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1

Comparison of Alkaline Treatment of Lead Contaminated Wastewater Using Lime and Sodium Hydroxide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A lead-acid storage battery manufacturing industry in India produces several thousand liters of lead con-taminated acidic wastewater on a daily basis and uses hydrated lime to render the lead-contaminated acidic wastewater alkaline (pH = 8.0). Alkaline treatment of the acidic wastewater with lime though a cost-effective method, generates copious amount of lead-contaminated gypsum sludge. Other alkali agents such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dolomite are also used for alkali treat...

Rao, Sudhakar M.; Raju, G. C.

2010-01-01

2

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

...hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the...

2010-04-01

3

Comparison of Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide Followed by Heat Treatment on Rice Straw for Cellulase Production under Solid State Fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rice straw is the major agricultural by-product in the world. Its low digestibility made it unsuitable as livestock feed which lead to the mass disposal and burning of rice straw. The main objective of this study were to optimise the alkali concentration and soaking time on rice straw for the alkali pretreatment followed by heat treatment for cellulose production and to compare the effectiveness of both alkali used. The rice straws were subjected to two treatments, which were Treatment A and Treatment B. In Treatment A, the rice straws were treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH followed by heat treatment (autoclaving at 121°C for an hour, whereas the rice straws were treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH followed by heat in Treatment B. Four different alkali concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% at four different soaking times (1, 2, 3 and 4 h were investigated. The treated rice straws were subjected to Solid State Fermentation (SSF with the condition of 1:1 moisture content, 1% ammonium sulphate and 1x107 spores mL-1 of locally isolated Aspergillus niger. The highest yield of filter paper enzyme (FPase and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase were obtained after 6 days of SSF, which were 7.85±0.18 U g-1 substrate and 11.73±0.27 U g-1 substrate, respectively; when the rice straw was pre-treated with 15% KOH with 1 h soaking time followed by heat. Conclusively, rice straw can be effectively bio-converted into valuable product such as cellulase in SSF.

A.L. Chew

2010-01-01

4

The Density of Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide-Sodium Aluminate Solutions: Data Review and Model Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The density of Hanford tank waste supernatants affects the design and performance of waste treatment processes. The density of aluminate ion [Al(OH)4-] bearing sodium hydroxide solutions is important for describing the caustic leaching processes in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Flowsheet. The dissolved aluminate has a particularly large impact on the density of supernatants, but this ion is absent from most density estimation algorithms because of its rarity in most industrial processes. Fortunately, there is a large amount of published data on the density of aqueous sodium-hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions, which can be used to develop density models. This study reviewed the available data and determined the partial molar volume of sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate for mixtures of these salts in water by regression. This study determined that much of the published data suffered from a strong correlation between the sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate concentrations in solution. Nonetheless, there was sufficient un-correlated data to identify and quantify the affect of both hydroxide and aluminate concentration on solution density. The density was found to increase linearly with both hydroxide and aluminate concentrations over a wide composition range. The effect of temperature on the density of aqueous sodium hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions was found to be statistically significant but small in magnitude. (authors)

5

The dissolution and crystallisation of amphoteric metal hydroxides from sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissolution and recrystallisation of beryllium, zinc, cadmium and tin(II) hydroxides and chromium(III), iron(III), aluminium, scandium, yttrium, gallium and indium hydroxides, from sodium hydroxide solutions of concentrations C = 1 to 20 M at ambient temperatures, are surveyed. The different ionic equilibria in metal hydroxide-sodium hydroxide systems are examined: the phases crystallising from different sodium hydroxide solutions are tabulated and crystallisation mechanisms are analysed. (author)

6

Reactions of sodium hydroxide with sodium iodide, iodate, and periodate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interaction of sodium hydroxide with sodium iodide, iodate and periodate during heating and at different ratios of reagents was studied using the methods of IR spectroscopy, X-ray phase and thermal analysis. It was ascertained that sodium iodide forms adducts of the composition NaI · nNaOH (n = 2(tmelt = 225-230 deg C) and 3(tmelt = 215-220 deg C)). Sodium iodate in the presence of NaOH disproportionates with formation of NaI and Na5IO6 in the temperature range of 270-420 deg C. Sodium metaperiodate in the presence of NaOH decomposes at 290 deg C with formation of NaIO3, oxygen and ? 5% of Na5IO6 impurity

7

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide

8

Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.

2002-01-01

9

Kinetics of cubic boron nitride reaction with molten sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of cubic boron nitride (different makes) interaction with sodium hydroxide melt in the temperature range of 380-480 deg C was studied by the gravimetric method. It was ascertained that the reaction order at 440 deg C makes up 3.5, while the value of apparent activation energy is 92.3 ± 12.9 kJ/mol, which suggests occurrence of the process in kinetic range. It is shown that different makes of cubic boron nitride differ in their chemical resistance to alkali melt

10

Reduced cleavage by sodium hydroxide of methyladenine in DNA sequencing.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When the Maxam and Gilbert DNA sequencing method which is modified by Bencini et al. (Biotechniques Jan/Feb pp4-5, 1984) is applied to DNA containing methylated adenine in a GATC sequence, the cleavage reaction by sodium hydroxide is found to be greatly reduced in comparison to that of non-methylated adenine. Thus, a faint band in A greater than C reaction suggests a methyl adenine and can be used for its detection. That the faint band corresponds to a methyladenine was confirmed by Sanger se...

Okawa, N.; Suyama, Y.; Kaji, A.

1985-01-01

11

A study on oxide ions in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature by laser Raman spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If high temperature sodium is burned in humid air, its compound will become high temperature melt of sodium hydroxide as a solvent. If this melt includes peroxide ion, it will be a considerably active aggressive and corrosive for steels. This study was carried out in order to investigate the ability of presence of peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature. Laser Raman Spectroscopy was employed to analyze the Raman spectra of sodium peroxide and mixed specimen of sodium hydroxide with sodium peroxide. These reagents were heated up to 1073K under Ar gas atmosphere in the specially made vessel. Detectability and stability of peroxide ion at high temperature were investigated. Also we investigated about superoxide ion by using sodium peroxide and potassium superoxide. Superoxide ion was included in sodium peroxide as an impurity. As the result, the stability of peroxide ion in high temperature melt was showed up to 873K for sodium peroxide and 823K for sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium peroxide. And as the results for superoxide ion, its stability was showed as up to 873K for unmixed potassium superoxide and up to 773K for sodium hydroxide mixed one. Additionally, it was considered that superoxide ion will not change into peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature. (author)

12

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-03-01

13

Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to mimic the operation of the air-cathode in a direct borohydride alkaline fuel cell, we studied the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in sodium hydroxide solution containing traces of borohydride. The activity of several ORR electrocatalysts, namely carbon-supported platinum, gold, silver and manganese oxide, has been investigated using slow-scan linear voltammetry. Whereas platinum is one of the best electrocatalyst in pure sodium hydroxide, none of the classical electrocatalysts: gold, silver and platinum, exhibit sufficient selectivity towards the ORR. When BH{sub 4}{sup -} is present in solution, the potential taken by electrodes using such materials is a mixed potential, following the competition between the ORR and the NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis and/or oxidation. Conversely, manganese oxide-based electrocatalysts exhibit very interesting behaviour towards the ORR in alkaline medium; while their intrinsic ORR activity in pure sodium hydroxide is quite as good as that for platinum, they still display a remarkable selectivity for this reaction when the electrolyte contains traces of sodium borohydride. As a result, carbon-supported manganese oxide-based nanoparticles seem very interesting materials to be used in direct borohydride fuel cell. (author)

Chatenet, Marian; Micoud, Fabrice; Roche, Ivan; Chainet, Eric [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Vondrak, Jiri [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

2006-07-28

14

Water Mock-up for the Sodium Waste Treatment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to safely treat the waste sodium which was produced from the sodium cooled fast reactors and the sodium facilities. About 1.3 tons of sodium waste has accumulated at KAERI from the sodium experiments which have been carried out since 1990. Also, large scaled sodium experiments are scheduled to verify the design of the sodium cooled fast reactor. As a treatment method for the waste sodium produced at the sodium facility, an investigation of the reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide aqueous has been developed. The NOAH process was developed in France for the treatment of waste sodium produced from sodium facilities and reactors. In the NOAH process, a small amount of sodium waste is continuously injected into the upper space which is formed on the free surface of the aqueous and slowly reacted with sodium hydroxide aqueous. Since the density of the sodium is lower than that of the aqueous, the injected sodium waste sometimes accumulates above the free surface of the sodium hydroxide aqueous, and its reaction rate becomes slow or suddenly increases. In the improved process, the sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a sodium hydroxide aqueous through an atomizing nozzle installed on a lower level than that of the aqueous to maintain the reaction uniformly. Fig.1 shows the sodium waste process which was proposed in KAERI. The aqueous is composed of 60% sodium hydroxide, and its temperature is about 60 .deg. C. Thed its temperature is about 60 .deg. C. The process is an exothermic reaction. The hydrogen gas is generated, and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide increases in this process. It needs several systems for the process, i.e. a waste sodium injection, a cooling of the aqueous, hydrogen ventilation, and neutralization with nitric acid. The atomizing nozzle was designed to inject the sodium with the nitrogen gas which supplies a heat to the sodium to prevent its solidification and to uniformly mix the sodium with the aqueous. There are complex reacting phenomena in the system to observe with the naked eye. Therefore, a water mockup was carried out for the practical use of the data in the waste sodium treatment test

15

Water Mock-up for the Sodium Waste Treatment Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is important to safely treat the waste sodium which was produced from the sodium cooled fast reactors and the sodium facilities. About 1.3 tons of sodium waste has accumulated at KAERI from the sodium experiments which have been carried out since 1990. Also, large scaled sodium experiments are scheduled to verify the design of the sodium cooled fast reactor. As a treatment method for the waste sodium produced at the sodium facility, an investigation of the reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide aqueous has been developed. The NOAH process was developed in France for the treatment of waste sodium produced from sodium facilities and reactors. In the NOAH process, a small amount of sodium waste is continuously injected into the upper space which is formed on the free surface of the aqueous and slowly reacted with sodium hydroxide aqueous. Since the density of the sodium is lower than that of the aqueous, the injected sodium waste sometimes accumulates above the free surface of the sodium hydroxide aqueous, and its reaction rate becomes slow or suddenly increases. In the improved process, the sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a sodium hydroxide aqueous through an atomizing nozzle installed on a lower level than that of the aqueous to maintain the reaction uniformly. Fig.1 shows the sodium waste process which was proposed in KAERI. The aqueous is composed of 60% sodium hydroxide, and its temperature is about 60 .deg. C. The process is an exothermic reaction. The hydrogen gas is generated, and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide increases in this process. It needs several systems for the process, i.e. a waste sodium injection, a cooling of the aqueous, hydrogen ventilation, and neutralization with nitric acid. The atomizing nozzle was designed to inject the sodium with the nitrogen gas which supplies a heat to the sodium to prevent its solidification and to uniformly mix the sodium with the aqueous. There are complex reacting phenomena in the system to observe with the naked eye. Therefore, a water mockup was carried out for the practical use of the data in the waste sodium treatment test

Nam, Ho Yun; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-15

16

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provide...

Efsa, Panel On Additives And Products Or Substances Used In Animal Feed

2012-01-01

17

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provided that the resulting total sodium concentration in feed does not compromise the overall electrolyte balance. Sodium hydroxide in solid form and in aqueous solution at concentrations > 8.0 % is corrosive. At lower concentrations it is irritant to skin and eyes (0.5 % and 0.2 %, respectively and the respiratory tract (0.5 %. Exposure via inhalation is likely to be minimal. Sodium hydroxide is not considered to be a skin sensitiser. As sodium hydroxide is used in food as an acidity regulator, and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2012-10-01

18

Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions

19

Detection of interstellar sodium hydroxide in self-absorption toward the galactic center  

Science.gov (United States)

A weak self-absorbed emission line, which is identified as the J = 4-3 transition of sodium hydroxide, has been detected in the direction of Sgr B2(OH). The correspondingly weak Sgr B2(QH) emission line U75406, previously reported as an unidentified spectral feature by other investigators, is consistent with the J = 3-2 transition of sodium hydroxide. This detection may represent the first evidence of a grain reaction formation mechanism for simple metal hydroxides. The detection of H62 Delta toward Orion A is also reported.

Hollis, J. M.; Rhodes, P. J.

1982-01-01

20

Detection of interstellar sodium hydroxide in self-absorption toward the galactic center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A weak self-absorbed emission line, which we identify as the J = 4--3 transition of sodium hydroxide, has been detected in the direction of Sgr B2(OH). The correspondingly weak Sgr B2(OH) emission line U75406, previously reported as an unidentified spectral feature by other investigators, is consistent with the J = 3--2 transition of sodium hydroxide. This detection may represent the first evidence of a grain reaction formation mechanism for simple metal hydroxides. We also report the detection of H26delta toward Orion A

 
 
 
 
21

Electrochemical behavior of lithium in lithium hydroxide solution with sodium nitrite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemical behavior of lithium in lithium hydroxide solution with sodium nitrite has been investigated in this paper. The results show that the hydrogen evolution rate decreases with increasing sodium nitrite concentration. Through potentiostatic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM), we found that the current efficiency keeps nearly unchanged with sodium nitrite introduction to the solutions. The porosity of the lithium surface film decreased due to the precipitation of LiOH promoted by sodium nitrite.

22

Effect of sodium hydroxide on anionic surfactant distribution in a two-phase system based on TBP in n-dodecane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been made on the effects of sodium hydroxide on the distributions for the sodium salts of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA), di-n-butylphosphoric acid (DBPA), and lauric acid in a system composed of a 30% TBP solution in n-dodecane and aqueous sodium hydroxide. As the alkali concentration in the aqueous phase is reduced from 10 to 0.01 M, the distribution coefficients decrease for the anionic surfactants as well as TBP. Dilute sodium hydroxide solution thus enable one to remove extractant and diluent acid decomposition products from the organic phase, particularly ones having long alkyl chains, which tend to stabilize the emulsions in alkali-carbonate treatment. The distribution coefficients for these surfactants have appreciable effects on the type of stabilized emulsion. At 10 M alkali concentration, micellar aggregates are formed by sodium laurate in the organic phase

23

Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina / Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitand [...] o seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3) tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm. Abstract in english The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to d [...] evelop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3) with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

Eduardo Rodrigues de, Lima; Ricardo Araújo, Oliveira; Miriam Carla Bonicontro, Ambrosio-Ugri; Sueli Teresa Davantel de, Barros; Carlos de, Barros Júnior.

24

Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina / Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitand [...] o seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3) tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm. Abstract in english The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to d [...] evelop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3) with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

Eduardo Rodrigues de, Lima; Ricardo Araújo, Oliveira; Miriam Carla Bonicontro, Ambrosio-Ugri; Sueli Teresa Davantel de, Barros; Carlos de, Barros Júnior.

2008-03-01

25

Formation of mixed hydroxides in the thorium chloride-iron chloride-sodium hydroxide system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of formation of mixed hydroxides in the system thorium chloride-iron chloride-NaOH was studied at commensurate concentrations of Th and Fe in solution (1:1 and 1:10 mole fractions, respectively) with ionic strength 0.3, 2.1, and 4.1, created with the electrolyte NaCl, at room temperature 22+-1degC. By the methods of chemical, potentiometric, thermographic, and IR-spectrometric analyses, it was shown that all the synthesized precipitates are mechanical mixtures of two phases - thorium hydroxide and iron hydroxide - and not a new hydrated compound. The formal solubility of the precipitates of mixed hydroxides was determined. It was shown that the numerical value of the formal solubility depends on the conditions of formation and age of the precipitates

26

Rhenium and VR-20 alloy electrochemical dissolving in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experimental investigation of rhenium and W-Re (VR-20) alloy electrochemical dissolving both at variable (50 Hz) and constant current in sodium hydroxide solutions are presented. A possibility is shown of complete elimination of electrode polarization at electrochemical reprocessing of wastes of tungsten-rhenium alloys using variable current. It is established that one can work in dissolved electrolytes at constant current only at low densities of current

27

Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in fluoride-bearing minerals after decomposition by fusion with sodium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The decomposition of highly insoluble minerals (fluorspar and cryolite) by fusion with molten alkali-metal hydroxides is studied. The introduction of additives such as aluminium compounds or sodium peroxide to obtain total liberation of fluoride from calcium fluoride samples, is tested. The fusion is done in a silver crucible with a Bunsen burner. The cooled melt is easily soluble, giving solutions suitable for spectrophotometric fluoride determination by the Zr(IV)-fluoride-Erichrome Cyanine R method. PMID:18963832

Adelantado, J V; Martinez, V P; Moreno, A C; Reig, F B

1985-03-01

28

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOE’s complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)—super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)—and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,000–50,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000–300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be roughly $150 million to $400 million for construction and $10 million to $40 million per year for operations. Depending on the level of aluminate supersaturation allowed in the storage tanks in the LAW Pretreatment Facility, these values indicate a return on investment of up to 25% to 60%.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-08-31

29

Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root c...

Chawla H; Setia S; Gupta N; Gauba K; Goyal A

2008-01-01

30

Sodium oxide/hydroxide aerosol properties and behavior in a large vessel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two large-scale aerosol behavior tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) using sodium pool fires as the aerosol source. The purpose was to characterize the properties and behavior of sodium aerosol particles formed and aged in a large containment vessel. The results will be used as baseline data for comparison with follow-on air cleaning tests. The 20-m high, 850-m3 CSTF containment vessel is approximately half scale of a commercial reactor containment building for parameters which affect agglomeration and gravitational settling. Thus, the test air cleaning systems will be challenged with an aerosol closely representative of that postulated for LMFBR accidents. The results of these tests also offer an excellent opportunity to evaluate computer models which have been developed for the purpose of predicting aerosol behavior during hypothetical accidents in sodium cooled reactor containment spaces. The two tests differed only in that steam was injected in the second test to simulate the release of water vapor from heated concrete. The aerosol in the first test was a dry mixture of sodium peroxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. In the second test it was predominantly wet sodium hydroxide. The addition of water vapor caused more rapid fallout during the aerosol release period, but lower settling rates afterward. The net results was a 25% lower potential for aerosol leakage in the wet test. Detailed analyses of computer model comparisons have not yet been performed, but preliminary HAA-3B code predictions were in good agreement with suspended mass concentration and the ratio of mass settled to plated on walls

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The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.  

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Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.

Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran

2014-07-01

32

THE BACTERIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT: NORMAL SALINE 5.25% AND 0.5%, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CALCIUM HYDROXIDE  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this invitro investigation was to compare the anti-bacterial effect of normal saline and sodium hypochlorite (5.25 percent and 0.5 percent with calcium hydroxide used as intra canal dressing used in different time periods. Methods: 180 single-rooted freshly extracted teeth were selected. The crowns were resected of CEJ and the canal were flared to the same length using a number one Gates-Glidden. A suspension of selected strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria was placed inside the canals and incubated in anaerobic condition for 24 hours. Then the teeth were randomly assigned to 9 groups. Results: Group 1. Negative control; group 2. Positive control; group 3. instrumented using normal saile; group 4. instrumented using 0.5 percent sodium hypochlorite; grooup 5. instrumentation using 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite; group 6. After instrumentation, 10 min. of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 7. after instrumentation 24h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 8. After instrumentation 48h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group9. After instrumentation a week of calcium hydroxide was placed. Then paper points were used to get samples in each group. The samples incubated in anaerobid condition for 48 hours. The TSB turbidity was compared to mcfarland"s scale. Discussion: The results of this study indicates: Sodium hypochlorite in both concentrations were significantly more effective than normal saline. The one week calcium hydroxide group was significantly more effective than all other groups and was comparable to negative control group. The 24h and 48h calcium hydroxide groups did not have significant differences with each other or with the sodium hypochlorite groups. The 10 min. calcium hydroxide group was only comparable to normal saline group.

A.R FARHAD

2000-09-01

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Sodium zinc hydroxide sulfite with a novel Zn3OH geometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis and crystal structure of a new sodium zinc hydroxide sulfite, Na[(Zn(OH)]3(SO3)2, with novel structural features and bonding geometry are reported. In Na[(Zn(OH)]3(SO3)2, Zn2+ and O2- alternate to form an interesting corrugated hexagonal sheet with rings consisting of (ZnO)3. Another rare occurrence is the bonding geometry of one-third of the O sites within the sheet. These O sites form a planar Zn3O unit, unlike other known compounds, in which Zn3O is pyramidal. PMID:17173386

Nguyen, Dan-Tam; Bu, Xianhui

2006-12-25

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Simultaneous multiwavelength study of the reaction of phenolphthalein with sodium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

A photodiode array (PDA) spectrophotometer was used to study the fading reaction of phenolpthalein in dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The principal component analysis (PCA) method was employed to identify the number of light absorbing species in the kinetics system. The target factor analysis (TFA) procedure, coupled with the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfard-Shanno (BFGS) optimization method, was applied to the observed data to deduce the rate constants and the concentration-time profile of the reaction. The internal referencing method was shown to be essential in improving the quality of data obtained by a single beam PDA spectrophotomer. PMID:18924946

Tam, K Y; Chau, F T

1992-01-01

35

Evaluation of barium hydroxide treatment efficacy on a dolomitic marble.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arch of Peace, by Luigi Cagnola, is one of the most famous neoclassical monuments in Milan. It has been subjected to conservative intervention in 1998. In the present paper the efficacy of the consolidation by means of barium hydroxide has been evaluated. The stone material showed severe degradation phenomena as: erosion, pulverisation, exfoliation. The analytical data acquired through X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), allowed to compare the conditions of stone before and after the treatment with barium hydroxide. The presence of barium has been put in evidence mainly on the surface as barium sulphate, whereas barium is only sporadically present within the thickness of the decayed material. The treatment was judged not satisfying and its inefficacy is, most probably, due to a not suitable cleaning procedure carried out before the consolidation. PMID:11836959

Toniolo, L; Colombo, C; Realini, M; Peraio, A; Positano, M

2001-01-01

36

EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE  

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Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC. The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 hours and then kept in room temperature until the day of testing. Compressive strength test was carried out at the ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that concentration variation of sodium hydroxide had least effect on the fresh properties of SCGC. With the increase in sodium hydroxide concentration, the workability of fresh concrete was slightly reduced; however, the corresponding compressive strength was increased. Concrete samples with sodium hydroxide concentration of 12 M produced maximum compressive strength.

FAREED AHMED MEMON

2013-02-01

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The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of sulfoaluminate compounds was investigated by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tricalcium aluminate/gypsum mixtures with a molar ratio of 1:1 sulfate-to-aluminate were hydrated at constant temperatures from 30 to 90°C; in de-ionized water, in 200mM and in 500mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Hydration in de-ionized water produced ettringite and monosulfate as the dominant crystalline phases, regardless of temperature. Complex assemblages of phases formed in 200mM and 500mM sodium hydroxide including ettringite, monosulfate and U-phase, at all temperatures. Hydration of monosulfate and gypsum was also carried out at constant temperatures from 30° to 80°C using de-ionized water and 0.2M, 0.5M, and 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Ettringite was found to be the dominant crystalline phase over the entire temperature range and at all sodium hydroxide concentrations. A sodium-substituted monosulfate phase was formed as a hydration product in the 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution regardless of temperature. Sulfoaluminate compounds formed by tricalcium aluminate hydration in magnesium sulfate solution were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydration was carried out in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions and isothermally at temperatures from 30 to 80°C. Monosulfate, ettringite, gypsum and a hydrogarnet phase (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O) were all observed as hydration products. Monosulfate and hydrogarnet were the only phases observed for hydration in 0.5 and 1.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Ettringite was the dominant crystalline phase after hydration in 3.0M solution, regardless of temperature. To investigate the rate of hydration, reactions at 60°C in 3.0M magnesium sulfate solution were quenched after 26 minutes, 73 minutes, 2.5 hours and 12 hours to establish the evolution of hydrated phases. Depending on hydration times ettringite, monosulfate, gypsum, hydrogarnet and residual tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80°C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50°C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

Clark, Boyd Arthur

38

Desalination and hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide production via electrophoretic ion exchange and precipitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate and analyze a novel desalination method which works by electrophoretically replacing sodium and chloride in feed salt water with a pair of ions, calcium and carbonate, that react and precipitate out. The resulting calcium carbonate precipitate is benign to health, and can be filtered or settled out, yielding low ionic strength product water. The ion exchange and precipitation employs self-sharpening interfaces induced by movement of multiple ions in an electric field to prevent contamination of the product water. Simultaneously, the electrolysis associated with the electromigration produces hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. We conducted an experimental study of this method's basic efficacy to desalinate salt water from 100 to 600 mol m(-3) sodium chloride. We also present physicochemical models of the process, and analyze replacement reagents consumption, permeate recovery ratio, and energy consumption. We hypothesize that the precipitate can be recycled back to replacement reagents using the well-known, commercially implemented Solvay process. We show that the method's permeate recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method's energy consumption requirement over and above that necessary to generate electrolysis is 3 to 10 W h l(-1), which is on par with the energy consumed by state-of-the-art desalination methods. Furthermore, the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure, and uses no specialized membranes. The process may be feasible as a part of a desalination-co-generation facility: generating fresh water, hydrogen and chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. PMID:22806549

Shkolnikov, Viktor; Bahga, Supreet S; Santiago, Juan G

2012-08-28

39

Corrosion behavior of Zr, Ti, Ta and Nb in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion behaviors of metal applicable as nuclear energy and bio-material were investigated in sodium hydroxide solutions. Tested materials were zirconium, titanium, tantalum and niobium. They were immersed in 0.1 to 6.1 mol/dm3 sodium hydroxide solutions for 48 h, and then weight loss measurement, XRD and XPS analyses were conducted. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were obtained in some solutions. The corrosion rates were greater in the order of Nb > Ta > Ti > Zr. Polarization curves showed that Ti, Ta and Zr passivated, however, Nb corroded. XRD patterns showed that Nb dissolved as niobate compounds. XPS spectra showed that Zr and Ti formed oxide films such as ZrO2 and TiO2 on their surface. SEM photographs indicated that uniform corrosion occurred for tested materials. There existed the differences of the stable species among the thermodynamic, corrosion test and surface analysis data. It is expected for expanding the thermodynamics data of these materials in the alkali region. (author)

40

EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE  

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This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC). The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48...

FAREED AHMED MEMON; MUHD FADHIL NURUDDIN; SADAQATULLAH KHAN; NASIR SHAFIQ; TEHMINA AYUB

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Preparation of sodium oleate/layered double hydroxide composites with acid-resistant properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

MgAlCO3 type layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Mg/Al ratios ranging from 2 to 5 were synthesized by coprecipitation. Composites with sodium oleate/LDH were prepared by ion exchange and reconstruction of the LDH in sodium oleate solution. The amount of sodium oleate in the composites prepared by this reconstruction method was higher than that in samples prepared by the ion-exchange method. The basal spacings of the LDHs increased to 3.9 and 1.8 nm after synthesis of the composites, these spacings being in good agreement with models based on the assumption that the oleate ions are intercalated as bilayer and/or micelle structures, and as monolayers in the LDH interlayers, respectively. The number of sorbed oleate ions was higher than calculated from the anion-exchange capacities of the LDHs in most of the samples, increasing as the Mg/Al ratios of the LDHs were increased from 2 to 5. These results suggest that the oleate ions are present not only in the interlayers but also on the surfaces of the LDH particles. The acid-resistant properties of the composites were found to be much higher than for the pure LDHs. It is thus confirmed that the surfaces of the LDH particles in the composites are mostly covered with sorbed oleate ions and that the composites are good candidates as drug delivery materials. PMID:16529762

Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Yoshizaki, Hisako; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

2006-06-15

42

Partition equilibrium of iodine in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions containing boric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The partition equilibrium of iodine in the aqueous mixtures of sodium hydroxide and boric acid was investigated and was compared with the case of the aqueous solution without boric acid. It was found that the reactions of iodine species with boric acid and its derivatives were negligible and the only effect of the addition of boric acid on the partition of iodine species in the solution came out through the shift of hydrogen ion concentration. The hydrogen ion concentration can be evaluated by taking into consideration the dissociation of boric acid and the formation of polymeric borate ion besides a series of reactions of iodine species in the solutions. The observed equilibrium concentrations of various iodine species agreed well with those calculated from the concentration of the total iodine and the calculated hydrogen ion concentration. (author)

43

Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-06-01

44

Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber  

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Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF was carried out with NaOH from 2% to 10% (w/v at temperature 500C and 700C. The performances of pretreatments were evaluated based on total carbohydrate and reducing sugar including glucose, xylose and arabinose after enzymatic hydrolysis on the pretreated biomass. It was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis had significantly improved when 6% NaOH in 700C applied in the pretreatment process. The highest total reducing sugars produced by means of commercial enzymes was achieved with the overall conversions of glucan and xylan of 87% and 60.73% respectively. The compositions of OPMF in this study are as follows (% g/g dry biomass: glucan, 28.8, xylan, 25.3, arabinan, 1.91, ethanol extractive, 6.32 and ash, 2.60.

Nur Izzati Iberahim

2013-06-01

45

Sodium hydroxide effect on anionic surfactants distribution in two-phase system based on TBP in n-dodecane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on distribution of sodium salts of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric (HDEMP), di-n-butyl phosphoric (DBP) and lauric acids in 30% TBP solution in the n-dodecane-sodium hydroxide aqueous solution system is investigated to improve tributyl phosphate (TBP) water washing technique during nuclear fuel extraction reprocessing. It is shown, that alkali concentration reduction in water phase from 10 to 0.01 mol/l results in decrease of distribution coefficients of the investigated anionic surfactants, and TBP as well. Thus, sodium hydroxide diluted solution usage allows to remove more effectively from the organic phase the decomposition products of extractant and deluent of acid nature with long alkyl chain, which are emulsion stabilizers at extractant alkali-carbonate processing. It is pointed out, that the investigated anionic surfactants distribution coefficients noticeably affect stabilized emulsion type. At 10 mol/l alkali concentration the formation of sodium salt of lauric acid micellar aggregates is noted in the organic phase

46

The effect of flow-accelerated corrosion with high-temperature sodium hydroxide on tube target-wastage caused in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wastage phenomena on adjacent tubes (target-wastage) arise from water/steam leak in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Target-wastage is likely to be caused by liquid droplet impingement erosion and flow-accelerated in an environment marked by high-temperature and high-alkali (reaction jet) due to sodium-water reaction. The static and flow-accelerated corrosion experiments have been carried out as a part of phenomena elucidation experiments for target-wastage by using actual tube material under high-temperature sodium-hydroxide and sodium monoxide conditions which are mainly generated by sodium-water reaction. The authors evaluated the dependence of liquid/tube material temperature and liquid velocity upon the flow-accelerated corrosion rate on the tube and derived the new correlation of flow-accelerated corrosion for target-wastage taking into account local wastage environment in this report. (author)

47

The effect of flow-accelerated corrosion with high-temperature sodium hydroxide on tube target-wastage caused in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wastage phenomena on adjacent tubes (target-wastage) arise from water/steam leak in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Target-wastage is likely to be caused by liquid droplet impingement erosion and flow-accelerated corrosion in an environment marked by high-temperature and high-alkali (reaction jet) due to sodium-water reaction. The static and flow-accelerated corrosion experiments have been carried out as a part of phenomena clarification experiments for target-wastage by using tube material under high-temperature sodium-hydroxide and sodium monoxide conditions which are mainly generated by sodium-water reaction. The authors evaluated the dependence of liquid/tube material temperature and liquid impingement velocity upon the flow-accelerated corrosion rate on the tube in this report. (author)

48

Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to evaluate neutralization capacity and buffering intensity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide; (3) to study the efficacy of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment processes; (4) to investigate whether and how the magnesium hydroxide influences the characteristics of the activated sludge floc; (5) to determine whether magnesium hydroxide improves the anaerobic sludge digestion process and associated mechanisms; and (6) to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the application of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide in wastewater treatment and the possibility of marketing this product. Research results to date show that the purity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide depends largely on the recovery hydroxide slurry. This product proved to be very effective for wastewater neutralization, compared with other commonly used chemicals, both for its neutralization capacity and its buffering intensity. Due to its relatively low solubility in water and its particle size distribution characteristics, magnesium hydroxide behaves like a weak base, which will be very beneficial for process control. The authors also found that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from the wastewater using magnesium hydroxide due to their complexation and precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Magnesium hydroxide also greatly enhanced the settleability of the activated sludge. Intensive research on the mechanisms associated with these phenomena reveals that sweep flocculation and magnesium ion bridging between exopolymeric substances (EPS) of the microorganisms are the major contributing factors. Extensive research on the effects of magnesium hydroxide on anaerobic sludge digestion is still underway.

Bishop, P.L.; Wu, Q.; Keener, T.; Zhuang, L.A.; Gurusamy, R.; Pehkonen, S.

1999-07-01

49

Coprecipitation of 152Eu with iron hydroxide formed during reduction of sodium(6) ferrate in aqueous medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of coprecipitation of 152Eu and Fe(3) hydroxide formed according to one of the two mechanisms: in the course of Fe(3) sulfate hydrolysis and in the course of spontaneous reduction of sodium ferrate(6) (Na4FeO5) in the reaction of water oxidation, are presented. Fe(3) hydroxide formed according to the second mechanism has a more developed surface and it precipitated Eu3+ more efficiently. Introduction of oxalate-ions (C=6.7x10-4 mol/l) into solution impedes Eu3+ coprecipitation. Preliminary data on 242Pu and 241Am with Fe(3) hydroxide formed from ferrate are given. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

50

Sodium Thiosulfate in the Treatment of Calciphylaxis  

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The authors review the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of calciphylaxis and also describe applications of a novel therapeutic option, sodium thiosulfate. Two cases of advanced uremic calciphylaxis from both clinic and hospital settings are presented. One patient, a 57-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease, was treated with surgical debridement and sodium thiosulfate 25g three times a week. After introducing sodium thiosulfate treatment, the affected sites continue to heal with en...

Cohen, George F.; Vyas, Nikki S.

2013-01-01

51

Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

Yilmaz, Ceren [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Unal, Ugur [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Yagci Acar, Havva, E-mail: fyagci@ku.edu.tr [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey)

2012-03-15

52

Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

2014-09-01

53

Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98 °C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed. PMID:23987353

Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

2013-10-15

54

Sodium Hydroxide (CAS No. 62-53-3) [Hidróxido de Sodio (CAS No. 62-53-3)  

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Sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda, is an inorganic solid which provides an extremely important role for the manufacture of heavy chemical. This Arrhenius’ base is used for the production of textiles and paper, and participates as an input the manufacture of various products. This article presents a brief history of the production of caustic soda, describes in detail the electrolytic processes currently used for their production and, finally, shows how is the outlook for brazilian and worldw...

Illana Muniz Canto Brum da Silva

2012-01-01

55

Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

56

Electrochemical screening of organic and inorganic inhibitors for the corrosion of ASTM A-470 steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion of ASTM A-470 turbine disk steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (10 mol/kg) containing sodium silicate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chromate, aniline and some of its derivatives, tannic acid, L-(-)-phenylalanine (aminopropionic acid) and octadecylamine as potential inhibitors has been studied using the potentiodynamic, AC impedance, and Tafel extrapolation techniques. All tests were performed at 115 + or - 2 C. The anodic and cathodic polarization data show that aniline and its derivatives, L-(-)-phenylalanine, NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, and Na/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/ inhibit the anodic process, whereas tannic acid inhibits the cathodic reaction. Octadecylamine was found to inhibit both the anodic and cathodic processes. The mechanisms of inhibition for some of these compounds have been inferred from the wide band width frequency dispersions of the interfacial impedance.

Moccari, A.; MacDonald, D.D.

1985-05-01

57

Electrochemical screening of organic and inorganic inhibitors for the corrosion of ASTM A-470 steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion of ASTM A-470 turbine disk steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (10 mol/kg) containing sodium silicate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chromate, aniline and some of its derivatives, tannic acid, L-(-)-phenylalanine (aminopropionic acid) and octadecylamine as potential inhibitors has been studied using the potentiodynamic, AC impedance, and Tafel extrapolation techniques. All tests were performed at 115 + or - 2 C. The anodic and cathodic polarization data show that aniline and its derivatives, L-(-)-phenylalanine, NaH2PO4, Na2SiO3, and Na2CrO4 inhibit the anodic process, whereas tannic acid inhibits the cathodic reaction. Octadecylamine was found to inhibit both the anodic and cathodic processes. The mechanisms of inhibition for some of these compounds have been inferred from the wide band width frequency dispersions of the interfacial impedance

58

Sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of calciphylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors review the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of calciphylaxis and also describe applications of a novel therapeutic option, sodium thiosulfate. Two cases of advanced uremic calciphylaxis from both clinic and hospital settings are presented. One patient, a 57-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease, was treated with surgical debridement and sodium thiosulfate 25g three times a week. After introducing sodium thiosulfate treatment, the affected sites continue to heal with encouraging improvement of ulcer depth. Sodium thiosulfate was well-tolerated and facilitated wound healing. The patient did not develop sepsis. Sodium thiosulfate appears to be a viable first-line treatment for calciphylaxis and should be seriously considered early in the course of treatment. PMID:23710271

Cohen, George F; Vyas, Nikki S

2013-05-01

59

Experiment on the Water Mock-up for a Sodium Waste Treatment Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a treatment method of the waste sodium which was produced from a sodium facility, an investigation for a reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide has been developed. The sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a caustic soda through an atomizing nozzle to maintain the reaction uniformly. There were complex reacting phenomena in the system to observe with a naked eye. Therefore, a water mock-up was carried out for a practical use the data got in the waste sodium treatment test. The major experimental parameters are the flowrate of water through an atomizing nozzle and the recirculation rate. In addition, the positions and flow directions of the nozzles are important parameters, also. From this experiment, 300 sets of data were obtained by analyses of the phenomena of the photographic records, and the optimum flowing conditions

Nam, Ho Yun; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-12-15

60

Efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio sobre a fração fibrosa, digestibilidade e tanino do feno de jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on fiber fraction, digestibility and tannin of jurema-preta hay (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH na fração fibrosa, no teor de tanino e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca do feno de jurema-preta. As folhas foram colhidas manualmente e desidratadas à sombra. O tratamento químico consistiu na pulverização do feno com solução de 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8% de NaOH, na proporção de 1 litro da solução para 1 kg de feno. Amostras do feno foram submetidas à determinação da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, tanino e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, que se constituíram nas variáveis analisadas. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. O tratamento com NaOH proporcionou efeito linear decrescente nos teores de MS, hemicelulose e tanino, enquanto, para FDN e FDA, ocorreu efeito quadrático. A PB não foi afetada e a DIVMS melhorou com o aumento da concentração de NaOH. A estimativa da DIVMS pelo teor de tanino, apesar de significativa, carece de mais estudos.Experiment was carried out with the goal to evaluate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH on fiber fraction, tannin level and dry matter in vitro digestibility of jurema-preta hay. Leaves were harvested by hand and dried under shadow. Chemical treatment was done by pulverization of hay with 0; 2; 4; 6 and 8% NaOH solution following the proportion of 1 liter of solution to 1 kg of hay. Samples of hay were submitted to determinations of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, tannin and DM in vitro digestibility which were the variables analyzed. Design completely randomized was used with five treatments and four repetitions. NaOH treatment caused linear effect in DM, hemicellulose and tannin contents; while for NDF and ADF was observed quadratic effect. CP was not affected and DMIVD was improved by NaOH concentration increase. DMIVD estimated by tannin content need to be more studied, instead of its significance.

José Morais Pereira Filho

2003-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

Coprecipitation of 152Eu with Iron(III) hydroxide formed upon reduction of sodium ferrate(VI) in aqueous medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are presented on coprecipitation of 152Eu with iron(III) hydroxide formed either upon hydrolysis of Fe(III) sulfate or upon spontaneous reduction of sodium ferrate(VI) (Na4FeO5) by water with pH variation from 2.5 to 12 and constant ionic strength I=1. Iron(III) hydroxide formed according to the second mechanism has more developed surface and coprecipitates with Eu3+ more efficiently, especially when concentration of Fe(III) is low(?1.2 mg 1-1 or 2.2x10-5 M). Introduction of oxalate ions (C=6.7x10-4 M) into the solution inhibits the coprecipitation of Eu3+; however, oxalate is readily oxidized by ferrate ion, which in this case additionally favors sorption using ferrate. Tentative data on coprecipitation of 242Pu and 241Am with Fe(OH)3 produced from ferrate are presented. The data obtained show that sodium ferrate may be useful for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes, because only ozone is a stronger oxidant than sodium ferrate (among common oxidants) and sodium ferrate is one of the best coagulating agents

62

Sodium Hydroxide (CAS No. 62-53-3 [Hidróxido de Sodio (CAS No. 62-53-3  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda, is an inorganic solid which provides an extremely important role for the manufacture of heavy chemical. This Arrhenius’ base is used for the production of textiles and paper, and participates as an input the manufacture of various products. This article presents a brief history of the production of caustic soda, describes in detail the electrolytic processes currently used for their production and, finally, shows how is the outlook for brazilian and worldwide production and consumption of this basis.

Illana Muniz Canto Brum da Silva

2012-03-01

63

Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 ?g/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

2014-02-01

64

Method of formation permeability treatment with alkali metal hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for improving the permeability of an underground hydrocarbon reservoir containing clays and other fine particles where damage has occurred or may occur. The method consists of: injecting an aqueous buffer solution into the hydrocarbon reservoir through a well, the buffer solution having a pH greater than about 12 and comprising about 0.5% to about 5% by weight of an alkali metal hydroxide and about 0.5% to about 5% by weight of an alkali metal salt; and injecting an aqueous treating solution into the hydrocarbon reservoir after the buffer solution, the treating solution having a pH greater than about 12 and comprising about 2% to about 25% by weight of an alkali metal hydroxide; maintaining contact between the treating solution and the portion of the reservoir desired to be treated for a time of about thirty minutes to about 24 hours.

Thigpen, A.B.; Looney, M.D.; Fader, P.D.

1986-02-25

65

Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions, was not different when comparing MCS, SHW and barley. PMID:24594308

Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

2014-05-01

66

SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

2011-09-20

67

Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2011-02-04

68

Preparation of YBa2Cu3O7-x precursors from a fused eutectic of sodium and potassium hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for preparing YBa2Cu3O7-x from the simultaneous thermal decomposition of the nitrates of yttrium, barium, and copper in an anhydrous fused eutectic of sodium and potassium hydroxide is described. This method eliminates the need for any mechanical grinding or the introduction of carbon containing anions. Products formed are fine powders (?1 ?m) having mole ratios 1.00 Y:2.00 Ba:3.06 Cu. X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that the initial products are Y(OH)3, BaO2, and CuO, which when air calcinated/ oxygen annealed at 900--950 degree C form the superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x. A mechanism is postulated for product formation as a function of reaction conditions

69

ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

2011-01-27

70

Ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide treated corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol was produced via the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of dilute sodium hydroxide treated corn stover. Saccharification was achieved by cultivating either Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Gloeophyllum trabeum on the treated stover, and fermentation was then performed by using either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli K011. Ethanol production was highest on day 3 for the combination of G. trabeum and E. coli K011 at 6.68 g/100g stover, followed by the combination of P. chrysosporium and E. coli K011 at 5.00 g/100g stover. SSF with S. cerevisiae had lower ethanol yields, ranging between 2.88 g/100g stover at day 3 (P. chrysosporium treated stover) and 3.09 g/100g stover at day 4 (G. trabeum treated stover). The results indicated that mild alkaline pretreatment coupled with fungal saccharification offers a promising bioprocess for ethanol production from corn stover without the addition of commercial enzymes. PMID:24561994

Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

2014-04-01

71

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACTED LIGNIN OF BAMBOO (NEOSINOCALAMUS AFFINIS PRETREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE/UREA SOLUTION AT LOW TEMPERATURE  

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Full Text Available Ball-milled bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis was first treated under ultrasound at 20 oC in 95% ethanol solution for 0 to 50 min, dissolved in sodium hydroxide/urea solution (7% NaOH/12% urea at –12 oC, and then extracted with ethanol and dioxane to isolate lignin. The structure of the isolated lignin was characterized with a set of wet chemical and spectroscopic methods, including UV, FT-IR, 13C NMR, and HSQC spectroscopies. The results showed that the lignin extracted from bamboo consisted of p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G, and syringyl (S type lignins with minor cinnamate units. The predominate lignin inter-units were ?-O-4´ ether linkages, followed by phenylcoumaran and a lower proportion of resinol and spirodienone. It was also found that the ester groups of lignin were cleaved during the pretreatment process with cold alkaline solution.

Ming-Fei Li

2010-06-01

72

Solubilities of betulin and betulinic acid in sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions of varied mole fraction at temperatures from 283.2 K to 323.2 K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The solubilities of betulin and betulinic acid in varied mole fraction of sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions. • The experimental solubility data are correlated by Apelblat equation. • The dissolution enthalpy and entropy were calculated using van’t Hoff equation. -- Abstract: The solubilities of betulin and betulinic acid were measured at varied values of mole fraction of sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions at a series of temperature (283.2, 293.2, 303.2, 313.2, and 323.2) K. They increase with the increase of temperature. Furthermore, the solubility of betulinic acid has a positive correlation with the mole fraction of sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions, and so is that of the betulin. The experimental solubility resuls are well correlated by the modified Apelblat equation. The enthalpy and entropy of betulin and betulinic acid during the dissolution process in sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are calculated with the van’t Hoff equation. The results indicate that the dissolution process is endothermal reaction that is driven by entropy

73

Influence of zeolite treated with sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide on the coagulation-flocculation process of drainage. Influencia de la zeolita tratada con acido sulfurico y con hidroxido de sodio en el proceso de coagulacion floculacion en aguas superficiales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper has had as objective the treatment of natural zeolite from Tasajera with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide (residuals acid and basic from the regeneration of cationic and anionic resins of the ''Otto Parallada'' thermoelectric plant) at different times and concentrations, with a further comparison and testing of the effectiveness of the obtained zeolite in respect to the natural one as a coadyuvant of the coagulation-flocculation process in the treatment of superficial water. (Author)

Gutierrez Duque, M.; Herrera Vasconcelos, T.; Laria Piedra, N.

1994-01-01

74

Heat treatment of niobium hydroxide in vibration-fluidized-bed apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of heat treatment (drying and calcination) of wet niobium hydroxide, providing preparation of special purity niobium oxide, is studied. It is shown that niobium hydroxide should be dried in the material layer at temperatures higher than 300-320 deg C, since the temperature elevation leads to decomposition of the material. At the same time the process of calcination and preparation of niobium oxide must be carried out at temperatures greater than 600 deg C, when the substance transforms form the amorphous state into the crystalline one

75

Root canal treatment of pulpless immature teeth using calcium hydroxide paste. Roentgenographic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcium hydroxide paste was used as a temporary dressing and the renewal was done each three months in the root treatment of immature teeth with open apex and necrotic pulps. Clinical and radiographic controls were made to observe foraminal closure. After that, the root canals were filled, employing the conventional technique with gutta-percha cones and zinc oxide eugenol cements. The calcium hydroxide paste was applied in the apical region before the root canal filling. The follow-up was done periodically and the cases have more than two years of control. (author)

76

Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate and nitrite at Nafion-coated electrodes in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions in alkaline solution has been studied using various cathode materials and is the basis for a patent describing the conversion of nitrate into hydroxide ion in carbonate solutions. Recently, Taniguchi et al. have reported that certain well studied transition metal cyclic amine complexes, namely Co(III)-cyclam and Ni(II)-cyclam where cyclam is 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, efficiently electrocatalyze the reduction of nitrate and nitrite to hydroxylamine at mercury electrodes. Here the authors report that the metal cyclam catalyst can be incorporated into a Nafion film electrode, and that the reduction of nitrate and nitrite proceeds efficiently at these electrodes in concentrated NaOH solution. Nafion is a perfluoroalkanesulfonated cation exchange material that has been widely used to immobilize redox couples at electrode surfaces, including electrocatalysis species.

Li, H. [Lanzhou Univ., Ganzu (China). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Chambers, J.Q. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hobbs, D.T. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.

1988-12-31

77

Comparative study of Nb, Nb-10W, and Nb-16Ta-12W corrosion behavior in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemical behavior of niobium, Nb-10W, and Nb-16Ta-12W alloys is investigated in sodium hydroxide solutions at different temperatures, using open-circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). OCP and polarization measurements show that the three materials are spontaneously active in 10, 15, and 30 wt.% NaOH at 25, 50, and 75 deg. C. The anodic polarization curves show in all cases a dissolution-passivation peak followed by a current plateau, corresponding to oxides formation. The spontaneous active corrosion of the three materials mainly leads to the formation of sodium niobates, as detected by X-ray diffraction analysis of the corrosion products. The evolution of the corrosion current densities obtained from Tafel extrapolation of polarization curves and the polarization resistance values determined from EIS measurements indicate that the corrosion rates of Nb, Nb-10W, and Nb-16Ta-12W alloys increase with increasing NaOH concentration and temperature. In all cases, the increasing order of corrosion resistance is: Nb< Nb-10W< Nb-16Ta-12W

78

Phase Stability of Chromium(III) Oxide Hydroxide in Alkaline Sodium Phosphate Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grimaldiite ({alpha}-CrOOH) is shown to transform to a sodium-chromium(III)-hydroxyphosphate compound (SCHP) in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via CrOOH(s) + 4Na{sup +} + 2HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = Na{sub 4}Cr(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that SCHP possesses an orthorhombic lattice having the same space group symmetry (Ibam, No.72) as sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate. A structurally-consistent designation for SCHP is Na{sub 3}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} NaOH; the molar volume of SCHP is estimated to be 1552 cm{sup 3}. The thermodynamic equilibrium for the above reaction was defined in the system Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.0 and 2.4. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard molar entropy (S{sup o}), heat capacity (C{sub p}{sup o}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{sup o}) for SCHP were calculated to be 690 J/(mol-K), 622 J/(mol-K) and -3509.97 kJ/mol, respectively.

S.E. Ziemniak; E.P. Opalka

2003-07-08

79

Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root canal filling material from the root canals and the status of overpushed material, if any, as the tooth resorbed with the passage of time. At 6 months, endodontic treatment in 2 of the 25 teeth had failed and one tooth had exfoliated; the remaining 22 teeth were without any signs or symptoms. At the end of 2 years, 14 teeth could be evaluated; out of these 12 had physiologically exfoliated. It was observed that the rate of resorption of this new root canal obturating mixture was quite similar to the rate of physiologic root resorption in primary teeth. In three cases, where there was an overpush of the mixture, a gradual partial resorption was noted.

Chawla H

2008-06-01

80

Preliminary observations of the strain-induced corrosion of alloy-800 in sodium hydroxide-saturated sodium and on its evolution in dynamic purified sodium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small scale lab-method is described to achieve same information about four point-bending strain induced intergranular corrosion of Alloy-800 (experimental heats with a metallurgical structure between the commercial grade 1 and grade 2 alloy) in sodium saturated by NaOH and hence in dynamic purified sodium. The specimens were preexposed in sodium for same thousands of hours at 5500C to obtain the metallurgical structure induced by the in-service aging, by monitoring carbon activity by tab tests. The samples were then exposed under applied strain (up to above 0.2%) in the Na-NaOH systems and then in purified liquid sodium of our corrosion test loop at both 5500C and 4500C. Some preliminary results concerning the characteristics of the intergranular attack observed and its evolution in purified sodium are reported and discussed. (orig./IHOE)

 
 
 
 
81

Intergranular attack of inconel alloy 600 in sodium hydroxide solutions contaminated with Na2CO3 at 350 deg C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of sodium carbonate, boric acid and calcium hydroxide on the Intergranular Attack (IGA) of Inconel Alloy 600 has been studied in 20 wt% NaOH solution at 350 deg C. The IGA rate of Alloy 600 was higher in 20 wt% NaOH + 4 wt% Na2CO3 solution than in 20 wt% NaOH + 1 wt% Na2CO3 one, and the crack numbers of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) was also larger in 20 wt% NaOH + 4 wt% Na2CO3 solution than in 20 wt% NaOH + 1 wt% Na2CO3 one. The IGA rate of Alloy 600 in 20 wt% NaOH + 4 wt% Na2CO3 solution was suppressed by the addition of boric acid and the IGSCC crack numbers decreased from 108 to 79. On the other hand, the IGA rate was not so changed by the addition of calcium hydroxide, but the IGSCC crack numbers decreased extremely from 108 to 17. The IMMA studies revealed that the composition of oxide film of Alloy 600 was Cr-enriched in acid solution. As the pH was increased, the Ni composition of oxide film increased and the Cr composition decreased. The oxide film of Alloy 600 was mainly composed of Ni in 20 wt% NaOH + 1 wt% Na2CO3 solution. The examination of surface film should help to estimate the water quality in the crevice between tube and support plate. (author)

82

Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with sodium lauryl sulfate as a sorbent for 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with nitrate anions (LDH-NO3) was synthesized, modified with the anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate, and applied for the removal of 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions. Modification of the as-synthesized Mg-Al layered double hydroxide was carried out at surfactant concentration of 0.01 M (the organo-LDH produced denoted LDH-NaLS). The as-synthesized and surfactant-intercalated LDHs were characterized by FT-IR and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The effect of some variables such as solution pH, contact time and sorbate concentration on removal of 152+154Eu was investigated. The kinetic data obtained were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model rather than the pseudo-first-order model. Intraparticle diffusion model showed that sorption of 152+154Eu proceed by intraparticle diffusion together with boundary layer diffusion. Experimental isotherm data were well described by Langmuir model. Organo-LDH was found to have higher capacity (156.45 mg g-1) for europium than the as-synthesized LDH-NO3 (119.56 mg g-1). Comparing LDHs capacities obtained for Eu(III) in the present work with other sorbents reported in literature indicated that LDHs have the highest capacities. Application of the developed process for removal of 152+154Eu(III) from radioactive process wastewaters was also studied ande process wastewaters was also studied and the obtained results revealed that these LDHs are promising materials for treatment of radioactive wastewaters. (author)

83

Experimental study of the crystallization of sodium hydroxide in a cold trap  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the crystallization mechanisms of sodium hydride, trapping efficiency measurements were made on an experimental cold trap, tubular in shape, containing a steel wool packing. For this purpose, the hydrogen content at the trap outlet was permanently measured using the pressure-gauge of a hydrogen-meter. The influence of various parameters on the purification mean efficiency was analysed. In particular, it would seem that the residence time has no influence, which would indicate a growth kinetics not limited by the diffusion stage. After being operated in selected operating conditions, the cold trap was dismantled. The direct inspection of the deposits as well as the scanning through samples using an electronic microscope made it possible to confirm that crystallization is dependent, in its initial phase, on a heterogeneous mechanism of nucleation on the packing threads. (orig.)

84

Synthesis of composites of sodium oleate/Mg-Al-ascorbic acid-layered double hydroxides for drug delivery applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mg-Al-ascorbic acid (ASA)-layered double hydroxides (ASA-LDHs) with Mg/Al=3 were synthesized by ion-exchange, coprecipitation and reconstruction methods. Composites with sodium oleate (SOA)/ASA-LDH were prepared by an ion-exchange method using various concentrations of SOA solutions. The (003) basal spacing of the ASA-LDHs changed from 0.76nm in the CO(3)-LDH to 0.78 and 0.86nm after intercalation of the ASA ions and these basal spacings are in good agreement with models based on the assumption as mono layers and double layers of ASA ions in the LDH interlayers, respectively. The amounts of ASA in the LDHs prepared by the reconstruction method were higher than those by the ion-exchange and coprecipitation methods. In the preparation of composites of SOA/ASA-LDH, an ion-exchange method was more suitable than a reconstruction method to cause surface sorption of the SOA molecules with maintaining intercalated ASA ions in the LDH interlayers. The acid-resistant properties of the composites of SOA/ASA-LDH were found to be much higher than for the pure ASA-LDH and mixture of CO(3)-LDH and ASA. The surfaces of the LDH particles in the composites are, thus, mostly covered with sorbed SOA molecules and they are good candidates as drug delivery materials for intestines through the stomach. PMID:19646517

Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Isobe, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

2009-10-20

85

Effect of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentration on the optical property of chitosan-ZnO nanostructure prepared in chitin deacetylation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro addition of sodium hydroxide induced the nano particles crystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano crystals with maximum Zn/O ratio of 77:23 was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline size with 16-53 nm was estimated by XRD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study, nanocrystalline powders with band gap of 3.32 eV was prepared. - Abstract: Chitosan-ZnO nanostructures are prepared by eco-friendly way of synthesis. With same amount of chitin, three different ratios of zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide concentrations are used for preparation. The hexagonal shape of chitosan-ZnO nanostructures with size range of 40-100 nm are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface morphology is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Maximum Zn/O atomic ratio of 77:23 is noticed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis. Presence of chitosan and ZnO structure are confirmed with FTIR spectra. Absorbance at 364 nm in the UV-vis spectra indicates the presence of ZnO. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the size of crystallites are in 16-53 nm range. Optical studies revealed that chitosan-ZnO nanostructure with band gap of 3.4 eV have been prepared by slow addition of 45% sodium hydroxide into 15% zinc chloride and chitin solution.

Anandhavelu, S. [Department of Industrial chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Thambidurai, S., E-mail: sthambi01@yahoo.co.in [Department of Industrial chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India)

2011-12-15

86

Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2000-09-28

87

Preliminary observations of the strain-induced corrosion of alloy-800 in sodium hydroxide-saturated sodium and on its evolution in dynamic purified sodium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the intergranular attack of few tens of micrometers is examined, as when the Alloy-800 is successively exposed in purified dynamic sodium. A simple and cheap method was used to stress plain test samples by a constant total deflection. By such a technique it is possible to get only a qualitative picture of the phenomenon due to the marked load relaxation induced on the strained specimens during their exposure at high temperatures

88

Overextension of Nonsetting Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontic Treatment: Literature Review and Case Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: Premixed non-setting calcium hydroxide (CaOH2) paste in pressure syringe system is commonly used in root canal therapy. The aim of this paper is to present a case involving an iatrogenic extrusion of the medicament during endodontic treatment and a literature review of similar reports. The present case demonstrates severe tissue necrosis and other deleterious effects following the extrusion of CaOH2 paste beyond root apex. A 21-year old female was referred for endodontic treatment o...

Arash Shahravan; Shahrzad Jalali; Behrooz Mozaffari; Nasim Pourdamghan

2012-01-01

89

Chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide improves recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms from cultured milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is shed into the milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne's disease, allowing the transmission of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk. The parameters investigated included chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-l-cysteine-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), alone and in combination with antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid), and the efficacy of solid (Herrold's egg yolk medium [HEY]) and liquid (Bactec 12B and para-JEM) culture media. For each experiment, raw milk samples from a known noninfected cow were inoculated with 10(2) to 10(8) CFU/ml of live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms. The results indicate that an increased length of exposure to NALC-NaOH from 5 to 30 min and an increased concentration of NaOH from 0.5 to 2.0% did not affect the viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additional treatment of milk samples with the antibiotics following NALC-NaOH treatment decreased the recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells more than treatment with NALC-NaOH alone. The Bactec 12B medium was the superior medium of the three evaluated for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk, as it achieved the lowest threshold of detection. The optimal conditions for NALC-NaOH decontamination were determined to be exposure to 1.50% NaOH for 15 min followed by culture in Bactec 12B medium. This study demonstrates that chemical decontamination with NALC-NaOH resulted in a greater recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from milk than from samples treated with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC). Therefore, it is important to optimize milk decontamination protocols to ensure that low concentrations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be detected. PMID:23637290

Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C; Stabel, J R

2013-07-01

90

Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

2005-06-01

91

Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved

92

Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar L Modified with 1-Octanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE) was investigated for recovery of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from alkaline process solutions. PHE relies on the deprotonation of a lipophilic weak acid by hydroxide ion with concomitant transfer of sodium ion into an organic phase. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and NaOH in the aqueous phase, thus leading to a process in which NaOH equivalents are transferred from an alkaline feed solution to an aqueous stripping solution. In this work, we researched PHE using a process-friendly diluent Isopar L. The lipophilic cation exchanger 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) was used as the extractant. The Isopar L diluent was modified with 1-octanol to improve its solvation properties and the solubility of 35-DTBP so that practical Na+ concentrations could be achieved in the process solvent. The PHE mechanism at process-relevant conditions was explored by Raman and FTIR spectroscopic measurements. Electrospray mass spectroscopic results indicated extensive aggregation of the sodium phenolate at high Na+ loading. An equilibrium computer modeling suggested that the Na+ extraction behavior can be largely explained by the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 Na/35-DTBP species in the organic phase. Extraction isotherms obtained using caustic leaching simulant solutions indicate the potential utility of this approach for recycling NaOH from complex alkaline mixturesrom complex alkaline mixtures

93

Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs

94

Treatment of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits with dysprosium-165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dysprosium-165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (165Dy-FHMA) was used as an agent of radiation synovectomy in an antigen-induced arthritis model in New Zealand white rabbits. Animals were killed up to 6 months after treatment. 165Dy-FHMA was found to have a potent but temporary antiinflammatory effect on synovium for up to 3 months after treatment. Treated knees also showed significant preservation of articular cartilage architecture and proteoglycan content compared with untreated controls, but only during the first 3 months after treatment. In animals killed 3 and 6 months after treatment there were only minimal differences between the treated and untreated knees, indicating that the antiinflammatory effects on synovial tissue and articular cartilage preservation were not sustained

95

Nonsurgical treatment of two periapical lesions with calcium hydroxide using two different vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium hydroxide is used extensively as an intracanal medicament in endodontics for many years. It is used in various clinical situations such as to promote apexification, to repair perforation, to enhance healing of periapical lesions, to control root resorption, and to control exudation in teeth with persistent periapical inflammation. This paper presents a case report in which Ca(OH)2 was used as an intracanal medicament for treatment of periradicular lesions using two different vehicles in two different teeth of same patient. PMID:25133000

Dixit, Seema; Dixit, Ashutosh; Kumar, Pravin

2014-01-01

96

Nonsurgical Treatment of Two Periapical Lesions with Calcium Hydroxide Using Two Different Vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium hydroxide is used extensively as an intracanal medicament in endodontics for many years. It is used in various clinical situations such as to promote apexification, to repair perforation, to enhance healing of periapical lesions, to control root resorption, and to control exudation in teeth with persistent periapical inflammation. This paper presents a case report in which Ca(OH)2 was used as an intracanal medicament for treatment of periradicular lesions using two different vehicles in two different teeth of same patient. PMID:25133000

Dixit, Seema; Dixit, Ashutosh; Kumar, Pravin

2014-01-01

97

Novel hypertonic saline-sodium hydroxide (HS-SH) method for decontamination and concentration of sputum samples for Mycobacterium tuberculosis microscopy and culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated a new decontamination and concentration (DC) method for sputum microscopy and culture. Sputum samples from patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) (n=106) were tested using the proposed hypertonic saline-sodium hydroxide (HS-SH) DC method, the recommended N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium citrate-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH) DC method and unconcentrated direct smear (Ziehl-Neelsen) techniques for the presence of mycobacteria using Löwenstein-Jensen culture and light microscopy. Of 94 valid specimens, 21 (22.3%) were positive in culture and were further characterized as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears was increased from 28.6% using the direct method to 71.4% (HS-SH) and 66.7% (NALC-NaOH) using DC methods. Both concentration techniques were highly comparable for culture (kappa=0.794) and smear (kappa=0.631) for AFB. Thus the proposed HS-SH DC method improved the sensitivity of AFB microscopy compared with a routine unconcentrated direct smear; its performance was comparable to that of the NALC-NaOH DC method for AFB smears and culture, but it was methodologically simpler and less expensive, making it a promising candidate for evaluation by national TB control programmes in developing countries. PMID:18719178

Ganoza, Christian A; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Chauca, José; Rojas, Gabriel; Munayco, César; Agapito, Juan; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Guerra, Humberto

2008-09-01

98

Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

99

Simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by sodium hydroxide solution in a packed bed and studying the effect of operating parameters on absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In this study. simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by Sodium Hydroxide solution in a packed bed has been investigated. At first, mass and energy balances were applied around a differential height of the bed. So, the governing equations were obtained. Surface renewal theory by Danckwerts was used to represent the mass transfer operation Finally, by changing the operating parameters like solvent temperature, inlet gas composition pressure and height of the bed, the effect of these parameters on the absorption and the composition of carbon dioxide in exit stream have been investigated. (authors)

100

A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection [...] and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE: A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS: Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. Result: In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION: Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

Caio Lamunier de Abreu, Camargo; Walter, Belda Junior; Luiz Jorge, Fagundes; Ricardo, Romiti.

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Control of Nanoparticle Size, Crystal Structure and Growth of Layered Double Hydroxide by Hydrothermal Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we showed the effect of hydrothermal treatment and aging process of urea hydrolysis on crystal structure, particle size and particle size distribution of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) materials. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray crystallography and scanning electron microscopy. The studied synthetic parameters showed a great influence on the physicochemical properties of the selected LDH materials. At insufficient conditions of hydrothermal treatments, the formed LDH particles were amorphous and the non-LDH phases dominated the X-ray diffraction chart. The crystal growth increased with increasing hydrothermal temperature. Aging process improved the crystal morphology up to18 hours, while further aging destroyed the LDH particles. The increase of hydrothermal aging led to a wide particle size distribution.

Berber, Mohamed R.; Hafez, Inas H.; Minagawa, Keiji; Katoh, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masami; Mori, Takeshi

102

3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT) on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic [...] techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr), and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp). It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

P.D. Reena, Kumari; Jagannath, Nayak; A. Nityananda, Shetty.

2011-11-01

103

Radioactive sodium waste treatment and conditioning. Review of main aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication reviews the main aspects relating to the treatment and conditioning of radioactive sodium waste. This waste arises from the operation of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). In this type of reactor, sodium (Na) or sodium-potassium alloys (NaK) are used as a low-effect neutron moderating coolant medium for extracting and transferring thermal energy from the core and they represent a significant technical and safety challenge during operation and decommissioning. This publication provides the reader with technologically oriented information on the present status of sodium waste management approaches and recent achievements related to treatment and conditioning, with the objective of facilitating planning and preparatory work for the decommissioning of LMFRs. This publication provides a comprehensive review of the hazards associated with sodium waste management. Given the large quantities of sodium waste arising during decommissioning or reactor refurbishment, as well as the challenges and varied techniques associated with removal of 100% of all sodium and NaK bulk quantities and residues during decommissioning, a hazards review and analysis is a critical component in planning the dismantling and waste management activities. Roughly half of this publication focuses on sodium waste generating, handling and treatment processes. This includes draining sodium and NaK from plant systems; in situ treatment of residual sodium; cutting techniques for pumps, valves, piping and other components; cleaning of components; potential reuse of sodium; and removal of selected radionuclides from sodium waste with the objective of reducing the waste classification or converting it to exempt waste. The focus is on proven techniques and technologies, and each discussed method includes a review of the associated principle or theory, practical applications, advantages and disadvantages, limitations, industry experience, and final waste products. A review is provided of final management practices for treated sodium and NaK wastes, including conditioning of radioactive sodium waste and subsequent storage/disposal considerations. The review of conditioning practices includes those designed for the nuclear industry, as well as industrial conditioning technologies which are directly applicable or readily adaptable to nuclear applications. This review includes both successes, failures, and failure analysis. Throughout this publication, emphasis is placed on industry experience and application of sodium and NaK and industry experience with the techniques and technologies used to manage sodium waste. Reactor-specific examples are abundant and include both successes and failures. Throughout the publication, the emphasis is on proven methodologies, including their advantages, disadvantages, limitations and hazards. In fact, sodium-related hazards and associated safety considerations are extensively annotated throughout. This publication can be used most effectively during the planning stages for sodium and NaK removal and treatment activities, including in situ treatment for the purpose of conversion to non-reactive species (e.g. salts, acids). Once radioactive sodium waste or sodium-contaminated components are removed for disposition, this publication is best used as a review of conditioning and dispositioning options, as well as for developing the associated waste management plan. With regard to planning in general, this publication is especially useful in identifying the potential hazards and hazard mitigation considerations at each stage of the removal, treatment, handling and conditioning activities

104

Flowsheet Modeling and Testing of Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar(regsign) L Modified with Exxal(regsign) 8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptual counter-current process flowsheet was developed for sodium hydroxide recovery from alkaline solutions via pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE). PHE relies on a simple sodium ion/proton exchange mechanism at elevated pH using a weak organic acid extractant. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. In this work, the 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) cation exchanger was used in the Isopar(regsign) L diluent modified with isooctyl alcohol Exxal(regsign) 8. Equilibrium isotherms determined for PHE from pure sodium hydroxide solutions and simulated radioactive waste leachate were used to develop a semi-empirical model that could be used for designing PHE process flowsheets. Using this model, a conceptual PHE flowsheet was developed for recovering NaOH from solutions generated by caustic leaching of radioactive tank sludges. The flowsheet consists of extraction, scrub, and strip processes, each employing four equilibrium stages. Modeling of this flowsheet indicates 97% recovery of the sodium hydroxide from the waste leachate feed solution. An experimental demonstration, performed with a simulated radioactive waste leachate using batch contacts in a co-current analog of the counter-current flowsheet, confirmed the potential for practical application of PHE technology

105

Endodontic treatment for necrotic immature permanent teeth using MTA and calcium hydroxide. A retrospective study  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic treatment of young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp has been a challenge for the dentist. It is necessary to induce the formation of apical barrier (apical plug, enabling the complete root canal filling. Objective: This retrospective clinical study compared the protocols for treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation, using calcium hydroxide (CH or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Material and methods: 28 patients with incomplete root formation have undergone root canal treatments in the period from 2000 to 2009 were selected. The procedures for cleaning, shaping and intracanal medication (CH paste were performed in a standardized manner. In 13 patients, after using the CH paste (14 days, apical plugs with MTA were made. In the remaining 15 teeth monthly exchanges with CH paste were executed until it was observed radiographically the formation of the apical barrier. In all cases the canals were filled conventionally with gutta-percha and sealer. Initially, follow-ups were made on a quarterly and semiannually at the end of first year. Results: All apical lesions showed apical healing between 4 and 13 months after starting treatment. There was not noted the continuing process of root formation. Conclusion: It was concluded that the treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp with the use of MTA as apical plug has the same clinical results compared with the use of CH, with the advantage of less clinical time.

Fabio de Almeida Gomes

2013-06-01

106

The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na2O and NaH. The most important contaminant is 137Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide

107

The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na{sub 2}O and NaH. The most important contaminant is {sup 137}Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide.

Van Alsenoy, V; Rahier, A.

1996-07-01

108

Treatment of gaseous hydrogen chloride using Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with carbonate ion.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is important to treat gaseous HCl from incineration streams efficiently to avoid adverse environmental consequences. In this paper, a new treatment method for gaseous HCl is presented-the application of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with CO(3)(2-) (CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH) to treat gaseous HCl continuously. The degree of HCl removal without water vapor is higher than that with water vapor; further, this reaction does not require H(2)O. In addition, the degree of HCl removal increases with increasing temperature, CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH quantity, HCl concentration, and improved contact between CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH and HCl gas. The treatment of HCl gas by CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH leads to the production of Mg-Al LDH intercalated with Cl(-). Further, HCl is also absorbed on the surface of CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH. Our proposed treatment method works effectively for the treatment of gaseous HCl from incinerator streams. PMID:20800264

Kameda, Tomohito; Uchiyama, Naoya; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

2010-10-01

109

Dietary sodium reduction for hypertension prevention and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutritional-nonpharmacological approaches for the treatment and prevention of hypertension are of great interest. Sodium reduction is one of the primary methods recommended for these purposes. The general public is interested in the reduction of dietary sodium intake and has responded with a decrease in table salt use, the purchase of lowered sodium food products, and the use of food labels to help guide food purchases. Countervailing trends in the use of convenience foods and dining out increase the difficulty for individuals to lower sodium intake. Clinical trials that have used sodium reduction alone or in combination with other lifestyle therapies have demonstrated the feasibility of reducing dietary sodium intake from 30% to 50% for up to 4 years, in a variety of populations. Trials that used lifestyle and weight loss interventions have also achieved significant reductions in body weight and alcohol consumption and increases in physical activity. A variety of studies indicate that long-term sodium reduction is feasible and that it is acceptable to patients. No negative consequences of these interventions have been observed, and in some cases improvement in the intake of other nutrients has occurred. Nonpharmacological interventions have resulted in hypertension control in significant proportions of the trial populations. These studies demonstrate that the foregoing types of interventions can significantly contribute to hypertension treatment and prevention. PMID:1987001

Elmer, P J; Grimm, R H; Flack, J; Laing, B

1991-01-01

110

Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leaching tests, and extractions with oxalate and weak hydrochloric acid. It was found that at 600 and 900 °C the iron oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat treatment caused a part of the metals bound in the oxides to be released, thus increasing metals leachability by 1-2 orders of magnitude depending on the metal. Pb and Cd were released in particularly significant concentrations, suggesting less incorporation into the iron oxides after heat-induced transformation. For Pb, this transformation of the chemical state of the bound metal was clearly supported by the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies. A fraction of the bound Cr remained stable even after treatment at the highest temperature used in the study. It was concluded that the heat treatment of iron oxides may be advantageous to improve the thermodynamic stability of the product but that thermal treatment at both 600 and 900 °C significantly reduced the binding capacity for heavy metals.

SØrensen, Mette Abildgaard; Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

2000-01-01

111

Valor nutritivo da cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com hidróxido de sódio ou óxido de cálcio / Nutritional value of the hydrolyzed sugarcane with sodium hydroxide or calcium oxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se o valor nutritivo e a temperatura de estabilidade aeróbia da cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) ou óxido de cálcio (CaO). Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 2 × 4, com dois aditivos (NaOH e CaO) e quatro doses (0; 0,75; 1,5 e 2,25%, com base na matéria natural), em de [...] lineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. O material foi acrescido dos aditivos e armazenado por 24 horas em baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10L. Ambos os aditivos controlaram o aumento da temperatura da cana-de-açúcar, e o NaOH mostrou-se mais eficiente. Os teores de matéria seca e matéria mineral aumentaram linearmente, enquanto os constituintes da parede celular diminuíram com o aumento das doses dos aditivos. Tanto o NaOH quanto o CaO promoveram acréscimo nos valores de digestibilidade da matéria seca da cana-de-açúcar. O NaOH e o CaO melhoram o valor nutritivo da cana-de-açúcar, e o NaOH é mais eficiente. Abstract in english The nutritional value and the temperature of aerobic stability of the hydrolyzed sugarcane by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or calcium oxide (CaO) were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in factorial arrangment 2×4, two additives (NaOH and CaO) and four doses (0; 0.75; 1.5; and 2.25%), in a complet [...] ely randomized design with four repetitions per treatment. The material, after the addition of the additive, was stored per 24 hours in 10-L plastic pails. Both additives controlled the increase of temperature of sugarcane, but NaOH was more efficient. The dry matter and mineral matter contents lineally increased, while the cell wall contents decreased with the increase of the doses. Either NaOH or CaO promoted increment in values of sugarcane dry matter digestibility. NaOH and CaO improved the nutritional value of the sugarcane and NaOH was more efficient.

L.S.O., Ribeiro; A.J.V., Pires; B.D., Pinho; G.G.P., Carvalho; M.A.L., Freire.

112

The Effect of Formaldehyde or Sodium Hydroxide on In situ Rumen Degradation of Low and High Fat Sunflower Meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine in situ dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability of sunflower meal containing 25 and 165 g fat kg-1 DM and untreated and treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 40 g kg-1 DM and formaldehyde ( 30 and 60 g kg-1 DM. DM and CP degradation of the samples were determined using in situ technique in two fistulated Holstein steers (400±12 kg, body weight and data were analysed to estimate soluble fraction (a, potentially degradable fraction (b, degradation rate (c and effective degradability (ED. Formaldehyde decreased (a fraction of DM (p<0.05. NaOH treated high fat sunflower meal had the highest (a fraction and the lowest of (b fraction of DM, (0.43 and 0.31, respectively. Formaldehyde and NaOH significantly decreased degradation rate (c of DM. Formaldehyde (30 g kg-1 DM treated low fat sunflower meal had the lowest ED of DM (0.44, k = 0.03 h-1 (p<0.05. Fraction of (a and ED of DM of low fat sunflower meal was less than high fat sunflower meal. Formaldehyde and NaOH significantly were affected fractions of a, b, c and ED of CP (p<0.05. Fraction of (a of CP decreased by formaldehyde and NaOH. Treatment of sunflower meal (low and high fat with formaldehyde at 60 g kg-1 DM resulted in the highest (b fraction and the lowest of (c fraction and ED of CP. Crude protein (b fraction of low fat sunflower meal was more than high fat sunflower meal but there was not any significant difference for (a fraction and ED. DM and CP disappearance after 24 h was decreased by formaldehyde and NaOH. Therefore, it is appears that formaldehyde, NaOH and fat content of sunflower meal can affect DM and CP degradability parameters.

2008-01-01

113

Valor nutritivo da cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com hidróxido de sódio ou óxido de cálcio / Nutritional value of the hydrolyzed sugarcane with sodium hydroxide or calcium oxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se o valor nutritivo e a temperatura de estabilidade aeróbia da cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) ou óxido de cálcio (CaO). Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 2 × 4, com dois aditivos (NaOH e CaO) e quatro doses (0; 0,75; 1,5 e 2,25%, com base na matéria natural), em de [...] lineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. O material foi acrescido dos aditivos e armazenado por 24 horas em baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10L. Ambos os aditivos controlaram o aumento da temperatura da cana-de-açúcar, e o NaOH mostrou-se mais eficiente. Os teores de matéria seca e matéria mineral aumentaram linearmente, enquanto os constituintes da parede celular diminuíram com o aumento das doses dos aditivos. Tanto o NaOH quanto o CaO promoveram acréscimo nos valores de digestibilidade da matéria seca da cana-de-açúcar. O NaOH e o CaO melhoram o valor nutritivo da cana-de-açúcar, e o NaOH é mais eficiente. Abstract in english The nutritional value and the temperature of aerobic stability of the hydrolyzed sugarcane by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or calcium oxide (CaO) were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in factorial arrangment 2×4, two additives (NaOH and CaO) and four doses (0; 0.75; 1.5; and 2.25%), in a complet [...] ely randomized design with four repetitions per treatment. The material, after the addition of the additive, was stored per 24 hours in 10-L plastic pails. Both additives controlled the increase of temperature of sugarcane, but NaOH was more efficient. The dry matter and mineral matter contents lineally increased, while the cell wall contents decreased with the increase of the doses. Either NaOH or CaO promoted increment in values of sugarcane dry matter digestibility. NaOH and CaO improved the nutritional value of the sugarcane and NaOH was more efficient.

L.S.O., Ribeiro; A.J.V., Pires; B.D., Pinho; G.G.P., Carvalho; M.A.L., Freire.

1156-11-01

114

Sodium valproate and clonazepam for treatment-resistant panic disorder.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sodium valproate (VA) and clonazepam (CLZ) were combined in the treatment of 4 patients with panic disorders (PD) who were resistant to several antipanic drug treatments. A significant improvement was found in the symptomatology of these patients, but relapses occurred when CLZ dosage was reduced. A potentiation of the GABAergic properties of VA and clonazepam is postulated. This combined treatment could be advantageous for some treatment-resistant PD patients but needs to be studied further.

Ontiveros, A.; Fontaine, R.

1992-01-01

115

Treatment with coated layer double hydroxide clays decreases the toxicity of copper-contaminated water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper is a common pollutant found in watersheds that exerts toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are able to adsorb a wide range of contaminants through ion-exchange mechanisms. Coating LDH clays with various materials alters the aggregation of clay particles into the nano-size range, thus increasing relative surface area and offering great potential for contaminant remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment with coated LDH clays decreases the toxicity of copper-containing solutions to Daphnia magna. Four LDH clays with different coatings used to alter hydrophobicity were as follows: used: Na(+) montmorillonite, Zn-Al LDH-nitrate, Zn-Al LDH-stearate, and Zn-Al LDH-carbonate. It was determined that coated LDH clays decreased copper toxicity by decreasing bioavailability and that smaller aggregate sizes decreased bioavailability the most. 96 h LC50 values increased by as much as 4.2 times with the treatment of the solutions with 100 mg/L LDH clay. Copper analysis of the clay and solutions indicated that the clays work by decreasing copper bioavailability by way of a binding mechanism. Coated LDH clays hold promise as a small-scale remediation tool or as an innovative tool for toxicity identification and evaluation characterization of metals. PMID:24442186

Blake, Deanne; Nar, Mangesh; D'Souza, Nandika Anne; Glenn, J Brad; Klaine, Stephen J; Roberts, Aaron P

2014-05-01

116

Overextension of Nonsetting Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontic Treatment: Literature Review and Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Premixed non-setting calcium hydroxide (CaOH2 paste in pressure syringe system is commonly used in root canal therapy. The aim of this paper is to present a case involving an iatrogenic extrusion of the medicament during endodontic treatment and a literature review of similar reports. The present case demonstrates severe tissue necrosis and other deleterious effects following the extrusion of CaOH2 paste beyond root apex. A 21-year old female was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first premolar. After completion of the canal preparation, root canals were filled by premixed CaOH2 paste. In the second appointment, a gingival detachment and an irregular zone of necrosis adjacent to the tooth apex was observed. To treat this complication, a mucoperiosteal flap was raised and the extruded material and necrotic tissues were currettaged and the area sutured. The patient was prescribed antibiotics and followed up at 2 weeks, 6 months and 2 years. Two week follow up showed good soft tissue healing. Two years postoperatively, complete radiographic and clinical healing was observed. We can conclude that the application of CaOH2 should be carried out with care and preferably applied free hand or with a lentulo spiral rather than in a pressure syringe.

Arash Shahravan

2012-05-01

117

The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated into a 35% improvement in growth rate (40, 36 g/day versus 26, 29 g/day). Calcium hydroxide alone did not improve the feeding value of Albizia. These data highlight the danger of assuming an assayable reduction in tannin, such as that observed in the calcium hydroxide treatment, will translate into an improvement in nutritive value and subsequent animal performance. Since the performance of the goats improved maximally when PEG was added to the calcium hydroxide-treated Albizia it was clear that the tannins were still as active as in the untreated Albizia. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide does not deactivate the tannins in Albizia. (author)

Alam, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)]. E-mail: mralam@royalten.net.bd; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh); McNeill, D.M. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)

2005-08-19

118

The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated into a 35% improvement in growth rate (40, 36 g/day versus 26, 29 g/day). Calcium hydroxide alone did not improve the feeding value of Albizia. These data highlight the danger of assuming an assayable reduction in tannin, such as that observed in the calcium hydroxide treatment, will translate into an improvement in nutritive value and subsequent animal performance. Since the performance of the goats improved maximally when PEG was added to the calcium hydroxide-treated Albizia it was clear that the tannins were still as active as in the untreated Albizia. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide does not deactivate the tannins in Albizia. (author)

119

Accidental sodium hypochlorite-induced skin injury during endodontic treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of accidental skin injury caused by leakage of sodium hypochlorite solution from the rubber dam during root canal preparation is reported. After placement of a rubber dam and initiation of root canal treatment, the patient complained of a burning sensation with sodium hypochlorite irrigation. The complaints were ignored by the practitioner, and a skin rash developed on and around the patient's chin, followed by scab formation. The patient required medical treatment with topical Hamamelis virginiana extract for 2 weeks, with full recovery. PMID:15055439

Serper, Ahmet; Ozbek, Murat; Calt, Semra

2004-03-01

120

Investigation into interaction of copper, magnesium, zinc, cadmium and nickel acetates with sodium hydroxide in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The composition of poorly soluble reaction products in five systems MA2-NaOH-H2O (A--CH3COO-; M2+-Cu2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Ni2+) was determined by measuring the residual concentrations of M2+ and OH- and the refraction index of the mother liquor (isomolal series). It was established that in systems with CuA2, ZnA2, and NiA2 the formation of hydroxides is preceded by precipitation of hydroxoacetates Cu2(OH3)A, Zn3(OH)5A, and Ni5(OH)9A, MgA2 and CdA2 react with NaOH, forming only Mg(OH)2 or Cd(OH)2

 
 
 
 
121

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

2003-06-01

122

Nickel–cobalt alloy nanosheets obtained from reductive hydrothermal-treatment of nickel–cobalt hydroxide carbonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? An anionic layered material, nickel–cobalt hydroxide carbonate was synthesized. ? Reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor produced an alloy. ? The alloy is a bimetallic nanostructured nickel–cobalt and a soft magnet material. -- Abstract: Nickel–cobalt hydroxide carbonate, a layered material was synthesized by the co-precipitation method using urea as precipitant agent. This anionic layered material with hexagonal structure is constructed from nickel and cobalt ions within the layers and carbonate anions between the layers. Nickel–cobalt alloy with pure cubic phase was obtained by a reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the initial layered material and its metallic alloy product. That is, the nickel–cobalt alloy has really produced via a wet chemical route for the first time. Magnetic measurement revealed that the alloy sample is a soft magnet material.

123

FINAL REPORT. ION RECOGNITION APPROACH TO VOLUME REDUCTION OF ALKALINE TANK WASTE BY SEPARATION AND RECYCLE OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM NITRATE  

Science.gov (United States)

This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk redu...

124

Immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis and abscess treated by regenerative endodontic treatment using calcium hydroxide and MTA: a report of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regenerative endodontic techniques have been introduced to overcome the limits of the traditional apexification approach and allow continued root development after treatment of infected immature permanent teeth. The purpose of this report was to describe two cases with severe apical periodontitis and abscess that were successfully treated by regenerative endodontic treatment using calcium hydroxide. The report involves treatment of two patients who developed apical periodontitis and abscesses on their immature premolars affected by dens evaginatus. Regenerative endodontic treatment was performed using calcium hydroxide. The treatment procedures have been shown to result in increased thickening of root walls and encourage continued root development. Different outcomes were observed when calcium hydroxide was placed past and within the coronal half of the canal. Calcium hydroxide can be used as an effective medicament in regenerative endodontic technique, and successful regeneration can be expected even in severe cases of apical periodontitis or abscess. PMID:24960380

Park, Mirae; Ahn, Byung Duk

2014-01-01

125

Aluminum Hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

126

Sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of calcific uremic arteriolopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA; also known as calciphylaxis) is a life-threatening condition observed mostly in patients on dialysis. The key histopathologic features of CUA include media calcification of small arteries, associated with endovascular fibrosis and thrombosis. Several risk factors for CUA are related to disturbances in bone and mineral metabolism; current treatments largely aim to normalize these disturbances by lowering serum calcium phosphate concentration and thereby preventing, or even reversing, calcium phosphate oversaturation, precipitation and, finally, calcification. Administration of sodium thiosulfate, which sequesters calcium ions to form highly soluble calcium thiosulfate complexes, can prevent calcium phosphate precipitation. As randomized controlled studies on sodium thiosulfate are lacking, this Perspectives article focuses on case reports and case series; in these reports the compound seemed to be effective and was not associated with serious short-term adverse events. Large clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of sodium thiosulfate are clearly warranted. PMID:19701230

Schlieper, Georg; Brandenburg, Vincent; Ketteler, Markus; Floege, Jürgen

2009-09-01

127

The role of sodium thiosulphate in the treatment of calciphylaxis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english Calciphylaxis is a rare but important cause of severe morbidity, which predominantly affects patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. It is associated with mortality in excess of 50% at one year, and this has changed little over the last 20 years despite advances in our understanding of its un [...] derlying pathophysiology, and evolving treatment strategies. Sodium thiosulphate has played a prominent role in the treatment of calciphylaxis since its first use in 2004, with reports of success both in improving the severe pain associated with the condition and in the healing of calciphylaxis lesions. The literature documenting the use of sodium thiosulphate in the treatment of calciphylaxis is reviewed here, along with a detailed summary of case reports and case series. While there is reason to be optimistic with regard to the efficacy of sodium thiosulphate within a multifaceted and multidisciplinary approach to treatment, there is clearly much yet to be learned

James R, Smith; Mark D, Findlay; Colin C, Geddes; Jonathan G, Fox.

128

Utilization of Soda Ash in Pulping and Bleaching Operation as a Substitution or Partial Replacement of Sodium Hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soda ash or sodium carbonate is by nature a weak baseand hence lower in alkalinity. The agro based pulp and paper millwith unconventional chemical recovery process end up withproduction of soda ash or sodium carbonate. The soda ash thusproduced is of low quality and sold to soap manufacturing units.The pulping and bleaching process requires at some stage lowalkalinity where pH is normally in the range of 9.5-11. The lowalkalinity may help in utilization of soda ash in pulping andbleaching process itself.In the present study the pulping and bleaching processes whereutilization of soda ash can be explored is described for wood(eucalyptus and agrobased (wheat straw raw materials.. Thestudies on wheat straw incorporated chemical and semi chemicalpulping of wheat straw, production of newsprint grade pulp fromeucalyptus & wheat straw and exploration of utilization of sodaash in other bleaching processes. It has been observed that causticsoda can be replaced with soda ash at different proportiondepending upon the process and type of pulp produced.

Priti Shivhare.Lal

2013-07-01

129

Carbon-13 isotope fractionation and carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of perdeuterated sodium butyrate with manganate in 3M sodium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon -13 kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of single methylene 13C-2H bond of perdeuterated sodium butyrate, CD3(CD2)COONa, has been determined by measuring the isotope composition of cumulative carbon dioxide derived from carbonates and oxalates obtained at partial oxidation's od perdeuterated butyrate with manganate, MnO42-, in 3M NaOH. The experimental 13C KI E have been reproduced by applying two quantum mechanical correlations to the absolute rates of chemical reaction; the first correction caused by the difference of zero point energy of (13C-2H/12C-2H) isotopic bonds and the quantum mechanical correlation for tunneling of 12C and 13C. The reaction energy barrier was approximated by the Bell inverted parabola. The good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was achieved already in the first approximation by taking the half width of the energy barrier equal 5x10-11 m. (author)

130

Computational NMR, IR/RAMAN calculations in sodium pravastatin: Investigation of the Self-Assembled Nanostructure of Pravastatin-LDH (Layered Double Hydroxides) Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Layered double hydroxides (LDH) can be used as nanocontainers for immobilization of Pravastatin, in order to obtain suitable drug carriers. The material's structure and spectroscopic properties were analyzed by NMR, IR/RAMAN and supported by theoretical calculations. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed using the Gaussian03 package [1]. The geometry optimizations were performed considering the single crystal X-ray diffraction data of tert-octylamonium salt of Pravastatin [2]. Tetramethylsilane (TMS), obtained with the same basis set, was used as reference for calculating the chemical shift of 13C. A scaling factor was used to compare theoretical and experimental harmonic vibrational frequencies. Through the NMR and IR/RAMAN spectra, we were able to make precise assignments of the NMR and IR/RAMAN of Sodium Pravastatin. [4pt] [1] Frisch, M.J. et al. Gaussian 03, Revision A.1, Gaussian Inc., Pittsburgh, PA,(2003). [0pt] [2] Sato, S.; Furukawa, Y. J. Antibiot. 41, 1265-1267 (1988).

Petersen, Philippe; Cunha, Vanessa; Gonçalves, Marcos; Petrilli, Helena; Constantino, Vera

2013-03-01

131

One-step enrichment and chemiluminescence detection of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate in river water using Mg-Al-carbonate layered double hydroxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, Mg-Al CO3-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were used as adsorbent materials for sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in aqueous solutions, the enriched SDBS can be directly detected by IO4(-)-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) system. The commonly existing cations cannot be enriched by Mg-Al CO3-LDHs due to the structurally positively charged layers of LDHs, while other adsorbed anionic interferents had no effect on the IO4(-)-H2O2 CL reaction. The corresponding linear regression equation was established in the range of 0.1-10 ?M for SDBS. The detection limit at a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3 for SDBS was 0.08 ?M. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for nine repeated measurements of 0.5 ?M SDBS was 2.6%. This proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of SDBS in river water samples. To the best of our knowledge, we have first time coupled the high enrichment capacity of LDHs towards anions with CL detection for analytes. PMID:24468369

Guan, Weijiang; Zhou, Wenjuan; Han, Dongmei; Zhang, Mengchun; Lu, Chao; Lin, Jin-Ming

2014-03-01

132

Treatment of low-level radioactive liquid waste with uranium using sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes a decontamination method of acid solutions containing UO2Cl2. The precipitation of uranium is obtained with NaOH addition to the radwaste solution at ambient temperature. From the experimental data obtained it was observed that in the pH about 4,0 a greater quantify of uranium was precipitated and in pH above 4,0 the precitate was partially solubilized. Nowadays, we study the influence of pH and temperature on the precitation of uranium VI in radwaste solutions with NaOH as well as the compounds obtained in the various stages. This method showed a decontamination factor of about 94,7% and, as a whole, it is viable. (Author)

133

Successful treatment of calciphylaxis with intravenous sodium thiosulfate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calciphylaxis is a dreaded complication of renal failure characterized by nodular subcutaneous calcification and painful tissue necrosis often leading to ulceration, secondary infection, and high mortality rates. The case of a woman receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis who had a typical clinical presentation of calciphylaxis confirmed by x-ray and technetium scan findings is described. After nonresponse to conventional therapy, treatment with intravenous sodium thiosulfate 3 times weekly was begun, and she had rapid and dramatic relief of signs and symptoms and improvement of technetium scans. Prolonged treatment was well tolerated without serious side effects and accompanied by continued clinical improvement. PMID:15168392

Cicone, Jeffrey S; Petronis, John B; Embert, Carmen D; Spector, David A

2004-06-01

134

Nonsurgical treatment of periapical lesion associated with type III dens invaginatus using calcium hydroxide: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth, probably resulting from an infolding of the papilla during tooth development. It predisposes the tooth to develop caries and periapical pathosis. Root canal therapy may present many problems because of the complex anatomy of the teeth. The purpose of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of an Oehlers type III dens invaginatus that perforated into the apical area. Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with normal saline, was used as an intracanal medicament. This eradicated the pathogenic microorganisms in the invagination and preserved the vitality of the tooth, allowing gutta-percha obturation in the invagination.

Kalaskar R

2008-10-01

135

Rapid formation of nanocrystalline HfO2 powders from amorphous hafnium hydroxide under ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peculiarities of hafnium hydroxide hydrothermal decomposition were studied by in situ heat flux calorimetry for the first time. It was shown that this process occurs in one exothermal stage (?H = -17.95 kJ mol-1) at 180-250 deg. C resulting in complete crystallization of amorphous phase with formation of pure monoclinic HfO2. It was found that the rate of m-HfO2 formation can be significantly increased by combining hydrothermal treatment with simultaneous ultrasonic activation

136

Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

2013-05-21

137

Sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of non-uremic calciphylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calciphylaxis is a metastatic calcification-induced vasculopathy that results in the occlusion of small blood vessels. Although calciphylaxis is normally associated with end-stage renal disease, calciphylaxis from non-uremic origin occurs as well. While the number of reports continues to increase, a standard treatment for non-uremic calciphylaxis has yet to be established. Sodium thiosulfate (STS), which has been proven to be effective in the treatment of uremic calciphylaxis, shows promise; however, reports of its use in non-uremic cases are limited. We describe a case of non-uremic calciphylaxis in a patient with normal renal and parathyroid function who had complete resolution of disease after treatment with STS, and we review similar cases in the published work. Based on the successful outcomes detailed in this case series, STS appears to be an effective therapy for non-uremic calciphylaxis. PMID:23663061

Ning, Matthew S; Dahir, Kathryn M; Castellanos, Emily H; McGirt, Laura Y

2013-08-01

138

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

2004-07-01

139

Calcium hydroxide: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium hydroxide is a multipurpose agent, and there have been an increasing number of indications for its use. Some of its indications include direct and indirect pulp capping, apexogenesis, apexification, treatment of; root resorption, iatrogenic root perforations, root fractures, replanted teeth and interappointment intracanal dressing. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties and various indications for the use of calcium hydroxide. PMID:16245464

Farhad, Alireza; Mohammadi, Zahed

2005-10-01

140

[Sodium thiosulfate--new hope for the treatment of calciphylaxis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Calciphylaxis is a rare disease primarily affecting patients dependent on dialysis. It is characterised by small vessel media calcification leading to cutaneous ischemia and necrosis. The mortality rate is high with infection and sepsis being the most common causes of death. Calcium salts, vitamin D and high levels of serum calcium and phosphorus increase the risk of calciphylaxis. Current therapies including restoration of mineral homeostasis, wound care and pain control, are not entirely effective. Sodium thiosulfate, by dissolving calcium deposits, is a novel therapeutic choice for calciphylaxis. It has proved successful also in cases refractory to conventional treatment. PMID:21972587

Heiro, Maija; Mäkelä, Leeni; Koivuviita, Niina; Manner, Ilkka; Tertti, Risto; Hohenthal, Ulla; Metsärinne, Kaj

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Intracanal dressing paste composed by calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide for the treatment of immature and mature traumatized teeth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM : To evaluate clinical and radiographic aspects before and after endodontic treatment with an intracanal dressing paste composed of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide in traumatized teeth followed-up for 1 year. METHODS : Patients (n=105) treated at the Dental Trauma Service of [...] Piracicaba School of Dentistry, Brazil were enrolled in the study. Two groups of teeth were formed: immature (G1) (n=28) and completely developed teeth (G2) (n=174). All teeth were endodontically treated and received an intracanal dressing with a paste composed by calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel and zinc oxide at a 2:1:2 rate. Clinical and radiographic aspects were evaluated initially, monthly and after 1-year. RESULTS : Most of the immature teeth suffered extrusive luxation (39.3%), whereas intrusive luxation (40.8%) was more common in completely developed teeth. There was a significant reduction in pain on percussion and mobility (p=0.0001) for immature teeth. Mature teeth showed reduction of spontaneous pain, fistula, mobility and pain on percussion (p

Adriana de Jesus, Soares; Thiago Farias Rocha, Lima; Juliana Yuri, Nagata; Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida, Gomes; Alexandre Augusto, Zaia; Francisco José de, Souza-Filho.

2014-03-01

142

Surface treatment of magnesium hydroxide to improve its dispersion in organic phase by the ultrasonic technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Micron magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] was modified by means of ultrasonic method with stearic acid (SA) as modifier in water. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and element analysis showed all SA was bonded upon the surface of the Mg(OH)2 forming a coating layer and no free SA was detected after the modifying process. The thickness of coating SA on the Mg(OH)2 was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compared with the unmodified Mg(OH)2, the modified Mg(OH)2 had better dispersion property in xylene, slower sedimentation velocity of dilute suspension in xylene and lower viscosity of suspension in paraffin liquid. The results showed that the modified Mg(OH)2 could be dispersed much better than the unmodified Mg(OH)2 in organic phase

143

Sodium Iodide Symporter and the Radioiodine Treatment of Thyroid Carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the specific accumulation of iodide in thyroid was found in 1915, radioiodine has been widely applied to diagnose and treat thyroid cancer. Iodide uptake occurs across the membrane of the thyroid follicular cells and cancer cells through an active transporter process mediated by the sodium iodide sym porter (NIS). The NIS coding genes were cloned and identified from rat and human in 1996. Evaluation of the NIS gene and protein expression is critical in the management of thyroid cancer, and several approaches have been tried to increase NIS levels. Identification of the NIS gene has provided a means of expanding its role in the radionuclide gene therapy of non thyroidal cancers as well as thyroid cancer. In this article, we explain the relationship between NIS expression and the treatment of thyroid carcinoma with I-131, and we include a review of the results of our experimental and clinical trials.

Chung, June Key; Youn, Hye Won; Lee, Ho Young; Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joo Hyun [Molecular Imaging Research Center, KIRAMS, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

2010-04-15

144

Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

2004-05-01

145

Effects of Treatment of Sorghum Stover Residue With Ammonium Hydroxide on Cell Wall Composition and in vitro Digestibility  

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Full Text Available The study was undertaken to determine the effects of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH treatment of sorghum stover residue on composition and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD of two sorghum varieties, Dale (tall, sweet sorghum variety and Brown mid rib (BMR (Short, grain sorghum variety. The residue was treated with; water only (T00, 50 g NH4OH kg-1 residue dry matter (DM (T50, 100 g NH4OH kg-1 DM (T100, and untreated control (neither water nor NH4OH (TUN and allowed to react for one week before chemical analysis was performed. The fiber content (ADF and NDF were not affected by the levels of alkali treatment but the crude protein (CP and Soluble protein contents were both increased by alkali treatment. There was an increase (P < 0.05 in dry matter digestibility in vitro (IVDMD by NH4OH treatment from 529 g kg-1 to 651 g kg-1 in T50 and T100. The improvement in IVDMD may indicate that NH4OH helps disrupt the lignin–carbohydrate complexes. The development of more economical and safe procedures which improve digestibility of the structural cell wall components would be very beneficial for improving the use of crop residue as feedstock for livestock and bioethanol production.

Adnan B. Yousuf

2014-08-01

146

Sodium thiosulfate: new hope for the treatment of calciphylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calciphylaxis/calcific uremic arteriolopathy is rare but an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic and end-stage kidney disease with increasing prevalence. Intravenous sodium thiosulfate (STS) has rapidly emerged from a seldom used therapy for the treatment of calciphylaxis/calcific uremic arteriolopathy to a treatment that is being increasingly utilized globally due to multiple positive outcomes shared in the form of case reports and reviews during the past 6 years. Its role as a rather potent antioxidant has uniquely been associated with a prompt decrease in pain and its slower chelating properties are associated with regression of subcutaneous calcifications. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate nuclear transcription factor, NF(kappa)B and downstream cytokines resulting in inflammation, which may result in dysregulated hepatic protein synthesis. Indeed, inflammation activates acute-phase reactant synthesis, while concurrently inhibiting synthesis of fetuin-A (an inhibitor of extraosseous calcification) and the antioxidant albumin. Additionally, ROS may decrease locally synthesized matrix GLA proteins and this combination may contribute to increased vascular and subcutaneous calcification. STS used alone or in combination with other novel emerging therapies may result in the improved clinical outcomes in this challenging clinical condition. PMID:20636917

Hayden, Melvin R; Goldsmith, David J A

2010-01-01

147

Fine ferromagnetic systems on the base of superparamagnetic nickel particles and Li-Al double hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possibility of synthesis of Li-Al stratified binary hydroxides based ferromagnetic carriers and nanodispersed ferromagnetic particles of nickel is investigated. Binary hydroxide [LiAl2(OH)6]2[Niedta]·4H2O (Li-Al-Niedta) is used for the synthesis. Outline of ferromagnetic system formation is proposed. Thermal decomposition of Li-Al-Niedta leads to the formation of nanocomposite with the same specific surface. Treatment of the prepared composites by aqueous solution of lithium nitrate transforms X-ray amorphous lithium aluminates in nitrate form of binary aluminium-lithium-hydroxide through intermediate compound of hydroxide variety. Following treatment of nitrate form by sodium phthalate aqueous solution makes possible substitution of nitrate-ions and preparation of carrier containing Li-Al-phthalate and ferromagnetic particles of nickel

148

Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

r routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

149

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

150

Disassembly of SWAT-3 and treatment of the sodium-water reaction products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sodium-Water reaction test facility, SWAT-3, was disassembled at the O-arai Engineering Center of JNC. It was the first experience in Japan to disassemble the large-scale sodium facilities containing sodium-water reaction products. This report describes some special techniques (extracting the sodium from the damp tank, treatment of the sodium-water reaction products, disassembly of the damp tank) obtained through the disassembly work of the SWAT-3 dump tank, which contained a large amount of sodium-water reaction products deposits. Information is also presented on the corrosion of the structural material of the dump tank, whose inner surface had come into contact with the sodium-water reaction products over a long period. (author)

151

Intraperitoneal sodium thiosulfate for the treatment of calciphylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (or calciphylaxis) is a severe complication of renal failure characterized by subcutaneous calcification of the small arteries and tissue necrosis. We describe the case of a woman receiving continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis with calciphylaxis involving upper and lower extremities. After intolerance of intravenous sodium thiosulfate and limited intravenous access options, we administered sodium thiosulfate intraperitoneally and quantitated the amount of extra calcium removed. Intraperitoneal administration of sodium thiosulfate was well tolerated and led to removal of extra calcium with peritoneal dialysis. PMID:16771254

Mataic, Danijela; Bastani, Bahar

2006-01-01

152

Successful treatment by exchange transfusion of a young infant with sodium nitroprusside poisoning  

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Although sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is often used in pediatric intensive care units, cyanide toxicity can occur after SNP treatment. To treat SNP-induced cyanide poisoning, antidotes such as amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, and hydroxycobalamin should be administered immediately after diagnosis. Here, we report the first case of a very young infant whose SNP-induced cyanide poisoning was successfully treated by exchange transfusion. The success of this alternative method may ...

Baek, Jong Geun; Jeong, Hoar Lim; Park, Ji Sook; Seo, Ji Hyun; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae Young; Park, Chan Hoo; Woo, Hyang Ok; Youn, Hee Shang; Yeom, Jung Sook

2010-01-01

153

An open, nonrandomized, comparative study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum  

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Full Text Available Background: There are numerous therapeutic modalities available for treatment of molluscum contagiosum. However, the ablative modalities are painful and not suitable for children. Aim: We aimed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of 2 of the painless modalities, viz., 5% imiquimod cream and 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH solution, in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Methods: Out of a total of 40 patients of molluscum contagiosum in the study, 18 patients in the imiquimod group and 19 patients in the KOH group completed the study. The given medication was applied by the patient or a parent to mollusca at night, 3 days per week. Imiquimod was continued till clinical cure; and 10% KOH, till lesions showed signs of inflammation. Assessments of response and side effects were performed at the end of week 4, week 8, and week 12. Significance was tested by Student?s t test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: The mean lesion count decreased from 22.39 to 10.75 with imiquimod and from 20.79 to 4.31 with KOH at the end of 12 weeks. We found complete clearance of lesions in 8 (44% patients with imiquimod and in 8 (42.1% patients with 10% KOH. Minor side effects were seen in 15 (78.9% patients on KOH and 10 (55.5% patients on imiquimod. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that both 5% imiquimod cream and 10% KOH solution are equally effective in molluscum contagiosum though KOH has a faster onset of action. However, KOH solution is associated with a higher incidence of side effects.

Metkar Amol

2008-01-01

154

Water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit of unit 3 at the rovno nuclear power station involving correction treatment of working medium with lithium hydroxide and ethanolamine  

Science.gov (United States)

The all-volatile water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit involving correction treatment of the steam generator's boiler water with lithium hydroxide and the ethanolamine water chemistry are analyzed from the viewpoint of their effect on the erosion-corrosion wear of equipment used in the secondary coolant system and damageability of heat-transfer tubes used in PGV-1000M steam generators.

Kozlov, V. Ya.; Vlasenko, N. I.; Kozlova, T. Yu.

2011-03-01

155

Efficacy and tolerance of the topical application of potassium hydroxide (10% and 15% in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum: Randomized clinical trial: Research protocol  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Molluscum contagiosum is a non-severe pediatric viral infection. Because it is highly contagious and current treatments have negative aesthetic and psychological effects, we want to test an alternative treatment in the primary care setting, consisting of two different concentrations of potassium hydroxide solution. Methods/design The study design is a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, using three types of topical treatment. The treatment consist of daily applications of potassium hydroxide (KOH in aqueous solution at 10% and 15% concentration, and a placebo administered in the control group. Four follow-up visits (at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days are planned to evaluate treatment effectiveness and patient tolerance. The main outcome measure of the trial will be the healing rate, defined as lesion disappearance in the affected zones after the topic application of the experimental treatment. Secondary measures will be the principal characteristics and evolution of the affected zone (surface area, number of lesions, size and density of lesions, treatment tolerance (hyperpigmentation, itching, burning, pain, recurrence rate and the natural evolution of lesions in the control group. Discussion KOH can potentially be an effective and safe treatment for MC in primary care, and can also reduce referrals to dermatologists and hospital pediatric departments. In addition, KOH may be a valid and less expensive alternative to current invasive treatments (surgical excision. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348386

Galindo Gisela

2011-10-01

156

Complex formation of beryllium(II) with salicylate and hydroxide ions in 1 mol dm-3 sodium perchlorate aqueous solution at 250C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The complex formation of Be2+ with salicylate (L2-) and hydroxide ions was investigated at 25 0C in 1 mol dm-3 NaClO4 by potentiometry using a glass electrode. E.m.f. measurements were performed. The e.m.f. data were explained with the three major species [Be(HL)L]-, [BeL], and [BeL2]2- and at least one or even all of the four minor species [Be(HL)]+, [Be(HL)2], [Be(OH)L]-, and [Be3(OH)3L3]3-. The hydrolytic reactions of Be11 in 1 mol dm-3 NaClO4, data on which were used for the analysis of the above beryllium(ii)-salicylate-hydroxide system, were also studied by separate potentiometric titrations. It was found that [Be2(OH)]3+, [Be3(OH)3]3+, and [Be6(OH)8]4+ occur in 1 mol dm-3 NaClO4 aqueous solution. (author)

157

32P-sodium phosphate treatment of metastatic malignant disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-four patients with cancer of the breast and 12 with cancer of the prostate were treated with testosterone and 32P-sodium phosphate for relief of pain from bony metastases. Thirty were treated with chemotherapy as well, and 34 were treated with external radiation to single ports for localized pain. Of the 46 patients treated, good results were achieved in 34, fair results in six, and no improvement in six. Subsequent marrow depression necessitated transfusion in 10 patients; no other side effect was observed

158

Electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For 20 years Argonne National Laboratory has been developing electrometallurgical technology for application to spent nuclear fuel. Progress has been rapid during the past 5 years as 1,6 tonnes spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II was treated and preparations were made for processing the remaining 25 tonnes of sodium-bonded fuel from the shutdown reactor. Two high level waste forms are being qualified for geologic disposal. Extension of the technology to oxide fuels or to actinide recycling has been on hold because of US policy on reprocessing. (author)

159

Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug products containing iron oxide and hydroxide nanoparticles (INPs) are important for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Pharmaceuticals prepared by the complexation of different kinds of INPs and carbohydrates have different physicochemical and biopharmaceutic characteristics. The increasing number of parenteral non-biological complex drugs (NBCD) containing iron requires physicochemical methods for characterization and enabling of cross comparisons. In this context the structure and the level of crystallinity of the iron phases may be connected to the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates, which etiologically determine the therapeutic and toxic effects. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and electron diffraction (ED) methods were used in order to investigate the nine different parenteral iron formulations Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)), sodium ferric gluconate sucrose (Ferrlecit(®)), iron sucrose (Venofer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (Infed(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Ironate(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Dexferrum(®)), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®)) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(®)). The iron phase in CosmoFer(®), Ferinject(®), Monofer(®), Infed(®), Ironate(®) and Dexferrum(®) was identified as Akaganéite/Akaganéite-like (?-FeOOH), with low amounts of chloride. By combining results of both methods the iron oxide in Feraheme(®) was identified as Magnetite (Fe3O4) with spinel-like structure. Ferrlecit(®) and Venofer(®) were difficult to analyze due to the low degree of crystallinity, but the iron phase seems to fit Lepidocrocite/Lepidocrocite-like (?-FeOOH) or an amorphous kind of structure. The structural information on the type of iron oxide or hydroxide together with the particle size allows predicting the stability of the different complexes including their labile iron content. The combination of ED and XRPD methods is a very helpful approach especially for structural analysis of nanoscopic or low crystalline materials. PMID:23998966

Fütterer, S; Andrusenko, I; Kolb, U; Hofmeister, W; Langguth, P

2013-12-01

160

The Use of Sodium Sulfacetamide 10%-Sulfur 5% Emollient Foam in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris  

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Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder encountered in ambulatory clinical practice comprising 11.3 percent of office visits to dermatologists in 2005.1 By comparison, eczematous dermatoses, psoriasis, and skin cancer accounted for 6.2, 3.5, and 10 percent of office visits, respectively.1 A variety of topical therapeutic options are available for treatment of acne vulgaris, including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur.2,3 Sodium sulfaceta...

Del Rosso, James Q.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The early and late effects of digoxin treatment on the sodium transport, sodium content and Na+K+- ATPase or erythrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

1 Erythrocyte sodium content, sodium transport (ouabain sensitive sodium flux Eos, and ouabain sensitive efflux rate constant ERCos) sodium, potassium activated ouabain sensitive adenosine triphosphatase (Na+K+ATPase) and plasma digoxin were measured in patients during acute digitalisation and in patients who were on long-term digoxin treatment. 2 In the six patients who were studied during digitalisation, the ERCos and Na+K+ATPase activity decreased and erythrocyte sodium content increased during days 2-4 treatment, but there was no change in Eos. 3 In 39 patients on long term digoxin therapy (2-119 months) the erythrocyte sodium content was normal, but the erythrocyte Na+K+ATPase activity was higher than the control group. When the results from these 39 patients were divided according to the duration of treatment it was found that the erythrocyte sodium content was higher in patients treated for 2-4 months than in patients treated for longer periods and the erythrocyte Na+K+ATPase activity increased with duration of treatment. In eight patients (duration of treatment greater than 29 months) in whom ERCos and Eos were measured, ERCos and Eos were higher than the control group. 4 The results suggest that the effects of digoxin on erythrocytes which occur during acute digoxin treatment do not persist in the long term. 5 The possible explanation for the higher ERCos, Eos and Na+K+ATPase activity in patients treated with digoxin for more than 2 months is discussed. PMID:6268133

Cumberbatch, M; Zareian, K; Davidson, C; Morgan, D B; Swaminathan, R

1981-06-01

162

Experimental treatment with sodium stibogluconate of hamsters infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available The present paper reports the experimental treatment of hamsters infected with Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis with sodium stibogluconate (20mg/kg/day x 20 days. Only with L. chagasi did the treatment result in the complete elimination of parasites from the spleen. However, no parasitological cure was achieved in hamsters infected with L. amazonensis.

Figueiredo Elizabeth M. de

1999-01-01

163

Experimental treatment with sodium stibogluconate of hamsters infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

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The present paper reports the experimental treatment of hamsters infected with Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis with sodium stibogluconate (20mg/kg/day x 20 days). Only with L. chagasi did the treatment result in the complete elimination of parasites from the spleen. However, no parasitological cure was achieved in hamsters infected with L. amazonensis.

Figueiredo Elizabeth M. de; Silva Jaime Costa e; Brazil Reginaldo P.

1999-01-01

164

Constant pH precipitation of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant: I. Effect of precipitation conditions. II. Effect of hydrothermal treatment  

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Aluminum-containing adjuvants are the only adjuvant approved by Food and Drug Administration for use in human vaccines, due to their long history of safe use and low cost. However, aluminum-containing adjuvants have been reported to be difficult to manufacture reproducibly because of the difficulty of achieving batch uniformity, in terms of pH and salt concentration, during precipitation process. The goal of this study was to produce aluminum hydroxide adjuvant with prolonged stability and co...

Yau, Kwok Pan

2002-01-01

165

Contaminated sodium disposal Noah process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The final shutdown of the FBRs and the contaminated sodium loop dismantling bring a large problem which is the radioactivated sodium becoming. The corresponding quantity can reach several thousands of tonnes for the commercial units. The characteristics of the sodium to be disposed can be very different depending on its origin. We can distinguish two main sources: - the primary and secondary circuits in case of fast breeder reactor final shutdown or some test loops. The quantities can be very large (several hundreds or thousands of tonnes) but the sodium is chemically clean, i.e. with a low concentration of oxides and particles. - some tests facilities or dismantling operations which supply smaller quantities of sodium but it is usually chemically dirty with a high concentration of oxides and particles. NOAH process has been developed by CEA/DRN to dispose sodium coming from the first origin. To be able to dispose large quantities of sodium, continuous operating has been chosen and, to be able to treat easily the resulting product, they have selected the aqueous caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) which can be sent in all contaminated effluent treatment units. The safety, the functional simplicity and the compactness have been also integrated in the technical choices. (authors). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 1 ref

166

Comparison of Decontamination Efficacy between the Rapid Hygrothermal Pasteurization and Sodium Hypochlorite Treatments  

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We developed a novel rapid hygrothermal pasteurization (RHP) method using saturated water vapor with a dew point of 100?. The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of RHP treatment versus conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatments on inactivation of natural mesophilic bacteria and quality attributes on fruits and vegetables. The RHP treatment was performed within a second by free-falling samples (cabbage, cucumber, carrot, bell pepper, pineapple and melon) through cylindrical ...

Mitsuya Shimoda; Noriyuki Igura; Dusida Tirawat; Seiji Noma; Hiromizu Kunimoto

2013-01-01

167

Electrodialysis treatment of lithium chloride solutions generated in the intercalation method of highly dispersed aluminium hydroxide production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efficiency of the electrodialysis method for treating lithium chloride solutions formed when intercalation method is employed for preparation of highly dispersed aluminium hydroxide was studied. The optimal levels of the dialysate and concentrate content during desalination of lithium chloride washing solutions were determined experimentally. For preparation of highly desalinated (up to distillate level) dialysate and highly concentrated LiCl solution (approximately 200 g · l-1) for their repeated use a two-stage flowsheet using electrodialysis equipment of specialized design and highly intensive conditions of electrodialysis was suggested

168

Hourly oral sodium chloride for the rapid and predictable treatment of hyponatremia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertonic NaCl is first-line therapy for acute, severe and symptomatic hyponatremia; however, its use is often restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A 35-year-old female inpatient with an optic chiasm glioma and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus developed acute hyponatremia (sodium 122 mEq/l) perhaps coinciding with haloperidol treatment. The sum of her urinary sodium and potassium concentrations was markedly hypertonic vis-à-vis plasma; it was inferred that serum sodium concentration would continue to fall even in the complete absence of fluid intake. Intravenous (i.v.) 3% NaCl was recommended; however, a city-wide public health emergency precluded her transfer to the ICU. She was treated with hourly oral NaCl tablets in a dose calculated to deliver the equivalent of 0.5 ml/kg/h of 3% NaCl with an objective of increasing the serum sodium concentration by 6 mEq/l. She experienced a graded and predictable increase in serum sodium concentration. A slight overshoot to 129 mEq/l was rapidly corrected with 0.25 l of D5W, and she stabilized at 127 mEq/l. We conclude that hourly oral NaCl, in conjunction with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration, may provide an attractive alternative to i.v. 3% NaCl for selected patients with severe hyponatremia. PMID:23816479

Kerns, Eric; Patel, Shweta; Cohen, David M

2014-12-01

169

Treatment with 89SrCl and Sodium Ibandronate for pain relief of multiple bone metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the palliative effect on pain relief in patients with multiple bone metastases treated with 89SrCl2 together with Sodium Ibandronate,Sodium Ibandronate alone and 89SrCl2 alone. Methods: Eighty-four patients with bone pain secondary to bone metastases were divided into three groups. Thirty patients were treated with combined 89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate, 26 with 89SrCl2 alone and 28 with Sodium Ibandronate alone. The ?2 test was used in data analysis. Results: The overall palliative pain relief rate in the combined treatment group was 96.6 % (29/30). For the groups using Sodium Ibandronate or 89SrCl2 only, the palliative rates were 71.4% (20/28) and 73.1% (19/26), respectively. There are statistically significant differences between the combined treatment group and the other 2 groups with single treatment modalities in the overall palliative pain relief rate (?2=7.497), in terms of improvement in (1) whole body Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score (80.0% (24/30) vs 50.0% (14/28)/53.8% (14/26), ?2 =35.476) and (2) focal palliative rate (47.6% (50/105) vs 11.2% (11/98)/22.2% (20/90), ?2 =6. 564, all P89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate is more effective than single treatment modalities to relieve bone pain secondary to multiple bone metastases. (authors)

170

Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DOE is responsible for the safe and efficient management of its sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel. This fuel contains metallic sodium, a highly reactive material; metallic uranium, which is also reactive; and in some cases, highly enriched uranium. The presence of reactive materials could complicate the process of qualifying and licensing DOE's sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel inventory for disposal in a geologic repository. Currently, more than 98 percent of this inventory is located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), near Idaho Falls, Idaho. In addition, in a 1995 agreement with the State of Idaho, DOE committed to remove all spent nuclear fuel from Idaho by 2035. This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with the treatment and management of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel in one or more facilities located at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) at INEEL and either the F-Canyon or Building 105-L at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE has identified and assessed six proposed action alternatives in this EIS. These are: (1) electrometallurgical treatment of all fuel at ANL-W, (2) direct disposal of blanket fuel in high-integrity cans with the sodium removed at ANL-W, (3) plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) processing of blanket fuel at SRS, (4) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at ANL-W, (5) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at SRS, and (6) melt and dilute proc fuel at SRS, and (6) melt and dilute processing of all fuel at ANL-W. In addition, Alternatives 2 through 5 include the electrometallurgical treatment of driver fuel at ANL-W. Under the No Action Alternative, the EIS evaluates both the continued storage of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel until the development of a new treatment technology or direct disposal without treatment. Under all of the alternatives, the affected environment is primarily within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of spent nuclear fuel treatment facilities. Analyses indicate little difference in the environmental impacts among alternatives. DOE has identified electrometallurgical treatment as its Preferred Alternative for the treatment and management of all sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel, except for the Fermi-1 blanket fuel. The No Action Alternative is preferred for the Fermi-1 blanket spent nuclear fuel

171

Use of sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of calciphylaxis  

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Calciphylaxis is an infrequent but severe entity found in chronic dialysis patients. Its clinical pattern consists of tissue ischemia with itchy and painful subcutaneous nodules and plaques, most often located on the abdomen, buttocks, thighs and/or legs. These injuries evolve to extensive superficial necrosis of the skin overlying the panniculitis, with ulceration, overinfection and consequent sepsis. Current treatment modalities used to counteract this pathology are not entirely effective. ...

Musso Carlos; Enz Paula; Vidal Flavia; Gelman Rodolfo; Lizarraga Aldana; Giuseppe Luis; Kowalczuk Alicia; Garfi Leonardo; Galimberti Ricardo; Algranati Luis

2009-01-01

172

Sodium thiosulfate for the treatment of calcinosis secondary to juvenile dermatomyositis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the successful use of sodium thiosulfate in a patient with juvenile dermatomyositis complicated by ulcerative skin disease and progressive calcinosis. This therapy may have a role in improving calcinosis, even if more studies are necessary to determine the safety and efficacy of this treatment in juvenile dermatomyositis-related calcinosis. PMID:24238152

Pagnini, L; Simonini, G; Giani, T; Marrani, E; Moretti, D; Vannucci, G; Cantarini, L; Cimaz, R

2014-01-01

173

Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: a literature review - Part I. In vitro studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of endodontic treatment is the prevention and control of pulpal and periradicular infections. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been widely used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament to eliminate the remaining microorganisms after chemomechanical preparation. The purpose of this article is to review the antimicrobial properties of Ca(OH)2 as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment. The first part of this review details the characteristics of Ca(OH)2 and summarizes the results of in vitro studies related to its antimicrobial effect. The antimicrobial effect of Ca(OH)2 results from the release of hydroxyl ions when it comes into contact with aqueous fluids. Ca(OH)2 has a wide range of antimicrobial effects against common endodontic pathogens, but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. The addition of vehicles or other agents might contribute to the antimicrobial effect of Ca(OH)2. PMID:25383341

Kim, Dohyun; Kim, Euiseong

2014-11-01

174

Radioisotopic synovectomy using ferric hydroxide macroaggregated for chronic arthritis treatment; Sinovectomia radioisotopica atraves do macroagregado de hidroxido ferrico para tratamento da artrite cronica  

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Synovectomy radioisotopic is an arthritis treatment used in specific clinical conditions whose main goal is to sterilized the synovia. This treatment has specific and precise indications and it is considered to have an adequate response. The present work presents a modeling of an articulation (joint) based on its real geometric anatomy and chemical constitution. The internal dosimetry is evaluated by the Monte Carlo Code. The majority of the radionuclides were considered in the simulations. The syntheses of the ferric hydroxide macroaggregates with dysprosium and samarium have been prepared (Dy{sup 165}-MHF and Sm{sup 153}-MHF). Obtaining the cintilographic images of rabbits in which Dy{sup 165}-MHF is injected is in progress. Biodistribution studies in addition with the internal dosimetry will certify the dose in the membrane of the synovia. (author)

Lima, Carla Flavia; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares] E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

2002-07-01

175

Sodium stibogluconate as first-line treatment for post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis  

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Full Text Available An 18 year-old-girl, a resident of Buxar District of Bihar State, India, presented with hypopigmented rash on face of six months duration. Superficial sensations were intact. There was history of being treated for prolonged fever two years ago, for about three weeks. Based on history, clinical and microscopic examination, she was diagnosed to have post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Treatment with parenteral sodium stibogluconate was initiated, to which she responded satisfactorily. This case highlights the classical lesions of Indian type of PKDL and reiterates the fact that sodium stibogluconate should still be considered first line therapy as it is a cheap, yet efficacious drug.

K.S. Dhillon

2014-04-01

176

Rumen and Post Abomasal Disappearance of Amino Acids and Some Nutrients of Barley Grain Treated with Sodium Hydroxide, Formaldehyde or Urea in Lactating Cows  

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Full Text Available Four rumen and duodenum cannulated, Holstein lactating cows were used in a change-over design to determine the effects of NaOH, Formaldehyde or Urea treated barley on disappearance of Dry Matter (DM, Crude Protein (CP, Amino Acids (AA, NDF, ADF, hemicelluloses and starch in rumen, Post Abomasal Tract (PAT and total tract by mobile nylon bag technique. Experimental treatments were coarse milled barley, barley treated with 3.5% NaOH, barley treated with 0.4% formaldehyde and barley treated with 3.5% urea that all chemical treated barley milled coarse before feeding. NaOH Treatment reduced concentrations of Lysine and Cystine in the barley grain. All chemical treatments decreased rumen disappearances of barley CP but only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments also decrease total AA and some of the AA disappearances in the rumen. All chemical treatments increased DM, OM, CP, starch, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose disappearance of barley in the PAT. But only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments increased total AA and most of AA disappearances in the PAT. Effect of chemical treatments on increase of disappearance of starch, Met and Gly in the total tract was significant (p<0.05. Rumen disappearance of TAA was lower than CP but PAT disappearance of TAA was more than CP and finally total tract disappearance of TAA was more than CP. Individual AA in barley disappeared at different rates in the rumen and PAT. Consequently, the proportion of digesta CP and AA entering the intestine must be considered.

M. Dehghan-Banadaky

2007-01-01

177

Rumen and post abomasal disappearance of amino acids and some nutrients of barley grain treated with sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde or urea in lactating cows.  

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Four rumen and duodenum cannulated, Holstein lactating cows were used in a change-over design to determine the effects of NaOH, Formaldehyde or Urea treated barley on disappearance of Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Amino Acids (AA), NDF, ADF, hemicelluloses and starch in rumen, Post Abomasal Tract (PAT) and total tract by mobile nylon bag technique. Experimental treatments were coarse milled barley, barley treated with 3.5% NaOH, barley treated with 0.4% formaldehyde and barley treated with 3.5% urea that all chemical treated barley milled coarse before feeding. NaOH Treatment reduced concentrations of Lysine and Cystine in the barley grain. All chemical treatments decreased rumen disappearances of barley CP but only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments also decrease total AA and some of the AA disappearances in the rumen. All chemical treatments increased DM, OM, CP, starch, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose disappearance of barley in the PAT. But only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments increased total AA and most of AA disappearances in the PAT. Effect of chemical treatments on increase of disappearance of starch, Met and Gly in the total tract was significant (p < 0.05). Rumen disappearance of TAA was lower than CP but PAT disappearance of TAA was more than CP and finally total tract disappearance of TAA was more than CP. Individual AA in barley disappeared at different rates in the rumen and PAT. Consequently, the proportion of digesta CP and AA entering the intestine must be considered. PMID:19069969

Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Nikkhah, A; Amanlo, H; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Mansori, H

2007-05-01

178

Formation of transparent aluminum hydroxide film with mesoscopic surface roughness by hydrothermal treatment of incompletely-nitrided sputtered aluminum film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incompletely-nitrided Al films (Al-N film) are deposited on the glass substrate by rf sputtering with a metallic Al target and using Ar and N2 gas mixture. With increasing film thickness up to 300nm, the surface roughness increases. And the roughness is easily controlled. The size and the number density of surface protuberance are suitable to control diffusive optical properties in the visible and near infrared regions. The films become transparent with retained roughness by boiling in ultra pure water at 368K under atmospheric pressure. The films have been transformed from composite of Al and AlN to aluminum hydroxide (Boehmite). Total transmittance of the boiled specimens exceeded that of the glass substrate itself. These facts suggest that hydrothermally-treated Al-N films with the mesoscopic surface roughness have high potential to reduce the optical loss by reflection.

179

Evaluation of carbon dioxide laser irradiation associated with calcium hydroxide in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A preliminary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts have been made to treat dentinal hypersensitivity by sealing exposed dentinal tubules, and the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser has been shown to have a sealing effect on dentinal surfaces. The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphological ultra-structure and temperature change after CO(2) laser irradiation of dentin. Fourteen human third molars were selected and cleaned. An area was delimited, and the samples were randomly divided into seven groups: Group 1 (G1): control; G2, calcium hydroxide paste (CA)?+ CO(2) laser (L) (0.5 W/63,69 W/cm(2)); G3, CA + L (1 W/125,38 W/cm(2)); G4, CA + L (1.5 W/191,08 W/cm(2)); G5, L (0.5 W); G6, L (1 W); G7, L (1.5 W). All irradiation was performed in unfocused mode. The electron micrographs were analyzed by three observers. For temperature analysis, a thermocouple was used. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test showed statistical differences between the groups (P calcium hydroxide paste presented significantly higher mean scores. In the groups treated by CO(2) laser only, fusion, re-crystallization, cracks and carbonization were observed. A change of 1 ± 5°C was noted in the temperature. Under the limitation of an in vitro study, and with the protocols used, we concluded that CO(2) laser is safe to use for the establishment of partial fusion and re-solidification of the dentinal surface. PMID:20127133

Romano, Ana Cristina Cury Camargo; Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corrêa; da Silveira, Bruno Lopes; Baldochi, Sônia Lícia; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

2011-01-01

180

Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 C, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process

 
 
 
 
181

The influence of thermal treatment on the release behavior of diclofenac sodium from acrylic matrices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of thermal treating on the release rate of diclofenac sodium from Eudragit RS and Eudragit RL matrices. Eudragit RS and RL are nonswelling polymers that have a low glass transition (Tg) temperature. The matrices were thermally treated at different temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70 degrees C) for different periods of times (2, 5, and 24 h). The results showed that thermal treating at temperatures less than the Tg of the polymer has no effect on the release of the drug, whereas heat-treating at temperatures higher than the Tg decreases the release rate of diclofenac sodium from matrices. It was shown that the duration of heat treatment was also an important factor in controlling the release rate of diclofenac sodium from Eudragit matrices. The results showed that an increase in the duration of heat treatment from 2 h to 24 h resulted in a reduction in the release rate of the drug. Scanning electron microscopy of the cross section of the tablet before and after heat treating showed that the tablets were deformed and fused into a continuous and homogeneous structure after heat treating. Thermally treated tablets demonstrated fewer surface defects than did nonthermally treated tablets. These structural changes in the tablet compacts resulted in a matrix structure that decreased the release rate of the diclofenac sodium from Eudragit matrices. PMID:15926672

Azarmi, Shirzad; Farid, Djavad; Azodi-Deylami, Sasan; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Nokhodchi, Ali

2005-01-01

182

Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

Barnes, Charles Marshall

2003-09-01

183

Rumen and Post Abomasal Disappearance of Amino Acids and Some Nutrients of Barley Grain Treated with Sodium Hydroxide, Formaldehyde or Urea in Lactating Cows  

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Four rumen and duodenum cannulated, Holstein lactating cows were used in a change-over design to determine the effects of NaOH, Formaldehyde or Urea treated barley on disappearance of Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Amino Acids (AA), NDF, ADF, hemicelluloses and starch in rumen, Post Abomasal Tract (PAT) and total tract by mobile nylon bag technique. Experimental treatments were coarse milled barley, barley treated with 3.5% NaOH, barley treated with 0.4% formaldehyde and barley treated ...

Dehghan-banadaky, M.; Nikkhah, A.; Amanlo, H.; Danesh Mesgaran, M.; Mansori, H.

2007-01-01

184

Effects of Aging Quartz Sand and Hanford Site Sediment with Sodium Hydroxide on Radionuclide Sorption Coefficients and Sediment Physical and Hydrologic Properties: Final Report for Subtask 2a  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Column and batch experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the effect of varying concentrations of NaOH on the sorptive, physical, and hydraulic properties of two media, a quartz sand and a composite subsurface sediment from the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. The NaOH solutions were used as a simplified effluent from a low-activity glass waste form. These experiments were conducted over a limited (O-to 10-month) contact time, with respect to the 10,000-to 100,000-year scenarios described in the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste- Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA). Wheq these two solids were put in contact with the NaOH solutions, dissolution was evident by a substantial increase in dissolved Si concentrations in the leachates. Incremental increases in NaOH con- centrations, resulted in corresponding increases in Si concentrations. A number of physical and hydraulic properties also changed as the NaOH concentrations were changed. It was observed that quartz sand was less reactive than the composite sediment. Further, moisture- retention measurements were made on the quartz sand and composite sedimen$ which showed that the NaOH-treated solids retained more water than the non-NaOH-treated solids. Because the other chemical, physical, and hydraulic measurements did not change dramatically after the high-NaOH treatments, the greater moisture retention of the high-NaOH treatments was attributed to a "salt effect" and not to the formation of small particles during the dissolution (weathering). The distribution coefficients (IQ) for Cs and Sr were measured on the NaOH-treated sediments, with decreases from -3,000 to 1,000 and 1,300 to 300 mL/g noted, respectively, at the 0.01-to 1.O-M NaOH levels. There was no apparent trend for the Sr & values with contact time. The lack of such a trend sug- gests that dissolution of sediment particles is not controlling the drop in IQ rather, it is the competition of the added Na in the various treatment solutions. It is clear from these experiments that the background chemistry of the waste-glass Ieachate is likely to have a significant effect on the hydrology and radionuclide geochemistry in the near-field environment of the ILAW.' These experiments provided an important f~st approximation of several chemical and physical processes. Future research, together with the data presented in this repo~ will provide important guidance for the selection of near-field hydraulic and geochemical input data for the ILAW-PA.

DI Kaplan; JC Ritter; KE Parker

1998-12-04

185

Cerebral hemodynamics during treatment with sodium nitroprusside versus labetalol in malignant hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients with malignant hypertension, immediate blood pressure reduction is indicated to prevent further organ damage. Because cerebral autoregulatory capacity is impaired in these patients, a pharmacologically induced decline of blood pressure reduces cerebral blood flow with the danger of cerebral hypoperfusion. We compared the reduction in transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery blood velocity during blood pressure lowering with sodium nitroprusside with that of labetalol. Therefore, in 15 patients, fulfilling World Health Organization criteria for malignant hypertension, beat-to-beat mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance (Modelflow), mean middle cerebral artery blood velocity, and cerebrovascular resistance index (mean blood pressure:mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity ratio), were monitored during treatment with sodium nitroprusside (n=8) or labetalol (n=7). The reduction in mean arterial blood pressure with sodium nitroprusside (-28+/-3%; mean+/-SEM) and labetalol (-28+/-4%) was comparable. With labetalol, both systemic and cerebral vascular resistance decreased proportionally (-13+/-10% and -17+/-5%), whereas with sodium nitroprusside, the decline in systemic vascular resistance was larger than that in cerebral vascular resistance (-53+/-4% and -7+/-4%). The rate of reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity was smaller with labetalol than with sodium nitroprusside (0.45+/-0.05% versus 0.78+/-0.04% cm.s(-1).%mm Hg(-1); P<0.05). In conclusion, sodium nitroprusside reduced systemic vascular resistance rather than cerebral vascular resistance with a larger rate of reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity, suggesting a preferential blood flow to the low resistance systemic vascular bed rather than the cerebral vascular bed. PMID:18606905

Immink, Rogier V; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; van Montfrans, Gert A; Kim, Yu-Sok; Hollmann, Markus W; van Lieshout, Johannes J

2008-08-01

186

Combination of sodium thiosulphate, cinacalcet, and paricalcitol in the treatment of calciphylaxis with hyperparathyroidism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calciphylaxis (calcific uremic arteriolopathy) is a severe complication of hemodialysis characterized by subcutaneous calcification of the small arteries and tissue necrosis. Our case report is focused on a woman receiving hemodialysis (HD) with diabetes mellitus for 20 years and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, who presented painful subcutaneous nodules, skin necrosis and ulcerations. As the treatment of calciphylaxis is mainly empirical and controversial, we decided to administer cinacalcet with paricalcitol for the control of hyperparathyroidism and sodium thiosulfate to improve the calcification of the arterioles. Two months after the start of the therapy, parathyroid hormone (PTH) decreased significantly and the skin lesions nearly disappeared. Thus, we believe that the combination of sodium thiosulfate with cinacalcet and paracalcitol is effective for the treatment of calciphylaxis with secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:18825648

Kyritsis, I; Gombou, A; Griveas, I; Agroyannis, I; Retsa, K; Agroyannis, B

2008-08-01

187

Improvement of Rat Survival and Liver Mitochondrial Function in Biliary Obstruction After Treatment With Sodium Thiosulfate  

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The exact cause of liver failure occurring after long standing biliary obstruction is not known. Impairment of hepatic mitochondrial respiration was postulated in some studies. Sodium thiosulphate (STS) is known to have a protective effect on liver function during administration of hepatotoxic chemotherapy. In the present experimental study the effect of treatment with STS in the presence of obstructive jaundice was studied by determination of the survival rate of rats subjecte...

Myslovaty, B.; Kyzer, S.; Levinsky, H.; Chaimoff, C.

1995-01-01

188

Calcific uremic arteriolopathy: treatment with intraperitoneal sodium thiosulfate in a patient on peritoneal dialysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Though CUA therapy with IP sodium thiosulfate represents an off-label usage of the drug, reports of its successful use are on the rise. It continues to be successfully administered both IP and IV, and in adult and pediatric populations. The long-term effects of IP sodium thiosulfate on the transport characteristics of the peritoneal membrane are not currently known, so they are an area for future research. Because the disease is so uncommon, small sample sizes limit the development of large, longitudinal studies. Treatment for patients on PD with CUA does not differ from that of other populations, with the one exception being the IP route of sodium thiosulfate administration. Another important aspect of treating this disease that merits mention is tracking through calciphylaxis registries that compile information on patients with calciphylaxis worldwide and disseminate information about treatment practices (for example, a registry is maintained by the University of Kansas Medical Center [2012]). Registries such as this provide a valuable database that may one day lead to improved approaches in the treatment of this uncommon, debilitating, and often fatal disease. PMID:23061117

Dethloff, Steven B

2012-01-01

189

Effectiveness of Intraarticular Sodium Hyaluronate in Synchronous Treatment of Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate results of synchronous intraarticular sodium hyaluronate therapy in patients who have both hip and knee osteoarthritis.Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients (18 women, 7 men with hip and knee osteoarthritis constituted the study group and 14 patients (9 women, 5 men constituted the control group. In the treatment protocol, 2 ampules of sodium hyaluronate were injected into the hip joint using fluoroscopy guide in the operating room. After two weeks, the injection was performed in the affected knee joint. This protocol was repeated following a week without treatment. The clinical conditions of the groups before therapy and on the 30th and 60th days after therapy were evaluated by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC A, B, C indices and 15 m walking time.Results: There are significant differences between the two groups when WOMAC scores and the quantity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs administered were considered, but there was no difference between the groups concerning walking time. There are significant differences in all test parameters except for the WOMAC C index in group I before and after therapy.Conclusion: The treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis synchronously with sodium hyaluronate injection provides considerable reduction of pain and increase in joint range of motion and function. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:143-7.

Ali AYDEN?Z

2008-12-01

190

Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment  

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Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

Marina Mandryk

2012-08-01

191

Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Drug Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs of Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles  

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Full Text Available The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen using a co-precipitation method with or without hydrothermal treatment (150 °C, 4 h. After being hydrothermally treated, LDH–drug crystallites increased in particle size and crystallinity, but did not change in the interlayer anion orientation, gallery height and chemical composition. The drug release patterns of all studied LDH–drug hybrids were biphasic and sustained. LDHs loaded with diclofenac had a quicker drug release rate compared with those with naproxen and ibuprofen, and the drug release from the hydrothermally-treated LDH–drug was slower than the freshly precipitated LDH–drug. These results suggest that the drug release of LDH–drugs is influenced by the crystallite size of LDHs, which can be controlled by hydrothermal treatment, as well as by the drug molecular physicochemical properties.

Zi Gu

2014-05-01

192

Alkaline and alkaline/oxidation pre-treatments of spruce wood (Picea abies)--impact on the quality of kraft pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparable series of specimens from spruce wood were pre-treated with sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, or per-acetic acid sequences. The pre-treatments reduced the yield of pulps and their Kappa number noticeably, diminished the degree of polymerization moderately, and increased their brightness. One-step peroxide bleaching of pulps from the pre-treated spruce wood resulted in their higher brightness compared to bleached pulp from sound wood. From the viewpoint of improved properties of pulp, the most efficient were the sodium hydroxide/per-acetic acid and per-acetic acid/sodium hydroxide sequences. The pre-treatments did not influence mechanical strength of the obtained pulps significantly. PMID:20817441

Solár, R; Dibdiaková, J; Mamo?, M; Ka?ík, F; Rázgová, Z; Vacek, V; Sivák, J; Gaff, M

2011-01-01

193

The role of sodium cromolyn in treatment of paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paraquat is a non-selective herbicide which is widely used in agriculture. It has potential of producing pulmonary fibrosis. In this study the therapeutic effect of different doses of sodium cromolyn on the development of paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis was investigated. In order to produce lung fibrosis, rats were given single oral dose of paraquat (40 mg kg(-1)). Two groups of animals were nebulised with 6 or 8 mg day(-1) cromolyn (divided into two doses per day) 5 days prior and 2 weeks after paraquat treatment. Control animals were given equivalent volume of normal saline and treated with cromolyn similar to the test groups. Rats were killed at the end of treatment course and lung tissues were tested histologically and biochemically. Histological examination of paraquat-treated animals showed marked infiltration of inflammatory cells in the alveolar spaces, septal thickening and fibrosis. Lesions were evident in many places of sections. Sodium cromolyn could markedly reduce such damages in lung tissue. Lung weight, hydroxyproline and collagen content of lung tissues were elevated significantly (P lung. Such effect may be due to the stabilising of mast cells and inhibition of inflammatory mediators by sodium cromolyn. PMID:12220965

Hemmati, A A; Nazari, Z; Motlagh, M E; Goldasteh, S

2002-09-01

194

Treatment of sodium spills and leakage detection at loop-type fast reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium spills are of great importance in the safety analysis for sodium cooled nuclear plants. Large leakages can lead to a depletion of the heat transfer system and cause the loss of cooling of the reactor. Further the hot sodium may attack structural materials. In areas with air atmosphere large amounts of sodium can burn and cause great damages. Therefore the control of large leakages is an indispensable task in design and construction of sodium cooled reactor systems. Because of the typical arrangement of widespread long pipe systems loop type plants are subject to a gradually greater risk of damage than pool type plants. The sodium catching devices of the SNR-300 are described and their function is illustrated as an example for the treatment of large spills. Since the equipment for the control of large amounts of leaking sodium is very expensive, great efforts are made in order to save costs and to decrease safety problems. It is aimed to minimize the probability of such events to a degree that they no longer are to be considered realistic. The advantageous operating conditions and the favourable material properties support this aim. Under the well known keyword 'leak-before-rupture' criterion this task is pursued. Crack growth measurements are made at structural materials under LMFBR conditions, and leakage detecting systems are being developed. Some test results concerning this task are described. Despite the fact that there are good chances to verify the leak-before-rupture criterion it is assumed that certain hypothetical accidents occur, which are to be considered in the design of the reactor plant. The extremely improbable Bethe-Tait-accident (HCDA) is such an event. It would lead to a super spill, that means to the complete depletion of the reactor tank. For the SNR-300 plant a system is provided that is able to catch this super spill and the core melt. This core catcher must withstand the high temperatures and remove the decay heat. The purpose of this system is to restrict the consequences of the accident to the inner containment and to guarantee the integrity and the function of the outer containment. It is reported on investigations concerning the design of the core catcher, especially on experiments which were performed to find suitable materials which are able to withstand the extreme operating conditions of the system

195

Diminazene aceturate associated with sodium selenite and vitamin E in the treatment of Trypanosoma evansi infection in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of a standard treatment with diminazene aceturate against the infection caused by Trypanosoma evansi, associated to sodium selenite and vitamin E. In vitro tests showed trypanocidal effect related to the treatment with diminazene aceturate and sodium selenite, but vitamin E had no harmful effect on the trypanosomes. In vivo experiments utilized a total of 72 adult outbreed females rats, separated into 9 groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I), 8 animals each. Group A was the uninfected group; groups B to I were infected with 0.2mL of blood containing 10(6) trypanosomes. Parasitemia was estimated daily by microscopic examination of blood smears. Group B served as positive control; group C was treated with diminazene aceturate; group D with sodium selenite; group E with vitamin E; group F received an association of diminazene aceturate and sodium selenite; group G received an association of diminazene aceturate and vitamin E; group H received an association of diminazene aceturate, sodium selenite and vitamin E, and group I received an association of sodium selenite and vitamin E. Diminazene aceturate was administrated in a single dose on the 3rd day post infection (PI). Sodium selenite and vitamin E were administered at the 3rd and 23rd day PI. In vivo tests showed increase of longevity in groups treated with diminazene aceturate associated with sodium selenite (groups F and H). No difference was found between groups C and E, thus the vitamin E did not increase the efficacy of treatment against T. evansi when associated to diminazene aceturate. The curative efficacy of treatments was 37.5, 87.7, 37.7 and 75% to the groups C, F, G and H, respectively. Other treatments showed no efficacy. The sodium selenite when combined with chemotherapy may represent an alternative in the treatment of trypanosomosis. PMID:21420954

Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Costa, Marcio M; Otto, Mateus A; Thomé, Gustavo R; Tavares, Kaio S; Miletti, Luiz C; Leal, Marta R; Lopes, Sonia T A; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Monteiro, Silvia G; de La Rue, Mario L

2011-07-01

196

Sodium chloride as effective antifungal treatment for artificial egg incubation in Austropotamobius pallipes  

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Full Text Available In this study, sodium chloride at three different concentrations, 30 000 ppm (S30, 60?000 ppm (S60 and 90 000 ppm (S90, and formaldehyde at one concentration, 3000 ppm (F, were tested as antifungal chemicals during artificial incubation (AI of Austropotamobius pallipes eggs. Two treatments were tested without chemicals as control groups with (R and without (C the removal of dead eggs. After AI, formaldehyde treatment ensured high survival of stage 1 (89.7 ± 2.3% and stage 2 (85.5 ± 2.4% of juveniles. However, comparable survival rate to stage 1 and stage 2 (85.5 ± 5.5% and 80.6 ± 3.2% were also found in the treatment with the highest sodium chloride concentration (S90. Significantly lower survival rate of juveniles (stage 1: 60.6–70.3% and stage 2: 56.1–67.3% were evident in groups S60, S30 and R. However, group R demanded high labor and related costs. The lowest juvenile survival levels to stage 1 (46.4 ± 8.2% and stage 2 (45.2 ± 6.8% were observed in treatments without fungicide chemicals and removal of dead eggs (C.

Policar T.

2011-06-01

197

Another Base, Another Solvent? Desalinating Iron Finds with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solution  

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Full Text Available The desalination processes commonly applied to improve the corrosion stability of archaeological iron artifacts are based on immersion treatments in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Faster and more efficient chloride extraction in solutions based on organic solvents with a lower surface tension can be expected. Furthermore, the danger of new corrosion forming during the subsequent washing out of residual chemicals from the desalinating solution could be minimised, if organic solvents would replace the water, commonly used for this process. Only alkali metal hydroxide (LiOH and NaOH solutions in organic solvents have been tested so far. Their comparatively low chloride extraction efficiency was ascribed to the low solubility of the alkali metal hydroxides and the corresponding chlorides in the solvents used. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH is readily soluble in alcohols and has been tested in aqueous and/or methanolic solutions as an alternative. Neither improved overall chloride extraction efficiency, nor a higher chloride extraction rate could be observed using methanolic solutions. However, aqueous TMAH showed a trend towards higher overall chloride extraction efficiency than the common alkaline treatments. These results could be explained by the different solubility of corrosion products, in particular akaganéite, ?-FeO(OH, in the tested solutions.

Charlotte Friederike Kuhn

2011-01-01

198

Modelo experimental de estenose traqueal mediante ressecção cirúrgica submucosa de anéis traqueais combinada com instilações de hidróxido de sódio Experimental model of tracheal stenosis with submucosal resection of cartilaginous rings combined with sodium hydroxide instillations  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, experimentalmente, malácia e estenose traqueal para testar novos modelos de órteses traqueais. MÉTODOS: Ressecamos três anéis cartilaginosos da traqueia cervical de cães no grupo A (n=5 e seis anéis no grupo B (n=4 para produzir malácia. Logo após, a mucosa da região com malácia recebeu aplicações de uma solução de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH a 23%, e os animais eram acompanhados com exames broncoscópicos para observar o desenvolvimento de estreitamento da luz da via aérea. Quando a estenose era de mais de 50% da luz, ou havia sinais mínimos de insuficiência ventilatória, os animais eram sacrificados. O segmento de via aérea estreitada foi então coletado para análise histológica e era calculada a área de luz residual do segmento traqueal com estenose e malácia. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica, foi constatada fibrose na submucosa e adventícia, associada a granulomas na mucosa. A luz residual média dos segmentos com estenose foi de 9% e 12% nos grupos A e B, respectivamente, (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A combinação da ressecção de anéis cartilaginosos e da aplicação de NaOH 23% na mucosa respiratória promoveu uma estenose traqueal intensa, porém esteve associada à perda de animais. Novos estudos são necessários para verificar se o emprego isolado de uma das técnicas seria mais seguro e eficaz para desenvolver estenose traqueal.OBJECTIVE: To experimentally develop tracheal stenosis and malacia to test new models of tracheal stents. METHODS: We resected three cartilaginous rings from the cervical trachea of dogs in group A (n = 5 and six rings in group B (n = 4 to produce malacia. The mucosa of the region with malacia then received applications of a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH at 23%, and the animals were accompanied with bronchoscopic examinations to observe the development of luminal narrowing of the airway. When the stenosis was of more than 50% or there were minimal signs of ventilatory failure, the animals were sacrificed. The segment of narrowed airway was then collected for histological analysis and calculation of the area of residual lumen in the tracheal segment with stenosis and malacia. RESULTS: In histological analysis, fibrosis was found in the submucosa and adventitia, associated with granulomas in the mucosa. The average residual lumen of the segments with stenosis was 9% and 12% in groups A and B, respectively (p> 0.05. CONCLUSION: The combination of resection of the cartilaginous rings and the application of 23% NaOH in the respiratory mucosa promoted severe tracheal stenosis, but was associated with loss of animals. Further studies are needed to verify that the isolated use of one of the techniques would be safer and more effective to develop tracheal stenosis.

Maurício Guidi Saueressig

2011-12-01

199

Chronic Temporomandibular Pain Treatment Using Sodium Diclofenac / Tratamiento crónico del dolor temporomandibular con diclofenaco sódico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio evaluó el dolor espontáneo antes y después de la administración de diclofenaco sódico, aislado o asociado a carisoprodol, paracetamol y cafeína, en pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares crónicos (TTM). Se seleccionaron dieciocho voluntarios, hombres y mujeres, entre 35-70 años de [...] edad (edad media 50 años). Los criterios de inclusión fueron dolor muscular masticatorio, y los criterios diagnósticos para trastornos temporomandibulares (RDC / TMD) como diagnóstico. La selección del tratamiento para cada individuo se llevó a cabo mediante una metodología de cruce triple ciego completo al azar. Por lo tanto, todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a todos los tratamientos en diferentes momentos, en una secuencia no estandarizada, evitando los resultados tendenciosos. Los tratamientos fueron: A (diclofenaco sódico + carisoprodol + acetaminofen + cafeína), B (diclofenaco sódico) y C (placebo), todos asociados a una férula oclusal. Cada período de tratamiento fue seguido por once días. No se encontraron diferencias entre los valores inicial y final de los tratamientos. Sin embargo, hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los grupos de evaluación sensorial y después del tratamiento B, y en los grupos de calificación sensorial, afectivo, y el total después de los tratamientos B y C. Dentro de las limitaciones de esta investigación, se concluye que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico aislado en pacientes con TTM musculares promueve una mayor analgesia que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico más asociaciones o placebo, cuando se asocia a una férula oclusal. Abstract in english This study evaluate spontaneous pain after and before administration of sodium diclofenac, isolated or associated to carisoprodol, acetaminophen and caffeine, in chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. Were selected eighteen volunteers, both men and women, between 35-70 years of age (mea [...] n age 50 years). The inclusion criteria was masticatory muscle pain, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was used on the diagnose. The selection of treatment for each individual was done by a triple-blind full-randomized crossover methodology. Thus, all patients were submitted to all treatment at different moments, in a non standardized sequence, avoiding tendentious results. The treatments were: A (sodium diclofenac + carisoprodol + acetaminophen + caffeine), B (sodium diclofenac) and C (placebo), all associated with an occlusal splint. Each treatment period was followed by an eleven-day washout. There weren't observed differences between initial and final values of treatments. However, there were statistically significant differences in evaluative and miscellaneous sensorial groups after B treatment; and in sensorial, affective, and total score groups after B and C treatments. Within the limitations of this investigation, we conclude that treatment of muscular TMD patients with sodium diclofenac isolated promoted higher analgesia than treatment with sodium diclofenac more associations or placebo, when associated to an occlusal splint.

Fernando, Kurita Varoli; Sandra, Sato; Murillo, Sucena Pita; Cássio, do Nascimento; Vinícius, Pedrazzi.

2012-08-01

200

Chronic Temporomandibular Pain Treatment Using Sodium Diclofenac / Tratamiento crónico del dolor temporomandibular con diclofenaco sódico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio evaluó el dolor espontáneo antes y después de la administración de diclofenaco sódico, aislado o asociado a carisoprodol, paracetamol y cafeína, en pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares crónicos (TTM). Se seleccionaron dieciocho voluntarios, hombres y mujeres, entre 35-70 años de [...] edad (edad media 50 años). Los criterios de inclusión fueron dolor muscular masticatorio, y los criterios diagnósticos para trastornos temporomandibulares (RDC / TMD) como diagnóstico. La selección del tratamiento para cada individuo se llevó a cabo mediante una metodología de cruce triple ciego completo al azar. Por lo tanto, todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a todos los tratamientos en diferentes momentos, en una secuencia no estandarizada, evitando los resultados tendenciosos. Los tratamientos fueron: A (diclofenaco sódico + carisoprodol + acetaminofen + cafeína), B (diclofenaco sódico) y C (placebo), todos asociados a una férula oclusal. Cada período de tratamiento fue seguido por once días. No se encontraron diferencias entre los valores inicial y final de los tratamientos. Sin embargo, hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los grupos de evaluación sensorial y después del tratamiento B, y en los grupos de calificación sensorial, afectivo, y el total después de los tratamientos B y C. Dentro de las limitaciones de esta investigación, se concluye que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico aislado en pacientes con TTM musculares promueve una mayor analgesia que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico más asociaciones o placebo, cuando se asocia a una férula oclusal. Abstract in english This study evaluate spontaneous pain after and before administration of sodium diclofenac, isolated or associated to carisoprodol, acetaminophen and caffeine, in chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. Were selected eighteen volunteers, both men and women, between 35-70 years of age (mea [...] n age 50 years). The inclusion criteria was masticatory muscle pain, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was used on the diagnose. The selection of treatment for each individual was done by a triple-blind full-randomized crossover methodology. Thus, all patients were submitted to all treatment at different moments, in a non standardized sequence, avoiding tendentious results. The treatments were: A (sodium diclofenac + carisoprodol + acetaminophen + caffeine), B (sodium diclofenac) and C (placebo), all associated with an occlusal splint. Each treatment period was followed by an eleven-day washout. There weren't observed differences between initial and final values of treatments. However, there were statistically significant differences in evaluative and miscellaneous sensorial groups after B treatment; and in sensorial, affective, and total score groups after B and C treatments. Within the limitations of this investigation, we conclude that treatment of muscular TMD patients with sodium diclofenac isolated promoted higher analgesia than treatment with sodium diclofenac more associations or placebo, when associated to an occlusal splint.

Fernando, Kurita Varoli; Sandra, Sato; Murillo, Sucena Pita; Cássio, do Nascimento; Vinícius, Pedrazzi.

 
 
 
 
201

Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens. PMID:24926808

Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

2014-07-16

202

Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

Nicholas R. Soelberg

2004-01-01

203

Combined treatment with sodium butyrate and PD153035 enhances keratinocyte differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signalling is a critical determinant of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in both normal and diseased skin. Here we explore the effects of combined treatment with the differentiation-promoting agent sodium butyrate (SB) and the EGFR inhibitor (EGFRI) PD153035 on terminal differentiation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Cells treated with SB showed increased expression of the levels of mRNA and protein of the differentiation markers filaggrin and transglutaminase 1. Cotreatment with EGF significantly blunted these effects of SB. Combined treatment with SB and PD153035 alleviated these inhibitory actions of EGF, resulting in improved effects of decreased cell growth and increased terminal differentiation, relative to the individual treatments. These results indicate that the combined use of a differentiation-promoting agent and an EGFR inhibitor may offer an additional approach to the management of hyperproliferative skin diseases. PMID:24451036

Leon Carrion, Sandra; Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Sutter, Thomas R

2014-03-01

204

Long-term intravenous sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of a patient with calciphylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calciphylaxis is a disabling and life-threatening complication that primarily affects patients who are dialysis dependent. This disease entity is characterized by calcification, intimal hypertrophy, and thrombosis of small vessels, which results in necrotizing, nonhealing ulcers. The development of these lesions portends a grim prognosis, as they are often accompanied by severe and sometimes fatal infectious complications. Although several strategies aimed at treating and preventing this affliction have been reported in the literature, the outcome for most patients with calciphylaxis remains quite poor. We describe an anuric hemodialysis patient who developed severe calciphylaxis that proved refractory to conventional treatment. Following extensive debridement of several wounds, intravenous sodium thiosulfate was utilized as an adjunctive therapy four times a week. Within 6 months, excellent wound healing ensued as well as a dramatic improvement in the lesions that were not previously resected. Aside from occasional nausea, these treatments were well tolerated, despite the development of an anion gap metabolic acidosis. After 34 months of continued treatment the patient remains free from disease recurrence and has demonstrated no untoward effect of prolonged therapy. In an effort to delineate the pharmacokinetics of this drug in a hemodialysis patient, serum thiosulfate levels were obtained 15 minutes after infusion as well as before and after subsequent dialysis treatments. Consistent with prior studies in anuric canines, we found measurable quantities of the drug more than 50 hours after treatment, in addition to a markedly elevated half life of 478 minutes. However, given the lack of significant toxicity, as well as a dramatic clinical improvement, we feel that sodium thiosulfate may have an important adjunctive role in the treatment of calciphylaxis in dialysis patients. PMID:16191185

Brucculeri, Michael; Cheigh, Jhoong; Bauer, Gregory; Serur, David

2005-01-01

205

Recent Sodium Technology Development for the Decommissioning of the Rapsodie and Superphenix Reactors and the Management of Sodium Wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has recently developed and/or conducted experiments on several processes in support of the decommissioning of two French liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), Rapsodie and Superphenix, as well as on the treatment of CEA sodium wastes. CEA has demonstrated that it is possible to define appropriate and efficient processes to meet the different situations encountered in decommissioning LMFRs. Mechanical techniques derived from standard technologies have been successfully applied to fast reactor decommissioning to complete primary vessel draining from sodium. In addition, specific chemical processes have been developed to deal safely with metallic sodium reactivity. Sodium-contaminated equipment has been successfully cleaned by reacting sodium with water mist in an atmosphere with carbon dioxide to form inert sodium carbonate. Bulk sodium has been successfully converted into aqueous caustic soda by injection of liquid-metallic sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. Several processes were also defined to deal with specific sodium wastes. In all cases the principle is based on a sodium/water chemical reaction where the released hydrogen and heat are controlled. With the development of a wide variety of processes, all steps in the decommissioning of LMFRs are assumed to be now properly mastered

206

Treatment of Industrial Liquid Waste of Steel Plating by Coagulation-Flocculation Using Sodium Biphosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research about treatment of industrial liquid waste of steel plating by coagulation-flocculation using sodium biphosphate have been conducted. The purpose of the treatment was the content reduction of Cr, Ni, and Cu in the liquid waste, so that produced effluent with Cr, Ni, and Cu content until they laid under mutual standard. The variables studied in this process were the solution pH, the coagulant/waste volume comparison, the speed of the fast stirring, and the time of the fast stirring. Optimum separation efficiency on coagulation-flocculation process of liquid waste of steel plating using sodium biphosphate at the condition of solution ph 9, coagulant/waste volume comparation 1.50, the speed of the fast stirring 400 rpm, and the time of fast stirring is 5 minute. Low stirring was conducted at 60 rpm for 60 minute. The yields of optimum separation efficiency in this condition were 99.48 % for Cr, 99.51 % for Ni, and 99.03 % for Cu. (author)

207

TREATMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: SODIUM FLUORIDE OR CALCITONIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historical controversy and lack of controlled clinical trial study comparing the effects of sodium fluoride and calcitonin therapies in osteoporosis of patients with RA made us to conduct this study to clarify which one of the above treatments would be more useful and effective in the treatment of osteoporosis.From subjects who turned to Ahwaz Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinic during 2000, all women who met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR 1987 criteria for RA (7, WHO 1994 criteria for osteoporosis (8 and signed the written consent were enrolled into the study. Considering these inclusion criteria, 70 women were enrolled into the study. They were randomized into two groups. Age, BMI (body mass index and BMD (bone mineral density were the adjusted variables during randomization. Thirty-four patients were treated with 20 mg sodium fluoride daily and 36 patients with 200 units nasal calcitonin per day. All patients were treated for 12 months.Patients who received Fluoride showed significant higher BMD in femoral neck (0.74 vs. 0.65, p<0.01 and in lumbar spine (0.90 vs. 0.79, p<0.05 than who received calcitonin after 12 months of therapy.

K Mowla

2006-01-01

208

Successful treatment of calcific uremic arteriolopathy with sodium thiosulfate in a renal transplant recipient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is a rare but life-threatening disorder of arteriolar calcification. It frequently leads to severe ischemia, intense pain, and tissue necrosis with non-healing skin ulcerations. CUA usually occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially those on dialysis, and its occurrence is rare in kidney transplant recipients. The treatment of this disorder is not clearly defined, and no randomized prospective trials are available. Treatment has focused on optimizing dialysis treatment, control of bone mineral parameters, wound care, experimental anticalcification therapies-using bisphosphonates, cinacalcet, parathyroidectomy, and hyperbaric oxygen. Such treatments are based on the pathophysiological considerations and evidences from case reports or series. Recently, several cases have reported about the emerging benefits of intravenous sodium thiosulfate (STS) in the treatment of CUA. STS has resulted in rapid pain relief, wound healing, and prevention of death. We report a case of CUA in a 63-year-old Caucasian man with a functioning renal allograft. In this patient, intravenous STS was administered for 8 months, which was the principal therapy, which resulted in complete resolution of the CUA and skin healing. PMID:22364415

Li, Jordan Y Z; Yong, Tuck Y; Choudhry, Muhammad; Rao, Nitesh; Milton, Caroline; Juneja, Rajiv; Barbara, Jeffrey A J; Passaris, George

2012-01-01

209

Precipitation of the rare earth double sodium and rare earths from the sulfuric liquor and the conversion into rare earth hydroxides through meta ethic reaction; Precipitacao do sulfato duplo de terras raras e sodio a partir de licor sulfurico e sua conversao em hidroxido de terras raras mediante reacao metatetica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents the purification study of the rare earths through precipitation of rare earth and sodium (Na TR (SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. x H{sub 2}O)) double sulfate and his conversion to rare earths hydroxide TR(OH){sub 3} by meta ethic reaction through the addition of sodium hydroxide solution to the solid double sulfate. The study used the sulfuric liquor as rare earth sample, generated in the chemical processing of the monazite with sulfuric acid by the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB, Brazil, after the thorium and uranium extraction. The work investigated the influence of the main variables involved in the precipitation of Na TR(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O and in the conversion for the TR(OH){sub 3}, as follows: type and excess of the precipitation agent, temperature and time reaction. The obtained solid composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared and chemical analysis. The double sulfate diffractogram indicated the Na TR(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} mono-hydrated. The characterization of the metatese products has shown that, for obtaining the complete conversion of NaTR(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O into TR(OH){sub 3}, the reaction must be hot processed ({approx}70 deg C) and with small excess of Na OH ({<=} 5 percent). (author)

Abreu, Renata D.; Oliveira, Ester F.; Brito, Walter de; Morais, Carlos A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: rda@cdtn.br; esterfo@cdtn.br; britow@cdtn.br; cmorais@cdtn.br

2007-07-01

210

Ammonium hydroxide treatment of A? produces an aggregate free solution suitable for biophysical and cell culture characterization  

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Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Pathologically it is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neuronal loss within the brain tissue of affected individuals. It is now widely hypothesised that fibrillar structures represent an inert structure. Biophysical and toxicity assays attempting to characterize the formation of both the fibrillar and the intermediate oligomeric structures of A? typically involves preparing samples which are largely monomeric; the most common method by which this is achieved is to use the fluorinated organic solvent 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP. Recent evidence has suggested that this method is not 100% effective in producing an aggregate free solution. We show, using dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography and small angle X-ray scattering that this is indeed the case, with HFIP pretreated A? peptide solutions displaying an increased proportion of oligomeric and aggregated material and an increased propensity to aggregate. Furthermore we show that an alternative technique, involving treatment with strong alkali results in a much more homogenous solution that is largely monomeric. These techniques for solubilising and controlling the oligomeric state of A? are valuable starting points for future biophysical and toxicity assays.

Timothy M. Ryan

2013-05-01

211

Modelo experimental de estenose traqueal mediante ressecção cirúrgica submucosa de anéis traqueais combinada com instilações de hidróxido de sódio / Experimental model of tracheal stenosis with submucosal resection of cartilaginous rings combined with sodium hydroxide instillations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, experimentalmente, malácia e estenose traqueal para testar novos modelos de órteses traqueais. MÉTODOS: Ressecamos três anéis cartilaginosos da traqueia cervical de cães no grupo A (n=5) e seis anéis no grupo B (n=4) para produzir malácia. Logo após, a mucosa da região com mal [...] ácia recebeu aplicações de uma solução de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) a 23%, e os animais eram acompanhados com exames broncoscópicos para observar o desenvolvimento de estreitamento da luz da via aérea. Quando a estenose era de mais de 50% da luz, ou havia sinais mínimos de insuficiência ventilatória, os animais eram sacrificados. O segmento de via aérea estreitada foi então coletado para análise histológica e era calculada a área de luz residual do segmento traqueal com estenose e malácia. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica, foi constatada fibrose na submucosa e adventícia, associada a granulomas na mucosa. A luz residual média dos segmentos com estenose foi de 9% e 12% nos grupos A e B, respectivamente, (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: A combinação da ressecção de anéis cartilaginosos e da aplicação de NaOH 23% na mucosa respiratória promoveu uma estenose traqueal intensa, porém esteve associada à perda de animais. Novos estudos são necessários para verificar se o emprego isolado de uma das técnicas seria mais seguro e eficaz para desenvolver estenose traqueal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To experimentally develop tracheal stenosis and malacia to test new models of tracheal stents. METHODS: We resected three cartilaginous rings from the cervical trachea of dogs in group A (n = 5) and six rings in group B (n = 4) to produce malacia. The mucosa of the region with malacia the [...] n received applications of a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 23%, and the animals were accompanied with bronchoscopic examinations to observe the development of luminal narrowing of the airway. When the stenosis was of more than 50% or there were minimal signs of ventilatory failure, the animals were sacrificed. The segment of narrowed airway was then collected for histological analysis and calculation of the area of residual lumen in the tracheal segment with stenosis and malacia. RESULTS: In histological analysis, fibrosis was found in the submucosa and adventitia, associated with granulomas in the mucosa. The average residual lumen of the segments with stenosis was 9% and 12% in groups A and B, respectively (p> 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of resection of the cartilaginous rings and the application of 23% NaOH in the respiratory mucosa promoted severe tracheal stenosis, but was associated with loss of animals. Further studies are needed to verify that the isolated use of one of the techniques would be safer and more effective to develop tracheal stenosis.

Maurício Guidi, Saueressig; Amarilio Vieira de, Macedo Neto; Julio de Oliveira, Espinel; Maria Isabel, Edelweiss; Paulo Roberto Stefani, Sanches; Rogério Gastal, Xavier.

2011-12-01

212

Potential and limits of sodium hydroxide as an additive to the binary system ammonia/water in absorption heat pumps; Potenzial und Grenzen von Natriumhydroxid als Zusatz zum Stoffpaar Ammoniak/Wasser in Absorptions-Waermepumpen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several authors proposed the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an additive to the ammonia/water working fluid mixture (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O), especially in solar air conditioners. Measured vapour-liquid equilibrium data of this tertiary mixture are found in the relevant literature. Thermodynamic calculations carried out with these data show that the efficiency (COP) will be enhanced in theory while the rectification time will decrease. To verify these theoretical considerations and to gain practical experience with the tertiary mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH, a test stand was constructed at the Institut fuer Waermetechnik, and measurements were carried out on the mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, i.e. without NaOH, and with 5% NaOH. The technical feasibility of the process was established, although NaOH depositions in the refrigerating circuit caused operational disturbances, so that the mixture had to be renewed regularly and the plant had to be flushed with water. The expected efficiency improvement was not observed. Analyses using ''ASPEN Plus'' showed that this was the result of lower absorber efficiency, which may be due to the higher circulation rate and higher viscosity of the working fluid mixture. Measurements showed a moderate improvements of heat transfer in the expeller after addition of NaOH; no effects were found in the evaporator, solvent heat exchanger and rectification column. The findings suggest that fast implementation of NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP is not realistic. Considerable research and development will still be required for optimisation of the absorber for operation with NaOH. [German] Die Verwendung von Natriumhydroxid (NaOH) als Zusatz zum Arbeitsstoffgemisch Ammoniak / Wasser (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O) wurde von verschiedenen Autoren insbesondere fuer das Anwendungsgebiet der solaren Klimatisierung vorgeschlagen. In der einschlaegigen Literatur wurden gemessene Dampf-Fluessig-Gleichgewichts-Daten von diesem Dreistoffgemisch publiziert. Die mit diesen Daten durchgefuehrten thermodynamischen Rechnungen zeigen, dass die Effizienz (COP) durch die Zugabe von Natriumhydroxid in einer Ammoniak / Wasser-Absorptionswaermepumpe theoretisch erhoeht werden kann und der Rektifikationsaufwand sinkt. Um diese theoretischen Berechnungen zu ueberpruefen und praktische Erfahrungen mit dem Dreistoffgemisch NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH zu sammeln, wurde am Institut fuer Waermetechnik ein Pruefstand aufgebaut. Mit diesem Pruefstand wurden Messungen mit dem Gemisch NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, d.h. ohne NaOH, und mit 5% NaOH durchgefuehrt. Dabei konnte die technische Machbarkeit dieses Prozesses gezeigt werden. Allerdings fuehrten Ablagerungen von NaOH im Kaeltekreis zu Betriebsstoerungen bzw. dazu, dass das Arbeitsgemisch regelmaessig gewechselt und die Anlage mit Wasser gespuelt werden musste. Die erwartete Verbesserung bezueglich der Prozess-Effizienz konnte bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden. Die Analyse der Messergebnisse mit dem Softwareprogram ''ASPEN Plus'' hat gezeigt, dass dies vor allem an einer geringeren Absorber-Effizienz lag, welche wahrscheinlich auf den bei gleicher Leistung notwendigen hoeheren Loesungsumlauf und die hoehere Viskositaet des Arbeitsgemisches zurueckzufuehren ist. In Bezug auf den Einfluss von NaOH auf die anderen Komponenten, fuehrt die NaOH-Zugabe laut Messungen zu einer moderaten Verbesserung des Waermeueberganges im Austreiber. Bei der Analyse des Einflusses von NaOH auf den Verdampfer, den Loesungsmittelwaermetauscher und die Rektifikationskolonne konnten keine signifikanten Veraenderungen zwischen den Betriebspunkten mit und ohne NaOH festgestellt werden. Aus heutiger Sicht scheint die rasche technische Umsetzung einer NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP aus den oben genannten Gruenden nicht realistisch zu sein. Es besteht noch erheblicher Forschungs- und Entwicklungsbedarf in Bezug auf die Optimierung des Absorbers fuer den Betrieb mit NaOH und die oben genannten Betriebsstoerungen.

Kotenko, Oleksandr; Moser, Harald; Fenzl, Thomas; Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik

2011-07-01

213

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at INL for ICP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The patented THOR® steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected as the technology of choice for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). SBW is an acidic tank waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at INL. It consists primarily of waste from decontamination activities and laboratory wastes. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, alkali and aluminum nitrates, with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium and strontium. The THOR® steam reforming process will convert the SBW tank waste feed into a dry, solid, granular product. The THOR® technology was selected to treat SBW, in part, because it can provide flexible disposal options to accommodate the final disposition path selected for SBW. THOR® can produce a final end-product that will meet anticipated requirements for disposal as Remote-Handled TRU (RH-TRU) waste; and, with modifications, THOR® can also produce a final endproduct that could be qualified for disposal as High Level Waste (HLW). SBW treatment will be take place within the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), a new facility that will be located at the INTEC. This paper provides an overview of the THOR® process chemistry and process equipment being designed for the IWTU.

J. Bradley Mason; Kevin Ryan; Scott Roesener; Michael Cowen; Duane Schmoker; Pat Bacala; Bill Landman

2006-03-01

214

Efficacy of Topical Sodium Sulfacetamide in the Treatment of Mild and Moderate Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized, Comparative Study  

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Background and Design: Clindamycin and erythromycin are the most widely used topical antibiotics in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. The combination of topical antibiotics with benzoyl peroxide increases the efficacy of the treatment and reduces antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. Sodium sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic. Although it has been known for many years, it is not widely used in acne treatment. However, it has recently acquired currency again. I...

Ay?egül Turan; Hayriye Sar?cao?lu; Emel Bülbül Ba?kan; Hakan Turan; Kenan Aydo?an

2012-01-01

215

Role of pegaptanib sodium in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration  

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Full Text Available Sobha SivaprasadLaser and Retinal Research Unit, King’s College Hospital, UKAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is responsible for more than half the blind registration in the United Kingdom. Retinal manifestations of AMD can be categorized as either atrophic or neovascular. The hallmark of AMD is the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV. Until recently, there have been few, limited treatment modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy [PDT] for this condition and the mainstay of treatment has comprised social and lifestyle support. However, increased understanding of the molecular processes at work in neovascular AMD and CNV in recent years has led to the introduction of new antiangiogenic agents that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. These agents either inhibit a selected VEGF isoform (eg, VEGF165 inhibition by pegaptanib sodium or inhibit all forms of the VEGF isoform (eg, non-selective VEGF blockade by ranibizumab. The trial data suggest that non-selective inhibition of VEGF offers better treatment outcomes in neovascular AMD. As a result, agents that inhibit all VEGF isoforms are now widely used as first-line therapy for this condition. However, it is known that VEGF plays an important role in maintaining the intergrity of the cardiovascular system and, particularly as the age of patients with AMD places them at an elevated risk of thromboembolic events, long-term post-marketing surveillance data are essential to determining whether non-selective VEGF blockade confers any increased risk. Theoretically, selective VEGF inhibition may reduce any risk associated with pan-VEGF blockade, yet on the basis of initial trials, their use remains more limited at this time. However, clinical practice suggests that initial trials may have under-estimated the efficacy of selective-VEGF inhibition. Observational studies also indicate that better treatment outcomes may be possible by combining VEGF inhibitors sequentially with each other, or with existing therapies (eg, photodynamic therapy [PDT]. The optimum role and indications of anti-VEGF agents will come through careful consideration of the available efficacy and safety data, from the outcomes of long-term follow-up studies, and through assessment of the relative merits of the two approaches to VEGF inhibition in clinical practice. At this time, further head-to-head trials, and economic evaluations, comparing the treatment alternatives are needed.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD, choroidal neovascularization (CNV, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, cardiovascular, ranibizumab, pegaptanib sodium

Sobha Sivaprasad

2008-06-01

216

Evaluation of the migraine treatment sumatriptan/naproxen sodium on blood pressure following long-term administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-inflammatory and pain therapies have been associated with blood pressure (BP) destabilization. Hence, the effects on BP of sumatriptan/naproxen sodium in fixed-dose combination, sumatriptan 85 mg, and naproxen sodium 500 mg administered intermittently for the acute treatment of migraine attacks were assessed. Patients with migraine with or without aura and no history of hypertension were randomized to sumatriptan/naproxen sodium (n=135), sumatriptan (n=136), or naproxen sodium (n=136) to treat migraine attacks for 6 months in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Following a treated migraine attack, patients performed 2 consecutive days of self-measured BPs beginning ?24 hours after the last dose of study medication and transmitted them by a transtelephonic modem. The primary end point was the change from baseline in self-measured BP at 6 months. Changes in self-measured BP from baseline to 6 months for sumatriptan/naproxen sodium were -2.1/-1.5 mm Hg (95% confidence intervals, -3.4 to -0.8 for systolic and -2.6 to -0.3 for diastolic). Mean changes from baseline in self-measured BP did not differ among the 3 treatment groups. Additional categorical analyses did not show increases from baseline with sumatriptan/naproxen sodium relative to either of the monotherapy groups. Intermittent acute migraine treatment with sumatriptan/naproxen sodium for up to 6 months was associated with clinically insignificant decreases in self-measured BP that were similar to those with sumatriptan or naproxen alone in normotensive patients with migraine. PMID:22142350

White, William B; Derosier, Frederick J; Thompson, April H; Adams, Bryan E; Goodman, David K

2011-12-01

217

Recent developments regarding voltage-gated sodium channel blockers for the treatment of inherited and acquired neuropathic pain syndromes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronic and neuropathic pain constitute significant health problems affecting millions of individuals each year. Pain sensations typically originate in sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS which relay information to the central nervous system (CNS. Pathological pain sensations can arise as result of changes in excitability of these peripheral sensory neurons. Voltage-gated sodium channels are key determinants regulating action-potential generation and propagation; thus, changes in sodium channel function can have profound effects on neuronal excitability and pain signaling. At present, most of the clinically available sodium channel blockers used to treat pain are non-selective across sodium channel isoforms and can contribute to cardio-toxicity, motor impairments and CNS side effects. Numerous strides have been made over the last decade in an effort to develop more selective and efficacious sodium channel blockers to treat pain. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of the more recent developments put forth by research universities and pharmaceutical companies alike in the pursuit of developing more targeted sodium channel therapies for the treatment of a variety of neuropathic pain conditions.

TheodoreRCummins

2011-10-01

218

A combination of topical antiseptics for the treatment of sore throat blocks voltage-gated neuronal sodium channels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol are ingredients of lozenges used for the treatment of sore throat. In a former in vitro study, a local anaesthetic-like effect of these substances has been described. Since amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol are co-administered in over-the-counter lozenges, the intention of this study is to evaluate the in vitro effects of the combination of these compounds on the voltage-gated sodium channel. We analysed the block of inward sodium currents induced by the combination of amylmetacresol, dichloro-benzylalcohol and the local anaesthetic lidocaine. Tonic and use-dependent block and effects on the inactivated channel state of the neuronal sodium channel were examined. Therefore, the ?-subunit of the voltage-gated NaV1.2 sodium channel was heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells in vitro. Inward sodium currents were investigated in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The combination of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol and the combination of amylmetacresol and lidocaine induced a block of resting and inactivated sodium channels both displaying a pronounced block at the inactivated channel state. In addition, the combination of all three compounds also resulted in a voltage-dependent block of inward sodium currents. While use-dependent block by co-application of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol was moderate (dependent block (up to 50 %). This study demonstrates local anaesthetic-like effects of a combination of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol as established ingredients of lozenges. In the presence of amylmetacresol, dichloro-benzylalcohol and lidocaine, a prominent block of inward sodium currents is apparent. PMID:25012093

Foadi, Nilufar; de Oliveira, Regina Campos; Buchholz, Vanessa; Stoetzer, Carsten; Wegner, Florian; Pilawski, Igor; Haeseler, Gertrud; Leuwer, Martin; Ahrens, Jörg

2014-10-01

219

Comparison of efficacy and safety of topical Ketotifen (Zaditen with Cromolyn sodium in the treatment of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis  

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Full Text Available Background: This study compared the efficacy of Ketotifen fumarate .025% (Zaditen with Cromolyn sodium 4% (Opticrom eye drops in prevention of itching, tearing, and redness in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC. Methods: This double blind randomized single center clinical trial conducted between April and August 2004 in Yazd. One hundred eligible patients with clinical diagnosis of moderate VKC were randomly prescribed Zaditen (group A: n=50 and Cromolyn sodium (group B: n=50 eye drops for a 4 weeks period. Itching, lacrimation, redness, and photophobia were scored on a 4-points severity scale. Results: After 7 days of treatment, the response rates based on subjects assessment of global efficacy was significantly greater in Ketotifen group (61.5% than in Cromolyn group(53%.A clear response to treatment occurred in 94.4 of Zaditen and 81.2% of Sodium Cromoglycate treated patients. The investigator,s assessment of response rates also showed that Ketotifen was superior to Cromolyn sodium (P=0.001. Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than Cromolyn for relief of signs and symptoms of VKC (P<0.05. Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total signs and symptoms score for each patients, in compare with day 0. Conclusion: Ketotifen had a faster onset of action and provided better symptom relief than Cromolyn. The rapid onset of action and symptom control, make Zaditen a valuable treatment for VKC. Keywords : VKC , allergic conjuctivitis , zaditen

MR Shoja

2005-03-01

220

Divalproex Sodium for the Treatment of PTSD and Conduct Disordered Youth: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the efficacy of divalproex sodium (DVP) for the treatment of PTSD in conduct disorder, utilizing a previous study in which 71 youth were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Twelve had PTSD. Subjects (all males, mean age 16, SD 1.0) were randomized into high and low dose conditions. Clinical Global Impression (CGI)…

Steiner, Hans; Saxena, Kirti S.; Carrion, Victor; Khanzode, Leena A.; Silverman, Melissa; Chang, Kiki

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Simple Method for Simultaneous Determination of Carbonate, Sulfite and Hydroxide in Solution  

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Full Text Available A method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide in a complex matrices. The method involves salvation of the tow gases in Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by simultaneous determination of the three species (carbonate, sulfite and hydroxide using conductometric and potentiometric titration. What set this method apart from other determination methods it`s simplicity.

Hossam I. Al-Itawi

2007-01-01

222

Some citogenetic effects of sodium azide treatments in caraway root meristems  

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Full Text Available Sodium azide (NaN3 still remains a popular plant mutagen. In the present investigation, its effects on the cytogenetic changes were studied in root tip cells of Carum carvi L., an important economical and medicinal crop plant. The study revealed that sodium azide decreased mitotic index, and caused increase of chromosomal aberrations. Altogether, sodium azide treated root tip cells exhibited an increased incidence of bridges, lagging and/or expulsed chromosomes and C-metaphases.

Mirela Mihaela Campeanu

2009-03-01

223

Ferrimagnetic copper chloride hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic properties of copper chloride hydroxide were studied by using a superconducting quantum interference device. The coercivity of this material was more than 10 000 Oe at 2 K, which is the highest observed in the copper compounds. The magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature revealed ferrimagnetism in the sample

224

Thermal analysis of iron hydroxide microspheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal treatment is an important step in the preparative technology of the iron oxids microspheres with well established mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics. The first indications on the heating procedure have been obtained from the thermal analysis on iron hydroxide microspheres prepared by the support precipitation and internal gelification methods. (author)

225

Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats / Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste t [...] rabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extraído e mantido sobre bancada para ressecamento por 60 min. Posteriormente, os dentes do grupo I foram imersos em soro fisiológico por 2 min. No grupo II, os dentes tiveram a superfície radicular friccionada com gaze embebida em soro fisiológico por 2 min e no grupo III a fricção foi feita empregando-se solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Todos os dentes tiveram então a superfície radicular tratada com ácido fosfórico a 37% seguido de imersão em solução de fluoreto de sódio fosfato acidulado a 2%, pH 5,5. Os canais foram obturados com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e os dentes foram reimplantados. Os animais foram sacrificados 60 dias depois e as peças contendo os dentes foram processadas em laboratório. Cortes transversais semi-seriados do terço médio da raiz, foram obtidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina para análise histomorfométrica. Os dados obtidos foram confrontados pela análise de variância empregando-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis, quando este indicou diferença estatisticamente significante, utilizou-se o teste de Dunn para as comparações individuais. Os resultados demonstraram que a estrutura radicular e a extensão de cemento foram mais afetadas pela reabsorção no grupo III (p Abstract in english In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this s [...] tudy evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p

André Dotto, Sottovia; Celso Koogi, Sonoda; Wilson Roberto, Poi; Sônia Regina, Panzarini; José Roberto Pereira, Lauris.

2006-04-01

226

Efficacy of Topical Sodium Sulfacetamide in the Treatment of Mild and Moderate Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized, Comparative Study  

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Full Text Available Background and Design: Clindamycin and erythromycin are the most widely used topical antibiotics in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. The combination of topical antibiotics with benzoyl peroxide increases the efficacy of the treatment and reduces antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. Sodium sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic. Although it has been known for many years, it is not widely used in acne treatment. However, it has recently acquired currency again. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of sodium sulfacetamide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris and to compare with the other widely used topical antibiotics. Material and Method: In our comparative study, 60 patients with acne vulgaris were randomly assigned into 3 groups, wherein the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd groups were applied sodium sulfacetamide 10% lotion, clindamycin 1% lotion, and erythromycin 2% gel, respectively, twice daily for 12 weeks. Each group consisted of 20 subjects. The treatment was combined with benzoyl peroxide in all groups. The patients were assessed for noninflammatory (open and closed comedones and inflammatory (papules and pustules lesion counts at 4, 8, and 12 weeks and, adverse events were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for age, sex and acne duration (p>0.05. Statistically significant decrease was obtained with all 3 treatment regimens at the end of the study (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, topical sodium sulfacetamide was found to be as effective and safe as erythromycin and clindamycin when combined with benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. These results should be supported by studies with larger cohorts.

Ay?egül Turan

2012-03-01

227

A Comparison Between the Treatment and Side Effect of Sodium Valproate and Propranolol in Preventing Migraine Headaches  

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Full Text Available One of the causes of frequent headaches in children is migraine headache. The prevention of headaches , will improve life equality in children. This study was designed to compare between treatment and side effects of sodium valproate and propranolol in preventing migraine headaches. This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial which carried out on 52 children who were reffered to out patient neurology clinic of the Ekbatan and Sina hospitals. All children with migraine who had headache during last 6 months were enrolled, and those who had received sodium valproate and propranolol previously, were excluded. The method was convenience sampling and the patients were divided into two groups with 26 patients: A and B for propranolol and sodium valproate respectively. Group A treated with propranolol and group B with sodium valproate for 8 weeks. The response to treatment was evaluated after 4 weeks. The study evaluated 52 children with migraine from 7-15 year’s old , 38.5% of cases were male and 61.5% female. Before treatment , the mean number of attacks was 5.61 months in group A and 8.73 months in group B. After treatment the number of attacks was declined in 21 cases (80.8% of group A and 19 cases (73.1% of group B. Severity of pain was improved in 18 cases (69.2% of group A and 15 cases (57.7% of group B. The incidence of vertigo was 3 cases (11.5% in group A and 2 cases (7.7% in group B. Abnormal liver enzymes test were detected in 11.5% of cases in the group B. CBC was abnormal in 7.7% of cases in the group B Sodium valproate and propranolol , both have the same therapeutic effects in prevention of migraine headeache in children. But side effects are different , and choice of either one depended on the effects consideration and contraindications of each one.

M.M. Taghdiri

2004-07-01

228

VALOR NUTRITIVO DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO E/OU URÉIA SUPLEMENTADA COM FENO DE ALFAFA (Medicago sativa L. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF COFFEE (Coffea arabica L. HULLS TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND/OR UREA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L. HAY  

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Full Text Available

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutritivo da casca de café tratada ou não com hidróxido de sódio e/ou uréia. Foram utilizados vinte carneiros, em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e cinco tratamentos constituídos de 50% de feno de alfafa e 50% de casca de café tradada ou não, assim distribuídos: T1-feno de alfafa e casca de café pura; T2-feno e casca de café + 5% uréia; T3-feno e casca de café + 1,5% NaOH; T4-feno e casca de café + 1,5% NaOH + 5% uréia; T5-100% feno de alfafa. O tratamento da casca de café com uréia propiciou apenas aumento no teor de proteína bruta (PB, e com NaOH não provocou alterações na composição química. A casca tratada ou não provocou depressão no consumo. Houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto ao consumo de proteína digestível (CPD, consumo de energia digestível (CED e digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta (DAPB. Considerando-se a composição bromatológica e a digestiblidade da casca de café pura, ela é um subproduto que pode ser aproveitado pelos ruminantes. Devido ao baixo consumo da casca de café tratada ou não, deve-se fornecêla junto a outro alimento de melhor valor nutritivo, principalmente com um melhor teor de energia.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Consumo; digestibilidade; ruminantes; subprodutos agrícolas.

The aim of this work was to assess the nutritive value of coffee hulls treated with sodium hydroxide and urea. Twenty sheeps were utilized in a randomized block design, with four blocks and five treatments combining 50% alfalfa hay and 50% treated or untreated coffee hulls, as follows: T1-alfalfa hay and pure coffee hulls; T2-hay and coffee hulls + 5% urea; T3-hay + coffee hulls + 1.5% NaOH; T4-hay + coffee hulls + 1.5% NaOH + 5% urea; T5-100% hay. The treatment coffee hulls with urea resulted only in increased crude protein content. The treatment with NaOH did not resulted in any changes in the chemical composition. Hulls, whether treated or not, caused intake reduction. There were differences among treatments as the digestible protein intake, digestible energy intake, and apparent digestibility of crude protein. Given the bromatological composition and digestibility of pure coffee hulls, we can conclude that it is a byproduct can be utilized by ruminants. For low consumption of coffee hulls, it should only be used together with another fodder with higher nutritional value, particularly with a higher energy content.

KEY-WORDS: Agricultural byproducts; digestibility; intake; ruminants.

Rodrigo Afonso Leitão

2007-09-01

229

Accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite in periapical region during endodontic treatment: Case report  

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Full Text Available The authors’ aim was to report a clinical case of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite 2,5% into periapical region during the root canaltreatment of the upper right first molar. It was demonstrated that sodium hypochlorite concentrate solutions injection induces tissular injuries, discomfort for the patient and doubts about the dentist’s ability.

Renata Grazziotin SOARES

2007-05-01

230

Association of calcium hydroxide and metronidazole in the treatment of dog's teeth with chronic periapical lesion Associação do hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol no tratamento de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica  

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Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I - no root canal dressing; group II - calcium hydroxide; group III - metronidazole; group IV - calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (alpha = 0.01. Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing.Um dos principais objetivos do tratamento endodôntico de dentes com polpa necrosada é a eliminação máxima possível dos microrganismos presentes no sistema de canal radicular, principalmente nos casos que apresentam lesões periapicais crônicas. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a resposta dos tecidos periapicais de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica ao tratamento endodôntico utilizando como curativo de demora o metronidazol, o hidróxido de cálcio e a associação das duas substâncias. METODOLOGIA: Foram empregados 44 canais radiculares de 2 cães adultos, portadores de lesão periapical crônica induzida experimentalmente. Após o preparo biomecânico os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo com o curativo de demora empregado: Grupo I - controle - sem curativo de demora; Grupo II - hidróxido de cálcio; Grupo III - associação de hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol e Grupo IV - metronidazol. Após 15 dias todos os canais foram obturados com cimento Fill Canal e passados 90 dias os animais foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o hidróxido de cálcio apresentou resultado superior aos demais tratamentos, com diferença estatísticamente significante (alfa = 0.01 e o metronidazol resultado semelhante à associação do hidróxido de cálcio com o metronidazol. Os piores resultados foram obtidos pelo grupo sem curativo de demora. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de metronidazol ou da sua associação com hidróxido de cálcio, não proporcionou melhoras no reparo quando comparado ao curativo de hidróxido de cálcio.

Sônia Regina Panzarini

2006-10-01

231

New treatment of sodium void effect in fast reactor transient study  

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A new treatment of sodium void coefficient in the fast reactor transient analysis is proposed. The method is based on the multigroup exact perturbation theory and utilizes the void reactivity map constructed by the multigroup first order perturbation theory. The change in the spatial distribution of neutron flux is corrected by the flux ratio of the fluxes in the transient and the steady states calculated with few-energy groups. The void reactivities for a homogeneous and a heterogeneous reactor are calculated by the new method with 4 and 6 energy groups and are compared with standard values obtained by the 25 group exact perturbation calculation. It is demonstrated that the new method gives almost the same values as the standard values while the ordinary calculation with 4 and 6 groups gives considerable deviation from the standard calculation. The present method has been incorporated to the two-dimensional quasi-static transient analysis code QUASAR and the code has been applied to an analysis of a control rod withdrawal accident. The results are compared with those calculated by the ordinary quasi-static method. (author)

232

Targeting voltage-gated sodium channels for treatment for chronic visceral pain  

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Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs play a fundamental role in controlling cellular excitability, and their abnormal activity is related to several pathological processes, including cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, spasticity and chronic pain. In particular, chronic visceral pain, the central symptom of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, is a serious clinical problem that affects a high percentage of the world population. In spite of intense research efforts and after the dedicated decade of pain control and research, there are not many options to treat chronic pain conditions. However, there is a wealth of evidence emerging to give hope that a more refined approach may be achievable. By using electronic databases, available data on structural and functional properties of VGSCs in chronic pain, particularly functional gastrointestinal hypersensitivity, were reviewed. We summarize the involvement and molecular bases of action of VGSCs in the pathophysiology of several organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders. We also describe the efficacy of VGSC blockers in the treatment of these neurological diseases, and outline future developments that may extend the therapeutic use of compounds that target VGSCs. Overall, clinical and experimental data indicate that isoform-specific blockers of these channels or targeting of their modulators may provide effective and novel approaches for visceral pain therapy.

Fei-Hu Qi

2011-01-01

233

Mipomersen sodium: a new option for the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia.  

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In collaboration with Genzyme, Isis Pharmaceuticals has developed mipomersen sodium (ISIS-310312), a synthetic second-generation 20-base phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that targets messenger RNA encoding apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo B-100). Elevated cholesterol levels, in particular low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) which contains a single apolipoprotein B (ApoB) molecule, have been directly correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular events. Preclinical investigations in transgenic mice have demonstrated that lowering LDL-C or ApoB can reduce aortic plaque formation associated with atherosclerosis. Mipomersen pharmacokinetics showed a wide and rapid tissue distribution and a slow prolonged elimination phase of several days in a range of species. Mipomersen displayed dose-dependent efficacy in lowering LDL-C, ApoB, triglycerides, total cholesterol and other low-density lipoproteins in healthy volunteers with mild hyperlipidemia. Similar decreases were observed in patients on stable lipid-lowering therapy for familial hypercholesterolemia with baseline LDL-C levels declining towards clinically desirable concentrations of 70 mg/dL. The efficacy of mipomersen in treating patients with severe heterozygous or homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia with cardiovascular complications has been recently assessed. There have been no serious adverse events noted with treatment and mipomersen can be administered in combination with other lipid-lowering therapies. One concern noted was an elevation in liver transaminase concentrations, although these increases were reversible. PMID:22348914

Haddley, K

2011-12-01

234

Chondroitin sulfate and sodium hialuronate in treatment of the degenerative joint disease in dogs. Clinical and radiological aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate in the knee joint of dogs with experimentally induced degenerative joint disease (DJD). Fifteen mongrel dogs, weighing 18 to 25kg were used. DJD was induced by cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) arthroscopical transection. After three weeks, CCL was repaired by an intrarticular technique, which uses fascia lata. The dogs were then divided into three groups as follows: group I received no other treatment, but the CCL reconstitution, group II received 24mg/animal of chondroitin sulfate/IM every five days, totaling six injections, and group III received 20mg/animal of sodium hyaluronate /IV every five days, totaling three injections. All dogs were examined clinically and radiographically for 90 days after the repairment surgery. The clinical evaluation was performed by assessment of lameness, weight-bearing, limb muscle atrophy and range of motion. The results demonstrated that the group treated with sodium hyaluronate had lower degree of lameness in comparison with other groups. The radiographic evaluation showed marginal osteophytes and subchondral bone sclerosis. These changes were more severe in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate. The better clinical results observed in this group, compared with the others, was probably due to the greater action of the drug in the synovium, decreasing the pain and lameness. Radiographic findings correlated poorly with the clinical signs in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate

235

Effects of ferric hydroxid sludge dosage on sludge treatment/-disposal. Final report; Einfluesse einer Eisenschlammzugabe auf die Klaerschlammbehandlung/-entsorgung. Schlussbericht  

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A pilot plant consisting of two gravity thickeners, two sludge digesters and sludge dewatering by laboratory-frame filter press was operated on two different sewage water treatment plants. Ferric hydroxide sludge (FS) was treated together as with surplus sludge from enhanced biological removal of phosphorus (SS{sub EBPR}) as together with a mixture of primary and surplus sludge including precipitation sludge (PS+SS). One sludge treatment system was dosed with FS, the other serving as control unit operated without FS. In combined thickening in view of filterable solids, COD and P the quality of supernatant improved in most cases as well as the dried solid matter of the thickened sludge increased. In thickening of SS{sub EBPR} 45-70% P was refixed more than in the control system. Scum caused by hydrogen sulphide could be avoided in particular cases. There were no negative influences on the process of combined digestion with SS{sub EBPR} observed as well as with PS+SS. The degradation of organic solid matter was increased by FS-dosage>30 g Fe/kg TR{sub RS}. If present SS{sub EBPR}, hydrogen sulphide was reduced significantly; the content of methane in digester gas increased. Re-dissolved poly-P was refixed nearly completely. Sludge dewatering process was not influenced by FS, independent of the kind of post sludge conditioning. Nor was the sludge disposal restricted by FS. P-feedback from combined thickening, digestion and dewatering of SS{sub EBPR} decreased in comparison to the control unit with 16,8% (in relation to P{sub tot} influent) to 11,2 resp. 1,4% depending on the dosage of FS. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine halbtechnische Versuchsanlage mit Schwerkrafteindickern, Faulbehaeltern und Entwaesserung mit einer Labor-Rahmenfilterpresse wurde auf zwei kommunalen Klaeranlagen betrieben. Eisenhydroxidschlamm (ES) wurde zum einen mit Ueberschussschlamm aus der erhoehten biologischen P-Elimination (UeSS{sub BIO-P}) und zum anderen mit einem Gemisch aus Primaer- und Ueberschussschlamm mit Faellschlammanteilen (PRS+UeSS) gemeinsam behandelt. Eine Strasse wurde mit verschiedenen ES-Dosierungen beschickt. Die zweite Strasse diente zu Referenzzwecken. Bei der gemeinsamen Eindickung konnte zumeist eine Verbesserung der Ueberstandswasserqualitaet bezueglich der Parameter AFS, CSB und P durch die ES-Zugabe festgestellt werden. Gleichfalls wurden hoehere Feststoffgehalte nach der Eindickung erzielt. Bei der UeSS{sub BIO-P} Eindickung wurde zusaetzlich 45-70% P fixiert. Schwefelwasserstoffbedingte Schwimmschlammbildung konnte z.T. voellig unterbunden werden. Die gemeinsame Ausfaulung, sowohl mit UeSS{sub BIO-P} als auch mit PRS+UeSS wurde nicht negativ beeinflusst. Bei ES-Dosierungen >30 g Fe/kg TR{sub KS} war ein verbesserter oTR-Abbau festzustellen. Schwefelwasserstoff wurde, soweit vorhanden, deutlich reduziert; der Methangehalt des Faulgases wurde erhoeht. Rueckgeloestes Polyphosphat konnte fast vollstaendig refixiert werden. Die ES-Zugabe wirkte sich nur in geringem Masse auf das Entwaesserungverhalten aus. Dies gilt fuer die anorganische Konditionierung genauso, wie fuer die Konditionierung mit organischen FHM. Die Entsorgungsmoeglichkeiten wurden durch die ES-Dosierung nicht eingeschraenkt. Aus den Teilergebnissen der gemeinsamen Eindickung, Faulung Entwaesserung mit UeSS{sub BIO-P} laesst sich eine Abnahme der P-Rueckbelastung infolge Schlammwasserrueckfuehrung von 16,8% (bezogen auf P{sub ges} im Zulauf) in der Referenzanlage auf 11,2 bzw, 1,4% in Abhaengigkeit von der Eisendosierung errechnen. (orig.)

Dammann, E.; Benzinger, S.

1997-12-01

236

Sodium thiosulfate treatment for calcific uremic arteriolopathy in children and young adults.  

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In adult patients with ESRD, calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is an uncommon but life-threatening complication. No effective therapy exists, although anecdotal case reports highlight the use of sodium thiosulfate (STS), a calcium-chelating agent with antioxidant properties. CUA is rare in children, and STS use has not been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of STS treatment on three patients with CUA in a pediatric chronic dialysis unit. The patients were between 12 and 21 yr of age; two were male; and primary diagnoses were obstructive uropathy, renal dysplasia, and calcineurin nephrotoxicity. Time from ESRD to CUA diagnosis was 1, 9, and 20 yr. Diagnosis was made by tissue biopsy and three-phase bone scan. Pain was the presenting symptom. Initial treatment included discontinuation of calcitriol and use of non-calcium-based phosphate binders and low-calcium dialysate concentration. STS dosage was 25 g/1.73 m(2) per dose intravenously after each hemodialysis session. For optimization of removal of calcium deposits, patient three received a combination of STS and continuous venovenous hemofiltration for the first 10 d. All patients demonstrated rapid pain relief. Within weeks, skin induration and joint mobility of the extremities improved. Radiographic evidence of reduction in the calcium deposits occurred within 3 mo of initiation of STS. The only complication was prolonged QT interval in one patient as a result of hypocalcemia, who was resolved by use of a higher dialysate calcium concentration. STS seems well tolerated in children and young adults with CUA and has mild adverse effects. For determination of its efficacy, optimum dosage, duration of therapy, and dialysis modality, controlled trials are needed. PMID:17699342

Araya, Carlos E; Fennell, Robert S; Neiberger, Richard E; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

2006-11-01

237

The Effect of Iodoacetic Acid Sodium Salt on Activity of Peroxidase in Leaves of Potatoes during Thermal Treatment  

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Full Text Available Potato tubers, which belong to Lugovsky and Lukyanovsky grades, processed with iodoacetic acid sodium salt (1 mM as a glycolis inhibitor underwent heat treatment at 37°C or 45°C (1 h. Later the tubers were placed in to soil. On the 45th day of vegetation, activity of peroxidase in potatoes leaves was determined depending on ??. We have revealed that heat treatment provoked a decrease in the activity of peroxidase in potatoes for the Lugovsky grade under all the values ??. No expressed influence of heat treatment upon peroxidase activity was registered for the potato leaves of Lukyanovsky grade.

Perfileva, A. I.

2013-04-01

238

Proposal for experimental studies to evaluate sodium hypochlorite dialysate in retroviral treatment.  

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Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is widely used to inactivate retroviruses topically and on environmental surfaces. This proposal establishes the thesis that sodium hypochlorite and its related oxygen free radicals can be administered in minute quantities in vivo to achieve a reduction in retroviral titer within the infected individual. Published reports of animal studies and accidental sodium hypochlorite infusion in much greater concentrations have indicated that the protein depletion and oxidation of sulfhydryl compounds is reversible and possibly preventable by administration of disulfide reducing agents. Various methods of infusion can include the ex vivo retroviral inactivation of plasma utilizing extracorporeal circulation through a continuous centrifugal plasma separator. The utilization of infusion of low-concentration sodium hypochlorite dialysate for retroviral inactivation merits immediate experimental study. Chlorinated tap-water and table salt ingestion must also be among the environmental factors studied for correlation to HIV infection. PMID:8057971

Avlicino, A A; Newton, C L

1994-03-01

239

Effects of glycerol on human skin damaged by acute sodium lauryl sulphate treatment.  

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Glycerol, widely used as humectant, is known to protect against irritants and to accelerate recovery of irritated skin. However, most studies were done with topical formulations (i.e. emulsions) containing glycerol in relatively high amounts, preventing drawing conclusions from direct effects. In this study, acute chemical irritations were performed on the forearm with application of a 10% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) aqueous solution under occlusion for 3 h. Then, glycerol aqueous solutions from 1 to 10% were applied under occlusion for 3 h. After elimination of moist excess consecutive to occlusive condition, in ambient air for 15 and 30 min, skin barrier function was investigated by dual measurement of skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Treatments with SLS solution under occlusion significantly increased TEWL and decreased skin hydration as assessed by capacitance measurements. The SLS irritant property was raised by the occlusion and the water barrier function as well as water content appeared impaired. Recovery with glycerol at low doses was remarkable through a mechanism that implies its hygroscopic properties and which is saturable. This precocious effect acts through skin rehydration by enhancing water-holding capacity of stratum corneum that would facilitate the late physiological repair of impaired skin barrier. Thus, glycerol appears to substitute for natural moisturizing factors that have been washed out by the detergent action of SLS, enhancing skin hydration but without restoring skin barrier function as depicted by TEWL values that remained high. Thus, irritant contact dermatitis treated with glycerol application compensate for skin dehydration, favouring physiological process to restore water barrier function of the impaired skin. Empirical use of glycerol added topical formulations onto detergent altered skin was substantiated in the present physicochemical approach. PMID:20043170

Atrux-Tallau, Nicolas; Romagny, Céline; Padois, Karine; Denis, Alain; Haftek, Marek; Falson, Françoise; Pirot, Fabrice; Maibach, Howard I

2010-08-01

240

Sodium Glucose Co transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: A New Sword for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

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The low affinity sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT2) plays a major role in physiology of glucose reabsorption from proximal part of kidney. Almost all glucose excreted through glomerular filtration, isreabsorbed via SGLT2 until blood glucose level reaches to its hreshold value for glucose excretion i.e. ~180mg/dl. Increasing the glucose excretion by inhibiting the SGLT2 is the novel approach for the treatment of diabetes. Safe and normal life of patients having familial renal glucosuria due...

R.Rajesh,; Patel Naren; Sudha vidyasagar,; Unnikrishnan; Sureshwar Pandey; Manju Varghese; Sagar Gang

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation) from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major sources of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation , also there is a potential for exposure via contamination.Precautions are necessary to limit the radiation dose to family members, nursing staff and members of public and waste treatment workers to less than 1mSv. Patients received Sodium Iodide-131 may come into close contact with other persons. In order to derive appropriate recommendations, dose rates were measured from the anterior mid-trunk of 29 patients in the upright position with 15 minutes post-dose administration at 3 meters and just before they left the nuclear medicine department at 0.5, 1, and 3 meters. We have also measured urinary iodide excretion in 29 patients to estimate Sodium Iodide-131 urinary excretion pattern in iranian patients. Based on results, the maximum cumulative dose to nursing staff was on third day (leaving day) still less than recommended dose bye ICRP. The cumulative dose family members will be more but regarding the time and distance in close contact it will be also less than recommended dose by ICRP.Radiation dose rate was decreased significantly on third day. The urinary e significantly on third day. The urinary excretion patterns in all patients were similar. The urinary excretion rate-time curve in all patients showed multiple peaks due to retention and redistribution of Iodine-131 or enterohepatic cycle of radioiodinated thyroid hormones, which didn't allow calculation of urinary excretion rate constant. The results also showed that 67 hours post administration of Sodium Iodide-131 about 70% of radiopharmaceutical was excreted through urine, 28% physically decayed or eliminated through other biological routes

242

Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated Thyroid carcinoma  

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Full Text Available Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (Urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major source of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation, also there is a potential for exposure via contamination. Precautions are necessary to limit the radiation dose to family members, nursing staff and members of public and waste treatment workers to less than 1mSv. Patients received Sodium Iodide-131 may come into close contact with other persons. In order to derive appropriate recommendations, dose rates were measured from the anterior mid-trunk of 29 patients in the upright position within 15 minutes post-dose administration at 3 meters and just before they left the nuclear medicine department at 0.5, 1 and 3 meters. We have also measured urinary iodide excretion in 29 patients to estimate Sodium Iodide-131 urinary excretion pattern in Iranian patients. Based on results, the maximum cumulative dose to nursing staff was on third day (Leaving day still less than recommended dose by ICRP. The cumulative dose of family members will be more but regarding the time and distance in close contact it will also be less than recommended dose by ICRP. Radiation dose rate was decreased significantly on third day. The urinary excretion patterns in all patients were similar. The urinary excretion rate-time curve in all patients showed multiple peaks due to retention and redistribution of Iodine-131 or entrohepatic cycle of radioiodinated thyroid hormones, which didn’t allow calculation of urinary excretion rate constant. The results also showed that 67 hours post administration of Sodium Iodide-131 about 70% of radiopharmaceutical was excreted through urine, 28% physically decayed or eliminated through other biological routes.

Beiki D

2004-06-01

243

Genetically targeted radiotherapy using the sodium-iodide symporter for treatment of head and neck cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts at using gene therapy for cancer treatment have achieved limited success. Traditional in vivo gene therapy techniques are limited by relatively inefficient gene transfer, with only a small fraction of tumor cells transfected with the gene of interest. Gene therapy strategies yielding substantial bystander cytotoxicity are preferable and could yield significant clinical effect despite a lack of gene transfer to the entire tumor. We report the successful use of such a strategy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene, expressed primarily in the thyroid, is responsible for physiologic iodide accumulation. Expression of NIS in non-thyroid cell lines has been shown to confer iodide-concentrating ability. Using a recombinant adenovirus-NIS construct (Ad-NIS) delivered to HNSCC cell lines, we demonstrate radioiodide accumulation 15- to 30-fold higher than that of cell lines transduced with a control (Ad-Bgl II) adenovirus. Consistent with NIS-mediated uptake, this accumulation is inhibited by treatment with perchlorate. Using a clonogenic cell survival assay, we demonstrate a statistically significant, dose-dependent decrease in cell survival after delivery of Ad-NIS followed by administration of varying doses of I-131. Compared to a control, Ad-Bgl II-treated group, absolute survival was reduced by 80% at the highest dose of I-131 in Ad-NIS-treated cells. We also demonstrate the ability of NIS gene transfermonstrate the ability of NIS gene transfer followed by systemic administration of I-131 to dramatically attenuate tumor formation in nude mice. Three weeks after subcutaneous injection of tumor cells, tumors treated with Ad-NIS had decreased in size by 0.7±0.1 mm, whereas control tumors treated with Ad-Bgl II had increased in size by 7.4±1.7 mm. The relative accessibility of head and neck cancers make them attractive targets for gene therapy. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of genetically targeted radiotherapy using the NIS gene as a possible therapeutic intervention. Supported by NIH CA91709

244

Decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate, NaTPB, has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of components which influence NaTPB decomposition. Copper(II) ions, solution temperature, and solution pH (hydroxide ion concentration) have all been demonstrated to affect NaTPB stability. Their relationship with each other and the stability of NaTPB has been determined. Based upon this knowledge, a method for stabilizing NaTPB was determined. Decomposition of a NaTPB solution was delayed with the addition of sodium hydroxide. In additional work, the elimination of oxygen from the reaction environment did not prevent NaTPB decomposition in the presence of copper(II) ions but did, however, affect the course of decomposition

245

Comparison of the treatment of cyanide poisoning in the cynomolgus monkey with sodium nitrite of 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-dmap), with and without sodium thiosulfate. Technical report, April 1979-September 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two methemoglobin generating compounds, sodium nitrite (iv) or 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-DMAP) (im), with and without sodium thiosulfate (iv), were compared as post-treatment therapy in anesthetized monkeys poisoning with cyanide. Arterial blood samples were taken before and after an injection of sodium cyanide (8.4 mg/kg) and treatment for analyses of blood cyanide, plasma cyanide, thiocyanate and methemoglobin content. Physiologic parameters were monitored in these treated cyanide-poisoned animals. The time course of methemoglobin formation and physiologic parameters were also monitored in animals receiving only 4-DMAP or sodium nitrite. A maximal methemoglobin level was observed at 30 minutes following injection of 4-DMAP, and 60 minutes post injection with sodium nitrite. Volumes of distribution (Vd) of cyanide were calculated from the concentrations of cyanide in blood samples and doses of cyanide injected. Although 4-DMAP forms methemoglobin more rapidly than sodium nitrite, both compounds form methemoglobin quickly enough to provide protection against cyanide poisoning. The protection offered by either compound against the lethal effects of cyanide was potentiated when used in combination with sodium thiosulfate.

Stemler, F.W.; Groff, W.A.; Kaminskis, A.; Johnson, R.P.; Froehlich, H.L.

1994-02-01

246

Antimicrobial evaluation of gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide paste in infected root canal  

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Background: Microbial irritation is the major etiologic cause of pulp and periapical lesions. Therefore the main goal of endodontic treatment is complete elimination or inimizing acteria with chemo-mechanical preparation. Calcium hydroxide is one of the chemical substances, which are used, in endodontic treatment and its antimicrobial effect on various bacteria has extensively has been studied and researched. Recently Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide has been offered to dentist...

Saberi, Eshagh A.; Narges Farhad-Molashahi; Mehdi Mohammadi

2010-01-01

247

Comparision of the Efficacy of Two Combinations;Sodium Valproate with Lithium & Sodium Valproate with Olanzapine in Treatment of Acute Mania  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Acute mania is a psychiatric emergency state that often requires rapid management. There are many different therapeutic protocols for this emergent situation. One of them is combination of moodstabilizers and antipsychotics. Olanzapine which is now available in our country can be used for this purpose. Methods and Materials: In this study, we compared the effectiveness, rapidity of response and side effects of sodium valproate plus olanzapine (group I with sodium valproate plus lithium (group II in acutely manic or mixed bipolar patients. In this randomized, double blind, parallel group study, 44 acutely manic or mixed patients according to DSM IV-TR criteria were randomly assigned to receive combinations of sodium valproate (20mg/kg per day with either olanzapine (5-15mg/day or lithium (900mg/day during a ten-day course. Efficacy was measured with Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS. Effectiveness measures included YMRS response (YMRS reduction ³ 50% and YMRS remission (YMRS<=12. Data was entered in SPSS11 software program and analyzed by Mann-Whitney, Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon tests (P-values < 0.05 were significant. Results: Total number of patients were 44 (mean age 27.18±7.34, 21 in group I and 23 in group II. Response rate was 85.7% (18 patients and 73.9% (17 patients in group I and II, respectively; with no significant differences between the two groups(P=0.33. Remission rate was 42.9 %(9 patients and 43.5% (10 patients in group I and II, respectively; with no significant differences between two groups(P=0.97. The reduction in total scores in YMRS on the 2nd, 7th and 10th days of study were significant in both groups (P<0.05, but the rapidity of response was similar. The rates of adverse effects between two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Both combinations of drugs were effective in acutely manic or mixed patients. Both treatments were safe and well tolerated

S Amanat

2005-10-01

248

Comparison of the therapeutic effects of diclofenac sodium, prednisolone and an alpha blocker for the treatment of renal colic  

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Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we compare the efficacy of diclofenac sodium, methylprednisolone and alpha-blockers for the treatment of renal colic treatment.Material and methods: A total of 30 patients between the ages of 18-70 were included in this study. Patients were referred to the Meram Medical Faculty Urology Department or Department of Emergency Medicine at Selcuk University between October 2008 and January 2009. This prospective study was approved by the Selcuk University Meram Medical Faculty Ethics Committee. Patients were randomly divided into 3 cohorts of 10 patients each. The first group consisted of patients receiving diclofenac sodium and an alpha blocker, the second group of patients received diclofenac sodium and prednisolone, and the third group of patients received diclofenac sodium alone. Each patient was diagnosed and evaluated by the same clinician. Evaluation was based on the Numerical Classification Score (NCS and the Renal Colic Symptom Score (RCSS. Pain intensity was evaluated prior to medication administration and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 hours thereafter. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis test. P-value of ?0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Symptoms immediatiely prior to medication administration and after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 hours are evaluated. There are no significant differences between the groups (p>0.05. In group 1, stone expulsion occured in 4 patients (40%, a finding that is statistically significant (p=0.01. No adverse events occurred in any group during this study.Conclusion: Comparison of the therapeutic response among the 3 groups revealed no statistically significant difference. The most important aspects to consider in regard to a treatment modality include diminishing pain, dissolving blockage, a preservation of renal function and minimizing the side effects.

Alpay Sümer

2012-03-01

249

Electrokinetic studies of magnesium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrophoretic mobility of magnesium hydroxide was studied as a function of the concentration of its potential-determining ions, namely, of the magnesium ions, and of the hydroxide ions or pH. The zero point of charge was located at approximately 10.8. The zeta-potential of magnesium hydroxide below this pH was positive. The addition of magnesium nitrate to magnesium hydroxide suspensions increased the positive zeta-potential and lowered the pH. The low solubility of magnesium hydroxide in water prevented the attainment of substantial concentrations of magnesium ions in solution. Increasing the hydroxide-ion concentration or the pH produced charge inversion. The largest negative zeta-potential was attained at pH 11.5. Further increases in pH produced no significant increase in the negative value of the zeta-potential. PMID:7241347

Schott, H

1981-05-01

250

Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 870/sup 0/C (950 to 1600/sup 0/F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium.

Hassberger, J.A.; Muhlestein, L.D.

1981-01-01

251

Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 8700C (950 to 16000F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium

252

Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Nitrite And/Or Glutathione Treatment On Male Rats  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Using food preservatives as sodium nitrite are increased in industrial food productions. Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects have been related to using of some food preservatives. Purpose: To study the effect of sodium nitrite (food additives and treated with glutathione (nature antitoxic on rats. Material And Methods: Certain parameters were measured as percentage of body weight change, body temperature, heart rates, Red & white blood cells count (RBCs & WBCs, hemoglobin (Hb level, hematocrite (Hct value, serum total lipids, serum cholesterol, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum glucose, serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase (ALT & AST activity and serum total cholinesterase. The organs, body weight were detected. Organs were prepared for biochemical analysis. Results: Body weight, respiration rate, hepatosomatic index, RBCs & WBCs count, Hb, Hct, serum total lipids, protein, albumin, A/G ratio, liver and muscle total lipids and cholesterol were significantly reduced while serum cholesterol, kidney total lipids and cholesterol, serum ALT & AST was significantly increased. Supplementation of sodium nitrite to rats had no effect on serum glucose level or cholinesterase activity Conclusion: Due to the hazardous effect of food additives as sodium nitrite, it is recommended that the use of sodium nitrite as food additives must be limited and gluathione has the ability to prevent its toxic effect

Eman Helal; *Zahkok, S; **Ghada Z A Soliman; * Al-Kassas, M;

2008-03-01

253

Evaluation of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings leachates. Laboratory progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions. Highly acidic tailings solutions (pH3) reagent grade; Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] reagent grade; Magnesium oxide (MgO) reagent grade; Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) reagent grade; and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reagent grade. Evaluation of the effectiveness for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions for the selected neutralizing agents under controlled laboratory conditions was based on three criteria. The criteria are: (1) treated effluent water quality, (2) neutralized sludge handling and hydraulic properties, and (3) reagent costs and acid neutralizing efficiency. On the basis of these limited laboratory results calcium hydroxide or its dehydrated form CaO (lime) appears to be the most effective option for treatment of uranium tailings solutions

254

Observation of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis  

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Full Text Available AIM: To explore the effects of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis. METHODS:Forty patients with ocular herpes zoster were divided into two groups, 20 cases in the observation group, 20 cases in the control group. Observation group was treated with 200mg oral acyclovir for 5 times a day and sodium hyaluronate eye drops for 4 times a day. When stromal keratitis, disciform keratitis or corneal endotheliitis occurred, fluorometholone was used for 4 times a day. The control group was treated with ganciclovir ophthalmic gel for 4 times a day. The efficacy of two groups was observed, patients were followed up for 3-4wk. RESULTS:The observation group of local pain and photophobia in remission time and corneal damage healing time were better than control group, and there were significant differences(PCONCLUSION: Effects of oral acyclovir combined with sodium hyaluronate and fluorometholone eye drops on the treatment of herpes zoster keratitis are satisfactory.

Yao-Hua Chen

2014-04-01

255

Dermal scarification versus intramuscular diclofenac sodium injection for the treatment of renal colic: a prospective randomized clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study is to determine whether dermal scarification is equally effective for treating acute renal colic compared to diclofenac sodium intramuscular therapy. A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted with methodologic rigor based on CONSORT criteria. A total of 291 patients, aged ?18 years, suffering from acute renal colic were included in this trial and randomly assigned in two groups. Patients in the first group (A) received endodermal injection (dermal scarification) of 1 ml normal saline at the area of intensity of pain. The second group (B) received 75 mg diclofenac sodium by intramuscular injection. The success of each method defined the primary end point. Pain intensity before and after treatment was assessed using a visual analog scale. The time onset and the duration of analgesia were also recorded. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding hematuria (p = 0.158), stone identification at KUB (p = 0.751) and mean pain intensity (p = 0.609) before treatment initiation. The method was successful in 75.5 % of patients in group A and 74.3 % of patients in group B (p = 0.812). Mean pain reduction was comparable, 5.65 ± 3.05 in group A and 5.34 ± 2.99 in group B (p = 0.379), with dermal scarification eliciting its effect considerably faster, whereas the duration of analgesia was longer in the diclofenac group (p diclofenac sodium. PMID:25074713

Ioannidis, Stavros; Kampantais, Spyridon; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Gkagkalidis, Konstantinos; Vakalopoulos, Ioannis; Toutziaris, Chrysovalantis; Patsialas, Christos; Laskaridis, Leonidas; Dimopoulos, Panagiotis; Dimitriadis, Georgios

2014-12-01

256

Development of Sodium Technology for LMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the experiments to investigate the characteristics of the free surface fluctuation in a vessel, the experimental correlation was modeled to describe the free surface fluctuation in the upper plenum of a liquid metal reactor within 95% reliability and 2.4% error. The correlation was used to verify the computational model. The new conceptual flowmeters were suggested to measure the sodium flow for the reliability enhancement. The electromagnetic flowmeter with permanent magnet showed a good linearity and repeatability. For reuse of the sodium contaminated component, CO2 bubbling method was developed. Sodium in 0.3mm crevice specimen was removed completely. The optimum condition for the used sodium treatment was deduced to estimate which reaction is more safe and adequate for operation condition by analyzing the reactivity alleviation condition and the reaction rate with the control of sodium hydroxide concentration A series of tests were carried out to investigate the enlargement rate of the nozzle hole itself and the sodium-water reaction temperature associated with needle-like jets of a high-pressure water/steam into the sodium side of a steam generator. The size of the nozzle hole became larger with an increased duration of the steam injection both for the 2.25Cr-1Mo and M9Cr-1Mo steels by a self-wastage phenomenon. For developing the SWR acoustic leak detection technology, the tool prepared by the LabVIEW was installed with the system, and confirmed the performance of the on-line acoustic leak detection tool using the SWR leak signal acquired in the KAERI facility

257

Sodium thiosulfate treatment of tumoral calcinosis in patients with end-stage renal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three patients (2 male and 1 female) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for more than 4 years with tumoral calcifications were treated by sodium thiosulfate. All patients had periarticular and soft tissue calcification. A considerable regression of calcified masses with concurrent clinical improvement was noted in 2 of the 3 patients. PMID:2100824

Kyriakopoulos, G; Kontogianni, K

1990-01-01

258

Divalproex Sodium Versus Valproic Acid in Hospital Treatment of Psychotic Disorders  

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Background: Approximately 50% of pharmacy prescriptions in the United States are filled with generic drugs, which have improved substantially in quality owing to increased governmental regulations. The remaining medicoeconomic question regards whether or not brand-name medications are worth the price. This study evaluates these questions for the brand-name mood stabilizer divalproex sodium and its generic counterpart, valproic acid.

Schwartz, Thomas L.; Massa, Jose L.; Gupta, Sanjay; Al-samarrai, Sadiq; Devitt, Patrick; Masand, Prakash S.

2000-01-01

259

Comparative study of diclofenac sodium and paracetamol for treatment of pain after adenotonsillectomy in children.  

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Diclofenac sodium has a significant effect on decreasing the pain associated with swallowing postoperatively and on the general condition of the patient. Improved oral intake resulted in a lower incidence of nausea and vomiting and allowed safer and earlier hospital discharge.

M. I. Tawalbeh

2001-02-01

260

Effect of ascorbate ions in DTPA treatment after contamination by mixed plutonium dioxide-sodium burning products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plutonium toxicity problems arising from the use of molten sodium cooled fast breeder reactors involving the accidental mixing and ignition of sodium contaminated by plutonium dioxide have been investigated. The possibility of using the strong reducing agent, ascorbate ion, in order to reduce Pu VI to a chemical form more complexable by DTPA, has been tested using male and female rats. Urine, feces, liver and skeletal measurements of 239Pu daughter products were carried out. It was shown that the transportable fraction was not significantly modified by the associate ascorbate-DTPA treatment. However the skeletal burden which represents 2.2% with DTPA, reached only 1.6% with ascorbate association and 0.3% with preventive ascorbate injections. Whatever the DTPA ascorbate treatment, the liver burden was not modified significantly. Difference observable only with preventive ascorbate treatment cancels out ascorbate association in order to greatly increase DTPA therapy efficiency, but seems to indicate that the Pu-proteins associations in blood is reduced more easily by ascorbate than association of Pu with local proteins. Ascorbate reduction can also be observed in urinary elimination in that preventive ascorbate, followed by DTPA-ascorbate, leads to a quicker urinary elimination than DTPA or DTPA plus ascorbate post treatment. (U.K.)

 
 
 
 
261

Effect of chronic oral administration of a low dose of captopril on sodium appetite of hypothyroid rats: Influence of aldosterone treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with methimazole develop an exaggerated sodium appetite. We investigated here the capacity of hypothyroid rats (N = 12 for each group) to respond to a low dose of captopril added to the ration, a paradigm which induces an increase in angiotensin II synthesis in [...] cerebral areas that regulate sodium appetite by increasing the availability of circulating angiotensin I. In addition, we determined the influence of aldosterone in hypothyroid rats during the expression of spontaneous sodium appetite and after captopril treatment. Captopril significantly increased (P

R.R., Ventura; E.L., Olivares; D.B., Passos Junior; M.J., Ramalho; J., Antunes-Rodrigues; L.C., Reis.

262

Effect of chronic oral administration of a low dose of captopril on sodium appetite of hypothyroid rats: Influence of aldosterone treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with methimazole develop an exaggerated sodium appetite. We investigated here the capacity of hypothyroid rats (N = 12 for each group) to respond to a low dose of captopril added to the ration, a paradigm which induces an increase in angiotensin II synthesis in [...] cerebral areas that regulate sodium appetite by increasing the availability of circulating angiotensin I. In addition, we determined the influence of aldosterone in hypothyroid rats during the expression of spontaneous sodium appetite and after captopril treatment. Captopril significantly increased (P

R.R., Ventura; E.L., Olivares; D.B., Passos Junior; M.J., Ramalho; J., Antunes-Rodrigues; L.C., Reis.

2001-03-01

263

WOOD PRE-TREATMENT INFLUENCE ON THE HYDRATION OF PORTLAND CEMENT IN COMBINATION WITH SOME TROPICAL WOOD SPECIES  

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Full Text Available The influence of three pre-treatment methods on the hydration characteristics of Portland cement in combination with three tropical hardwood species was investigated. The maximum hydration temperature and time to reach maximum hydration temperature were analysed for the wood-cement-water mixtures of the three species after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples by extraction with 5% Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, cold and hot water after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples. There were differences in the hydration reaction of the wood species with Portland cement using the different pre-treatment methods. The compatibility of the wood species with Portland cement improved following pre-treatment. Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment had the most significant effect followed by hot water. Terminalia ivorensis (Idigbo, and Antiaris africana (Oriro species showed considerable improvement in their compatibility with Portland cement at 5% Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment with maximum hydration temperature of 65oC where Arere had 60.5oC where both cold and hot water were unable to raise the hydration temperature beyond 55.5oC . This study shows that the wood species requires more than cold and hot water extraction to make them suitable for wood cement composite materials as extraction with sodium hydroxide (1% solution was found to be the most effective treatment for the wood species under investigation.

Nusirat Aderinsola SADIKU

2014-06-01

264

Layered double hydroxide formation in Bayer liquor and its promotional effect on oxalate precipitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer process liquor to improve the quality of alumina product remains an important objective for Bayer refining. The formation of layered double hydroxides by the reaction of alkaline earth oxides, such as lime and magnesia, with Bayer liquor gives a crystal structure which is capable of intercalating anions, both inorganic and organic, within its structure. Both lime and magnesia, with long contact times in Bayer liquor, show layered double hydroxide formation. This layered double hydroxide formation is accompanied with a decrease in the sodium oxalate content in the liquor from about 3 g/L to below 1 g/L. Short contact times lead to a destabilization of the liquor which facilitates sodium oxalate precipitation. Additional work on magnesium hydroxide shows, in comparison to lime and magnesia, much less layered double hydroxide formation with equivalent residence time in the liquor. Destabilization of the liquor also occurs, giving enhanced oxalate precipitation with less alumina being consumed in agreement with lower layered double hydroxide formation. Thermal regeneration of these structures, followed by in-situ recrystallization in Bayer liquor, also gives enhanced oxalate precipitation, suggesting that there is an opportunity for a regenerable oxalate reduction system. The implementation of these experiments and other related technology into the plant has resulted in the Purox Process for enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer liquor.

Perrotta, A.J. [Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA (United States); Williams, F. [Alcoa Operations, Pt. Comfort, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

265

Synthesis of superconducting perovskite by coprecipitation of hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the synthesis of the superconducting perovskite YBa2Cu3O7 using hydroxides as starting precursors is investigated. Hydroxides are homogeneously coprecipitated from mixed alcohol-water solutions without loss of barium. Upon heat-treatment the perovskite phase rapidly forms around 750 degrees C. However, it remains tetragonal even after long time annealing in oxygen ambient. This is related to an unusual microtwinning in the (ac) plane

266

Investigation of interaction of tantalum hydroxide with lithium carbonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using thermography, X-ray phase and mass-spectrometric analyses interaction tantalum hydroxide, containing 0.5-1 mass% fluorine as an impurity, with lithium carbonate is investigated. Interaction begins at approximately 610 deg C and proceeds in many stages, with formation of lithium metatantalate and LiF, and Li4TaO4F impurity phases. Preliminary heat treatment of tantalum hydroxide at the temperature of Ta2O5 formation allows to decrease fluorine impurity content

267

27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.  

Science.gov (United States)

... per 21 CFR 173.110. Copper sulfate To eliminate hydrogen...distilling material to which copper sulfate has been added shall...million (2 mg/L) residual copper. GRAS per FDA advisory opinion...treatment. (GRAS) Sodium hydroxide Acid neutralizing...

2010-04-01

268

A comparison of a 5% potassium hydroxide solution with a 5-fluorouracil and salicylic acid combination in the treatment of patients with anogenital warts: a randomized, open-label clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anogenital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), over 30 types of which are infectious for the anogenital tract. Without treatment, warts may regress spontaneously, remain unchanged, or increase in number and size. This study compared the efficacy of a topical 5% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution with that of a topical 0.5% 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 10% salicylic acid (SA) combination in the treatment of anogenital warts. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to receive topical KOH or 5-FU + SA. Both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in numbers of lesions (P  0.05). The mean number of lesions decreased from baseline to week 12 from 17.03 ± 12.64 to 3.73 ± 7.30 and from 16.13 ± 12.97 to 3.10 ± 4.90 in the KOH and 5-FU + SA groups, respectively (P  0.05). No serious adverse events were reported. Neither treatment was more efficacious. Safety and ease of application are important goals in treatments for anogenital warts. A 5% KOH solution is a promising alternative treatment because it is effective and inexpensive and causes minimal side effects. PMID:25039244

I?ik, Selda; Koca, Rafet; Sarici, Gülben; Altinyazar, Hilmi Cevdet

2014-09-01

269

Flavonoid accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgii in vitro cultures upon treatment with sodium cinnamate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of secondary metabolites by plant cell cultures has been suggested as a feasible technology that attracted considerable industrial and academic interest in the past three decades. However, many secondary pathways are not well expressed in plant cell cultures. Optimization of culture medium, elicitation, genetic engineering and the supply of biosynthetic precursors are among the strategies adopted to increase secondary metabolite production in vitro. In this study, the effects of five potential biosynthetic precursors on the production of baicalin and baicalein in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgii suspension and callus cultures were measured. The results of this work show that flavonoid biosynthesis was most stimulated by the addition of sodium cinnamate in the concentration of 5 mg x l(-1) and by cinnamic acid (1 mg x l(-1)). Feeding with L-phenylalanine, malonic acid and sodium malonate did not induce changes in the amounts of flavonoids, and the biomass production was not affected. PMID:18257419

Martin, J; Dusek, J

2007-12-01

270

The local heat treatment technology for not easily accessible welded joints of sodium-conducting pipes in nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental works results in local heat treatment of not easily accessible welded joints for the nuclear power stations sodium-conducting pipes using flexible wired resistance heaters are described. Vertical welded joints 820x13, 630x13, 219x10 and 245x11 were studied. It was found out that for the tubes welded joints 219x10 and 245x11mm the normal process of austenization without reflectors inside the welded joint is achieved under heating by means of one electric heater. It was suggested that the electric heater capacity should be increased for tubes welded joints 820x13 and 630x13 mm

271

Effect of heat treatment on the infrared absorption spectra of strontium-sodium-borosilicate glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Infrared absorption spectra of the prepared strontium-sodium-borosilicate glass (SiO2 80%-Na2O 12.5%-B2O3 5%-SrO 2.5%) are studied in the frequency range 200-4000 cm-1, where strontium oxide was introduced on partial replacement of soda in sodium-borosilicate glass, to show the effect of divalent metal oxide introduced on the structural units SiO4, BO4, and BO3 within the network structure of strontium-sodium-borosilicate glass, in the temperature range 27-800 degC. The deformation of SiO4 tetrahedra is investigated by using the baseline method, the temperature dependence of the relative integrated intensity, the relaxation time, and rotational energy barrier of this glass proved that the glassy phase is transformed to crystalline phase at 500 degC. A slight shift occurs in the strongest bands of SiO4 tetrahedra to higher frequencies, with temperature increase, which indicates an increase in the force constants between the components of the glass network structure. The increase of the absorbance in the temperature range 600-800 degC indicates strengthening of the SiO4 bonds. (author)

272

Preparation of aluminum hydroxide by recycling of aluminum dross  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum dross should be recycled in consideration of characteristics of the dross and its reutilization after processing. In this study, aluminum dross generated in the domestic secondary aluminum industry was processed to use it as raw material for producing aluminum hydroxide. Sample dross was classified according to its size. The dross smaller than 850 {mu}m was leached with sodium hydroxide solution to extract the remaining aluminum from the dross into the solution, and then aluminum hydroxide precipitate was recovered from the leach liquor. Purity of the obtained aluminum hydroxide was above 98%, and size of the sample was in range of 3-39 {mu}m. Recovery of aluminum hydroxide precipitate was highest on condition that A/C ratio of the solution was 0.5 and pulp density was 14-16% at the leaching step. From the result, it was suggested that this process could be applicable to recycling of aluminum dross. (author). 8 refs., 5 tabs., 9 figs.

Park, Hyung-Kyu; Lee, Hoo-In; Kim, Joon-Soo [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Taejeon(Korea)

2001-10-31

273

Treatment of waste H?SO? with Mg-Al oxide obtained by calcination of NO??-intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide: Kinetics and equilibrium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mg-Al oxide obtained by calcination of NO(3)(-)-intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (NO(3)•Mg-Al LDH) was used to treat H(2)SO(4), acting as both a neutralizer of the acid and a fixative for SO(4)(2-). The fraction of SO(4)(2-) removed increased with time and with increasing Mg-Al oxide quantity and temperature. The rate of SO(4)(2-) removal followed first-order kinetics with apparent rate constants of 2.0 × 10(-3), 4.4 × 10(-3), and 5.3 × 10(-2) min(-1) at 10, 30, and 60°C, respectively. The apparent activation energy was 52.1 kJ mol(-1), confirming that the SO(4)(2-) removal by Mg-Al oxide proceeded under chemical reaction control. Furthermore, the adsorption isotherm of SO(4)(2-) by Mg-Al oxide obeyed the Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption amount was 2.0 mmol g(-1), or 4.0 meq g(-1), indicating that Mg-Al oxide has a large capacity for uptake of SO(4)(2-) from H(2)SO(4). PMID:22416865

Kameda, Tomohito; Fubasami, Yuki; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

2012-01-01

274

Comparison of auranofin, gold sodium thiomalate, and placebo in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A controlled clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective controlled, double-blind multicenter trial compared placebo, auranofin (an orally administered gold complex), and parenteral gold sodium thiomalate (GST) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Of 193 patients who received any treatment, the only important improvement identified for either auranofin or GST was for pain/tenderness scores. When 161 patients who completed 20 weeks of treatment were examined, both auranofin and GST treatments were superior to placebo as measured by improvement in number of painful and/or tender joints, joint pain/tenderness scores, physician's assessment of disease activity, and decrease in erythrocyte sedimentation rate when elevated at entry. GST was superior to placebo in improvement of joint swelling scores, anemia, thrombocytosis, and rheumatoid factor. No drug-related remissions were observed. The only statistically significant advantages of GST over auranofin for efficacy were an increase in hemoglobin concentration and decrease of thrombocytosis with GST. Withdrawals for adverse effects were 5 times more frequent with GST treatment. Thrombocytopenia, proteinuria, elevated liver enzymes, "nitritoid" reactions, and "gold pneumonitis" were observed only in the GST treatment group. These results confirm that both parenteral and oral gold may be effective for the treatment of RA, that GST tends to show greater efficacy than auranofin, and that auranofin has fewer significant adverse effects than GST. However, long-term benefits, tolerability, and safety cannot be inferred from this study. PMID:6416259

Ward, J R; Williams, H J; Egger, M J; Reading, J C; Boyce, E; Altz-Smith, M; Samuelson, C O; Willkens, R F; Solsky, M A; Hayes, S P

1983-11-01

275

Mutagenic effects of 137Cs gamma ray and sodium azide combined treatment on rice (oryza sativa L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dry seeds of rice variety, Guanglu No.4, were treated with 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 Gy of gamma ray or 1,2,3 mmol of sodium azide (NaN3), and with their combination. The biological effects in M1 and mutation frequency of M2 were investigated. The results showed that the biological injuries of M1 increased with dose of gamma ray and concentration of NaN3. The additive effects were observed on seedling height, root length, vigorous index of seedling height, vigorous index of root length and the synergic effect on the percentage of chromosome aberration. It was found that combination treatment with gamma ray and sodium azide were more effective than single treatment of gamma ray or NaN3. The results of this study suggested that 200 Gy gamma ray + 2 mmol NaN3 was the most effective one for inducing mutation. Frequency of chlorophyll mutation, mutation on heading date and the plant height in M2 generation were 2.833%, 2.473% and 1.828% respectively. Index of interaction were 1.640, 1.329 and 1.449 respectively

276

Wet reclamation of sodium silicate used sand and biological treatment of its wastewater by Nitzschia palea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The massive amount of sodium silicate in the used sand was a pollution source, especially in the waste water from the wet reclamation of used sand. A new process of wet reclamation by biologically treating the waste water produced during the wet reclamation process of used sand was studied in the paper. In the work, the pre-cultivation of N. palea was performed firstly, and three different scrubbing solutions: (1) tap water, (2) modified medium for N. palea, and (3) filtrate of the broth trea...

Yu Shaoqiang; Fan Zitian; Wang Huafang

2012-01-01

277

Treatment of lung cancer with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous sodium thiosulfate rescue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty-nine patients with primary lung cancer were treated with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous injection of an antidote, sodium thiosulfate. More than 50% reduction of tumor size (PR) was observed in 8 of 9 small cell carcinomas (SCLC) and in 16 of 40 non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). In NSCLC patients PR was obtained in 71% (12/17) after repeated infusions (? 200 mg cisplatin) and in 17% (4/23) after a single infusion (? 150 mg cisplatin). There was a significant linear relationship between cisplatin dose and tumor reduction in this group. No severe adverse effects were encountered. (orig.)

278

Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles by Hydroxide Mediated Approach  

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Cerium oxide nanoparticles or nanoceria were synthesized by hydroxide mediated approach using cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)3.6H2O and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as precursors. Structural and morphological studies of the cerium oxide nanoparticles were carried out using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). XRD pattern confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the cerium nanoparticles with face centered cubic structure. Crystallite si...

Uma Maheshwari Krishnan; John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan; Muruganantham Chelliah

2012-01-01

279

Volumes of aqueous hydrogen and hydroxide ions at 0 to 200 °C  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrostriction of aqueous hydrogen and hydroxide ions at infinite dilution was calculated by the shell-by-shell method over the temperature range 0 to 200 °C. The calculation required an estimate of the ionic radius of these ions, and comparison with data for aqueous lithium, sodium, and fluoride ions provided values for the nominal sizes of the hydrogen and hydroxide ions in solution. From the volumetric standpoint, these sizes are surprisingly smaller than the size of a water molecule.

Marcus, Yizhak

2012-10-01

280

Effect of chronic oral administration of a low dose of captopril on sodium appetite of hypothyroid rats: Influence of aldosterone treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with methimazole develop an exaggerated sodium appetite. We investigated here the capacity of hypothyroid rats (N = 12 for each group) to respond to a low dose of captopril added to the ration, a paradigm which induces an increase in angiotensin II synthesis in cerebral areas that regulate sodium appetite by increasing the availability of circulating angiotensin I. In addition, we determined the influence of aldosterone in hypothyroid rats during the exp...

Ventura R.R.; Olivares E.L.; Passos Junior D.B.; Ramalho M.J.; Antunes-Rodrigues J.; Reis L.C.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Rice mutants obtained through sodium azide (NaN3) treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The successful utilization of sodium azide to generate genetic variability in plant breeding has been reported in barley, rice, and other crops. Rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce', Brazilian upland cultivar, were treated with 5x10-3 M of sodium azide, prepared in buffer solution of pH 3,0, for 8 hours at laboratory temperature. Ten short culm mutant lines were selected in the M2, M3 and M4 generations. In the M5 generation, the mutant lines were evaluated for flowering and maturing cycles, tiller number per plant, plant height, panicle number per m2 , panicle length, fertility of panicle, weight of 1.000 grains, productivity, percentage of intact grains after milling, width and thickness of peeled and polished grains and length/width grain ratio. The experiment was conducted in the Centro Experimental of Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the period of 1993/94, utilizing randomized block design with four replications. Each experimental plot consisted of five rows of four meters in length, 50 cm between rows, with 75 seeds sown per meter. The cultivar 'IAC 201' and the original Dourado Precoce were planted as checks. All observations were made on the three central rows of each experimental plot. The data was analysed by the SANEST statistical program and the mean values were discriminated by the Tukey's test at the level 5% of probability

282

Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke  

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Full Text Available Background Antiplatelet aggregation treatment has become a regular treatment of ischemic stroke. The affirmation of antiplatelet therapy is mainly derived from patients with clinical use, which can not provide the laboratory indexes for evaluation of a recognized accuracy. Studies have confirmed that the degree of platelet activation is associated with atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke, and recognized that both CD62p (?-platelet granule membrane glycoprotein and CD63 (lysosomal membrane glycoprotein were important indexes of platelet activation. This study aims to explore the differences of efficacy between combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium and monotherapy by aspirin in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke by investigating the expression of CD62p and CD63. Methods Flow cytometry was employed to detect CD62p and CD63 expression on circulating platelet in patients with ischemic stroke and normal control group. The positive rate of CD62p and CD63 was detected in patients with ischemic stroke who were treated with aspirin 0.15 g (single drug therapy and clopidogrel 75 mg + ozagrel sodium 80 mg (combination therapy before and after one and two weeks' treatment. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores were measured in patients with ischemic stroke at the same time in three periods respectively to evaluate the improvement of neural function. Results Platelet CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate in ischemic stroke group were higher than normal control group before treatment (P = 0.001, 0.032. CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score were measured at different times, and the differences were statistically significant (F = 56.693, P = 0.000; F = 21.544, P = 0.000; F = 216.271, P = 0.000, respectively. Compared with before treatment, CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score decreased significantly after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but the differences between aspirin group and combination group were not statistically significant (P > 0.05, for all. There was no interaction between the treatment groups and measuring time with CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate (F = 1.403, P = 0.250; F = 2.830, P = 0.063, while there was interaction between treatment groups and measuring time with NIHSS score (F = 4.518, P = 0.013. Conclusion Antiplatelet drug treatment of acute ischemic stroke is effective. The curative effect of combined treatment (clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium is not superior to aspirin alone. CD62p positive expression rate in acute stage of ischemic stroke can measure the effect of antiplatelet therapy, while the determination of CD63 needs further research.

ZHAO Zhen

2013-10-01

283

Conductivity measures coupled with treatment with ion-exchange resin for the assessment of sodium concentration in physiological fluids: analyses on artificial solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In humans, sodium is essential for the regulation of blood volume and pressure. During hemodialysis, sodium measurement is important to preserve the patient from hypo- or hyper-natremia Usually, sodium measurement is performed through laboratory equipment which is typically expensive, and requires manual intervention. We propose a new method, based on conductivity measurement after treatment of dialysate solution through ion-exchange resin. To test this method, we performed in vitro experiments. We prepared 40 ml sodium chloride (NaCl) samples at 280, 140, 70, 35, 17.5, 8.75, 4.375 mEq/l, and some mixed samples, i.e., with added potassium chloride (KCl) at different concentrations (4.375–17.5 mEq/l), to simulate the confounding factors in a conductivity-based sodium measurement. We measured the conductivity of all samples. Afterwards, each sample was treated for 1 min with 1 g of Dowex G-26 resin, and conductivity measured again. On average, the difference ? in the conductivity between mixed samples and corresponding pure NaCl samples (at the same NaCl concentration) was 20.9%. With treatment with the resin, it was 9.9%, only. We conclude that ion-exchange resin treatment coupled with conductivity measures may be a possible simple approach for continuous and automatic sodium measurement during hemodialysis

284

The optimum methods of sodium azide treatment after gamma ray irradiation in wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dormant seeds of two varieties of winter wheat were irradiated with gamma ray (200 Gy). The optimum methods, including presoaking-time of seeds, the concentration and treating-time of NaN3, were studied. It was found that the seedling height in M1 were decreased significantly and the starting-time of seed germination were delayed after seeds were presoaked. The average seedling height and the rate of emergence were reduced with the increase of concentration of treating-time of NaN3. On the basis of half of seedling height in M1, seeds presoaked for 10-12 hours and treated for 2 hours with 2 mM sodium azide were suitable for winter wheat

285

Radioactive waste treatment of sodium carbonate solution from U and Th extraction process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of pH on the adsorption of uranium on activated charcoal from aqueous solutions was studied. The maximal sorption was observed at pH 4.8 of equilibrium solution. This sorption property of activated charcoal for uranium was applied to study on the reduction of the radioactive isotopes from waste of sodium carbonate waste in the monazite processing plant. The dependence of radionuclides adsorption from the radioactive waste to the amount of activated charcoal was examined under optimized pH condition. The resulted waste solution after treated with adequate activated charcoal could reach the requirement of radioactive waste disposal, i.e. gross ? <3.7 Bq/L and gross ? <37 Bq/L. A Sequential Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry and Gross ?, ? Counter were used for the analysis of elemental concentration and activities of gross ? and ?, respectively

286

The use of a modified Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite) in the treatment of Vibrio vulnificus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the first clinical use of a modified Dakin's solution (0.025% sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl]) to halt the progress of severe cutaneous Vibrio vulnificus infection in a critically ill patient. The regimen used arose from an initial in vitro study designed to examine the sensitivity of Vibrio species to topical antimicrobial agents. Twenty-eight wound isolates were tested against the following eight topical preparations: silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene), nitrofurazone, mupirocin ointment (Bactroban), polymyxin B/bacitracin, mafenide acetate (Sulfamylon), nystatin/Silvadene, nystatin/polymyxin B/bacitracin, and 0.025% NaOCl solution. The results showed that V vulnificus, along with the other 18 Vibrio species tested, was most sensitive to the modified NaOCl solution. PMID:10347673

Milner, S M; Heggers, J P

1999-01-01

287

Treatment of lung cancer with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous sodium thiosulfate rescue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forty-nine patients with primary lung cancer were treated with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous injection of an antidote, sodium thiosulfate. More than 50% reduction of tumor size (PR) was observed in 8 of 9 small cell carcinomas (SCLC) and in 16 of 40 non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). In NSCLC patients PR was obtained in 71% (12/17) after repeated infusions (greater than or equal to 200 mg cisplatin) and in 17% (4/23) after a single infusion (less than or equal to 150 mg cisplatin). There was a significant linear relationship between cisplatin dose and tumor reduction in this group. No severe adverse effects were encountered.

Uchiyama, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Nakajo, M.; Shinohara, S.

1988-01-01

288

Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments  

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In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control). Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with ch...

Andrade Luciana Segura de; Andrade Rafael Luiz Barboza de; Becker Alexssandro Geferson; Baldisserotto Bernardo

2006-01-01

289

The Sr-90 waste treatment by using sodium carbonat as a carrier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coprecipitation processes of the Sr-90 wastes, with the lime-soda treatment, that followed by the mechanism of isomorph substitution, have shown a good performance in pH 7-8. Excess of natrium carbonate in the lime-soda treatment caused the decrease of the decontamination factor. This research shows that the coprecipitation by calcite-phosphate was better than the lime-soda treatment. (author)

290

Technology of mine water treatment in uranium ore mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most commonly used method of radioactive water treatment is the sedimentation method based on the adsorption mechanism. Iron, aluminium and calcium hydroxides are used for removal of uranium. Thorium, polonium and lead 210 are removed using the said hydroxides and also barium chloride and sodium phosphate. The mining solutions are mixed with chemicals and cleaning proceses take place including sedimentation, decantation and filtration. The treated water is partially returned into technological operations, partially discharged. Hygiene regulations have so far been missing governing other uses. (M.D.). 3 refs

291

Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate and Trichostatin A (TSA treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development of post-stroke epilepsy. Unilateral carotid ligation of P12 CD1 mice was followed by treatment with valproate, TSA, or vehicle for 2 weeks, BrdU administration for measurement of neurogenesis, and perfusion at P42 or P60. Behavior testing was conducted from P38-42. No detrimental effects on behavior testing were noted with TSA treatment, but mildly impaired cognitive function was noted with valproate-treated injured animals compared to normal animals. Significant increases in DG neurogenesis with both TSA and valproate treatment were noted with later administration of BrdU. Increased mortality and impaired weight gain was noted in the valproate-treated ligated animals, but not in the TSA-treated animals. In summary, the impact of HDAC inhibition upon post-stroke SGZ neurogenesis is likely to depend on the age of the animal at the time point when neurogenesis is assessed, duration of HDAC inhibition before BrdU labeling, and/or the stage in the evolution of the injury.

AnneMarieComi

2013-08-01

292

Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate) and trichostatin A (TSA) treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development of post-stroke epilepsy. Unilateral carotid ligation of P12 CD1 mice was followed by treatment with valproate, TSA, or vehicle for 2 weeks, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) administration for measurement of neurogenesis, and perfusion at P42 or P60. Behavior testing was conducted from P38-42. No detrimental effects on behavior testing were noted with TSA treatment, but mildly impaired cognitive function was noted with valproate-treated injured animals compared to normal animals. Significant increases in DG neurogenesis with both TSA and valproate treatment were noted with later administration of BrdU. Increased mortality and impaired weight gain was noted in the valproate-treated ligated animals, but not in the TSA-treated animals. In summary, the impact of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition upon post-stroke subgranular zone neurogenesis is likely to depend on the age of the animal at the time point when neurogenesis is assessed, duration of HDAC inhibition before BrdU labeling, and/or the stage in the evolution of the injury. PMID:23966909

George, Shanu; Kadam, Shilpa D; Irving, Natasha D; Markowitz, Geoffrey J; Raja, Saba; Kwan, Anthony; Tu, Yushan; Chen, Huigen; Rohde, Charles; Smith, Dani R; Comi, Anne M

2013-01-01

293

Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control. Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with chloramphenicol presented higher survival than the treatment with oxytetracycline and both showed significantly higher survival than control. Swimming activity was higher in the fish treated with antibiotics and salt compared to control fish. A combination of the studied antibiotics plus salt is more effective to treat both A. hydrophila infection and I. multifiliis infestation in silver catfish, but since the use of chloramphenicol is not allowed in Brazil, oxytetracycline plus salt seems to be the best treatment option.

Andrade Luciana Segura de

2006-01-01

294

Insight of the removal of nickel and copper ions in fixed bed through acid activation and treatment with sodium of clay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The bentonitic clays show good adsorptive characteristics, being used as alternative material for removing metals. This study evaluates several treatments (calcination, acid activation and treatment with sodium) of bentonite type Bofe in the removal of nickel and copper. Analyses were performed for [...] physicochemical characterization of clay using the techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermal analysis (TG and DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) method, N2 adsorption (BET) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Among the changes induced by acid activation and sodium transformations, the treatment with sodium chloride in fixed bed showed the highest performance in the monocomponent removal of nickel and copper.

A. F. de, Almeida Neto; M. G. A., Vieira; M. G. C. da, Silva.

1047-10-01

295

Method of processing radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a method of processing concentrated radioactive wastes mainly comprising sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite, aluminum hydroxide and/or iron hydroxide is added into a neutral or alkaline wastes. Then, they are converted by denitration under heating into powdery block or powdery block high melting decomposition products containing sodium. Further, they are calcinated if required into powdery block or powdery block solids containing sodium salt, etc, and then pelletized by a pelletizer to proceed volume reduction and stabilization. In this way, they can be mixed with asphalt, enabling storage in a great amount as stable denitrated solidification products. (T.M.)

296

Degradation of l-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesium–aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces and catalytically active Mg site centers are causative factors for PLA degradation. Interestingly, the release of water under the processing conditions was found to have a rather small effect on the PLA degradation. Low loadings of sodium laurate also caused PLA degradation indicating that carboxylate chain ends may be active degrading agents. Phosphate treatment of laurate-modified LDH was investigated and this may be a promising way of reducing PLA degradation, thereby making such processes more practically realistic.

Gerds, Nathalie; Katiyar, Vimal

2012-01-01

297

Degradation of L-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C-12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces and catalytically active Mg site centers are causative factors for PLA degradation. Interestingly, the release of water under the processing conditions was found to have a rather small effect on the PLA degradation. Low loadings of sodium laurate also caused PLA degradation indicating that carboxylate chain ends may be active degrading agents. Phosphate treatment of laurate-modified LDH was investigated and this may be a promising way of reducing PLA degradation, thereby making such processes more practically realistic. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gerds, Nathalie Christiane; Katiyar, Vimal

2012-01-01

298

Method for preparation of sodium iodide and iodate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preparation of sodium iodide and iodate of higher purity at the expense of the increase in their separation degree, which comprises iodine interaction with sodium hydroxide, sodium iodate solid phase isolation by means of filtration from mother solution containing sodium iodide, is described. Sodium iodate impurity in mother solution is reduced by sodium sulfite, and sodium iodate, contained in the solid phase, is isolated after its repulping at mass ratio solid: liquid 1:1.8-3.4 at 15-40 deg. The solution formed is returned to the stage of iodine interaction with NaOH

299

Sodium Glucose Co transporter 2 (SGLT2 Inhibitors: A New Sword for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The low affinity sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT2 plays a major role in physiology of glucose reabsorption from proximal part of kidney. Almost all glucose excreted through glomerular filtration, isreabsorbed via SGLT2 until blood glucose level reaches to its hreshold value for glucose excretion i.e. ~180mg/dl. Increasing the glucose excretion by inhibiting the SGLT2 is the novel approach for the treatment of diabetes. Safe and normal life of patients having familial renal glucosuria due to SLC5A2 gene mutation is accelerating the development of SGLT2 inhibitors. Weight loss and very low risk of hypoglycemia are the potential benefits of these inhibitors. There are number of molecules in this class under the stage of development.

R.Rajesh,

2010-03-01

300

Effect of calcium hydroxide pastes on uninstrumented canal wall studied with scanning electron microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium hydroxide (Calpha(OH)2) paste has been used as a root canal dressing for long time and promotes healing of vital pulp and periapical tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dissolving effect of calcium hydroxide paste mixed with different vehicles on uninstrumented canal walls using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty one recently extracted single-root teeth were used. The crowns were removed and the root sections were divided longitudinally into two halves. The pulp tissue was removed and the specimens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The control group was immediately fixed without any treatment. The canals in the other groups were filled with the different calcium hydroxide pastes: group 1 (n = 6), with saline solution; group 2 (n = 6) with propylene glycol; group 3 (n = 6) with propylene glycol and camphorated p-monochlorophenol; group 4 (n = 6) with sodium hypochlorite; group 5 (n = 6) with chorhexidine 1%, group 6 (n = 6) with iodine potassium iodide 0.1/0.2%. The specimens were kept in an incubator at 100% humidity and 37 degrees C, removed after 14 days, and washed ultrasonically for 10 min. Then they were fixed with glutaraldehyde and examined with scanning electron microscopy The percentage of organic remains and paste were evaluated and scored. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal- Wallis test. In groups 1, 5 and 2 there were more cavities without organic remains than in the other groups (p 0.05). The paste in group 3 cleaned only 5%. In groups 4, 6 and 7 (control) the canals walls were wholly covered with fiber, cells, and residual paste, the percentage cleaned was 0. This study shows that Calpha(OH)2 pastes with saline solution, with chlorhexidine and with propylene glycol have a greater dissolving effect on the canal walls than the other pastes evaluated. PMID:22550816

de la Casa, María Luisa; Sáez, María del Milagro; López, Gabriela; López, María Elena

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Role of sodium thiosulfate therapy in the treatment of digital necrosis due to Mönckeberg sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accelerated vascular calcification is a well-described complication of chronic kidney disease often affecting large and small vessels alike through a variety of mechanisms. Accordingly, dysregulation of calcium and phosphate balance, vitamin D metabolism, hyperparathyroidism, and endothelial injury can lead to both macrovascular and microvascular complications. We describe a 56-year-old Hispanic male with a history of end-stage renal disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, and medical noncompliance who developed sequential digital ischemia and necrosis involving both hands as well as right foot as a result of Mönckeberg sclerosis. An extensive metabolic and serologic workup was unrevealing but radiographic studies and histopathology revealed the diagnosis. A multifaceted approach was instituted including wound debridement and amputations along with intensive medical support. In addition to improving hypertensive control and striving for improved calcium and phosphate balance, sodium thiosulfate solution was administered for more than 1 year. This aggressive approach allowed his wounds to heal and has arrested further digital ischemia from occurring. PMID:24267978

Brucculeri, Michael; Rullan, Eugenia; Zanchi, Antonela; Marcotte, Anthony

2014-04-01

302

The effect of sodium thiosulfate on ototoxicity and pharmacokinetics after cisplatin treatment in guinea pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of sodium thiosulfate (STS) on the pharmacokinetics and ototoxicity of cisplatin (CDDP) was investigated in guinea pigs. Animals received three intramuscular injections of 7.5 mg/kg CDDP separated by intervals of 5 days with or without STS (1,000 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally immediately and 1 h after each injection of CDDP or 3 and 6 h later. When administered alone, CDDP caused total outer hair cell (OHC) loss in the basal and second turns of the cochlea. In the group administered CDDP and STS, damage to the OHCs was mild when STS was given concurrently, but was severe when STS was given 3 and 6 h later. Pharmacokinetics measured as free and total platinum (Pt) concentrations in plasma and total Pt concentration in perilymph was not affected after administration of STS with CDDP. These results suggest that an inactive Pt-thiosulfate complex is formed in plasma and is measured as a free Pt component which enters the perilymph via the blood-cochlear barrier. Two possible mechanisms are proposed by which STS reduces ototoxicity: entry of CDDP into target cells such as OHCs and strial marginal cells or binding to intracellular macromolecules of these cells is prevented. PMID:9248736

Saito, T; Zhang, Z J; Manabe, Y; Ohtsubo, T; Saito, H

1997-01-01

303

Alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly for the treatment of osteoporosis: review of a novel, easy to swallow formulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kazuhiro Imai Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, decreased bone strength, and an increased risk of bone fracture. The disease progresses with age, especially in postmenopausal women. Japan is one of the most rapidly aging societies worldwide. Japanese individuals over 65 years of age constituted 23.0% of the population in 2010 and 25.1% to 25.2% as of 2013. The estimated number of people with osteoporosis in Japan is currently 13 million. Bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Alendronate sodium hydrate (alendronate is a bisphosphonate that potently inhibits bone resorption and is used to treat osteoporosis. Sufficient water is required to take an alendronate oral tablet; insufficient water could result in digestive system diseases, such as esophageal ulceration. Elderly patients with swallowing difficulty may choke on the tablet. Taking a tablet with oral jelly is a method to prevent digestive system disease and reduce the choking hazard. Once-weekly alendronate oral jelly was approved in 2012 by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan as the world's first drug for osteoporosis in a jelly formulation. It consists of a jelly portion and an air portion. The jelly formulation is smoothly discharged by pushing the air portion. Therefore, elderly patients with physical disabilities are able to easily take all of the jelly formulation from the package. In this review, this new formulation of alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly is introduced and discussed in terms of osteoporosis treatment. This new formulation provides an alternative so that patients may select a method of dosing tailored to their preferences. Management of osteoporosis involves assessing fracture risk and preventing fractures. Higher adherence to the treatment of patients with osteoporosis and prevention of osteoporotic fractures are issues to be resolved. Keywords: air-extruded jelly formulation, alendronate sodium hydrate, bisphosphonate, elderly person, oral jelly, osteoporosis

Imai K

2013-06-01

304

Sodium carbonate facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West  

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The Sodium Carbonate Facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was designed and built as an addition to the existing Sodium Processing Facility. The Sodium Process and Sodium Carbonate Facilities will convert radioactive sodium into a product that is acceptable for land disposal in Idaho. The first part of the process occurs in the Sodium Process Facility where radioactive sodium is converted into sodium hydroxide (caustic). The second part of the process occurs in the Sodium Carbonate Facility where the caustic solution produced in the Sodium Process Facility is converted into a dry sodium carbonate waste suitable for land disposal. Due to the radioactivity in the sodium, shielding, containment, and HEPA filtered off-gas systems are required throughout both processes.

McDermott, M.D.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

1997-09-01

305

Inhibition treatment of the corrosion of lead artefacts in atmospheric conditions and by acetic acid vapour: use of sodium decanoate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of linear sodium decanoate, CH3(CH2)8COONa (noted NaC10), as corrosion inhibitor of lead was determined by electrochemical techniques in two corrosive mediums: ASTM D1384 standard water and acetic acid-enriched solutions. Best results were obtained with 0.05 mol l-1 of NaC10 solution. In these conditions, the inhibition efficiency can be estimated of 99.9%. The corrosion inhibition effect was confirmed by cyclic atmospheric tests in a climatic chamber in two different conditions: water saturated vapour, and acid acetic enriched vapour simulating the atmosphere in the wooden displays in museums. Surface analyses by SEM and X-ray diffraction indicate that the metal protection is due to the formation of a protective layer mainly composed of lead decanoate Pb(C10)2 (metallic soap). This inhibition treatment was applied on objects of metallic cultural heritage: gallo-roman sarcophagus in lead. Electrochemical methods confirm the efficiency of treatment on archaeological materials. In conclusion, this inhibitor treatment seems to be very promising against the atmospheric corrosion and the corrosion by organic acid vapour in museums

306

Adsorption of uranyl complex ion by various zinc hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The zinc hydroxides and the composite adsorbents containing iron or aluminum were prepared by several methods in order to investigate the effect of the preparative conditions on the uranium adsorption properties. Adsorption experiments were conducted using artificial sea water in which 0.72 mol dm-3 sodium chloride was added. The uranium concentration was 1 mu g/ml. Among zinc hydroxides, beta -Zn(OH)2 was found to have higher adsorption capacity than epsilon-Zn(OH)2. This was thought to be attributed to (a) the difference of the crystal forms between them, and (b) the existence of weakly bonded surface water indicated by DTA. When composite zinc hydroxide adsorbents containing iron were prepared in the pH range of 6.5 - 7.5, beta -Zn(OH)2 and epsilon-Zn(OH)2 coexisted. The relation between the coexistence of epsilon-Zn(OH)2 and their low adsorption capacities were discussed on the basis of their DTA data. epsilon-Zn(OH)2 was found in all adsorbents that were prepared by the addition of aluminum into the zinc nitrate solution. Increase of uranium adsorption capacity was attained by the addition of iron or aluminum into zinc hydroxides. It was also recognized that uranium adsorption capacity depends on their preparative conditions. (author)

307

Wet reclamation of sodium silicate used sand and biological treatment of its wastewater by Nitzschia palea  

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Full Text Available The massive amount of sodium silicate in the used sand was a pollution source, especially in the waste water from the wet reclamation of used sand. A new process of wet reclamation by biologically treating the waste water produced during the wet reclamation process of used sand was studied in the paper. In the work, the pre-cultivation of N. palea was performed firstly, and three different scrubbing solutions: (1 tap water, (2 modified medium for N. palea, and (3 filtrate of the broth treated by N. palea for 15 days, were used. The results of the primary investigation show that a de-skinning ratio of 90% is obtained when using the scrubbing solution containing modified medium for N. palea at the ratio 1:2 of sand and scrubbing solution, and the maximal concentrations of Na+ and SiO3? are 1.49 g?-1 and 0.51 g?-1, respectively. The results of the optimal biomass, pH value decrease and Na+ and SiO32- consumption indicate the optimal incubation conditions are at the irradiance of 5,000 lux and 25 ?. Using the filtrate of the broth treated by N. palea for 15 days as the scrubbing solution directly, a de-skinning ratio of 93% is the highest compared to the results of the tap water and the modified medium for N. palea. In the biological process using N. palea, less water is used and little wastewater is produced, which is advantageous to the purpose of green manufacturing and environmental protection.

Yu Shaoqiang

2012-02-01

308

Manual on early medical treatment of possible radiation injury with an appendix on sodium burns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manual covers the following topics: 1) Background information and general principles; 2) New methods in the treatment of internal contamination by alpha emitters; 3) Emergency local decontamination; 4) Precautions to be taken in the event of hospitalization; 5) Assessment of fitness to resume work after contamination of irradiation accidents; 6) Organization, planning and training. The appendixes are concerned with: A) Samples to be taken in cases of external irradiation or internal contamination; B) Techniques for local decontamination of the skin; C) Basic treatment information for the physician; D) Standard first-aid kits; E) Decontamination room supplies

309

Possibly enhanced Gd excretion in dialysate, but no major clinical benefit of 3-5 months of treatment with sodium thiosulfate in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3-5 months. Symptoms and patients' experiences were investigated. The dialysate Gd content was monitored. Results. We observed no major clinical improvements in any patient. In one patient, we found slightly improved joint motion. Two patients had a subjective impression of slight improvements of joint motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd seemed to increase. It is unknown whether increased Gd excretion will lead to long-term clinical improvements in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10

Marckmann, P.; Sloth, J.J.

2008-01-01

310

Possibly enhanced Gd-excretion in dialysate, but no clinical benefit of 3-5 months treatment with sodium thiosulfate in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3-5 months. Symptoms and patients' experiences were investigated. The dialysate Gd content was monitored. Results. We observed no major clinical improvements in any patient. In one patient, we found slightly improved joint motion. Two patients had a subjective impression of slight improvements of joint motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd seemed to increase. It is unknown whether increased Gd excretion will lead to long-term clinical improvements in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

Sloth, Jens JØrgen

2008-01-01

311

Evaluation of a consolidation treatment in dolostones by mean of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in high relative humidity conditions; Evaluacion del tratamiento de consolidacion de dolomias mediante nanoparticulas de hidroxido de calcio en condiciones de alta humedad relativa  

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In this article, the results of a treatment applied to dolomitic stones using an isopropyl colloidal solution based on calcium hydroxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 2.0g/l are presented. The consolidation process in the stone has been checked before and after 28 days of exposure to 75% relative humidity. Morphologic and structural studies of the consolidating product confirmed the carbonation process. X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (TEM and ESEM), and electron diffraction carried out on the consolidating product have confirmed the transformation of portlandite phase to calcium carbonate polymorph, calcite, aragonite and vaterite. Petrophysical tests performed on the stone before and after the application of the product have shown the improvement in the physical and hydrical properties due to the increase in the ultrasound velocity and density of the material, and a decrease in the capillarity coefficient and open porosity without significant changes in colour and brightness. The application of the consolidating product in the proposed experimental conditions is a natural method, compatible with the petrological characteristics of the substrate, without secondary damages on the stone, being an effective method to improve the durability of carbonate stones. (Author) 26 refs.

Gomez-Villalba, L. s.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza, A.; Alvares de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

2011-07-01

312

A novel SCN9A mutation responsible for primary erythromelalgia and is resistant to the treatment of sodium channel blockers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary erythromelalgia (PE) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by severe burning pain and erythema in the extremities upon heat stimuli or exercise. Mutations in human SCN9A gene, encoding the ?-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v)1.7, were found to be responsible for PE. Three missense mutations of SCN9A gene have recently been identified in Taiwanese patients including a familial (I136V) and two sporadic mutations (I848T, V1316A). V1316A is a novel mutation and has not been characterized yet. Topologically, I136V is located in DI/S1 segment and both I848T and V1316A are located in S4-S5 linker region of DII and DIII domains, respectively. To characterize the elelctrophysiological manifestations, the channel conductance with whole-cell patch clamp was recorded on the over-expressed Chinese hamster overy cells. As compared with wild type, the mutant channels showed a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage dependent activation and a depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation. The recovery time from channel inactivation is faster in the mutant than in the wild type channels. Since warmth can trigger and exacerbate symptoms, we then examine the influence of tempearture on the sodium channel conduction. At 35°C, I136V and V1316A mutant channels exhibit a further hyperpolarizing shift at activation as compared with wild type channel, even though wild type channel also produced a significant hyperpolarizing shift compared to that of 25°C. High temperature caused a significant depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation in all three mutant channels. These findings may confer to the hyperexcitability of sensory neurons, especially at high temperature. In order to identifying an effective treatment, we tested the IC?? values of selective sodium channel blockers, lidocaine and mexiletine. The IC?? for mexiletine is lower for I848T mutant channel as compared to that of the wild type and other two mutants which is comparable to the clinical observations. PMID:23383113

Wu, Min-Tzu; Huang, Po-Yuan; Yen, Chen-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Jen

2013-01-01

313

Influence of chemical treatment on sodium clay for obtaining polypropylene nanocomposites  

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Commercial clay was chemically treated with aluminum alkyl to prepare a Ziegler-Natta pro-catalyst containing MgCl2 and clay (as inert support) for the synthesis of polypropylene nanocomposites by in situ polymerization technique. The performance of this catalyst was compared with a reference one (catalyst prepared without clay), as well as with another one, composition of which presents the same clay content, without prior chemical treatment. Propylene polymerizations were pe...

Marques, M.; Rosa, J.; Cruz, K.

2011-01-01

314

Development and testing of SREX flowsheets for treatment of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant sodium-bearing waste using centrifugal contactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning 90Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A baseline flowsheet has been proposed for the treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) which includes extraction of strontium from liquid SBW into the SREX solvent (0.15 M 4',4'(5')-di-(tert-butyldicyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.2 M TBP in Isopar L), a 0.01 M nitric acid strip section to back-extract components from the loaded solvent, and a 2.0 M HNO3 solvent acidification section to equilibrate the solvent with HNO3 prior to recycle to the extraction section. The flowsheet was designed to provide a decontamination factor (DF) of >103 which will reduce the 90Sr activity in the waste solution to below the NRC Class A LLW limit of 0.04 Ci 90Sr/m3. SREX flowsheet testing was performed using sixteen stages of 5.5-cm diameter centrifugal contactors. The behavior of stable Sr and other components which are potentially extracted by the SREX solvent were evaluated. Specifically, the behavior of the matrix components including Pb, K, Hg, Na, Ca, Zr, and Fe was studied. The described flowsheet achieved 99.98% Sr removal (DF=4250) with one cycle of SREX. Potassium and Zr were partially extracted into the SREX solvent with 35% and 21%, respectively, exiting in the strip product. Sodium, Ca, and Fe were essentially inextractium, Ca, and Fe were essentially inextractable. Lead was determined to extract and accumulate in the SREX solvent and in the strip section. As a result, a Pb precipitate formed in the strip stages of the contactors. Mercury was also determined to extract and accumulate in the SREX solvent

315

Combined Sodium Hypochlorite and 940 nm Diode Laser Treatment Against Mature E. Faecalis Biofilms in-vitro  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laser irradiation has been introduced in endodontic treatment due to its bactericidal effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of a 940 nm diode laser alone or in combination with 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl against mature biofilms of E. Faecalis.METHODS: Sixty-eight (60 for the three groups, 4 for SEM and 4 as negative controls single-rooted human central incisors were prepared and contaminated with E. Faecalis. After two weeks of incubation, specimens were randomly divided in three groups; group 1 (n =20, the teeth were irradiated with a 940 nm diode laser; group 2 (n=20, specimens were rinsed with 5% NaOCl; group 3 (n=20, the teeth were rinsed with 5% NaOCl and then were irradiated with 940 nm diode laser. Four teeth were used to observe the biofilms by SEM. Intracanal bacteria sampling was done, and the samples were plated to determinate the CFU count.RESULTS: At 24 hours and 7 days, group 3 showed a significant difference (P=0,02; P=0,00 in disinfection if compared to group 1 but did not show this difference if compared to group 2 (P=1, P=0,66, although group 3 obtaining a more extensive disinfection. Groups 1 and 2 did not show difference after 24 hours (P=0,09 but showed a significant difference 7 days afterwards (P=0,04.CONCLUSION: The combination of sodium hypochlorite and diode laser light (940 nm has a synergistic effect, intensifying the bactericidal action.

Roeland De Moor

2012-07-01

316

Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-48h found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE5048h 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE5096h found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE5015min of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

317

Treatment of gonococcal infections with a single 250 mg intramuscular injection of trospectomycin sulphate vs ceftriaxone sodium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trospectomycin sulphate is a new, more potent analog of spectinomycin, which is active in vitro against penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This study was designed to determine the bacteriologic and clinical efficacy as well as safety of a single intramuscularly administered 250 mg dose of trospectomycin sulphate in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea (cervical, urethral, pharyngeal and anal). Ceftriaxone sodium was used as a comparator antibiotic in a single 250 mg intramuscular dose. Seventy-four patients (36 women and 38 men) were evaluable in the trospectomycin treated group and 40 patients (22 women and 18 men) in the ceftriaxone treated group. The overall bacteriologic cure rate was 98.6% (73/74) for trospectomycin and 95% (38/40) for ceftriaxone. Bacteriologic failures were observed among women 1/36 (2.8%) treated with trospectomycin and 2/22 (9.1%) treated with ceftriaxone. The overall clinical success rate (clinically cured plus clinically improved) was 90.5% for trospectomycin and 100% for ceftriaxone. Adverse events were reported rarely in both groups. Less than 10% of patients complained of pain and/or tenderness at the injection site for both drugs; one patient developed a generalized, pruritic rash which occurred three days after administration of trospectomycin and resolved within six days. In conclusion, a single dose of 250 mg i.m. trospectomycin appears to be at least as effective and safe as a single dose of ceftriaxone in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea. PMID:8223139

Mroczkowski, T F; Millikan, L E; Martin, D H; Leonik, K J

1993-01-01

318

A whole core subassembly treatment in the SSC-K sodium-cooled fast reactor system analysis code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed subassembly thermal-hydraulic model for the reactor core has been added to the SSC-K sodium-cooled fast reactor system analysis code. It computes steady-state and transient fuel, cladding, and coolant temperatures in each fuel pin and coolant sub-channel of a subassembly. Duct wall temperatures are also calculated for each of the six flats of a hexagonal subassembly. The new core thermal-hydraulic model provides a whole core treatment including a pin-wise sub-channel treatment within a subassembly. By adopting the detailed core thermal-hydraulic model, SSC-K has a capability to explicitly calculate intra-subassembly effects, not a hot-channel adjustment to a calculated average channel. This is especially important for new reactors that have not yet been built. This paper describes the theoretical concept of the detailed core thermal-hydraulic model of SSC-K and shows code verification results with the test data from the EBR II reactor. Also, an unprotected transient overpower accident for the KALIMER conceptual design is discussed with respect to the inherent safety characteristics of the core

319

Stress corrosion cracking of type 403 stainless steel in sodium chloride at 95 C under different heat treatment conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slow strain rate tests were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the stress corrosion cracking (SC) susceptibility of type AISI 34 (UNS S40300) martensitic stainless steel in 20% sodium chloride (NaCl) at 95 C. Heat treatments included water-quenched, quenched, and tempered at 200 C, 400 C, and 600 C and annealed at 850 C. When tested in oil (90 C), the highest loss in ductility was shown by the quenched specimen, and the lowest by the annealed specimen. Between these two specimens, there were specimens tempered at 200 C, 400 C, and 600 C, respectively. When tested in 20% NaCl (wt%) at pH 7, 6, and 5, all specimens were embrittled by the environment, the most severe one being the solution with pH 5, showing at least 50% reduction in the elongation exhibited in oil. Fracture morphology was completely intergranular along the prior austenite for the quenched specimen and completely transgranular for the annealed specimen. The percentage of intergranular cracking decreased as the tempering temperature increased from 200 C to 600 C, and as the pH increased from 5 to 7. The fracture mechanism was thought to be hydrogen embrittlement.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M.; Martinez-Villafane, A.

1999-10-01

320

TREATMENT OF A SATURATED ZONE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA USING A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE MIXTURE: A FIELD PILOT STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

A field pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a combined ferrous sulfate/sodium dithionite solution for in situ treatment of a saturated zone hexavalent chromium source area at a former ferrochromium alloy production facility in Charleston, S.C. The saturate...

 
 
 
 
321

Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

322

Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

Hille, Andrea; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Kertesz, Tereza; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F. [University Hospital, Goettingen (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Pradier, Olivier [University Hospital, Brest (France). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology

2008-12-15

323

Avaliação do fluxo salivar total não estimulado, após o emprego do lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio associado ao hidróxido de cálcio em pacientes irradiados com carcinoma espinocelular da boca e orofaringe / Total salivary non stimulated flow evaluation, after radiotherapy for patients with mouth and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma with the association of lauryl-dietylene-glycol-ether sodium sulphate and calcium hydroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: Avaliar quantitativamente o índice de fluxo salivar total não estimulado de pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe, após tratamento radioterápico, exclusivo, tratados com a associação de lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio e hidróxido de cálcio. Fo [...] rma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Método: o fluxo salivar foi avaliado em 11 pacientes (n=11) em três fases: 1ª.) durante sete semanas, quando foram submetidos à telecobaltoterapia na dose total de 7.000 cGy, sem utilização de medicamento para estimular a salivação; 2ª.) em seguida, durante oito semanas após o tratamento radioterápico, quando os pacientes utilizaram a associação medicamentosa como estimulante da salivação; 3ª.) finalmente, durante oito semanas após ter sido interrompido o tratamento com a associação de drogas. Resultados: os valores obtidos foram analisados com vistas a avaliação da eficácia da medicação utilizada para evitar a hipofunção salivar no período pós-radioterapia. Dos 11 pacientes, 10 apresentaram melhora significante dos índices de fluxo salivar com o uso da associação de drogas, em relação aos valores do período final do tratamento radioterápico, e mantiveram esses índices mesmo com a suspensão do medicamento. Conclusões: a associação de drogas foi eficaz no tratamento da hipofunção salivar, e proporcionou aumento do índice salivar total não estimulado em 10 dos 11 pacientes, sendo esse aumento mantido por dois meses após a interrupção do uso do medicamento. Abstract in english Introduction: Evaluation of quantitative non-stimulated salivary flow rate in 11 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma after exclusive radiation therapy, treated with the association of lauryl-diethylene-glycol-ether-sodium sulfate and calcium hydroxide. Study design: Prospect [...] ive clinical no randomized. Method: salivary flow was evaluated in three phases: 1) during seven weeks when they were submitted to radiotherapy with total dose of 7,000 cGy, without salivary stimulation with the association of drugs; 2) during eight weeks after radiation treatment, when the patients had salivary stimulation with the association of drugs; 3) for eight weeks after the end of treatment with the association of drugs. Results: These data were analysed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the medicament in avoiding salivary hypofunction after radiotherapy. Ten out of eleven patients showed significant better outcome in the salivary flow rates with the use of drugs related to the values obtained at the final period of radiotherapy and mantained these rates even without continuing using the drugs. Conclusions: the association of drugs was effective in the treatment of salivary hypofunction and promoted increase, in the total non-stimulated salivary flow rates in ten out of eleven patients, and this enhancement, was maintained for two months after interruption of the use of the medicament.

Christiano M., Correia; Marco A. O., Marinho; Abrão, Rapoport; Eurípedes O., Marinho; Neil F., Novo; Iara, Juliano.

2001-09-01

324

Avaliação do fluxo salivar total não estimulado, após o emprego do lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio associado ao hidróxido de cálcio em pacientes irradiados com carcinoma espinocelular da boca e orofaringe / Total salivary non stimulated flow evaluation, after radiotherapy for patients with mouth and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma with the association of lauryl-dietylene-glycol-ether sodium sulphate and calcium hydroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: Avaliar quantitativamente o índice de fluxo salivar total não estimulado de pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe, após tratamento radioterápico, exclusivo, tratados com a associação de lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio e hidróxido de cálcio. Fo [...] rma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Método: o fluxo salivar foi avaliado em 11 pacientes (n=11) em três fases: 1ª.) durante sete semanas, quando foram submetidos à telecobaltoterapia na dose total de 7.000 cGy, sem utilização de medicamento para estimular a salivação; 2ª.) em seguida, durante oito semanas após o tratamento radioterápico, quando os pacientes utilizaram a associação medicamentosa como estimulante da salivação; 3ª.) finalmente, durante oito semanas após ter sido interrompido o tratamento com a associação de drogas. Resultados: os valores obtidos foram analisados com vistas a avaliação da eficácia da medicação utilizada para evitar a hipofunção salivar no período pós-radioterapia. Dos 11 pacientes, 10 apresentaram melhora significante dos índices de fluxo salivar com o uso da associação de drogas, em relação aos valores do período final do tratamento radioterápico, e mantiveram esses índices mesmo com a suspensão do medicamento. Conclusões: a associação de drogas foi eficaz no tratamento da hipofunção salivar, e proporcionou aumento do índice salivar total não estimulado em 10 dos 11 pacientes, sendo esse aumento mantido por dois meses após a interrupção do uso do medicamento. Abstract in english Introduction: Evaluation of quantitative non-stimulated salivary flow rate in 11 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma after exclusive radiation therapy, treated with the association of lauryl-diethylene-glycol-ether-sodium sulfate and calcium hydroxide. Study design: Prospect [...] ive clinical no randomized. Method: salivary flow was evaluated in three phases: 1) during seven weeks when they were submitted to radiotherapy with total dose of 7,000 cGy, without salivary stimulation with the association of drugs; 2) during eight weeks after radiation treatment, when the patients had salivary stimulation with the association of drugs; 3) for eight weeks after the end of treatment with the association of drugs. Results: These data were analysed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the medicament in avoiding salivary hypofunction after radiotherapy. Ten out of eleven patients showed significant better outcome in the salivary flow rates with the use of drugs related to the values obtained at the final period of radiotherapy and mantained these rates even without continuing using the drugs. Conclusions: the association of drugs was effective in the treatment of salivary hypofunction and promoted increase, in the total non-stimulated salivary flow rates in ten out of eleven patients, and this enhancement, was maintained for two months after interruption of the use of the medicament.

Christiano M., Correia; Marco A. O., Marinho; Abrão, Rapoport; Eurípedes O., Marinho; Neil F., Novo; Iara, Juliano.

325

Avaliação do fluxo salivar total não estimulado, após o emprego do lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio associado ao hidróxido de cálcio em pacientes irradiados com carcinoma espinocelular da boca e orofaringe Total salivary non stimulated flow evaluation, after radiotherapy for patients with mouth and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma with the association of lauryl-dietylene-glycol-ether sodium sulphate and calcium hydroxide  

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Full Text Available Introdução: Avaliar quantitativamente o índice de fluxo salivar total não estimulado de pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe, após tratamento radioterápico, exclusivo, tratados com a associação de lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio e hidróxido de cálcio. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Método: o fluxo salivar foi avaliado em 11 pacientes (n=11 em três fases: 1ª. durante sete semanas, quando foram submetidos à telecobaltoterapia na dose total de 7.000 cGy, sem utilização de medicamento para estimular a salivação; 2ª. em seguida, durante oito semanas após o tratamento radioterápico, quando os pacientes utilizaram a associação medicamentosa como estimulante da salivação; 3ª. finalmente, durante oito semanas após ter sido interrompido o tratamento com a associação de drogas. Resultados: os valores obtidos foram analisados com vistas a avaliação da eficácia da medicação utilizada para evitar a hipofunção salivar no período pós-radioterapia. Dos 11 pacientes, 10 apresentaram melhora significante dos índices de fluxo salivar com o uso da associação de drogas, em relação aos valores do período final do tratamento radioterápico, e mantiveram esses índices mesmo com a suspensão do medicamento. Conclusões: a associação de drogas foi eficaz no tratamento da hipofunção salivar, e proporcionou aumento do índice salivar total não estimulado em 10 dos 11 pacientes, sendo esse aumento mantido por dois meses após a interrupção do uso do medicamento.Introduction: Evaluation of quantitative non-stimulated salivary flow rate in 11 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma after exclusive radiation therapy, treated with the association of lauryl-diethylene-glycol-ether-sodium sulfate and calcium hydroxide. Study design: Prospective clinical no randomized. Method: salivary flow was evaluated in three phases: 1 during seven weeks when they were submitted to radiotherapy with total dose of 7,000 cGy, without salivary stimulation with the association of drugs; 2 during eight weeks after radiation treatment, when the patients had salivary stimulation with the association of drugs; 3 for eight weeks after the end of treatment with the association of drugs. Results: These data were analysed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the medicament in avoiding salivary hypofunction after radiotherapy. Ten out of eleven patients showed significant better outcome in the salivary flow rates with the use of drugs related to the values obtained at the final period of radiotherapy and mantained these rates even without continuing using the drugs. Conclusions: the association of drugs was effective in the treatment of salivary hypofunction and promoted increase, in the total non-stimulated salivary flow rates in ten out of eleven patients, and this enhancement, was maintained for two months after interruption of the use of the medicament.

Christiano M. Correia

2001-09-01

326

SODIUM VALPROATE AND PHENOBARBITOL: WEIGHT COMPLICATIONS OF TREATMENT IN EPILEPTIC CHILDREN  

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Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of Na Valproate and Phenobarbital on changes in the weight of epileptic patients following treatment for their condition using the drugs mentioned.Materials and methodsSixty epileptics were assigned into two groups of 30 patients each, the case and controls. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE characteristics. BMI was defined. In the case group, the patients received 20mg/kg/day of Na Valproate, while the 30controls received 5mg/kg/day of Phenobarbital for 6 months. Using the Mc Nemar and Chi-2 tests, BMI changes were compared after 6 months between the groups. Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate the role of age, sex, and primary weight on the weight increase due to Na Valproate usage.ResultsThere were no specific changes in age, sex, primary BMI and fatness between the 2 groups; in the case group, 20 patients(66.7% and in the controls 4(13.3% gained weight (P<0.001. There were higher chances of weight gain in children who were older and fatter at the beginning of the study (P<0.2.ConclusionThe results indicate that epileptic children, aged over 10 years, and those who are overweight have more chances of gaining weight or becoming fatter, following treatment with Na Valproate. Further studies investigating the issue are warranted.

M. Ghofrani

2007-02-01

327

Effect of chronic oral administration of a low dose of captopril on sodium appetite of hypothyroid rats: Influence of aldosterone treatment  

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Full Text Available Rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with methimazole develop an exaggerated sodium appetite. We investigated here the capacity of hypothyroid rats (N = 12 for each group to respond to a low dose of captopril added to the ration, a paradigm which induces an increase in angiotensin II synthesis in cerebral areas that regulate sodium appetite by increasing the availability of circulating angiotensin I. In addition, we determined the influence of aldosterone in hypothyroid rats during the expression of spontaneous sodium appetite and after captopril treatment. Captopril significantly increased (P<0.05 the daily intake of 1.8% NaCl (in ml/100 g body weight in hypothyroid rats after 36 days of methimazole administration (day 36: 9.2 ± 0.7 vs day 32: 2.8 ± 0.6 ml, on the 4th day after captopril treatment. After the discontinuation of captopril treatment, daily 1.8% NaCl intake reached values ranging from 10.0 ± 0.9 to 13.9 ± 1.0 ml, 48 to 60 days after treatment with methimazole. Aldosterone treatment significantly reduced (P<0.05 saline intake before (7.3 ± 1.6 vs day 0, 14.4 ± 1.3 ml and after captopril treatment. Our results demonstrate that, although hypothyroid rats develop a deficiency in the production of all components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, their capacity to synthesize angiotensin II at the cerebral level is preserved. The partial reversal of daily 1.8% NaCl intake during aldosterone treatment suggests that sodium retention reduces both spontaneous and captopril-induced salt appetite.

Ventura R.R.

2001-01-01

328

Adsorptive bubble separation of zinc and cadmium cations in presence of ferric and aluminum hydroxides.  

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The adsorptive bubble separation of zinc and cadmium cations from solution in the presence of ferric and aluminum hydroxides was carried out by means of Tween 80 (nonionic surfactant), and sodium laurate and stearate (anionic surfactants). The mechanism of metal removal is different depending on the nature of the surfactant used. The removal of zinc cations by adsorbing colloid flotation is higher than that of cadmium cations. It increases with increases in the amount of hydroxide precipitate and the concentration of Tween 80. The removal of zinc cations by ion flotation is lower than that of cadmium cations. It does not change with increases in the hydroxide amount. It increases, however, with increased sodium laurate or stearate concentration. Both separation methods turned out to be helpful for studying both the solution's structure and the interactions at the solution-solid interface. PMID:15897071

Jurkiewicz, Kazimierz

2005-06-15

329

Inhibition of mast cell-derived histamine secretion by cromolyn sodium treatment decreases biliary hyperplasia in cholestatic rodents.  

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Cholangiopathies are characterized by dysregulation of the balance between biliary growth and loss. We have shown that histamine (HA) stimulates biliary growth via autocrine mechanisms. To evaluate the paracrine effects of mast cell (MC) stabilization on biliary proliferation, sham or BDL rats were treated by IP-implanted osmotic pumps filled with saline or cromolyn sodium (24?mg/kg BW/day (inhibits MC histamine release)) for 1 week. Serum, liver blocks and cholangiocytes were collected. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) expression was measured using real-time PCR in cholangiocytes. Intrahepatic bile duct mass (IBDM) was evaluated by IHC for CK-19. MC number was determined using toluidine blue staining and correlated to IBDM. Proliferation was evaluated by PCNA expression in liver sections and purified cholangiocytes. We assessed apoptosis using real-time PCR and IHC for BAX. Expression of MC stem factor receptor, c-kit, and the proteases chymase and tryptase were measured by real-time PCR. HA levels were measured in serum by EIA. In vitro, MCs and cholangiocytes were treated with 0.1% BSA (basal) or cromolyn (25??M) for up to 48?h prior to assessing HDC expression, HA levels and chymase and tryptase expression. Supernatants from MCs treated with or without cromolyn were added to cholangiocytes before measuring (i) proliferation by MTT assays, (ii) HDC gene expression by real-time PCR and (iii) HA release by EIA. In vivo, cromolyn treatment decreased BDL-induced: (i) IBDM, MC number, and biliary proliferation; (ii) HDC and MC marker expression; and (iii) HA levels. Cromolyn treatment increased cholangiocyte apoptosis. In vitro, cromolyn decreased HA release and chymase and tryptase expression in MCs but not in cholangiocytes. Cromolyn-treated MC supernatants decreased biliary proliferation and HA release. These studies provide evidence that MC histamine is key to biliary proliferation and may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of cholangiopathies. PMID:25365204

Kennedy, Lindsey L; Hargrove, Laura A; Graf, Allyson B; Francis, Taylor C; Hodges, Kyle M; Nguyen, Quy P; Ueno, Yoshi; Greene, John F; Meng, Fanyin; Huynh, Victoria D; Francis, Heather L

2014-12-01

330

Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS, has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. Methods We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Results MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. Conclusions These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma.

Hutzen Brian

2012-11-01

331

Effects of pre-treatment with sodium butyrate on the frequencies of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of sodium butyrate-mediated alterations in chromatin structure on the yields of X-ray-induced chromosomal abberrations were studied in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results show that sodium butyrate pre-treatment leads to a significant increase in the frequencies of dicentrics and rings, but not of fragments. The data from biochemical studies suggest that the numbers and rates of repair of X-ray-induced DNA-strand breaks are the same in butyrate-treated and untreated cells. The authors suggest that the observed effect is probably a consequence of butyrate-induced conformational changes in the chromatin of G0 lymphocytes. (Auth.)

332

EFFECT OF DRYING AND CHEMICAL TREATMENT ON BAGASSE SODA PULP PROPERTIES DURING RECYCLING  

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Effects of chemical treatment on the potential for recycling of bagasse pulp were evaluated. The pulps were recycled three times with water (without treatment), sodium hydroxide, and ethylamine separately. Changes in crystalline structure of the pulp during recycling were investigated by x-ray diffractometry. Water retention content was measured by centrifugation. Morphological changes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The breaking length, burst index, fold number, water rete...

Parizad Sheikhi; Mohammad Talaeipour,; Amir Homan Hemasi; Habib Kademi Eslam; Esat Gumuskaya

2010-01-01

333

Catalytic Studies of Sodium Hydroxide and Carbon Monoxide Reaction  

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Full Text Available We have studied the effect of ball milling on alumina mixed nickel, magnetite and Raney nickel on the reaction: 2NaOH(s + CO (g = Na2CO3 (s + H2 (g and determined the optimum particle size for the catalysts. The best performance was shown by a 2 h ball milled Raney nickel with average crystallite size of 209 Å. This reaction serves the dual purpose of carbon sequestration and yielding hydrogen gas.

Surendra K. Saxena

2012-11-01

334

Carbon dioxide capture capacity of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution.  

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The present paper investigates the various features of NaOH aqueous solution when applied as an absorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emitted with relatively high concentration in the flue gas. The overall CO(2) absorption reaction was carried out according to consecutive reaction steps that are generated in the order of Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3). The reaction rate and capture efficiency were strongly dependent on the NaOH concentration in the Na(2)CO(3) production range, but were constant in the NaHCO(3) production step, irrespective of the NaOH concentration. The amount of CO(2) absorbed in the solution was slightly less than the theoretical value, which was ascribed to the low trona production during the reaction and the consequent decrease in CO(2) absorption in the NaOH solution. The mass ratio of absorbed CO(2) that participated in the Na(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3), and trona production reactions was calculated to be 20:17:1, respectively. PMID:23183145

Yoo, Miran; Han, Sang-Jun; Wee, Jung-Ho

2013-01-15

335

40 CFR 268.42 - Treatment standards expressed as specified technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Sulfur dioxide; (2) sodium, potassium, or alkali...NaPEG and KPEG); (3) sodium hydrosulfide...5 as measured in the aqueous residuals. NLDBR...caustic (i.e., sodium and/or potassium hydroxides...concentration); (2) ion exchange; (3)...

2010-07-01

336

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

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An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18

337

Effect of sodium butyrate treatment on the granule morphology, histamine level and elemental content of the bone marrow-derived mast cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mast cells derived from the bone marrow of BALB/c mice (BMMC) were cultures and their growth ceased with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate treatment (1 mM, 4 days) caused maturation of the granules, and increased histamine content from approx. 1 pg/cell to 4 pg/cell. X-ray microanalysis revealed that maturation of the granules was accompanied by the increase in relative weight percent of sodium, phosphorus and sulphur, with concomitant decrease in chloride. The sulphur to potassium ratio increased three-fold in butyrate-treated mast cells. The existence of a different elemental composition during mast cell maturation may provide additional parameter for rapid discrimination of mast cell subpopulations. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs

338

Distribution of 64Cu in foetal and adult tissues in mice: influence of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate treatment.  

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64Cu (as 64CuCl2) was given intravenously to male C57BL mice and to pregnant C57BL mice at various stages of gestation. The disposition of the 64Cu in the adult animals and in the foetuses was studied by autoradiography and gamma spectrometry. The effects of treatments with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC) on the disposition of the 64Cu in the animals were also examined. In addition, the ability of Cu to affect chondrogenesis was studied in an embryonic limb bud culture system. The results showed a strong uptake of 64Cu in the liver of the adult animals at all intervals (5 min.-24 hrs). At short survival intervals, there was also an uptake in the kidney cortex, the gastrointestinal mucosa, the adrenal, the pancreas, and the erythrocytes. Exposure to Cu may cause liver and kidney injuries, which may be related to the strong accumulation in these organs. 64Cu passed the placenta to the foetuses at all stages of gestation, although this occurred at a relatively slow rate. Within the foetuses the highest concentrations were found in the liver. Cu was observed to be toxic in the chick limb bud mesenchymal spot culture system although at relatively high concentrations. Foetal malformations and embryotoxicity may therefore be interpreted as a result of direct action of Cu on embryonic structures, although placental and/or maternal influence cannot be excluded. Pre- or posttreatment of the animals with DEDTC, which is a chelating agent, caused a very marked increase in the concentration of 64Cu in most tissues of the adult animals and also an increased foetal uptake of the metal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3002126

Jasim, S; Danielsson, B R; Tjälve, H; Dencker, L

1985-10-01

339

Effect of biomechanical preparation and calcium hydroxide pastes on the antisepsis of root canal systems in dogs.  

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In the endodontic treatment of root canals with necrotic pulps associated with periapical radiolucent areas, one of the main objectives of treatment consists in eliminating the microorganisms spread throughout the ramifications of the root canal system. The scope of this study was to evaluate the antiseptic efficacy of biomechanical preparation and two calcium hydroxide-based pastes, in dogs' teeth with experimentally induced chronic periapical lesions. After initial microbiological sampling, instrumentation of the root canals was undertaken using the conventional technique, using K type files used in conjunction with a solution of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. After ninety-six hours, further microbiological sampling was undertaken and Calen/CPMC or Calasept pastes were applied for 15 and 30 days. Ninety six hours after the removal of the medication, the third microbiological sampling was undertaken and finally histomicrobiological analysis followed using Brown & Brenn staining. The results were analyzed using the Kruskall-Wallis test, with a level of significance established at 5% (p0.05), characterized by an elevated incidence of cocci, bacilli and filaments, predominantly gram-positive, in root canals, secondary canals and accessories, apical cementoplasts and dentinal tubules, but with a low incidence of microorganisms in areas of cementum resorption and the periapical lesion. The biomechanical preparation and intracanal dressing based on calcium hydroxide were important in the antisepsis of the root canal; however, both procedures did not produce significant changes in the microbiological aspects of the root canal system. PMID:20944889

Soares, Janir Alves; Leonardo, Mario Roberto; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Tanomaru Filho, Mário; Ito, Izabel Yoko

2005-03-01

340

Effective treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours transfected with the sodium iodide symporter gene by 186Re-perrhenate in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ReO4 - has similar kinetics regarding the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) to I- and TcO4 - in NIS-expressing tissue. We investigated the therapeutic potential of 186ReO4 - in NIS-transfected neuroendocrine tumour tissue. For experiments, the stably NIS-transfected pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer cell line Bon1C was used. NIS-mediated internalization and externalization experiments in vitro and a biodistribution study in nude mice bearing Bon1C xenografts were performed. A therapy study was also conducted consecutively in nude mice xenografted with Bon1C in which the mice were injected intravenously with Na186ReO4. In vitro studies showed exponential internalization and efflux kinetics of 186ReO4 - in the cell line. The biodistribution study showed high uptake of 186ReO4 - in NIS-expressing tumours. Tumour growth inhibition was significant after injection of 186ReO4 in two groups of animals treated with activity levels below the determined maximum tolerable activity as compared to controls. These results indicate that the use of 186ReO4 - in the treatment of NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumours is feasible and support the concept of using NIS as a therapeutic target for 186ReO4 -. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
341

Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet

342

Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Olson, Arlin Leland; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Valentine, James Henry; Lockie, Keith Andrew

2002-02-01

343

Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

Barnes, C.M.; Lauerhass, L.; Olson, A.L.; Taylor, D.D.; Valentine, J.H.; Lockie, K.A. (DOE- ID)

2002-01-16

344

An observation study on the curative effect of butylphthalide sodium chloride combined with urokinase in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the therapeutic effect of butylphthalide sodium chloride injection combined with urokinase in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. A total of 60 patients with acute ischemic stroke were randomly divided into 2 groups: combined treatment group (butylphthalide sodium chloride injection + urokinase, N = 30 and control group (urokinase only, N = 30. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS and Barthel Index (BI were used to evaluate the improvement of neurological function and curative effect. Adverse reactions were also observed. As results, the markedly effective rate was 36.67% (11/30 and the total efficiency rate was 93.33% (28/30 in combined treatment group, while they were 10% (3/30 and 56.67% (17/30 in control group. There was significant difference between 2 groups ( ?2 = 13.195, P = 0.004. Besides, the neurological function of patients in 2 groups elevated to different degrees at each time point after treatment (P = 0.020. There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of adverse reactions between 2 groups (P = 0.572. The results indicated that the curative effect of butylphthalide sodium chloride injection combined with urokinase in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke is better than that of urokinase. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.09.013

Hui-yan NIU

2014-09-01

345

Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal of CO2 from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide [Ba(OH)2] or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. Such a process would be applied to scrub 14CO2 from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)2 slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)2. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated

346

In vitro antitumor effect of sodium butyrate and zoledronic acid combined with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs: a paradigm of synergistic molecular targeting in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histone deacetylase inhibitors and bisphosphonates have a promising future in the treatment of cancer as targeted anticancer drugs, particularly when used together or in combination with other cytotoxic agents. However, the effects of these combined treatments have not yet been systematically evaluated in Ewing sarcoma. The in vitro effects on cellular proliferation, viability and survival were investigated in two Ewing sarcoma cell lines, SK-ES-1 and RD-ES. The cell lines were treated with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor and zoledronic acid, a bisphosphonate, alone, together or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs recommended for clinical treatment of Ewing sarcoma. The data demonstrated that the combination of sodium butyrate and zoledronic acid had a synergistic cytotoxic effect at 72 h following treatment, persisting for 10-14 days post-treatment, in both cell lines tested. All combinations between sodium butyrate or zoledronic acid and the traditional antineoplastic drugs (doxorubicin, etoposide and vincristine) demonstrated a synergistic cytotoxic effect at 72 h in SK-ES-1 and RD-ES cells, except for the combinations of sodium butyrate with vincristine and of zoledronic acid with doxorubicin, which showed only an additive effect in RD-ES cell lines as compared to each agent alone. These acute effects observed in both Ewing sarcoma cell lines were confirmed by the clonogenic assay. The present data suggest that combining histone deacetylase inhibitors and bisphosphonates with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Ewing sarcoma, and provides a basis for further studies in this field. PMID:24316794

Dos Santos, Michel Pinheiro; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Roesler, Rafael; Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi; Abujamra, Ana Lucia

2014-02-01

347

A hybrid liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) process in conjunction with membrane distillation (MD) for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel hybrid system combining liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) and membrane distillation (MD) is integrated for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste. The integrated system provides a 'full separation' approach that consists of three main processing stages. The first stage is focused on the separation and recovery of nitric acid from the bulk of the waste stream using vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). In the second stage, polyvalent cations (mainly TRU elements and their fission products except cesium along with aluminum and other toxic metals) are separated from the bulk of monovalent anions and cations (dominantly sodium nitrate) by a front-end LPP. In the third stage, MD is used first to concentrate sodium nitrate to near saturation followed by a rear-end LPP to precipitate and separate sodium nitrate along with the remaining minor species from the bulk of the aqueous phase. The LPP-MD hybrid system uses a small amount of an additive and energy to carry out the treatment, addresses multiple critical species, extracts an economic value from some of waste species, generates minimal waste with suitable disposal paths, and offers rapid deployment. As such, the LPP-MD could be a valuable tool for multiple needs across the DOE complex where no effective or economic alternatives are available

348

Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT.

Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States)

2013-04-01

349

Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT

350

Thermodynamic properties of beryllium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of the hydro-thermal decomposition of beryllium hydroxide has made it possible to determine the free energy of formation and the entropy. The results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from the solubility product of this substance. They give furthermore the possibility of acquiring a better understanding of the BeO-H2O-Be (OH)2 system between 20 and 1500 C. (authors)

351

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Research and Development FY-2002 Status Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering several optional processes for disposal of liquid sodium-bearing waste. During fiscal year 2002, immobilization-related research included of grout formulation development for sodium-bearing waste, absorption of the waste on silica gel, and off-gas system mercury collection and breakthrough using activated carbon. Experimental results indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be immobilized in grout at 70 weight percent and onto silica gel at 74 weight percent. Furthermore, a loading of 11 weight percent mercury in sulfur-impregnated activated carbon was achieved with 99.8% off-gas mercury removal efficiency.

Herbst, Alan Keith; Deldebbio, John Anthony; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Olson, Lonnie Gene; Scholes, Bradley Adams

2002-09-01

352

Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mario Guidotti,1 Caterina Barrilà,1 Serena Leva,1 Claudio De Piazza,1 Stefano Omboni21Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, 2Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, ItalyBackground: Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study.Methods: Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine to 10 (severe migraine and use of rescue medication.Results: The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.8–5.9] than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1–6.4], P < 0.05 versus frovatriptan or no therapy (6.6 [6.2–7.0], P < 0.01 versus frovatriptan. The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5–2.3] versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0–4.2], P < 0.001 and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4–5.8], P < 0.001 and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P < 0.05 lower on frovatriptan (12.5% than on naproxen sodium (31.3% or no therapy (56.3%.Conclusion: This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine.Keywords: migraine, frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, weekend

Guidotti M

2013-01-01

353

Effects of alkaline or liquid-ammonia treatment on crystalline cellulose: changes in crystalline structure and effects on enzymatic digestibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In converting biomass to bioethanol, pretreatment is a key step intended to render cellulose more amenable and accessible to cellulase enzymes and thus increase glucose yields. In this study, four cellulose samples with different degrees of polymerization and crystallinity indexes were subjected to aqueous sodium hydroxide and anhydrous liquid ammonia treatments. The effects of the treatments on cellulose crystalline structure were studied, in addition to ...

2011-01-01

354

Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reverse osmosis membranes at many desalination plants are disinfected by periodic shock treatments with sodium metabisulphite, which have potentially toxic effects to the environment for marine life, although no empirical and experimental evidence for this is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterise for the first time, the physico-chemical modification of the marine environment and its biological effects, caused by hypersaline plumes during these membrane cleaning treatments. The case study was the Maspalomas II desalination plant, located in the south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Toxicity bioassays were performed on marine species characteristic for the infralittoral soft bottoms influenced by the brine plume (Synodus synodus and Cymodocea nodosa), and revealed a high sensitivity to short-term exposure to low sodium metabisulphite concentrations. The corrective measure of incorporating a diffusion system with Venturi Eductors reduced nearly all the areas of influence, virtually eliminating the impact of the disinfectant. PMID:24495930

Portillo, E; Ruiz de la Rosa, M; Louzara, G; Ruiz, J M; Marín-Guirao, L; Quesada, J; González, J C; Roque, F; González, N; Mendoza, H

2014-03-15

355

Acidified sodium chlorite treatment for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth on the surface of cooked roast beef.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) against Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of cooked roast beef were investigated. L. monocytogenes, strain V7, serotype 1/2a, was inoculated at numbers of 6.0 log CFU/g onto 5-g cubes of cooked regular or spicy roast beef. The samples were allowed to air dry for 1 h. The cooked roast beef samples were dipped into ASC or sprayed with ASC solutions of 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 ppm, then placed in bags with or without a vacuum and refrigerated at 4 degrees C. L. monocytogenes counts were determined after 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage by spread plating roast beef samples onto Oxford agar plates that were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h. At day 28, the number of L. monocytogenes on the > or = 500 ppm ASC-treated spicy roast beef samples had count reductions that were >4.0 log CFU/g, whereas the same concentrations of ASC-treated regular roast beef samples had approximately a 2.5 log CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes counts when compared with the untreated samples. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in L. monocytogenes counts between the vacuum- or nonvacuum-packaged ASC-treated cooked roast beef samples. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) between ASC-treated and untreated roast beef. ASC can be used as a processing aid in the form of a dip or spray treatment to control L. monocytogenes on the surface of cooked roast beef. PMID:16496589

Beverly, Richelle L; Janes, Marlene E; Oliver, Grady

2006-02-01

356

Removal of fluoride from water using iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel and facile method for the synthesis of uniform stoichiometric powder form of non-magnetic iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles with spherical morphology and its application for defluoridation of drinking water is reported. X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), BET surface area, FTIR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images were used to characterize nanoscale iron oxide-hydroxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image revealed the formation of iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles with spherical morphology. The iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles showed an excellent ability to remove fluoride (F-) from contaminated water over a wide range of pH. The influences of temperature, stirring speed, pH, adsorbent dose and contact time were studied. The equilibrium data were tested with various isotherm models and finally, a calculation procedure was reported for the calculation of adsorbent requirement. The fluoride adsorbed nanoparticles was regenerated upto 70% using sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid solution. The iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles can be used as an effective and replicable adsorbent media for defluoridation of water in presence of competing anions like chloride, iodate, iodide and sulphate. PMID:22852326

Raul, Prasanta Kumar; Devi, Rashmi Rekha; Umlong, Iohborlang M; Banerjee, Saumen; Singh, Lokendra; Purkait, Mihir

2012-05-01

357

Concentration of 99Tc in seawater by coprecipitation with iron hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for accumulation of 99Tc in seawater has been developed. Technetium tracer in +VII oxidation state was added to the seawater together with reducing agent, potassium pyrosulfite, and coprecipitation agent, ferric chloride. After reduction of Tc(VII) at pH 4, Tc(IV) was coprecipitated as iron hydroxide by addition of sodium hydroxide to pH 9. The reduction and coprecipitation was quantitative and overall recovery of Tc was more than 98%. The green color of iron precipitate formed at pH 9 suggested that Tc(VII) as well as ferric ion was reduced under this condition. Adsorption of Tc(IV), however, was poor for iron hydroxide which was prepared in advance indicating active surface of freshly precipitated iron hydroxide is necessary for quantitative recovery of Tc(IV). A repeating coprecipitation technique was examined for enrichment of Tc in seawater that the same iron was used repeatedly as coprecipitater. After separation of iron hydroxide with Tc(IV) from supernatant, the precipitate was dissolved by addition of acid and then new seawater which contained reducing agent and Tc(VII) was added. Reduction and coprecipitation was again carried out. Good recovery was attained for 7 repeats. The proposed repeating coprecipitation technique was applicable to a large amount of seawater without increasing the amount of iron hydroxide which is subjected to radiochemical analysis. (author)

358

Novel tunable hierarchical Ni–Co hydroxide and oxide assembled from two-wheeled units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel hierarchical Ni–Co hydroxide assembled from two-wheeled units was successfully synthesized via a simple, hydrothermal method through the reaction of nickel salt, cobalt salt and sodium hydroxide, and with a chelating agent (EDA) to control the precipitation rate. The as-synthesized materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The Ni2+/Co2+ molar ratio R in the initial solution plays an important role to control the morphology of the hierarchical Ni–Co hydroxide. The influence of the EDA concentration, reaction temperature and NaOH concentration on the formation of the hierarchical Ni–Co hydroxide was also investigated. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical Ni–Co hydroxide assembled by two-wheeled units was proposed. A Ni–Co oxide with a similar structure was obtained by calcination of the as-prepared Ni–Co hydroxide.

359

Pyroprocessing of oxidized sodium-bonded fast reactor fuel - An experimental study of treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electro-metallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 C. degrees with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. In the absence of zirconium or sodium oxide, the electrolytic reduction of MnO showed nearly complete conversion to metal. The electrolytic reduction of a blend of MnO-ZrO2 in LiCl - 1 wt% Li2O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but only 8.5% of the zirconium was found in the metal phase. The electrolytic reduction of the same blend of MnO-ZrO2 in LiCl - 1 wt% Li2O - 6.2 wt% Na2O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but zirconium reduction was even less at 2.4%. This study concluded that ZrO2 cannot be substantially reduced to metal in an electrolytic reduction system with LiCl - 1 wt% Li2O at 650 C. degrees due to the perceived preferential formation of lithium zirconate. This study also identified a possible interference that sodium oxide may have on the same system by introducing a parasitic and cyclic reaction of dissolved sodium metal between oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. When applied to oxidized sodium-bonded EBR-II fuel (e.g., U-10Zr), the prescribed electrolytic reduction system would not be expected to substantially reduce zirconium oxide, and the accumulation of sodium in the electrolyte could interfere with the reduction of uranium oxide, or at least render it less efficient

360

Sodium Phosphate  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

 
 
 
 
361

Electrochemical properties of polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium vanadate nanomaterials were synthesized at different pH-values of a sodium hydroxide solution of vanadium pentoxide. Polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials were prepared at room temperature and at 3 C by a chemical polymerization method. The crystal structure and phase purity of the samples have been examined by powder XRD. The samples were identified as HNaV6O16.4H2O and Na1.1V3O7.9. The electrochemical measurements show that polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate hydrated nanomaterials provide higher current density than the sodium vanadate nanomaterials. (orig.)

362

Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

You, D.; Lefefre, S.; Feron, D. [CEA-Saclay, Lab. d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vaillant, F. [EDF-Les Renardieres - DRD/EMA, Moret-sur-Loing (France)

2002-07-01

363

Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

364

Detalhes da utilização do íon hidróxido, HO-, no tratamento de efluentes contaminados com metal pesado zinco=Details of hydroxide ion utilization in the treatment of contaminated effluents with zinc.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo abordou o tratamento do efluente gerado num Espectrômetro de Absorção Atômica - EAA, no tocante ao metal pesado zinco, utilizando a propriedade do cátion formar o precipitado Zn(OH2(ppt. O assunto foi tratado teórica e praticamente. Teoricamente foram levantados parâmetros termodinâmicos e analisada matematicamente a solubilidade do Zn(OH2(ppt com a variação do pH. Experimentalmente foi analisado o comportamento da solução aquosa do Zn(OH2(ppt e da solução in natura do efluente descartado com o pH. As medidas da concentração de zinco nas diversas situações foram realizadas pelo método da EAA, com limite de detecção (LD de 0,030 mg L-1. Os resultados nas diferentes situações de solução e pH do meio, para a solubilidade mínima do Zn(OH(ppt, SMínima, em mg L-1, foram: valor teórico = 2,3; valor experimental para solução de Zn(OH(ppt = 0,92; valor para solução in natura = 0,092, respectivamente. Estes valores estão de conformidade com BRASIL-Resolução Conama n. 397/2008.This work analyzed the treatment of effluent produced by an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS containing the heavy metal zinc, utilizing the capacity of Zn2+ to react with hydroxide ion (HO-, forming Zn(OH2(ppt. The content was treated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, the thermodynamic parameters were assessed and the solubility of Zn(OH2(ppt with pH variation was analyzed mathematically. Experimentally, the study analyzed the behavior of the Zn(OH2(ppt aqueous solution and in natura solution of discarded effluent with the medium pH. The values of zinc concentration in the different situations were measured using AAS, flame modality, with detection limit (DL 0.030 mg L-1. The results in the different situations of solution and medium pH for the minimum solubility of Zn(OH2(ppt, in mg L-1, were: theoretical value = 2.3; experimental value for the Zn(OH2(ppt solution = 0.92; in natural effluent = 0.092, respectively. These values are in compliance with BRAZIL-Conama Resolution number 397/2008.

Ervim Lenzi

2011-07-01

365

40 CFR 268.42 - Treatment standards expressed as specified technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

...i.e., containing oxides and/or hydroxides of calcium and/or magnesium; (2) caustic (i.e., sodium and/or potassium hydroxides; (3) soda ash (i.e., sodium carbonate); (4) sodium sulfide; (5) ferric sulfate or...

2010-07-01

366

XAFS Study of Arsenical Nickel Hydroxide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To Investigate the role played by nickel co-ions in contributing to the stability of arsenic, fluorescence XAFS measurements at both arsenic K-edge and nickel K-edge, respectively, on amorphous arsenical nickel hydroxide, crystalline arsenical nickel hydroxide, and annabergite reference compounds have been carried out. The XAFS results indicate that the arsenic-bearing nickel hydroxides have a well-defined arsenic local structure with multiple coordination shells, suggesting a compound format...

Chen, N.; Kim, E.; Arthur, Z.; Daenzer, R.; Warner, J.; Demopoulos, G. P.; Joly, Yves; Jiang, D. T.

2013-01-01

367

Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

368

Clinical effect of calcium hydroxide paste combined with triple antibiotic paste on root canal disinfection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective?To compare the efficacy in disinfection and pain control of calcium hydroxide paste and triple antibiotic paste (ornidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline used individually or jointly for root canal disinfection. Methods?Two hundred and thirty-five patients with chronic apical periodontitis (235 teeth were involved in the present study and divided into 2 groups: fistula group (n=118 and no fistula group (n=117. Each group was then randomly divided into 4 subgroups: calcium hydroxide paste group, triple antibiotic paste group, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste group, and camphor phenol group. After regular root canal preparation, root canals of patients in 4 groups were filled with tiny paper ends impregnated with fore 4 different drugs respectively. Visual analogue scales (VAS of pain were given to the patients with a guide for filling the scale. One week later, both the data of the scales and the effects of root canal disinfection were recorded and analyzed. Results?Seven days after treatment, the clinical efficacy of calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste was similar (P>0.05 either in fistula group or in no fistula group, but all better than that of camphor phenol (P<0.05. VAS score analysis showed that, at least on the first 3 days after sealing medicine in the root canal, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste achieved better result of pain control than the other three groups (P<0.05 no matter with or without fistula. Conclusions ?Calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste are effective in treatment of chronic apical periodontitis whether with or without fistula. However, the combined use of calcium hydroxide and three antibiotic pastes is better for controlling the pain after root canal preparation than other treatments, which is therefore worthy of clinical application. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.12

Chen QU

2014-03-01

369

The sodium process facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e acid products from the PUREX process at the Hanford site. However, changes in the DOE mission precluded the need for hydroxide and the caustic process was never operated. With the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), the necessity for a facility to react sodium was identified. In order to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the sodium had to be converted into a waste form acceptable for disposal in a Sub-Title D low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Sodium hydroxide is a RCRA regulated waste. It was decided to convert the hydroxide to sodium carbonate, a substance that is not RCRA regulated. ANL-W undertook the task of upgrading the SPF, and designing and constructing the additional carbonate process. At the time of preparation of this paper, the facilities were undergoing testing and startup activities. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters (13,000 gallons) of the EBR-II secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters (87,000 gallons) of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-levels of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter (71 gallon) barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal. (author)