Wen-Peng; Han, Wen; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2013-04-01

    As classical procedures for pretreatment of soil sediments, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment methods are very important in removing the organic matter and iron oxides acting as cementing agents in the soils. However, both of these methods have less been focused on the effect on the clay minerals when separating. Here, we report the comparable methods between H2O2 and DCB to reveal their effect on clay minerals in red earth sediments using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results suggested that mineral particles can be totally decentralized by either H2O2 or DCB method in the soils and high purity clay minerals can be obtained by separating quartz and other impurities from clay minerals effectively. However, the XRD data were distorted by the DCB treatment owning to the cation exchange between Na+ and interlayer cation. On the contrary, the authentic data can be obtained by H2O2 treatment. Therefore, the H2O2 treatment seems to be a more appropriate method to obtain authentic information of clay mineralogy when separating of clay minerals from red earth sediments. PMID:23841441

  4. Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THORR process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. Design of the IWTU is nearing completion. The IWTU will be constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF), with planned fabrication and construction to start in early 2007 upon receipt of needed permits and completion of design and engineering. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment a and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

  5. Risperidone Versus Risperidone Plus Sodium Valproate for Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical-Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Moosavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy with risperidone plus valproate in bipolar I disorder, manic phase. Some studies showed the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, so we examined this effectiveness in this clinical-trial study. Method: This 7-week, randomized, single-blind study included 48 bipolar I inpatients manic phase without psychotic features divided in risperidone group (n = 23 and risperidone plus sodium valproate group (n = 25. According to clinical symptoms, 3 categories: complete remission, partial remission and no remission were mentioned in weekly follow-up. Remission rate compared with survival analysis. Results: The results showed a significant difference in remission rate between risperidone monotherapy and risperidone plus sodium valproate at the 1st, 2nd and the 3rd week (p = 0.012, 0.023, 0.027 respectively, It means the remission rate in risperidone plus valproate group was higher in the first three weeks, but at the end of the seventh week, the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the development of adverse effects. Conclusions: Risperidone can be effective and well tolerated in both acute manic episodes of bipolar mood disorders.

  6. The use of a modified Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite) in the treatment of Vibrio vulnificus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, S M; Heggers, J P

    1999-01-01

    We report the first clinical use of a modified Dakin's solution (0.025% sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl]) to halt the progress of severe cutaneous Vibrio vulnificus infection in a critically ill patient. The regimen used arose from an initial in vitro study designed to examine the sensitivity of Vibrio species to topical antimicrobial agents. Twenty-eight wound isolates were tested against the following eight topical preparations: silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene), nitrofurazone, mupirocin ointment (Bactroban), polymyxin B/bacitracin, mafenide acetate (Sulfamylon), nystatin/Silvadene, nystatin/polymyxin B/bacitracin, and 0.025% NaOCl solution. The results showed that V vulnificus, along with the other 18 Vibrio species tested, was most sensitive to the modified NaOCl solution. PMID:10347673

  7. Development of biological treatment of high concentration sodium nitrate waste liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrolytic reduction, chemical reduction, and biological reduction have been picked up as a method of nitrate liquid waste treatment system exhausted from the reprocessing process. As a result of comparing them, it was shown that the biological treatment was the most excellent method in safety and the economy. (author)

  8. Alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly) for the treatment of osteoporosis: review of a novel, easy to swallow formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, decreased bone strength, and an increased risk of bone fracture. The disease progresses with age, especially in postmenopausal women. Japan is one of the most rapidly aging societies worldwide. Japanese individuals over 65 years of age constituted 23.0% of the population in 2010 and 25.1% to 25.2% as of 2013. The estimated number of people with osteoporosis in Japan is currently 13 million. Bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Alendronate sodium hydrate (alendronate) is a bisphosphonate that potently inhibits bone resorption and is used to treat osteoporosis. Sufficient water is required to take an alendronate oral tablet; insufficient water could result in digestive system diseases, such as esophageal ulceration. Elderly patients with swallowing difficulty may choke on the tablet. Taking a tablet with oral jelly is a method to prevent digestive system disease and reduce the choking hazard. Once-weekly alendronate oral jelly was approved in 2012 by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan as the world's first drug for osteoporosis in a jelly formulation. It consists of a jelly portion and an air portion. The jelly formulation is smoothly discharged by pushing the air portion. Therefore, elderly patients with physical disabilities are able to easily take all of the jelly formulation from the package. In this review, this new formulation of alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly) is introduced and discussed in terms of osteoporosis treatment. This new formulation provides an alternative so that patients may select a method of dosing tailored to their preferences. Management of osteoporosis involves assessing fracture risk and preventing fractures. Higher adherence to the treatment of patients with osteoporosis and prevention of osteoporotic fractures are issues to be resolved. PMID:23766643

  9. Alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly for the treatment of osteoporosis: review of a novel, easy to swallow formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imai K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiro Imai Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, decreased bone strength, and an increased risk of bone fracture. The disease progresses with age, especially in postmenopausal women. Japan is one of the most rapidly aging societies worldwide. Japanese individuals over 65 years of age constituted 23.0% of the population in 2010 and 25.1% to 25.2% as of 2013. The estimated number of people with osteoporosis in Japan is currently 13 million. Bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Alendronate sodium hydrate (alendronate is a bisphosphonate that potently inhibits bone resorption and is used to treat osteoporosis. Sufficient water is required to take an alendronate oral tablet; insufficient water could result in digestive system diseases, such as esophageal ulceration. Elderly patients with swallowing difficulty may choke on the tablet. Taking a tablet with oral jelly is a method to prevent digestive system disease and reduce the choking hazard. Once-weekly alendronate oral jelly was approved in 2012 by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan as the world's first drug for osteoporosis in a jelly formulation. It consists of a jelly portion and an air portion. The jelly formulation is smoothly discharged by pushing the air portion. Therefore, elderly patients with physical disabilities are able to easily take all of the jelly formulation from the package. In this review, this new formulation of alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly is introduced and discussed in terms of osteoporosis treatment. This new formulation provides an alternative so that patients may select a method of dosing tailored to their preferences. Management of osteoporosis involves assessing fracture risk and preventing fractures. Higher adherence to the treatment of patients with osteoporosis and prevention of osteoporotic fractures are issues to be resolved. Keywords: air-extruded jelly formulation, alendronate sodium hydrate, bisphosphonate, elderly person, oral jelly, osteoporosis

  10. The sodium process facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters (180,000 gallons) of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The SPF was designed to react elemental sodium to sodium carbonate through two-stages involving caustic process and carbonate process steps. The sodium is first reacted to sodium hydroxide in the caustic process step. The caustic process step involves the injection of sodium into a nickel reaction vessel filled with a 50 wt% solution of sodium hydroxide. Water is also injected, controlling the boiling point of the solution. In the carbonate process, the sodium hydroxide is reacted with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate. This dry powder, similar in consistency to baking soda, is a waste form acceptable for burial in the State of Idaho as a non-hazardous, radioactive waste. The caustic process was originally designed and built in the 1980s for reacting the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of primary sodium from the Fermi-1 Reactor to sodium hydroxide. The hydroxide was slated to be used to neutralize acid products from the PUREX process at the Hanford site. However, changes in the DOE mission precluded the need for hydroxide and the caustic process was never operated. With the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), the necessity for a facility to react sodium was identified. In order to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the sodium had to be converted into a waste form acceptable for disposal in a Sub-Title D low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Sodium hydroxide is a RCRA regulated waste. It was decided to convert the hydroxide to sodium carbonate, a substance that is not RCRA regulated. ANL-W undertook the task of upgrading the SPF, and designing and constructing the additional carbonate process. At the time of preparation of this paper, the facilities were undergoing testing and startup activities. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters (13,000 gallons) of the EBR-II secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters (87,000 gallons) of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-levels of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter (71 gallon) barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal. (author)

  11. Inhibition treatment of the corrosion of lead artefacts in atmospheric conditions and by acetic acid vapour: use of sodium decanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of linear sodium decanoate, CH3(CH2)8COONa (noted NaC10), as corrosion inhibitor of lead was determined by electrochemical techniques in two corrosive mediums: ASTM D1384 standard water and acetic acid-enriched solutions. Best results were obtained with 0.05 mol l-1 of NaC10 solution. In these conditions, the inhibition efficiency can be estimated of 99.9%. The corrosion inhibition effect was confirmed by cyclic atmospheric tests in a climatic chamber in two different conditions: water saturated vapour, and acid acetic enriched vapour simulating the atmosphere in the wooden displays in museums. Surface analyses by SEM and X-ray diffraction indicate that the metal protection is due to the formation of a protective layer mainly composed of lead decanoate Pb(C10)2 (metallic soap). This inhibition treatment was applied on objects of metallic cultural heritage: gallo-roman sarcophagus in lead. Electrochemical methods confirm the efficiency of treatment on archaeological materials. In conclusion, this inhibitor treatment seems to be very promising against the atmospheric corrosion and the corrosion by organic acid vapour in museums

  12. Stability and preservation of a new formulation of epoprostenol sodium for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Olivier Lambert, Dirk BandillaActelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, SwitzerlandBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and microbiological properties of a formulation of epoprostenol sodium with L-arginine and sucrose excipients (epoprostenol AS.Methods: The stability of the reconstituted solutions after storage at 5°C and 25°C, diluted solutions (3000–60,000 ng/mL at controlled room temperature, and diluted solutions (3000–60,000 ng/mL stored at 5°C and then at room temperature were evaluated. Solutions were prepared using sterile water for injection or sterile saline (sodium chloride 0.9% for injection. Shelf-life was assessed by determining potency over time relative to initial potency. In this context, potency is synonymous with content. The antimicrobial activity of reconstituted (100,000 ng/mL for 0.5 mg vial, 300,000 ng/mL for 1.5 mg vial and diluted (3000 ng/mL epoprostenol AS was measured using an antimicrobial effectiveness test after inoculation with six species of bacteria, yeast, and mold.Results: Reconstituted epoprostenol AS was stable for up to one day’s storage at 25°C or 7 days’ storage at 5°C. Epoprostenol AS was stable for up to 72 hours when diluted, depending on temperature and concentration. The maximum shelf-life of the diluted solution if the reconstituted solution had been stored for up to one day at room temperature or up to 7 days at 5°C, was between 24 and 72 hours, depending on concentration. Following storage of diluted solutions at 5°C for up to 8 days, maximum shelf-life was between one and 2 days, depending on temperature and concentration. Potency was not dependent on diluents. Preservative testing confirmed no microbial growth for any of six organisms tested for at least 14 days at 5°C or 25°C for the reconstituted solution and for at least 16 days at 5°C followed by one day at 25°C for the diluted solutions.Conclusion: Epoprostenol AS has favorable thermal stability and does not support the growth of any micro-organism tested for up to 17 days. This extended stability under ambient conditions has the potential to improve convenience further for patients.Keywords: epoprostenol, pulmonary arterial hypertension, potency, stability, shelf-life, microbiological activity

  13. Thermochemical pre- and biological co-treatments to improve hydrolysis and methane production from poultry litter

    OpenAIRE

    COSTA, J. C.; Barbosa, S. G.; Alves, M. M.; D. Z. Sousa

    2012-01-01

    The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of raw poultry litter waste was assessed in batch assays. Biological co-treatment with Clostridium cellulolyticum, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum as bioaugmentation strains, and thermochemical pre-treatments with lime and sodium hydroxide performed at different temperatures and pressures were applied as strategies to improve the BMP by favouring the hydrolysis of the cellulolytic material in the waste. Anaerobic digest...

  14. The influence of the activated carbon post-treatment on the phenolic

    OpenAIRE

    Cansado, Isabel P. P.; Mourão, Paulo A. M.; Falcão, Ana I.; Ribeiro Carrott, M . Manuela L.; Carrott, Peter J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate how post treatment modification, such as those with sodium hydroxide or urea, can influence the capacity of activated carbon (AC) for phenolic compounds removal from liquid media. The ACs modification was performed using urea impregnation followed by pyrolysis at high temperature. With all ACs used, this treatment induced a pore volume increase, a mean pore size broadening, an increase in the point of zero charge and also in the basic ch...

  15. Possibly enhanced Gd-excretion in dialysate, but no clinical benefit of 3-5 months treatment with sodium thiosulfate in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3-5 months. Symptoms and patients' experiences were investigated. The dialysate Gd content was monitored. Results. We observed no major clinical improvements in any patient. In one patient, we found slightly improved joint motion. Two patients had a subjective impression of slight improvements of joint motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd seemed to increase. It is unknown whether increased Gd excretion will lead to long-term clinical improvements in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

  16. Possibly enhanced Gd excretion in dialysate, but no major clinical benefit of 3-5 months of treatment with sodium thiosulfate in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.; Sloth, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3-5 months. Symptoms and patients' experiences were investigated. The dialysate Gd content was monitored. Results. We observed no major clinical improvements in any patient. In one patient, we found slightly improved joint motion. Two patients had a subjective impression of slight improvements of joint motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd seemed to increase. It is unknown whether increased Gd excretion will lead to long-term clinical improvements in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10

  17. Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

  18. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. PMID:25149022

  19. Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    André Dotto Sottovia; Celso Koogi Sonoda; Wilson Roberto Poi; Sônia Regina Panzarini; José Roberto Pereira Lauris4

    2006-01-01

    In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had thei...

  20. Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

  1. TREATMENT OF A SATURATED ZONE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA USING A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE MIXTURE: A FIELD PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a combined ferrous sulfate/sodium dithionite solution for in situ treatment of a saturated zone hexavalent chromium source area at a former ferrochromium alloy production facility in Charleston, S.C. The saturate...

  2. Manual on early medical treatment of possible radiation injury with an appendix on sodium burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manual covers the following topics: 1) Background information and general principles; 2) New methods in the treatment of internal contamination by alpha emitters; 3) Emergency local decontamination; 4) Precautions to be taken in the event of hospitalization; 5) Assessment of fitness to resume work after contamination of irradiation accidents; 6) Organization, planning and training. The appendixes are concerned with: A) Samples to be taken in cases of external irradiation or internal contamination; B) Techniques for local decontamination of the skin; C) Basic treatment information for the physician; D) Standard first-aid kits; E) Decontamination room supplies

  3. Wet reclamation of sodium silicate used sand and biological treatment of its wastewater by Nitzschia palea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shaoqiang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The massive amount of sodium silicate in the used sand was a pollution source, especially in the waste water from the wet reclamation of used sand. A new process of wet reclamation by biologically treating the waste water produced during the wet reclamation process of used sand was studied in the paper. In the work, the pre-cultivation of N. palea was performed firstly, and three different scrubbing solutions: (1 tap water, (2 modified medium for N. palea, and (3 filtrate of the broth treated by N. palea for 15 days, were used. The results of the primary investigation show that a de-skinning ratio of 90% is obtained when using the scrubbing solution containing modified medium for N. palea at the ratio 1:2 of sand and scrubbing solution, and the maximal concentrations of Na+ and SiO3? are 1.49 g?-1 and 0.51 g?-1, respectively. The results of the optimal biomass, pH value decrease and Na+ and SiO32- consumption indicate the optimal incubation conditions are at the irradiance of 5,000 lux and 25 ?. Using the filtrate of the broth treated by N. palea for 15 days as the scrubbing solution directly, a de-skinning ratio of 93% is the highest compared to the results of the tap water and the modified medium for N. palea. In the biological process using N. palea, less water is used and little wastewater is produced, which is advantageous to the purpose of green manufacturing and environmental protection.

  4. A novel SCN9A mutation responsible for primary erythromelalgia and is resistant to the treatment of sodium channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Tzu; Huang, Po-Yuan; Yen, Chen-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Primary erythromelalgia (PE) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by severe burning pain and erythema in the extremities upon heat stimuli or exercise. Mutations in human SCN9A gene, encoding the ?-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v)1.7, were found to be responsible for PE. Three missense mutations of SCN9A gene have recently been identified in Taiwanese patients including a familial (I136V) and two sporadic mutations (I848T, V1316A). V1316A is a novel mutation and has not been characterized yet. Topologically, I136V is located in DI/S1 segment and both I848T and V1316A are located in S4-S5 linker region of DII and DIII domains, respectively. To characterize the elelctrophysiological manifestations, the channel conductance with whole-cell patch clamp was recorded on the over-expressed Chinese hamster overy cells. As compared with wild type, the mutant channels showed a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage dependent activation and a depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation. The recovery time from channel inactivation is faster in the mutant than in the wild type channels. Since warmth can trigger and exacerbate symptoms, we then examine the influence of tempearture on the sodium channel conduction. At 35°C, I136V and V1316A mutant channels exhibit a further hyperpolarizing shift at activation as compared with wild type channel, even though wild type channel also produced a significant hyperpolarizing shift compared to that of 25°C. High temperature caused a significant depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation in all three mutant channels. These findings may confer to the hyperexcitability of sensory neurons, especially at high temperature. In order to identifying an effective treatment, we tested the IC?? values of selective sodium channel blockers, lidocaine and mexiletine. The IC?? for mexiletine is lower for I848T mutant channel as compared to that of the wild type and other two mutants which is comparable to the clinical observations. PMID:23383113

  5. REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

    2010-05-11

    A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

  6. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-48h found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE5048h 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE5096h found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE5015min of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

  7. Development and testing of SREX flowsheets for treatment of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant sodium-bearing waste using centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning 90Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A baseline flowsheet has been proposed for the treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) which includes extraction of strontium from liquid SBW into the SREX solvent (0.15 M 4',4'(5')-di-(tert-butyldicyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.2 M TBP in Isopar L), a 0.01 M nitric acid strip section to back-extract components from the loaded solvent, and a 2.0 M HNO3 solvent acidification section to equilibrate the solvent with HNO3 prior to recycle to the extraction section. The flowsheet was designed to provide a decontamination factor (DF) of >103 which will reduce the 90Sr activity in the waste solution to below the NRC Class A LLW limit of 0.04 Ci 90Sr/m3. SREX flowsheet testing was performed using sixteen stages of 5.5-cm diameter centrifugal contactors. The behavior of stable Sr and other components which are potentially extracted by the SREX solvent were evaluated. Specifically, the behavior of the matrix components including Pb, K, Hg, Na, Ca, Zr, and Fe was studied. The described flowsheet achieved 99.98% Sr removal (DF=4250) with one cycle of SREX. Potassium and Zr were partially extracted into the SREX solvent with 35% and 21%, respectively, exiting in the strip product. Sodium, Ca, and Fe were essentially inextractium, Ca, and Fe were essentially inextractable. Lead was determined to extract and accumulate in the SREX solvent and in the strip section. As a result, a Pb precipitate formed in the strip stages of the contactors. Mercury was also determined to extract and accumulate in the SREX solvent

  8. Rhenium-188 as an alternative to Iodine-131 for treatment of breast tumors expressing the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), which transports iodine into the cell, is expressed in thyroid tissue and was recently found to be expressed in approximately 80% of human breast cancers but not in healthy breast tissue. These findings raised the possibility that therapeutics targeting uptake by NIS may be used for breast cancer treatment. To increase the efficacy of such therapy it would be ideal to identify a radioactive therapy with enhanced local emission. The feasibility of using the powerful beta-emitting radiometal 188Re in the form of 188Re-perrhenate was therefore compared with 131I for treatment of NIS-expressing mammary tumors. In the current studies, using a xenografted breast cancer model induced by the ErbB2 oncogene in nude mice, 188Re-perrhenate exhibited NIS-dependent uptake into the mammary tumor. Dosimetry calculations in the mammary tumor demonstrate that 188Re-perrhenate is able to deliver a dose 4.5 times higher than 131I suggesting it may provide enhanced therapeutic efficacy

  9. Influence of chemical treatment on sodium clay for obtaining polypropylene nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, M.; Rosa, J.; Cruz, K.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial clay was chemically treated with aluminum alkyl to prepare a Ziegler-Natta pro-catalyst containing MgCl2 and clay (as inert support) for the synthesis of polypropylene nanocomposites by in situ polymerization technique. The performance of this catalyst was compared with a reference one (catalyst prepared without clay), as well as with another one, composition of which presents the same clay content, without prior chemical treatment. Propylene polymerizations were pe...

  10. Thermal treatment of sodium silicate free inorganic polymers based on fly-ash.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešová, Lenka; Koloušek, D.; Dimzoski, Bojan; ?ubová Urbanová, Martina

    Novi Sad : Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, 2011 - (Maca, K.; Trunec, M.). s. 24 [Final Workshop of FP7 REGPOT-2007-3 DEMATEN "Processing of Nanostructured Ceramics and Nanocomposites". 03.03.2011-05.03.2011, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP108/10/1980 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : fly - ash * inorganic aluminosilicate polymers * thermal treatment Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  11. Sodium Oxybate: A Potential New Pharmacological Option for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Swick, Todd J.

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a common disorder, characterized by diffuse pain and tenderness, stiffness, fatigue, affective disorders and significant sleep pathology. A new set of diagnostic criteria have been developed which should make it easier for a busy clinician to diagnose the condition. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications for the treatment of FMS have, for the most part, been geared to modulate the pain pathways to give the patient some degree of relief. A dif...

  12. Effects of pre-treatment with sodium butyrate on the frequencies of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sodium butyrate-mediated alterations in chromatin structure on the yields of X-ray-induced chromosomal abberrations were studied in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results show that sodium butyrate pre-treatment leads to a significant increase in the frequencies of dicentrics and rings, but not of fragments. The data from biochemical studies suggest that the numbers and rates of repair of X-ray-induced DNA-strand breaks are the same in butyrate-treated and untreated cells. The authors suggest that the observed effect is probably a consequence of butyrate-induced conformational changes in the chromatin of G0 lymphocytes. (Auth.)

  13. An in vitro study of antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhamb Swaty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide on Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Root canal treatment involves a number of steps. In spite of all the steps done thoroughly, root canal treatment might fail due to the remnant microbes. Of all such bacteria, E. faecalis is found in failed root canals. The study tests the antibacterial activity of various intracanal medicaments. Agar diffusion test was used to evaluate the antibacterial effects of the following antibacterial agents: i. hexidine:0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate; ii. periogard:0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate; iii. calcium hydroxide powder plus sterile water; iv. metapaste plus sterile water; v. calcium hydroxide plus hexidine; vi. calcium hydroxide plus periogard; vii. metapaste plus hexidine; viii. metapaste plus periogard. The size of zones of inhibition was measured. Results: The average size of zones of inhibition after 72 hours were hexidine: 5 mm; periogard: 4.25 mm; calcium hydroxide plus sterile water: 0.5 mm; metapaste plus sterile water: 0.5 mm; calcium hydroxide plus hexidine: 4.7 mm; calcium hydroxide plus periogard: 4 mm; metapaste plus hexidine: 4.65 mm; metapaste plus periogard: 4 mm. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine and its preparations are more potent antibacterial agents againstE. faecalis in comparison to calcium hydroxide.

  14. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  15. Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutzen Brian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS, has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. Methods We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Results MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. Conclusions These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma.

  16. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due to sodium loss from conditions such as Addison's disease , diarrhea , diuretic administration, or kidney disease . In some ... urinary sodium levels may indicate diuretic use or Addison's disease. Sodium levels are often evaluated in relation to ...

  17. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of CO2 from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide [Ba(OH)2] or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. Such a process would be applied to scrub 14CO2 from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)2 slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)2. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated

  18. Regulation of apoptosis in human melanoma and neuroblastoma cells by statins, sodium arsenite and TRAIL: a role of combined treatment versus monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N; Hei, Tom K

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of melanoma cells by sodium arsenite or statins (simvastatin and lovastatin) dramatically modified activities of the main cell signaling pathways resulting in the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and in a downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels. Through heme degradation and the production of carbon monoxide and biliverdin, HO-1 plays a protective role in different scenario of oxidative stress followed by mitochondrial apoptosis. Both sodium arsenite and statins could be efficient inducers of apoptosis in some melanoma cell lines, but often exhibited only modest proapoptotic activity in others, due to numerous protective mechanisms. We demonstrated in the present study that treatment by sodium arsenite or statins with an additional inhibition of HO-1 expression (or activation) caused a substantial upregulation of apoptosis in melanoma cells. Sodium arsenite- or statin-induced apoptosis was independent of BRAF status (wild type versus V600E) in melanoma lines. Monotreatment required high doses of statins (20-40 ?M) for effective induction of apoptosis. As an alternative approach, pretreatment of melanoma cells with statin at decreased doses (5-20 ?M) dramatically enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis, due to suppression of the NF-?B and STAT3-transcriptional targets (including COX-2) and downregulation of cFLIP-L (a caspase-8 inhibitor) protein levels. Furthermore, combined treatment with sodium arsenite and TRAIL or simvastatin and TRAIL efficiently induced apoptotic commitment in human neuroblastoma cells. In summary, our findings on enhancing effects of combined treatment of cancer cells using statin and TRAIL provide the rationale for further preclinical evaluation. PMID:21910007

  19. SODIUM VALPROATE AND PHENOBARBITOL: WEIGHT COMPLICATIONS OF TREATMENT IN EPILEPTIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghofrani

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of Na Valproate and Phenobarbital on changes in the weight of epileptic patients following treatment for their condition using the drugs mentioned.Materials and methodsSixty epileptics were assigned into two groups of 30 patients each, the case and controls. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE characteristics. BMI was defined. In the case group, the patients received 20mg/kg/day of Na Valproate, while the 30controls received 5mg/kg/day of Phenobarbital for 6 months. Using the Mc Nemar and Chi-2 tests, BMI changes were compared after 6 months between the groups. Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate the role of age, sex, and primary weight on the weight increase due to Na Valproate usage.ResultsThere were no specific changes in age, sex, primary BMI and fatness between the 2 groups; in the case group, 20 patients(66.7% and in the controls 4(13.3% gained weight (P<0.001. There were higher chances of weight gain in children who were older and fatter at the beginning of the study (P<0.2.ConclusionThe results indicate that epileptic children, aged over 10 years, and those who are overweight have more chances of gaining weight or becoming fatter, following treatment with Na Valproate. Further studies investigating the issue are warranted.

  20. Effect of sodium butyrate treatment on the granule morphology, histamine level and elemental content of the bone marrow-derived mast cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast cells derived from the bone marrow of BALB/c mice (BMMC) were cultures and their growth ceased with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate treatment (1 mM, 4 days) caused maturation of the granules, and increased histamine content from approx. 1 pg/cell to 4 pg/cell. X-ray microanalysis revealed that maturation of the granules was accompanied by the increase in relative weight percent of sodium, phosphorus and sulphur, with concomitant decrease in chloride. The sulphur to potassium ratio increased three-fold in butyrate-treated mast cells. The existence of a different elemental composition during mast cell maturation may provide additional parameter for rapid discrimination of mast cell subpopulations. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs

  1. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

  2. Carbon dioxide capture capacity of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Miran; Han, Sang-Jun; Wee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-15

    The present paper investigates the various features of NaOH aqueous solution when applied as an absorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emitted with relatively high concentration in the flue gas. The overall CO(2) absorption reaction was carried out according to consecutive reaction steps that are generated in the order of Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3). The reaction rate and capture efficiency were strongly dependent on the NaOH concentration in the Na(2)CO(3) production range, but were constant in the NaHCO(3) production step, irrespective of the NaOH concentration. The amount of CO(2) absorbed in the solution was slightly less than the theoretical value, which was ascribed to the low trona production during the reaction and the consequent decrease in CO(2) absorption in the NaOH solution. The mass ratio of absorbed CO(2) that participated in the Na(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3), and trona production reactions was calculated to be 20:17:1, respectively. PMID:23183145

  3. Subchronic treatment with sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate in methylmercury poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study describes the effects of subchronic 2,3-dimercaptopropane-l-sulfonate (DMPS) treatment for four weeks on the elimination of 203Hg-methylmercury injection i.p. in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Radioactivity in urine, feces and whole body as well as in tissues was measured in a whole body counter. Data show that during 28 days control rats eliminated 48.2 + or - 10.9 percent of the administered dose, DMPS treated rats 82.4 + or - 18.2 percent. Organ distribution showed an enrichment of 203Hg in kidneys, blood and skin as compared to the whole body in treated and control rats. Mercury concentrations were lowered to about 15-30 percent of control values in all tissues with the exception of skin (70 percent)

  4. Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet

  5. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets for routine treatment of household drinking water in periurban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Seema; Sahanoon, Osman K; Blanton, Elizabeth; Schmitz, Ann; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded trial to determine the health impact of daily use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets for household drinking water treatment in periurban Ghana. We randomized 240 households (3,240 individuals) to receive either NaDCC or placebo tablets. All households received a 20-liter safe water storage vvessel. Over 12 weeks, 446 diarrhea episodes (2.2%) occurred in intervention and 404 (2.0%) in control households (P = 0.38). Residual free chlorine levels indicated appropriate tablet use. Escherichia coli was found in stored water at baseline in 96% of intervention and 88% of control households and at final evaluation in 8% of intervention and 54% of control households (P = 0.002). NaDCC use did not prevent diarrhea but improved water quality. Diarrhea rates were low and water quality improved in both groups. Safe water storage vessels may have been protective. A follow-up health impact study of NaDCC tablets is warranted. PMID:20064989

  6. Minimizing Concentration of Sodium Hypochlorite in Root Canal Irrigation by Combination of Ultrasonic Irrigation with Photodynamic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhuang; Xiao, Suli; Ma, Dianfu; Huang, Xiaojing; Cai, Zhiyu

    2015-07-01

    Concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is positively correlated with its effectiveness in root canal disinfection but negatively correlated with its biocompatibility. The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the bactericidal effects among ultrasonic irrigation with different concentration of NaOCl alone or together with photodynamic treatment (PDT) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in infected root canals. One hundred and twenty bovine root canals contaminated with E. faecalis were randomly distributed into 12 groups treated with different disinfection methods: PDT, ultrasonic irrigation with NaOCl at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 5.25%), and ultrasonic irrigation with NaOCl at different concentrations plus PDT. Data of microorganism load were collected before and after disinfection and analyzed by one-way ANOVA and LSD tests. Significantly enhanced antibacterial effects were noticed in groups treated by PDT plus 2.0% or 2.5% NaOCl irrigation (P  0.05). Our study confirmed the feasibility to reduce the concentration of NaOCl to a safer level while maintaining its antibacterial efficiency through synergistic effect of PDT with NaOCl ultrasonic irrigation. PMID:25892274

  7. Sodium alginate microsphere combined with pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion for clinical treatment of cavernous hemangioma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To further reduce the adverse reactions of vascular embolization therapy for cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL) in order to find better embolizing agents. Methods: Sixty CHL patients were randomly and evenly divided into three groups: embolization therapy with sodium alginate microsphere(SAM) + pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion (PLE) (group SAM + PLE), PLE (group PLE) and SAM (group SAM). The routine postoperative symptomatic treatments were conducted, including odynolysis, liver-protection and antiinflammatory therapy. The liver function and the intraoperative or postoperative discomfort symptoms before and 7 days after operation, and the changes in tumors were examined with CT scan. Clinical symptoms 3 months after operation were respectively compared. Results: The greatest impact on liver function was seen in group PLE among the three groups. The maximum intraoperative or postoperative discomfort symptoms were seen in group SAM, but the therapeutic effectiveness of the three groups had no significant difference. Conclusion: SAM + PLE is a safe and effective embolizing agent, being user-friendly, minor in the effect on liver function and light in the intraoperative and postoperative reaction. It is recommended that SAM + PLE be widely used for cavernous hemangioma of the liver. (authors)

  8. Thermodynamic properties of beryllium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the hydro-thermal decomposition of beryllium hydroxide has made it possible to determine the free energy of formation and the entropy. The results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from the solubility product of this substance. They give furthermore the possibility of acquiring a better understanding of the BeO-H2O-Be (OH)2 system between 20 and 1500 C. (authors)

  9. [Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity: a retrospective and comparative study of two therapeutic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, R G; Voyer, R

    1990-11-01

    Stimulation on exposed dentine at the enamo-dentinal junction is often painful and uncomfortable for the affected patient. Two hundred and forty-four subjects suffering from dentinal sensitivity, aged from 18 to 48 years old, were treated with two types of desensitizing agent. In this study, we used sodium fluoride (Duraflor) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal catalyst). The desensitizing agent is first applied on the exposed dentine and then burnished, without local anaesthesia, until all sensitivity has disappeared. After the first session, 100% of the subjects were desensitized. All subjects were seen 1, 2, 3, 6, 13 and 26 weeks after the first application. After 6 months, 94% of the subjects treated with calcium hydroxide (Dycal) and 87% of those treated with sodium fluoride (Duraflor) were still desensitized. This difference is statistically significant at alpha = 0.01 (Anova test). In conclusion, our study reveals that both calcium hydroxide (Dycal) and sodium fluoride (Duraflor) are effective in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A slight significant advantage in using calcium hydroxide is also noted. PMID:2261591

  10. Monitoring instruments for sodium impurity surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical instruments have been tested for the insertion in sodium systems. The electrochemical oxygen meter was investigated in long term experiments with respect to meter indication and its compatibility with liquid sodium. The electrochemical carbon meter with CO/CO2-reference electrode showed a long term drift to low emf-values which requires additional fundamental work. A tritium meter for sodium and cover gas has been tested with tritium concentrations specific for reactor systems. The influence of temperature, sweep gas flow rate and of hydrogen addition to the sweep gas on the meter reading has been investigated. The addition of sodium hydride, sodium hydroxide and water to a sodium loop system has been surveyed with oxygen and hydrogen meters. (author)

  11. Determining sodium azide concentration in blood by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszyna, R; Smith, R P; Kruszyna, H

    1998-01-01

    We describe a simple method for measuring sodium azide concentrations in aliquots of blood and other tissues. Aliquots are acidified, converting azide to volatile hydrazoic acid (HN3) which is then trapped in sodium hydroxide. We analyze the resulting aliquots by ion chromatography, using a sodium tetraborate eluent and suppressed conductivity detection. The method is sensitive to at least 100 ng/mL. PMID:9456544

  12. Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, E; Ruiz de la Rosa, M; Louzara, G; Ruiz, J M; Marín-Guirao, L; Quesada, J; González, J C; Roque, F; González, N; Mendoza, H

    2014-03-15

    Reverse osmosis membranes at many desalination plants are disinfected by periodic shock treatments with sodium metabisulphite, which have potentially toxic effects to the environment for marine life, although no empirical and experimental evidence for this is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterise for the first time, the physico-chemical modification of the marine environment and its biological effects, caused by hypersaline plumes during these membrane cleaning treatments. The case study was the Maspalomas II desalination plant, located in the south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Toxicity bioassays were performed on marine species characteristic for the infralittoral soft bottoms influenced by the brine plume (Synodus synodus and Cymodocea nodosa), and revealed a high sensitivity to short-term exposure to low sodium metabisulphite concentrations. The corrective measure of incorporating a diffusion system with Venturi Eductors reduced nearly all the areas of influence, virtually eliminating the impact of the disinfectant. PMID:24495930

  13. Online and offline sodium monitoring in feed/steam water of FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) utilizes Once Through Steam Generator (OTSG) for producing super heated steam at 480 deg C, 125 kg/cm2. In order to minimize corrosion related failures of tubes and ensure the SG tube integrity efficient water chemistry control is maintained in the feed/steam water system with All Volatile Treatment (AVT) and Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU). The high pH, low oxygen treatment is achieved by adding Ammonium hydroxide (500ppb) and Hydrazine (20-30ppb). Monitoring of sodium impurity in feed water and steam is highly important to assess the condenser tube leak and prevent possible caustic corrosion. The cationic impurities can be effectively controlled in the system by monitoring sodium at the outlet of CPU. A gradual and slow increase in sodium concentration indicates the exhaust/pre exhaust conditions of CPU whereas a rapidly increasing trend is an indication of cooling water tube leak in to the condenser. However, routine ultra trace level monitoring of sodium in presence of excess of ammonium ion and hydrazine, is a challenging task. This paper details the offline monitoring of sodium at ultra trace level using Reagent-Free Ion chromatograph (RFIC) wherein the high purity eluent is generated in situ. An on line sodium monitoring system using ion selective electrode (ISE) is also discussed here. The sodium concentration at Condensate Extraction Pump discharge (CEP) was always found to be less than 1.2 ppb ruling out the ingresbe less than 1.2 ppb ruling out the ingress of cooling water into the condensate due condenser tube leak. Comparisons of sodium analysis with both the techniques are also presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT.

  15. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT

  16. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Research and Development FY-2002 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Deldebbio, John Anthony; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Olson, Lonnie Gene; Scholes, Bradley Adams

    2002-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering several optional processes for disposal of liquid sodium-bearing waste. During fiscal year 2002, immobilization-related research included of grout formulation development for sodium-bearing waste, absorption of the waste on silica gel, and off-gas system mercury collection and breakthrough using activated carbon. Experimental results indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be immobilized in grout at 70 weight percent and onto silica gel at 74 weight percent. Furthermore, a loading of 11 weight percent mercury in sulfur-impregnated activated carbon was achieved with 99.8% off-gas mercury removal efficiency.

  17. Pooled safety analysis of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w) in the treatment of osteoarthritis in patients aged 75 years or older

    OpenAIRE

    Roth SH; Fuller P

    2012-01-01

    Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Phoenix, AZ, 2Medical Affairs, Mallinckrodt Inc, Hazelwood, MOBackground: This study aimed to determine the safety of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w) in 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) for the treatment of knee or hand osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older.Methods: A pooled analysis of safety data from seven multicenter, randomized, blinded, Phase III clinical trials (4–12 weeks' durat...

  18. Clinical effect of calcium hydroxide paste combined with triple antibiotic paste on root canal disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To compare the efficacy in disinfection and pain control of calcium hydroxide paste and triple antibiotic paste (ornidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline used individually or jointly for root canal disinfection. Methods?Two hundred and thirty-five patients with chronic apical periodontitis (235 teeth were involved in the present study and divided into 2 groups: fistula group (n=118 and no fistula group (n=117. Each group was then randomly divided into 4 subgroups: calcium hydroxide paste group, triple antibiotic paste group, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste group, and camphor phenol group. After regular root canal preparation, root canals of patients in 4 groups were filled with tiny paper ends impregnated with fore 4 different drugs respectively. Visual analogue scales (VAS of pain were given to the patients with a guide for filling the scale. One week later, both the data of the scales and the effects of root canal disinfection were recorded and analyzed. Results?Seven days after treatment, the clinical efficacy of calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste was similar (P>0.05 either in fistula group or in no fistula group, but all better than that of camphor phenol (P<0.05. VAS score analysis showed that, at least on the first 3 days after sealing medicine in the root canal, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste achieved better result of pain control than the other three groups (P<0.05 no matter with or without fistula. Conclusions ?Calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste are effective in treatment of chronic apical periodontitis whether with or without fistula. However, the combined use of calcium hydroxide and three antibiotic pastes is better for controlling the pain after root canal preparation than other treatments, which is therefore worthy of clinical application. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.12

  19. Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

  20. In vivo sodium tungstate treatment prevents E-cadherin loss induced by diabetic serum in HK-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinat, Romina; Silva, Pamela; Mann, Elizabeth; Li, Xuhang; Nualart, Francisco; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, which is the result of chronic accumulation of extracellular matrix produced by activated fibroblasts in the renal tubulointerstitium. Renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs), through the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), are the source of fibroblasts within the interstitial space, and loss of E-cadherin has shown to be one of the earliest steps in this event. Here, we studied the effect of the anti-diabetic agent sodium tungstate (NaW) in the loss of E-cadherin induced by transforming growth factor (TGF) ?-1, the best-characterized in vitro EMT promoter, and serum from untreated or NaW-treated diabetic rats in HK-2 cell line, a model of human kidney PTEC. Our results showed that both TGF?-1 and serum from diabetic rat induced a similar reduction in E-cadherin expression. However, E-cadherin loss induced by TGF?-1 was not reversed by NaW, whereas sera from NaW-treated rats were able to protect HK-2 cells. Searching for soluble mediators of NaW effect, we compared secretion of TGF? isoforms and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, which have opposite actions on EMT. One millimolar NaW alone reduced secretion of both TGF?-1 and -2, and stimulated secretion of VEGF-A after 48?h. However, these patterns of secretion were not observed after diabetic rat serum treatment, suggesting that protection from E-cadherin loss by serum from NaW-treated diabetic rats originates from an indirect rather than a direct effect of this salt on HK-2 cells, via a mechanism independent of TGF? and VEGF-A functions. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2437-2446, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25728412

  1. Crystal growth morphology of magnesium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jian-song; Du, Juan; Gao, Yi-min

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the formation process of magnesium hydroxide unit cells, as well as the structural characteristics and growth morphology of magnesium hydroxide, is discussed from the perspective of growth units. The growth process of the hexagonal structure of the magnesium hydroxide is as follows: the growth units are first incorporated into a larger hexagonal dimension unit on the same plane, and then the hexagonal layers connect to each other in the z-axis direction for the hexagonal magnes...

  2. Reduced concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and sodium-potassium pumps in human skeletal muscle during treatment with diuretics

    OpenAIRE

    Dørup, I.; Skajaa, K.; Clausen, T.; Kjeldsen, K.

    1988-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that potassium depletion induced by diuretics or potassium deficient fodder leads to a selective decrease in the concentrations of potassium and in the concentration of sodium-potassium pumps in skeletal muscle. In 25 patients who had received diuretics for 2-14 years the mean concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and sodium-potassium pumps were measured in skeletal muscle biopsy specimens and were significantly lower than in those from a group of age matched contr...

  3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Rafiei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans is one of the mouth normal flora which may cause failures in endodontics. The resistance of C. albicans to intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide could reduce success rate root canal treatments .Objectives: Due to recivening some reports regarding resistance of C. albicans to calcium hydroxide from different parts of the world, the aim of this study was to evaluate anti candidal effects of Iranian and Korean made injectable calcium hydroxide and to compare the results.Materials and Methods: In the present research, the antifungal effects of calcium hydroxide on seven clinical isolates and one standard strain of C. albicans were evaluated. For this evaluation, two methods were used including: inhibition zone and colony count. In all experiments distilled water and clotrimazole were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In order to evaluate the effects of exposure time of calcium hydroxide on C. albicans growth, 30” , 5’ , 1 and 24 hours of incubation periods were applied. In addition, to evaluate role the effect of calcium hydroxide concentration samples with saturated, 1/10, 1/100 and 1/1000 dilutions and also a saturated one were used.Results: According to inhibition zone method, the mean diameters of C. albicans for Iranian and Korean made calcium hydroxide and clotrimazole were 17, 13 and 22 mm, respectively. Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide did not show any anti candidal effects. By colony counting method, it was found that in longer exposure time, Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide have more anti candidal effects , but no significant difference was observed between the two. Saturated and all other dilutions of calcium hydroxide base material indicated a significant statistical difference in anti candidal effect after 24 hours exposure in comparison with other periods.Conclusions: The Current study, confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide on C. albicans, up to 24 hours is within low range . Higher concentrations of base calcium hydroxide, showed greater inhibition zone on C. albicans ..--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:The results of present study indicated uncomplete compatibility of susceptibility of C. albicans strains to calcium hydroxide, therefoe, it seems continious evaluation is necessary in different geographical region..Please cite this paper as:Rafiei N, Eftekhar B, Rafiei A, Pourmahdi Borujeni M, Zarrin M. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2012;5(3:470-3. DOI: 10.5812/jjm.3409.

  4. Nuclear hyperfine interaction in ferrihemoglobin hydroxide: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expressions appropriate for the evaluation of the hyperfine splitting in ferric-hemoglobin hydroxide have been derived in the Hartree-Fock approximation using ''giant'' multielectron molecular-orbital wave functions formed as linear combinations of atomic orbitals of the constituent atoms and the molecular orbitals of the OH- complex incorporating overlap effects. Core orbitals as well as valence orbitals have been considered. The relevant multicenter matrix elements have been evaluated accurately by means of the analytical expressions which we have derived by employing a general closed-form expression developed previously for the coefficients of the expansion of a Slater orbital from one center onto the other. Various calculated electric field gradient components have been analyzed separately in terms of the valence and the core orbitals of the central ion (iron) interacting with the orbitals of the other constituent atoms and the complex OH-. One finds that the ''local'' and ''distant'' parts of the field gradient due to OH- nearly cancel one another and, consequently, produce negligible effect on the hyperfine splitting of iron. The nitrogens of the porphyrin plane contribute dominantly to the splitting. Other surrounding atoms contribute less and their influence decreases rapidly as their distance from the central ion increases. On combining various contributions, the calculated hyperfine splitting comes out to be 1.44 + 0.16 mm/seplitting comes out to be 1.44 + 0.16 mm/sec, which agrees excellently with the experimental splitting 1.57 mm/sec observed by Lang and Marshall. The results from the present calculations have been compared with those obtained by Weissbluth and Maling employing semiempirical treatment on a porphyin-hydroxide model compound. Their estimate is found to give negative sign to the splitting in contrast with our result. Sources of disagreement have been pointed out. Positive hyperfine splitting in ferric-hemoglobin compounds is predicted

  5. Enhanced aerobic sludge granulation with layered double hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Jizhi Zhou; Haoyuan Sun; Xiangling Li; Guangren Qian; Jianyong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge technology has been developed for the biochemical treatment of wastewater in the present study. A fast cultivation of aerobic granular sludge was realized in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR), where Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was used as a carrier for granules growth. In comparison, the sludge particle size with LDH addition was bigger than those without LDH, with more than 50% of compact granular sludge >1.4 mm in size. This indicatestheLDH improved the growth ...

  6. Biodiesel production using tetramethyl- and benzyltrimethyl ammonium hydroxides as strong base catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Anastopoulos, Georgios; Karonis, Dimitrios; Stournas, Stamos [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., Zografou Campus, 157 80, Athens (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as an alternative fuel has rapidly grown in EU. The most common method for biodiesel production is based on triglyceride transesterification to methyl esters with dissolved sodium hydroxide in methanol as catalyst. In this study, cottonseed oil and used frying oil were subjected to the transesterification reaction with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide and benzyltrimethyl ammonium hydroxide as strong base catalysts. This work investigates the optimum conditions for biodiesel production using amine-based liquid catalysts. Biodiesel ester content was strongly related with the type of feedstock and the reaction variables, such as those of the catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, and reaction time. The overall results suggested that the transesterification of cottonseed oil achieved high conversion rates with both catalysts, while the use of waste oil resulted in lower yields of methyl esters due to the possible formation of amides. (author)

  7. Effects of aluminum hydroxide and calcium carbonate antacids on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, R. W.; Lasseter, K C; Noe, A J; Shamblen, E C; Lettieri, J T

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of an aluminum hydroxide antacid and a calcium carbonate antacid on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin (Cipro). Cipro (750 mg) was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers in a three-way randomized crossover design. The three treatments included Cipro alone, four 850-mg calcium carbonate tablets taken 5 min before Cipro, and three 600-mg aluminum hydroxide tablets taken 5 min before Cipro. The relative bioavailability of Cipro when given ...

  8. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  9. Triple alkaline treatment of titanium surfaces for calcium phosphates growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Carlos, Moreno; Jazmín, García-Piñeros; Edgar, Delgado-Mejía.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium surface was chemically modified with sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate and calcium hydroxide with the purpose of improving metal prosthesis to bone adhesion. Results indicate that Ti modified plates immersed in Hanks solution exhibit increased calcium adsorption in comparison to untreated t [...] itanium. Calcium silicotitanate, beta-tricalcium phosphate and apatites were detected on the coating.

  10. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...with chromium hydroxide green may contain only those... Chromium hydroxide green shall conform to...by good manufacturing practice: Water soluble matter... Chromium hydroxide green may be safely used in...with good manufacturing practice to color...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications...color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and...restrictions. Chromium hydroxide green is safe for use in coloring...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling....

  12. Comparação da efetividade entre polietilenoglicol 4000 sem eletrólitos e hidróxido de magnésio no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional em crianças / Comparison of the effectiveness of polyethylene glycol 4000 without electrolytes and magnesium hydroxide in the treatment of chronic functional constipation in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia Boechat, Gomes; Marco Antônio, Duarte; Maria do Carmo Barros de, Melo.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a efetividade de dois medicamentos: hidróxido de magnésio e polietilenoglicol 4000 sem eletrólitos no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional em crianças. MÉTODOS: Trinta e oito crianças foram divididas, por processo randômico, em dois grupos para uso de polietileno [...] glicol 4000 sem eletrólitos ou de hidróxido de magnésio. As crianças foram acompanhadas em consultas periódicas até completarem 6 meses de tratamento. Em todas as consultas, foram investigados: consistência das fezes, frequência evacuatória, presença de escape fecal, dor abdominal, esforço evacuatório e aceitação desses fármacos. RESULTADOS: Dezessete crianças fizeram uso de polietilenoglicol, e 21 utilizaram o hidróxido de magnésio. Houve melhora clínica de todas as variáveis nos dois grupos, sem diferenças com significância estatística. Todas as crianças aceitaram o polietilenoglicol, enquanto 42,9% recusaram o hidróxido de magnésio. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença de efetividade no tratamento da constipação intestinal entre esses dois laxantes. Entretanto, a melhor aceitação do polietilenoglicol, por ser inodoro e insípido, torna-o melhor opção no tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica funcional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two drugs, polyethylene glycol 4000 without electrolytes and magnesium hydroxide, in the treatment of chronic functional constipation in children. METHODS: Thirty-eight children were randomly assigned to either of two groups, polyethylene glycol 4000 withou [...] t electrolytes or magnesium hydroxide. The children were followed through periodic appointments until they reached 6 months of treatment. In each medical appointment the following aspects were evaluated: stool consistency, frequency of bowel movements, fecal incontinence, abdominal pain, straining and acceptance of the drugs. RESULTS: Seventeen children made use of polyethylene glycol and twenty-one received magnesium hydroxide. All variables analyzed improved for both groups, with no statistically significant differences. All children accepted polyethylene glycol, while 42.9% refused magnesium hydroxide. CONCLUSION: The two laxatives showed no difference in effectiveness for the treatment of constipation. However, due to its better acceptance, because it is odorless and tasteless, polyethylene glycol proved to be a better option for treating chronic functional constipation.

  13. Prolonged Delivery of Ciprofloxacin and Diclofenac Sodium from a Polymeric Fibre Device for the Treatment of Peridontal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Deanne Johnston; Choonara, Yahya E.; Pradeep Kumar*1,; Du Toit, Lisa C.; Sandy van Vuuren; Viness Pillay

    2013-01-01

    In vitro analysis of drug release and antimicrobial activity of the coblended crosslinked polymeric fibre device (PFD) were investigated. The fibre loaded with ciprofloxacin and diclofenac sodium was comprised of alginate and glycerol crosslinked with barium cations. The pH dependent drug release was evident with ciprofloxacin and diclofenac sodium diffusing from the fibre at pH 4.0 compared to pH 6.8, where the fibre swelled and eroded resulting in zero-order drug release. Agar diffusion stu...

  14. Treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with sodium diclofenac: a pilot study / Tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves leve a moderada com diclofenato de sódio: um estudo piloto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter, Bloise; Lidia Yuri, Mimura; Janete, Moura; Wilian, Nicolau.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o uso do diclofenato de sódio, um antagonista do PPAR-gama e inibidor da ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) no tratamento da leve a moderada oftalmopatia de Graves. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Treze pacientes com CAS (clinical activity score) 2 a 7 foram tratados durante um período de 3 a 12 meses ( [...] média 7,6 ± 3,4) com diclofenaco de sódio por via oral na dose de 50 mg a cada 12 horas. RESULTADOS: A restrição da musculatura extraocular e o índice CAS melhoraram de modo significativo, respectivamente p = 0,003 e p = 0,004. A dor ocular e a diplopia desapareceram, com exceção de um paciente que referiu melhora desses sintomas. Não houve recidiva após a interrupção do tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves de média gravidade com diclofenaco de sódio por via oral é uma opção boa, segura e de baixo custo. Como outros novos tratamentos, ele deverá ser confirmado em um maior número de pacientes em estudos controlados. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the use of sodium diclofenac, an antagonist of PPAR-gamma and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor in the treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with clinical activity score (CAS) 2 to 7 were treated during a period ranging fr [...] om 3 to 12 months (mean 7.8 ± 3.4) with oral sodium diclofenac, 50 mg every 12 hours. RESULTS: Extra-ocular muscle restriction and CAS improved significantly, p = 0.003 and = 0.004, respectively. Ocular pain and diplopia disappeared, except for one patient who reported improvement of these symptoms. No recurrence was found after interruption of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with oral sodium diclofenac is a good, safe and less expensive therapeutic option. Like others new treatment trials, findings must be confirmed in a greater number of patients in a controlled study.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The formation of yttrium hydroxide fluorides nanobundles can be expressed as a precipitation transformation from cubic NaYF4 to hexagonal NaYF4 and to hexagonal Y(OH)2.02F0.98 owing to ion exchange. - Highlights: • Novel Y(OH)2.02F0.98 nanobundles have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The branched nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles has been studied. • The growth mechanism is proposed to be ion exchange and precipitation transformation. - Abstract: This article presents the fabrication of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles via one-pot hydrothermal process, using yttrium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent. The X-ray diffraction pattern clearly reveals that the grown product is pure yttrium hydroxide fluoride, namely Y(OH)2.02F0.98. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized product is testified to be nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles as observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The chemical composition was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), confirming the phase transformation of the products which was clearly consistent with the result of XRD analysis. It is proposed that the growth of yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles be attributed to ion exchange and precipitation transformation

  16. Effect of combinations of gamma irradiation, hot water, Sodium chloride, and Acetic acid treatments on potato-dry rot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation increased the severity of dry rot in potato tubers when they were inoculated with any of 4 species of Fusarium, previously isolated either from irradiated or unirradiated tubers. Treating either irradiated or unirradiated tubers with warm water or sodium chloride solutions following inoculation with F. roseum also increased the severity of dry rot to some extent

  17. Response of HT115, a highly invasive human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, to sodium butyrate treatment and glucose deprivation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štokrová, Jitka; Sovová, Vlasta; Šloncová, Eva; Ku?erová, Dana; Tuhá?ková, Zdena; Korb, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 26, ?. 3 (2005), s. 793-799. ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) KSK5020115 Keywords : HT115 cells * sodium butyrate * glucose deprivation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.681, year: 2005

  18. An application of hydrothermally crystallized coal ashes for waste water treatment, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide an application of combustion coal ash, hydrothermal reaction of fly ash (FA) and clinker ash (CA) is performed and an investigation is carried out to determine the capability of the P type zeolite produced from these ashes to adsorb heavy metal ions. Hydrothermal reaction of FA and CA at 95 - 100 deg C is conducted with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide for various reaction times. Both types of ash are found to easily undergo crystallization to form P type zeolite (PZ) and hydroxy sodalite (HS) when treated with a sodium hydroxide solution (sodium hydroxide/coal ash = 10 v/w) for 18 hours. The FA-PZ and CA-PZ produced by the hydrothermal treatment have degrees of crystallinity in the range of 40 - 60 percent. It is seen that the degree of crystallinity gradually increases with increasing treatment time. The cristallinity of hydrothermally treated coal ash is also shown to have good correlation with the base substitution capacity and the maximum adsorption of ammonium ion. Furthermore, they are shown to effectively adsorb metal ions, in particular those of lead, cadmium and strontium. It is suggested that they may serve as an enrichment agent for low-level radioactive nuclides produced in nuclear power plants. They also seem to have the possibility of serving as a metal elution preventive for industrial wastes of some special types. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Monitoring treatment of field cancerisation with 3% diclofenac sodium 2.5% hyaluronic acid by reflectance confocal microscopy: a histologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvehy, Josep; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Iglesias-García, Pablo; Díaz, Alba; Puig, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Visual inspection may fail to accurately evaluate field cancerisation (subclinical actinic keratoses [AKs]). We aimed to describe field cancerisation by confocal reflectance microscopy and changes induced by the application of 3% diclofenac sodium gel in 2.5% hyaluronic acid. Fourteen male patients, >?50 years old, with AKs on the bald scalp were included. Clinical examination, confocal microscopy and histological study of clinically visible lesions and "normal appearing" adjacent skin before and after treatment was completed. Reflectance confocal microscopy showed a decrease in scaling (p?=?0.001) and atypia of the honeycomb pattern (p?=?0.001) at 2 weeks of treatment. Changes in parakeratosis, inflammation and dermal collagen remodelling were also observed. Histology correlated with confocal features in AK and subclinical AK. Reflectance confocal microscopy was useful in the evaluation of field cancerisation and monitoring of treatment response. A rapid improvement in epidermal atypia was observed. PMID:24696069

  20. The effects of duration of pre-soaking treatments on the frequency and spectrum of mutations induced by sodium azide in CES 14 Mungbean variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of mungbean variety CES 14 were treated with 10-3 sodium azide for 2 hours buffered at pH 3 after various pre-soaking treatment durations of 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 hours. The biological parameters that were significantly affected by the treatments in the M1 were germination, seedling height and survival. The chlorophyll and other morphological mutations in the M2 gradually increased with increasing pre-soaking time. The treatment that had the lowest mutation rate was the 16-hour pre-soaked seeds. No chlorophyll mutation was noted in both the water and buffer control. One variant was noted, however, in the buffer control. (author)

  1. A critical assessment of the methods for intercalating anionic surfactants in layered double hydroxides

    OpenAIRE

    Moyo, Lumbidzani

    2008-01-01

    The intercalation of surfactant anions, namely sodium dodecyl sulphate, sodium benzene sulphonate and lauric acid, into commercial layered double hydroxides (LDH-CO3) with approximate composition [Mg0.654AI0.346 (OH)2](CO3)0.173.0.5H2O] was explored. LDH-CO3 is commercially available in bulk form owing to its large scale applications as a PVC stabiliser and acid scavenger in polyolefins. It is therefore of interest to investigate intercalation methods using LDH-CO3 as starting material. Th...

  2. Epstein-Barr virus-specific DNase activity in nonproducer Raji cells after treatment with 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and sodium butyrate.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    An Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific DNase was induced in EBV nonproducer Raji cells after treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and sodium butyrate. The increase in EBV DNase activity was related to the appearance of early antigen-positive cells. The enzyme had a sedimentation coefficient of 4S and was resistant to 300 mM KCl, and its induction did not depend on viral DNA synthesis. The EBV-specific DNase activity was specifically inhibited by sera from patients who had nasopha...

  3. THE DIGESTION OPERATION IN THE ALKALI ALUMINAT SOLUTIONS OF ALUMINUM HYDROXIDES IN THE BOEHMITIC BAUXITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami ?AH?N

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available At present more than 90 per cent of the world's alumina is produced by the Bayer process, a simple technology providing high purity final product. A part from some exceptional local conditions, bauxite is processed almost solely by this technology. As a benefication process, alumina production releases the aluminum oxide content of bauxite from other accompanying oxides thus providing alumina suitable for electrolysis in a cryolite melt. The basic theory of the Bayer process was elaborated by K.J. Bayer and described in his patents in 1887 and 1892. The first patent refers to the aid of seed crystals of aluminum hydroxide or of carbonic acid, that is, to the precipitation and carbonation processes. The second patent formulates the concept that the aluminum oxide content of bauxites can be dissolved in sodium hydroxide solutions, with the formulation of sodium aluminate, a process called digestion nowadays. The most important operations of the Bayer technology are bauxite preparation, crushing, grinding, digestion, red mud separation, thickening, washing, filtration, precipitation, calcination and evaporation. In spite of its great significance as regards the complete Bayer technology, the structure of sodium aluminate solutions has not been cleared up definitely yet. Boehmite is the most important aluminum mineral of karstic bauxites. Some experimental results showing the various effects on aluminum hydroxides by alkali process from boehmitic bauxites and the factors gowerning the digestion operation of aluminate solutions were investigated.

  4. Dehydration of precipitated aluminium and zirconium hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehydration of aluminium and zirconium hydroxides, prepared by AlCl3 and ZrOCl2 solutions interaction with hydrazine aqueous solution, is investigated by means of thermogravimetry and X-ray phase analysis. Zirconium hydroxide, precipitated at room temperature and dried up to the constant weight at 100degC, is roentgenoamorphous product. It is shown, that zirconium hydroxide is dehydrated in one stage, and the heating product is crystallyzed at 430degC. Effects, connected with zirconium oxide transition from one modification into the other, are not found on the thermogram

  5. Layered Metal Hydroxides Containing Calcium and Their Structural Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layered metal hydroxides (LMHs) containing calcium were synthesized by coprecipitation in solution having two different trivalent metal ions, iron and aluminum. Two mixed metal solutions (Ca2+/Al3+ and Ca2+/Fe3+ = 2/1) were added to sodium hydroxide solution and the final pH was adjusted to ?11.5 and ?13 for CaAl-and CaFe-LMHs. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the two LMH samples showed well developed (00l) diffractions indicating 2-dimensional crystal structure of the synthesized LMHs. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern, the local structure analysis through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and thermal analysis also confirmed that the synthesized precipitates show typical structure of LMHs. The chemical formulae, Ca2.04Al1(OH)6(NO3)·5.25H2O and Ca2.01Fe1(OH)6(NO3)·4.75H2O were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Particle morphology and thermal behavior for the synthesized LMHs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry

  6. Distribution of Rhodium in Mice Submitted to Treatment With the Adduct of Rhodium Propionate and Sodium Isonicotinate

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Aparecido Ribeiro; Najjar, Renato; De Oliveira, Elizabeth; Zyngier, Szulim Ber

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of rhodium in Balb/c mice following intraperitoneal (ip) administration of a solution of adduct of rhodium propionate and sodium isonicotinate has been investigated. The metal concentration was determined in blood and in the following organ tissues: brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, testes, and uterus/ovary, and the rhodium concentration was obtained by Inductively Coupled Argon Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The metal was detected in all organ tissues ex...

  7. Effects of combined treatment using sodium borocaptate (BSH) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) in a rat tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous study, we reported that sodium borocaptate (BSH) uptake was enhanced in combination with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) in vitro. This report investigated the effect of the combination in vivo. In our results, the boron levels in blood and tissues were preserved highly in the BSO +BSH group, in comparison with the BSH only group. BSO has the potential to improve boron uptake in BNCT. (author)

  8. Empagliflozin: a new sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Neumiller, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and hyperglycemia is often poorly controlled despite a number of therapeutic options. Unlike previously available agents, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer an insulin-independent mechanism for improving blood glucose levels, since they promote urinary glucose excretion (UGE) by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the kidney. In addition to glucose control, SGLT2 inhibitors are associated with weight loss and blood pr...

  9. Measuring Plasma Conductivity to Detect Sodium Load in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mercadal, Lucile; Servais, Aude; Venditto, Marcia; Renault, Nathalie; Isnard-bagnis, Corinne; Deray, Gilbert; Petitclerc, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sodium thiosulfate therapy has been proposed for calcific uremic arteriolopathy and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in hemodialysis patients. The treatment brings 3.7 g (161 mmol) of sodium. How to counterbalance this sodium load was studied.

  10. Optimization of NaOH thermo-chemical pre-treatment for enhancing solubilisation of rice straw by Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Seyed; Aziz, Hamidi; Syafalni, C.; Kiamahalleh, Meisam

    2011-01-01

    A municipal solid waste produced in urban and rural communities is a serious pollution source of water resource in developing country. One of the main problem in treatment of organic solid waste is its non-readily biodegradability due to the complexity of organic material especially hemicellolluse. This study reports Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) thermochemical pretreatment of rice straw as a indicators of cellulosic compound to enhance its biodegradability. Laboratory-scale experiments were carrie...

  11. Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinran; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile, aluminum hydroxide can only weakly or moderately potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1–20 µm. There is increasing evidence that nanoparticles around or less than 200 nm as vaccine or antigen carriers have a more potent adjuvant activity than large microparticles. In the pr...

  12. Hideout of sodium salts in tubesheet crevices: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hideout of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride in tubesheet crevices was studied in single tube model boilers at CADARACHE. Radioactive Na24 was used for the measurements. Crevices of 0.2 mm width were empty or packed. A hydraulically expanded crevice and a rolled crevice were also studied. The concentration rate depends on the bulk water concentration but the equilibrium concentration appears to be related only to thermal conditions. The equilibrium value of 25 moles per liter in the crevice was extrapolated, the sodium concentration in the bulk water being in the range of 5 to 50 ppM. This equilibrium will be obtained with an ''integrated pollution'' of 5000 to 10,000 ppM x hours. Flushing produced by the boiler depressurization was shown to be an effective way to remove salt from the crevice. Sodium hydroxide was shown to concentrate even in a residual crevice of few ?m width

  13. Modulation of the cluster 1 and mucin antigens in human small cell lung cancer and other epithelial tumour cell lines after treatment with the differentiation inducing agent, sodium butyrate.

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, F. G.; Duncan, L. W.; Langdon, S. P.; Leonard, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cluster 1 antigen and the human milk fat globule membrane (HMFG) antigen were studied in three SCLC, three lung adenocarcinoma, six ovarian adenocarcinoma and three colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines before and after culture in the presence of the differentiation inducing agent, sodium butyrate. Before treatment, only SCLC and well differentiated ovarian cell lines expressed the cluster 1 antigen. After 4 days culture with sodium but...

  14. Nickel hydroxide precipitation from aqueous sulfate media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sist, Cinziana; Demopoulos, George P.

    2003-08-01

    Hydrometallurgical processing of laterite ores constitutes a major industrial and R&D activity in extractive metallurgy. In some of the process flowsheets, nickel hydroxide precipitation is incorporated. For these operations, the optimization of nickel hydroxide precipitation is important to assure efficiency and product quality. The main objective of this investigation was to study and improve the precipitation characteristics of Ni(OH)2 in a sulfate system using supersaturation controlled precipitation.

  15. Sodium hyaluronate eye drops treatment for superficial corneal abrasion caused by mechanical damage: a randomized clinical trial in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tong Lin, Lan Gong Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 0.3% sodium hyaluronate (HA compared to recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (rb-bFGF for the treatment of corneal epithelial abrasion caused by mechanical damage in Chinese patients.Methods: Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the HA or rb-bFGF treatment group. The HA group was treated with 0.3% HA and 0.5% levofloxacin, and the rb-bFGF group was treated with topical rb-bFGF and 0.5% levofloxacin. The primary endpoint was the clinical effectiveness rates at day 3. Secondary endpoints were the dimensions of the wound area and the percentage of wound closure.Results: After 3 days of treatment, the clinical effectiveness rates of the HA group and the rb-bFGF group were 86.67% (13/15 and 93.33% (14/15, respectively. The dimensions of the wound area were reduced from 9.83±8.50 to 0.02±0.06 mm2 for the HA group at day 7, and from 10.58±9.94 to 0.02±0.07 mm2 for the rb-bFGF group. At day 3, the wound closure was almost complete in both groups; 94.73% in the HA group compared to 95.77% in the rb-bFGF group (P>0.05.Conclusion: Topical 0.3% HA provided a promising treatment for superficial corneal abrasion caused by mechanical damage in a manner similar to rb-bFGF. Keywords: sodium hyaluronate, superficial corneal abrasion, bovine basic fibroblast growth factor

  16. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  17. Chromosomal induced aberrations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) with gamma-irradiation, sodium azide and combined treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of 2 varieties of common Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) viz: USH-430 and KL-675 were treated to estimate the mutagenicity of both gamma-rays, sodium azide alone and in combination with a view to generate morphological macro-mutations and screen and ascertain the chromosomal aberrations followed by reduction of pollen fertility with increased doses. An attempt was made to know the genetic basis of the chromosomal aberrations. Such aberrations are a source of changes in the pattern of gene regulation at the time of differentiation leading to the formation of cultivars. (author)

  18. Contribution to the study of hydrogenated and oxygenated impurities in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is made up essentially of two parts. The first is devoted to the development of dosage methods for selectively determining the oxygenated and hydrogenated impurities present in sodium, that is the oxide, the hydride and the hydroxide. The second makes use of these methods for a study of the Na-H2-O2 system, as well as of the related problem of the attack of pyrex glass by molten sodium. The conventional method for dosing oxygen by amalgamation was first adapted to the simultaneous measurement of the hydride. We then developed a method for dosing the total hydrogen by measuring successively the concentrations of gas present in the hydride and hydroxide form. This method is based on the thermal decomposition of the hydride and the reaction between sodium and the hydroxide. Our contribution to the study of the Na-H2-O2 System consists first of all in the study of the reaction between hydrogen and sodium in the temperature range from 150 to 250 deg C and at a pressure of about 150 mm of mercury. The study of the thermal decomposition of the hydride in sodium was then studied. It was possible to make some qualitative observations concerning the reaction between sodium and sodium hydroxide. Finally some complementary tests made it possible to define the nature of the phenomena occurring during the attack of pyrex glass by sodium. (author)

  19. Effect of Sodium Valproate on the Toxicity of Cyclophosphamide in the Testes of Mice: Influence of Pre- and Post-Treatment Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S.; Jena, G. B.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, sodium valproate (VPA) has been proven as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and potentiates the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs, and also exhibit promising anti-cancer activity. Present study aimed to investigate the influence of pre- and post-treatment of VPA on cyclophosphamide (CP) induced genotoxicity and germ cell toxicity in mice. All the animals were treated with VPA at the dose of 500 mg/kg/day on alternate day thrice/week for a period of two weeks, CP at the dose of 200 mg/kg on 7th and 15th day and sacrificed 24 h after administration (i.p.) of the last dose. End point of evaluation includes sperm count, sperm head morphology, sperm comet assay and histology. VPA treatment significantly decreases CP induced sperm count, testes and epididymis weight; increased sperm head abnormality and sperm DNA damage. Both VPA pre- and post-treatment augmented CP induced DNA damage and the germ cell toxicity; however, pre-treatment induced more cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as compared to post-treatment. PMID:23833441

  20. Indirect pulp capping using different calcium hydroxide products: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanovi?-Radman Irena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Indirect pulp capping is a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of deep carious lesion in order to stimulate odontoblasts to produce tertiary dentin using different biomaterials based mainly on calcium hydroxide. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hard-setting (Dycal and a suspension of calcium hydroxide (Calcipulp in the treatment of deep carious lesion (caries profunda. Materials and Methods. Clinical study included 29 patients of both genders, age 16 to 40, and 45 teeth of different morphological groups with verified caries profunda using clinical and radiographic examination. After the cavity preparation, calcium hydroxide materials (Dycal or Calcipulp were applied on the pulpal wall and cavities temporarily restored (phosphate cement for the period of two months. After this period cavities were restored with composite materials and clinically observed during twelve months, with mandatory check-ups after three and six months. Results. Obtained results showed that indirect pulp capping using calcium hydroxide suspension (90.0% was more successful than hard-setting material (84.0%, but with no statistically significant difference. Conclusion. Suspension and hard-setting calcium hydroxide were equally successful in the treatment of caries profunda.

  1. Prolonged delivery of ciprofloxacin and diclofenac sodium from a polymeric fibre device for the treatment of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Deanne; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; van Vuuren, Sandy; Pillay, Viness

    2013-01-01

    In vitro analysis of drug release and antimicrobial activity of the coblended crosslinked polymeric fibre device (PFD) were investigated. The fibre loaded with ciprofloxacin and diclofenac sodium was comprised of alginate and glycerol crosslinked with barium cations. The pH dependent drug release was evident with ciprofloxacin and diclofenac sodium diffusing from the fibre at pH 4.0 compared to pH 6.8, where the fibre swelled and eroded resulting in zero-order drug release. Agar diffusion studies followed by minimum inhibitory assays were conducted to determine the antimicrobial activity of the device against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus mutans. The antimicrobial activity of the PFD was confirmed in both test assays against all test pathogens. The MIC ranges at pH 4.0 for E. coli, E. faecalis, and S. mutans were 0.5-0.8, 0.4-1.1, and 0.7-2.1??g/mL, respectively. At pH 6.8, similar efficacies (0.3-0.5??g/mL for E. coli and E. faecalis and 0.6-1.0??g/mL for S. mutans) were observed. The effect of varying the plasticizer and crosslinking ion concentration on drug release profile of the fibers was further elucidated and conceptualized using molecular mechanics energy relationships (MMER) and by exploring the spatial disposition of geometrically minimized molecular conformations. PMID:24324962

  2. Eficacia de la carboximetilcelulosa sódica para el tratamiento del síndrome del ojo seco / Efficacy of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the treatment of dry eye syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Bruix; A., Adán; R.P., Casaroli-Marano.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de la carboximetilcelulosa sódica para el tratamiento del Síndrome de Ojo Seco (SOS). Material y métodos: Se realizó un ensayo clínico prospectivo randomizado unicéntrico y enmascarado de tipo grupo problema/control con 19 pacientes que padecían un SOS leve o moderado, [...] durante un período de 12 meses. Los pacientes fueron clínicamente evaluados cada 3 meses y tratados con una solución isotónica de carboximetilcelulosa sódica (CMC) al 0,5% o BSS. La toma de los síntomas subjetivos, las pruebas objetivas de funcionalidad clínica, y la citología de impresión conjuntival fueron realizadas según el protocolo preestablecido. Para la comparación de los datos entre los grupos se utilizó un análisis estadístico mediante prueba de chi cuadrado (?²). Resultados: Se ha observado una disminución significativa (p Abstract in english Aim: To assess the efficacy of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the treatment of dry eye. Material and methods: We carried out a prospective, randomized, masked-observer, control/problem group, single-center clinical assay during a period of 12 months in 19 patients that presented mild or moderate f [...] orms of dry eye. Patients were clinically evaluated each 3 months and treated with a 0.5% isotonic solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or balanced salt solution. Subjective symptoms, functional tests and conjunctival impression cytology were performed according preexistent schedule study visits. To compare data between groups chi squared (?2) analysis was applied. Results: We observed a significant (p

  3. Deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of sodium (2-D2) propionate with permanganate in water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic parameters characterizing the oxidation of sodium (2-1H2) propionate and the oxidation of sodium (2-2H2) propionate with permanganate in water solutions have been determined. The results were compared with kinetic parameters derived from the investigation of the deuterium isotope effect on the activation parameters in the permanganate and manganate oxidation of sodium (2-2H2) propionate in water solutions of sodium hydroxide. (author) 3 refs.; 3 tabs

  4. Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers Reparação apical e periapical de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica após tratamento endodôntico utilizando diferentes materiais obturadores

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Roberto Leonardo; Antônio Alberto Medeiros Salgado; Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva; Mário Tanomaru Filho

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation...

  5. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method

  6. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method. PMID:21832599

  7. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki [Laboratory of Interface Microstructure Analysis (LIMSA), Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)], E-mail: himendra@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2008-10-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method.

  8. Study of decreasing of uranium interference in tri-sodium phosphate from the Thai monazite processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this experiment is to study the methods of decreasing uranium content presented as an impurity in tri-sodium phosphate from the processing of Thai Monazite. Three methods were studied. The addition of 5-35% sodium hydroxide solution could decrease 80% of uranium in tri-sodium phosphate, addition of 5-40% sodium carbonate solution with 5% sodium hydroxide solution could decrease uranium content up to 90% and only 40% of uranium was found to reduce if aluminium carrier method was applied. The recrystallization of tri-sodium phosphate was also revealed in the experiment to be another of decreasing uranium content in the product. The analysis of uranium were done by neutron activation technique, fluorimetry analysis technique was also applied for comparative study

  9. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients who have narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that may cause extreme sleepiness, sudden uncontrollable urge ... The way that sodium oxybate works to treat narcolepsy is not known.

  10. Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Jung, Koo; Lee, Kwang-Youll; Jeong, Je-Yong; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hae-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (p4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (p<0.05). Moreover, fungal symptoms were more significantly reduced in combined treatment groups (gamma irradiation and NaDCC) than single treatment groups (gamma irradiation or NaDCC). These results suggest that combined treatment with irradiation and NaDCC treatment can be applied to preserve quality of postharvest paprika or other fruits.

  11. Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste

  12. Eficacia del valproato de sodio en el tratamiento profiláctico de la migraña / Efficacy of sodium valproate in the prophylactic treatment of migraine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Fernando, Lizárraga Luyo; Pilar Milagros, Jara Pinto; Leónidas E., Unzueta Rozas.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La migraña es un síndrome doloroso recurrente crónico acompañado de características neurológicas, objetivos: evaluar la eficacia del valproato de sodio en la profilaxis de la migraña a través de cambios en intensidad, dolor y frecuencia. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, longi [...] tudinal, experimental y aleatorio en 30 pacientes que recibieron en la 1ra semana 1 tableta/dia de valproato de sodio 500 mg vía oral y 2 tabletas/dia de 500 mg por 7 semanas más. Resultados: 97% refirió disminución de la intensidad del dolor. 97% estuvieron en la categoría 3 de frecuencia de crisis de migraña al mes 0; durante el 1er mes de tratamiento, se redujo al 0% y se mantuvo durante el 2do mes. Conclusiones: El tratamiento profiláctico de la migraña con valproato de sodio produce una disminución de la frecuencia e intensidad del dolor Abstract in english Introduction: migraine is a chronic recurrent pain syndrome accompanied by neurological features. Objectives: evaluate the efficacy of sodium valproate in the migraine prophylactic, measuring pain intensity and frequency. Material and Methods: prospective, longitudinal, experiemental and randomized [...] in 30 patients, each patient received in the 1st week 1 table/day of 500 mg orally and 2 table/day of 500 mg for the next 7 weeks Results: 97% reported decreased pain intensity. 97% were in category 3 of frequency of migraine attacks per month 0. during the 1 st month of treatment, it was reduced to 0% and remained during the 2nd month. Conclusions: prophylactic treatment of migraine with sodium valproate causes a decrease in pain intensity and frequency.

  13. The impact of low serum sodium on treatment outcome of targeted therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Database Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutz, Fabio A B; Xie, Wanling

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia has been associated with poor survival in many solid tumors and more recently found to be of prognostic and predictive value in metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) patients treated with immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of baseline hyponatremia in mRCC patients treated with targeted therapy in the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data on 1661 patients treated with first-line vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) targeted therapy for mRCC were available from 18 cancer centers to study the impact of hyponatremia (serum sodium level <135 mmol/l) on clinical outcomes. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary objective was overall survival (OS) and secondary end points included time to treatment failure (TTF) and the disease control rate (DCR). The chi-square test was used to compare the DCR in patients with and without hyponatremia. OS and TTF were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and differences between groups were examined by the log-rank test. Multivariable logistic regression (for DCR) and Cox regression (for OS and TTF) were undertaken adjusted for prognostic risk factors. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Median OS after treatment initiation was 18.5 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.5-19.8 mo), with 552 (33.2%) of patients remaining alive on a median follow-up of 22.1 mo. Median baseline serum sodium was 138 mmol/l (range: 122-159 mmol/l), and hyponatremia was found in 14.6% of patients. On univariate analysis, hyponatremia was associated with shorter OS (7.0 vs 20.9 mo), shorter TTF (2.9 vs 7.4 mo), and lower DCR rate (54.9% vs 78.8%) (p<0.0001 for all comparisons). In multivariate analysis, these effects remain significant (hazard ratios: 1.51 [95% CI, 1.26-1.80] for OS, and 1.57 [95% CI, 1.34-1.83] for TTF; odds ratio: 0.50 [95% CI, 34-0.72] for DCR; adjusted p<0.001). Results were similar if sodium was analyzed as a continuous variable (adjusted p<0.0001 for OS, TTF, and DCR). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest multi-institutional report to show that hyponatremia is independently associated with a worse outcome in mRCC patients treated with VEGF- and mTOR-targeted agents.

  14. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene with layered double hydroxide nano composites: In situ synthesis, morphology and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted interest, both in industry and in academia, because they often exhibit remarkable improvement in their properties when compared with pure polymer or conventional micro and macro-composites using low levels of reinforcements. In this work polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene reinforced with layered double hydroxide, which was intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized and compared by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test. The X-ray diffraction demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites showed a high global dispersion of layered double hydroxide, suggesting exfoliated morphology. The result of thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test for synthesized polystyrene/ layered double hydroxide nanocomposite presented a significant improvement in thermal stability and flammability property when compared with pure polymer. (author)

  15. Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser (?= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm2 during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

  16. Critical operating parameters for microwave solidification of hydroxide sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineers at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed an innovative technology for the treatment of homogeneous wet or dry solids which are contaminated with hazardous and/or radioactive materials. The process uses microwave energy to heat and melt the waste into a vitreous final form that is suitable for land disposal. The advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form; volume and toxicity reduction; favorable economics; in-container treatment; good public acceptance; isolated equipment; and instantaneous energy control. Regulatory certification of the final form is accomplished by meeting the limitation specified in US EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure. This paper presents the results from a series of tests performed on a surrogate hydroxide coprecipitation sludge spiked with heavy metals at elevated concentrations. The results are very encouraging and support RFP's commitment to the use of microwave technology for treatment of various waste streams

  17. Household water treatment using sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets: a randomized, controlled trial to assess microbiological effectiveness in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas; Saeed, Tanveer F; Boisson, Sophie; Edmondson, Paul; Shipin, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the microbiologic effectiveness of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets used on a routine basis at the household level by a vulnerable population. In a 4-month trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh, one half of the 100 participating households received NaDCC tablets and instructions on how to use the same; the other one half received a placebo and the same instructions. Monthly samples of stored drinking water from intervention households were significantly lower in thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) than those of control households (geometric mean, 2.8 [95% CI: 2.2, 3.6] versus 604.1 [95% CI: 463.2, 787.9]; P < 0.0001). While 61.7% (116/188) of samples from the intervention households met World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for 0 TTCs in drinking water, none of the 191 samples from control households met such a benchmark. Residual free chlorine in water samples suggested that householders consistently used the intervention, but 11.7% of samples exceeded the WHO guideline value of 5.0 mg/L, underscoring the need to ensure that tablet dose and vessel size are compatible. PMID:17255252

  18. In vessel detection of delayed neutron emitters from clad failure in sodium cooled nuclear reactors: Information treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The formalism of hypothesis testing is applied to the detection of abnormal situations in a reactor vessel. • Clad failure monitoring in breeder reactors is taken as an example. • False alarms are addressed by a bayesian approach. • Operating several independent detectors at the same location is shown to be very effective. - Abstract: With appropriate techniques, the information brought by the in-vessel instrumentation of nuclear reactors may betray rather subtle departures from normal state indicating an abnormal situation at early stages, to improve both safety and availability. This paper takes the case of the detection of delayed neutrons released by a clad failure in sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors as an illustrative application of hypothesis testing. Two methods are discussed, seeking either for a counting excess of for a departure from stationarity, yielding similar results. The question of false alarms is addressed by a Bayesian approach that takes into account the prior probability of failure. The use of several identical sensors is shown to be effective

  19. Gallium oxide nanorods by the conversion of gallium oxide hydroxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-crystalline gallium oxide hydroxide (?-GaOOH) nanorods could be successfully synthesized in large quantities through a hydrothermal synthetic method using gallium oxide as the gallium source and sodium azide and aqueous hydrazine as both alkaline and complexing reagent. Single-crystalline gallium oxide (?-Ga2O3 and ?-Ga2O3) nanorods could be selectively obtained by thermal decomposition method using gallium oxide hydroxide nanorods as the precursor. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and photoluminescence spectra (PL)

  20. Removal of nitrate from ammonium hydroxide solution containing organics by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of nitrate from ammonium hydroxide solution containing HMTA (hexamethyltetramine) and Urea was studied using indigenously available anion exchange resins. This type of waste is produced during nuclear fuel preparation by internal gelation process. The resins used are Tulsion A-27(MP) and Duolite A. 102D. The time of equilibration and capacity of the resins were determined from distribution ratios obtained by equilibrating resin with nitrate solution. The loading, washing and elution behavior of nitrate on these resins were studied using synthetic mixture having similar composition of the waste produced. Elution studies were carried out using sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride. The studies were also carried out at higher temperature of around 60 degC. The data was compared with that obtained using Dowex 1x4 for the same purpose. (author)

  1. EFFECT OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE FILLER LOADING ON THE PROPERTIES OF BANANA STEM HANDSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Syazwani Abd Rahman,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hydroxide filler dispersions, of various particle sizes, were prepared by mixing sodium hydroxide with calcium chloride, in various concentrations, at room temperature. The resulting filler dispersions were added, in various amounts, to the banana stem mechanical pulp, which was then converted to handsheets. Increasing the filler loading increased the tensile index but reduced the tear index and water absorption of the handsheets. The SEM micrographs of the handsheets surfaces and the tensile fractured surfaces of the handsheets tensile test specimens showed that increasing the filler loading resulted in the formation of more and bigger filler aggregates in the spaces between the fibre. The filler particle size did not have any significant effect on the handsheets properties.

  2. O uso do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento das disfunções temporomandibulares articulares / The use of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Grossmann; Eduardo, Januzzi; Liogi, Iwaki Filho.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A disfunção temporomandibular compreende um termo coletivo que envolve alterações clínicas nos músculos da mastigação, das articulações temporomandibulares e/ou estruturas associadas.O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise crítica, utilizando as principais bases d [...] e dados, sobre a efetividade e a segurança do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento das disfunções temporomandibulares de origem articular, a fim de recomendar ou refutar seu uso na prática clínica. CONTEÚDO: Os estudos foram obtidos através das seguintes bases de dados: Medline, via PubMed (1966 - 2013), Registro de Ensaios Controlados Cochrane, (2012), Embase (1980 - 2013) e LILACS (1982 - 2013). A estratégia utilizada foi a busca ajustada para cada base, a fim de identificar o maior número possível de estudos envolvendo o uso do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento da disfunção temporomandibular de origem articular. Houve limitação do idioma, buscando artigos em língua inglesa. Cruzaram-se os seguintes descritores: tratamento da articulação temporomandibular versus hialuronato de sódio versus deslocamento agudo e crônico do disco com e sem redução versus ácido hialurônico versus osteoartrite e osteoartrose versus viscossuplementação. Como critérios de inclusão foram analisados estudos randomizados, uni ou duplamente encobertos, série de casos, com 15 ou mais participantes. Excluíram-se relato de caso, estudos abertos "open-label", estudos em modelos animais e artigos relacionados a tratamento da disfunção artrogênica que não possuíssem como uma das terapias a infiltração de hialuronato de sódio na articulação temporomandibular. A qualidade metodológica desses estudos foi avaliada e classificada conforme o nível de evidência do Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com a análise crítica dos estudos incluídos, pode-se afirmar que o uso do hialuronato de sódio é eficaz e seguro, sendo recomendado no tratamento das seguintes condições: deslocamento agudo e crônico do disco com redução e sem redução, osteoartrose, osteoartrite e doença articular degenerativa. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Temporomandibular disorder is a collective term involving clinical masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints and/or associated structures changes. This study aimed at reviewing, using major databases, the effectiveness and safety of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment [...] of temporomandibular joint disorders, aiming at recommending or discarding its clinical use. CONTENTS: The following databases were queried: Medline, via Pubmed (1966-2013), Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (2012), Embase (1980-2013) and LILACS (1982-2013). The strategy was a search adjusted to each database to identify the largest possible number of studies involving sodium hyalorunate to manage joint temporomandibular disorders. Language was limited to articles published in English. The following keywords were crossed: temporomandibular joint management, versus sodium hyalorunate, versus acute or chronic reducing or nonreducing disk displacement, versus hyaluronic acid, versus osteoarthritis, versus viscosupplementation. Inclusion criteria were randomized, blind or double-blind studies, and case series with 15 or more participants. Exclusion criteria were open label-label studies, animal model studies and articles related to arthrogenous disorders not being treated with sodium hyalorunate infiltration of the temporomandibular joint. Methodological quality of such studies was evaluated and classified according to the level of evidence of the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine. CONCLUSION: According to this review, one may state that sodium hyalorunate is effective and safe, being recommended to manage the following conditions: acute and chronic reducing and nonreducing disk displacement, osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease.

  3. Performance testing of in-sodium sensors and simulated experiments in, sodium chemistry loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sodium chemistry loop operated with simulated reactor conditions. • Electrochemical sensors for measurement of H2, C and O2 in sodium tested. • Hydrogen sensor response studied by Na–NaOH and Na–H2O reactions. • Hydrogen and oxygen sensors response tested for cold trap temperature variation. - Abstract: Impurities like oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in sodium circuits of fast reactors need to be monitored and controlled within permissible levels. Toward this, electrochemical sensors are being developed in this Center for continuous monitoring of these impurities in sodium. A sodium chemistry loop (SCL), wherein reactor conditions can be simulated, was built and performance of the sensors was studied. The response of the hydrogen sensor for sodium hydroxide addition and simulated steam leak was studied in SCL. The responses of hydrogen and oxygen sensors for the variation of cold trap temperature are also discussed. Carbon activity in sodium was monitored using carbon sensor and foil equilibration technique and the results were used for testing a radionuclide trap, containing reticulated vitreous carbon, for the removal of cesium isotopes in sodium was tested in SCL. The results of these studies are presented in this paper

  4. Intravesical application of lidocaine and sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of obstructive idiopathic lower urinary tract disease in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Zezza, L.; Reusch, C. E.; Gerber, B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In human patients with interstitial cystitis, intravesical instillation of alkalinized lidocaine sometimes is associated with sustained amelioration of symptoms beyond the acute treatment phase. Interstitial cystitis shares many features in common with feline idiopathic cystitis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether intravesical instillation of alkalinized lidocaine decreases recurrence of urethral obstruction and severity of clinical signs in cats with obstructive idiopathic...

  5. Colistimethate sodium for the treatment of chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koerner-Rettberg C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cordula Koerner-Rettberg, Manfred Ballmann Department of Pediatric Pneumology, University Children’s Hospital of Ruhr University Bochum at St Josef-Hospital, Bochum, Germany Abstract: Chronic bacterial respiratory-tract infections are a major driving force in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease and promote chronic lung-function decline, destruction, and progression to respiratory failure at a premature age. Gram-negative bacteria colonizing the airways in CF are a major problem in CF therapy due to their tendency to develop a high degree of resistance to antibiotic agents over time. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominating bacterial strain infecting the CF lung from early childhood on, and multiresistant strains frequently develop after years of therapy. Colistin has been used for treating pulmonary bacterial infections in CF for decades due to its very good Gram-negative activity. However, drawbacks include concerns regarding toxicity when being applied systemically, and the lack of approval for application by inhalation in the USA for many years. Other antibiotic substances for systemic use are available with good to excellent Gram-negative and anti-Pseudomonas activity, while there are only three substances approved for inhalation use in the treatment of chronic pulmonary infection with proven benefit in CF. The emergence of multiresistant strains leaving nearly no antibiotic substance as a treatment option, the limited number of antibiotics with high activity against P. aeruginosa, the concerns about increasing the risk of antibiotic resistance by continuous antibiotic therapy, the development of new drug formulations and drug-delivery devices, and, finally, the differing treatment strategies used in CF centers call for defining the place of this “old” drug, colistimethate, in today’s CF therapy. This article reviews the available evidence to reflect on the place of colistimethate sodium in the therapy of chronic pulmonary infection in CF. Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, treatment, multiresistant strains, Gram-negative bacteria, colistin

  6. Eficacia de la carboximetilcelulosa sódica para el tratamiento del síndrome del ojo seco Efficacy of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the treatment of dry eye syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bruix

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de la carboximetilcelulosa sódica para el tratamiento del Síndrome de Ojo Seco (SOS. Material y métodos: Se realizó un ensayo clínico prospectivo randomizado unicéntrico y enmascarado de tipo grupo problema/control con 19 pacientes que padecían un SOS leve o moderado, durante un período de 12 meses. Los pacientes fueron clínicamente evaluados cada 3 meses y tratados con una solución isotónica de carboximetilcelulosa sódica (CMC al 0,5% o BSS. La toma de los síntomas subjetivos, las pruebas objetivas de funcionalidad clínica, y la citología de impresión conjuntival fueron realizadas según el protocolo preestablecido. Para la comparación de los datos entre los grupos se utilizó un análisis estadístico mediante prueba de chi cuadrado (?². Resultados: Se ha observado una disminución significativa (pAim: To assess the efficacy of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the treatment of dry eye. Material and methods: We carried out a prospective, randomized, masked-observer, control/problem group, single-center clinical assay during a period of 12 months in 19 patients that presented mild or moderate forms of dry eye. Patients were clinically evaluated each 3 months and treated with a 0.5% isotonic solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC or balanced salt solution. Subjective symptoms, functional tests and conjunctival impression cytology were performed according preexistent schedule study visits. To compare data between groups chi squared (?2 analysis was applied. Results: We observed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in the frequency of subjective symptoms and a significant (p<0.05 improvement of tearfilm interface stability after CMC treatment. There was a tendency to improve the degree of corneal surface wettability and the tearfilm integrity with higher percentage improvements in the CMC group compared to controls. Improved baseline values in at least one of the objective functional tests carried out (p<0.05 was also observed in an elevated percentage of patients in the CMC group (83.3% compared with controls (34%. Furthermore, we observed a tendency to diminish the frequency of associated subjective symptoms after treatment. Conjunctival impression cytology did not provide significant differences related with therapeutic response. Conclusions: The results show a significant beneficial effect of CMC to improve clinical parameters in mild and moderate forms of dry eye.

  7. KEGG COMPOUND / Ammonium hydroxide [KEGG COMPOUND

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available COMPOUND: C01358 Entry C01358Compound Name NH4OH; Ammonium hydroxide Formula NH4. OH Exact mass ... s 223Expectorants 2232Ammonium salts D04594Ammonia water ... (JP16) 26Epidermides 264Analgesics, anti-itchings, ... lammatory agents 2643Ammonium agents D04594Ammonia water ... (JP16) Classification of Japanese OTC drugs [BR:br ...

  8. Surface tension of calcium hydroxide associated with different substances Tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Estrela; Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo Estrela; Luiz Fernando Guimarães; Reginaldo Santana Silva; Jesus Djalma Pécora

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface tension of calcium hydroxide (CH) associated with different substances (deionized distilled water, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, Otosporin, 3% sodium lauryl ether sulphate; Furacin, PMC Furacin) using tensiometer. The action of the substances studied on the dentinal structure enhances the property of surface tension. This method consists in the application of force to separate a platinum ring immersed in t...

  9. Synthesis of hexagonal nickel hydroxide nanosheets by exfoliation of layered nickel hydroxide intercalated with dodecyl sulfate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Shintaro; Shiga, Daisuke; Koinuma, Michio; Matsumoto, Yasumichi

    2008-10-29

    One-nanometer-thick nickel hydroxide nanosheets were prepared by exfoliation of layered nickel hydroxides intercalated with dodecyl sulfate (DS) ions. The shape of the nanosheets was hexagonal, as was that of the layered nickel hydroxides intercalated with DS ions. The nickel hydroxide nanosheets exhibited charge-discharge properties in strong alkaline electrolyte. The morphology of the nanosheet changed during the electrochemical reaction. PMID:18834194

  10. Intravenous sodium valproate in status epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Jha S; Jose M.; Patel R

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to observe the effect of intravenous sodium valproate in status epilepticus. Eleven patients with status epilepticus, who were resistant to conventional drugs, underwent treatment with intravenous sodium valproate. The seizures were controlled in 10 patients within 24-48 hrs of starting treatment. No complications were observed during therapy. We conclude that intravenous sodium valproate can be recommended for Myoclonic status epilepticus and non-convulsive status epile...

  11. Intravenous sodium valproate in status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha S

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to observe the effect of intravenous sodium valproate in status epilepticus. Eleven patients with status epilepticus, who were resistant to conventional drugs, underwent treatment with intravenous sodium valproate. The seizures were controlled in 10 patients within 24-48 hrs of starting treatment. No complications were observed during therapy. We conclude that intravenous sodium valproate can be recommended for Myoclonic status epilepticus and non-convulsive status epileticus.

  12. The evaluation of sodium-modified chabazite zeolite and resorcinol-formaldehyde resin for the treatment of contaminated process wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural chabazite zeolite has been selected as the baseline treatment technology to compare the performance of emerging sorbent materials for the removal of 90Sr and 137Cs from contaminated process water. The resorcinol-formaldehyde resin, developed at Savannah River Site, is the first sorbent to be evaluated in this study. This paper summarizes the required contact times for maximum strontium and cesium removal, presents sorption isotherms in wastewater simulant and authentic wastewater, and defines the effects of elevated concentrations of K, Mg, Ca, and Na in wastewater for both sorbents

  13. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated ?-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated ?-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated ?-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation

  14. Thermal properties of lauric- and stearic acid intercalated layered double hydroxides

    OpenAIRE

    Focke, Walter Wilhelm; Nhlapo, Nontete Susan; Moyo, Lumbidzani; Verryn, Sabine Marie Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    A commercial layered double hydroxide (LDH) with nominal composition [Mg0.689A10.311(OH)2](CO3)0.156.zH2O was intercalated with lauric and stearic acid using a surfactant-assisted method. X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy confirmed that bilayer-intercalated compounds were formed and that the surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) was not co-intercalated. These compounds shows interesting thermal behavior with two phase transformations observed at elevated temperatu...

  15. Changes in cardiac glycoside receptor sites 86 rubidium uptake and intracellular sodium concentrations in the erythrocytes of patients receiving digoxin during the early phases of treatment of cardiac failure in regular rhythm and of atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the binding of 12-?-[3H]-digoxin to the membranes of intact erythrocytes, erythrocytic 86Rb uptake and intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations have been made in the red cells of patients receiving digoxin in the short-term for atrial fibrillation or cardiac failure in regular rhythm. During the first few days of treatment [3H]-digoxin binding and 86Rb uptake fall and intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations rise. Subsequently parallel fluctuations occur in [3H]-digoxin binding and 86Rb uptake but not in intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations and the significance of the fluctuations is discussed. The values of all three measurements correlate significantly with the response of the heart in sinus rhythm as measured by QS2I. Plasma digoxin concentrations do not correlate with QS2I. (author)

  16. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edson Luiz, Foletto; Ederson, Gratieri; Leonardo Hadlich de, Oliveira; Sérgio Luiz, Jahn.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produ [...] ced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA) and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reaction mixture (expressed in terms of molar ratios NaOH/SiO2 and H2O/SiO2). About 90% silica conversion contained in the RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in closed system at 200 °C. The results showed that sodium silicate production from RHA can generate aggregate value to this residue.

  17. Transcriptional response of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 sessile cells to treatments with high doses of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Hans

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria are opportunistic pathogens, which can cause severe respiratory tract infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. As treatment of infected CF patients is problematic, multiple preventive measures are taken to reduce the infection risk. Besides a stringent segregation policy to prevent patient-to-patient transmission, clinicians also advise patients to clean and disinfect their respiratory equipment on a regular basis. However, problems regarding the efficacy of several disinfection procedures for the removal and/or killing of B. cepacia complex bacteria have been reported. In order to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance of biofilm-grown Burkholderia cenocepacia cells against high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS, the present study focussed on the transcriptional response in sessile B. cenocepacia J2315 cells following exposure to high levels of H2O2 or NaOCl. Results The exposure to H2O2 and NaOCl resulted in an upregulation of the transcription of 315 (4.4% and 386 (5.4% genes, respectively. Transcription of 185 (2.6% and 331 (4.6% genes was decreased in response to the respective treatments. Many of the upregulated genes in the NaOCl- and H2O2-treated biofilms are involved in oxidative stress as well as general stress response, emphasizing the importance of the efficient neutralization and scavenging of ROS. In addition, multiple upregulated genes encode proteins that are necessary to repair ROS-induced cellular damage. Unexpectedly, a prolonged treatment with H2O2 also resulted in an increased transcription of multiple phage-related genes. A closer inspection of hybridisation signals obtained with probes targeting intergenic regions led to the identification of a putative 6S RNA. Conclusion Our results reveal that the transcription of a large fraction of B. cenocepacia J2315 genes is altered upon exposure of sessile cells to ROS. These observations have highlighted that B. cenocepacia may alter several pathways in response to exposure to ROS and they have led to the identification of many genes not previously implicated in the stress response of this pathogen.

  18. Digestibility and energetic value of some agricultural wastes as affected by gamma irradiation and chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to study the changes in the values of in-vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy lactation (NEL) of wheat straw, sunflower seed shell, olive cake wood, date palm seeds and peanut shell after spraying with different concentrations of hydrobromic acid (HBr) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0,3,6 ml HBr and 3,6 g NaOH/25 ml water/100 g DM) or after exposure to various doses of gamma radiation (0, 20, 40, 60 kGy). Results indicated that, except for the date palm seeds, the chemical treatments with either HBr or NaOH significantly (P<0.05) increased IVOMD, Me and NEL values for all treated samples. The experimental agricultural wastes did not respond equally to the chemical treatments investigated, i.e. they differ in the induced increases pertaining to their IVOMD, ME and NEL. The highest changes in the studied parameters due to chemical treatments were obtained when applying the 6% concentration. There was no significant effect (P<0.05) of irradiation on IVOMD, ME and NEL values for all treated samples. Moreover, the combined treatments of irradiation and hydrobromic acid or sodium hydroxide were found to have no significant affects on the IVOMD, ME and NEL values compared to the individual chemical treatments. (author)

  19. Digestibility and energetic value of agricultural wastes as affected by gamma irradiation and chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to study the changes in the values of in-vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy lactation (NEL) of wheat straw, sunflower seed shell, olive cake wood, date palm seeds and peanut shell after spraying with different concentrations of hydrobromic acid (HBr) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0,3,6 ml HBr and 3,6 g NaOH/25 ml water/100 g Dm) or after exposure to various doses of gamma radiation (0, 20, 40, 60 kGy). Results indicated that, except for the date palm seeds, the chemical treatments with either HBr or NaOH significantly (P<0.05) increased IVOMD, Me and NEL values for all treated samples. The experimental agricultural wastes did not respond equally to the chemical treatments investigated, i.e. they differ in the induced increases pertaining to their IVOMD, ME and NEL. The highest changes in the studied parameters due to chemical treatments were obtained when applying the 6% concentration. There was no significant effect (P<0.05) of irradiation on IVOMD, ME and NEL values for all treated samples. Moreover, the combined treatments of irradiation and hydrobromic acid or sodium hydroxide were found to have no significant affects on the IVOMD, ME and NEL values compared to the individual chemical treatments. (author)

  20. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost. PMID:25244259

  1. Phosphoric ore treatment by roasting it with sodium carbonate and leaching it with ammonium citrate for the recovery of soluble phosphate and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: By thermal treatment of phosphoric ore, with low phosphorus contents and iron, aluminum, and silicon impurities, basic fertilizers with P2O5 soluble in citric acid or ammonium citrate, can be produced. The phosphoric ore lightly grinded with alkaline salts like CO3Na2 y SiO2 is roasted between 800 to 1 000 deg. C in rotary kilns. The roasted material contains from 25 - 30% of alkaline phosphates soluble in citrates. Phosphoric ore from the province of Napo-Ecuador with 24% of P2O5, 40% CaO in form of apatite, 20% of SiO2 and 7 g/Ton U is tested by thermic differential analysis, roasting at 800 deg. C for 2 hours with 50% w/w of sodium carbonate and 2% w/w de SiO2 by using a Nichols pilot furnace with 15 L of capacity which uses gas (propane-butane) as fuel, and agitated leaching with ammonium citrate (5% w/w). The initial ore and products are characterized by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Perkin Elmer AA400) and x-rays diffraction (Bruker D8 Advance). The results of leaching with ammonium citrate are reported. In the best conditions, 32% of phosphorus soluble in water is obtained as well as 40% of phosphorus and 56% uranium soluble in ammonium citrate. (author)

  2. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary

  3. Phosphoric ore treatment by roasting it with sodium carbonate and leaching it with ammonium citrate for the recovery of soluble phosphate and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By thermal treatment of phosphoric ore, with low phosphorus contents and iron, aluminum, and silicon impurities, basic fertilizers with P2O5 soluble in citric acid or ammonium citrate, can be produced. The phosphoric ore lightly grinded with alkaline salts like CO3Na2 y SiO2 is roasted between 800 to 1 000°C in rotary kilns. The roasted material contains from 25–30% of alkaline phosphates soluble in citrates. Phosphoric ore from the province of Napo-Ecuador with 24% of P2O5, 40% CaO in form of apatite, 20% of SiO2 and 7 g/ton U is tested by thermic differential analysis, roasting at 800°C for 2 hours with 50% w/w of sodium carbonate and 2% w/w of SiO2 by using a Nichols pilot furnace with 15 L of capacity which uses gas (propane-butane) as fuel, and agitated leaching with ammonium citrate (5% w/w). The initial ore and products are characterized by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Perkin Elmer AA400) and x-ray diffraction (Bruker D8 Advance). In the best conditions, 32% of phosphorus soluble in water is obtained as well as 40% of phosphorus and 56% uranium soluble in ammonium citrate. (author)

  4. Ultrasound efficiency in relation to sodium hypochlorite and filtration adsorption in microbial elimination in a water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processes like ultrasound, chlorination and filtration-adsorption were compared to eliminate microorganisms and to adjust established parameters of public drinking water. A mini water treatment plant (WTP-CB, in pilot scale, was projected and built to evaluate each process influence as: decontamination, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. Total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and heterotrophic bacteria and physic/chemical parameters were quantified from water. Ultrasound, chlorination and filtration-adsorption were efficient to inactivate and/or eliminate bacteria. Ultrasound decontamination in addition to coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration, could be considered as an alternative treatment water solution where prechlorination, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration were used. The chlorination itself was efficient in inactivating bacteria despite of the coagulation-flocculation process; however, in the absence of the coagulation process, the resultant water did not achieve the established parameters. The filtration-adsorption was an important process to eliminate bacteria, showing that the filter retained particles, suspended solids, besides chemical substances and microorganisms.Comparou-se diferentes processos: ultra-som, cloração e filtração/adsorção para eliminação de microrganismos e adequação de outros parâmetros exigidos para água de abastecimento público. Para avaliar a influência de cada processo: desinfecção, coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração foi projetada e construída uma Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA-CB em escala piloto. Foram avaliados coliformes, bactérias heterotróficas e parâmetros físico/químicos. Ondas ultra-sônicas, cloração e filtração/adsorção mostraram-se eficientes na inativação e/ou eliminação de bactérias. O processo de desinfecção com ultra-som juntamente com a coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração, pode ser considerado como um tratamento alternativo do processo tradicional onde utiliza-se pré-cloração, coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração. A cloração mostrou-se eficiente na inativação de bactérias, independente da aplicação do processo de coagulação/floculação, porém na ausência desse processo à água resultante não atingiu a especificação de potabilidade. A filtração/adsorção mostrou-se importante na eliminação de bactérias, evidenciando que o filtro retém partículas, sólidos suspensos, substâncias químicas e microrganismos.

  5. Discolored bondpads caused by aluminum hydroxide formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zong M.; Oh, Chong K.; Neo, Soh P.; Redkar, Shailesh

    2000-08-01

    Discolored bondpads and poor adhesion or non-stick failure during bonding was investigated. The bondpads looked either brown in color at corners or just discolored without brownish corners. SEM inspection showed such bondpads had porous surface that was worse at corners. EDX, FIB and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) were used to analyze and identify the root cause. Failure analysis showed that the discolored bondpads were caused by the formation of aluminum hydroxide. This process was an oxidation or corrosion process that could not be avoided when bondpads were exposed to atmospheric environment. EDX analysis further confirmed the existence of Al-O chemical bonding. FIB/SEM analysis showed clearly the porous layer grew thicker towards the bondpad edge by consuming more aluminum. The layer of aluminum hydroxide on the bondpads created a barrier for good bonding. It is the responsibility of both fab and assembly plant to take preventative action to avoid the excessive exposure of bondpads to moisture during manufacturing.

  6. Preventive and curative activity of combined treatments of sodium carbonates and Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 to control postharvest green mold of citrus fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventive and curative activity of 2 min dips in 3% sodium carbonate (SC) or sodium bicarbonate (SBC) aqueous solutions heated to 40ºC, alone of followed by the application of 2 x 108 CFU/ml of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 (BA), in the control of postharvest green mold, caused by ...

  7. Mixed metal hydroxides for thickening water or hydrophylic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burba, J.L.; Strothers, G.W.

    1991-02-05

    This paper discusses a composition for use as a drilling fluid component. The composition comprises: a liquid having dispersed therein at least one monodispersed monolayer crystalline metal hydroxide conforming essentially to the empirical formula Li{sub m}D{sub d}T(OH)(m + 2d + 3 + na)A{sub a}{sup n}, where D represents divalent metal ions, T represents trivalent metal ions, A represents monovalent or polyvalent anions or negative-valence radicals other than OH{sup {minus}} ions, m is from about zero to about 1, representing the amount of Li ion, d is from about zero to about 4, (m + d) is greater than zero, and na is from about zero to about {minus} 3; and a is an amount of A ions of valence n, where (m + 2d + 3 + na) is equal to or greater than 3 wherein the drilling fluid also contains at least one fluid loss control agent. This patent also describes a drilling fluid component, wherein the drilling fluid also contains at least one fluid loss control agent selected from the group consisting of hydroxyethylcarboxymethyl-cellulose, cornstarch, sodium polyacrylate, starch, polyacrylates, and carboxymethyl-cellulose.

  8. A retrospective study of intravenous sodium stibogluconate alone and in combinations with allopurinol, rifampicin, and an immunomodulator in the treatment of Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A retrospective analysis of treatment outcome using recommended dose of sodium stibogluconate (SSG alone and in combination with other antileishmanial drugs in adults with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL attending as outpatients. Methods: A total of 61 patients seen over ten years were included in the report. All had polymorphic lesions. Diagnosis was based on clinical picture, hailing from kala-azar (KA endemic area, exclusion of other dermatoses, histopathology, and therapeutic response. Patients were distributed into two groups: Group I (n = 32, where SSG was given intravenously; in Group II (n = 29, they were allocated to one of four categories using SSG in combination with other drugs. In the first category, SSG was given along with allopurinol (n = 10; in second with rifampicin (n = 6; and in third with both allopurinol and rifampicin (n = 5. In the fourth category, SSG was administered with an immunomodulator (n = 8, Mw vaccine, known to enhance host Th1 response. Results: Only 12 out of 61 patients completed treatment till histopathologic evidence of cure, five in Group I and seven in Group II, no patient being from third category. None had taken SSG without interruptions. Time taken for papulonodules to subside was similar in both groups, but erythema and induration subsided earlier in Group II. Group I patients attained cure after 120 injections while in Group II it took 95 injections in SSG + allopurinol and Mw vaccine categories respectively, and 110 with SSG + rifampicin. Nevertheless this was insufficient to facilitate compliance. Poor performance and high dropouts related to long duration of therapy, thrombophlebitis, difficulty in accessing veins, disabling rheumatic side-effects and practical problems. Liver, renal and pancreatic functions and ECG remained normal. Conclusion: No major advantage was obtained using allopurinol, rifampicin or Mw vaccine along with SSG as compared to SSG alone.

  9. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  10. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results indicated that the vaccine was to be held responsible for the formation of granulomas. A clinical trial was then performed to further substantiate the initial hypothesis, by comparing pigs, which were aseptically inoculated twice with either the original vaccine or the adjuvant alone (groups vaccine and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide was the cause of the granulomas.

  11. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides

  12. Pooled safety analysis of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w in the treatment of osteoarthritis in patients aged 75 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth SH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Phoenix, AZ, 2Medical Affairs, Mallinckrodt Inc, Hazelwood, MOBackground: This study aimed to determine the safety of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w in 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo for the treatment of knee or hand osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older.Methods: A pooled analysis of safety data from seven multicenter, randomized, blinded, Phase III clinical trials (4–12 weeks' duration of TDiclo was conducted. The analysis focused on a subset of patients (n = 280 aged 75 years or older with a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee (six trials or hand (one trial. Patients received one of three topical treatments: TDiclo (n = 138; placebo (2.33% or 4.55% dimethyl sulfoxide, n = 39; or control (45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide, n = 103. Treatment groups were compared using Chi-square analysis, Fisher's Exact test, or analysis of variance.Results: The most common adverse events involved the skin or subcutaneous tissue, primarily at the application site. The incidence of dry skin was higher in the TDiclo (36.2%; P < 0.0001 and dimethyl sulfoxide control (18.4%; P = 0.0142 groups than in the placebo group (2.6%; the incidence of other skin or subcutaneous tissue adverse events was similar between the groups. Relatively few patients (<18% experienced gastrointestinal adverse events, and group differences were not detected. In the TDiclo group, constipation (3.6%, diarrhea (3.6%, and nausea (3.6% were the most common gastrointestinal adverse events. Cardiovascular and renal/urinary adverse events were rare, and group differences were not detected. There was one case (0.7% each of hypertension, spider veins, and vasodilation in the TDiclo group. Changes from baseline to the final visit in blood pressure and hepatic/renal enzyme levels were also similar between the groups.Conclusion: TDiclo appears to be well tolerated for the treatment of osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older.Keywords: adverse events, analgesic, arthritis, gastrointestinal, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tolerability

  13. Comparative study of actinic keratosis treatment with 3% diclofenac sodium and 5% 5-fluorouracil / Estudo comparativo do tratamento de ceratoses actinicas com diclofenaco sodico 3% e 5-fluorouracil 5%

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Majorie Mergen, Segatto; Sergio Ivan Torres, Dornelles; Vera Bauer, Silveira; Gabriela de Oliveira, Frantz.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Ceratose actínica é uma lesão frequente que ocorre em áreas de exposição solar. Diclofenaco sódico e 5-Fluorouracil são opções de tratamento tópico efetivo, não invasivo e de fácil aplicação. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar e comparar a efetividade do diclofenaco sódico 3% associado ao ácido h [...] ialurônico 2,5% e do 5-fluorouracil 5% no tratamento de ceratose actínica, assim como a tolerabilidade e o grau de satisfação do paciente. MÉTODOS: 28 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de ceratoses actínicas foram randomizados para receber diclofenaco sódico ou 5-fluorouracil e foram avaliados clinicamente antes, ao término e após 8 semanas do tratamento. Utilizou-se o Escore de Melhora Global do Investigador e do Paciente, ambos modificados. RESULTADOS: A média de lesões no grupo do diclofenaco sódico antes e depois do tratamento foi de 13,6 e 6,6 (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis is a frequent lesion which occurs in sunlight exposed areas. Diclofenac sodium and 5-Fluorouracil are effective, non-invasive and easy-to-apply topical treatment options. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effectiveness of 3% diclofenac sodium associated with 2 [...] .5% hyaluronic acid and of 5% 5-Fluorouracil for the treatment of actinic keratosis, as well as the patient's degree of satisfaction and tolerability. METHODS: 28 patients with a clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis were randomized to receive diclofenac sodium or 5-Fluorouracil and were clinically assessed before and after treatment as well as 8 weeks after the end of treatment. Modified versions of the Investigator and Patient Global Improvement Scores were used. RESULTS: The average number of lesions in the diclofenac sodium group before and after treatment was 13.6 and 6.6 (p

  14. Non-spherical gold nanoparticles mediated surface plasmon resonance in Er{sup 3+} doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses: Role of heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, Asmahani; Ghoshal, S.K., E-mail: krishnasib@gmail.com; Sahar, M.R.; Arifin, R.; Nawaz, Fakhra

    2014-05-01

    Tuning the enhanced optical properties of rare earth (RE) doped inorganic glasses mediated via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by embedding metallic nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled sizes is ever-demanding in photonics. Erbium (Er{sup 3+}) doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses containing gold NPs are prepared and spectroscopic characterization are made. The heat treatment temperature dependent variations in refractive index, density, molar volume, molar refraction and polarizability are ascribed to the alteration in bonding of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) ions originates from annealing processes between 325 and 400 °C. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the glass samples. TEM micrograph reveals the nucleation of heat treated Au{sup 0} NPs and SAED manifest their growth along the (1 1 1) crystallographic planes having average diameter in the range 7.4–10.3 nm. The UV–vis spectra exhibit seven absorption bands corresponding to 4f–4f transitions of Er{sup 3+} ions. The SPR bands evidenced in the range 629–631 nm validate the growth of gold NPs in the glass matrix. The glass annealed at 350 °C displays maximum enhancement in the up-conversion (UC) emission intensity by a factor of 4.86 and 3.40 for green bands ({sup 2}H{sub 11/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) and a strong enhancement by a factor of 4.91 for red band ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}). The enhancement is primarily attributed to the local field effect of non-spherical NPs assisted SPR effects and the energy transfer processes between Er{sup 3+} ions and NPs. The excellent luminescence efficiency of proposed glasses nominates them potential for photonic devices and solid state lasers. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles embedded Er{sup 3+}-doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses heat treated with different annealing temperatures have been synthesized. • Growth of NPs modifies physical properties by alteration in bonding between ligands and glass structure. • Variations in size and shape of NPs stimulated the enhancement or quenching in luminescence intensity. • Plasmonic effect preferably SPR from gold NPs exert prominent enhancement in UC emission intensity.

  15. Non-spherical gold nanoparticles mediated surface plasmon resonance in Er3+ doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses: Role of heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuning the enhanced optical properties of rare earth (RE) doped inorganic glasses mediated via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by embedding metallic nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled sizes is ever-demanding in photonics. Erbium (Er3+) doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses containing gold NPs are prepared and spectroscopic characterization are made. The heat treatment temperature dependent variations in refractive index, density, molar volume, molar refraction and polarizability are ascribed to the alteration in bonding of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) ions originates from annealing processes between 325 and 400 °C. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the glass samples. TEM micrograph reveals the nucleation of heat treated Au0 NPs and SAED manifest their growth along the (1 1 1) crystallographic planes having average diameter in the range 7.4–10.3 nm. The UV–vis spectra exhibit seven absorption bands corresponding to 4f–4f transitions of Er3+ ions. The SPR bands evidenced in the range 629–631 nm validate the growth of gold NPs in the glass matrix. The glass annealed at 350 °C displays maximum enhancement in the up-conversion (UC) emission intensity by a factor of 4.86 and 3.40 for green bands (2H11/2?4I15/2 and 4S3/2?4I15/2) and a strong enhancement by a factor of 4.91 for red band (4F9/2?4I15/2). The enhancement is primarily attributed to the local field effect of non-spherical NPs assisted SPR effects and the energy transfer processes between Er3+ ions and NPs. The excellent luminescence efficiency of proposed glasses nominates them potential for photonic devices and solid state lasers. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles embedded Er3+-doped zinc–sodium tellurite glasses heat treated with different annealing temperatures have been synthesized. • Growth of NPs modifies physical properties by alteration in bonding between ligands and glass structure. • Variations in size and shape of NPs stimulated the enhancement or quenching in luminescence intensity. • Plasmonic effect preferably SPR from gold NPs exert prominent enhancement in UC emission intensity

  16. Effect of three different calcium hydroxide mixtures (calcium hydroxide with glycerine, normal saline and distilled water on root dentin microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasheminia SM

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: During root canal therapy, it is necessary to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal. The use of medicaments is recommended to reduce the microbial population prior to root filling. Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used because of their antibacterial effects and the ability of tissue dissolving. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide/glycerine mixture, calcium hydroxide/normal saline mixture and calcium hydroxide/distilled water mixture on root dentin microhardness in storage times of 7 and 14 days.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, fifteen extracted maxillary canines and central incisors were selected. The crowns of the teeth were removed and the canals were prepared. Teeth were sectioned transversally to produce a total of 30 dentin discs from the middle third of the roots. Specimens were divided into three groups of 10 discs each. Dentin samples were subjected to calcium hydroxide/glycerine, calcium hydroxide/normal saline and calcium hydroxide/distilled water mixtures for 7 and 14 days. Dentin microhardness was measured by a Vickers indenter with a load of 200 g for 15 seconds. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Paired t-test and LSD with p<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: Statistical analysis showed that all three mixtures decreased dentin microhardness. After 7 days, reduction in dentin microhardness by calcium hydroxide/glycerine combination was significantly higher than calcium hydroxide/normal saline and calcium hydroxide/distilled water combinations. After 14 days, reduction in dentin microhardness by calcium hydroxide/distilled water combination was significantly higher than the other two groups.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the use of calcium hydroxide combinations for intracanal dressing reduces dentin microhardness. After 7 days calcium hydroxide/glycerine combination and after 14 days calcium hydroxide/distilled water combination are the most effective combinations.

  17. Hydrogen production coupled to nuclear waste treatment: the safe treatment of alkali metals through a well-demonstrated process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the United Nations emphasised the urgent need to act against the perpetuation of disparities between and within nations, the worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy and the continuing deterioration of ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being. In this framework, taking into account the preservation of both worldwide energy resources and ecosystems, the use of nuclear energy to produce clean energy carriers, such as hydrogen, is undoubtedly advisable. However, coping fully with the Agenda 21 statements requires defining adequate treatment processes for nuclear wastes. This paper discusses the possible use of a well-demonstrated process to convert radioactively contaminated alkali metals into sodium hydroxide while producing hydrogen. We conclude that a synergy between Chlor-Alkali specialists and nuclear specialists may help find an acceptable solution for radioactively contaminated sodium waste. (author)

  18. Comparison of the effects of pre-treatment with sodium chloride, sucrose and trehalose on developmental competence porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, L; Kragh, P M

    2009-01-01

    Modified environmental stress was reported to improve the developmental competence and cryotolerance of porcine oocytes, such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP; Du et al. 2008 Cloning Stem Cells, Epub ahead of print) and osmotic stress (Lin et al. 2008 Reprod. Biomed. Online, in press). HHP also improved the cryotolerance of bovine and murine blastocysts (Pribenszky et al. 2005a Reprod. Dom. Anim. 40, 338-344; Pribenszky et al. 2005b Anim. Reprod. Sci. 87, 143-150). In the present study we compared the effects of NaCl with that of concentrated solutions of two non-permeable osmotic agents, sucrose and trehalose on in vitro maturated oocytes. A total of 2050 slaughterhouse-derived porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured for 41-42 h, and then put into 800 ?L T2 (HEPES-buffered TCM-199 [Earle's salts] with 2% cattle serum) supplemented with additional NaCl, sucrose or trehalose with the same osmotic level (588 mOsmol) in 4-well dishes and incubated for 1 h at 38.5°C in air. COCs incubated in T2 under the same conditions without supplementation were used as controls. Subsequently COCs were incubated in IVM medium for 1 h at 38.5°C in 5% CO2 with maximum humidity. After this recovery period cumulus cells were removed with 1 mg mL-1 hyaluronidase and pipetting, and oocytes were used as recipients for somatic nuclear transfer with handmade cloning (HMC) method. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were used as nuclear donor cells. Embryo culture was performed in PZM-3 medium (Yoshioka et al. 2002 Biol. Reprod. 66, 112-119) in 5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2 and maximum humidity. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were checked on Day 1 and Day 6, respectively. Cell numbers were counted after fixation in glycerol containing 20 ?g mL-1 Hoechst 33342 fluorochrome on Day 6. t-test was performed for statistical calculations with SPSS 11.0 program (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results are shown in Table 1. Osmotic stress with both permeable and non-permeable agents increased developmental competence of porcine IVM oocytes. NaCl seems to be more appropriate for the purpose, as the other two components resulted in decreased cell number in blastocysts after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In conclusion, a simple NaCl pre-treatment of oocytes has improved the in vitro efficiency of porcine SCNT

  19. On interaction of Pu(4) hydroxide with hydroxides of d- and f-elements in alkaline media. 1. Pu(4)-Fe(3) and Pu(4)-Ni(2) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of Pu(4) hydroxide with Fe(3) hydroxide and Ni(2) hydroxide is studied by the methods of x-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry, comparison of rates of dissolution of hydroxides IR spectroscopy. It is shown that in the system Pu(4)-Fe(3) in contrast to Pu(4)-Ni(2) formation of mixed product takes place. So Pu(4) hydroxide and Fe(3) hydroxide can to form complex compounds in the conditions of the long storage of radioactive wastes in alkaline pulps

  20. Sodium pentafluorophenylborate

    OpenAIRE

    Vitze, Hannes; Lerner, Hans-wolfram; Bolte, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, Na[(C6F5)BH3], is composed of discrete anions and cations. The sodium cations are surrounded by four anions with three short Na...B [2.848 (8), 2.842 (7) and 2.868 (8) Å] and two short Na...F contacts [2.348 (5) and 2.392 (5) Å], forming a three-dimensional network. The anion is the first structural example of a pentafluorophenyl ring carrying a BH3 group.

  1. Induction of a CD8+ T-cell response to the MAGE cancer testis antigen by combined treatment with azacitidine and sodium valproate in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodyear, O; Agathanggelou, A; Novitzky-basso, I; Siddique, S; McSkeane, T; Ryan, G.; Vyas, P; Cavenagh, J.; Stankovic, T; MOSS, P; Craddock, C.

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic therapies, including DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors, represent important new treatment modalities in hematologic malignancies, but their mechanism of action remains unknown. We reasoned that up-regulation of epigenetically silenced tumor antigens may induce an immunologically mediated antitumor response and contribute to their clinical activity. In this study, we demonstrate that azacitidine (AZA) and sodium valproate (VPA) up-regulate expression of melano...

  2. Aerosol release from sodium fires and their consequences for reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of nuclear aerosols is important for the calculation of radiological and chemical source terms during accidents in fast breeder reactors. Sodium fires cause intensive release of aerosols which may consist of different sodium compounds. It can be assumed that the released radioactivity is attached to the sodium particles. Therefore, the knowledge of the aerosol formation rate, the physical and chemical quality and the behaviour oft these particles in the free atmosphere and in closed containments is necessary to estimate the consequences of reactor accidents. The consequences of sodium pool, spray and dispersed fires have been investigated. Numerous experiments have shown that during sodium pool fires between 10 and 30% of the burned sodium is airborne. Much higher is the aerosol formation rate during spray fires. Here the rate is between 30% and 60%, depending on the sodium flow rate, the oxygen concentration, and the size of the burning sodium droplets. Sodium fire aerosols have a mass median diameter between 1 ?m and 2 ?m. The aerodynamic diameter depends slightly on the mass concentration of the particles. The aerosol mass concentration in closed containments show logarithmic decay. Aerosol codes usually underestimate the aerosol concentration during sodium fires, but they are in excellent agreement with the course of the measured mass concentration after the fire. The chemical composition influences the physical behaviour of the particles only to a small extent. The transformation from sodium oxide to sodium hydroxide is a very fast process in humid atmosphere, while the formation of sodium carbonate particles in the free atmosphere is a slower process, depending on the size of the particles and on the relative humidity. Usually the sodium hydroxide particles are transformed to sodium carbonate particles in less than one minute. The results of some performance tests on blowers and cooling devices for the SNR 300 containment system under accident conditions are reported. (author)

  3. Surfactant-coated aluminum hydroxide for the rapid removal and biodegradation of hydrophobic organic pollutants in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Tohru; Yamaguchi, Masato; Hiraide, Masataka

    2011-02-01

    The removal of hydrophobic organic pollutants in water to surfactant-coated aluminum hydroxide [surfactant-Al(OH)(3)] was investigated. Anionic surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT), and sodium oleate were sorbed on positively charged aluminum hydroxide at pH 7 and formed hydrophobic aggregates that can incorporate hydrophobic organic pollutants in water. Because of the hydrophobic interaction and decrease in the positive charge, surfactant-Al(OH)(3) was coagulated into precipitates that can readily be separated from water. Hydrophobic organic pollutants such as alkylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, estrogens, chlorinated antifungals, and pesticides were well collected to the precipitates and thus efficiently removed from water. The collection of hydrophobic organic pollutants was correlated to their aqueous-octanol distribution coefficient. The decomposition of hydrophobic organic pollutants was examined using a bacterial agent (Bacillus subtilis). Hydrophobic organic compounds collected to AOT-Al(OH)(3) or sodium oleate-Al(OH)(3) were insufficiently decomposed. On the other hand, nonylphenol, octylphenol, and pendimethalin collected to SDS-Al(OH)(3) were decomposed within 1 week. The decomposition was accelerated by the collection to SDS-Al(OH)(3). PMID:21193213

  4. Cardiac effects of sodium selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviado, D M; Drimal, J; Watanabe, T; Lish, P M

    1975-01-01

    The classical idea that selenium is toxic to the heart at levels higher than available in a balanced diet is not supported by experimental work. In mice, treatment with sodium selenite increased the LD50 of ouabain and 2,4-dinitrophenol, and increased the tolerance to nitrogen inhalation. Although sodium selenite had no effect on the dog heart with circulation intact, there was a reduction in coronary vascular resistance in the heart-lung preparation. In the isolated ventricular segment perfused with blood, the administration of sodium selenite caused a positive inotropic effect which appeared even after blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors and in segments perfused with a Krebs-bicarbonate solution that was deficient in oxygen. These results cannot be explained merely as the correction of a selenium deficiency but rather as a positive influence of sodium selenite on the heart that has been acutely stressed by oxygen lack, ouabain, or 2,4-dinitrophenol. PMID:1182716

  5. Pravastatin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badr, Abdullah A; Mostafa, Gamal A E

    2014-01-01

    Pravastatin sodium is an [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitor and is a lipid-regulating drug. This monograph includes the description of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, elemental composition, solubility, appearance, and partition coefficient. The uses and the methods that have been reported for the synthesis of this drug are described. The physical methods that were used to characterize the drug are the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry. This chapter also contains the following spectra of the drug: the ultraviolet spectrum, the vibrational spectrum, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and the mass spectrum. The compendial methods of analysis include the British Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopoeia methods. Other methods of analysis that are included in this profile are spectrophotometric, electrochemical, polarographic, voltammetric and chromatographic, and immunoassay methods. The chapter also contains the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, stability, and articles that reviewed pravastatin sodium manufacturing, characterization, and analysis. One hundred and sixty-two references are listed at the end of this comprehensive profile. PMID:24794911

  6. A phase 2/3, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, 2-year trial of pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Marla B; Zhou, Duo

    2011-01-01

    To confirm the safety and compare the efficacy of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg versus sham injections in subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the macula associated with vision loss not due to ischemia.

  7. Corrosion resistance of metals in hot hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of hydroxide nature, concentration and temperature on corrosion resistance of domestic steels and alloys to hot NaOH, KOH, LiOH solutions is considered. It is ascertained that by corrosion growth in relation to stainless steels and nickel alloys, the hydroxides are placed in the following sequence: LiOH< KOH< NaOH. Hydroxide solution concentration and temperature regions in which stainless steel and nickel alloy tendency to cracking is manifested, are determined. 12 refs., 12 figs

  8. Synthesis of polymer nanocomposites using layered hydroxide salts (LHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work latexes of poly (methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via emulsion polymerization using layered hydroxide salts (LHS) as reinforcements: zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) and copper hydroxide acetate (Cu2(OH)3CH3COO.H2O). The LHSs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Mastersizer analysis indicated the particle diameter of the latexes. Molecular weights and conversion data were also obtained. (author)

  9. Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility properties of para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide and Zn/Al layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah,1 Mohamed E El Zowalaty,2,3 Palanisamy Arulselvan,2 Sharida Fakurazi,2,4 Thomas J Webster,5,6 Benjamin M Geilich,5 Mohd Zobir Hussein1 1Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 6Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The treatment of tuberculosis by chemotherapy is complicated due to multiple drug prescriptions, long treatment duration, and adverse side effects. We report here for the first time an in vitro therapeutic effect of nanocomposites based on para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide (PAS-ZLH and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (PAS-Zn/Al LDH, against mycobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria. The nanocomposites demonstrated good antimycobacterial activity and were found to be effective in killing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A biocompatibility study revealed good biocompatibility of the PAS-ZLH nanocomposites against normal human MRC-5 lung cells. The para-aminosalicylic acid loading was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In summary, the present preliminary in vitro studies are highly encouraging for further in vivo studies of PAS-ZLH and PAS-Zn/Al LDH nanocomposites to treat tuberculosis.  Keywords: Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides, zinc layered hydroxides, tuberculosis, para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS, antimicrobial agents

  10. Mullite and alumina composites preparation from cordierite and aluminium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densification and phase transformation of mullite and alumina composites prepared from cordierite and aluminium hydroxide mixture were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of mullite since the early stage of aluminium hydroxide addition to the cordierite. Above 40 wt.% of aluminium hydroxide addition, the presence of spinel and mullite phases can be detected by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the amounts of spinel as well as mullite present increased with increasing aluminium hydroxide concentration at the expense of cordierite. These analyses were completed by density measurements and scanning electron microscopy observation

  11. The preparation of 125I-labelled sodium polystyrene sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anionic polymer, sodium polystyrene p-sulphonate (PSSNa), was labelled with iodine-125. Standard radio-iodination for proteins proceeds via phenol groups. As PSSNa contains no phenolic functions these were introduced by reaction with sodium hydroxide. The optimized conditions gave barely discernible phenolic incorporation so the properties of the bulk PSSNa were not noticeably altered. The modified PSSNA was then radio-iodinated by the standard technique. The yield, activity and stability of the product were determined by size exclusion chromatography. (Author)

  12. Mechanochemical changes in mixture of magnesium and aluminium hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxová Mária

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex oxides with the spinel structure often called ?spinels? belong to the group of strategic materials which are used in the wide area of modern technologies. They exhibit excellent magnetic, refractory, semiconducting, catalytic and sorption properties. Spinels based on magnesium aluminate (MA spinels are used for the preparation of refractory ceramic materials and bricks. Due to its good properties MA spinel is predestinated for special applications in electronics.Several methods and precursors for the synthesis of MA spinel have been studied experimentally. The conventional process of MA spinel preparation based on the high temperature solid state reaction of precursors is connected with the difficulty to obtain the high spinel phase purity required for its special applications. From the viewpoint of final material properties and of intensification of solid state reactions, the non-standard mechanochemical techniques are suitable.In the paper, results of the mechanochemical modification of the mixture of crystalline hydroxide precursors caused by the high-energy milling and subsequent heating in the temperature range 300-1500 °C are presented.Mixtures of brucite and gibbsite in the molar ratio 1:2 were submitted to grinding in a planetary mill using the corundum chamber for various milling times (0.5-12 hours. The specific surface area of the milled samples was determined by the BET method. Changes in the structure of mechanosynthesized products and the evolution of the spinel phase during the subsequent calcination of both mechanosynthesized samples and reference homogenised mixtures were monitored by the X-ray diffraction analysis and IR spectroscopy. The degree of conversion of hydroxide mixture to the MA spinel was determined by chelatometry.During the early stage of grinding (up to 1 hour, a considerable refinement of hydroxide mixture occurs. With the increasing grinding time, amorphisation of structure as well as a gradual mechanochemical dehydration and formation of aggregates take place. A structural metastability of high reactive products of dehydration and a large area of particle contacts lead to the solid state mechanochemical reaction with the formation of nucleation centres of amorphous magnesium aluminate. By the combination of mechanosynthesis with the subsequent thermal treatment, crystalline magnesium aluminate with the spinel structure is prepared at temperatures which are by 300 K lower than those at which the spinel is synthesized by conventional ceramic method.

  13. Fabrication of thermoplastic polyester elastomer/layered zinc hydroxide nitrate nanocomposites with enhanced thermal, mechanical and combustion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to explore the potential of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate modified with sodium benzoate as nanoparticle in thermoplastic polyester elastomer (TPEE). The organically modified zinc hydroxide nitrate was compounded with TPEE using solution blending method. The nanocomposite structure was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanoparticle was homogenously dispersed in TPEE matrix, and partially exfoliated structure was formed. The thermal behavior, mechanical and thermal combustion properties of the novel nanocomposite were studied respectively through differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC). For the nanocomposite containing 7 wt% nanoparticle, the crystallization temperature evaluated by DSC was increased by 10 °C. The storage modulus at ?95 °C measured by DMA was improved by around 26%. The heat release capacity (an indicator of a material fire hazard) from MCC testing was reduced by about 56% (compared to the results of neat TPEE). - Highlights: • We prepare zinc hydroxide nitrate modified by sodium benzoate (SB-ZHN). • We prepare and characterize thermoplastic polyester elastomer/SB-ZHN nanocomposites. • We investigate the thermal and combustion properties of the nanocomposites. • We study the thermodynamic properties of the nanocomposites

  14. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 6000C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-300C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-100C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na2CO3, Na2O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients

  15. Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 ? m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 ? m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 ?V K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 ?V K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

  16. The effect of alkaline treatment on tensile properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachtiar, D. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sapuan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: sapuan@eng.upm.edu.my; Hamdan, M.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2008-07-01

    A study on the effect of alkaline treatment on tensile properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites is presented in this paper. The treatment was carried out using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at two different concentrations and three different soaking times. The hydrophilic nature of sugar palm fibre makes it difficult to adhere to hydrophobic epoxy and therefore posed the problem of interfacial bonding between fibre and matrix and such treatment was needed to alleviate such problem. The composite specimens were tested for tensile property determination. Some fractured specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the microstructure of the materials. Inconsistent results were obtained for tensile strengths, which indicate that the treatment is not very effective yet to improve the interfacial bonding. However, for tensile modulus, the results are much higher than untreated fibre composite specimens, which proved the effectiveness of the treatment.

  17. The effect of alkaline treatment on tensile properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the effect of alkaline treatment on tensile properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites is presented in this paper. The treatment was carried out using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at two different concentrations and three different soaking times. The hydrophilic nature of sugar palm fibre makes it difficult to adhere to hydrophobic epoxy and therefore posed the problem of interfacial bonding between fibre and matrix and such treatment was needed to alleviate such problem. The composite specimens were tested for tensile property determination. Some fractured specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the microstructure of the materials. Inconsistent results were obtained for tensile strengths, which indicate that the treatment is not very effective yet to improve the interfacial bonding. However, for tensile modulus, the results are much higher than untreated fibre composite specimens, which proved the effectiveness of the treatment

  18. Magnetic behavior of Mg-Al-Zn-Fe mixed oxides from precursors layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed oxides of Mg-Al-Zn-Fe were obtained by calcination of layered double hydroxides (LDH) prepared by coprecipitation reaction with hydrothermal treatment. The structural characterization of precursors and oxides was carried out by X rays diffraction, showing increases of ZnO phase with the increase of the zinc content. Magnetic behavior was studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) showing both paramagnetic and super paramagnetic behavior depending on both particles size and composition.

  19. Magnetic behavior of Mg-Al-Zn-Fe mixed oxides from precursors layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, M.I., E-mail: marcosivanoliva@gmail.com [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, M. Allende y H. de la Torre Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); IFFAM AF (CONICET - FaMAF UNC), M. Allende y H. de la Torre Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Heredia, A. [CITeQ - Facultad R. Cordoba, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Maestro Lopez esq. Cruz Roja Argentina, CP 5016 Cordoba (Argentina); Zandalazini, C.I. [Centro Laser de Ciencias Moleculares. INFIQC-FCQ-Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales-FaMAF-Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, CP5000 Cordoba, Argentina CONICET (Argentina); Crivello, M. [CITeQ - Facultad R. Cordoba, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Maestro Lopez esq. Cruz Roja Argentina, CP 5016 Cordoba (Argentina); Corchero, E. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, M. Allende y H. de la Torre Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Mixed oxides of Mg-Al-Zn-Fe were obtained by calcination of layered double hydroxides (LDH) prepared by coprecipitation reaction with hydrothermal treatment. The structural characterization of precursors and oxides was carried out by X rays diffraction, showing increases of ZnO phase with the increase of the zinc content. Magnetic behavior was studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) showing both paramagnetic and super paramagnetic behavior depending on both particles size and composition.

  20. Enhancement of the CO(2) retention capacity of X zeolites by Na- and Cs-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Eva; Muñoz, Emilio; Vega, Aurelio; Ordóñez, Salvador

    2008-02-01

    Adsorption of carbon dioxide on alkaline modified X zeolites was investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) analysis of these materials previously saturated with CO(2) at 50, 100 and 200 degrees C. Parent X zeolite (in its sodium form) was treated with different sodium and cesium aqueous solutions, using both carbonates and hydroxides as precursors. The resulting materials were characterised by nitrogen physisorption, XRD, and NH(3)-TPD, in order to determine their morphological, crystallographic and chemical properties. Slight desilication phenomena were observed using hydroxides as precursors, whereas the treatment with Cs salts lead to higher crystallinity losses. Several successive adsorption-desorption cycles were carried out in order to check the regenerability of the adsorbents. Cesium-treated zeolites present higher carbon dioxide retention capacities than the sodium treated and than the parent material. When working with these Cs-modified materials, the desorption takes place mainly at temperatures between 250 and 400 degrees C, results of great practical interest, since it allows the use these kinds of materials for adsorption-desorption cycles. The evolution of the retention capacity with temperature is also markedly more positive for Cs-treated zeolite, especially when carbonate is used as the precursor. These materials maintain high retention capacities at 100 degrees C (10mg g(-1)) and even at 200 degrees C (3mg g(-1)), temperatures at which the most of the adsorbents are inactive. PMID:17977576

  1. Enhanced aerobic sludge granulation with layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhi Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge technology has been developed for the biochemical treatment of wastewater in the present study. A fast cultivation of aerobic granular sludge was realized in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR, where Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH was used as a carrier for granules growth. In comparison, the sludge particle size with LDH addition was bigger than those without LDH, with more than 50% of compact granular sludge >1.4 mm in size. This indicatestheLDH improved the growth ofthegranular sludge. The frequency of LDH addition had little effect on the granule growth. Moreover, the formation of granules led to the low sludge volume index (SVI and high mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS in SBR reactor. With the formation of granular sludge, more than 80% of COD was removed in SBR reactor. The high COD removal efficiency of wastewater was observed regardless of various COD loading strength. The results suggest that the growth of granular sludge with LDH as a carrier enhanced the treatment efficiency. Therefore, our results have provided a promising way to prepare the granular sludge for wastewater treatment.

  2. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties

  3. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  4. Comparison of sodium naphthenate and air-ionization corona discharge as surface treatments for the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene polymer (ETFE) to improve adhesion between ETFE and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) in the presence of a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía Johanning-Solís, Ana; Stradi-Granados, Benito A.

    2014-09-01

    This study compares two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) surface activation treatments, namely chemical attack with a solution of sodium naphthenate and plasma erosion via air-ionization corona discharge in order to improve the adhesive properties of the ETFE. An experimental design was prepared for both treatments in order to assess the effect of the treatment characteristics on the tensile load needed to break the bond between the ETFE and the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) formed with a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA) applied between them. The reason for the selection of this problem is that both polymers are frequently used in the biomedical industry for their properties, and they need to be joined firmly in biomedical devices, and the cyanoacrylate adhesive is the adhesive traditionally used for fluoropolymers, in this case the ETFE, and the same CAA has also shown good adhesion with ABS. However, the strength of the bond for the triplet ETFE-CAA-ABS has not been reported and the improvement of the strength of the bond with surface treatments is not found in scholarly journals for modern medical devices such as stents and snares. Both treatments were compared based on the aforementioned design of experiments. The case where ETFE receives no surface treatment serves as the reference. The results indicated that the three factors evaluated (initial drying of the material, temperature of the chemical bath, and immersion time), and their interactions have no significant effect over the tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of the adhesive bond being evaluated. For the air-ionization corona discharge treatment, two factors were evaluated: discharge exposition time and air pressure. The results obtained from this experimental design indicate that there is no significant difference between the levels of the factors evaluated. These results were unexpected as the ranges used were representative of the maximum ranges permissible in manufacturing operations. As for the comparison of the treatments, it was determined that the treatments have statistically significant differences. It was also determined that there is a significant statistical difference between the processes where a surface treatment is performed and the process where no surface treatment is applied to the ETFE. The chemical treatment results in a higher tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of 276.6 N on average, the air ionization treatment has an average of 248.4 N, and the process with no treatment has the lower ultimate tensile strength average of 53 N. This comparison has demonstrated that the best treatment is the chemical treatment with sodium naphthenate under the conditions tested.

  5. Stevens - Johnson Syndrome Induced by Sodium Valproate

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; Kumar, S. Kishore

    2004-01-01

    A case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) following treatment with sodium valproate is presented. A 55-year-old male suffering from manic episode was treated with sodium valproate in addition to haloperidol and trihexiphenidyl. After two weeks he developed cutaneous manifestations of SJS. He was treated with systemic steroids, antihistamines and topical calamine lotion and recovered after a few weeks.

  6. Reactions of oxygen and hydrogen with liquid sodium - a critical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamentals of solvation chemistry are presented with appropriate components formulated. Methods of investigation and kinetics of the reactions are described. The hydrogen equilibrium pressure and saturation solubilities are described. The chemical equilibrium between O and H in solution is presented with detailed tabulation of the saturation solutions of oxygen, hydrogen and hydroxide in liquid sodium. Agreements and differences with the literature are presented

  7. Utilization of a waste from titanium oxide industry for the synthesis of sodium ferrate by gas–solid reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanari, N., E-mail: ndue.kanari@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, GeoRessources UMR CNRS 7359, 2 rue du Doyen Marcel Roubault, TSA 70605, 54518 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Filippova, I.; Diot, F. [Université de Lorraine, GeoRessources UMR CNRS 7359, 2 rue du Doyen Marcel Roubault, TSA 70605, 54518 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Mochón, J.; Ruiz-Bustinza, I. [CENIM – CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Allain, E.; Yvon, J. [Université de Lorraine, GeoRessources UMR CNRS 7359, 2 rue du Doyen Marcel Roubault, TSA 70605, 54518 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: • We studied the sodium ferrate (VI) synthesis by solid–gas reactions. • Thermal behavior of iron sulfate is followed through thermogravimetric analysis. • Synthesis of Na–ferrate is achieved at room temperature. • Water and chlorine content affect strongly the synthesis process. • Conversion efficiency of Fe(II) to Fe(VI) of the proposed process is about 30%. - Abstract: This work is focused on the preparation of alkali ferrates, especially sodium ferrate, using ferrous sulfate as iron bearing material and chlorine as oxidant. Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate is mainly generated during titanium oxide extraction from ilmenite through the sulfate route; it is considered as a waste for this industry. Obtained alkali ferrates belong to the compounds where iron is in the rare hexavalent state and they are becoming a substance of growing importance for water treatment and industrial effluent cleaning. Two methods are developed for the ferrate synthesis. The first method consists of simultaneous reactions of two solids (iron sulfate and sodium hydroxide) and one gaseous oxidant (diluted chlorine). The second method involves a homogenous premixing of both solids prior to the oxidation by diluted chlorine. The synthesis process is performed in a rotary reactor at room temperature; however, since the overall reaction is exothermic, temperatures as high as 150 °C are often recorded. The effects of several parameters such as hydration extent of raw materials, Na/Fe ratio, chlorine content of the reactive gases on the sodium ferrate synthesis are investigated to determine the optimal processing conditions. The conversion efficiency of Fe(II) to Fe(VI) during the sodium ferrate synthesis reaches about 30%.

  8. Utilization of a waste from titanium oxide industry for the synthesis of sodium ferrate by gas–solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We studied the sodium ferrate (VI) synthesis by solid–gas reactions. • Thermal behavior of iron sulfate is followed through thermogravimetric analysis. • Synthesis of Na–ferrate is achieved at room temperature. • Water and chlorine content affect strongly the synthesis process. • Conversion efficiency of Fe(II) to Fe(VI) of the proposed process is about 30%. - Abstract: This work is focused on the preparation of alkali ferrates, especially sodium ferrate, using ferrous sulfate as iron bearing material and chlorine as oxidant. Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate is mainly generated during titanium oxide extraction from ilmenite through the sulfate route; it is considered as a waste for this industry. Obtained alkali ferrates belong to the compounds where iron is in the rare hexavalent state and they are becoming a substance of growing importance for water treatment and industrial effluent cleaning. Two methods are developed for the ferrate synthesis. The first method consists of simultaneous reactions of two solids (iron sulfate and sodium hydroxide) and one gaseous oxidant (diluted chlorine). The second method involves a homogenous premixing of both solids prior to the oxidation by diluted chlorine. The synthesis process is performed in a rotary reactor at room temperature; however, since the overall reaction is exothermic, temperatures as high as 150 °C are often recorded. The effects of several parameters such as hydration extent of raw materials, Na/Fe ratio, chlorine content of the reactive gases on the sodium ferrate synthesis are investigated to determine the optimal processing conditions. The conversion efficiency of Fe(II) to Fe(VI) during the sodium ferrate synthesis reaches about 30%

  9. Short review of sodium removal experience in PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiences in the removal of sodium from fuel assemblies and other reactor components are shortly reviewed. The experiences were obtained from the operation of the FBR ''JOYO'' and at the research work facilities in the O-arai Engineering Center, PNC. As for JOYO, many dummy fuel and blanket fuel sub-assemblies and dummy control rods have been sent to the Fuel Cleaning Facility for sodium removal. Steam and demineralized water have been used for the process. Sodium removal from the grapples of the fuel handling machines was done after a certain time of service in sodium. For this process, alcohol has been used. Sodium removal from the mechanical sodium pump of the primary coolant system was done with steam-nitrogen and water. At the research work facilities, on the other hand, sodium removal tests were performed for various components, such as the secondary mockup pump of JOYO, 1 MW steam generator, sector model of the intermediate heat exchanger of JOYO, and mockup isolation valves. From these experiences, it was found that sodium removal from small crevices by conventional methods was difficult. In order to improve this situation, saturation boiling process was designed, and the experiment using test pieces has been initiated. This process is modification of the water charging process, in which water is charged into the process cell or tank and the inside pressure is adjusted so that boiling of the water is initiated and the formation of hydroxide film is prevented. (Aoki, K.)

  10. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meeting the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal Restriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered Best Demonstrated Available Technologies, or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a multiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration

  11. The activity of NaOH buffered by silicate solids in molten sodium acetate-water at 317 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica and sodium acetate are present in the steam generator tube sheet crevices of many nuclear power plants. Trace solutes in the condensate are tremendously concentrated in the crevices by boiling. Sparingly soluble sodium silicates and other solids precipitate from the crevice liquid, leaving an extremely concentrated molten mixture of water, sodium acetate and other salts. The precipitates buffer the activity of sodium hydroxide in the superheated liquid that remains. The activity of NaOH corresponding to the buffers quartz/sodium disilicate and sodium disilicate/sodium metasilicate at 317 degree C has been determined experimentally. The sodium hydroxide content of a sodium acetate-water melt buffered by these reactions was determined by chemical analysis, and the corresponding activity of NaOH at temperature was calculated using the recently published Pitzer-Simonson Model of molten salt-water mixtures. The molten mixture of sodium acetate and water plays the role of solvent in these experiments and calculations. The free energies of formation of solid sodium silicates at 317 degree C were also determined. The activity of NaOH corresponding to other silicate and phosphate buffers was calculated using published thermodynamic data and estimated from phase diagrams

  12. Thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxides: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P. (Stichting Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland, Petten)

    1989-09-01

    The formation of volatile alkali hydroxides as a result of high-temperature steam corrosion plays an important role in nuclear technology. For the modeling of the volatilization processes, reliable thermodynamic data are required. In the present paper recent physico-chemical experiments by the authors will be discussed and the thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxide series will be evaluated. (orig.).

  13. Thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxides. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konings, R.J.; Cordfunke, E.H.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of volatile alkali hydroxides as a result of high-temperature steam corrosion plays an important role in nuclear technology. For the modeling of the volatilization processes, reliable thermodynamic data are required. Recent physico-chemical experiments are discussed and the thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxide series are evaluated. 6 figs., 66 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Preparation of stable dispersions of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in nonpolar hydrocarbons: new routes to polyolefin/LDH nanocomposites.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, J.; Guo, Z.; O Hare, D.

    2012-01-01

    We report a simple and cost effective solvent treatment method for the synthesis of a stable and transparent dispersion of the hydrophilic layered double hydroxide, [Mg(6)Al(2)(OH)(16)](CO(3)) in non-polar hydrocarbon solvents. This dispersion can be used to make polyolefin/LDH nanocomposites using a simple solvent mixing method.

  15. The corrosion of steels by hot sodium melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable research has been performed by AEA Technology on the corrosion of steels by hot sodium melts containing sodium hydroxide and sodium oxide. This research has principally been in support of understanding the effects of sodium-water reactions on the internals of fast reactor steam generators. The results however have relevance to sodium fires. It has been determined that the rate of corrosion of steels by melts of pure NaOH can be significantly increased by the addition of Na2O. In the case of a sodium-water reaction jet created by a leak of steam into sodium, the composition of the jet varies from 100% sodium through to 100% steam, with a full range of concentrations of NaOH and Na2O, depending on axial and radial position. The temperature in the jet also varies with position, ranging from bulk sodium temperature on one boundary to expanded steam temperature on the other boundary, with internal temperatures ranging up to 1300 deg. C, depending on the local pre-reaction mole ratio of steam to sodium. In the case of sodium-water reaction jets, it has been possible to develop a model which predicts the composition of the reaction jet and then, using the data generated on the corrosivity of sodium melts, predict the rate of corrosion of a steel target in the path of the jet. In the case of a spray sodium fire, the sodium will initially contain a concentration of NaOH and the combustion process will generate Na2O. If there is sufficient humidity, conversion of some of the Na2O to NaOH will also occur. There is therefore the potential for aggressive mixtures of NaOH and Na2O to exist on the surface of the sodium droplets. It is therefore possible that the rate of corrosion of steels in the path of the spray may be higher than expected on the basis of assuming that only Na and Na2O were present. In the case of a pool sodium fire, potentially corrosive mixtures of NaOH and Na2O may be formed at some locations on the surface. This could lead to significant corrosion of any steel structures penetrating the surface, or steel surfaces forming the boundary of the pool. In this paper, the data on the corrosivity of sodium melts containing NaOH and Na2O, as a function of temperature, concentration of each species and velocity of the melt, will be presented for ferritic and austenitic steels and the possible relevance of these data for sodium fires will be discussed. (author)

  16. Discharge Characteristics of the Nickel Hydroxide Electrode in 30% KOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode has been investigated in 30% KOH at 25 .deg. C. Two voltage plateaus are displayed on the discharge curve of C/20. It is shown that the impedance of the nickel hydroxide electrode increases with decrease of the discharge potential. The discharge behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode has been investigated in 30% KOH indicating the reduction of the ?-NiOOH to the ?-Ni(OH)2 by proton diffusion process and hence the electronic conductivity change of the nickel hydroxide electrode. Furthermore, the ?-NiOOH, produced by prolonged oxidation of the ?-NiOOH in 30% KOH, discharges at a slightly lower potential than the ?-Ni(OH)2 that could result in the life-limiting factor of several alkaline electrolyte storage batteries using the nickel hydroxide electrode as the positive plate

  17. KALIMER program and sodium technology in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first liquid metal reactor program in Korea, KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor, 150 MWe), was started in 1992 in accordance with a national long-term research and development (R and D) program for the utilization of uranium resources and transuranics reduction. The main feature of the KALIMER concept, based on enhancing the inherent safety and economy of a liquid metal reactor, was established. A comparative study for the concept was carried out by evaluating various design alternatives. Several sodium loops and test facilities in small scales were and are being constructed for the R and D of sodium reactor technology, and these will be used to support the design of KALIMER. To develop sodium treatment technology for a liquid metal reactor, studies on sodium-water reactions, sodium purification, and sodium-fire were carried out with regards to KALIMER safety. The above R and D activities will be mentioned. (author)

  18. Iron hydroxide (III) precipitation and sorption of 59Fe(III) by hydroxides and oxides in complex formation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of precipitation of 59Fe(III) hydroxide on ph medium at the presence of sulphate and phosphate ions, oxalate, citrate, chromatrope acid, hexametaphosphate and other ligands is studied. The sorption of trace amounts of radionuclides of 59Fe(III) with hydroxides of Mn(IV), La, Sn(IV), Mg is studied as well.

  19. Codeposition of zirconium and yttrium hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of zirconium and yttrium hydroxide codeposition has been studied to develop regimes, ensuring the minimum losses of yttrium. The materials are used to produce a highly homogeneous refractory ceramics from stabilized zirconium oxide. The use of reverse deposition process, which consists in the addition of ZrOCl2 and YCl2 salt solution to 12% solution of NH4OH up to the values pH=8.5, is recommended. At the pH value mentioned yttrium losses are eliminated. The deposit washing should be realized using NH4OH+NH4Cl solution with NH4OH concentration equal to 0.01-0.02 mol/l

  20. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt) ... salt is 40% sodium; 1 teaspoon of table salt contains 2,300 mg of sodium. Healthy adults should limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day. Adults with high blood pressure should have no more than 1,500 mg ...

  1. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H20 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  2. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  3. Mechano-hydrothermal synthesis of Mg2Al–NO3 layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mechano-hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize Mg2Al–NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) from MgO, Al2O3 and NaNO3 as starting materials. A two-step synthesis was conducted, that is, a mixture of MgO and Al2O3 was milled for 1 h, followed by hydrothermal treatment with NaNO3 solution. The resulting LDHs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and elemental analyses. Pre-milling played a key role in the LDH formation during subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The process is advantageous in terms of low reaction temperature and short reaction time compared with the conventional hydrothermal method, and the target products are of high crystallinity, good dispersion and regular shape compared with the conventional mechanochemical method. - Graphical abstract: The novel mechano-hydrothermal route to synthesize LDH has advantages in low reaction temperature and short reaction time, and the target product was of high crystallinity, good dispersion and regular shape. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A mechano-hydrothermal route was developed for layered double hydroxide synthesis. • Synthesis could be achieved at low temperature and in a short time. • Resulting layered double hydroxide samples were well dispersed and of regular shape. • A dissolution–recrystallization mechanism was proposed for the formation process

  4. Calcium hydroxide induced apical barrier in fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellore K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of trauma to an immature permanent incisor is a challenge, especially when the pulp is necrotic. The aim of this study is to discuss the management of fractured maxillary right and left central incisors with immature root apex. Radiographic evaluation revealed that the tooth 11 had convergent apical walls, whereas tooth 21 had parallel apical walls; both the incisors were treated with pure calcium hydroxide paste to induce apical development. Follow-up clinical and radiographic examinations confirmed apical barrier at 3 months. Radiograph of tooth 11 with convergent roots showed continued apical development, whereas tooth 21 showed apical bridging, following which root canal was completed in both the teeth. Therefore, in view of the simplicity of this method, we believe that calcium hydroxide can be reemphasized as one of the treatment alternatives for fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors to induce apical barrier.

  5. Sodium removal from sodium wetted under sodium ultra sonic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Sodium wetted USUSS was subjected to sodium cleaning by water vapour–CO2 process. ? Hydrogen released during the process was monitored and regulated in safe limit. ? The temperature of USUSS was maintained below 80 °C to prevent caustic corrosion. ? The experiment revealed intricacies involved in the cleaning operation. ? The operational parameters for safe cleaning were optimised. - Abstract: Sodium is used as a coolant in primary and secondary heat transport systems of Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is in advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Under Sodium Ultra Sonic Scanner (USUSS) is used to image the components dipped in sodium and more specifically the gap between Sub Assembly (SA) heads and the control plug. This is essential to confirm that no SA is protruding from its position. USUSS has to be qualified in sodium before its use in the reactor. After sodium testing, sodium adhering to the USUSS needs to be removed to prevent reaction with oxygen and moisture present in air when it is taken out. The sodium removal process is based on the use of moist carbon-di-oxide (CO2) at a temperature of about 353 K. The reaction rate is controlled by varying the ratio of CO2 to moisture. Hydrogen released during the reaction of sodium with moisture is continuously monitored to ensure safe limits of hydrogen concentration. This paper descricentration. This paper describes the details of the experimental setup used in a cleaning pit for the removal of sodium adhering on USUSS and the technical details of the cleaning process.

  6. Hideout of sodium salts in tubesheet crevices: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J.P.; Campon, J.L.

    1987-07-01

    The hideout of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride in tubesheet crevices was studied in single tube model boilers at CADARACHE. Radioactive Na/sup 24/ was used for the measurements. Crevices of 0.2 mm width were empty or packed. A hydraulically expanded crevice and a rolled crevice were also studied. The concentration rate depends on the bulk water concentration but the equilibrium concentration appears to be related only to thermal conditions. The equilibrium value of 25 moles per liter in the crevice was extrapolated, the sodium concentration in the bulk water being in the range of 5 to 50 ppM. This equilibrium will be obtained with an ''integrated pollution'' of 5000 to 10,000 ppM x hours. Flushing produced by the boiler depressurization was shown to be an effective way to remove salt from the crevice. Sodium hydroxide was shown to concentrate even in a residual crevice of few ..mu..m width.

  7. Síntese e caracterização de nanocompósitos de poliestireno/hidroxissal lamelar / Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene/layered hydroxide salt nanocomposites

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samara Boaventura de, Moraes; Rodrigo, Botan; Liliane Maria Ferrareso, Lona.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Polystyrene/layered hydroxide salt (LHS) modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate was synthesized by in situ polymerization. The materials synthesized were characterized by gravimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the flammability [...] test (FT). XRD demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites in all compositions studied showed poor global dispersion of LHS in polystyrene. TGA showed a slight decrease in thermal stability. DSC curves showed that the glass transition temperature of polystyrene and nanocomposites were similar. The FT showed that the nanocomposite with low load of LHS exhibited good results.

  8. Sorption of ammonium ions by titanium hydroxide and phosphate with different composition and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work is devoted to sorption of ammonium ions by titanium hydroxide and phosphate with different composition and structure. Therefore the number of titanium phosphates samples are synthesized and their hydrothermal treatment is conducted at 75-300 deg C temperature range. The ion exchange in the system NH4-NH4OH on initial samples and on hydrogenous forms of these materials after their hydrothermal treatment at 75-100 deg C temperature range is studied. The potentiometric titration curves for synthesized samples are obtained.

  9. D/H isotope fractionation in the aqueous hydroxide ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied deuterium-to-hydrogen isotope effects in aqueous hydroxide ion at the HF/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-31+G(d) levels of theory, using OH-(H2O)39 clusters as model systems. Both the theoretical levels indicated that the hydroxide hydrogen atom and hydrogen atoms of waters hydrogen-bonded to the hydroxide oxygen atom tended to be depleted in the heavier hydrogen isotope relative to hydrogen atoms of bulk water and the degree of deuterium depletion was more substantial in the former than in the latter hydrogen atoms. (author)

  10. Nickel hydroxide/cobalt-ferrite magnetic nanocatalyst for alcohol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pooja B; Inam, Fawad; Bhat, Badekai Ramachandra

    2014-08-11

    A magnetically separable, active nickel hydroxide (Brønsted base) coated nanocobalt ferrite catalyst has been developed for oxidation of alcohols. High surface area was achieved by tuning the particle size with surfactant. The surface area of 120.94 m2 g(-1) has been achieved for the coated nanocobalt ferrite. Improved catalytic activity and selectivity were obtained by synergistic effect of transition metal hydroxide (basic hydroxide) on nanocobalt ferrite. The nanocatalyst oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols efficiently (87%) to corresponding carbonyls in good yields. PMID:25075969

  11. Generic sodium stibogluconate is as safe and effective as branded meglumine antimoniate, for the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Isiboro Secure Park, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Bermùdez, H.; Rojas, E; L Garcia; Desjeux, P; Dujardin, J. C.; Boelaert, M.; Chappuis, F

    2006-01-01

    Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucous leishmaniasis (ML) are highly endemic in Isiboro Secure Park, which lies in the Bolivian department of Cochabamba--an area where branded meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) is expensive and poorly distributed. The safety and efficacy of generic sodium stibogluconate (SSG), from Albert David Ltd, was therefore explored, in CL and ML cases from the park, who were treated with 20 mg/kg.day for 20 and 30 days, respectively. A questionnaire recording ad...

  12. Effects of repeated long-term sodium hypochlorite disinfection treatment on surface hardness and roughness of self-polymerizing reline acrylic resins

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana de Rezende Pinto; Dayane Rubim; Paulo Maurício Batista Silva; Vinícius Carvalho Porto

    2014-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is the most common alteration on the palate of denture wearers and deficient denture hygiene is an important predisposing factor, because it facilitates both the presence of Candida albicans and bacteria in saliva and their colonization on the oral mucosa and denture surfaces. Sodium hypochlorite is an efficient chemical disinfectant to eliminate denture biofilm, but the effect of long-term disinfection on reline acrylic resins was not studied. Purpose: This study investiga...

  13. Mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene and layered double hydroxides nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent interest in polymer nanocomposites involving layered double hydroxides (LDH) is due to improved thermal stability, flame resistance, mechanical and barrier properties. The LDHs are structurally described as the stacking of layers with positively charged hydrated anions intercalated between these lamellae. In this paper, polypropylene nanocomposites with Mg / Al-HDL unmodified and modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (DS) were prepared in the internal mixing chamber equipped with roller rotors and heated to 190 deg C. The nanocomposites were injected molded and then morphology, mechanical and thermal properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, tensile tests and DSC, respectively. The results revealed that both LDH and LDH-DS reached a good degree of dispersion in the PP matrix, resulting in increased stiffness, but reduced capacity for deformation and toughness of nanocomposites. The crystallinity of the nanocomposites was higher compared to the PP matrix. (author)

  14. Homogeneous precipitation of nickel hydroxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavis, Bora

    Structure of nickel precipitate from decomposition of urea was found to be alpha-Ni(OH)2. FTIR analysis revealed the intercalation of cyanate (OCN), which is an intermediate product of urea decomposition. This observation implied that the assumption of single step decomposition of urea to carbon dioxide and ammonia was over simplified. Role of critical experimental parameters like initial pH and metal ion concentration on the powder characteristics was carried out. Numerical solutions to reaction pathways predicted significant accumulation of the intermediate cyanate in the time-temperature range investigated. Numerical simulations included the effects of hydrolysis products of Ni2+ and Ni-amine, Ni-cyanate, and Ni-carbonate complexes. Chemical analysis of the precipitate showed a decrease in nitrogen content with increasing reaction times. This was consistent with the predicted decrease in concentration of Ni-cyanate complexes with time. Layer double hydroxides (LDHs) are intercalation compounds represented by the formula [M2+1-xM3+ x(OH)2]x+[An-x/n ]x-·mH2O. alpha-Ni(OH) 2 and Ni-Al layer double hydroxides precipitated by urea were investigated with FTIR and XPS. The role of cyanate in nucleation and growth of precipitates is demonstrated. In the early stages, cyanate ion is found mainly to be grafted into alpha-Ni(OH)2 via nitrogen, whereas later in the growth stages, it is bonded through oxygen. In LDHs cyanate remains N-bonded. Precipitation with substituted ureas, revealed the link between spectral features and structures observed in XRD patterns. With slower decomposition rates and low levels of supersaturation an extensively hydrated structure was observed. From the two phases of Ni(OH)2, alpha-phase, with its larger interlayer spacing, offers enhanced electrochemical properties but it transforms into thermodynamically stable beta-phase. Stabilizing effects of Ni2+ substitution with Co2+ and Al3+ was investigated. A number of three-component LDHs (TCLDHs) with Ni2+1-(x+y) /Co2+x and Al3+y (x and y were varied between 0.00 and, 0.25) were produced by urea precipitation. From the compositions studied, the ones containing [Al3+] o ? 0.015 M resulted with the LDH structure and proved to be stable in the electrolyte for prolonged times. Chronopotentiometry results indicated that TC-LDHs could deliver capacities up to about 30% higher than the beta-phase.

  15. Estudio comparativo entre el hialuronato sódico al 0,15% y el alcohol poliviníco como tratamiento para el ojo seco A comparative study of 0.15% sodium hyaluronate versus polyvinyl alcohol in the treatment of dry eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Vico

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de dos lágrimas artificiales: el hialuronato sódico 0,15% y el alcohol polivinílico como tratamiento en pacientes con ojo seco. Material y métodos: Se ha seleccionado una muestra de 30 pacientes con ojo seco, en los que hemos considerado cada ojo por separado (60 ojos. A quince de ellos se les ha administrado como tratamiento alcohol polivinílico y a los otros quince hialuronato sódico 0,15%, en ambos casos 5 gotas al día durante un mes. Los parámetros que se han evaluado antes y después del tratamiento han sido: la agudeza visual, el test de Schirmer, el aclaramiento lagrimal, un cuestionario de sintomatología de ojo seco, la tinción corneal con fluoresceína, la tinción con rosa de bengala, la sensibilidad corneal así como la presencia de hiperemia bulbar, detritus en la lágrima, tapones en las glándulas de meibomio, eritema y edema en el borde libre palpebral. Resultados: Sólo hemos encontrado mejoría estadísticamente significativa tras el tratamiento en el valor del cuestionario, tinción con fluoresceína y tinción con rosa de bengala en el grupo de pacientes tratados con hialuronato sódico 0,15%. En el grupo de pacientes tratados con alcohol polivinílico no encontramos diferencia estadísticamente significativa en ninguno de los parámetros estudiados antes y después del tratamiento. Conclusiones: El hialuronato sódico 0,15% ha resultado ser más eficaz en el tratamiento de los pacientes con ojo seco que el alcohol polivinílico.Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of two artificial tears for the treatment of dry eyes: 0.15% sodium hyaluronate and polyvinyl alcohol. Methods: The study included 60 dry eyes in 30 patients. Fifteen of the patients were treated with 0.15% sodium hyaluronate and 15 with polyvinyl alcohol. Five drops a day for one month was given in both groups. Visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear clearance, dry eye symptoms questionnaire, fluorescein and rose bengal staining, corneal sensibility, bulbar hyperemia, tear detritus, meibomian gland plug, palpebral erythema and edema before and after treatment were evaluated. Results: Symptoms as judged by the dry eye questionnaire, as well as both fluorescein and rose bengal staining, were significantly improved by 0.15% sodium hyaluronate. The polyvinyl alcohol treated patients did not show a significant improvement in any parameter. Conclusion: Sodium hyaluronate was more effective than polyvinyl alcohol in the treatment of patients with dry eyes.

  16. Estudio comparativo entre el hialuronato sódico al 0,15% y el alcohol poliviníco como tratamiento para el ojo seco / A comparative study of 0.15% sodium hyaluronate versus polyvinyl alcohol in the treatment of dry eyes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Vico; A, Quereda; JM, Benítez-Del Castillo; C, Fernández; J, García-Sánchez.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de dos lágrimas artificiales: el hialuronato sódico 0,15% y el alcohol polivinílico como tratamiento en pacientes con ojo seco. Material y métodos: Se ha seleccionado una muestra de 30 pacientes con ojo seco, en los que hemos considerado cada ojo por separado (60 ojos). [...] A quince de ellos se les ha administrado como tratamiento alcohol polivinílico y a los otros quince hialuronato sódico 0,15%, en ambos casos 5 gotas al día durante un mes. Los parámetros que se han evaluado antes y después del tratamiento han sido: la agudeza visual, el test de Schirmer, el aclaramiento lagrimal, un cuestionario de sintomatología de ojo seco, la tinción corneal con fluoresceína, la tinción con rosa de bengala, la sensibilidad corneal así como la presencia de hiperemia bulbar, detritus en la lágrima, tapones en las glándulas de meibomio, eritema y edema en el borde libre palpebral. Resultados: Sólo hemos encontrado mejoría estadísticamente significativa tras el tratamiento en el valor del cuestionario, tinción con fluoresceína y tinción con rosa de bengala en el grupo de pacientes tratados con hialuronato sódico 0,15%. En el grupo de pacientes tratados con alcohol polivinílico no encontramos diferencia estadísticamente significativa en ninguno de los parámetros estudiados antes y después del tratamiento. Conclusiones: El hialuronato sódico 0,15% ha resultado ser más eficaz en el tratamiento de los pacientes con ojo seco que el alcohol polivinílico. Abstract in english Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of two artificial tears for the treatment of dry eyes: 0.15% sodium hyaluronate and polyvinyl alcohol. Methods: The study included 60 dry eyes in 30 patients. Fifteen of the patients were treated with 0.15% sodium hyaluronate and 15 with polyvinyl alcohol. Five drop [...] s a day for one month was given in both groups. Visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear clearance, dry eye symptoms questionnaire, fluorescein and rose bengal staining, corneal sensibility, bulbar hyperemia, tear detritus, meibomian gland plug, palpebral erythema and edema before and after treatment were evaluated. Results: Symptoms as judged by the dry eye questionnaire, as well as both fluorescein and rose bengal staining, were significantly improved by 0.15% sodium hyaluronate. The polyvinyl alcohol treated patients did not show a significant improvement in any parameter. Conclusion: Sodium hyaluronate was more effective than polyvinyl alcohol in the treatment of patients with dry eyes.

  17. Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte - Part II. O-2 reduction.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chatenet, M.; Micoud, F.; Roche, I.; Chainet, E.; Vondrák, Ji?í

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 51, ?. 25 (2006), s. 5452-5458. ISSN 0013-4686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : oxygen reduction reaction selectivity * platinum * silver Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.955, year: 2006

  18. Ternary mutual diffusion of isoniazid in aqueous sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and hydrochloric acid at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F., E-mail: anacfrib@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, Ana C.G., E-mail: anacatarinasantos123@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Lobo, Victor M.M., E-mail: vlobo@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Sobral, Abilio J.F.N., E-mail: asobral@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Cabral, Ana M.T.D.P.V., E-mail: acabral@ff.uc.p [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-295 Coimbra (Portugal); Esteso, Miguel A., E-mail: miguel.esteso@uah.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Ternary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by Taylor dispersion method (D{sub 11}, D{sub 22}, D{sub 12}, and D{sub 21}) are reported for aqueous solutions containing isoniazid and different electrolytes (NaCl, NaOH, or HCl) at T = 298.15 K at different carrier concentrations. These diffusion coefficients have been measured having in mind a better understanding of the structure of these systems and the thermodynamic behaviour of isoniazid in different media. For example, it is possible to make conclusions about the influence of these electrolytes in diffusion of isoniazid, and to obtain information concerning the number of moles of each component transported per mole of the other component driven by its own concentration gradient.

  19. In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg-1 day-1) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at thechanges that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

  20. Recycling of lubricating oil by using potassium hydroxide efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different processes for re-generation of base oil from used lubricant oil had been developed to over come two main issues, eliminate the pollution sources and the need of preserving crude oil reserves. Waste lubricating oils may be re-refined/re-generated by treatment with an organic solvent that dissolves base oil and flocculates the major part of additives and particulate matter. It is considered that the polar nature of the alcohol is the origin of the stabilization by electric repulsion of some of the particulate matter that provides an electrostatic media that encourage improving the solvent flocculating capability. An addition of KOH (Potassium Hydroxide) solution containing ions that neutralize those charge, break this stability. In this study, experiments were conducted on the use of KOH to enhance flocculation. The quantity of KOH addition was varied in order to know its effect on the sedimentation rate. The result from the study showed that, the introduction of KOH promotes fast sedimentation process and the particulate settling rate was directly proportional to the amount of KOH addition and the settling was finished within 40 minutes time. (author)

  1. Silver electrocrystallization on vitreous carbon from ammonium hydroxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomar-Pardave, M.; Ramirez, M.T.; Gonzalez, I. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica; Serruya, A.; Scharifker, B.R. [Univ. Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Quimica

    1996-05-01

    Leaching baths with ammonia as a complexing agent offer a good alternative for precious metal (e.g., silver) recovery, since the environmental impact of these kind of leaching baths is considerably lower than the traditional cyanidation. The early stages of the electrolytic deposition of silver onto vitreous carbon electrodes from ammonium hydroxide solutions have been investigated by the potential step technique. The analysis of the experimental current transients according to existing theories indicates that this process occurs by multiple three-dimensional nucleation, followed by diffusion controlled growth of nuclei. It is shown that treatments that involve classifying the process as either instantaneous or progressive nucleation are not always adequate for the quantitative analysis of electrochemical nucleation phenomena. The nucleation kinetics parameters A (nucleation rate constant per site) and No (number density of active sites on the substrate surface) were estimated separately from the current transient maxima by two different approaches. Both quantities were found to vary with the potential and with the concentration of silver ions, except at very high overpotentials for silver deposition. The potential dependence of the nucleation rate A was interpreted according to the atomistic theory and in all cases it was found that the number of atoms in the critical nucleus (n{sub k}) was one over the entire potential range analyzed.

  2. Hydroxide-Assisted Bonding of Ultra-Low-Expansion Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovici, Alexander; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    A process for hydroxide-assisted bonding has been developed as a means of joining optical components made of ultra-low-expansion (ULE) glass, while maintaining sufficiently precise alignment between. The process is intended mainly for use in applications in which (1) bonding of glass optical components by use of epoxy does not enable attainment of the required accuracy and dimensional stability and (2) conventional optical contacting (which affords the required accuracy and stability) does not afford adequate bond strength. The basic concept of hydroxide-assisted bonding is not new. The development of the present process was prompted by two considerations: (1) The expertise in hydroxide-assisted bonding has resided in very few places and the experts have not been willing to reveal the details of their processes and (2) data on the reliability and strength attainable by hydroxide-assisted bonding have been scarce.

  3. Electrochromic nickel oxide/hydroxide thin films prepared by alternately dipping deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel oxide/hydroxide thin films were prepared by alternately dipping deposition from NiSO4 and LiOH solutions followed by heat-treatment. The onset temperature for nickel hydroxide decomposition was 220 deg. C for a thin film sample and 325 deg. C for the corresponding xerogel. During the decomposition nickel oxide was formed. The evolution of the infrared spectra during thermal decomposition is explained in detail. The thermally untreated xerogel contained sulfate ions, whereas in the thin sample they were replaced by carbonate ions originating from atmospheric CO2. Optimization of the electrochromic response of thin films was performed using in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. In the optimized film the degree of thermal decomposition of nickel hydroxide was 65% (120 min at 235 deg. C). The change in transmittance between the bleached and coloured state was low at the beginning of cycling (13% at ? = 480 nm), but increased during cycling and reached 45% in the 101st cycle (colouration efficiency - 37 cm2 C- 1). Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the structure of the optimized film and of two more intensively thermally treated films. One of them (exposed to 300 deg. C for 24 h) became electrochemically active during cycling while the other (24 h at 400 deg. C) remained inert

  4. Hydroxide precursors to produce nanometric YCrO3: Characterization and conductivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Y/Cr mixed hydroxide was precipitated with gaseous ammonia. ? The hydroxide treated at 1373 K formed YCrO3 crystals with 20 nm diameter. ? Electrical properties were different than those found in other methods of synthesis. ? Eact suggests small-polarons as conduction mechanisms. -- Abstract: A precursor to produce perovskite-type YCrO3 was precipitated by bubbling gaseous ammonia into an yttrium/chromium salts solution. X-ray diffraction showed that the as-prepared powders were amorphous. Thermal treatment between 1273 and 1373 K, leads to formation of polycrystalline YCrO3 with crystal sizes around 20 nm. High resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra showed uniform chemical environment for yttrium and chromium in the amorphous hydroxide and crystalline YCrO3. Shifts between Y 3d5/2 and Cr 2p3/2 binding energy suggest redistribution or charge transfer between yttrium and chromium ions in the YCrO3 structure. The electrical properties of YCrO3, whose precursors were precipitated with gaseous ammonia are different than those prepared by combustion synthesis. Electrical conductivity presents a sudden increase at ?473 K, which is associated to the grain size and morphology of the crystallites. The redistribution of charge between Y(III) and Cr(III) is thermally activated by the hopping of small-polarons, which are characterized by the Arrhenius law as the conductive mechanism.

  5. Effect of boric acid on intergranular corrosion and on hideout return efficiency of sodium in the tube support plate crevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium hydroxide is one of the main causes of intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) of alloy 600 steam generator (S.G.) tubes. Boric acid appears to be one of the possible remedies for intergranular corrosion process inhibition. In order to obtain data on boric acid injection efficiency, an experimental program was performed on previously corroded tubes. To prevent premature tube wall cracking, samples were sleeved on alloy 690 tubes. The objective of the tests was to evaluate, on a statistically valid number of samples, the effectiveness of boric acid and tube sleeving as possible remedies for IGA/SCC extension. Another independent experimental program was initiated to determine the hideout return efficiency in the tube support plate (TSP) and tubesheet (TS) crevices after a significant duration (? 180 hours) of sodium hideout. The main objective of the first tests being a statistical evaluation of the efficiency of boric acid treatment, was not achieved. The tests did demonstrate that sleeving effectively reduces IGA/SCC growth. In an additional program, cracks were obtained on highly susceptible tubes when specimens were not sleeved. The companion tests performed in the same conditions but with an addition of boric acid did not show any IGA or cracks. These results seem to demonstrate the possible effect of boric acid in preventing the corrosion process. Results of the second tests did not demonstrate any difference in the amount of sodium pile difference in the amount of sodium piled up in the crevices before and after boric acid injection. They however showed an increase of the hideout return efficiency at the tube support plate level from 78 % without boric acid to 95 % when boric acid is present in the feed water

  6. Controlled synthesis and characterization of large-scale, uniform sheet-shaped dysprosium hydroxide nanosquares by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The sheet-shaped dysprosium hydroxide nanosquares were successfully synthesized. ? Synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method without using any catalysts or templates. ? The advantages of the method are rapid synthesis at air atmosphere, 100% productive ratio and low cost. ? It can be easily scaled up and might represent a promising method for industrial production. ? The role of the alkaline sources and the formation mechanism were discussed. -- Abstract: In this study, we succeed in synthesizing the sheet-shaped dysprosium hydroxide (Dy(OH)3) nanomaterials via a facile hydrothermal method without using any catalysts or templates. The advantages of the method are rapid synthesis at air atmosphere, 100% productive ratio and low cost with a great potential for scale-up. Analytical method such as XRD, FESEM, TEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, FT-IR, TG–DSC were employed to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the as-synthesized products. The results reveal that nanosheets could be obtained by using ammonia and sodium hydroxide, and the Dy(OH)3 obtained by adding ammonia possesses uniform sheet-shaped nanosquare morphology with the side length of 200–300 nm and thickness of 20–40 nm. The growth of (0 0 1) plane of nanosheets was confined. The presence of a two dimensional (2D) growth trend was suggested. The role of the alkaline sources and the formation mechanism of such sheet-shaped Dy(OH)3 were discussed

  7. POST-OPERATIONAL TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL NA COOLLANT IN EBR-2 USING CARBONATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; Knight, C.

    2011-03-08

    At the end of 2002, the Experimental Breeder Reactor Two (EBR-II) facility became a U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted site, and the RCRA permit1 compelled further treatment of the residual sodium in order to convert it into a less reactive chemical form and remove the by-products from the facility, so that a state of RCRA 'closure' for the facility may be achieved (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992k, 2002). In response to this regulatory driver, and in recognition of project budgetary and safety constraints, it was decided to treat the residual sodium in the EBR-II primary and secondary sodium systems using a process known as 'carbonation.' In early EBR-II post-operation documentation, this process is also called 'passivation.' In the carbonation process (Sherman and Henslee, 2005), the system containing residual sodium is flushed with humidified carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The water vapor in the flush gas reacts with residual sodium to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the CO{sub 2} in the flush gas reacts with the newly formed NaOH to make sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}). Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced as a by-product. The chemical reactions occur at the exposed surface of the residual sodium. The NaHCO{sub 3} layer that forms is porous, and humidified carbon dioxide can penetrate the NaHCO{sub 3} layer to continue reacting residual sodium underneath. The rate of reaction is controlled by the thickness of the NaHCO{sub 3} surface layer, the moisture input rate, and the residual sodium exposed surface area. At the end of carbonation, approximately 780 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II primary tank ({approx}70% of original inventory), and just under 190 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II secondary sodium system ({approx}50% of original inventory), were converted into NaHCO{sub 3}. No bare surfaces of residual sodium remained after treatment, and all remaining residual sodium deposits are covered by a layer of NaHCO{sub 3}. From a safety standpoint, the inventory of residual sodium in these systems was greatly reduced by using the carbonation process. From a regulatory standpoint, the process was not able to achieve deactivation of all residual sodium, and other more aggressive measures will be needed if the remaining residual sodium must also be deactivated to meet the requirements of the existing environmental permit. This chapter provides a project history and technical summary of the carbonation of EBR-II residual sodium. Options for future treatment are also discussed.

  8. Sodium cavitation erosion testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the consideration leading to the definition and execution of sodium cavitation erosion tests, and describes the first two tests run with 4000C sodium in the cavitation tunnel at the CADARACHE Nuclear Research Center

  9. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial ... This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This is for information only and not for ...

  10. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  11. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

  12. Surface tension of calcium hydroxide associated with different substances Tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estrela

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface tension of calcium hydroxide (CH associated with different substances (deionized distilled water, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, Otosporin, 3% sodium lauryl ether sulphate; Furacin, PMC Furacin using tensiometer. The action of the substances studied on the dentinal structure enhances the property of surface tension. This method consists in the application of force to separate a platinum ring immersed in the substances. Thus, torsion was applied to the screw until the platinum ring separated during substances testing. Considering the methodology applied, the following can be concluded: distilled water alone or associated with CH presented a high surface tension (70.00 and 68.40 dynes/cm; calcium hydroxide in association with anionic detergent showed low surface tension (31.60 dynes/cm; camphorated paramonochlorophenol plus CH presented low surface tension (37.50 dynes/cm; 2% chlorhexidine associated with calcium hydroxide showed high surface tension values (58.00 dynes/cm; Otosporin plus calcium hydroxide showed low surface tension (35.40 dynes/cm; paramonochlorophenol Furacin mixed with calcium hydroxide presented surface tension equal to 45.50 dynes/cm; sodium hypochlorite presented high surface tension (75.00 dynes/cm. Antimicrobial agents more indicated in endodontics, i.e. CH, chlorhexidine and hypochlorite, presented the highest surface tension.Estudou-se a tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias (água destilada deionizada, paramonoclorofenol canforado, digluconato de clorexidina 2%, Otosporin, sulfato éter lauril sódio 3%, furacin, PMC furacin usando tensiômetro. O modelo experimental consistiu na aplicação de uma força para separar um anel de platina imerso na superfície das substâncias, exercido por um tensiômetro. Considerando a metodologia aplicada, pode-se concluir: a água destilada isolada ou associada com o hidróxido de cálcio apresenta alta tensão superficial (70,00 e 68,40 dinas/cm; hidróxido de cálcio associado ao detergente aniônico mostrou baixa tensão superficial (31,60 dinas/cm; paramonoclorofenol canforado mais hidróxido de cálcio apresentou baixa tensão superficial (37,50 dinas/cm; clorexidina 2% associada com hidróxido de cálcio mostrou um alto valor de tensão superficial (58,00 dinas/cm; Otosporin mais hidróxido de cálcio mostrou baixa tensão superficial (35,40 dinas/cm; paramonoclorofenol furacin misturado com hidróxido de cálcio apresentou tensão superficial igual a 45,50 dinas/cm; hipoclorito de sódio apresentou alta tensão superficial (75,00 dinas/cm.

  13. Surface tension of calcium hydroxide associated with different substances / Tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Estrela; Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo, Estrela; Luiz Fernando, Guimarães; Reginaldo Santana, Silva; Jesus Djalma, Pécora.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias (água destilada deionizada, paramonoclorofenol canforado, digluconato de clorexidina 2%, Otosporin, sulfato éter lauril sódio 3%, furacin, PMC furacin) usando tensiômetro. O modelo experimental consistiu na apl [...] icação de uma força para separar um anel de platina imerso na superfície das substâncias, exercido por um tensiômetro. Considerando a metodologia aplicada, pode-se concluir: a água destilada isolada ou associada com o hidróxido de cálcio apresenta alta tensão superficial (70,00 e 68,40 dinas/cm); hidróxido de cálcio associado ao detergente aniônico mostrou baixa tensão superficial (31,60 dinas/cm); paramonoclorofenol canforado mais hidróxido de cálcio apresentou baixa tensão superficial (37,50 dinas/cm); clorexidina 2% associada com hidróxido de cálcio mostrou um alto valor de tensão superficial (58,00 dinas/cm); Otosporin mais hidróxido de cálcio mostrou baixa tensão superficial (35,40 dinas/cm); paramonoclorofenol furacin misturado com hidróxido de cálcio apresentou tensão superficial igual a 45,50 dinas/cm; hipoclorito de sódio apresentou alta tensão superficial (75,00 dinas/cm). Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface tension of calcium hydroxide (CH) associated with different substances (deionized distilled water, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, Otosporin, 3% sodium lauryl ether sulphate; Furacin, PMC Furacin) using tensiometer [...] . The action of the substances studied on the dentinal structure enhances the property of surface tension. This method consists in the application of force to separate a platinum ring immersed in the substances. Thus, torsion was applied to the screw until the platinum ring separated during substances testing. Considering the methodology applied, the following can be concluded: distilled water alone or associated with CH presented a high surface tension (70.00 and 68.40 dynes/cm); calcium hydroxide in association with anionic detergent showed low surface tension (31.60 dynes/cm); camphorated paramonochlorophenol plus CH presented low surface tension (37.50 dynes/cm); 2% chlorhexidine associated with calcium hydroxide showed high surface tension values (58.00 dynes/cm); Otosporin plus calcium hydroxide showed low surface tension (35.40 dynes/cm); paramonochlorophenol Furacin mixed with calcium hydroxide presented surface tension equal to 45.50 dynes/cm; sodium hypochlorite presented high surface tension (75.00 dynes/cm). Antimicrobial agents more indicated in endodontics, i.e. CH, chlorhexidine and hypochlorite, presented the highest surface tension.

  14. Effects of repeated long-term sodium hypochlorite disinfection treatment on surface hardness and roughness of self-polymerizing reline acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rezende Pinto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is the most common alteration on the palate of denture wearers and deficient denture hygiene is an important predisposing factor, because it facilitates both the presence of Candida albicans and bacteria in saliva and their colonization on the oral mucosa and denture surfaces. Sodium hypochlorite is an efficient chemical disinfectant to eliminate denture biofilm, but the effect of long-term disinfection on reline acrylic resins was not studied. Purpose: This study investigated the hardness and roughness of three self-polymerizing reline resins after repeated long-term sodium hypochlorite disinfections. Material and methods: Forty round specimens (30 x 6mm were made from each material: Jet, Kooliner and Tokuyama Rebase II Fast, and divided in 4 groups (n=10. The control group was stored in water and the others were disinfected with 1%, 2%, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, respectively. The specimens were tested for knoop hardness (KHN and roughness (Ra before disinfection and after 30, 90 and 180 disinfection cycles. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test at 5%. Results: The hardness of Jet resin varied from 18.74 ± 0.47 to 13.75 ± 0.95 KHN, Kooliner varied from 14.09 ± 1.63 to 7.52 ± 0.88 KHN, and Tokuyama Rebase II Fast from 12.57 ± 0.94 to 8.28 ± 0.39 KHN. Statistically significant decrease in hardness of the three reline acrylic resins was observed early after the first 30 disinfection cycles. Conclusion: The hardness of the tested materials decreased after immersion in water and after repeated long-term chemical disinfections

  15. Stevens-Johnson syndrome induced by sodium valproate monotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Kn; Arunkumar, Js; Hanumanthayya, K.; Pai, Vv

    2012-01-01

    A case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome following treatment with sodium valproate is presented here. A 20-year-old male was put on sodium valproate monotherapy for the migraine, with generalized epilepsy. He developed vesicles and bullae in the oral and nasal mucosa with conjunctivitis, after 10 days of treatment. The lesions resolved after treating with systemic steroids. This case has been presented because Stevens-Johnson syndrome with sodium valproate monotherapy has been very rarely reported.

  16. Tratamento com hipoclorito de sódio para remoção do pergaminho e aceleração da germinação de sementes de café conilon / Sodium hypochlorite treatment to remove the parchment and accelerate germination of conilon coffee seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel Fialho, Rubim; Henrique Duarte, Vieira; Eduardo Fontes, Araújo; Alexandre Pio, Viana; Fábio Cunha, Coelho.

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com objetivo de avaliar o efeito do hipoclorito de sódio na remoção do pergaminho e na aceleração da germinação de sementes de café conilon. As sementes, cultivar Vitória, foram obtidas de frutos colhidos no estádio cereja e despolpados manualmente. As sementes foram s [...] ecadas em estufa de ventilação forçada até atingirem os graus de umidade de 35, 30 e 25% em base úmida. Em seguida, as sementes com pergaminho foram submetidas à solução de hipoclorito de sódio nas concentrações de 4, 5, 6 e 7% de cloro ativo por períodos de 3 e 6 horas. Para cada grau de umidade foram acrescentados três tratamentos adicionais, constituídos por sementes intactas com pergaminho e sementes cujo pergaminho foi removido mecânica e manualmente. As sementes foram avaliadas pelas seguintes determinações: grau de umidade, germinação, primeira contagem do teste de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 (graus de umidade inicial) x 4 (concentrações de hipoclorito de sódio) x 2 (tempos de imersão) + 9 (tratamentos adicionais), com quatro repetições. O hipoclorito de sódio na concentração de 6% por 3 horas proporciona germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação estatisticamente igual ao método de remoção manual do pergaminho, o qual é usado em laboratório. A remoção mecânica do pergaminho danifica as sementes de café, prejudicando a germinação. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium hypochlorite on the removal of the parchment and the acceleration of conilon coffee seed germination. Seeds of the Vitoria cultivar were obtained from fruits harvested at the cherry stage and pulped by hand. They were dried in a forced [...] ventilation oven until 35, 30 and 25% moisture content on a wet basis. Sodium hypochlorite solution in concentrations of 4, 5, 6 and 7% active chlorine was applied to those seeds with parchment for periods of 3 and 6 hours. For each moisture content, there were three additional treatments consisting of seeds with parchment and seeds whose parchments had been removed mechanically and manually. The seeds were evaluated for: moisture content, germination, first count of the germination test and speed of the germination index. The experiment was a completely randomized design in a factorial 3 (degrees of water content) x 4 (concentrations of sodium hypochlorite) x 2 (time of immersion) + 9 (additional treatments) with four replications. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 6% for 3 hours caused germination and a speed of germination index similar to the method of manual removal of the parchment, which is used in the laboratory. The mechanical removal of the parchment damaged coffee seeds, reducing their germination.

  17. Tratamento com hipoclorito de sódio para remoção do pergaminho e aceleração da germinação de sementes de café conilon Sodium hypochlorite treatment to remove the parchment and accelerate germination of conilon coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fialho Rubim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com objetivo de avaliar o efeito do hipoclorito de sódio na remoção do pergaminho e na aceleração da germinação de sementes de café conilon. As sementes, cultivar Vitória, foram obtidas de frutos colhidos no estádio cereja e despolpados manualmente. As sementes foram secadas em estufa de ventilação forçada até atingirem os graus de umidade de 35, 30 e 25% em base úmida. Em seguida, as sementes com pergaminho foram submetidas à solução de hipoclorito de sódio nas concentrações de 4, 5, 6 e 7% de cloro ativo por períodos de 3 e 6 horas. Para cada grau de umidade foram acrescentados três tratamentos adicionais, constituídos por sementes intactas com pergaminho e sementes cujo pergaminho foi removido mecânica e manualmente. As sementes foram avaliadas pelas seguintes determinações: grau de umidade, germinação, primeira contagem do teste de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 (graus de umidade inicial x 4 (concentrações de hipoclorito de sódio x 2 (tempos de imersão + 9 (tratamentos adicionais, com quatro repetições. O hipoclorito de sódio na concentração de 6% por 3 horas proporciona germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação estatisticamente igual ao método de remoção manual do pergaminho, o qual é usado em laboratório. A remoção mecânica do pergaminho danifica as sementes de café, prejudicando a germinação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium hypochlorite on the removal of the parchment and the acceleration of conilon coffee seed germination. Seeds of the Vitoria cultivar were obtained from fruits harvested at the cherry stage and pulped by hand. They were dried in a forced ventilation oven until 35, 30 and 25% moisture content on a wet basis. Sodium hypochlorite solution in concentrations of 4, 5, 6 and 7% active chlorine was applied to those seeds with parchment for periods of 3 and 6 hours. For each moisture content, there were three additional treatments consisting of seeds with parchment and seeds whose parchments had been removed mechanically and manually. The seeds were evaluated for: moisture content, germination, first count of the germination test and speed of the germination index. The experiment was a completely randomized design in a factorial 3 (degrees of water content x 4 (concentrations of sodium hypochlorite x 2 (time of immersion + 9 (additional treatments with four replications. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 6% for 3 hours caused germination and a speed of germination index similar to the method of manual removal of the parchment, which is used in the laboratory. The mechanical removal of the parchment damaged coffee seeds, reducing their germination.

  18. CEA experimental feedback on sodium loop decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present experimental feedback on sodium loop dismantling techniques at the CEA (The French Atomic Energy Commission) and to offer recommendations for the decommissioning of Fast Reactor secondary sodium loops. This study is based on acquired CEA decommissioning experience which primarily concerns the following: the decommissioning of RAPSODIE (France's first Fast Reactor), the PHENIX reactor secondary loop replacement, the sodium loop decommissioning carried out by the Laboratory of Sodium Technologies and Treatment, and several technical documents. This paper deals with the main results of this survey. First, a comparison of 8 pipe-cutting techniques is made, taking into account speed in cutting, reliability, dissemination, fire risk due to the presence of sodium, cutting depth, and different types of waste (empty pipes, sodium-filled pipes, tanks...). This comparison has led us to recommend the use of an alternative saw or a chain saw rather than the use of the plasma torch or grinder. Different techniques are recommended depending on if they are on-site, initial cuttings or if they are to be carried out in a specially-designed facility referred to hereafter as 'the cutting building'. After the cutting stage, the sodium waste must be processed with water to become an ultimate stable waste. Four treatment processes are compared with different standards : speed, cost, low activity adaptability and 'large sodium quantity' adaptability. Recomlarge sodium quantity' adaptability. Recommendations are also made for reliable storage, and for the general dismantling system organization. Last, calculations are presented concerning a complete dismantling facility prototype capable of treating large amounts and volume of sodium wastes. (author)

  19. Recycling processing method for radioactive liquid waste containing sodium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon recovering nitric acid by reacting sulfuric acid to liquid wastes containing sodium nitrate, the reaction is conducted within a range of a reaction forming sodium hydrogen sulfate in which the reaction can be kept at a low reaction temperature, and sodium hydrogen sulfate as the reaction product is crystallized to remove impurities. The crystallized sodium hydrogen sulfate is dissolved in water again and then electrolyzed by an electrolysis vessel using an ion exchange membrane. Resultant sodium hydroxide is recovered, the sulfuric acid is recycled for reutilizing in the reaction with radioactive liquid wastes containing sodium nitrate, and the residual liquid of the electrolysis is recycled and electrolyzed again. In addition, miscellaneous products accumulated in the processing liquid circulating in the recycling system are separated and removed by a chelate resin method. With such procedures, since the influence on the anodic corrosion of the electrolysis vessel is minimized, selection of the material for the electrolysis vessel is facilitated, and since the amount of the final solidification product can be minimized, great devoluming is enabled. (T.M.)

  20. A titration model for evaluating calcium hydroxide removal techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mark, PHILLIPS; Scott, McCLANAHAN; Walter, BOWLES.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament due to its antimicrobial effects and its ability to inactivate bacterial endotoxin. The inability to totally remove this intracanal medicament from the root canal system, however, may interfere with the s [...] etting of eugenol-based sealers or inhibit bonding of resin to dentin, thus presenting clinical challenges with endodontic treatment. This study used a chemical titration method to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left after different endodontic irrigation methods. Material and Methods Eighty-six human canine roots were prepared for obturation. Thirty teeth were filled with known but different amounts of Ca(OH)2 for 7 days, which were dissolved out and titrated to quantitate the residual Ca(OH)2 recovered from each root to produce a standard curve. Forty-eight of the remaining teeth were filled with equal amounts of Ca(OH)2 followed by gross Ca(OH)2 removal using hand files and randomized treatment of either: 1) Syringe irrigation; 2) Syringe irrigation with use of an apical file; 3) Syringe irrigation with added 30 s of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), or 4) Syringe irrigation with apical file and PUI (n=12/group). Residual Ca(OH)2 was dissolved with glycerin and titrated to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left in the root. Results No method completely removed all residual Ca(OH)2. The addition of 30 s PUI with or without apical file use removed Ca(OH)2 significantly better than irrigation alone. Conclusions This technique allowed quantification of residual Ca(OH)2. The use of PUI (with or without apical file) resulted in significantly lower Ca(OH)2 residue compared to irrigation alone.

  1. SODIUM ENVIRONMENTS IN GLASS

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, G.

    1981-01-01

    Sodium environments have been measured directly in several oxide glasses using EXAFS at the sodium K edge. The existence of local structure around sodium in glass contradicts the conventional Zachariasen model. Analysis of the EXAFS indicates there are significant differences relating to the glass modifier : glass former chemistry - the details of which demonstrate similarities with crystalline silicates and borates.

  2. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some foods that seem healthy may have high levels of sodium. Unprocessed fruits and vegetables are usually low in sodium. Most of the sodium Americans eat comes from packaged, processed, store-bought, and restaurant foods. Only a small amount comes from salt added ...

  3. Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) as a functional ingredient in porcine frankfurters without added sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Els; Utrera, Mariana; De Smet, Stefaan; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dog rose (Rosa canina L.; RC), rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on lipid and protein oxidation, colour stability and texture of frankfurters was investigated. Four treatments were prepared: with 5 or 30 g/kg RC extract and without sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite (5RC and 30RC, respectively), a positive control (with sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite; PC) and a negative control (without sodium ascorbate, sodium nitrite or RC extract; NC). Hexanal values were much higher throughout storage in NC compared to RC and PC frankfurters (P<0.001). The RC extracts protected against protein oxidation, but not as efficiently as PC (P<0.05). In the RC treated frankfurters, lower a* values were measured compared to PC due to the lack of sodium nitrite. In conclusion, dog rose can act as a natural antioxidant in frankfurters, but not as full replacer for sodium nitrite. PMID:22698996

  4. Mono Azo Dyes Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Dissolution of Aluminium in Sodium Hydroxide Solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Salih S., Al-Juaid.

    Full Text Available The effect of some mono azo dyes compounds on the dissolution of aluminium in 0.01 M NaOH solutions was studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of inhibitor and with decreasing tempe [...] rature. The inhibition mechanism was discussed on the basis of the formation of complex compound adsorbed on the metal surface. The adsorption process follows Frumkin isotherm. The effect of temperature on the rate of corrosion in the absence and presence of these compounds was also studied. Some activated thermodynamic parameters were computed.

  5. Mono Azo Dyes Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Dissolution of Aluminium in Sodium Hydroxide Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-juaid, Salih S.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of some mono azo dyes compounds on the dissolution of aluminium in 0.01 M NaOH solutions was studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of inhibitor and with decreasing temperature. The inhibition mechanism was discussed on the basis of the formation of complex compound adsorbed on the metal surface. The adsorption process follows Frumkin isotherm. The effect of temper...

  6. TEST PROGRAM FOR ALUMINA REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GEINESSE D

    2011-01-28

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  7. Biomethane production and physicochemical characterization of anaerobically digested teff (Eragrostis tef) straw pretreated by sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chufo, Akiber; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Pang, Yunzhi; Li, Xiujin

    2015-04-01

    The biogas production potential and biomethane content of teff straw through pretreatment by NaOH was investigated. Different NaOH concentrations (1%, 2%, 4% and 6%) were used for each four solid loadings (50, 65, 80 and 95 g/L). The effects of NaOH as pretreatment factor on the biodegradability of teff straw, changes in main compositions and enhancement of anaerobic digestion were analyzed. The result showed that, using 4% NaOH for pretreatment in 80 g/L solid loading produced 40.0% higher total biogas production and 48.1% higher biomethane content than the untreated sample of teff straw. Investigation of changes in chemical compositions and physical microstructure indicated that there was 4.3-22.1% total lignocellulosic compositions removal after three days pretreatment with NaOH. The results further revealed that NaOH pretreatment changed the structural compositions and lignin network, and improved biogas production from teff straw. PMID:25656865

  8. Mono Azo Dyes Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Dissolution of Aluminium in Sodium Hydroxide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih S. Al-Juaid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some mono azo dyes compounds on the dissolution of aluminium in 0.01 M NaOH solutions was studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of inhibitor and with decreasing temperature. The inhibition mechanism was discussed on the basis of the formation of complex compound adsorbed on the metal surface. The adsorption process follows Frumkin isotherm. The effect of temperature on the rate of corrosion in the absence and presence of these compounds was also studied. Some activated thermodynamic parameters were computed.

  9. Mechanism and rate of iodine vapor absorption into sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption rates of I2 vapor into aqueous NaOH solutions were measured using a flow-type agitated vessel with a constant contact surface area. Observed absorption rates were interpreted by the absorption mechanism considering that the following three reactions, (a) I2 + OH- reversible HIO + I-, (b) 3HIO ? IO3- + 2I- + 3H+ and (c) I2 + I- reversible I3-, take place together with the dissociation of both NaOH and H2O. All reactions mentioned above except reaction (b) can be treated as instantaneous reversible reactions. Rate of reaction (b) is so slow that this reaction is regarded to occur in the liquid bulk phase, and consequently the effect of this reaction on the absorption rate becomes gradually significant with increase in residence time of the liquid phase. There are, however, two different patterns of change of the enhancement factor due to reaction (b). Firstly, the enhancement factor increases with the progress of IO3- formation under the conditions of high NaOH concentration and low I2 vapor concentration. Under the opposite conditions, on the other hand, the enhancement factor decreases to a value lower than that estimated when reaction (b) is neglected. This decrease results because reaction (a) is restrained by a considerable decrease in the concentration of OH-, which iconcentration of OH-, which in turn is caused by an increase in the concentration of H+ produced by reaction (b). (author)

  10. Kinetics of absorption of trace iodine vapor in aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid column was used for the experiments reported in Part 1. However, it only gives the observation of the effect of fast reaction because the liquid flow was controlled to uniform laminar flow and the contact is limited to short time of around 10 ms. In practical absorbing operation, turbulence is involved in liquid flow, and the residence time for contact is long. Hence, the absorption of trace iodine in the purified air has been experimented by using a constant interface area type stirred absorption tank. Prior to the experiment, the characteristics of the absorption tank was investigated by conducting pure carbon dioxide absorption test with purified water. It gave the conclusion that the tank was sufficiently usable for fundamental researches. In short contact time absorption, the iodine dissolved and absorbed in liquid phase is affected by reaction of hypoiodous acid and poly-iodide ion formation due to hydrolysis by basic catalyst, proceeding in the laminar film. In longer contact absorption, however, the reaction of iodic acid ion formation due to the oxidation-reduction of hypoiodous acid in liquid phase material also affects the absorption rate, in addition to the above reactions. (Wakatsuki, Y

  11. Test Program For Alumina Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  12. TRIHALOMETHANE REACTIVITY OF WATER- AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE-EXTRACTABLE ORGANIC CARBON FRACTIONS FROM PEAT SOILS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain organic carbon moieties in drinking source waters of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta can react with chlorine during disinfection to form potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic trihalomethanes. The properties of reactive organic carbon in Delta waters, particularly those of soil origin, have...

  13. A novel cobalt sodium phosphate hydroxide with the ellenbergerite topology: crystal structure and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubovich, Olga V; Kiriukhina, Galina V; Dimitrova, Olga V; Shvanskaya, Larisa V; Volkova, Olga S; Vasiliev, Alexander N

    2015-07-14

    The novel phase Na2-xCo6(OH)3[HPO4][Hx/3PO4]3 (x? 1.1) was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 553 K. Its crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined against F(2) to R = 0.052, including positions of all hydrogen atoms. The compound crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P63mc, with unit-cell parameters a = 12.630(3) Å, c = 5.017(1) Å, V = 693.1(3) Å(3), and Z = 2. The crystal structure is based on a 3D framework built from CoO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra. Channels in the [001] direction accommodate columns of Na-centered octahedra sharing faces. The compound is a new structural representative of the topology shown by aluminosilicate mineral ellenbergerite and its numerous natural and synthetic varieties. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed a strong antiferromagnetic interaction and magnetic transition to low temperature spin-canted phase at TN = 44 K. The physical properties of the title compound are found to be very similar to those of the structurally related arsenate Co1-xCo6(OH)3[H2x/3AsO4]3[HAsO4] and vanadate Co7(OH)2(H2O)[VO4]4. PMID:26052895

  14. Does sodium restriction lower blood pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Grobbee, D. E.; Hofman, A

    1986-01-01

    Data from 13 randomised trials on the effect of sodium restriction on blood pressure were analysed. The hypotensive effect of sodium restriction was found to be small and restricted largely to systolic blood pressure, which fell by an average of 3.6 mm Hg (range 0.5-10.0 mm Hg). The reduction increased with age and in those with higher blood pressure. Sodium restriction therefore seems to be of limited use in those who are most eligible for non-pharmacological treatment of high blood pressure...

  15. Diode Laser and Calcium Hydroxide for Elimination of Enterococcus Faecalis in Root Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Naghavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ultimate goal of endodontic treatment is to eliminate the bacterial infection in the root canal system. While mechanical debridement combined with chemical irrigation removes the bulk of microorganisms, residual bacteria are readily detectable in approximately one-half of teeth just prior to obturation. Laser light can be used to destroy bacteria. This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the effect of diode laser and calcium hydroxide on mono-infected dental canals.Methods: Fifty five single-rooted human premolars were prepared and contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. After three weeks of incubation, the samples were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 and two control groups (n = 5. In the first and second groups, the teeth were rinsed for 5 min with either sterile saline or 5.25% NaOCl and irradiated with a 810-nm diode laser at 1.5 W output for 5 × 4s. In the third group, the teeth were rinsed with 5.25% NaOCl and then Ca(OH2 paste was inserted in the canals for 1 week. Intracanal bacterial sampling was done and the samples were plated to determine the CFU count. Results: 5.25% NaOCl plus laser was as effective as calcium hydroxide and significantly more effective than sterile saline (P>0.05 in elimination of E. faecalis. Complete elimination of E. faecalis was seen only for the one week calcium hydroxide treatment. Conclusion: Combination therapy with NaOCl irrigation and diode laser irradiation can be recommended as an effective treatment option for elimination of E. faecalis from the root canal system.

  16. Comparison of methods for the isolation of mycobacteria from water treatment plant sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovcova, Jitka; Babak, Vladimir; Slany, Michal; Slana, Iva

    2015-05-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms in all natural ecosystems, including water environments. Several of these species are potential pathogens which affect human health. NTM most commonly cause pulmonary, skin or soft tissue infections. Primary sludge obtained from the water treatment plants of four drinking water reservoirs were subjected to analysis for mycobacteria. Five decontamination methods (5 % oxalic acid, modified Petroff, HCl-NaOH, N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide and 0.05 % cetylpyridinium chloride), three growth media (Herrold's egg yolk medium with and without the antibiotic cocktail PANTA and Löwenstein-Jensen medium with sodium pyruvate) and three incubation temperatures (25, 30 and 37 °C) for isolation of mycobacteria were compared in the analysis of 18 sludge samples. To evaluate examined methods, the overall positive, negative, and contamination rate, and these rates in respect to localities are taken into account. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the best combination for the recovery of mycobacteria with the minimum number of contaminating microorganisms is 5 % oxalic acid decontamination cultured on Herrold's egg yolk medium with the antibiotic cocktail PANTA at 25 °C. The least suitable is N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide decontamination cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium with sodium pyruvate at 25 °C. From 18 sludge samples we isolated 27 mycobacterial species or groups; Mycobacterium algericum, M. arabiense, M. heraklionense, M. minnesotense, M. moriokaense, M. salmoniphilum and M. vulneris were isolated from the natural water environment for the first time. Because the natural water environment is the main source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria for humans, it is important to direct particular focus to newly described mycobacterial species. PMID:25724128

  17. MIGRAINE HEADACHE MANAGEMENT: PROPRANOLOL VERSUS SODIUM VALPROATE

    OpenAIRE

    Chitsaz, H.; Ghorbani, A.

    2002-01-01

    Migraine is a paroxysmal disorder with attacks of headache, nausea, vomiting, photo- and phono phobia and malaise. Migraine treatment is a mystery of medicien yet. We compare the efficacy of sodium valproate versus propranolol in our patients. Two 35 members groups with migraine headache (according to criteria of international headache society) were selected. At first, we discontinued any drugs used by subjects. In group one we started sodium valproate by dose 200 mg/day then increased i...

  18. A rate limited MFCI model for sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes modifications to CURLIM, a rate limited molten fuel-coolant interaction [MFCI] model for sodium. The modifications include improvements to the heat transfer model and the incorporation of a model of heat loss from the interaction zone. In addition, the treatment of returning rarefaction waves during the acoustic loading state is modified. Finally, CURLIM is used to perform Hicks-Menzies calculations using the latest equation of state for sodium. (author)

  19. Comparison of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya / Comparaison entre une spécialité et un générique de stibogluconate de sodium pour le traitement de la leishmaniose viscérale au Kenya / Comparación de las formas genérica y patentada de estibogluconato sódico como tratamiento de la leishmaniasis visceral en Kenya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elinore, Moore; Deidre, O’Flaherty; Hans, Heuvelmans; Jill, Seaman; Hans, Veeken; Sjoukje de, Wit; Robert N., Davidson.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar el uso del estibogluconato sódico genérico y patentado como tratamiento de la leishmaniasis visceral (kala-azar). MÉTODO: Un total de 102 pacientes con kala-azar confirmado fueron tratados en un hospital de misión en la región de West Pokot (Kenya) con estibogluconato sódico (20 m [...] g/kg/día durante 30 días), bien en forma de Pentostam® (PSM) o bien como preparado genérico (EGS). De forma alternativa, se asignó a 51 pacientes a cada grupo de tratamiento. RESULTADOS: No se observaron diferencias significativas en lo tocante a las características demográficas basales o la gravedad de la enfermedad, así como tampoco en lo que respecta a los eventos registrados durante el tratamiento. Hubo 3 defunciones en el grupo PSM y una en el grupo EGS; en cada grupo hubo dos pacientes que abandonaron el tratamiento. Sólo uno de los 80 aspirados esplénicos de confirmación de la curación fue positivo para Leishmania spp., y se trataba de un paciente del grupo EGS. El seguimiento realizado al cabo de un periodo mínimo de seis meses mostró que habían recaído seis de 58 pacientes: cinco en el grupo tratado con EGS y uno en el grupo tratado con PSM. No se observaron diferencias significativas en ninguna variable de resultado final entre los dos grupos. CONCLUSIÓN: Gracias a la disponibilidad de estibogluconato sódico genérico más barato, y siempre que se aplique un control de calidad estricto, las autoridades sanitarias de las zonas con kala-azar endémico pueden hoy suministrar tratamiento a muchos más pacientes en África. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). METHODS: A total of 102 patients with confirmed kala-azar were treated in a mission hospital in West Pokot region, Kenya, with sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day f [...] or 30 days) - either as Pentostam® (PSM) or generic sodium stibogluconate (SSG); 51 patients were allocated alternately to each treatment group. FINDINGS: There were no significant differences in baseline demographic characteristics or disease severity, or in events during treatment. There were 3 deaths in the PSM group and 1 in the SSG group; 2 patients defaulted in each group. Only 1 out of 80 test-of-cure splenic aspirates was positive for Leishmania spp.; this patient was in the SSG group. Follow-up after > 6 months showed that 6 out of 58 patients had relapsed, 5 in the SSG group and 1 in the PSM group. No outcome variable was significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The availability of cheaper generic sodium stibogluconate, subject to rigid quality controls, now makes it possible for the health authorities in kala-azar endemic areas to provide treatment to many more patients in Africa.

  20. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)