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1

Experiments on the Sodium-Sodium Hydroxide Reaction for a Sodium Waste Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to find a reactivity moderation method for the sodium-sodium hydroxide (Na- NaOH) reaction to treat the sodium waste more stably, because if there is moisture in the sodium during a sodium treatment, the process of a sodium and water interaction is a rapidly process with a release of a lot of heat even at room temperature. Twelve experiments were performed based on the sodium hydroxide concentrations of 30, 40 and 50%, and temperatures of 30, 40, 50 and 60 .deg.. The amounts of sodium and solvent (NaOH solution) used for each test are 1 and 300 g, respectively.

2007-01-01

2

Experiments on the Sodium-Sodium Hydroxide Reaction for a Sodium Waste Treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to find a reactivity moderation method for the sodium-sodium hydroxide (Na- NaOH) reaction to treat the sodium waste more stably, because if there is moisture in the sodium during a sodium treatment, the process of a sodium and water interaction is a rapidly process with a release of a lot of heat even at room temperature. Twelve experiments were performed based on the sodium hydroxide concentrations of 30, 40 and 50%, and temperatures of 30, 40, 50 and 60 .deg.. The amounts of sodium and solvent (NaOH solution) used for each test are 1 and 300 g, respectively.

Choi, J. H.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

3

Sodium hydroxide treatment for boiler water - some questions and answers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PowerPlant Chemistry has received a multitude of questions regarding currently used feedwater and boiler water treatments. This contribution addresses many of the inquiries about sodium hydroxide treatment, giving general information on the subject and providing references where the inquirers and readers of this paper can find more detailed information on the topics discussed. (orig.)

Bursik, A. [PPChem, Neulussheim (Germany)

2008-03-15

4

Sodium-hydroxide solution treatment on sandstone cores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research was performed to study the effect of sodium hydroxide solution on the sandstone core samples and to develop a method whereby the permeability of the samples could be increased by the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. This work should provide the first step in developing a technique that can be used in the stimulation of oil and gas wells. A series of tests was conducted in which sodium hydroxide solution with concentrations ranging from 0.25 N to 2.00 N was injected into a number of Berea sandstone cores. The tests were conducted at room temperature and at 180{degree}F. In some cases the core sample were damaged by the injection of fresh water which resulted in a marked reduction in the permeability of the cores prior to the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. Based on laboratory testing with measurements of uniaxial compressive strength, SEM examination and X-ray analysis, it was found that sodium hydroxide interacted with sandstone to promote (1) partial dissolution of the sandstone minerals; (2) sandstone weight loss; (3) increased porosity; (4) weakening of the sandstone cores; and (5) changes in permeability. The interaction increased with increasing temperature and increasing sodium hydroxide concentration. However, at concentrations higher than 1.00 N, the degree of increase in permeability was not as large even though the sandstone weight loss and the increase in porosity did increase.

Lee, S.J.

1984-01-01

5

The effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on biomass binder preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of rice straw which has been treated with sodium hydroxide for use as coal briquette binder was studied. The main factor which influenced the binder preparation was the concentration of sodium hydroxide. It was found that the binding ability of the solid component was higher than the liquid part. The prepared rice straw binder was mixed with inorganic material, bentonite, or high molecular synthetic organic materials to manufacture a compound coal briquette binder. This compound binder is waterproofing and can further enhance the strength of the briquette. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Zhang, X.; Xu, D.; Xu, Z.; Chen, Q. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

2001-02-01

6

Sodium hydroxide poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical that is also known as lye and caustic soda. This article ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This is for information only and not for ...

7

Sodium Hydroxide Preliminary Source Assessment,  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary source assessment of industries with sodium hydroxide emissions is presented. Brief descriptions of these industries and processes that emit sodium hydroxide are given. Sodium hydroxide emissions data that were used in the Human Exposure Mod...

W. J. Neuffer

1988-01-01

8

Chemical matricectomy with 10% sodium hydroxide for the treatment of ingrown toenails in people with diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Treatment of ingrown toenails using chemical matricectomy in patients with diabetes has been difficult, because delayed wound healing, wound infections, and digital ischemia can interfere with the procedure. Chemical matricectomy with 10% sodium hydroxide is an effective treatment for ingrown toenails in a normal population. OBJECTIVES: Investigation of the effectiveness and safety of chemical matricectomy with 10% sodium hydroxide solution for ingrown toenails in patients with diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty patients with diabetes with 40 ingrown toenails and 30 patients without diabetes with 41 ingrown toenails were enrolled in the study. After partial avulsion of the affected edge, germinal matrix was treated for 1 minute with 10% sodium hydroxide. Patients were observed on alternate days until complete healing was achieved and followed for up to 24 months for recurrence. RESULTS: Assessment of the treatment in both groups for complete healing, postoperative pain, tissue damage, drainage, infections, and rate of recurrences revealed no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: The partial avulsion of the affected edge and the treatment of the germinal matrix for 1 minute with 10% sodium hydroxide preceded by matrix curettage is an effective and safe treatment modality for ingrown toenails in people with diabetes.

Tatlican S; Eren C; Yamangokturk B; Eskioglu F; Bostanci S

2010-02-01

9

ELIMINATION OF THE APPETITE SUPPRESSING ACTIVITY FROM JOJOBA MEAL BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE TREATMENT: MECHANISM AND ISOLATION OF ISOSIMMONDSIN A  

Science.gov (United States)

Jojoba seed meal show appetite suppressing activity due to the presence of simmondsin. This pharmacological activity disappears by treatment of the meal with sodium hydroxide. To elucidate this mechanism of inactivation, the reaction of simmondsin in 1 N sodium hydroxide at 20 C was monitored in f...

10

Sodium hydroxide preliminary source assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary source assessment of industries with sodium hydroxide emissions is presented. Brief descriptions of these industries and processes that emit sodium hydroxide are given. Sodium hydroxide emissions data that were used in the Human Exposure Model (HEM) are contained in the report. This Model is used by EPA's Pollutant Assessment Branch to evaluate health risks from various pollutants. Sodium hydroxide emission data were primarily obtained from the states of Kentucky, New Jersey, New York and Texas.

Neuffer, W.J.

1988-02-01

11

Rapeseed-straw enzymatic digestibility enhancement by sodium hydroxide treatment under ultrasound irradiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we carried out sodium hydroxide and sonication pretreatments of rapeseed straw (Brassica napus) to obtain monosugar suitable for production of biofuels. To optimize the pretreatment conditions, we applied a statistical response-surface methodology. The optimal pretreatment conditions using sodium hydroxide under sonication irradiation were determined to be 75.0 °C, 7.0 % sodium hydroxide, and 6.8 h. For these conditions, we predicted 97.3 % enzymatic digestibility. In repeated experiments to validate the predicted value, 98.9 ± 0.3 % enzymatic digestibility was obtained, which was well within the range of the predicted model. Moreover, sonication irradiation was found to have a good effect on pretreatment in the lower temperature range and at all concentrations of sodium hydroxide. According to scanning electron microscopy images, the surface area and pore size of the pretreated rapeseed straw were modified by the sodium hydroxide pretreatment under sonication irradiation.

Kang KE; Jeong GT; Park DH

2013-08-01

12

Comparison of Alkaline Treatment of Lead Contaminated Wastewater Using Lime and Sodium Hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A lead-acid storage battery manufacturing industry in India produces several thousand liters of lead con-taminated acidic wastewater on a daily basis and uses hydrated lime to render the lead-contaminated acidic wastewater alkaline (pH = 8.0). Alkaline treatment of the acidic wastewater with lime though a cost-effective method, generates copious amount of lead-contaminated gypsum sludge. Other alkali agents such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dolomite are also used for alkali treatment of the acid wastewaters. The present paper compares the relative efficiency of hydrated lime and 0.05 M to 1 M NaOH solutions with re-spect to 1) amounts of sludge produced, 2) immobilization of the soluble lead in the acidic wastewater (AWW) and 3) increase in TDS (total dissolved solids) levels upon treatment of AWW with NaOH solutions and lime. The study also performs equilibrium speciation upon alkaline treatment of AWW with lime and NaOH (sodium hydroxide) solutions using the Visual MINTEQ program to understand the chemical reac-tions occurring during treatment process.

Sudhakar M. Rao; G. C. Raju

2010-01-01

13

Malthenes from solubilization of low rank coal by methanol/sodium hydroxide treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of O-methylation occurring during the treatment of low rank coals with methanol/sodium hydroxide is evaluated. Chemical and spectral data of malthene fractions confirm unequivocally the presence of methoxyl groups. Their content was found to correlate with the efficiency of treatment. Formation of methyl esters after saponification of ester bridges in lignites is also probable. Reactions of O-alkylation contribute to stabilization through methylation of reactive intermediate species formed after cleavage of ether or ester linkages in coal organic matter, thus improving solubilization. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Stefanova, M.; Marinov, S.P.; Lazarov, L.; Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.D. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Organic Chemistry)

1992-08-01

14

Effect of a sodium hydroxide spray treatment on digestibility of barley straw in sheep and goats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate the possible potential of cheaper foodstuffs for small ruminants, an experiment was designed to compare the digestibility of barley straw and barley straw sprayed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In feeding trials involving six sheep and six goats, chopped untreated barley straw (US) was compared with straw chopped and sprayed with 5 g NaOH in 60 ml solution for each 100g straw. The treated straw (TS) was neither washed nor neutralized. Both US and TS were fed to appetite to sheep and goats, with protein, mineral and vitamin supplements and water ad libitum. Both diets were readily consumed and there were no metabolic problems. Dry Matter Intake (g kg-1 W0.75) was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in sheep but not in goats following alkali-treatment of the straw. The Energy Digestibility and Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD) of the TS diet were significantly higher than the US diet (P less than 0.05) in both species. The digestibility of Crude Fibre (CF) by sheep and goats was markedly improved (P less than 0.01) following treatment and the improvement was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) for the sheep fed on US than for the goats fed US. Values for the OMD and Metabolisable Energy (ME) of the US and TS were derived and both parameters were significantly increased (P less than 0.05) following treatment of the straw with alkali. TS, if adequately supplemented with nitrogen, minerals and vitamins is apparently capable of supplying the ME requirements for maintenance and limited production in sheep and goats.

Higgins, A.J.

1981-04-01

15

Pretreatment of rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pretreatment method for rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide was investigated for production of bioethanol and biobutanol. Various pretreatment parameters, including temperature, time, and sodium hydroxide concentration were optimized using a statistical method which is a central composite design of response surface methodology. In the case of sodium hydroxide pretreatment, optimal pretreatment conditions were found to be 7.9% sodium hydroxide concentration, 5.5 h of reaction time, and 68.4 °C of reaction temperature. The maximum glucose yield which can be recovered by enzymatic hydrolysis at the optimum conditions was 95.7% and the experimental result was 94.0 ± 4.8%. This experimental result was in agreement with the model prediction. An increase of surface area and pore size in pretreated rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide pretreatment was observed by scanning electron microscope.

Kang KE; Jeong GT; Park DH

2012-06-01

16

The Density of Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide-Sodium Aluminate Solutions: Data Review and Model Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The density of Hanford tank waste supernatants affects the design and performance of waste treatment processes. The density of aluminate ion [Al(OH)4-] bearing sodium hydroxide solutions is important for describing the caustic leaching processes in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Flowsheet. The dissolved aluminate has a particularly large impact on the density of supernatants, but this ion is absent from most density estimation algorithms because of its rarity in most industrial processes. Fortunately, there is a large amount of published data on the density of aqueous sodium-hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions, which can be used to develop density models. This study reviewed the available data and determined the partial molar volume of sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate for mixtures of these salts in water by regression. This study determined that much of the published data suffered from a strong correlation between the sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate concentrations in solution. Nonetheless, there was sufficient un-correlated data to identify and quantify the affect of both hydroxide and aluminate concentration on solution density. The density was found to increase linearly with both hydroxide and aluminate concentrations over a wide composition range. The effect of temperature on the density of aqueous sodium hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions was found to be statistically significant but small in magnitude. (authors)

2006-03-02

17

Transformation of sodium from the Rapsodie fast breeder reactor into sodium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the major problems raised by decommissioning a fast breeder reactor (FBR) concerns the disposal of the sodium coolant. The Desora operation was undertaken to eliminate the Rapsodie primary sodium as part of the partial decommissioning program, and to develop an operational sodium treatment unit for other needs. The process involves reacting small quantities of sodium in water inside a closed vessel, producing aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is described in this work. (O.L.). 4 figs.

Roger, J. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Latge, C.; Rodriguez, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Reacteurs

1994-12-31

18

Method for improving volume of production of corn straw biogas with sodium hydroxide wet-type solid state treatment at normal temperature  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for improving the yield of corn stalk biogas through sodium hydroxide wet type solid normal temperature treatment, which belongs to the field of biomass energy. The liquid chemical pretreatment and the solid chemical pretreatment of corn stalks have the problems of higher use amount of NaOH, high cost and the like. The method is that sodium hydroxide with the amount of 2 percent of the dry weight of the corn stalks, water with the amount of 7.5 times of the weight of the corn stalks and crashed corn stalks are fully mixed evenly, are sealed for preservation for 3 days after reaching the water saturation state, then are discharged and added with pig manure digestive liquid to undergo the anaerobic digestion and produce biogas. The invention has the advantages that the cost is saved, the pretreatment time is reduced, the gas yield is improved and the like.

XIUJIN LI; MINGXIA ZHENG; LAIQING LI; BAONING ZHU

19

BAM R74: 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

... BAM R74: 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R74 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution. NaOH, 400 g. ... More results from www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods

20

BAM R74: 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

... BAM R74: 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R74 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution. NaOH, 400 g. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

 
 
 
 
21

Comparison of Alkaline Treatment of Lead Contaminated Wastewater Using Lime and Sodium Hydroxide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A lead-acid storage battery manufacturing industry in India produces several thousand liters of lead con-taminated acidic wastewater on a daily basis and uses hydrated lime to render the lead-contaminated acidic wastewater alkaline (pH = 8.0). Alkaline treatment of the acidic wastewater with lime th...

Sudhakar M. Rao; G. C. Raju

22

Reactions of sodium hydroxide with sodium iodide, iodate, and periodate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interaction of sodium hydroxide with sodium iodide, iodate and periodate during heating and at different ratios of reagents was studied using the methods of IR spectroscopy, X-ray phase and thermal analysis. It was ascertained that sodium iodide forms adducts of the composition NaI ? nNaOH (n = 2(tmelt = 225-230 deg C) and 3(tmelt = 215-220 deg C)). Sodium iodate in the presence of NaOH disproportionates with formation of NaI and Na5IO6 in the temperature range of 270-420 deg C. Sodium metaperiodate in the presence of NaOH decomposes at 290 deg C with formation of NaIO3, oxygen and ? 5% of Na5IO6 impurity

2002-01-01

23

Reaction of sodium hydroxide with silicate minerals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reactions of individual silicate minerals with caustic solution were measured over a 1-week period. These silicate minerals included: two feldspars (microcline and albite), two micas (biotite and muscovite), and three clays (chlorite, Kaolinite and montmorillonite). Bottle tests were conducted at 24/sup 0/ and 70/sup 0/C using three different sodium hydroxide concentrations: 0.01, 0.1, and 1 equiv/dm/sup 3/. Changes in the concentrations of the following aqueous species were monitored with time: sodium, silicate, aluminate, and hydroxide. Experimental results show that all of the silicate minerals cited above dissolve in caustic solution, but the extent of dissolution varies from one mineral to another. The extent of dissolution increases with increasing pH and temperature. Caustic consumption by kaolinite was observed: 1.0 N NaOH solution was found to precipitate at 0.03 equiv/(kg kaolinite)/h when mixed with kaolinite at 70/sup 0/C. Caustic solution was injected through a Berea core, and silicate and aluminate were observed in the effluent, indicating silicate-mineral dissolution in a flowing mode. A model was developed to predict the kinetics of caustic consumption by a mixture of three minerals: quartz, kaolinite, and phillipsite. The model illustrates mineral dissolution and precipitation in a simplified system without including all of the known reservoir minerals. With knowledge of the reaction kinetics between sodium hydroxide and individual silicate minerals, one can extrapolate caustic consumption data beyond the laboratory time scale to the time scale of oilfield operations. Implications of the kinetic model to alkaline flooding are discussed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 21 tabs.

Thornton, S.D.

1986-04-01

24

Nitrogen oxide scrubbing with sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scrubbing of gaseous nitrogen oxides into aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions was investigated using an absorber packed with 13-mm Intalox saddles. The NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency for dilute mixtures of NO and NO/sub 2/ was observed to dramatically increase when caustic solutions were used as the absorbent. Several mathematical models were tested in attempts to explain the observed phenomena. A model providing for N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and N/sub 2/O/sub 3/ absorption described the experimental results very well. Other models involving HNO/sub 2/ absorption cannot however be ruled out.

Lucero, A.J.; Counce, R.M.; Sickles, J.E. II

1987-01-01

25

Absorption mechanism of sulfur dioxide into alcoholic sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical absorption of sulfur dioxide into alcoholic solution of sodium hydroxide was studied by simultaneous mass transfer and multiple instantaneous irreversible reaction. The experimental data showed the values of mass transfer enhancement factor to be much higher in the alcoholic sodium hydroxide solution. The results of present studies are compared with reversible and irreversible models over a wide range of sodium hydroxide solution concentration, reported previously. (author)

2006-01-01

26

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide.

Bruce A. Moyer; Alan P. Marchand; Peter V. Bonnesen; Jeffrey C. Bryan; Tamara J. Haverlock

2004-06-08

27

On the cathodic corrosion of iron in molten sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new concept of cathodic oxidation of iron and steels in molten sodium hydroxide is suggested. The rate of cathodic corrosion of St3 steel is comparable with the rate of chemical pickling of armco iron in NaOH meet, containing 16-32 mass% of sodium oxide. According to suggested concept, corrosion of steel and iron cathodes during technical electrolysis in molten sodium hydroxide proceeds independently of the presence of oxygen-containing atmosphere. 19 refs.; 2 figs.

1995-01-01

28

Dynamic interfacial tension between bitumen and aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dynamic interfacial tension between bitumen-in-toluene solutions (0.1-10 wt%) and aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions (0-5 wt%) were measured by drop volume method. The results of these measurements were analyzed on the basis of two models. The two models, based on diffusion-controlled adsorption, provided good fits to the dynamic interfacial tension data. The kinetic parameters and equilibrium interfacial tension were derived and were found to depend on both bitumen concentration in the oil phase and sodium hydroxide concentration in the aqueous phase. Equilibrium interfacial tensions decrease considerably with the increase of the concentration of bitumen or sodium hydroxide. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Xu, Y. [CANMET, Devon, AB (Canada). Western Research Center

1995-01-01

29

Hydrothermal treatment of naturally contaminated maize in the presence of sodium metabisulfite, methylamine and calcium hydroxide; effects on the concentration of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusarium toxin-contaminated ground maize was hydrothermally treated in the presence of different combinations of chemicals in order to simultaneously reduce zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) concentrations. Treatments were carried out in a laboratory conditioner at 80 °C and 17 % moisture. Six different treatments were performed, consisting of 3 doses of methylamine (MMA; 2.5, 5 and 10 g/kg maize) at a constant dose of 5 g sodium metabisulfite (SBS)/kg, either with or without the addition of 20 g calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)/kg. The used maize was contaminated with approximately 45.99 mg DON/kg and 3.46 mg ZEA/kg. Without the addition of Ca(OH)2, DON reductions reached approximately 82% after 1-min treatment and the toxin disappeared nearly completely after 10 min when 2.5 or 5 g MMA were applied. ZEA concentrations were only marginally affected. In the presence of Ca(OH)2, reductions in DON concentrations were lower, but were enhanced by increasing doses of MMA. ZEA concentrations were reduced by 72, 85 and 95% within the first 5 min of the treatment at MMA dosages of 2.5, 5 and 10 g/kg maize, respectively. The application of SBS in combination with a strong alkaline during hydrothermal treatment seems to be a promising approach to simultaneously decontaminate even high amounts of DON and ZEA in ground maize and may contribute to reduce the toxin load of diets. PMID:23536360

Rempe, Inga; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven

2013-03-28

30

Potential use of high-temperature and low-temperature steam treatment, sodium hydroxide and an enzyme mixture for improving the nutritional value of sugarcane pith  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The effectiveness of different treatment methods to improve the nutritional value of the sugarcane by-products (pith or bagasse) has been evaluated. The treatment methods included a high-pressure steam treatment (HPST; 19 bar, 3 min), treating the products with sodium hydroxide, sulphuric acid plus an enzyme mixture, or low-temperature steam treatment (LTST) under different conditions. Gas production (GP), two-step in vitro digestibility (IVD) and in situ degradability (I (more) SD) techniques were used to monitor the effectiveness of the treatments. HPST resulted in a significant increased in the total soluble sugar (TSS) content of unsteamed pith (USP), 20 vs. 123.75 mg/100 mL. Except for the enzyme treatment, the other treatments led to a significant improvement in the nutritional value of sugarcane by-products, as measured by the IVD method. LTST resulted in an increase in potential GP (B) at higher temperature, reaction time and amount of acid. The highest potential GP (110.92 mL/300 mg DM) was achieved under the conditions, 134 ºC, 18 g acid/kg DM, 120 min, and the lowest (72.4 mL/300 mg DM) under the conditions, 121 ºC, no acid, 40 min. In situ dry matter degradability (ISDMD) was unaffected by LTST. Dry matter digestibility results indicated that the optimal treatments for treating pith were HPST and NaOH, but that enzymes were ineffective. Furthermore, considering treatment cost (creating high-pressure are more expensive than low temperature treatments), potential environmental health problems and the relative improvement in the nutritional value of pith achieved by the LTST + acid method, compared to the HPST method (as measured using GP), these results suggested that the methods based on the use of LTST and acid (especially under harsher conditions), have the best potential to improve the nutritive value of sugarcane by-products.

Chaji, M.; Naserian, A.A.; Valizadeh, R.; Mohammadabadi, T.; Mirzadeh, Kh.

2010-01-01

31

Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Waste Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large quantities of highly alkaline, radioactive, liquid wastes are stored in underground tanks throughout the Department of Energy complex. These wastes will be pretreated to separate radionuclides and the remaining decontaminated liquid wastes incorporated into solid wasteforms for permanent disposal. Significant savings in disposal costs could result by recovering the sodium as sodium hydroxide for reuse or disposal as nonradioactive waste. Recent testing demonstrated an electrochemical separation process for the recovery of sodium hydroxide from alkaline waste solutions. The separation process uses ion-selective membranes to separate sodium from the bulk of the waste constituents under an applied electrical field. The sodium is recovered as a 10-15 wt percent solution of sodium hydroxide. Results of bench-scale and pilot-scale tests with simulated and radioactive waste solutions are presented.

Hobbs, D.T.

1999-04-09

32

Sodium hydroxide process for removing magnet wire insulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using molten sodium hydroxide to strip polyimide insulation from magnet wire. The study showed that the most important variables affecting the quality of a final stripped part could be easily controlled, and the potential safety hazards manifested by the use of sodium hydroxide at high temperature could be addressed. A stripping tool was designed using the data accumulated in the study.

Jamieson, D.R.

1986-04-01

33

Recovery of acids and sodium hydroxide from solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride with the use of bipolar membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examined the kinetic laws governing the electrodialysis recovery of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, as well as sodium hydroxide, from 1M sodium chloride and 0.5 M sodium sulfate solutions and from a mixture of these salts with the use of the MB-1, MB-2, and MB-3 bipolar membranes. Kinetic plots of the current density and the concentration of the acid and the base in the chambers next to the bipolar membranes during the electrodialysis treatment of 1M sodium chloride, 0.5 M sodium sulfate, and solutions are presented. It was established that it is better to use the MB-3 membrane for the electrodialysis conversion of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate into acids and sodium hydroxide owing to the high rate and current efficiency and low expenditure of electrical energy and degree of contamination of the products obtained by the salts. It was also established that the resistance of the MB-1 and MB-2 bipolar membranes is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of the MB-3 membrane.

Bobrinskaya, G.A.; Pavlova, T.V.; Shatalov, A.Ya.

1985-09-01

34

Fusibility of products of zircon interaction with sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of differential thermal analysis was applied to study the interactions among components of binary and ternary mixtures of zircon with sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate as well as to determine the fusibility of products of interaction. Using X-ray diffraction analysis the formation of sodium metazirconate was found to result from the interaction of mixture components. Chemical analysis of leaching products showed that mixtures of sodium hydroxide and carbonate are the promising reagents for zircon break down

1998-01-01

35

Determination of the oxidation states of neptunium in sodium hydroxide solutions by adsorption on zirconium(IV) hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An adsorption method for determining the distribution of the oxidation states of neptunium in sodium hydroxide solutions is proposed. In the range of sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1 - 2 M (1 M = 1 mol dm/sup -3/), the Np(V) was almost entirely adsorbed on zirconium(IV) hydroxide, while both Np(VI) and Np(VII) remained in the supernatant. By means of this adsorption method, it was found that Np(V) in tracer quantities, though it was most stable in acidic or neutral solutions, was not the most stable state in sodium hydroxide solutions. Also, the oxidation and reduction of Np in sodium hydroxide solutions were investigated.

Shiokawa, Y.; Sato, A.; Suzuki, S. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Iron, Steel and Other Metals)

1980-10-01

36

Interaction of sodium with sodium hydroxide due to interloop leakage in a steam generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors construct a model depicting the process by which chemical equilibrium is reached in the heterogeneous system formed by sodium and sodium hydroxide under accident conditions in a sodium-water steam generator. The results of the calculations demonstrate the following conclusions: that the rate of the homogeneous reaction of sodium and sodium hydroxide has an insignificant effect on the concentration of the components in sodium so that in evaluating the effectiveness of emergency detection the equilibrium values of the concentration of sodium oxide and sodium hydride must be used; and the solidification of the drops occurs at a temperature higher than the melting point of pure sodium hydroxide at 30 degrees K. Solid drops can therefore settle on the surface of the steam generator.

1987-01-01

37

Interaction of sodium with sodium hydroxide due to interloop leakage in a steam generator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors construct a model depicting the process by which chemical equilibrium is reached in the heterogeneous system formed by sodium and sodium hydroxide under accident conditions in a sodium-water steam generator. The results of the calculations demonstrate the following conclusions: that the rate of the homogeneous reaction of sodium and sodium hydroxide has an insignificant effect on the concentration of the components in sodium so that in evaluating the effectiveness of emergency detection the equilibrium values of the concentration of sodium oxide and sodium hydride must be used; and the solidification of the drops occurs at a temperature higher than the melting point of pure sodium hydroxide at 30 degrees K. Solid drops can therefore settle on the surface of the steam generator.

Bocharin, P.P.; Sroelov, V.S.; Privalov, Yu.V.

1987-07-01

38

In vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues, as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments have been carried out to study the changes in the values of in vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (WS), cotton seed shell (CSS), peanut shell (PS), soybean shell (SS), extracted olive cake (EOC) and extracted unpeeled sunflower seeds (ESS) after irradiation by various doses of gamma radiation (0, 100, 150, 200 kGy) or after spraying with different amounts of sodium hydroxide (NaOH): 0, 2, 4, and 6 g NaOH/25 ml water/100 g DM. The results indicate that there were significant increases in IVOMD and IVDE values for all irradiated samples and for sodium hydroxide treatments except for SS and ESS. Combined treatment of irradiation and sodium hydroxide resulted in a larger increase in the digestible energy than the individual treatments.

1999-01-01

39

In vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues, as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments have been carried out to study the changes in the values of in vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (WS), cotton seed shell (CSS), peanut shell (PS), soybean shell (SS), extracted olive cake (EOC) and extracted unpeeled sunflower seeds (ESS) after irradiation by various doses of gamma radiation (0, 100, 150, 200 kGy) or after spraying with different amounts of sodium hydroxide (NaOH): 0, 2, 4, and 6 g NaOH/25 ml water/100 g DM. The results indicate that there were significant increases in IVOMD and IVDE values for all irradiated samples and for sodium hydroxide treatments except for SS and ESS. Combined treatment of irradiation and sodium hydroxide resulted in a larger increase in the digestible energy than the individual treatments.

Al-Masri, M.R

1999-02-01

40

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production...CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production... Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

2010-07-01

42

Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH)3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic ...

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.; A?imovi?-Pavlovi? Zagorka; Andri? Ljubiša D.; Prsti? Aurel

43

Effects of coal composition and sodium hydroxide on sedimentation stability of a coal suspension in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long-flame coal from the Kuzbass was crushed in a ball pulverizer for 2 h. Crushed coal was mixed with distilled water. Coal content in water ranged from 30 to 50%. Effects of treating the coal-water suspension with sodium hydroxide on sedimentation ratio are analyzed. In the case of suspensions with a solids content below 30% sedimentation does not depend on the initial solids content. When solids content ranges from 30 to 45% sedimentation ratio depends on the initial content of coal in the suspensions. In the case of suspensions with coal content exceeding 50% separation sedimentation ratio is extremely low. Suspension treatment with sodium hydroxide reduces sedimentation rate. Factors that influence optimum sodium hydroxide content are analyzed. 8 refs.

Gamera, A.V.; Voronova, Eh.M.; Makarov, A.S. (Institut Kolloidnoi Khimii i Khimii Vody AN USSR (USSR))

1990-03-01

44

The evaluation of zeolite and sodium hydroxide chemical heat pumps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study focusses on a comparison of two potentially viable chemical heat pump systems, one using liquid sodium hydroxide and the other using solid (granular) zeolite as the heat upgrading medium. An earlier study on the sodium hydroxide chemical heat pump was carried out by Acres International Ltd. As part of the present study, an independent review of that study work was carried out at the University of Toronto. This review concentrated on the absorber design methods; it confirmed the viability of the design approach. The estimated costs for building and operating the model are $40,000 and $10,000, respectively. Investigations into the properties of zeolite identified a wide range of natural and synthetic zeolites with a broad range of properties. Synthetic zeolites in the form of molecular sieves are the types most commonly identified for heat transfer work in technical publications. The applications of zeolite to the heat pumping process was evaluated, and a performance evaluation of a heat pump dryer unit was carried out through the use of a computer program, which was modified for heat pump applications. A rotating heat wheel concept was the device selected for this evaluation. The theoretical peformances of zeolite and sodium hydroxide chemical heat pumps were compared, using the bench-scale dryer system from the earlier study as the basis. For this application, the dimensions of the zeolite heat wheel and the sodium hydroxide absorption tower were found to be comparable. It is concluded that both the sodium hydroxide and zeolite heat pump concepts are technically feasible, but that more data are required to carry out a detailed comparison. 22 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

1988-02-01

45

The corrosion of steels in molten sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The role of sodium hydroxide corrosion is discussed in relation to the wastage of materials observed in fast reactor boilers under fault conditions in the vicinity of a water leak into sodium. An experimental technique to study the corrosion under varying conditions is described. The results presented are for 2 1/4Cr 1Mo obtained in static sodium hydroxide in a closed volume over the temperature range 1033K to 1273K. It is found that the corrosion rate can be followed by monitoring the hydrogen produced by the reaction, which can be written as: Fe + 2NaOH = NaFeO2 + NaH + 1/2H2. After an initial acceleration period the rate law is parabolic. The effect on the corrosion rate of melt and cover gas composition has been in part investigated, and the relevance of mass flow of reactants is discussed. (author)

1976-05-06

46

Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

2002-09-18

47

Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80% of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

2002-01-01

48

Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH)3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT) and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.; A?imovi?-Pavlovi? Zagorka; Andri? Ljubiša D.; Prsti? Aurel

2002-01-01

49

Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct oxidation of sodium borohydride in concentrated sodium hydroxide medium has been studied by cyclic and linear voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry for silver and gold electrocatalysts, either bulk and polycrystalline or nanodispersed over high area carbon blacks. Gold and silver yield rather complete utilisation of the reducer: around 7.5 electrons are delivered on these materials, versus 4 at the most for platinum as a result of the BH4 - non-negligible hydrolysis taking place on this latter material. The kinetic parameters for the direct borohydride oxidation are better for gold than for silver. A strong influence of the ratio of sodium hydroxide versus sodium borohydride is found: whereas the theoretical stoichiometry does forecast that eight hydroxide ions are needed for each borohydride ion, our experimental results prove that a larger excess hydroxide ion is necessary in quasi-steady state conditions. When the above-mentioned ratio is unity (1 M NaOH and 1 M NaBH4), the tetrahydroborate ions direct oxidation is limited by the hydroxide concentration, and their hydrolysis is no longer negligible. The hydrolysis products are probably BH3OH- ions, for which gold displays a rather good oxidation activity. Additionally, silver, which is a weak BH4 - oxidation electrocatalyst, exhibits the best activity of all the studied materials towards the BH3OH- direct oxidation. Finally, carbon-supported gold nanoparticles seem promising as anode material to be used in direct borohydride fuel cells.

2006-07-28

50

Decomposition of Niobium Ore by Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Method  

Science.gov (United States)

The decomposition kinetics of niobium ore in the NaOH system was studied experimentally. The results show that the reaction products are sodium metaniobate and sodium niobate formed by the reaction of pyrochlore with sodium hydroxide under roasting. The effects of temperature, particle size, and mass ratio of alkali-to-ore were studied. The conversion rate of niobium exceeded 99 pct after 20 minutes at 923 K (650 °C) with a mass ratio of alkali-to-ore 1.2:1 and with initial particle size 75 to 106 ?m. The kinetic study indicates that the shrinking core model is applicable and the process is controlled by a chemical reaction. The activation energy was calculated to be 78.82 kJ mol-1.

Yang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Chang; Zheng, Shi-Li; Sun, Qing

2013-02-01

51

Kinetics of cubic boron nitride reaction with molten sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of cubic boron nitride (different makes) interaction with sodium hydroxide melt in the temperature range of 380-480 deg C was studied by the gravimetric method. It was ascertained that the reaction order at 440 deg C makes up 3.5, while the value of apparent activation energy is 92.3 ± 12.9 kJ/mol, which suggests occurrence of the process in kinetic range. It is shown that different makes of cubic boron nitride differ in their chemical resistance to alkali melt

2004-01-01

52

Titration of Monoprotic Acids with Sodium Hydroxide Contaminated by Sodium Carbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the effects of using carbon dioxide contaminated sodium hydroxide solution as a titrant for a solution of a weak monoprotic acid and the resulting distortion of the titration curve in comparison to one obtained when an uncontaminated titrant is used. (CW)

Michalowski, Tadeusz

1988-01-01

53

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

2001-01-01

54

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2000-06-01

55

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2001-06-01

56

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Sodium hydroxide represented the initial test case and primary focus. It is a primary component of the waste1 and has the most value for recycle. A full explanation of the relevance of this research to USDOE Environmental Management needs will be given in the Relevance, Impact, and Technology Transfer section below. It should be noted that this effort was predicated on the need for sodium removal primarily from low-activity waste, whereas evolving needs have shifted attention to volume reduction of the high-activity waste. The results of the research to date apply to both applications, though treatment of high-activity wastes raises new questions that will be addressed in the renewal period. Toward understanding the extractive chemistry of sodium hydroxide and other sodium salts, it was the intent to identify candidate extractants and determine their applicable basic properties regarding selectivity, efficiency, speciation, and structure. A hierarchical strategy was to be employed in which the type of liquid-liquid-extraction system varied in sophistication from simple, single-component solvents to solvents containing designer host molecules. As an aid in directing this investigation toward addressing the fundamental questions having the most value, a conceptualization of an ideal process was advanced. Accordingly, achieving adequate selectivity for sodium hydroxide represented a primary goal, but this result is worthwhile for waste applications only if certain conditions are met.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

2002-03-30

57

A study on oxide ions in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature by laser Raman spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If high temperature sodium is burned in humid air, its compound will become high temperature melt of sodium hydroxide as a solvent. If this melt includes peroxide ion, it will be a considerably active aggressive and corrosive for steels. This study was carried out in order to investigate the ability of presence of peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature. Laser Raman Spectroscopy was employed to analyze the Raman spectra of sodium peroxide and mixed specimen of sodium hydroxide with sodium peroxide. These reagents were heated up to 1073K under Ar gas atmosphere in the specially made vessel. Detectability and stability of peroxide ion at high temperature were investigated. Also we investigated about superoxide ion by using sodium peroxide and potassium superoxide. Superoxide ion was included in sodium peroxide as an impurity. As the result, the stability of peroxide ion in high temperature melt was showed up to 873K for sodium peroxide and 823K for sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium peroxide. And as the results for superoxide ion, its stability was showed as up to 873K for unmixed potassium superoxide and up to 773K for sodium hydroxide mixed one. Additionally, it was considered that superoxide ion will not change into peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature. (author)

2000-01-01

58

A study on oxide ions in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature by laser Raman spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If high temperature sodium is burned in humid air, its compound will become high temperature melt of sodium hydroxide as a solvent. If this melt includes peroxide ion, it will be a considerably active aggressive and corrosive for steels. This study was carried out in order to investigate the ability of presence of peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature. Laser Raman Spectroscopy was employed to analyze the Raman spectra of sodium peroxide and mixed specimen of sodium hydroxide with sodium peroxide. These reagents were heated up to 1073K under Ar gas atmosphere in the specially made vessel. Detectability and stability of peroxide ion at high temperature were investigated. Also we investigated about superoxide ion by using sodium peroxide and potassium superoxide. Superoxide ion was included in sodium peroxide as an impurity. As the result, the stability of peroxide ion in high temperature melt was showed up to 873K for sodium peroxide and 823K for sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium peroxide. And as the results for superoxide ion, its stability was showed as up to 873K for unmixed potassium superoxide and up to 773K for sodium hydroxide mixed one. Additionally, it was considered that superoxide ion will not change into peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature. (author)

Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Ohtori, Norikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

2000-09-01

59

The different effects of sodium bicarbonate and aluminium hydroxide on the absorption of indomethacin in man.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of oral sodium bicarbonate and aluminium hydroxide on the absorption of indomethacin has been studied in normal volunteers. While sodium bicarbonate appeared to increase indomethacin absorption, aluminium hydroxide markedly reduced both the rate and extent of absorption. The buccal abs...

Garnham, J. C.; Kaspi, T.; Kaye, C. M.; Oh, V. M.

60

Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to mimic the operation of the air-cathode in a direct borohydride alkaline fuel cell, we studied the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in sodium hydroxide solution containing traces of borohydride. The activity of several ORR electrocatalysts, namely carbon-supported platinum, gold, silver and manganese oxide, has been investigated using slow-scan linear voltammetry. Whereas platinum is one of the best electrocatalyst in pure sodium hydroxide, none of the classical electrocatalysts: gold, silver and platinum, exhibit sufficient selectivity towards the ORR. When BH{sub 4}{sup -} is present in solution, the potential taken by electrodes using such materials is a mixed potential, following the competition between the ORR and the NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis and/or oxidation. Conversely, manganese oxide-based electrocatalysts exhibit very interesting behaviour towards the ORR in alkaline medium; while their intrinsic ORR activity in pure sodium hydroxide is quite as good as that for platinum, they still display a remarkable selectivity for this reaction when the electrolyte contains traces of sodium borohydride. As a result, carbon-supported manganese oxide-based nanoparticles seem very interesting materials to be used in direct borohydride fuel cell. (author)

Chatenet, Marian; Micoud, Fabrice; Roche, Ivan; Chainet, Eric [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Vondrak, Jiri [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

2006-07-28

 
 
 
 
61

Comparison of tissue solubility of human umbilical cord by sodium hypochlrorite and calcium hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: As biomechanical preparation of root canal system is not always completely accomplished because of morphological and physical barriers, to obtain a sterile root canal for the success of endodontic treatment, use of chemical solvents is essential. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare effects of Ca (OH)2 and NaOCl in single and combination usage for this purpose.Methods and Materials: In this experimental study, five groups of 40 pieces of human umbilical cord samples were placed in 10 ml of different solvents for 1 wk. The weight of samples was adjusted to 0.03 g. Experimental solvents included: 1) Calcium hydroxide solution (0.6g per ml), 2) 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 3) 5% sodium hypochlorite, and 4) calcium hydroxide solution for 1 wk and then 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min, 5) Normal saline. Tissue solubility of these solvents was compared by weight changes of samples after 1 wk. Data was analyzed with Kruscal- wallis and t- student tests.Results: There was no significant difference between calcium hydroxide (Group 1) and salin (Group 5). Other groups had significant differences (p value < 0.01).Conclusion: According to findings of this study, tissue solubilizing of 0.5% NaOCl is less than 5% although both have more solubilizing power than Ca (OH)2. Pretreatment with Ca (OH)2 could not enhance the tissue dissolving effect of 0.5% NaOCl.Key words: Root canal therapy- Irrigators- Sodium hypochlorite- Calcium hydroxide- Tissue solubility

M Barati; B Barekatain; P Khodadoostan; N Mosharraf

2008-01-01

62

Sodium hydroxide-assisted desulphurization of petroleum fluid coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Desulphurization of a fluid coke produced commercially from a conventional petroleum crude oil was attempted. Direct hydrodesulphurization of the coke at 700/sup 0/C resulted in approx. =31 wt% sulphur removal; however, impregnation of the fluid coke with trace amounts of sodium hydroxide and subsequent hydrodesulphurization resulted in greater than or equal to 80 wt% sulphur removal primarily as H/sub 2/S. A significant part of the alkaline reagent could be recovered by hot water leaching of the desulphurized coke. The calorific value of the desulphurized coke is slightly lower than that of the starting material. The mechanism appears to be complex as the change in surface area was negligible upon impregnation and hydrodesulphurization. Economic evaluation of the desulphurization process, carried out at the Alberta Research Council, indicates that it has significant economic advantages over fluidized-bed combustion of the coke with limestone or combustion of the coke with flue gas desulphurization.

George, Z.M.; Schneider, L.G.

1982-12-01

63

Catalytic and inhibiting effects of lithium peroxide and hydroxide on sodium chlorate decomposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical oxygen generators based on sodium chlorate and lithium perchlorate are used in airplanes, submarines, diving, and mine rescue. Catalytic decomposition of sodium chlorate in the presence of cobalt oxide, lithium peroxide, and lithium hydroxide is studied using thermal gravimetric analysis. Lithium peroxide and hydroxide are both moderately active catalysts for the decomposition of sodium chlorate when used alone, and inhibitors when used with the more active catalyst cobalt oxide.

Cannon, J.C.; Zhang, Y. [Puritan-Bennett Corp., Lenexa, KS (United States)

1995-09-01

64

ION RECOGNITION APPROACH TO VOLUME REDUCTION OF ALKALINE TANK WASTE BY SEPARATION AND RECYCLE OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM NITRATE  

Science.gov (United States)

A 3-year collaborative project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Bruce A. Moyer) and the University of North Texas (Prof. Alan P. Marchand) is proposed to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide and other predominant sodium salts such as sodium nitrate f...

65

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

2008-01-01

66

Water Mock-up for the Sodium Waste Treatment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to safely treat the waste sodium which was produced from the sodium cooled fast reactors and the sodium facilities. About 1.3 tons of sodium waste has accumulated at KAERI from the sodium experiments which have been carried out since 1990. Also, large scaled sodium experiments are scheduled to verify the design of the sodium cooled fast reactor. As a treatment method for the waste sodium produced at the sodium facility, an investigation of the reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide aqueous has been developed. The NOAH process was developed in France for the treatment of waste sodium produced from sodium facilities and reactors. In the NOAH process, a small amount of sodium waste is continuously injected into the upper space which is formed on the free surface of the aqueous and slowly reacted with sodium hydroxide aqueous. Since the density of the sodium is lower than that of the aqueous, the injected sodium waste sometimes accumulates above the free surface of the sodium hydroxide aqueous, and its reaction rate becomes slow or suddenly increases. In the improved process, the sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a sodium hydroxide aqueous through an atomizing nozzle installed on a lower level than that of the aqueous to maintain the reaction uniformly. Fig.1 shows the sodium waste process which was proposed in KAERI. The aqueous is composed of 60% sodium hydroxide, and its temperature is about 60 .deg. C. The process is an exothermic reaction. The hydrogen gas is generated, and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide increases in this process. It needs several systems for the process, i.e. a waste sodium injection, a cooling of the aqueous, hydrogen ventilation, and neutralization with nitric acid. The atomizing nozzle was designed to inject the sodium with the nitrogen gas which supplies a heat to the sodium to prevent its solidification and to uniformly mix the sodium with the aqueous. There are complex reacting phenomena in the system to observe with the naked eye. Therefore, a water mockup was carried out for the practical use of the data in the waste sodium treatment test

2011-01-01

67

Effect of ferric tartrate/sodium hydroxide solvent pretreatment on enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in corn residue. [Trichoderma reesei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lignocellulose containing 62% cellulose was prepared from corn residue by dilute acid hydrolysis using 5% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 90/sup 0/C. The lignocellulose was then treated with a cellulose solvent consisting of a ferric sodium tartrate complex in 1.5 N sodium hydroxide at levels ranging from 4:1 to 12:1 (solvent volume:corn residue lignocellulose) or a 1.5 N sodium hydroxide solution alone. Subsequent hydrolysis with cellulase enzymes from Trichoderma reesei gave cellulose conversions which were two to three times higher than untreated lignocellulose (30%) and approached 90% conversion after 24 h in the best cases. It was found that increasing cellulase enzyme levels from 3.74 IU/g lignocellulose to 7.71 IU/g lignocellulose increased cellulose conversion by 50% at all pretreatment conditions, while an increase from 7.71 to 10.1 IU/g gave only an additional 5-10% increase. Pretreatment with sodium hydroxide resulted in 5-25% lower conversions than observed for cellulose treated with the solvent, depending on enzyme levels and treatment levels. At high enzyme levels, sodium hydroxide pretreatment is almost as effective enhancing cellulose conversion after 24 h as is pretreatment using the cellulose solvent.

Hamilton, T.J.; Dale, B.E.; Ladisch, M.R.; Tsao, G.T.

1984-01-01

68

Reactions of cumene hydroperoxide mixed with sodium hydroxide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) was undertaken in a free radical chain reaction. The peroxyl group is very active and unstable, while the remainder of the molecule is inert. CHP reacted with various concentrations of dilute sodium hydroxide as a catalyst to cleave at ambient and decomposition temperature. The products were verified by GC/MS, and were quantitatively analyzed by chromatography. CHP cleaved heterolytic with NaOH at 250 degrees C, whose major product was dimethylphenyl carbinol (DMPC); however, the main products become acetophenone and alpha-methylstyrene by cleaved homolytic pathway. The catalytic concentrations of NaOH significantly affected the branch ratios of DMPC under decomposition. Based on the experimental results, a radical cleavage mechanism was proposed. To sum up, the reaction parameters, such as temperature, Lewis base, etc., could affect the incompatibilities and decomposition pathways for proper CHP cleavage process. In addition, exothermic onset temperatures (T0) and heat of decomposition (Delta Hd) of incompatible mixtures and CHP itself were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Comparisons of T0, Delta Hd and peak power were assessed to corroborate the severity of thermal hazards. From the decay rate of CHP concentration, the reaction order was determined to be 0.5, and the Arrhenius parameters were measured as Ea=92.1 kJ/mol and frequency factor A=2.42 x 10(10)min(-1).

Hou HY; Shu CM; Tsai TL

2008-04-01

69

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provided that the resulting total sodium concentration in feed does not compromise the overall electrolyte balance. Sodium hydroxide in solid form and in aqueous solution at concentrations > 8.0 % is corrosive. At lower concentrations it is irritant to skin and eyes (0.5 % and 0.2 %, respectively) and the respiratory tract (0.5 %). Exposure via inhalation is likely to be minimal. Sodium hydroxide is not considered to be a skin sensitiser. As sodium hydroxide is used in food as an acidity regulator, and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

2012-01-01

70

Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions

1983-01-01

71

Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions.

Ospanov, Kh.K.; Sultanbaeva, R.

1983-02-01

72

Detection of interstellar sodium hydroxide in self-absorption toward the galactic center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A weak self-absorbed emission line, which we identify as the J = 4--3 transition of sodium hydroxide, has been detected in the direction of Sgr B2(OH). The correspondingly weak Sgr B2(OH) emission line U75406, previously reported as an unidentified spectral feature by other investigators, is consistent with the J = 3--2 transition of sodium hydroxide. This detection may represent the first evidence of a grain reaction formation mechanism for simple metal hydroxides. We also report the detection of H26delta toward Orion A.

Hollis, J.M.; Rhodes, P.J.

1982-11-01

73

Recovery of sodium hydroxide and silica from zirconium oxide plant effluent of Nuclear Fuel Complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium hydroxide (lye) and silica can be recovered in pure form from the alkaline sodium silicate waste of Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Electrolytic method was used to amalgamate the sodium present in an electrolyser with flowing mercury as cathode and nickel as anode. The amalgam is then denuded with water in a graphite packed tower to recover mercury for recycling to the electrolyser and sodium hydroxide lye. Sodium hydroxide lye can be recycled in the zirconium oxide plant. Silica is recovered from the spent electrolyte by ion exchange method using cation exchange resin. Both the process details are described in this paper, with experimental data useful for the scale up. The process converts waste to value products. (author).

1994-01-01

74

Reactions between rocks and the hydroxides of calcium, sodium and potassium: progress report no. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reaction between the hydroxides of calcium, sodium and potassium, and clay minerals, feldspars, and some rocks (aggregates for use in concrete) was investigated. The reaction products were examined by means of x-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. The solid reaction products identified were hydrated calcium silicates,hydrated calcium aluminates, and hydrated calcium alumina silicates. It was found that, in the presence of water, calcium hydroxide liberated alkali into solution if the rocks and minerals contained alkali metals in their structure. Two crystalline hydrated sodium calcium silicates (12A and 16A) were prepared in the system Na2O-CaO-SiO2-H2O at 80 degrees Celsius. The one compound (12A) was also observed when sodium hydroxide plus calcium hydroxide and water reacted with silica- or silicate-containing rocks.

1982-01-01

75

Effect of sodium hydroxide on anionic surfactant distribution in a two-phase system based on TBP in n-dodecane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been made on the effects of sodium hydroxide on the distributions for the sodium salts of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA), di-n-butylphosphoric acid (DBPA), and lauric acid in a system composed of a 30% TBP solution in n-dodecane and aqueous sodium hydroxide. As the alkali concentration in the aqueous phase is reduced from 10 to 0.01 M, the distribution coefficients decrease for the anionic surfactants as well as TBP. Dilute sodium hydroxide solution thus enable one to remove extractant and diluent acid decomposition products from the organic phase, particularly ones having long alkyl chains, which tend to stabilize the emulsions in alkali-carbonate treatment. The distribution coefficients for these surfactants have appreciable effects on the type of stabilized emulsion. At 10 M alkali concentration, micellar aggregates are formed by sodium laurate in the organic phase.

1988-01-01

76

Laboratory evaluation of sodium hydroxide and sodium orthosilicate for tertiary oil recovery in an Alberta reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory evaluations of sodium hydroxide and sodium orthosilicate as improved oil recovery agents have been made for the Wainwright reservoir of Alberta. This reservoir contains acidic oil and has undergone extensive waterflooding. Both the in-place brine and the brine presently being injected into the Wainwright reservoir are very hard, suggesting that the injection of the 2 alkaline agents as slugs in the tertiary mode might result in different oil recoveries. The relative oil recovery efficiencies of 50% PV slugs of the 2 alkaline agents at a 1.0% by weight concentration were studied in 6 Berea core displacement tests. The effects of the addition of salt to the slugs and of applying soft water pre- and post-flushes also were evaluated. Sodium orthosilicate performed better than NaOH in the core subjected to soft water pre- and post-flushes when no NaCl was added to the alkaline slug. The improvement in oil recovery over waterflooding amounted to 15% original oil-in-place.

Novosad, Z.; McCaffery, F.G.

1982-01-01

77

Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina/ Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potencia (more) is para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3) tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm. Abstract in english The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to develop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments we (more) re carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3) with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

Lima, Eduardo Rodrigues de; Oliveira, Ricardo Araújo; Ambrosio-Ugri, Miriam Carla Bonicontro; Barros, Sueli Teresa Davantel de; Barros Júnior, Carlos de

2008-03-01

78

Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3) tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm.The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to develop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3) with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

Eduardo Rodrigues de Lima; Ricardo Araújo Oliveira; Miriam Carla Bonicontro Ambrosio-Ugri; Sueli Teresa Davantel de Barros; Carlos de Barros Júnior

2008-01-01

79

Anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] High-level radioactive wastes, primarily consisting of concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions, are stored in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated solutions of 10 M NaOH and various concentrations of NaNO3 (0.01-2.0 M) was determined in order to predict the caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) susceptibility of the tanks. The active-passive transition peak exhibited during anodic polarization of low-carbon steel in 10 M NaOH, typically associated with CSCC, at -0.25 and -0.75 VSCE, is still present at the lower and higher concentrations of nitrate. However, there is a mid-range of nitrate concentrations (0.5-1 M) within which the peak is suppressed by the strongly oxidizing nitrate in the presence of oxygen, a cathodic depolarizer. Temperature also affects the magnitude of this mid-range of nitrate concentrations where CSCC is seen to be electrochemically prevented. The data suggest that the oxygen solubility at the relatively low temperatures tested (corr is driven more noble than the active-passive transition peak

2005-04-30

80

Effects of sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and gaseous hydrogen peroxide on the natural properties of cancellous bone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Processed xenegeneic cancellous bone represents an alternative to bone autograft. In order to observe the effects of present prion inactivation treatments on the natural properties of xenogeneic cancellous bones, we treated bovine bone granules with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and gaseous hydrogen peroxide (gH2 O2 ) respectively in this study. The microstructure, composition, and mineral content of the granules were evaluated by scanning electron micrograph, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ash analysis, and micro-computed tomography. The biomechanical property was analyzed by a materials testing machine. The cytocompatibility was evaluated by using a mouse fibroblast cell line (3T3). The microstructure, organic content, and mechanical strength were dramatically altered at the surface of bone in both NaOH- and NaOCl-treated groups, but not in the gH2 O2 -treated group. Compared with the gH2 O2 -treated group, attachment and proliferation of 3T3 were reduced in either NaOH- or NaOCl-treated groups. As the consequence, gH2 O2 treatment may be a useful approach of disinfection for the preparation of natural cancellous bone with well-preserved structural, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23373516

Bi, Long; Li, De-Cheng; Huang, Zhao-Song; Yuan, Zhi

2013-02-04

 
 
 
 
81

Effects of sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and gaseous hydrogen peroxide on the natural properties of cancellous bone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Processed xenegeneic cancellous bone represents an alternative to bone autograft. In order to observe the effects of present prion inactivation treatments on the natural properties of xenogeneic cancellous bones, we treated bovine bone granules with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and gaseous hydrogen peroxide (gH2 O2 ) respectively in this study. The microstructure, composition, and mineral content of the granules were evaluated by scanning electron micrograph, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ash analysis, and micro-computed tomography. The biomechanical property was analyzed by a materials testing machine. The cytocompatibility was evaluated by using a mouse fibroblast cell line (3T3). The microstructure, organic content, and mechanical strength were dramatically altered at the surface of bone in both NaOH- and NaOCl-treated groups, but not in the gH2 O2 -treated group. Compared with the gH2 O2 -treated group, attachment and proliferation of 3T3 were reduced in either NaOH- or NaOCl-treated groups. As the consequence, gH2 O2 treatment may be a useful approach of disinfection for the preparation of natural cancellous bone with well-preserved structural, mechanical, and biological properties.

Bi L; Li DC; Huang ZS; Yuan Z

2013-07-01

82

Sulfur removal from Gediz lignite using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions under mild oxidative conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sulfur removal from a high-sulfur Turkish lignite (Gediz) using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions having dissolved oxygen was investigated under mild oxidative conditions. Effects of the parameters such as sodium hydroxide/lignite weight ratio, temperature, and partial pressure of oxygen were investigated within the ranges of 0.05--0.8, 423--498 K, and 1--2 MPa, respectively. Optimum values of these parameters were determined regarding sulfur removal and coal recovery. Influences of dry oxidation of the lignite sample as a pretreatment at 573 K and subsequent washing of some treated lignite samples with 1 N HCl were investigated.

Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

1999-11-01

83

Study of the sorption of sulfur dioxide by wood treated with sodium hydroxide solution containing glycerol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this investigation was to study certain physicochemical characteristics (sorption capacity, freezing point, sorption kinetics and dynamics) of a sorbent based on wood shavings treated with aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide containing glycerol during the purification of air from sulfur dioxide.

Gavrilenko, M.I.; Petrovski, P.; Yakimenko, V.V.; Ennan, A.A.

1981-01-01

84

Interaction kinetics for cadmium tungstate with solutions of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetic parameters for interaction of cadmium tungstate powders, produced by milling monocrystals, with solutions of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid are determined. The interaction with NaOH solutions is shown to proceed with higher rate compared to HCL. The interaction rates at 90 deg C are high enough for practical use with the object to process.

1992-01-01

85

Investigation of rhenium sulfide interaction with sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of oxidizers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide interaction with sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is studied. The processes of rhenium sulfide interaction with hydrogen peroxide in the alkali medium proceed on the phase boundary and are limited by kinetic factors. Possible adsorption mechanism of rhenium sulfide oxidation under these conditions is shown.

1988-01-01

86

SUMMARY REVIEW OF THE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is produced in large quantities in the U.S. and the aerosol may be rebased into the atmosphere. Inhalation of aerosolized NaOH can cause damage to the upper respiratory tract and to the lungs. Rats exposed to a 40% NaOH aerosol in a chronic study showed br...

87

Enthalpy of VX Hydrolysis in Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solution at 90 deg C.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enthalpy (Delta(H)) or heat of reaction (q sub r) for the hydrolysis of munitions grade VX (0-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate) in aqueous sodium hydroxide (20.4 wt % or 5.01 M) at 90 C was determined in a 2-Liter Mettler RCl Re...

P. W. Bartram E. H. Harrison R. S. Lindsay S. A. Procell R. L. Matthews

2005-01-01

88

Bitumen-sodium hydroxide-water emulsion release agent for bituminous sands conveyor belt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been found that an emulsion comprising bitumen, sodium hydroxide and water, when spread over the load-bearing surface of a conveyor belt which is to transport bituminous sands, is a satisfactory release agent for use on the belt. Preferably the emulsion should contain at least 1% by wt of bitumen. For satisfactory emulsification of this minimum amount of bitumen it is preferred to use at least 0.1% by wt of sodium hydroxide. The quantity of bitumen may be increased above the 1% by wt but the quantity of sodium hydroxide then should be increased proportionately. The application of the emulsion should be at the rate of at least 0.76 gal/1000 sq ft. of conveyor belt. Bitumen is used in the unpurified form as it occurs in froth from the hot water extraction process. The bitumen, water, and sodium hydroxide are vigorously mixed in such proportions as to produce a stable emulsion. The resulting emulsion then may be sprayed on to the conveyor at a point just before the belt is impacted by the tar sand. 5 claims.

Sanford, E.; Shaw, R.

1980-08-26

89

Iodine absorption in mixed solution of sodium hydroxide-boric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the absorption solution used for the removal of radioactive iodine in the exhaust gas from nuclear facilities by washing with water, boron compounds with large neutron capture cross section are mixed in many cases as nuclear reaction inhibitor. Generally sodium hydroxide aqueous solution in which boric acid is dissolved is employed. Therefore in practical point of view, absorption of iodine in the mixed solution of sodium hydroxide - boric acid is important, and the partition equilibrium of iodine in sodium hydroxide - boric acid, vapor - liquid overall dissolution equilibrium coefficient between the mixed solution and decarboxilated air, and iodine absorption rate in the mixed solution were experimented and discussed. Boric acid partly becomes ions by hydrolysis in the mixed solution of sodium hydroxide - boric acid and acts as a pH control agent. It only affects the partition of iodine in liquid phase through its dissociation and electric charge equilibrium. Overall absorption rate of iodine decreases by adding the boric acid. Alkaline water of 9.5 to 10 pH containing boric acid of 1 to 3 g-boron/kg-water is very often used as the absorption solution for the removal of radioactive iodine by washing with alka- line water. This condition of boric acid concentration is higher than the condition in this investigation, and hence the detailed examination by the experiments over a wide range of concentration will be necessary. (Wakatsuki, Y

1978-01-01

90

Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

1997-01-01

91

Base hydrolysis of HMX and HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives with sodium hydroxide between 100 and 155 C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degradation of HMX-based high explosives (HMX, PBX 9404, and PBX 9501) with sodium hydroxide solutions is described. To obtain practicable reaction rates, the reaction was carried out in a pressurized reactor at temperatures up to about 155 C. Above about 70 C, mass transfer rates significantly affect the observed reaction rate. Therefore, a solid-liquid mass transfer model, based on gas-liquid film theory, was developed to describe the reaction rate. This model successfully predicted the experimentally observed degradation of explosives. Similar work with sodium carbonate solutions was reported previously. Faster reaction rates were observed with sodium hydroxide, a stronger base. Sodium hydroxide is preferred when the explosive contains a base-resistant binder, such as the binder used in PBX 9501, or when large, pressed pieces of explosives are used. Sodium carbonate hydrolysis and sodium hydroxide hydrolysis yielded the same degradation products.

Bishop, R.L.; Flesner, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Larson, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bell, D.A. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering

1999-06-01

92

Reactions of rare earth flourides with sodium carbonate and hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exchange interactions of sparingly soluble rare earth (RE) compounds such as fluorides, carbonates, and hydroxides in aqueous media are studied. The starting materials were fluorides of individual RE, obtained by precipitation with hydrofluoric acid from solutions of RE nitrates, which were prepared from the corresponding oxides of 99.9% and taken to the air-dry state, and also cp sodium carbonate and hydroxide. The solution compositions were determined by titration: NaOH and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ with hydrochloric acid, and NaF with Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/ solution. The equilibrium concentrations of NaF and naOH (or Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) in the systems studied at 90 degrees are given, which shows that in the La-Lu series the degree of conversion of RE fluorides into hydroxides increases, and into carbonates decreases.

Chuviliana, E.L.; Baryshnikov, N.V.; Poletaev, I.F.

1986-01-10

93

Coal solubility under the influence of alcohols and alkalis. Investigations into replacing sodium hydroxide with other bases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses reactions of black and brown coal with methanol in the presence of various bases. Flame coal with a carbon content of 73.1% and brown coal with a carbon content of 66.3% were used. As the cost of sodium hydroxide additives is high, effects of replacing it with a mixture of calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide with a small amount of sodium hydroxide were analyzed. Chemical reactions of calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate as well as calcium oxide with sodium carbonate and water, and formation of sodium hydroxide are described. Coal solubility under the following reaction conditions is analyzed: 10 g coal, 8.5 g calcium oxides, 1.7 g sodium carbonate, 210 ml methanol, reaction time 1 h, reaction temperature 350 C. Effects of water on reaction yield were investigated. Water content ranged from 0 to 25 or 50 g depending on coal type. Investigation showed that sodium hydroxide could be replaced by a calcium oxide and sodium carbonate mixture. Natural moisture content in coal (in brown coal to 50%) did not reduce the reaction yield. 13 refs.

Salbut, P.D.; Bimer, J.

1988-03-01

94

Liquefaction of cotton stalk with acetic acid and sodium hydroxide AT5MPa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aqueous slurries of cotton stalk dust (20% by weight) were treated with acetic acid and sodium hydroxide (15% by weight of the stalk) at 250, 300 and 350 deg C in a high-pressure autoclave for one hour starting with 5 MPa initial inert nitrogen gas pressure for liquefaction. The gas formed during the thermochemical treatment was analyzed by Orsat Gas Analyzer. The reaction mixtures were separated into solid-tar and aqueous phases by filtering. The solid-tar phases were extracted with acetone for the determination of oil yield. The calorific values, and the percentages of lignin and CHNO of the solid-tar were determined. It was found that the oil yield, the lignin content and the calorific values of the solid-tar increase as the liquefaction temperature increases. The CO{sub 2} content of the gas decreases with the increase in the thermochemical treatment temperature and the gas becomes more flammable as the operating temperature increases. The ratio of C/O in the solid-tar phases increases as the liquefaction temperature increases. The solid-tar yield of the stalk decreases with the increase of the operating temperature. It can be concluded that the cotton stalk, lignocellulosic in nature, is converted into water-soluble compounds mostly, under these conditions rather than oil.

Taner, F.; Kimyonsen, U.; Olcay, A. (C. U. Arts and Sciences, Adana (Turkey). Faculty Chem. Dept.)

1989-01-01

95

Effect of sodium hydroxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide on the composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wheat straw was treated with 5% sodium hydroxide, ozone, and 5% sulphur dioxide at 70 C for 72 h, and the effect of treatments on the composition and the in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) by rumen microorganisms was studied. Ozone and SO/sub 2/ solubilised most or all of the straw hemicellulose, converting it into cell solubles, whereas sodium hydroxide exerted a limited effect in this direction. The level of cell solubles increased from 31.8 to 48.2 and 52.2% and that of the reducing sugars from 2.2 to 15.6 and 24.3%, by ozone and SO/sub 2/ treatments, respectively. The IVOMD of straw was significantly increased by 80% (from 44 to 80%) with SO/sub 2/, whereas NaOH and ozone improved the IVOMD by only 50% (from 44 to 66%). The initial digestibility (ID at 6 h) suggested to represent substrate fermentability was significantly increased by SO/sub 2/ from 7.4 to 29.3%. In the present study, SO/sub 2/ was found to be the most efficient treatment for wheat straw in terms of overall degradability and fermentability. The technological advantage of the proposed treatment lies in the low moisture content (40%) and the moderate temperature required (70/sup 0/C), conditions which could be attained by solar systems. 19 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

Ben-Ghedalia, D.; Miron, J.

1981-01-01

96

The solubiltiy of iron hydroxide in sodium chloride solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

The solubility of iron(III) hydroxide as a function of pH was investigated in NaCl solutions at different temperatures (5-50°C) and ionic strengths (0-5 M). Our results at 25°C and 0.7 M in the acidic range are similar to the solubility in seawater. The results between 7.5 to 9 are constant (close to 10 -11 M) and are lower than those found in seawater (>10 -10) in this pH range. The solubility subsequently increases as the pH increases from 9 to 12. The solubility between 6 and 7.5 has a change of slope that cannot be accounted for by changes in the speciation of Fe(III). This effect has been attributed to a solid-state transformation of Fe(OH) 3 to FeOOH. The effect of ionic strength from 0.1 to 5 M at a pH near 8 was quite small. The solubility at 5°C is considerably higher than at 25°C at neutral pH range. The effects of temperature and ionic strength on the solubility at low and high pH have been attributed to the effects on the solubility product and the formation of FeOH 2+ and Fe(OH) 4-. The results have been used to determine the solubility products of Fe(OH) 3, K ?Fe(OH) 3 and hydrolysis constants, ? ?1, ? ?2, ? ?3, and ? ?4 as a function of temperature ( T, K) and ionic strength ( I): log K?Fe(OH) 3 = -13.486 - 0.1856 I0.5 + 0.3073 I + 5254/ T (? = 0.08) log ? ?1 = 2.517 - 0.8885 I0.5 + 0.2139 I - 1320/ T (? = 0.03) log ? ?2 = 0.4511 - 0.3305 I0.5 - 1996/ T (? = 0.1) log ? ?3 = -0.2965 - 0.7881 I0.5 - 4086/ T (? = 0.6) log ? ?4 = 4.4466 - 0.8505 I0.5 - 7980/ T. (? = 0.2) Both strong ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and weak (HA) organic ligands greatly affect iron solubility. The additions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and humic material were shown to increase the solubility near pH 8. The higher solubility of Fe(III) in seawater compared to 0.7 M NaCl may be caused by natural organic ligands.

Liu, Xuewu; Millero, Frank J.

1999-10-01

97

The mechanism of sodium hydroxide solution promoting the gelation of Konjac glucomannan (KGM)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intrinsic viscosity [?] and the theoretical critical concentration c* of Konjac glucomannan (KGM) solution were 18.91 dL/g and 0.053 wt% respectively in distilled water. However, the values of [?] and c* became to 11.55 dL/g and 0.086 wt% in sodium hydroxide solution (0.25 mol/L), moreover, the transition from KGM sol to gel even occurred at 0.5 wt% over 55 °C, furthermore, the morphology structure of KGM was thicker than that in distilled water as observed in SEM. It suggested that the sodium hydroxide solution would restrain the expansion of the molecular chain and promoted the gelation of KGM, which might be due to the obvious effects of deacetylation, self-aggregation, entanglement, local and continuous gel network structure.

Luo Xuegang; He Pan; Lin Xiaoyan

2013-01-01

98

Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in fluoride-bearing minerals after decomposition by fusion with sodium hydroxide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The decomposition of highly insoluble minerals (fluorspar and cryolite) by fusion with molten alkali-metal hydroxides is studied. The introduction of additives such as aluminium compounds or sodium peroxide to obtain total liberation of fluoride from calcium fluoride samples, is tested. The fusion is done in a silver crucible with a Bunsen burner. The cooled melt is easily soluble, giving solutions suitable for spectrophotometric fluoride determination by the Zr(IV)-fluoride-Erichrome Cyanine R method.

Adelantado JV; Martinez VP; Moreno AC; Reig FB

1985-03-01

99

Immobilization of heavy metals by asphalt-sulfur sodium hydroxide mixture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 50 million tons of municipal solid waste is incinerated annually in Japan. The resulting fly ash contains potentially toxic metals originally found in the wastes. A study was conducted to treat fly ash using an asphalt-sulphur-sodium hydroxide mixture. The main objective was to change the metals into metal sulfides to decrease their solubility and then to incorporate the dissoluble components into asphalt to repel water.Sodium sulfide, produced from the reaction, reacts with heavy metals to form metal sulfides insoluble in water. Adding dissoluble components in asphalt physically prevents the leaching of heavy metals from the treated ash. A biaxial kneader at 403 K was used to mix the samples before carrying out the dissolution test. Results indicate that the lead compounds present in the sample fly ash changed into lead sulfide. The amount of lead that was leached from the treated mixture passed Japan's standard for lead emissions which is 0.3 mg/L. It was concluded that this new immobilization method effectively stabilizes lead found in wastes such as fly ash. However, because sodium hydroxide is an expensive chemical, the amounts of additives will have to be optimized for practical use. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

Sawada, K.; Ozawa, S.; Matsuda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Research Center for Advanced Waste and Emission Management, Nagoya (Japan); Mizutani, M.; Matsubara, M.; Hidaka, S. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Central Research Laboratories, Chiba (Japan)

2000-07-01

100

THE BACTERIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT: NORMAL SALINE 5.25% AND 0.5%, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CALCIUM HYDROXIDE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this invitro investigation was to compare the anti-bacterial effect of normal saline and sodium hypochlorite (5.25 percent and 0.5 percent) with calcium hydroxide used as intra canal dressing used in different time periods. Methods: 180 single-rooted freshly extracted teeth were selected. The crowns were resected of CEJ and the canal were flared to the same length using a number one Gates-Glidden. A suspension of selected strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria was placed inside the canals and incubated in anaerobic condition for 24 hours. Then the teeth were randomly assigned to 9 groups. Results: Group 1. Negative control; group 2. Positive control; group 3. instrumented using normal saile; group 4. instrumented using 0.5 percent sodium hypochlorite; grooup 5. instrumentation using 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite; group 6. After instrumentation, 10 min. of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 7. after instrumentation 24h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 8. After instrumentation 48h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group9. After instrumentation a week of calcium hydroxide was placed. Then paper points were used to get samples in each group. The samples incubated in anaerobid condition for 48 hours. The TSB turbidity was compared to mcfarland"s scale. Discussion: The results of this study indicates: Sodium hypochlorite in both concentrations were significantly more effective than normal saline. The one week calcium hydroxide group was significantly more effective than all other groups and was comparable to negative control group. The 24h and 48h calcium hydroxide groups did not have significant differences with each other or with the sodium hypochlorite groups. The 10 min. calcium hydroxide group was only comparable to normal saline group.

A.R FARHAD; A AVAEI; S.Z FARHAD; F POURSINA

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration study of interaction of tungstovanadophosphoric heteropolyacids with sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methods of potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration are used to study Hs+nPW12-nVnO40 (n=1,2) (P-W-V HPA) decomposition by sodium hydroxide. It is shown that at the first stage of heteropolyanion interaction with alkali (pH) > 4 P-W-V HPA structural reconstruction takes place. It is accompanied by the formation of complexes with a higher content of vanadium atoms stable at pH 4-7/ P-W-V HPA decomposition to initial salts occurs at pH > 8.

1988-01-01

102

Froth flotation pretreatment for enhancing desulfurization of coal with sodium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Froth flotation (FF) pretreatment of coal from Hazro, Turkey, for enhancing desulfurization with sodium hydroxide was investigated. FF reduced following contents of coal: ash, 58.54; pyritic sulfur, 79.34; and volatile matter, 56.98%. The coal flotation was 69.59%. FF could not remove organic sulfur. Coal concentration obtained from flotation was leached using aqueous Nah. and its organic sulfur content was reduced by 59.27%. Hence using combination of two methods, total sulfur, ash and volatile matter contents was reduced by 88.06%, 63.13% and 77.32%, respectively.

Abdurrahman Saydut; Yalcin Tonbul; Akin Baysal; M. Zahir Duz; Candan Hamamci [Iowa State University, Ames, IO (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-01-15

103

Evaluation of barium hydroxide treatment efficacy on a dolomitic marble.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arch of Peace, by Luigi Cagnola, is one of the most famous neoclassical monuments in Milan. It has been subjected to conservative intervention in 1998. In the present paper the efficacy of the consolidation by means of barium hydroxide has been evaluated. The stone material showed severe degradation phenomena as: erosion, pulverisation, exfoliation. The analytical data acquired through X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), allowed to compare the conditions of stone before and after the treatment with barium hydroxide. The presence of barium has been put in evidence mainly on the surface as barium sulphate, whereas barium is only sporadically present within the thickness of the decayed material. The treatment was judged not satisfying and its inefficacy is, most probably, due to a not suitable cleaning procedure carried out before the consolidation. PMID:11836959

Toniolo, L; Colombo, C; Realini, M; Peraio, A; Positano, M

104

Evaluation of barium hydroxide treatment efficacy on a dolomitic marble.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Arch of Peace, by Luigi Cagnola, is one of the most famous neoclassical monuments in Milan. It has been subjected to conservative intervention in 1998. In the present paper the efficacy of the consolidation by means of barium hydroxide has been evaluated. The stone material showed severe degradation phenomena as: erosion, pulverisation, exfoliation. The analytical data acquired through X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), allowed to compare the conditions of stone before and after the treatment with barium hydroxide. The presence of barium has been put in evidence mainly on the surface as barium sulphate, whereas barium is only sporadically present within the thickness of the decayed material. The treatment was judged not satisfying and its inefficacy is, most probably, due to a not suitable cleaning procedure carried out before the consolidation.

Toniolo L; Colombo C; Realini M; Peraio A; Positano M

2001-11-01

105

Heat transfer characteristics of latent thermal storage units with sodium hydroxide-based molten salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper describes experimental and computer simulation results for horizontal U-tube latent thermal storage units with a eutectic of sodium hydroxide-sodium nitrate. Through 1000 melting-freezing (charge-discharge) cycle tests on two 30 kWh scale storage units of bare-tube and finned-tube types, the heat transfer characteristics were evaluated. Computer simulations of both types of storage units were performed with a two dimensional model. For the finned-tube type, the effect of fin was included in the effective thermal conductivity of molten salt around the tubes. The calculated results were in good agreement with experimental ones. The heat transfer characteristics were evaluated for various storage units with different parameters such as number of passes, and number of heat transfer pipes. (author).

1000-01-00

106

Determination of trace amounts of tellurium in sodium hydroxide solution by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiochemical neutron activation analysis to determine tellurium in sodium hydroxide solution has been developed. Coprecipitation with Fe(OH)3 was applied to preconcentration of tellurium. After the irradiation the tellurium is separated by solvent extraction with 4-methyl-pentan-2-one (MIBK) and determined using 131Te isotope. The purification of iron carrier to be used for the coprecipitation and the separation efficiencies of principal elements in the chemical process of this method were studied. The result indicates that the method has a high sensitivity for the tellurium, and the detection limit is 0.04 ppb. The method is applicable to the non-radioactive tracer testing to measure the transfer of radiotellurium, a fission product, in the sodium coolant of the fast neutron reactor. (author).

1992-01-01

107

Desalination and hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide production via electrophoretic ion exchange and precipitation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We demonstrate and analyze a novel desalination method which works by electrophoretically replacing sodium and chloride in feed salt water with a pair of ions, calcium and carbonate, that react and precipitate out. The resulting calcium carbonate precipitate is benign to health, and can be filtered or settled out, yielding low ionic strength product water. The ion exchange and precipitation employs self-sharpening interfaces induced by movement of multiple ions in an electric field to prevent contamination of the product water. Simultaneously, the electrolysis associated with the electromigration produces hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. We conducted an experimental study of this method's basic efficacy to desalinate salt water from 100 to 600 mol m(-3) sodium chloride. We also present physicochemical models of the process, and analyze replacement reagents consumption, permeate recovery ratio, and energy consumption. We hypothesize that the precipitate can be recycled back to replacement reagents using the well-known, commercially implemented Solvay process. We show that the method's permeate recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method's energy consumption requirement over and above that necessary to generate electrolysis is 3 to 10 W h l(-1), which is on par with the energy consumed by state-of-the-art desalination methods. Furthermore, the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure, and uses no specialized membranes. The process may be feasible as a part of a desalination-co-generation facility: generating fresh water, hydrogen and chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide.

Shkolnikov V; Bahga SS; Santiago JG

2012-08-01

108

Desalination and hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide production via electrophoretic ion exchange and precipitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate and analyze a novel desalination method which works by electrophoretically replacing sodium and chloride in feed salt water with a pair of ions, calcium and carbonate, that react and precipitate out. The resulting calcium carbonate precipitate is benign to health, and can be filtered or settled out, yielding low ionic strength product water. The ion exchange and precipitation employs self-sharpening interfaces induced by movement of multiple ions in an electric field to prevent contamination of the product water. Simultaneously, the electrolysis associated with the electromigration produces hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. We conducted an experimental study of this method's basic efficacy to desalinate salt water from 100 to 600 mol m(-3) sodium chloride. We also present physicochemical models of the process, and analyze replacement reagents consumption, permeate recovery ratio, and energy consumption. We hypothesize that the precipitate can be recycled back to replacement reagents using the well-known, commercially implemented Solvay process. We show that the method's permeate recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method's energy consumption requirement over and above that necessary to generate electrolysis is 3 to 10 W h l(-1), which is on par with the energy consumed by state-of-the-art desalination methods. Furthermore, the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure, and uses no specialized membranes. The process may be feasible as a part of a desalination-co-generation facility: generating fresh water, hydrogen and chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. PMID:22806549

Shkolnikov, Viktor; Bahga, Supreet S; Santiago, Juan G

2012-07-17

109

The Chemical Etching of Fission Tracks in the Thin Polycarbonate Film using Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thin 15 ?m Polycarbonate film was irradiated by fission fragments of uranium-235 in thermal column tube at the TRR-1/M1 (Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1) for 30 seconds that producing the latent tracks on the PC film. Tracks in the irradiated film was etched in the chemical etchant by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution in the condition of 6N at 70oC for 30, 60 90 and 120 minutes. Track diameters are 1.14, 3.73, 4.02 and 4.62 micron respectively when etched in 6N sodium hydroxide solution at 70oC for 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. At pressure 111.11 kPa, the flow rate of water are 1.9x10-4, 1.12 x 10-4 and 2.39 x 10-4 L/min.cm-2 at 60, 90 and 120 minutes, respectively. Water cannot penetrate for 30 minutes etching time.

2006-02-02

110

Dissolution of coal in methanol and sodium hydroxide. Effects of alkali concentration on conversion degree and composition of reaction products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects are discussed of selected factors on coal dissolution in sodium hydroxide with methanol. Coal from the Janina mine with a moisture content of 7.4%, ash content of 8.0%, carbon content of 72.3%, hydrogen content of 4.4% and nitrogen content of 1.1% was used. Coal (10g) in methanol (210 ml) was treated by sodium hydroxide at 350 C. Sodium hydroxide content ranged from 0 to 30 g. Reaction yield ranged from 95.1% to 79.4%. Analyses showed that hydroxide concentration decisively influenced coal dissolution, coal conversion degree and group composition of the reaction products. With increasing sodium hydroxide concentration coal conversion degree and conversion degree of the intermediate products increased. This was manifested by decreasing yield of asphaltenes and increasing yield of oil fractions (and by declining yields of polar compounds and increasing yield of hydrocarbon fractions in the oil fraction). Investigation results are given in 2 tables. 3 references.

Salbut, P.D.; Bimer, J.; Berlozecki, S.

1985-11-01

111

Effect of peracetic acid, sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid on cellulosic materials as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crystalline cellulose and cellulosic wastes have been treated with various concentrations of peracetic acid and other reagents at 100 degrees C for various times, washed with water, ethanol and air dried. For each treated cellulose, the degree of enzymatic solubilization was measured with Trichoderma viride cellulase (1,4-(1,3;1,4)-..beta..-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.4). Cellulosic wastes such as sunflower stalks, wheat straw and sugar-cane bagasse were solubilized effectively by the enzyme. Delignification of wheat straw with 1% sodium hydroxide and treatment of this straw with peracetic acid enhanced the degree of enzymatic solubilization. Infrared spectra of the untreated and treated cellulosic wastes were recorded. 18 references.

Farid, M.A.; Shaker, H.M.; El-Diwany, A.I.

1983-11-01

112

METHOD OF OPERATING A DISTILLATION COLUMN FOR PURIFYING 1,2-DICHLOROETHANE AND FOR COUPLED SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION EVAPORATIVE CONCENTRATION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Method of operating a distillation column for removing water and components which boil more readily than 1,2-dichloroethane from 1,2-dichloroethane, in which at least some of the heat of condensation of the hydrous vapours of the distillation column is used for the evaporative concentration of sodium hydroxide solution, also at least some of the 1,2-dichloroethane formed from chlorine and ethylene in a direct chlorination can be used for heating that distillation column and then likewise be used as heat-transfer medium for the evaporative concentration of sodium hydroxide solution.

PETERSEN SVEN; BENJE MICHAEL; KAMMERHOFER PETER

113

Formation of calcium carbonate in the bitumen/aqueous sodium hydroxide system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A very fine white precipitate containing mostly calcium carbonate was produced by reacting bitumen with warm or hot aqueous NaOH solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersion x-ray analysis, and optical microscopy were used to identify the chemical species in the precipitate. The experimental findings are supported by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, which indicate that calcium carbonate is the most stable precipitate formed. Calcium carbonate precipitation is favored by increasing pH and increasing temperature up to 40[degree]C. The CO[sub 2] dissolved in the aqueous solution is the source of carbonate ions in the system. The tendency to form precipitates in the bitumen/NaOH system is calcium carbonate>magnesium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide>calcium hydroxide. The potential effects of forming calcium carbonate in the extraction process on downstream operations such as bitumen upgrading and sludge treatment are discussed. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Dai, Qi; Chung Keng, H.; Czarnecki, J. (Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada))

1992-09-01

114

Alternatives for sodium-potassium alloy treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) is currently treated at the Y-12 Plant by open burning. Due to uncertainties with future permits for this process alternative treatment methods were investigated, revealing that two treatment processes are feasible. One process reacts the NaK with water in a highly concentrated molten caustic solution (sodium and potassium hydroxide). The final waste is a caustic that may be used elsewhere in the plant. This process has two safety concerns: Hot corrosive materials used throughout the process present handling difficulties and the process must be carefully controlled (temperature and water content) to avoid explosive NaK reactions. To avoid these problems a second process was developed that dissolves NaK in a mixture of propylene glycol and water at room temperature. While this process is safer, it generates more waste than the caustic process. The waste may possibly be used as a carbon food source in biological waste treatment operations at the Y-12 Plant. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate both processes, and they showed that both processes are feasible alternatives for NaK treatment. Process flow sheets with mass balances were generated for both processes and compared. While the caustic process generates less waste, the propylene glycol process is safer in several ways (temperature, material handling, and reaction control). The authors recommend that the propylene glycol alternative be pursued further as an alternative for NaK treatment. To optimize this process for a larger scale several experiments should be conducted. The amount of NaK dissolved in propylene glycol and subsequent waste generated should be optimized. The offgas processes should be optimized. The viability of using this waste as a carbon food source at one of the Y-12 Plant treatment facilities should be investigated. If the state accepts this process as an alternative, design and construction of a pilot-scale treatment system should begin.

Takacs, T.J.; Johnson, M.E.

1993-04-08

115

Set-up of the Facility for a Sodium Waste Treatment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to safely treat the waste sodium which is produced from sodium cooled fast reactors and sodium facilities. About 1.3 tons of sodium waste has accumulated at KAERI from experiments which have been carried out since 1990. Furthermore, large scaled sodium experiments are scheduled to verify the design of the sodium cooled fast reactor. As a treatment method for the waste sodium produced at the sodium facility, an investigation of the reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide aqueous has been developed. The NOAH process was developed by France for the treatment of waste produced from sodium facilities and reactors. Through the NOAH process, a small amount of sodium waste is continuously injected into the upper area which is formed on a free surface of the aqueous and slowly reacts with sodium hydroxide aqueous. Since the density of the sodium is lower than that of the aqueous, the injected sodium waste sometimes accumulates above the free surface of the sodium hydroxide aqueous, and its reaction rate becomes slower or suddenly increases. An improvement process was proposed by KAERI. The final product of the process is salt through a neutralization of the sodium hydroxide with the nitric acid. In the improved process, the sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a sodium hydroxide aqueous through an atomizing nozzle installed on the lower level than that of the aqueous. The nitrogen gas was injected simultaneously into the reaction vessel through the annular channel of the atomizing nozzle to maintain a consistent reaction. There are complex reacting phenomena in the system to observe with the naked eye. A water mock-up has been carried out already for the practical use of the data in the waste sodium treatment test. Based on the data, an experimental facility was designed and installed for the sodium waste process to find out the effect of the sodium injection rate. But the neutralization process which is not an important parameter in the experiment was eliminated to simplify the process in the experimental facility

2011-01-01

116

Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was characterised using Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established by mass and absorption spectroscopy. The sulphate form of green rust is composed of brucite-like layers with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in an ordered distribution. The interlayers contain sulphate, water and sodium in an arrangement characteristic for the nikischerite group. The crystal structure is highly disordered by slacking faults. The composition, formula and crystallographic parameters are: NaFe(II)(6)Fe(III)(3)(SO4)(2)(OH)(18)center dot 12H(2)O, space group P-3, a = 9.528(6) angstrom, c = 10.968(8) angstrom and Z = 1.Green rust sodium sulphate, GR(Na,SO4) crystallizes in thin, hexagonal plates. Particles range from less than 50 nm to 2 mu m in diameter and are 40 nm thick or less. The material is redox active and reaction rates are fast. Extremely small particle size and high surface area contribute to rapid oxidation, transforming green rust to an Fe(III)-phase within minutes.

Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.

2009-01-01

117

The effect of Sodium hydroxide catalyst in formation of Ni nanoparticles at room temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, Ni nanoparticles growth is studies by spontaneous auto catalytic reduction in an alcohol- water solution in present NaOH catalysis with various ratio at room temperature. The scanning electron microscopy and XRD analyses have been used for investigation diameter and structure of Ni nanoparticles. Investigation of the analyses show that have not formed Ni Nanoparticles in Ph values 8, 9, 10 and 13, but in Ph values 11 and 12 have formed Ni Nanoparticles with average diameter of about 65 and 90 nm, respectively. The XRD patterns show that samples have face-centered cubic structure with (111),(200).(222) planes. The results show that sodium hydroxide value is very effect on the Ni nanoparticles growth.

2007-01-01

118

Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment of UOP IONSIV IE-911 Crystalline Silicotitanate Sorbent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to remove cesium represents one of the alternatives identified for High Level Waste pretreatment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Previous deployment of CST in the Department of Energy complex subjected the material to mildly caustic environments. Processing of SRS waste will expose CST to very alkaline solutions for extended period of time (typically 12 months in the proposed design). Results of elevated temperature stability tests showed that silicon and one of the proprietary materials leached from the CST. UOP personnel indicated to SRS personnel that these materials exist in the sorbent in excess of required stoichiometry. The authors examined the pretreatment of CST with sodium hydroxide to remove these components prior to placing the CST in radioactive service. Additionally, researchers analyzed solids discovered in the feed line during a test by non-destructive techniques.

2000-01-01

119

Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was carried out with NaOH from 2% to 10% (w/v) at temperature 500C and 700C. The performances of pretreatments were evaluated based on total carbohydrate and reducing sugar including glucose, xylose and arabinose after enzymatic hydrolysis on the pretreated biomass. It was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis had significantly improved when 6% NaOH in 700C applied in the pretreatment process. The highest total reducing sugars produced by means of commercial enzymes was achieved with the overall conversions of glucan and xylan of 87% and 60.73% respectively. The compositions of OPMF in this study are as follows (% g/g dry biomass): glucan, 28.8, xylan, 25.3, arabinan, 1.91, ethanol extractive, 6.32 and ash, 2.60.

Nur Izzati Iberahim; Jamaliah Md Jahim; Shuhaida Harun; Mohd Tusirin Mohd Nor; Osman Hassan

2013-01-01

120

Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effect of controlled deactivation on the thermochemical characteristics of hydrogen adsorption on skeletal nickel from sodium hydroxide-water solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential heats of adsorption in a wide range of surface coverage and maximum amounts of adsorbed hydrogen are determined by adsorption calorimetry on partially deactivated skeletal nickel from aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide. The effect of the composition of solutions on the values of limiting adsorption and adsorption equilibria of individual forms of hydrogen is shown.

Prozorov, D. A.; Lukin, M. V.; Ulitin, M. V.

2013-04-01

122

Effect of Berry Size and Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on the Drying Characteristics of Blueberries under Infrared Radiation Heating  

Science.gov (United States)

This research studied the effect on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were...

123

Sodium hydroxide effect on anionic surfactants distribution in two-phase system based on TBP in n-dodecane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on distribution of sodium salts of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric (HDEMP), di-n-butyl phosphoric (DBP) and lauric acids in 30% TBP solution in the n-dodecane-sodium hydroxide aqueous solution system is investigated to improve tributyl phosphate (TBP) water washing technique during nuclear fuel extraction reprocessing. It is shown, that alkali concentration reduction in water phase from 10 to 0.01 mol/l results in decrease of distribution coefficients of the investigated anionic surfactants, and TBP as well. Thus, sodium hydroxide diluted solution usage allows to remove more effectively from the organic phase the decomposition products of extractant and deluent of acid nature with long alkyl chain, which are emulsion stabilizers at extractant alkali-carbonate processing. It is pointed out, that the investigated anionic surfactants distribution coefficients noticeably affect stabilized emulsion type. At 10 mol/l alkali concentration the formation of sodium salt of lauric acid micellar aggregates is noted in the organic phase.

1988-01-01

124

Radioisotopic synovectomy using ferric hydroxide macroaggregated for chronic arthritis treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synovectomy radioisotopic is an arthritis treatment used in specific clinical conditions whose main goal is to sterilized the synovia. This treatment has specific and precise indications and it is considered to have an adequate response. The present work presents a modeling of an articulation (joint) based on its real geometric anatomy and chemical constitution. The internal dosimetry is evaluated by the Monte Carlo Code. The majority of the radionuclides were considered in the simulations. The syntheses of the ferric hydroxide macroaggregates with dysprosium and samarium have been prepared (Dy165-MHF and Sm153-MHF). Obtaining the cintilographic images of rabbits in which Dy165-MHF is injected is in progress. Biodistribution studies in addition with the internal dosimetry will certify the dose in the membrane of the synovia. (author)

2002-01-01

125

Treatment of pediatric molluscum contagiosum with 10% potassium hydroxide solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common cutaneous viral infection of the skin that is frequently seen in children. Although lesions can resolve spontaneously, treatment is mandatory because of the psychological effect of widespread lesions in children. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) is a strong alkali that has been used by dermatologists for a long time in identifying the fungal infections from skin scrapings. Aims: We evaluated 40 children with MC for the safety and efficacy of treatment with topical 10% KOH aqueous solution. Methods: Parents were instructed to apply a 10% KOH aqueous solution, twice daily, with a cotton stick to all lesions. Treatment was continued till the lesions showed signs of inflammation or superficial ulceration. Assessments of response and side effects were performed at the end of week 2, week 4, week 8 and week 12. Results: We found complete clearance of lesions in 37 (92.5%) patients receiving topical 10%KOH solution after a mean period of four weeks. Three children dropped out of the study; two children reported severe stinging of the lesions and discontinued the treatment; the other patient developed hypopigmentation during the treatment. Local side effects were observed in 12 children (32.4%). Conclusion: Even though 10% KOH solution is associated with some local side effects, it is a safe, effective, inexpensive and noninvasive alternative treatment of MC in children. PMID:22639976

Can, Burce; Topalo?lu, Filiz; Kavala, Mukaddes; Turkoglu, Zafer; Zindanc?, Ilkin; Sudogan, Sibel

2012-07-25

126

Treatment of pediatric molluscum contagiosum with 10% potassium hydroxide solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common cutaneous viral infection of the skin that is frequently seen in children. Although lesions can resolve spontaneously, treatment is mandatory because of the psychological effect of widespread lesions in children. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) is a strong alkali that has been used by dermatologists for a long time in identifying the fungal infections from skin scrapings. Aims: We evaluated 40 children with MC for the safety and efficacy of treatment with topical 10% KOH aqueous solution. Methods: Parents were instructed to apply a 10% KOH aqueous solution, twice daily, with a cotton stick to all lesions. Treatment was continued till the lesions showed signs of inflammation or superficial ulceration. Assessments of response and side effects were performed at the end of week 2, week 4, week 8 and week 12. Results: We found complete clearance of lesions in 37 (92.5%) patients receiving topical 10%KOH solution after a mean period of four weeks. Three children dropped out of the study; two children reported severe stinging of the lesions and discontinued the treatment; the other patient developed hypopigmentation during the treatment. Local side effects were observed in 12 children (32.4%). Conclusion: Even though 10% KOH solution is associated with some local side effects, it is a safe, effective, inexpensive and noninvasive alternative treatment of MC in children.

Can B; Topalo?lu F; Kavala M; Turkoglu Z; Zindanc? I; Sudogan S

2012-07-01

127

Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to evaluate neutralization capacity and buffering intensity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide; (3) to study the efficacy of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment processes; (4) to investigate whether and how the magnesium hydroxide influences the characteristics of the activated sludge floc; (5) to determine whether magnesium hydroxide improves the anaerobic sludge digestion process and associated mechanisms; and (6) to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the application of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide in wastewater treatment and the possibility of marketing this product. Research results to date show that the purity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide depends largely on the recovery hydroxide slurry. This product proved to be very effective for wastewater neutralization, compared with other commonly used chemicals, both for its neutralization capacity and its buffering intensity. Due to its relatively low solubility in water and its particle size distribution characteristics, magnesium hydroxide behaves like a weak base, which will be very beneficial for process control. The authors also found that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from the wastewater using magnesium hydroxide due to their complexation and precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Magnesium hydroxide also greatly enhanced the settleability of the activated sludge. Intensive research on the mechanisms associated with these phenomena reveals that sweep flocculation and magnesium ion bridging between exopolymeric substances (EPS) of the microorganisms are the major contributing factors. Extensive research on the effects of magnesium hydroxide on anaerobic sludge digestion is still underway.

Bishop, P.L.; Wu, Q.; Keener, T.; Zhuang, L.A.; Gurusamy, R.; Pehkonen, S.

1999-07-01

128

High-temperature sodium hydroxide impinging experiment for investigating tube wastage phenomena caused by sodium-water reaction in FBR steam generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium reacts chemically with water in case of unexpected heat transfer tube failure in a steam generator (SG) of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and exothermic reaction produces reaction field with high temperature and high corrosive action (sodium-water reaction). Adjacent tubes are damaged due to erosive and corrosive environment of the reaction field (wastage). Therefore, it is integral to evaluate the sodium-water reaction phenomena with high accuracy for the safety assessment of FBRs. For the purpose of understanding the wastage mechanism, an experiment was carried out in which sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the main reaction product collided with the tube material under high temperature conditions to simulate the reaction field. We confirmed that the erosion-corrosion rate of tube material has a tendency to increase as the temperature and velocity of NaOH are raised. (author)

2011-01-01

129

Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calcium hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxicity of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution.

Barbosa SV; Barroso CM; Ruiz PA

2009-01-01

130

Effects of quaternary ammonium compounds with 0.1% sodium hydroxide on swine vesicular disease virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) with sodium hydroxide on swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), an enterovirus were studied. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) with 0.1% NaOH showed a stronger effect against SVDV than other QACs with 0.1% NaOH. The effect of DDAC with 0.1% NaOH was strong at 40 degrees C. DDAC was effective against SVDV at pH values around 11.0, but not in the distilled water control. The effect of DDAC with 0.1% NaOH was already observed at 1 min after mixing of the DDAC with SVDV. Observation under an electron microscopy revealed that the probable mechanism of inactivation of DDAC with 0.1% NaOH is as follows: The virus particles were partially destroyed by 0.1% NaOH. DDAC gathered these affected particles and formed a micelle, then SVDV lost its infectivity. From these results, QACs with 0.1% NaOH are considered to be very effective against SVDV representing enteroviruses.

Shirai J; Kanno T; Inoue T; Mitsubayashi S; Seki R

1997-05-01

131

Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98 °C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed.

Bicu I; Mustata F

2013-10-01

132

Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn–Al layered double hydroxide morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: ? In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. ? Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. ? Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. ? Growth mechanism was discussed. ? Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

2012-01-01

133

Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

Yilmaz, Ceren [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Unal, Ugur [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Yagci Acar, Havva, E-mail: fyagci@ku.edu.tr [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey)

2012-03-15

134

Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98°C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed. PMID:23987353

Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

2013-06-15

135

Effects of phosphorus on corrosion resistance of electroless nickel in 50% sodium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nickel (Ni) and electroless nickel (EN) coatings are used extensively in caustic soda (NaOH) service. The corrosion resistance of an EN coating is dependent upon phosphorus (P) content, but not in the trend expected. High-phosphorus EN (HPEN) coatings have poorer corrosion resistance in hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) than low-phosphorus (LPEN) and medium-phosphorus (MPEN) coatings, which have a corrosion resistance comparable to Ni. The purpose of this work was to quantify the effect of P in EN coatings on their corrosion resistance in 50% NaOH at room temperature (RT). Electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the corrosion processes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize coating surfaces. Very low corrosion rates ([<=] [mu]m/y) were measured for all coatings. It was proposed that the detrimental effect of P in EN coatings exposed to a concentrated NaOH environment was a result of the higher solubility of nickel phosphate (Ni[sub 3][PO[sub 4

Zeller, R.L. III (Occidental Chemical Corp., Grand Island, NY (United States)); Salvati, L. (Abbott Labs., Abbott Park, IL (United States))

1994-06-01

136

The effect of dentin on the pulp tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) have tissue dissolution capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of dentin on their tissue dissolution capacity in a novel dentin model. METHODS: Dentin models were prepared from 25 freshly extracted human molar teeth; the crowns were separated from the roots, and a rectangular inner shape was prepared. Pulp tissue samples adjusted to similar weights of 6.5 ± 0.2 mg were randomly divided into 6 groups: NaOCl groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 hour, Ca(OH)2 groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week, and control groups saline in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week. The final weights after the experimental period were checked and compared with the initial weights. The differences were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The tissue dissolution capacity of Ca(OH)2 was affected by the presence of dentin. Similarly, NaOCl lost its effect on the pulp tissue after incubation in dentin. Comparison between all test groups showed highly significant differences (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Dentin has a detrimental effect on the ability of NaOCl and Ca(OH)2 to dissolve pulp tissue. The dentin model appears to be an efficient tool for the study of interactions between local endodontic medicaments, dentin, and pulp tissue.

Slutzky-Goldberg I; Hanut A; Matalon S; Baev V; Slutzky H

2013-08-01

137

Electrochemical screening of organic and inorganic inhibitors for the corrosion of ASTM A-470 steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion of ASTM A-470 turbine disk steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (10 mol/kg) containing sodium silicate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chromate, aniline and some of its derivatives, tannic acid, L-(-)-phenylalanine (aminopropionic acid) and octadecylamine as potential inhibitors has been studied using the potentiodynamic, AC impedance, and Tafel extrapolation techniques. All tests were performed at 115 + or - 2 C. The anodic and cathodic polarization data show that aniline and its derivatives, L-(-)-phenylalanine, NaH2PO4, Na2SiO3, and Na2CrO4 inhibit the anodic process, whereas tannic acid inhibits the cathodic reaction. Octadecylamine was found to inhibit both the anodic and cathodic processes. The mechanisms of inhibition for some of these compounds have been inferred from the wide band width frequency dispersions of the interfacial impedance.

1985-01-01

138

Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com hidróxido de sódio Sugarcane bagasse treated with sodium hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (MS) do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar contendo 60% de MS submetido a doses crescentes de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) (0; 2,5; 5 e 7,5% de uma solução 2:1 de água:NaOH na MS) em diferentes períodos de tratamento (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias). Foram utilizados baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10 L, mantidos em uma câmara climática à temperatura constante de 25ºC. Não foi verificado efeito dos tratamentos (dose de NaOH e dias de tratamento) sobre os teores de PB, que apresentaram valor médio de 1,6%. A MS aumentou com os dias de tratamento, não sendo observadas alterações para essa variável em relação às doses crescentes de NaOH. Foi observada redução das frações de FDN, FDA, celulose (CEL), hemicelulose (HEM) e lignina (LIG). A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) e o teor de sódio aumentaram quando o bagaço de cana foi submetido a doses crescentes de NaOH, mas não foi observado efeito do período de tratamento sobre essas variáveis. O valor nutritivo do bagaço de cana é melhorado com a adição de NaOH, comprovado pela redução nos constituintes da parede celular e pelo aumento na DIVMS.The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sugar-cane bagasse containing 60% dry matter submited to increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% NaOH on a dry matter basis). NaOH was applied as a 2:1 water:NaOH solution, over different treatment times (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). Plastic pails with 10 L capacity were utilized and stocked in climatic chamber at 25ºC constant temperature. The experimental treatments had no effect on the crude protein content of the sugar cane bagasse which averaged 1.6% CP. The dry matter content of the bagasse increased over of the days of treatment, without any effect of the NaOH solution concentration. Mean values for the bagasse neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents declined in response to NAOH solution concentration. NaOH treatment improved the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and sodium content of the bagasse. Time of treatment had no effect on these variables. The treatment of sugar cane bagasse with the NaOH solution improved its nutritive value in terms of its reduced cell wall constituents and increased IVDMD.

Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Ricardo Andrade Reis; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Gustavo Rezende Siqueira; Thiago Fernandes Bernardes

2006-01-01

139

Efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio sobre a fração fibrosa, digestibilidade e tanino do feno de jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild)/ Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on fiber fraction, digestibility and tannin of jurema-preta hay (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) na fração fibrosa, no teor de tanino e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca do feno de jurema-preta. As folhas foram colhidas manualmente e desidratadas à sombra. O tratamento químico consistiu na pulverização do feno com solução de 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8% de NaOH, na proporção de 1 litro da solução para 1 kg de feno. Amostras do feno foram submetidas ? (more) ? determinação da matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), tanino e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS), que se constituíram nas variáveis analisadas. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. O tratamento com NaOH proporcionou efeito linear decrescente nos teores de MS, hemicelulose e tanino, enquanto, para FDN e FDA, ocorreu efeito quadrático. A PB não foi afetada e a DIVMS melhorou com o aumento da concentração de NaOH. A estimativa da DIVMS pelo teor de tanino, apesar de significativa, carece de mais estudos. Abstract in english Experiment was carried out with the goal to evaluate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on fiber fraction, tannin level and dry matter in vitro digestibility of jurema-preta hay. Leaves were harvested by hand and dried under shadow. Chemical treatment was done by pulverization of hay with 0; 2; 4; 6 and 8% NaOH solution following the proportion of 1 liter of solution to 1 kg of hay. Samples of hay were submitted to determinations of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), (more) neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), tannin and DM in vitro digestibility which were the variables analyzed. Design completely randomized was used with five treatments and four repetitions. NaOH treatment caused linear effect in DM, hemicellulose and tannin contents; while for NDF and ADF was observed quadratic effect. CP was not affected and DMIVD was improved by NaOH concentration increase. DMIVD estimated by tannin content need to be more studied, instead of its significance.

Pereira Filho, José Morais; Vieira, Ednéia de Lucena; Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevedo; Cezar, Marcílio Fontes; Amorim, Francisco Uchoa

2003-02-01

140

Efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio sobre a fração fibrosa, digestibilidade e tanino do feno de jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild) Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on fiber fraction, digestibility and tannin of jurema-preta hay (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) na fração fibrosa, no teor de tanino e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca do feno de jurema-preta. As folhas foram colhidas manualmente e desidratadas à sombra. O tratamento químico consistiu na pulverização do feno com solução de 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8% de NaOH, na proporção de 1 litro da solução para 1 kg de feno. Amostras do feno foram submetidas à determinação da matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), tanino e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS), que se constituíram nas variáveis analisadas. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. O tratamento com NaOH proporcionou efeito linear decrescente nos teores de MS, hemicelulose e tanino, enquanto, para FDN e FDA, ocorreu efeito quadrático. A PB não foi afetada e a DIVMS melhorou com o aumento da concentração de NaOH. A estimativa da DIVMS pelo teor de tanino, apesar de significativa, carece de mais estudos.Experiment was carried out with the goal to evaluate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on fiber fraction, tannin level and dry matter in vitro digestibility of jurema-preta hay. Leaves were harvested by hand and dried under shadow. Chemical treatment was done by pulverization of hay with 0; 2; 4; 6 and 8% NaOH solution following the proportion of 1 liter of solution to 1 kg of hay. Samples of hay were submitted to determinations of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), tannin and DM in vitro digestibility which were the variables analyzed. Design completely randomized was used with five treatments and four repetitions. NaOH treatment caused linear effect in DM, hemicellulose and tannin contents; while for NDF and ADF was observed quadratic effect. CP was not affected and DMIVD was improved by NaOH concentration increase. DMIVD estimated by tannin content need to be more studied, instead of its significance.

José Morais Pereira Filho; Ednéia de Lucena Vieira; Aderbal Marcos de Azevedo Silva; Marcílio Fontes Cezar; Francisco Uchoa Amorim

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of calcium hydroxide, carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on water quality and zootechnical performance of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared in bio-flocs technology (BFT) systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Litopenaeus vannamei (the Pacific white shrimp) is the most commonly reared species in super-intensive biofloc technology (BFT) without water renewal. In BFT, the pH may decrease due to the reduction of alkalinity and the increase of dissolved carbon dioxide. This study evaluated the effects of calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and bicarbonate in maintaining water quality during the cultivation of L. vannamei in BFT. The experiment was conducted using juveniles stocked in 150-L 12 tanks at a density of 333shrimp/m3. There were four treatments with three replicates each: T1 — Na2CO3, T2 — Ca(OH)2, T3 — NaHCO3 and T4 — control. For pH correction, alkalinity and both pH and alkalinity corrections, we used sodium carbonate (0.06g/L), sodium bicarbonate (0.20g/L) and hydrated lime (0.15g/L), respectively. Significant physical, chemical and biological differences (P<0.05) were detected among treatments. Control shrimps showed lower growth performance (P<0.05) than shrimps in other treatments. Hydrated lime and sodium bicarbonate appeared effective in supplementing alkalinity, whereas the soda ash did not. We verified the effectiveness of sodium carbonate in raising pH levels and assisting in supplementing alkalinity. This study demonstrates that the results obtained in the control treatment levels of alkalinity and pH decrease during rearing, and that CO2 levels would be increased in super-intensive systems with bioflocs without water renewal.

Furtado PS; Poersch LH; Wasielesky W

2011-11-01

142

Extração de amido em cavacos de bambu tratados com solução diluída de hidróxido de sódio Starch extraction from bamboo chips treated with sodium hydroxide diluted solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determinaram-se, em colmos de bambu (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.) de um e cinco anos, os teores de amido, a fração fibrosa e o resíduo parenquimatoso em função da concentração de hidróxido de sódio (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75%), do tempo de tratamento (5, 10 e 15 horas) e do tempo de desfibramento (30, 60 e 90 segundos). 0 delineamento experimental utilizado foi um fatorial 3³. Pelos resultados, a concentração de hidróxido de sódio e o tempo de tratamento não influíram significativamente nos teores de amido, fração fibrosa e resíduo parenquimatoso. A maior quantidade de amido (75,22 g/kg) foi obtida em colmos de cinco anos no maior tempo de desfibramento (90 segundos). Com este estudo, demonstrou-se que a extração de amido é tecnicamente viável como um pré-tratamento de cavacos de Bambusa vuigaris, utilizados na produção de celulose e papel.In culms of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. (1 and 5 years old), the contents of starch fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were determined in function of sodium hydroxide solution concentration (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%), treatment time (5, 10 and 15 hours) and shredding time (30, 60 and 90 seconds). The experimental trial was a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial. The results showed the contents of starch, fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were not affected by sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time. The highest starch quantity (75.22 g/kg) was obtained in the highest shredding time (90 seconds) from the 5 years bamboo culms. This study showed the starch extraction is feasible technically as a pre-treatment of the bamboo chips employed to produce pulp and paper.

Anisio Azzini; Rose Marry Araújo Gondim-Tomaz

1996-01-01

143

Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com hidróxido de sódio/ Sugarcane bagasse treated with sodium hydroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (MS) do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar contendo 60% de MS submetido a doses crescentes de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) (0; 2,5; 5 e 7,5% de uma solução 2:1 de água:NaOH na MS) em diferentes períodos de tratamento (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias). Foram utilizados baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10 L, mantidos em uma câmara climática à temperatura constante (more) de 25ºC. Não foi verificado efeito dos tratamentos (dose de NaOH e dias de tratamento) sobre os teores de PB, que apresentaram valor médio de 1,6%. A MS aumentou com os dias de tratamento, não sendo observadas alterações para essa variável em relação às doses crescentes de NaOH. Foi observada redução das frações de FDN, FDA, celulose (CEL), hemicelulose (HEM) e lignina (LIG). A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) e o teor de sódio aumentaram quando o bagaço de cana foi submetido a doses crescentes de NaOH, mas não foi observado efeito do período de tratamento sobre essas variáveis. O valor nutritivo do bagaço de cana é melhorado com a adição de NaOH, comprovado pela redução nos constituintes da parede celular e pelo aumento na DIVMS. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sugar-cane bagasse containing 60% dry matter submited to increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% NaOH on a dry matter basis). NaOH was applied as a 2:1 water:NaOH solution, over different treatment times (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). Plastic pails with 10 L capacity were utilized and stocked in climatic chamber at 25ºC constant temp (more) erature. The experimental treatments had no effect on the crude protein content of the sugar cane bagasse which averaged 1.6% CP. The dry matter content of the bagasse increased over of the days of treatment, without any effect of the NaOH solution concentration. Mean values for the bagasse neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents declined in response to NAOH solution concentration. NaOH treatment improved the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and sodium content of the bagasse. Time of treatment had no effect on these variables. The treatment of sugar cane bagasse with the NaOH solution improved its nutritive value in terms of its reduced cell wall constituents and increased IVDMD.

Pires, Aureliano José Vieira; Reis, Ricardo Andrade; Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de; Siqueira, Gustavo Rezende; Bernardes, Thiago Fernandes

2006-06-01

144

Flowsheet Modeling and Testing of Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar® L Modified with Exxal® 8  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A conceptual counter-current process flowsheet was developed for sodium hydroxide recovery from alkaline solutions via pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE). PHE relies on a simple sodium ion/proton exchange mechanism at elevated pH using a weak organic acid extractant. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. In this work, the 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) cation exchanger was used in the Isopar® L diluent modified with isooctyl alcohol Exxal® 8. Equilibrium isotherms determined for PHE from pure sodium hydroxide solutions and simulated radioactive waste leachate were used to develop a semi-empirical model that could be used for designing PHE process flowsheets. Using this model, a conceptual PHE flowsheet was developed for recovering NaOH from solutions generated by caustic leaching of radioactive tank sludges. The flowsheet consists of extraction, scrub, and strip processes, each employing four equilibrium stages. Modeling of this flowsheet indicates 97% recovery of the sodium hydroxide from the waste leachate feed solution. An experimental demonstration, performed with a simulated radioactive waste leachate using batch contacts in a co-current analog of the counter-current flowsheet, confirmed the potential for practical application of PHE technology.

Arm, Stuart T.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

2007-09-01

145

In-vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues, as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various doses of gamma irradiation (0,100,150,200 KGy) and different concentrations of sodium hydroxide on crude fibre (CF), Cell-wall constituents (NDF, ADF, ADL), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), gross energy (GE), in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (W.S) cotton seed shall (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (SB.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeeled seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that HaOH in the concentrations at (4 and 6%) had significant effects on the CF content of W.S and P.S, E.U.E, SB.S, C.S.S, O.C.E; respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaoH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the NDF level. Irradiation dose of 200 KGy decreased CF for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and SB.S. However, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S, P.S and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. The digestible energy values (kJ/Kg DM) increased by 1120,1 220, 2110 (W.S); 620, 830, 1000 for P.S; 240, 500, 580 for O.C.E; 500, 850, 870 for S.U.E; 550, 1060, 1200 for SB.S and 1260, 1710, 2070 for C.S.S using 100, 150, 200, KGy respectively, in comparison to unirradiated controls. Also, the IVDE values (Kj/Kg DM) increased by 560, 1050, 1590 for W.S; 310, 460, 650 for P.S; 170, 760, 1530 for C.S.S; 450, 990, 1190 for O.C.E using 2%, 4%, 6% NaOH respectively, in comparison to controls. No changes in the IVDE values for S.U.E and SB.S. Combined treatment resulted in an even better increase in the digestible energy, except S.U.E and SB.S. (Author).

1999-01-01

146

Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de soluções irrigadoras de canais radiculares contendo hidróxido de cálcio e lauril sulfato de sódio em linhagem de fibroblastos L929. Solução aquosa saturada de hidróxido de cálcio, lauril sulfato de sódio e HCT20 (lauril sulfato de sódio e hidróxido de cálcio) foram diluídos em água destilada em concentrações de 50%, 20%, 10% e 5%. O grupo controle foi representado por meio de cultura de células (M (more) EM - minimum essential medium). A citotoxicidade das soluções sobre os fibroblastos foi avaliada em 4 e 24 h de contato, pelo método do cromo radioativo. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Em todas as análises, o intervalo de confiança referente às médias entre os grupos foi estabelecido em 95%. As soluções saturadas de hidróxido de cálcio e o HCT20 apresentaram toxicidade nas concentrações de 50%. O lauril sulfato de sódio foi tóxico em todas as concentrações. As soluções de hidróxido de cálcio em concentrações menores que 50% apresentaram tolerância celular, assim como combinadas ao lauril sulfato de sódio. Tal comportamento não foi observado na solução pura de lauril sulfato de sódio em todas as concentrações. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calcium hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxici (more) ty of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution.

Barbosa, Sérgio Valmor; Barroso, Cristiane Maria Sodré; Ruiz, Patrícia Alvarez

2009-01-01

147

Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2011-02-04

148

Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology -- High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85 C and 60 C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100 C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85 C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

2011-01-01

149

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACTED LIGNIN OF BAMBOO (NEOSINOCALAMUS AFFINIS) PRETREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE/UREA SOLUTION AT LOW TEMPERATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ball-milled bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis) was first treated under ultrasound at 20 oC in 95% ethanol solution for 0 to 50 min, dissolved in sodium hydroxide/urea solution (7% NaOH/12% urea) at –12 oC, and then extracted with ethanol and dioxane to isolate lignin. The structure of the isolated lignin was characterized with a set of wet chemical and spectroscopic methods, including UV, FT-IR, 13C NMR, and HSQC spectroscopies. The results showed that the lignin extracted from bamboo consisted of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) type lignins with minor cinnamate units. The predominate lignin inter-units were ?-O-4´ ether linkages, followed by phenylcoumaran and a lower proportion of resinol and spirodienone. It was also found that the ester groups of lignin were cleaved during the pretreatment process with cold alkaline solution.

Ming-Fei Li; Yong-Ming Fan; Feng Xu; Run-Cang Sun

2010-01-01

150

Technology Readiness Evaluation For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regenration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

2011-01-01

151

Low-temperature fabrication of bunch-shaped ZnO nanowires using a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bunch-shaped ZnO nanowires film was successfully fabricated by the forced-hydrolysis-initiated-nucleation of anhydrous zinc acetate in an aqueous solution of zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at low temperature. X-ray diffraction and a field emission scanning electron microscope clarified their formation mechanism and morphology development. The morphology was controllable by adjusting the solution temperature and deposition time. ZnO nanowires obtained at 65 degrees C for 6 h have a high aspect ratio of about 106. The smaller diameter with higher aspect ratio of ZnO nanowires, the easier the formation of bunch shapes by the capillary force during the drying process. This fabrication technique indicated that bunched ZnO film was prepared at low cost, and fittable to low heat-resistance substrates such as a polymer substarte.

Hu X; Masuda Y; Ohji T; Saito N; Kato K

2011-12-01

152

Low-temperature fabrication of bunch-shaped ZnO nanowires using a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bunch-shaped ZnO nanowires film was successfully fabricated by the forced-hydrolysis-initiated-nucleation of anhydrous zinc acetate in an aqueous solution of zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at low temperature. X-ray diffraction and a field emission scanning electron microscope clarified their formation mechanism and morphology development. The morphology was controllable by adjusting the solution temperature and deposition time. ZnO nanowires obtained at 65 degrees C for 6 h have a high aspect ratio of about 106. The smaller diameter with higher aspect ratio of ZnO nanowires, the easier the formation of bunch shapes by the capillary force during the drying process. This fabrication technique indicated that bunched ZnO film was prepared at low cost, and fittable to low heat-resistance substrates such as a polymer substarte. PMID:22409029

Hu, Xiulan; Masuda, Yoshitake; Ohji, Tatsuki; Saito, Nagahiro; Kato, Kazumi

2011-12-01

153

Enthalpy of solution of VOCl3 in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions and the standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO{4/2-} ion  

Science.gov (United States)

The calorimetric enthalpies of solution of liquid vanadium oxytrichloride in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured at 298.15 K and ionic strengths I = 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 (NaClO4). The standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO{4/2-} ion was calculated from the measured data.

Romodanovskii, P. A.; Vorob'ev, P. N.; Dmitrieva, N. G.; Gridchin, S. N.

2007-12-01

154

Root canal treatment of pulpless immature teeth using calcium hydroxide paste. Roentgenographic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcium hydroxide paste was used as a temporary dressing and the renewal was done each three months in the root treatment of immature teeth with open apex and necrotic pulps. Clinical and radiographic controls were made to observe foraminal closure. After that, the root canals were filled, employing the conventional technique with gutta-percha cones and zinc oxide eugenol cements. The calcium hydroxide paste was applied in the apical region before the root canal filling. The follow-up was done periodically and the cases have more than two years of control. (author).

1986-01-01

155

Comparative study of Nb, Nb-10W, and Nb-16Ta-12W corrosion behavior in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemical behavior of niobium, Nb-10W, and Nb-16Ta-12W alloys is investigated in sodium hydroxide solutions at different temperatures, using open-circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). OCP and polarization measurements show that the three materials are spontaneously active in 10, 15, and 30 wt.% NaOH at 25, 50, and 75 deg. C. The anodic polarization curves show in all cases a dissolution-passivation peak followed by a current plateau, corresponding to oxides formation. The spontaneous active corrosion of the three materials mainly leads to the formation of sodium niobates, as detected by X-ray diffraction analysis of the corrosion products. The evolution of the corrosion current densities obtained from Tafel extrapolation of polarization curves and the polarization resistance values determined from EIS measurements indicate that the corrosion rates of Nb, Nb-10W, and Nb-16Ta-12W alloys increase with increasing NaOH concentration and temperature. In all cases, the increasing order of corrosion resistance is: Nb

2004-05-15

156

Low-cycle fatigue strength of 10Kh18N9 stainless steel at 773 K in sodium containing a hydroxide impurity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When an atomic power plant runs on fast neutrons with sodium coolant, the second-loop intermediate heat exchanger, which is made of 10Kh18N9 stainless steel, operates under static and dynamic loads. In this case, the material experiences the action of two incompatible coolants: sodium and a steam-and-water medium, direct contact between which results in the formation of a highly aggressive reaction product: sodium hydroxide. This research investigated the effect of sodium containing a hydroxide impurity on the low-cycle fatigue strength of stainless steel 10Kh18N9 at 773 K. It was found that the presence of 5 wt. % hydroxide in sodium leads to a significant decrease in the cyclic strength of 10Kh18N9 steel at 773 K. This is explained by the elevated aggressivity of the medium with respect to the main components of steel under a tensile load. The corrosion products formed in this situation (complex oxides) act like a wedge in the case of a compressive load. The high stress concentration that arises at the crack tip causes further development of the crack and exposure of fresh surfaces that are subjected to corrosion.

1989-01-01

157

New System of Deprotection Step for the Hydroxide Radicals: Boron Trifluoride Etherate/Sodium Iodide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new efficient method for dealkylation of ethers is reported. Ethers could transform into corresponding alcohols with boron trifluoride etherate and sodium iodide in acetonitrile after hydrolysis. This reaction can proceed at room temperature, and the yield is excellent. It’s useful for deprotection process in organic synthesis.

Yuqing Cao; Xiaojun Yang; Dingxiang Du; Xiangtao Xu; Fangrui Song; Liya Xu

2011-01-01

158

Intergranular attack of inconel alloy 600 in sodium hydroxide solutions contaminated with Na2CO3 at 350 deg C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of sodium carbonate, boric acid and calcium hydroxide on the Intergranular Attack (IGA) of Inconel Alloy 600 has been studied in 20 wt% NaOH solution at 350 deg C. The IGA rate of Alloy 600 was higher in 20 wt% NaOH + 4 wt% Na2CO3 solution than in 20 wt% NaOH + 1 wt% Na2CO3 one, and the crack numbers of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) was also larger in 20 wt% NaOH + 4 wt% Na2CO3 solution than in 20 wt% NaOH + 1 wt% Na2CO3 one. The IGA rate of Alloy 600 in 20 wt% NaOH + 4 wt% Na2CO3 solution was suppressed by the addition of boric acid and the IGSCC crack numbers decreased from 108 to 79. On the other hand, the IGA rate was not so changed by the addition of calcium hydroxide, but the IGSCC crack numbers decreased extremely from 108 to 17. The IMMA studies revealed that the composition of oxide film of Alloy 600 was Cr-enriched in acid solution. As the pH was increased, the Ni composition of oxide film increased and the Cr composition decreased. The oxide film of Alloy 600 was mainly composed of Ni in 20 wt% NaOH + 1 wt% Na2CO3 solution. The examination of surface film should help to estimate the water quality in the crevice between tube and support plate. (author).

1986-01-01

159

[Naproxen sodium in the treatment of otitis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory value of sodium Naproxen in the treatment of otitis. DESIGN: A prospective study. There were interventions, but no controls. There was not a random distribution of the sample. SITE. Outpatient clinics in a Santander hospital. PATIENTS AND OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Patients presenting symptoms of acute or chronic otitis. INTERVENTIONS: A group of 20 patients with acute otitis and a second group of 15 with chronic otitis were treated normally; while 20 other patients suffering acute otitis and 17 with chronic otitis received in addition to normal treatment 550 mg of sodium naproxen every 12 hours. MAIN MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The evolution of the clinical description was evaluated along the following parameters: perforation of the tympanum, otorrhea, pain, vertigo, migraines, hypoacusis and audiometries in acute cases of otitis; and all these and also tympanic biopsy in chronic cases. The results obtained indicated a statistically significant anatomical-pathological improvement in chronic cases of otitis treated with sodium naproxen; whereas in cases of acute otitis, these differences were observed in parameters such as hypoacusis, tympanometry, perforation of the tympanum and effectiveness of and tolerance towards additional treatment with sodium Naproxen. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the study's results as well as the high level of tolerance and absence of undesirable effects, we made a positive evaluation of the introduction of the aforesaid anti-inflammatory into the normal treatment of cases of otitis.

Campos L; Díaz Gómez M; Ondiviela R; Masorra F

1992-04-01

160

A modified chemical treatment procedure for the decontamination of sodium carbonate waste solutions of the PUREX process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chemical treatment scheme followed by ion exchange has been formulated for the removal of radioactivity from the sodium carbonate waste solutions of the PUREX process. The treatment involves co-precipitation of technetium, antimony and actinides with Fe (II)/Fe (III) hydroxide; removal of cesium by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin (R.F. resin); and removal of ruthenium by carrier-precipitation with cobalt sulphide. The resultant effluent obtained by this treatment has total alpha radioactivity

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Experimental study of the crystallization of sodium hydroxide in a cold trap  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the crystallization mechanisms of sodium hydride, trapping efficiency measurements were made on an experimental cold trap, tubular in shape, containing a steel wool packing. For this purpose, the hydrogen content at the trap outlet was permanently measured using the pressure-gauge of a hydrogen-meter. The influence of various parameters on the purification mean efficiency was analysed. In particular, it would seem that the residence time has no influence, which would indicate a growth kinetics not limited by the diffusion stage. After being operated in selected operating conditions, the cold trap was dismantled. The direct inspection of the deposits as well as the scanning through samples using an electronic microscope made it possible to confirm that crystallization is dependent, in its initial phase, on a heterogeneous mechanism of nucleation on the packing threads. (orig.).

1988-01-01

162

Sodium hydroxide/aluminum bilayer cathode for enhancing the performance of blue polymer light-emitting diodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium hydroxide/aluminum (NaOH/Al) bilayer cathode has been developed for improving the performance of blue polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) based on poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene). In comparison to the control device with Ca/Al as the cathode, the performance of the PLED with NaOH/Al cathode, including driving voltage, light-emitting efficiency, and color purity, is significantly improved. For achieving a luminance of 500 cd/m2, the driving voltage is reduced from 8.3 to 5.3 V and the light-emitting efficiency is increased from 0.46 to 0.67 cd/A. Moreover, the device with NaOH/Al cathode showed a pure blue emission with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.17, 0.09) as compared to that of (0.18, 0.13) for control device operated at same condition. These improvements are attributed to the use of an efficient bilayer NaOH/Al electron injection contact that also prevents the formation of Ca-induced fluorenone occurred in PLEDs with Ca/Al cathode.

Ma, Liang; Xie, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Junwei; Cheng, Yanxiang; Wang, Lixiang; Wang, Fosong

2005-10-01

163

Enthalpy of solution of VOCl3 in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions and the standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO42- ion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calorimetric enthalpies of solution of liquid vanadium oxytrichloride in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured at 298.15 K and ionic strengths I = 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 (NaClO4). The standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO4 2- ion at 298.15 K was calculated from the measured data to be -1173.39 ±1.49 kJ/mol

2007-01-01

164

[Determination of total mass and morphology analysis of heavy metal in soil with potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide by ICP-AES].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Blank soil was used as quality controlling samples, soil sample dealt by potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution was used as check sample, mixed acid HNO3-HF-HClO4 was chosen to nitrify soil samples, and plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) was used as detecting method. The authors determined the total metal mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the extracted and dealt soil samples, and determined the mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the three chemical morphologies, including acid extractable morphology, oxide associated morphology, and organics associated modality. The experimental results indicated that the different pH of potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution had obvious influence on the total mass of heavy metal and morphology transformation. Except for metal element Pb and Zn, the addition of different pH potassium dihydrogen phosphate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could accelerate the soil samples nitrification and the total mass determination of heavy metal in the soil samples. The potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could facilitate the acid extractable morphology of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb, oxidation associated morphology of As, Hg, Pb and Zn and the organic associated morphology transforming of As and Hg. At pH 5.8, the maximum acid extractable morphology contents of Cu and Hg were 2.180 and 0.632 mg x kg(-1), respectively; at pH 6.2, the maximal oxidation associated morphology content of Pb could achieve 27.792 mg x kg(-1); at pH 6.0, the maximum organic associated morphology content of heavy metal Hg was 4.715 mg x kg(-1).

Qu J; Yuan X; Cong Q; Wang S

2008-11-01

165

ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

2011-01-27

166

Effects of a Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize treated with sodium metabisulphite, methylamine and calcium hydroxide in diets for female piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) contaminated maize was hydrothermally treated in the presence of sodium metabisulphite (SBS), methylamine and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and included into diets for female piglets to evaluate effects on performance, organ weights, development of hyperestrogenism, serum biochemical parameters, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and toxin residues in serum. For this purpose, both uncontaminated maize (CON) and Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize (FUS) were included into diets either untreated (-) or treated (+) according to a 2 by 2-factorial design. One-hundred female weaned piglets were assigned to one of the four treatment groups (n = 25) CON-, CON+, FUS- and FUS+ with DON/ZEN concentrations of 0.43/0.03, 0.04/0.0, 3.67/0.32 and 0.36/0.08 mg per kg diet, respectively. After a feeding period of 27 days, 20 piglets (n = 5) were slaughtered. Performance parameters such as feed intake, live weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio remained unaffected by the treatments. Uterus weights were significantly reduced in group FUS+ compared to FUS- (p = 0.028), while visceral organ weights were not influenced. Vulva width in relation to body weight was highest in group FUS- at the end of the trial, while hydrothermal treatment significantly reduced the parameter (p < 0.01). The highest toxin and toxin metabolite concentrations in serum were detected in group FUS-, whereas ingestion of diet FUS+ reduced the concentrations to the level of the control groups. Serum biochemical and haematological parameters were mainly within the given reference ranges and showed no treatment-related alterations. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not affected. An effective detoxification of maize by hydrothermal treatment in the presence of SBS, methylamine and Ca(OH)2 could be demonstrated by means of serum toxin analyses. No undesired side effects of the treated-feed stuff or the chemicals themselves on the health of piglets were detected. PMID:23859352

Rempe, Inga; Brezina, Ulrike; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven

2013-07-16

167

The enthalpies of solution of VOCl3 in solutions of sodium hydroxide and the standard enthalpy of formation of the VO43- ion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dissolution enthalpies of liquid vanadium oxytrichloride in aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium perchloride at ionic strength values I = 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 were measured by the calorimetry method at 298.15 K. The experimental data obtained permitted calculating formation enthalpies of VOCl3 alkali solutions at different I values, standard dissolution enthalpy of VOCl3 (-330.63 ± 0.64 kJ/mol) and standard formation enthalpy of VO43- ion (-1053.33 ± 1.66 kJ/mol) in solution at 298.15 K

2002-01-01

168

Electrodeposition of nano-structured nickel-21% tungsten alloy and evaluation of oxygen reduction reaction in a 1% sodium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nano-structured nickel-21 at.% tungsten alloys were electrodeposited onto the copper substrates from unstirred sulfate-citrate-chloride-bromide-sodium tungstate electrolyte at 60 deg. C. The maximum particle sizes of the deposits, as estimated from the atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively were 125, 75, and 100 nm. The Tafel plot for oxygen reduction reaction in oxygenated unstirred 1% sodium hydroxide solution showed a Tafel slope of 130 mV/decade. There were minor variations in the limiting current density with a change in the particle size.

2004-10-01

169

Multi-elemental determination of heavy elements in plastics using X-ray fluorescence after destruction of the polymer by molten sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a method is proposed for the multielemental analysis of Sb(III), Ba, Cd, Cr(III), Hg, Pb and As(III) in plastics, using X-ray fluorescence after alkaline decomposition and preconcentration by (co)precipitation. The organic matrix is destroyed by decomposition with sodium hydroxide melted in a silver crucible by the open system technique, using sodium nitrate as auxiliary oxidant. The variables which influence preconcentration are optimized: Digestion time, pH, salinity, carrier and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and sodium rhodizonate (R) as precipitants. The calibration curves were linear up to 200 ?g of the element present, except for lead (150 ?g) antimony(III) (100 ?g) and barium (1000 ?g). The proposed method has been applied to several different industrial plastics. The procedure is quick and leads to results comparable with those obtained when using a recommended decomposition for each element separately. (orig.).

1992-01-01

170

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE  

Science.gov (United States)

An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

Watt, G.W.

1958-08-19

171

Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions containing acetic acid or sodium hydroxide in the temperature range from 313 to 433 K and at total pressures up to 10 MPa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions containing acetic acid and in aqueous solutions containing sodium hydroxide was measured in the temperature range from 313 to 433 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa. The molalities of acetic acid or sodium hydroxide in the liquid phase were about 4 and 1 mol/kg, respectively. Experimental results are reported and compared to correlations and predictions.

Rumpf, B.; Xia, J.; Maurer, G. [Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik

1998-05-01

172

Nutritional value of enzyme- or sodium hydroxide-treated feathers from dead hens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two feather digestion processes to remove the feathers from the carcasses of dead hens were evaluated for their impact on the nutritional quality of the resulting feather meal. There were three treatments: control (untreated feathers), a feather-digesting enzyme, and NaOH treatment. Both enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were easily separated from the hen carcasses. The CP level of enzyme-treated feathers after autoclaving (49.90%) was significantly less than the control and NaOH-treated feathers (94.48 and 87.31%, respectively) because of elevated ether extract levels resulting from skin and abdominal fat release during the 12-h enzyme incubation. Before autoclaving, pepsin digestibilities of enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were significantly higher than the control. However, after autoclaving, no significant difference was found in pepsin digestibility between the control and enzyme treatments or control and NaOH treatments. The typical limiting amino acids, methionine, lysine, and histidine, in feathers were present at greater levels in the resulting enzyme-feather meal (E-FM) compared with the NaOH-feather meal (N-FM) or control-feather meal (C-FM) on a percentage of CP basis. Cystine levels, however, were significantly lower in the E-FM and N-FM compared with that of the C-FM. In chick bioassays, no significant differences were found in protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) among C-FM, E-FM, and N-FM. The AMEn of E-FM (4.52 kcal/g) was significantly higher than the C-FM (3.58) or N-FM (2.79). These findings indicated that although enzyme treatment could improve the nutritional quality of feathers from dead hens, NaOH treatment was a more rapid means of separating feathers from the carcass.

Kim WK; Patterson PH

2000-04-01

173

Nutritional value of enzyme- or sodium hydroxide-treated feathers from dead hens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two feather digestion processes to remove the feathers from the carcasses of dead hens were evaluated for their impact on the nutritional quality of the resulting feather meal. There were three treatments: control (untreated feathers), a feather-digesting enzyme, and NaOH treatment. Both enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were easily separated from the hen carcasses. The CP level of enzyme-treated feathers after autoclaving (49.90%) was significantly less than the control and NaOH-treated feathers (94.48 and 87.31%, respectively) because of elevated ether extract levels resulting from skin and abdominal fat release during the 12-h enzyme incubation. Before autoclaving, pepsin digestibilities of enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were significantly higher than the control. However, after autoclaving, no significant difference was found in pepsin digestibility between the control and enzyme treatments or control and NaOH treatments. The typical limiting amino acids, methionine, lysine, and histidine, in feathers were present at greater levels in the resulting enzyme-feather meal (E-FM) compared with the NaOH-feather meal (N-FM) or control-feather meal (C-FM) on a percentage of CP basis. Cystine levels, however, were significantly lower in the E-FM and N-FM compared with that of the C-FM. In chick bioassays, no significant differences were found in protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) among C-FM, E-FM, and N-FM. The AMEn of E-FM (4.52 kcal/g) was significantly higher than the C-FM (3.58) or N-FM (2.79). These findings indicated that although enzyme treatment could improve the nutritional quality of feathers from dead hens, NaOH treatment was a more rapid means of separating feathers from the carcass. PMID:10780649

Kim, W K; Patterson, P H

2000-04-01

174

Current Status on Development of Sodium Waste Treatment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of sodium as a coolant necessitates the development of special post-operation procedures for the treatment of waste sodium, sodium contaminated equipment, or other purposes. Only a few power and research reactors with sodium coolant have been constructed and operated worldwide. They are close to the end of their design lifetime and, in some cases, the decommissioning is in progress. Conducted by countries that have operational experience with sodium cooled fast reactor, R and D programmes are intended to provide a solid basis for design and operation of sodium waste processing facilities as well as for decommissioning planning. Sodium waste, which has been generated from the test facilities related to the sodium since the beginning of the 1990s, requires now the safe sodium treatment in Korea. Each work activity with sodium should be properly planned and managed to avoid potential chemical reactions or explosions with a high risk of consequent environmental contamination. Special procedures should be implemented for removing and processing bulk quantities of sodium and sodium residuals in internal spaces and on internal surfaces of equipment. The objective of the report is to provide researchers with technical information necessary for the design and construction of technological facilities for sodium waste treatment by reviewing the current state of technical developments for advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and hazards of a sodium waste treatment process. Based on these results, a future plan for development of a sodium waste treatment process can be established

2010-01-01

175

Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2000-09-28

176

Chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide improves recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms from cultured milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is shed into the milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne's disease, allowing the transmission of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk. The parameters investigated included chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-l-cysteine-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), alone and in combination with antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid), and the efficacy of solid (Herrold's egg yolk medium [HEY]) and liquid (Bactec 12B and para-JEM) culture media. For each experiment, raw milk samples from a known noninfected cow were inoculated with 10(2) to 10(8) CFU/ml of live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms. The results indicate that an increased length of exposure to NALC-NaOH from 5 to 30 min and an increased concentration of NaOH from 0.5 to 2.0% did not affect the viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additional treatment of milk samples with the antibiotics following NALC-NaOH treatment decreased the recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells more than treatment with NALC-NaOH alone. The Bactec 12B medium was the superior medium of the three evaluated for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk, as it achieved the lowest threshold of detection. The optimal conditions for NALC-NaOH decontamination were determined to be exposure to 1.50% NaOH for 15 min followed by culture in Bactec 12B medium. This study demonstrates that chemical decontamination with NALC-NaOH resulted in a greater recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from milk than from samples treated with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC). Therefore, it is important to optimize milk decontamination protocols to ensure that low concentrations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be detected. PMID:23637290

Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C; Stabel, J R

2013-05-01

177

Chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide improves recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms from cultured milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is shed into the milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne's disease, allowing the transmission of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk. The parameters investigated included chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-l-cysteine-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), alone and in combination with antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid), and the efficacy of solid (Herrold's egg yolk medium [HEY]) and liquid (Bactec 12B and para-JEM) culture media. For each experiment, raw milk samples from a known noninfected cow were inoculated with 10(2) to 10(8) CFU/ml of live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms. The results indicate that an increased length of exposure to NALC-NaOH from 5 to 30 min and an increased concentration of NaOH from 0.5 to 2.0% did not affect the viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additional treatment of milk samples with the antibiotics following NALC-NaOH treatment decreased the recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells more than treatment with NALC-NaOH alone. The Bactec 12B medium was the superior medium of the three evaluated for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk, as it achieved the lowest threshold of detection. The optimal conditions for NALC-NaOH decontamination were determined to be exposure to 1.50% NaOH for 15 min followed by culture in Bactec 12B medium. This study demonstrates that chemical decontamination with NALC-NaOH resulted in a greater recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from milk than from samples treated with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC). Therefore, it is important to optimize milk decontamination protocols to ensure that low concentrations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be detected.

Bradner L; Robbe-Austerman S; Beitz DC; Stabel JR

2013-07-01

178

Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar L Modified with 1-Octanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE) was investigated for recovery of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from alkaline process solutions. PHE relies on the deprotonation of a lipophilic weak acid by hydroxide ion with concomitant transfer of sodium ion into an organic phase. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and NaOH in the aqueous phase, thus leading to a process in which NaOH equivalents are transferred from an alkaline feed solution to an aqueous stripping solution. In this work, we researched PHE using a process-friendly diluent Isopar L. The lipophilic cation exchanger 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) was used as the extractant. The Isopar L diluent was modified with 1-octanol to improve its solvation properties and the solubility of 35-DTBP so that practical Na+ concentrations could be achieved in the process solvent. The PHE mechanism at process-relevant conditions was explored by Raman and FTIR spectroscopic measurements. Electrospray mass spectroscopic results indicated extensive aggregation of the sodium phenolate at high Na+ loading. An equilibrium computer modeling suggested that the Na+ extraction behavior can be largely explained by the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 Na/35-DTBP species in the organic phase. Extraction isotherms obtained using caustic leaching simulant solutions indicate the potential utility of this approach for recycling NaOH from complex alkaline mixtures.

2006-06-01

179

Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

180

Characterization of YBa2Cu3O7-x made by a sol-gel process using nitrate salts and sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sol-gel processing of YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor using metal nitrate salts and sodium hydroxide as the starting materials has been investigated because of the need to produce pure, homogeneous superconducting materials. Homogeneous colloidal sols have been obtained by the precipitation process of the mixed metal cations with precipitation anions of hydroxide at the solution basicities of pH 13 at room temperature. The calcined powders have been investigated using IR and XRD such that the YBa2Cu3O7-x phase started to be formed ca.750deg C and completeed the formation ca.800deg C when heated for 12 hours. The sinterings of the calcined powders have been investigated using dilatometry such that the tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition during the cooling stage occurred ca.680deg C. The resulting sample exhibited a sharp Tc (?Tc=1.2K) at 94K. (Author).

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by sodium hydroxide solution in a packed bed and studying the effect of operating parameters on absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In this study. simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by Sodium Hydroxide solution in a packed bed has been investigated. At first, mass and energy balances were applied around a differential height of the bed. So, the governing equations were obtained. Surface renewal theory by Danckwerts was used to represent the mass transfer operation Finally, by changing the operating parameters like solvent temperature, inlet gas composition pressure and height of the bed, the effect of these parameters on the absorption and the composition of carbon dioxide in exit stream have been investigated. (authors)

2007-01-01

182

Controllable synthesis of flower- and rod-like ZnO nanostructures by simply tuning the ratio of sodium hydroxide to zinc acetate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A controlled synthesis of flower- and rod-like ZnO nanostructures in a hydrothermal phase has been realized in the absence of an additional template. The well-defined morphologies are obtained by simply tuning the ratio of sodium hydroxide to zinc acetate in a narrow range. The products are characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The growth mechanism is suggested to be that the supersaturation of the precursor Zn(OH)42- results in various nucleation habits, which induce the ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies.

2007-02-21

183

3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT) on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr), and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp). It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

P.D. Reena Kumari; Jagannath Nayak; A. Nityananda Shetty

2011-01-01

184

Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

2005-06-01

185

Flowsheet Modeling and Testing of Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar(regsign) L Modified with Exxal(regsign) 8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptual counter-current process flowsheet was developed for sodium hydroxide recovery from alkaline solutions via pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE). PHE relies on a simple sodium ion/proton exchange mechanism at elevated pH using a weak organic acid extractant. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. In this work, the 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) cation exchanger was used in the Isopar(regsign) L diluent modified with isooctyl alcohol Exxal(regsign) 8. Equilibrium isotherms determined for PHE from pure sodium hydroxide solutions and simulated radioactive waste leachate were used to develop a semi-empirical model that could be used for designing PHE process flowsheets. Using this model, a conceptual PHE flowsheet was developed for recovering NaOH from solutions generated by caustic leaching of radioactive tank sludges. The flowsheet consists of extraction, scrub, and strip processes, each employing four equilibrium stages. Modeling of this flowsheet indicates 97% recovery of the sodium hydroxide from the waste leachate feed solution. An experimental demonstration, performed with a simulated radioactive waste leachate using batch contacts in a co-current analog of the counter-current flowsheet, confirmed the potential for practical application of PHE technology.

2007-09-01

186

Loss of sight caused by calcium hydroxide paste accidentally splashed into the eye during endodontic treatment: case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Calcium hydroxide, widely used in endodontic treatment, is a strong base that may cause irreversible injury to vital tissue that comes into contact with this substance. We present the first case of a dentist who accidentally splashed endodontic calcium hydroxide into her own eye. After washing with copious amounts of water for several minutes, she was treated in the hospital within 30 minutes of the accident. Because of the burning caused by the base solution, the dentist lost vision in the affected eye. She returned to the hospital several times for treatment of a corneal abscess and corneal fungal infection. She had the keloid that formed between the eyeball and eyelid removed 3 times. Calcium hydroxide can cause blindness when it comes into contact with the eye. Clinicians should take adequate precautions to prevent this serious complication. In case of an accident, it is important to wash the eye efficiently.

Lipski M; Buczkowska-Radli?ska J; Góra M

2012-01-01

187

[Effects of the treatment of coffee pulp, fresh or ensilaged, with calcium hydroxide, on its nutritive value  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was carried out to determine the effects of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the chemical composition and nutritive value of fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp. Fresh or ensilaged pulp were mixed with 1, 2 and 3% of calcium hydroxide. The process was carried out during 0 and 16 hr, after which time the treated pulp was sun-dried for 36 hr until moisture content reached 12%. These samples were then analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and for some minerals (Ca, P, Na, K), as well as for caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids content. Diets were then prepared from these materials, containing 15% protein and 15 or 30% fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp, and offered to weanling rats during six weeks. Information required on weight gain, food conversion, apparent digestibility and toxicity of the diets was recorded. Results of the chemical analysis revealed that the main changes found in both types of pulp as a result of the calcium hydroxide treatment were the following: a decrease in ether extract (from 4.0 to 2.5 g/100 g), crude fiber (from 18.3 to 11.9 g/100 g) and protein content (from 12.3 to 8.6 g/100 g) in an inverse relation to the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The amount of ash increased, fluctuated between 5.5 and 15.4%, depending on the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The latter affected the Ca:P ratio in the diets, where an average ratio of 7.2:1 was found in the control pulp (0% calcium hydroxide) and 59.0:1 in those treated with the highest amount of calcium hydroxide (3%). Regarding the caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids contents, calcium hydroxide was effective in decreasing only tannins, more so in the fresh than in the ensilaged pulp; the decrease was in direct proportion to the amount of calcium hydroxide added and to the length of the Ca(OH)2 treatment. The results of the biological assays showed that the addition of Ca(OH)2 in either of the two time periods used and at either of the concentrations studied, did not improve the nutritive value of coffee pulp. There was always a better performance in the animals that consumed ensilaged pulp than in those fed fresh pulp. The animals fed 15% coffee pulp either fresh or ensilaged performed better than those consuming 30% coffee pulp.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Gómez-Brenes R; Bendaña G; González JM; Jarquín R; Braham JE; Bressani R

1988-03-01

188

Valor nutritivo da cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com hidróxido de sódio ou óxido de cálcio Nutritional value of the hydrolyzed sugarcane with sodium hydroxide or calcium oxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o valor nutritivo e a temperatura de estabilidade aeróbia da cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) ou óxido de cálcio (CaO). Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 2 × 4, com dois aditivos (NaOH e CaO) e quatro doses (0; 0,75; 1,5 e 2,25%, com base na matéria natural), em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. O material foi acrescido dos aditivos e armazenado por 24 horas em baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10L. Ambos os aditivos controlaram o aumento da temperatura da cana-de-açúcar, e o NaOH mostrou-se mais eficiente. Os teores de matéria seca e matéria mineral aumentaram linearmente, enquanto os constituintes da parede celular diminuíram com o aumento das doses dos aditivos. Tanto o NaOH quanto o CaO promoveram acréscimo nos valores de digestibilidade da matéria seca da cana-de-açúcar. O NaOH e o CaO melhoram o valor nutritivo da cana-de-açúcar, e o NaOH é mais eficiente.The nutritional value and the temperature of aerobic stability of the hydrolyzed sugarcane by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or calcium oxide (CaO) were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in factorial arrangment 2×4, two additives (NaOH and CaO) and four doses (0; 0.75; 1.5; and 2.25%), in a completely randomized design with four repetitions per treatment. The material, after the addition of the additive, was stored per 24 hours in 10-L plastic pails. Both additives controlled the increase of temperature of sugarcane, but NaOH was more efficient. The dry matter and mineral matter contents lineally increased, while the cell wall contents decreased with the increase of the doses. Either NaOH or CaO promoted increment in values of sugarcane dry matter digestibility. NaOH and CaO improved the nutritional value of the sugarcane and NaOH was more efficient.

L.S.O. Ribeiro; A.J.V. Pires; B.D. Pinho; G.G.P. Carvalho; M.A.L. Freire

2009-01-01

189

Valor nutritivo da cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com hidróxido de sódio ou óxido de cálcio/ Nutritional value of the hydrolyzed sugarcane with sodium hydroxide or calcium oxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se o valor nutritivo e a temperatura de estabilidade aeróbia da cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) ou óxido de cálcio (CaO). Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 2 × 4, com dois aditivos (NaOH e CaO) e quatro doses (0; 0,75; 1,5 e 2,25%, com base na matéria natural), em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. O material foi acrescido dos aditivos e armazenado por 24 horas em baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10 (more) L. Ambos os aditivos controlaram o aumento da temperatura da cana-de-açúcar, e o NaOH mostrou-se mais eficiente. Os teores de matéria seca e matéria mineral aumentaram linearmente, enquanto os constituintes da parede celular diminuíram com o aumento das doses dos aditivos. Tanto o NaOH quanto o CaO promoveram acréscimo nos valores de digestibilidade da matéria seca da cana-de-açúcar. O NaOH e o CaO melhoram o valor nutritivo da cana-de-açúcar, e o NaOH é mais eficiente. Abstract in english The nutritional value and the temperature of aerobic stability of the hydrolyzed sugarcane by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or calcium oxide (CaO) were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in factorial arrangment 2×4, two additives (NaOH and CaO) and four doses (0; 0.75; 1.5; and 2.25%), in a completely randomized design with four repetitions per treatment. The material, after the addition of the additive, was stored per 24 hours in 10-L plastic pails. Both additives (more) controlled the increase of temperature of sugarcane, but NaOH was more efficient. The dry matter and mineral matter contents lineally increased, while the cell wall contents decreased with the increase of the doses. Either NaOH or CaO promoted increment in values of sugarcane dry matter digestibility. NaOH and CaO improved the nutritional value of the sugarcane and NaOH was more efficient.

Ribeiro, L.S.O.; Pires, A.J.V.; Pinho, B.D.; Carvalho, G.G.P.; Freire, M.A.L.

2009-10-01

190

3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT) on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in so (more) dium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr), and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp). It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

Kumari, P.D. Reena; Nayak, Jagannath; Shetty, A. Nityananda

2011-11-01

191

Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leaching tests, and extractions with oxalate and weak hydrochloric acid. It was found that at 600 and 900 °C the iron oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat treatment caused a part of the metals bound in the oxides to be released, thus increasing metals leachability by 1-2 orders of magnitude depending on the metal. Pb and Cd were released in particularly significant concentrations, suggesting less incorporation into the iron oxides after heat-induced transformation. For Pb, this transformation of the chemical state of the bound metal was clearly supported by the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies. A fraction of the bound Cr remained stable even after treatment at the highest temperature used in the study. It was concluded that the heat treatment of iron oxides may be advantageous to improve the thermodynamic stability of the product but that thermal treatment at both 600 and 900 °C significantly reduced the binding capacity for heavy metals.

SØrensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.

2000-01-01

192

The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated into a 35% improvement in growth rate (40, 36 g/day versus 26, 29 g/day). Calcium hydroxide alone did not improve the feeding value of Albizia. These data highlight the danger of assuming an assayable reduction in tannin, such as that observed in the calcium hydroxide treatment, will translate into an improvement in nutritive value and subsequent animal performance. Since the performance of the goats improved maximally when PEG was added to the calcium hydroxide-treated Albizia it was clear that the tannins were still as active as in the untreated Albizia. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide does not deactivate the tannins in Albizia. (author)

Alam, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)]. E-mail: mralam@royalten.net.bd; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh); McNeill, D.M. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)

2005-08-19

193

Overextension of Nonsetting Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontic Treatment: Literature Review and Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Premixed non-setting calcium hydroxide (CaOH2) paste in pressure syringe system is commonly used in root canal therapy. The aim of this paper is to present a case involving an iatrogenic extrusion of the medicament during endodontic treatment and a literature review of similar reports. The present case demonstrates severe tissue necrosis and other deleterious effects following the extrusion of CaOH2 paste beyond root apex. A 21-year old female was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first premolar. After completion of the canal preparation, root canals were filled by premixed CaOH2 paste. In the second appointment, a gingival detachment and an irregular zone of necrosis adjacent to the tooth apex was observed. To treat this complication, a mucoperiosteal flap was raised and the extruded material and necrotic tissues were currettaged and the area sutured. The patient was prescribed antibiotics and followed up at 2 weeks, 6 months and 2 years. Two week follow up showed good soft tissue healing. Two years postoperatively, complete radiographic and clinical healing was observed. We can conclude that the application of CaOH2 should be carried out with care and preferably applied free hand or with a lentulo spiral rather than in a pressure syringe.

Arash Shahravan; Shahrzad Jalali; Behrooz Mozaffari; Nasim Pourdamghan

2012-01-01

194

Aluminum Hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

195

Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid and phosphoric acid in calcium hydroxide removal from the root canal: a microscopic cleanliness evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rooted molars were subjected to standardized canal instrumentation to a master apical file (MAF). The samples were dressed with Ca(OH)(2), and after 7 days, teeth were reopened and Ca(OH)(2) medication was removed by 1 of 4 different experimental procedures: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (n = 10); 17% EDTA-T (n = 10); 10% citric acid (n = 10); or 37% phosphoric acid (n = 10). This was followed by reinstrumentation with MAF plus 15 mL saline solution. The roots were prepared for scanning electron microscopic analysis of the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. Statistical analysis was performed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. EDTA-T and phosphoric acid gave the best results in the apical third, with significant statistical differences compared with other groups. NaOCl gave the worst results. Irrigation with 17% EDTA-T and 37% phosphoric acid is more effective than sodium hypochlorite and citric acid in the removal of calcium hydroxide from the apical third.

da Silva JM; Silveira A; Santos E; Prado L; Pessoa OF

2011-12-01

196

Microstructural transformation with heat-treatment of aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite structure was prepared, and the microstructural transformation of the sample heat-treated at various temperatures was investigated. The sample was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and BET surface area. The shape of the grains in the prepared sample was hexagonal prism-like morphology. The prepared sample kept a metastable state of alumina phase at higher temperatures than the commercially available gibbsite powders. The prepared gibbsite grains underwent characteristic structural change depending on the calcination temperature. The transformation of the surface morphology was initiated at 400degC, leading to the formation of cracks with the direction parallel to the basal plane. After calcination at 1200degC, a large number of grooves were formed on the surface of the lateral planes. The specific structural change of gibbsite induced by the heat treatment was strongly related to the topotactic dehydration from gibbsite and subsequent phase transition to aluminum oxides. (author)

2009-01-01

197

Method for using a reaction heat produced from a reaction of 1,2-dichloroethane from ethylene and chlorine in a direct chlorination reactor, where the reaction heat is used for the drying of sodium hydroxide  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reaction heat produced by a reaction of 1,2-dichloroethane from ethylene and chlorine in a direct chlorination reactor is at least partly used for the evaporation of sodium hydroxide, which is produced during the production of chlorine by electrolysis of sodium chloride. An independent claim is included for a device for the execution of the above method comprising a pipe bundle heat exchanger with two firm tubing plates and a sodium hydroxide sump, which is configured in such a manner that caustic soda solution can be led to the sump through the interior of the piping and 1,2-dichloroethane can be led to the sump over the exterior of the piping and exhibits a mechanism for the delivery and distribution of the caustic soda solution to the interior of the piping.

PETERSEN SVEN; BENJE MICHAEL; KAMMERHOFER PETER

198

FINAL REPORT. ION RECOGNITION APPROACH TO VOLUME REDUCTION OF ALKALINE TANK WASTE BY SEPARATION AND RECYCLE OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM NITRATE  

Science.gov (United States)

This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk redu...

199

[Treatment of wheat straw with urea, calcium hydroxide or ammonium sulfate  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of urea, ammonia sulphate or calcium hydroxide, in improving the nutritive value of wheat straw for ruminant feeding. Wheat straw was treated with each of three solutions (w/w) containing: 5% urea - 50% H2O (5U); 2% urea - 2% CaOH - 50% H2O (2U), or 5% ammonia sulphate - 2% CaOH - 50% H2O (5S). The treated straw was then ensiled in triplicate in sealed polyethylene bags for 30 days at ambient temperature (15-22 degrees C), except for the untreated straw, which was used as control (T). All treatments were then subjected to the following determinations: pH, moisture, crude protein, ammonia N, ashes, cellular walls, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, silica, gross energy, and dry matter in vitro digestibility. The pH value of the 5U treatment was higher (p less than 0.01) than that of 2U and 5S, and the moisture percentage increased in all treated straws, as compared to the control. Both crude protein and ammonia N contents were higher in the 5U treated straws (14.66; 0.6%), 2U (6.41; 75%), 5S (9.54; 94%) in comparison with T (2.63; 50%). The ash percentage increased significantly in 2U and 5S (p less than 0.01) in relation to T and 5U, and the cellular wall content decreased in the 5U, 2U and 5S treated straws, as did cellulose. Gross energy values were higher in the treated straws, and the dry matter per cent digestibility was also higher, although not in a significant degree (p less then 0.01) in the 5% urea-treated straw (45.03) than in 2U (42.43), 5S (34.82), and T (42.36).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Núñez Muñoz M; Ortega Cerrilla E

1987-06-01

200

Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0–100 and 100–200 µm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the number of colony forming units and for the percentage of viable C. albicans using fluorescence microscopy. First, the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and the 2% chlorhexidine gel was evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. After 14 days of intracanal medication, there was a significant decrease in the number of C. albicans colony forming units at a depth of 0–100 µm with chlorhexidine treatment either with or without calcium hydroxide compared with the calcium hydroxide only treatment. However, there were no differences in the number of colony forming units at the 100–200 µm depth for any of the medications investigated. C. albicans viability was also evaluated by vital staining techniques and fluorescence microscopy analysis. Antifungal activity against C. albicans significantly increased at both depths in the chlorhexidine groups with and without calcium hydroxide compared with the groups treated with calcium hydroxide only. Treatments with only chlorhexidine or chlorhexidine in combination with calcium hydroxide were effective for elimination of C. albicans.

Jacques Rezende Delgado, Ronan; Helena Gasparoto, Thais; Renata Sipert, Carla; Ramos Pinheiro, Claudia; Gomes de Moraes, Ivaldo; Brandao Garcia, Roberto; Antonio Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Monteiro Bramante, Clovis; Aparecido Torres, Sergio; Pompermaier Garlet, Gustavo; Paula Campanelli, Ana; Bernardineli, Norberti

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Thermal treatment of a Y-123 precursor prepared using the hydroxide co-precipitation method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Y-123 precursor has been obtained using the hydroxide co-precipitation method. The influences of the calcination time and temperature (with and without sintering and annealing) on the formation of the superconducting phase, YBa2Cu3O7-delta, are examined using XRD and T-c measurements. A comparison...

SCHILDERMANS, Inge; KNAEPEN, Els; NOUWEN, Ria; VAN BAEL, Marlies; VANHOYLAND, Geert; MULLENS, Jules; YPERMAN, Jan

202

Computational NMR, IR/RAMAN calculations in sodium pravastatin: Investigation of the Self-Assembled Nanostructure of Pravastatin-LDH (Layered Double Hydroxides) Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Layered double hydroxides (LDH) can be used as nanocontainers for immobilization of Pravastatin, in order to obtain suitable drug carriers. The material's structure and spectroscopic properties were analyzed by NMR, IR/RAMAN and supported by theoretical calculations. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed using the Gaussian03 package [1]. The geometry optimizations were performed considering the single crystal X-ray diffraction data of tert-octylamonium salt of Pravastatin [2]. Tetramethylsilane (TMS), obtained with the same basis set, was used as reference for calculating the chemical shift of 13C. A scaling factor was used to compare theoretical and experimental harmonic vibrational frequencies. Through the NMR and IR/RAMAN spectra, we were able to make precise assignments of the NMR and IR/RAMAN of Sodium Pravastatin. [4pt] [1] Frisch, M.J. et al. Gaussian 03, Revision A.1, Gaussian Inc., Pittsburgh, PA,(2003). [0pt] [2] Sato, S.; Furukawa, Y. J. Antibiot. 41, 1265-1267 (1988).

Petersen, Philippe; Cunha, Vanessa; Gonçalves, Marcos; Petrilli, Helena; Constantino, Vera

2013-03-01

203

[Successful treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis after radiation therapy with intravesical instillation of aluminium hydroxide gel and magnesium hydroxide: report of a case].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to macrohematuria and bladder tamponade. Bladder hemorrhage caused by radiation therapy had not improved after bladder lavage, intravesical drip infusion, medication of hemostatics, and transurethral coagulation. Bladder hemorrhage had completely disappeared 7 days after the intravesical instillation of 50-100 ml aluminium hydroxide gel and magnesium hydroxide for an hour per day. This method is easy and can be performed without complications. This method might be useful as first-line therapy in the case of severe bladder hemorrhage.

Kawamura N; Kakuta Y; Fukuhara S; Imazu T; Hara T; Yamaguchi S

2008-03-01

204

Laser-luminescent determination of uranium in natural waters with concentration of titanium hydroxide and using sodium polysilicate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two methods for determining uranium in samples with a high content of quenching agents are compared, taking as an example the analysis of waters from the Vuoksa River, Baltic Sea and Finnish Bay. The first of these methods was developed by the authors and consists in concentrating uranium on TiO2 x nH2O under dynamic conditions, followed by laser luminescent determination at 770K in 0.1 M H2SO4. The second method consists in direct recording of the luminescence of uranium in a 0.7% solution of sodium polysilicate at room temperature. The detection limit of the second method is estimated by the authors as 2 x 10-11 g/ml, while the detection limit of the first method is lower because concentration is used. The method is especially suitable for analysis of natural waters with a high concentration of hydrolyzable elements. Quenching rate constants of uranyl were measured for a large number of ions in a polysilicate medium

1987-01-01

205

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

2003-06-01

206

Experiments of sodium nitrate liquid waste treatment by biological method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low level liquid waste discharged from a reprocessing facility includes sodium nitrate. In the case that it is directly solidified with cement and so on and then the solidified waste is disposed under the ground, sodium nitrate soaks into the environment through underground water layer. It has a risk that nitrate concentration of surrounding region is increased. To avoid this risk, it is important that we do not make waste include nitrate components. Therefore, we planned to apply the biological treatment system that many ordinary industrial plants are running in the field of waste water treatment to reduce nitrate. We carried out degradation experiments of nitrate for 4wt% sodium nitrate solution by biological method. We examined whether biological treatment technology can be applied to the nitrate liquid waste treatment technologies or not. To solve the assignments that biological treatment technology has, we tested and obtained the results as shown below; 1. The amount of sludge ash could be cut down a tenth as much as usual. The disposal cost reduction of secondary waste is just in sight. 2. Treatment performance could be improved up to 7 kg-N/m3/d from 4 kg-N/m3/d. It could be expected the more compact system by improvement of the membrane set into the biological treatment tanks. (author)

2009-01-01

207

Rapid formation of nanocrystalline HfO2 powders from amorphous hafnium hydroxide under ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peculiarities of hafnium hydroxide hydrothermal decomposition were studied by in situ heat flux calorimetry for the first time. It was shown that this process occurs in one exothermal stage (?H = -17.95 kJ mol-1) at 180-250 deg. C resulting in complete crystallization of amorphous phase with formation of pure monoclinic HfO2. It was found that the rate of m-HfO2 formation can be significantly increased by combining hydrothermal treatment with simultaneous ultrasonic activation.

2007-08-15

208

Rapid formation of nanocrystalline HfO{sub 2} powders from amorphous hafnium hydroxide under ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Peculiarities of hafnium hydroxide hydrothermal decomposition were studied by in situ heat flux calorimetry for the first time. It was shown that this process occurs in one exothermal stage ({delta}H = -17.95 kJ mol{sup -1}) at 180-250 deg. C resulting in complete crystallization of amorphous phase with formation of pure monoclinic HfO{sub 2}. It was found that the rate of m-HfO{sub 2} formation can be significantly increased by combining hydrothermal treatment with simultaneous ultrasonic activation.

Meskin, Pavel E. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Sharikov, Felix Yu. [Russian Scientific Center ' Applied Chemistry' , Saint-Petersburg 197198 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Vladimir K. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: van@igic.ras.ru; Churagulov, Bulat R. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Tretyakov, Yury D. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

2007-08-15

209

Energy utilization of sodium hydroxide treated or untreated straw supplemented with protein or concentrates by adult sheep. 2. Rumen digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

NaOH treated (T) or untreated (UT) barley straws were supplemented either with protein (P) or with concentrates based on maize (M) or beet pulp (BP), the two last at rates of 25 and 50% of the diet. Each of the 10 diets was fed to two sheep ad libitum. Two diets were also fed at limited intakes. For these 12 diets in sacco cellulolytic activity in the rumen and ruminal fermentation were measured. Cellulolytic activity was measured with the studied straws, so that their digestion rate was also determined. NaOH treatment increased rate of digestion of straw, while high levels of concentrates decreased it. In contrast NaOH treatment and high levels of concentrate decreased cellulolytic activity but neither type of concentrate nor limitation of intake altered it. NaOH treatment only slightly modified pH because a higher level of VFA in rumen balanced NaOH presence. An important negative effect on pH of high levels of concentrate was observed, but there was no effect or type of concentrate or limitation of intake. Fermentation pattern was only slightly influenced by studied factors: +2.2 units of butyric acid and -2.1 units of acetic acid with treated straw; lower level of acetic acid occurred when concentrate was increased, especially for maize. Limitation of intake increased acetic acid molar proportion. PMID:3446093

Dulphy, J P; Grenet, E; Vermorel, M

1987-09-01

210

Energy utilization of sodium hydroxide treated or untreated straw supplemented with protein or concentrates by adult sheep. 2. Rumen digestion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

NaOH treated (T) or untreated (UT) barley straws were supplemented either with protein (P) or with concentrates based on maize (M) or beet pulp (BP), the two last at rates of 25 and 50% of the diet. Each of the 10 diets was fed to two sheep ad libitum. Two diets were also fed at limited intakes. For these 12 diets in sacco cellulolytic activity in the rumen and ruminal fermentation were measured. Cellulolytic activity was measured with the studied straws, so that their digestion rate was also determined. NaOH treatment increased rate of digestion of straw, while high levels of concentrates decreased it. In contrast NaOH treatment and high levels of concentrate decreased cellulolytic activity but neither type of concentrate nor limitation of intake altered it. NaOH treatment only slightly modified pH because a higher level of VFA in rumen balanced NaOH presence. An important negative effect on pH of high levels of concentrate was observed, but there was no effect or type of concentrate or limitation of intake. Fermentation pattern was only slightly influenced by studied factors: +2.2 units of butyric acid and -2.1 units of acetic acid with treated straw; lower level of acetic acid occurred when concentrate was increased, especially for maize. Limitation of intake increased acetic acid molar proportion.

Dulphy JP; Grenet E; Vermorel M

1987-09-01

211

Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

2013-05-21

212

NICKEL HYDROXIDES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

MCBREEN,J.

1997-11-01

213

Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

Barnes, C.M.

2000-10-30

214

Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

2000-01-01

215

Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja/ Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade nutricional e as características fermentativas da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante microbiano (Lactobacillus plantarum nas doses 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 x 10(6) ufc/g MN) e hidróxido de sódio (solução 40% na base de 3% da MS) e acrescida de 10% de resíduo da colheita de soja, com base no peso verde da cana. Foi utilizada a variedade RB855536, colhida em soca aos 11 e 13 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em de (more) lineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (duas idades e oito tratamentos da massa ensilada). Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de fatores. Para as variáveis de composição e cinética de degradação, foram obtidos três fatores: QN - qualidade nutritiva, incluindo MS, PB, DIVMS, FDN, FDA e LIG; MF - maturidade fisiológica, incluindo carboidratos solúveis, LIG e fração indegradável da FDN; e VDF - velocidade de degradação dos carboidratos fibrosos, contemplando o kdFDN. Às variáveis de características de fermentação atribuíram-se os fatores: PFS - perdas e fermentação secundária, incluindo perda de MS, concentração de ácido acético, ácido propiônico e etanol; PH - potencial hidrogeniônico, pH; e DP - degradação protéica, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal. O resíduo da colheita da soja na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade nutritiva e reduzir as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol das silagens. O tratamento com hidróxido de sódio diminuiu a produção de etanol, mas não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva e não reduziu as perdas de MS das silagens. A utilização de inoculante microbiano contendo L. plantarum também não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva da silagem nem reduziu as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol. Abstract in english The objective of this trial was to evaluate the nutritional quality and fermentation characteristics of sugarcane silages treated with inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6) cfu/g NM), 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis), or 10% of soybean crop residue added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de (more) Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment) with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments). For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1) "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2) "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3) "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1) "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2) "hydrogen potential" (pH); and 3) "protein degradation" (PD) that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

Freitas, Acyr Wanderley de Paula; Pereira, José Carlos; Rocha, Fernanda Cipriano; Detmann, Edenio; Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino; Costa, Marcone Geraldo; Leonel, Fernando de Paula

2006-02-01

216

Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade nutricional e as características fermentativas da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante microbiano (Lactobacillus plantarum nas doses 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 x 10(6) ufc/g MN) e hidróxido de sódio (solução 40% na base de 3% da MS) e acrescida de 10% de resíduo da colheita de soja, com base no peso verde da cana. Foi utilizada a variedade RB855536, colhida em soca aos 11 e 13 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (duas idades e oito tratamentos da massa ensilada). Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de fatores. Para as variáveis de composição e cinética de degradação, foram obtidos três fatores: QN - qualidade nutritiva, incluindo MS, PB, DIVMS, FDN, FDA e LIG; MF - maturidade fisiológica, incluindo carboidratos solúveis, LIG e fração indegradável da FDN; e VDF - velocidade de degradação dos carboidratos fibrosos, contemplando o kdFDN. Às variáveis de características de fermentação atribuíram-se os fatores: PFS - perdas e fermentação secundária, incluindo perda de MS, concentração de ácido acético, ácido propiônico e etanol; PH - potencial hidrogeniônico, pH; e DP - degradação protéica, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal. O resíduo da colheita da soja na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade nutritiva e reduzir as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol das silagens. O tratamento com hidróxido de sódio diminuiu a produção de etanol, mas não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva e não reduziu as perdas de MS das silagens. A utilização de inoculante microbiano contendo L. plantarum também não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva da silagem nem reduziu as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the nutritional quality and fermentation characteristics of sugarcane silages treated with inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6) cfu/g NM), 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis), or 10% of soybean crop residue added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment) with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments). For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1) "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2) "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3) "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1) "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2) "hydrogen potential" (pH); and 3) "protein degradation" (PD) that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

Acyr Wanderley de Paula Freitas; José Carlos Pereira; Fernanda Cipriano Rocha; Edenio Detmann; Marinaldo Divino Ribeiro; Marcone Geraldo Costa; Fernando de Paula Leonel

2006-01-01

217

A randomized clinical trial on the use of medical Portland cement, MTA and calcium hydroxide in indirect pulp treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Studies on indirect pulp treatment (IPT) show varying success rates of 73 to 97 %. The necessity of re-opening the cavity and the question of the optimal capping material is still under debate. The aim of this prospective in vivo study was to compare the clinical and microbiological outcomes of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), medical Portland cement, and calcium hydroxide on the dentin-pulp complex of permanent and primary teeth treated with two-step IPT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 86 regular patients (51 % men; 49 % women; age 17.2 years ±13.8), one deep carious lesion each was treated with incomplete caries removal, randomly selected capping with either calcium hydroxide (n?=?31), medical Portland cement (29) or white MTA (26), and re-entry (6.3 months ±1.0). Clinical (color, humidity, and consistency of dentin) and microbiological (Lactobacilli/Mutans Strep. counts) parameters were recorded at the first and second treatment. RESULTS: The IPT had a high success rate of 90.3 % regardless of the material used (p?=?0.72). The arrested lesions showed consistently darker, dry, and therefore, sclerotic dentine (p?treatment for deep carious lesions preferably with non-resorbing materials such as MTA or medical Portland cement. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The findings of this study could promote the improvement of the IPT as a one-step treatment of deep carious lesions when the remaining demineralized dentin would be sealed with durable restorations.

Petrou MA; Alhamoui FA; Welk A; Altarabulsi MB; Alkilzy M; H Splieth C

2013-09-01

218

Aluminum chlorohydrate III: Conversion to aluminum hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bayerite, an aluminum hydroxide polymorph, readily forms when the hydroxyl to aluminum ratio of aluminum chlorohydrate is raised to 3 by titration with sodium hydroxide. Dilution of aluminum chlorhydrate solutions with water leads to the formation of gibbsite, another aluminum hydroxide polymorph. The mechanism of conversion in each instance is related to the structure of the Al13O4(OH)24(H2O)7+(12) complex. PMID:7264935

Teagarden, D L; White, J L; Hem, S L

1981-07-01

219

Aluminum chlorohydrate III: Conversion to aluminum hydroxide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bayerite, an aluminum hydroxide polymorph, readily forms when the hydroxyl to aluminum ratio of aluminum chlorohydrate is raised to 3 by titration with sodium hydroxide. Dilution of aluminum chlorhydrate solutions with water leads to the formation of gibbsite, another aluminum hydroxide polymorph. The mechanism of conversion in each instance is related to the structure of the Al13O4(OH)24(H2O)7+(12) complex.

Teagarden DL; White JL; Hem SL

1981-07-01

220

Environment-assisted cracking of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel in fused sodium hydroxide at 623 K, 1 atm-I. Electrochemistry in relation to stress corrosion cracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemistry of fused sodium hydroxide has been reviewed, demonstrating the importance of its acid-base properties. The latter are reflected in the electrochemistry of iron which forms relatively insoluble oxide and ferrate in acidic conditions, but highly soluble ferrate in basic conditions. 21/4Cr-1Mo steel was shown to behave similarly to iron, passivating only in acidic melts. Major shifts were observed in the free-corrosion potential, brought about by changes in the water and/or oxygen concentrations in the melt, which are of likely significance to the stress corrosion behaviour of the material. (author)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Environment-assisted cracking of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel in fused sodium hydroxide at 623 K, 1 atm-I. Electrochemistry in relation to stress corrosion cracking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrochemistry of fused sodium hydroxide has been reviewed, demonstrating the importance of its acid-base properties. The latter are reflected in the electrochemistry of iron which forms relatively insoluble oxide and ferrate in acidic conditions, but highly soluble ferrate in basic conditions. 21/4Cr-1Mo steel was shown to behave similarly to iron, passivating only in acidic melts. Major shifts were observed in the free-corrosion potential, brought about by changes in the water and/or oxygen concentrations in the melt, which are of likely significance to the stress corrosion behaviour of the material.

Skeldon, P.

1986-01-01

222

Sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of non-uremic calciphylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calciphylaxis is a metastatic calcification-induced vasculopathy that results in the occlusion of small blood vessels. Although calciphylaxis is normally associated with end-stage renal disease, calciphylaxis from non-uremic origin occurs as well. While the number of reports continues to increase, a standard treatment for non-uremic calciphylaxis has yet to be established. Sodium thiosulfate (STS), which has been proven to be effective in the treatment of uremic calciphylaxis, shows promise; however, reports of its use in non-uremic cases are limited. We describe a case of non-uremic calciphylaxis in a patient with normal renal and parathyroid function who had complete resolution of disease after treatment with STS, and we review similar cases in the published work. Based on the successful outcomes detailed in this case series, STS appears to be an effective therapy for non-uremic calciphylaxis. PMID:23663061

Ning, Matthew S; Dahir, Kathryn M; Castellanos, Emily H; McGirt, Laura Y

2013-05-10

223

Eosinophilic cystitis: successful long-term treatment with montelukast sodium.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 6-year-old boy who presented with irritative voiding symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and a bladder mass initially visualized on ultrasonography. Cystoscopy and transurethral biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Complete resolution of his symptoms occurred within 1 week of corticosteroid use and the x-ray findings improved within 6 weeks. At 6 months of follow-up, the patient continued to require a leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast sodium) despite several attempts to discontinue its use. We propose that eosinophilic cystitis in children who present with peripheral eosinophilia will often require long-term treatment. PMID:16461108

Sterrett, S; Morton, J; Perry, D; Donovan, J

2006-02-01

224

Comparison of 10% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum: An open randomized clinical trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Introduction:Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common cutaneous viral infection. Potassium hydroxide (KOH), as a strong alkali, and cryotherapy, have been used for its treatment. The objective of this study was to compare these two treatment modalities. Methods:30 patients, aged between 1 to 24 years of age, were randomly divided into 2 groups: 15 were treated with KOH 10% solution and 15 were treated with cryotherapy. KOH 10 % was applied by the patient or their parent(s) two times a day until the lesions disappeared completely. Cryotherapy was performed with liquid nitrogen spray, repeated weekly for 4 weeks. The assessment of response and side effects were performed weekly for 4 weeks. Results:In the KOH group, 86.6% had complete response, 6.7% had partial response and 6.7% had no response after 4 weeks. In the cryotherapy group, 93.3% had complete response and 6.7% had partial response. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p> 0.05). Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, as a side-effect, was mostly noted with cryotherapy. Conclusion:Both treatment modalities were equally effective. Since KOH is inexpensive and confers better cosmetic results compared to cryotherapy, it can be used as a suitable treatment modality for MC.

Handjani F; Behazin E; Sadati MS

2013-08-01

225

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

1984-09-01

226

Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

2004-05-01

227

Evaluation of a consolidation treatment in dolostones by mean of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in high relative humidity conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article, the results of a treatment applied to dolomitic stones using an isopropyl colloidal solution based on calcium hydroxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 2.0g/l are presented. The consolidation process in the stone has been checked before and after 28 days of exposure to 75% relative humidity. Morphologic and structural studies of the consolidating product confirmed the carbonation process. X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (TEM and ESEM), and electron diffraction carried out on the consolidating product have confirmed the transformation of portlandite phase to calcium carbonate polymorph, calcite, aragonite and vaterite. Petrophysical tests performed on the stone before and after the application of the product have shown the improvement in the physical and hydrical properties due to the increase in the ultrasound velocity and density of the material, and a decrease in the capillarity coefficient and open porosity without significant changes in colour and brightness. The application of the consolidating product in the proposed experimental conditions is a natural method, compatible with the petrological characteristics of the substrate, without secondary damages on the stone, being an effective method to improve the durability of carbonate stones. (Author) 26 refs.

2011-01-01

228

Comparative investigations of cooling water treatment agents based on sodium phosphonate, zinc salt and sodium gluconate. Vergleichende Untersuchungen von Kuehlwasserkonditionierungsmitteln auf Basis Natriumphosphonat, Zinksalz und Natriumgluconat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of treatment agents based on the sodium salt of 1-hydroxyethan-1,1-diphosphonic acid, a zinc salt and sodium gluconate, on the corrosion rate of unalloyed steel (0.2% C, 0.08% P, 0.06% S) in cooling water with different carbonate hardness was investigated gravimetrically using a recirculating loop. The treatment agent sodium salt of HEDP + sodium gluconate + zinc salt is the most inhibitive. (orig.).

Loyen, D. van; Zocher, G. (Zentralstelle fuer Korrosionsschutz, Dresden (Germany, F.R.))

1990-11-01

229

Treatments of Can Lignite with Some Mineral Acids after Sodyum Hydroxide Washing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fossil properties can be increased via enrichment process. It is the process that removes sulfur and mineral matter without changing the organic structure. In this study, can lignite was demineralized with some mineral free acid of 5% such as HCOOH and some mineral acids of 5% such as HNO3, H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4 and HF after 5% NaOH washing. The best sulfur and mineral matter performed were obtained with NaOH plus HF treatment as approximately 44% and 45%, respectively. FTIR and X ray spectra of the samples were also drawn to determine the functional groups and mineral composition.

Jale Gulen; Sabriye Piskin; Ibrahim Doymaz

2011-01-01

230

Water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit of unit 3 at the rovno nuclear power station involving correction treatment of working medium with lithium hydroxide and ethanolamine  

Science.gov (United States)

The all-volatile water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit involving correction treatment of the steam generator's boiler water with lithium hydroxide and the ethanolamine water chemistry are analyzed from the viewpoint of their effect on the erosion-corrosion wear of equipment used in the secondary coolant system and damageability of heat-transfer tubes used in PGV-1000M steam generators.

Kozlov, V. Ya.; Vlasenko, N. I.; Kozlova, T. Yu.

2011-03-01

231

Dry matter and fiber fraction degradability of sugar cane treated with calcium oxide or sodium hydroxide Degradabilidade da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa da cana-de-açúcar tratada com hidróxido de sódio ou óxido de cálcio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the parameters of ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM) and the constituents of the cell wall of sugar cane treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or calcium oxide (CaO) by in situ technique. Three crossbred steers were used, with rumen cannulas, which were incubated in nylon bags containing sugar cane treated with NaOH or CaO, in treatments: Sugar cane in natura; Sugar cane treated with 2.25% NaOH; Sugar cane treated with 2.25% of CaO. The doses of NaOH and CaO were applied based on natural material (weight/weight) of sugar cane and corresponded to 8.5% based on DM, with constant homogenization within the polyethylene buckets. A great and effective potential degradability was observed for all components of the cell wall of sugar cane treated with 2.25% NaOH, compared to in natura treatment, with 2.25% of CaO. To degradability of dry matter and fiber fraction of sugar cane, we observed higher rates of degradation in the treatment with 2.25% NaOH, at all periods, followed by treatment with 2.25% of CaO and in nature. Therefore, the chemical treatment of sugar cane with 2.25% NaOH promotes more effective and potent degradability of dry matter and fiber fraction, suggesting the possibility of a better utilization of nutrients.Objetivou-se avaliar os parâmetros de degradação ruminal da matéria seca (MS) e dos constituintes da parede celular da cana-de-açúcar tratada com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) ou óxido de cálcio (CaO) pela técnica in situ. Foram utilizados três novilhos mestiços, canulados no rúmen, nos quais foram incubados sacos de náilon contendo cana-de-açúcar tratada com NaOH ou CaO, conforme os tratamentos: Cana-de-açúcar in natura; Cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2,25% de NaOH; Cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2,25% de CaO. As doses de NaOH e CaO foram aplicadas com base na matéria natural (peso/peso) da cana-de-açúcar e correspondeu a 8,5% com base na MS, com homogeneização constante dentro dos baldes de polietileno. Verificou-se maior degradabilidade potencial e efetiva para todos os componentes da parede celular da cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2,25% de NaOH, em comparação ao tratamento in natura e com 2,25% de CaO. Para degradabilidade da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa da cana-de-açúcar, observaram-se maiores taxas de degradação no tratamento com 2,25% de NaOH, em todos os tempos, seguido do tratamento com 2,25% de CaO e do in natura. O tratamento químico da cana-de-açúcar, com 2,25% de NaOH, promove maior degradabilidade potencial e efetiva da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa, sugerindo a possibilidade de um melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes.

Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Daiane Maria Trindade Chagas

2009-01-01

232

Complex formation of beryllium(II) with salicylate and hydroxide ions in 1 mol dm-3 sodium perchlorate aqueous solution at 250C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The complex formation of Be2+ with salicylate (L2-) and hydroxide ions was investigated at 25 0C in 1 mol dm-3 NaClO4 by potentiometry using a glass electrode. E.m.f. measurements were performed. The e.m.f. data were explained with the three major species [Be(HL)L]-, [BeL], and [BeL2]2- and at least one or even all of the four minor species [Be(HL)]+, [Be(HL)2], [Be(OH)L]-, and [Be3(OH)3L3]3-. The hydrolytic reactions of Be11 in 1 mol dm-3 NaClO4, data on which were used for the analysis of the above beryllium(ii)-salicylate-hydroxide system, were also studied by separate potentiometric titrations. It was found that [Be2(OH)]3+, [Be3(OH)3]3+, and [Be6(OH)8]4+ occur in 1 mol dm-3 NaClO4 aqueous solution. (author)

1987-01-01

233

Injection containing sodium pidotimod  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses an injection containing pidotimod sodium, which is characterized in that an active component of pidotimod in the injection exists in the form of pidotimod salt, which not only increases the stability of the pidotimod, but also leads the pH value to more approach to the pH value of a human body. The invention contains the transfusion prepared by the pidotimod natrium and used for intravenous administration as well as injecta which can be added into 5 percent dextrose or 0.9 percent solium chloride injecta, a solvent crystallization split charging powder needle and a freezing-drying powder needle. The injection containing the pidotimod sodium provided by the invention is prepared as follows: the pidotimod and sodium hydroxide with equal mol react in water or ethanol or the mixed liquid of the two to generate the pidotimod sodium and then the pidotimod sodium is prepared into the injection. The chemical name of the pidotimod sodium is (R)-3-[(S)-(5-O-2-pyrrolidinyl) carboxide]-thiazolidine-4-sodium carboxylate. The molecular formula is C9H11N2O4SNa the molecular weight is 266.28. The injection containing the pidotimod sodium is used for curing (1) recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections (pharyngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis and amygdalitis) (2) recurrent infection in otorhinolaryngology (rhinitis, nasosinusitis and otitis) (3) urinary system infection (4) gynae infection (5) the clinic patients with weakened cellular immune function after chemo-treatment and (6) specific and nonspecific immunodeficiency diseases such as cancer, and the like. The injection containing the pidotimod sodium is used for reducing the times of acute attack, shortening the course of disease and lightening the attack degree moreover, the injection containing the pidotimod sodium can also be used as for the auxiliary treatment of antibiotics during acute infection.

HANBIN WANG

234

Method of Administering Suramin Sodium in the Treatment of Cancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention provides a method of administering the generally large quantities of suramin sodium previously reported as needed to treat adrenocortical cancer in a patient, without producing high serum level concentrations of suramin, inasmuch as high ser...

C. A. Stein R. V. LaRocca C. E. Myers

1989-01-01

235

Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance. PMID:22456234

Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

2012-02-27

236

Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance.

Hu TH; Whang LM; Liu PW; Hung YC; Chen HW; Lin LB; Chen CF; Chen SK; Hsu SF; Shen W; Fu R; Hsu R

2012-06-01

237

Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drug products containing iron oxide and hydroxide nanoparticles (INPs) are important for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Pharmaceuticals prepared by the complexation of different kinds of INPs and carbohydrates have different physicochemical and biopharmaceutic characteristics. The increasing number of parenteral non-biological complex drugs (NBCD) containing iron requires physicochemical methods for characterization and enabling of cross comparisons. In this context the structure and the level of crystallinity of the iron phases may be connected to the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates, which etiologically determine the therapeutic and toxic effects. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and electron diffraction (ED) methods were used in order to investigate the nine different parenteral iron formulations Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)), sodium ferric gluconate sucrose (Ferrlecit(®)), iron sucrose (Venofer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (Infed(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Ironate(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Dexferrum(®)), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®)) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(®)). The iron phase in CosmoFer(®), Ferinject(®), Monofer(®), Infed(®), Ironate(®) and Dexferrum(®) was identified as Akaganéite/Akaganéite-like (?-FeOOH), with low amounts of chloride. By combining results of both methods the iron oxide in Feraheme(®) was identified as Magnetite (Fe3O4) with spinel-like structure. Ferrlecit(®) and Venofer(®) were difficult to analyze due to the low degree of crystallinity, but the iron phase seems to fit Lepidocrocite/Lepidocrocite-like (?-FeOOH) or an amorphous kind of structure. The structural information on the type of iron oxide or hydroxide together with the particle size allows predicting the stability of the different complexes including their labile iron content. The combination of ED and XRPD methods is a very helpful approach especially for structural analysis of nanoscopic or low crystalline materials.

Fütterer S; Andrusenko I; Kolb U; Hofmeister W; Langguth P

2013-08-01

238

Ozagrel sodium liposome injection  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses an ozagrel sodium liposome injection which comprises ozagrel, sodium hydroxide, phospholipid, cholesterol, sodium deoxycholate and any pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Theinvention also discloses a preferable ozagrel sodium liposome preparation which comprises the following components in parts by weight: 1 part of ozagrel, 0.175 part of sodium hydroxide, 3-20 parts ofphospholipid, 0.5-15 parts of cholesterol and 0.2-13 parts of sodium deoxycholate. The invention also discloses a method for preparing the ozagrel sodium liposome preparation, preferably an ammonium sulfate pH gradient method. The ozagrel sodium liposome preparation with high stability has high entrapment rate, low leaking rate in the process of long-term storage and devitrification-free ozagrel sodium, is suitable for industrialized production and prevents a freezing and drying process generally needed by liposome.

MING WANG

239

Treatment of branch retinal arterial occlusion with sodium ozagrel, a thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 47-year-old woman with branch retinal arterial occlusion treated with sodium ozagrel is described. The patient presented with acute visual field loss in her right eye. Blood tests demonstrated the elevation of beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4. Sodium ozagrel, a thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor, 160 mg daily was administered for 14 days. This treatment prevented exacerbation of retinal arterial thrombosis and produced a marked improvement in the visual field loss. Sodium ozagrel may be a useful drug in the treatment of acute retinal arterial occlusion thought to be caused by thrombosis.

Kato H; Emura S; Takeuchi N; Enoki M; Oogushi K; Takashima T; Ohmori K; Saito I

1997-03-01

240

On the entangled growth of NaTaO3 cubes and Na2Ti3O7 wires in sodium hydroxide solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The entangled growth of sodium titanate Na2Ti3O7 nanowires and sodium tantalate NaTaO3 cubes was investigated with electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Depending on the composition of the Ta2O5- and TiO2-particle-based powder mixtures, which served as educts, we observed different types of hybridization effects. These include the titanium-induced contraction of the NaTaO3 perovskite-type unit cell and the generation of electronic defect states in NaTaO3 that give rise to optical subbandgap transitions and tantalum-induced limitations of the Na2Ti3O7 nanowire growth. The transformation from Ta2O5 to NaTaO3 occurs through a dissolution-recrystallization process. A systematic analysis of the impact of different titanium sources on NaTaO3 dispersion and, thus, on the properties of the entangled nanostructures revealed that a perfect intermixture of cubes and nanowires can only be achieved when titanate nanosheets emerge during transformation as reaction intermediates and shield nucleation and growth of isolated NaTaO3 cubes. The here demonstrated approach can be highly instrumental for understanding the nucleation and growth of composite and entangled nanostructures in solution and--at the same time--provides an interesting new class of photoactive composite materials.

Baumann SO; Liu C; Elser MJ; Sternig A; Siedl N; Berger T; Diwald O

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

On the entangled growth of NaTaO3 cubes and Na2Ti3O7 wires in sodium hydroxide solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The entangled growth of sodium titanate Na2Ti3O7 nanowires and sodium tantalate NaTaO3 cubes was investigated with electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Depending on the composition of the Ta2O5- and TiO2-particle-based powder mixtures, which served as educts, we observed different types of hybridization effects. These include the titanium-induced contraction of the NaTaO3 perovskite-type unit cell and the generation of electronic defect states in NaTaO3 that give rise to optical subbandgap transitions and tantalum-induced limitations of the Na2Ti3O7 nanowire growth. The transformation from Ta2O5 to NaTaO3 occurs through a dissolution-recrystallization process. A systematic analysis of the impact of different titanium sources on NaTaO3 dispersion and, thus, on the properties of the entangled nanostructures revealed that a perfect intermixture of cubes and nanowires can only be achieved when titanate nanosheets emerge during transformation as reaction intermediates and shield nucleation and growth of isolated NaTaO3 cubes. The here demonstrated approach can be highly instrumental for understanding the nucleation and growth of composite and entangled nanostructures in solution and--at the same time--provides an interesting new class of photoactive composite materials. PMID:23780742

Baumann, Stefan O; Liu, Chang; Elser, Michael J; Sternig, Andreas; Siedl, Nicolas; Berger, Thomas; Diwald, Oliver

2013-06-18

242

Exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride by molten hydroxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets are prepared by a novel and effective method, in which sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide molten salts are used to exfoliate h-BN to obtain nanosheets. BN nanoscrolls are also obtained. The as-prepared products can be readily dispersed in a wide range of solvents, including water and ethanol, and form stable dispersions. PMID:23436746

Li, Xianlei; Hao, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Mingwen; Wu, Yongzhong; Yang, Jiaxiang; Tian, Yupeng; Qian, Guodong

2013-02-22

243

Exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride by molten hydroxides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets are prepared by a novel and effective method, in which sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide molten salts are used to exfoliate h-BN to obtain nanosheets. BN nanoscrolls are also obtained. The as-prepared products can be readily dispersed in a wide range of solvents, including water and ethanol, and form stable dispersions.

Li X; Hao X; Zhao M; Wu Y; Yang J; Tian Y; Qian G

2013-04-01

244

Application of electrodialysis to waste minimization: Simplified spent chloride salt treatment and reagent recycle flow sheet -- demonstrated controlled precipitation of Nd(III) and Fe(II) as hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrodialysis is a widely used industrial technique for the removal of salts from aqueous solution. The process involves the conversion of salts into their corresponding acid and base components; e.g., sodium chloride becomes hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Many of the residues generated in plutonium recovery operations are in the form of chloride and nitrate salts. Using electrodialysis to convert these salts back into their corresponding acid and base components results in the production of a decreased amount of waste. Furthermore, with recycle of the acid and base generated, electrodialysis results in a decrease in the quantity of reagents necessary to recover and purify plutonium.

1994-01-01

245

Application of electrodialysis to waste minimization: Simplified spent chloride salt treatment and reagent recycle flow sheet -- demonstrated controlled precipitation of Nd(III) and Fe(II) as hydroxides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrodialysis is a widely used industrial technique for the removal of salts from aqueous solution. The process involves the conversion of salts into their corresponding acid and base components; e.g., sodium chloride becomes hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Many of the residues generated in plutonium recovery operations are in the form of chloride and nitrate salts. Using electrodialysis to convert these salts back into their corresponding acid and base components results in the production of a decreased amount of waste. Furthermore, with recycle of the acid and base generated, electrodialysis results in a decrease in the quantity of reagents necessary to recover and purify plutonium.

Wedman, D.E.; Smith, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-12-31

246

Separation of strontium from calcium by the use of sodium hydroxide and its application for the determination of long-term background activity concentrations of 90Sr in 100 km area around Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (Bulgaria)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method for the determination of 90Sr which employs sodium hydroxide for the separation of strontium from calcium was further improved introducing the use of elevated temperatures. The results from 11-year study of background activity concentrations of 90Sr in different environmental objects in 100 km zone around Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (Bulgaria) are presented as an application of the analytical method. The measured mean values are as follows: air precipitation - 0.0015±0.0009 Bq/(m2 x d), tap water - 0.0017±0.0012 Bq/L, soil - 1.90±1.26 Bq/kg, grass - 1.54±0.80 Bq/kg, milk - 0.023±0.012 Bq/L and for the Danube river: water - 0.0046±0.0026 Bq/L, bottom sediments - 0.64±0.60 Bq/kg, algae - 1.99±1.56 Bq/kg. The calculated transfer coefficients (soil-grass) are in the range of 0.33-0.84. Between 2 and 5 times reduction in actual background activities of 90Sr is observed compared to 1972-1974. (author)

2009-01-01

247

Electrodialysis treatment of lithium chloride solutions generated in the intercalation method of highly dispersed aluminium hydroxide production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efficiency of the electrodialysis method for treating lithium chloride solutions formed when intercalation method is employed for preparation of highly dispersed aluminium hydroxide was studied. The optimal levels of the dialysate and concentrate content during desalination of lithium chloride washing solutions were determined experimentally. For preparation of highly desalinated (up to distillate level) dialysate and highly concentrated LiCl solution (approximately 200 g ? l-1) for their repeated use a two-stage flowsheet using electrodialysis equipment of specialized design and highly intensive conditions of electrodialysis was suggested

2000-01-01

248

Electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For 20 years Argonne National Laboratory has been developing electrometallurgical technology for application to spent nuclear fuel. Progress has been rapid during the past 5 years as 1,6 tonnes spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II was treated and preparations were made for processing the remaining 25 tonnes of sodium-bonded fuel from the shutdown reactor. Two high level waste forms are being qualified for geologic disposal. Extension of the technology to oxide fuels or to actinide recycling has been on hold because of US policy on reprocessing. (author)

2001-01-01

249

AMPK synergizes with the combined treatment of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and sodium butyrate to upregulate phase II detoxifying enzyme activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SCOPE: Phase II enzymes play important roles in detoxifying xenobiotics. We previously reported that both 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) and sodium butyrate individually increased phase II enzyme activities. Here, we determined the combined action of ACA and sodium butyrate on phase II enzyme activities in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC 6). METHODS AND RESULTS: ACA and sodium butyrate synergistically increased phase II enzyme activities. Protein levels of intranuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were increased by ACA or sodium butyrate treatment, but treatment with both did not produce a synergistic effect. Intranuclear p53 protein levels were increased by ACA but decreased by sodium butyrate alone or combined treatment with ACA and sodium butyrate. In contrast, p53 acetylation was promoted by sodium butyrate and the ACA and sodium butyrate combination. Inhibition of AMPK activity decreased phase II enzyme activities that were upregulated by treatment with ACA plus sodium butyrate or other phytochemicals, including kaempferol, quercetin, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Combined treatment with ACA and sodium butyrate increased phosphorylated AMPK levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that ACA and sodium butyrate synergistically contribute to xenobiotics metabolism. The combined ACA and sodium butyrate treatment synergistically upregulated phase II enzyme activities through AMPK activation and p53 acetylation.

Yaku K; Matsui-Yuasa I; Konishi Y; Kojima-Yuasa A

2013-07-01

250

Rationally synthetic strategy: from nickel hydroxide nanosheets to nickel oxide nanorolls  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate here that single-crystal ?-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets can be selectively synthesized in large quantities through a facile hydrothermal synthetic method using aqueous nickel nitrate as the nickel source and sodium hydroxide as alkaline reagent. This attempt is based on the treatment of aqueous nickel nitrate with high concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution under hydrothermal condition. Single-crystal NiO nanorolls can be obtained via a thermal decomposition method using single-crystal ?-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets as the precursor. The influences of alkaline concentration and reaction temperature are carefully investigated in this paper. The morphologies and phase structures of the as-prepared products are investigated in detail by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The probable formation mechanism of the NiO nanorolls is proposed on the basis of the experimental results.

Liu, Xiaohe; Qiu, Guanzhou; Wang, Zhong; Li, Xingguo

2005-08-01

251

Sodium bicarbonate treatment extends life of formerly acid lake  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the second time, researchers have used a familiar home remedy to restore the balance of a once acid lake. On September 29, Wolf Pond, in New York's Adirondack State Park, was treated with sodium bicarbonate to adjust alkalinity and keep pH at normal levels at least into the 1990's. Since it was first treated with bicarbonate in 1984, Wolf Pond has recovered and stabilized enough to sustain fish life once again. Repeated dosing is necessary because acid rain and runoff gradually deplete alkalinity in the lake over a period of years. Wolf Pond was selected for study because it has very little outflow and its major source of replenishment is rain. As the 1986 study explained, sodium bicarbonate was chosen for this application because it provides four advantages: (1) it is very soluble; (2) it cannot raise pH above 8.5; (3) it is easy to handle and apply; and (4) it is safe enough to be a common ingredient of many pharmaceuticals and foods.

1988-02-01

252

Regulation of sodium transporters in the kidney during cyclosporine treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cyclosporine (CsA) is among the most widely used immunosuppressants for preventing graft rejection and autoimmune diseases. However, its clinical use is hampered by its significant nephrotoxicity and effects as a cause of hypertension. The proximal tubular Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE3) is responsible for transcellular reabsorption of 30%-60% of the sodium filtered by the glomerulus. CsA induces a reduction of absolute sodium reabsorption, and this effect is, most probably, correlated with the decrease of NHE3 activity. In Henle's loop, in physiological conditions, the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC2) reabsorbs approximately 20% of the filtered Na+ and Cl-. CsA increases the NKCC2 activity in cultured bovine renal NBL-1 cells. In the collecting duct, CsA may cause hypertension by stimulating the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) through a pathway associated with inhibition of ABCA1 and consequent elevation of cholesterol in the cells. It is still unclear whether CsA regulates the Na+-Cl- cotransporter in the distal tubule and ENaC in the collecting duct. Aside from this, there is evidence suggesting the possible involvement of free radicals during the development of CsA-induced hypertension. The hypertensive effect is, most probably, correlated with higher levels of superoxide (O2-) that decreases glomerular filtration rate and may affect fluid reabsorption along the nephron.

Damiano S; Scanni R; Ciarcia R; Florio S; Capasso G

2010-11-01

253

Regulation of sodium transporters in the kidney during cyclosporine treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyclosporine (CsA) is among the most widely used immunosuppressants for preventing graft rejection and autoimmune diseases. However, its clinical use is hampered by its significant nephrotoxicity and effects as a cause of hypertension. The proximal tubular Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE3) is responsible for transcellular reabsorption of 30%-60% of the sodium filtered by the glomerulus. CsA induces a reduction of absolute sodium reabsorption, and this effect is, most probably, correlated with the decrease of NHE3 activity. In Henle's loop, in physiological conditions, the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC2) reabsorbs approximately 20% of the filtered Na+ and Cl-. CsA increases the NKCC2 activity in cultured bovine renal NBL-1 cells. In the collecting duct, CsA may cause hypertension by stimulating the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) through a pathway associated with inhibition of ABCA1 and consequent elevation of cholesterol in the cells. It is still unclear whether CsA regulates the Na+-Cl- cotransporter in the distal tubule and ENaC in the collecting duct. Aside from this, there is evidence suggesting the possible involvement of free radicals during the development of CsA-induced hypertension. The hypertensive effect is, most probably, correlated with higher levels of superoxide (O2-) that decreases glomerular filtration rate and may affect fluid reabsorption along the nephron. PMID:21170880

Damiano, Sara; Scanni, Roberto; Ciarcia, Roberto; Florio, Salvatore; Capasso, Giovambattista

254

Radioisotopic synovectomy using ferric hydroxide macroaggregated for chronic arthritis treatment; Sinovectomia radioisotopica atraves do macroagregado de hidroxido ferrico para tratamento da artrite cronica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Synovectomy radioisotopic is an arthritis treatment used in specific clinical conditions whose main goal is to sterilized the synovia. This treatment has specific and precise indications and it is considered to have an adequate response. The present work presents a modeling of an articulation (joint) based on its real geometric anatomy and chemical constitution. The internal dosimetry is evaluated by the Monte Carlo Code. The majority of the radionuclides were considered in the simulations. The syntheses of the ferric hydroxide macroaggregates with dysprosium and samarium have been prepared (Dy{sup 165}-MHF and Sm{sup 153}-MHF). Obtaining the cintilographic images of rabbits in which Dy{sup 165}-MHF is injected is in progress. Biodistribution studies in addition with the internal dosimetry will certify the dose in the membrane of the synovia. (author)

Lima, Carla Flavia; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares] E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

2002-07-01

255

Intralesional phosphatidylcholine and sodium deoxycholate: a possible treatment option for nevus lipomatosus superficialis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Treatment options are limited for classic nevus lipomatosus superficialis, in which clustered lesions present over a large area. We present a case of nevus lipomatosus superficialis that showed clinical and histological improvement after treatment with intralesional phosphatidylcholine and sodium deoxy-cholate.

Kim HS; Park YM; Kim HO; Lee JY

2012-01-01

256

Composição química e perdas fermentativas de silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio/ Chemical composition and fermentative losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química e as perdas fermentativas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio (NaOH). Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar (CB 45-3 e RB 72-454) e quatro aditivos (controle, NaOH, ureia ou NaOH + ureia), compondo as seguintes silagens: cana-de-açúcar sem aditivo; cana-de-açúc (more) ar tratada com 4% de ureia; cana-de-açúcar tratada 4% de NaOH; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2% de ureia + 2% de NaOH. Os procedimentos foram realizados em ambas as variedades e as doses aplicadas com base na matéria seca. A cana-de-açúcar foi picada e misturada, acescida dos aditivos e armazenada em silos de PVC com 50 cm de altura por 10 cm de diâmetro, providos de válvula de Bunsen. Adotou-se uma compactação de 750 kg de matéria natural/m³. Os silos foram pesados no início e ao final do período experimental para quantificar as perdas por gases e efluente. Não foi observado efeito de interação entre variedades de cana-de-açúcar e doses para perdas por efluente, pH, celulose, lignina e cinza. O hidróxido de sódio contribui para redução de perdas,manutenção do grau brixa e elevação do pH da silagem da cana-de-açúcar, independentemente da utilização da ureia, além de promover redução dos constituintes da parede celular, ocasionando melhoria na qualidade da silagem de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide (NaOH). It was used a completely randomized design with four replicates, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two varieties of cane sugar (CB 45-3, RB 72-454) and four additives (Control, NaOH, urea or NaOH + urea), composing the following silages: sugar cane without additive; sugar cane treated with 4% urea; sugar cane trea (more) ted with 4% NaOH; sugar cane treated with 2% urea + 2% NaOH. The procedures were performed in both varieties and the doses applied in the dry matter basis. The sugar cane was chopped and then mixed, added with additives and stored in PVC silos with 50 cm of height by 10 cm of diameter, provided with Bunsem valve. It was adopted a compression of 750 kg of natural matter/m³. The silos were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the trial period to quantify the losses by gases and effluent. There was no interaction effect among varieties of sugar cane and doses for effluent losses, pH, cellulose, lignin and ash. Sodium hydroxide contributes for the reduction of losses, maintenance of Brix and pH raising of the silage of sugar cane, regardless to the use of urea, in addition to promote reduction of the constituents of the cell wall causing improvement on the quality of silage from sugar cane.

Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira; Pires, Aureliano José Vieira; Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de; Santos, Alana Batista dos; Ferreira, Antônio Roberto; Bonomo, Paulo; Silva, Fabiano Ferreira da

2010-09-01

257

Composição química e perdas fermentativas de silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio Chemical composition and fermentative losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química e as perdas fermentativas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio (NaOH). Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar (CB 45-3 e RB 72-454) e quatro aditivos (controle, NaOH, ureia ou NaOH + ureia), compondo as seguintes silagens: cana-de-açúcar sem aditivo; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 4% de ureia; cana-de-açúcar tratada 4% de NaOH; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2% de ureia + 2% de NaOH. Os procedimentos foram realizados em ambas as variedades e as doses aplicadas com base na matéria seca. A cana-de-açúcar foi picada e misturada, acescida dos aditivos e armazenada em silos de PVC com 50 cm de altura por 10 cm de diâmetro, providos de válvula de Bunsen. Adotou-se uma compactação de 750 kg de matéria natural/m³. Os silos foram pesados no início e ao final do período experimental para quantificar as perdas por gases e efluente. Não foi observado efeito de interação entre variedades de cana-de-açúcar e doses para perdas por efluente, pH, celulose, lignina e cinza. O hidróxido de sódio contribui para redução de perdas,manutenção do grau brixa e elevação do pH da silagem da cana-de-açúcar, independentemente da utilização da ureia, além de promover redução dos constituintes da parede celular, ocasionando melhoria na qualidade da silagem de cana-de-açúcar.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide (NaOH). It was used a completely randomized design with four replicates, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two varieties of cane sugar (CB 45-3, RB 72-454) and four additives (Control, NaOH, urea or NaOH + urea), composing the following silages: sugar cane without additive; sugar cane treated with 4% urea; sugar cane treated with 4% NaOH; sugar cane treated with 2% urea + 2% NaOH. The procedures were performed in both varieties and the doses applied in the dry matter basis. The sugar cane was chopped and then mixed, added with additives and stored in PVC silos with 50 cm of height by 10 cm of diameter, provided with Bunsem valve. It was adopted a compression of 750 kg of natural matter/m³. The silos were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the trial period to quantify the losses by gases and effluent. There was no interaction effect among varieties of sugar cane and doses for effluent losses, pH, cellulose, lignin and ash. Sodium hydroxide contributes for the reduction of losses, maintenance of Brix and pH raising of the silage of sugar cane, regardless to the use of urea, in addition to promote reduction of the constituents of the cell wall causing improvement on the quality of silage from sugar cane.

Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Alana Batista dos Santos; Antônio Roberto Ferreira; Paulo Bonomo; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva

2010-01-01

258

Valor nutritivo de cana-de-açúcar tratada com hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de rolão-de-milho Nutritive value of sugarcane treated with sodium hydroxide and added of ground corn ears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o valor nutritivo de cana-de-açúcar tratada com 1,0% de hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg de rolão-de-milho/t de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi conduzido no Instituto de Zootecnia, em Nova Odessa, SP, e o delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O teste de consumo e digestibilidade foi efetuado com ovelhas em períodos de 10, 10 e 5 dias, que corresponderam, respectivamente, aos períodos de adaptação, controle do consumo e coleta de fezes e urina. O consumo de matéria seca e o coeficiente de digestibilidade da matéria seca aumentaram linearmente com a adição de rolão-de-milho. A ingestão de nutrientes digestíveis totais não foi alterada com a adição de rolão-de-milho.The objective of this work was to determine the nutritive value of sugarcane treated with 1,0% of sodium hydroxide plus 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg of ground corn ears/ton of chopped sugarcane. The experiment was carried out at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, SP, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. Intake and digestibility trials were conducted in 10, 10 and 5 day periods, corresponding respectively to adaptation, intake and feces collection of female sheep. Dry matter intake and dry matter digestibility increased linearly with the addition of ground corn ears. Total digestible nutrients was not altered with the addition of ground corn ears.

João Batista de Andrade; Evaldo Ferrari Júnior; Gilberto Braun

2001-01-01

259

Electrochemical, Photochemical, and Photoelectrochemical Treatment of Sodium p -Cumenesulfonate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The degradation of sodium p-cumenesulfonate (SCS) by electrochemical, photochemical, and photoelectrochemical methods in aqueous solution of NaClO4, NaCl, and NaClO has been studied. It was found that as a result of NaClO4 electroreduction and photodecomposition, the ions Cl(-) and ClO3 (-) are formed. These ions undergo transformations into radicals, mainly Cl(•), Cl2 (•-), ClO(•-), ClO2 (•-), and ClO3 (•-), due to electrochemical and photochemical reactions. It was shown that the interpretation of results of the studies over mineralization processes carried out in the presence of ClO4 (-) cannot be adequate without taking into consideration the reduction of ClO4 (-) to Cl(-) and ClO3 (-). Therefore, previous works presented in the literature should be rediscussed on the basis of the new data. Photoelectrochemical mineralization of substrate in NaCl solution at the concentration of 16 mmol L(-1) is comparable with the efficiency of the reaction in NaClO4 solution containing more than 8 mmol L(-1) of NaClO. Total SCS mineralization was obtained in the photoelectrochemical reactor with a UV immersion lamp with a power 15 W in the period of 135 min and current intensity of 350 mA. In such conditions, the power consumption was about 1.2 kWh per g of TOC removed.

Osiewa?a L; Socha A; Perek A; Socha M; Rynkowski J

2013-01-01

260

Treatment of acute migraine attack with diclofenac sodium: a double-blind study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficacy of diclofenac sodium, a potent prostaglandin inhibitor, in patients with acute migraine attacks in a double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 86 migraine patients. Forty-six patients with acute migraine attacks were treated with intramuscular injection of 75 mg diclofenac sodium, and another group of forty patients with intramuscular injection of paracetamol. Partial or complete relief of pain and other symptoms of acute migraine attack was achieved within 10 minutes after treatment in the diclofenac sodium group and within 32 minutes in the paracetamol group. Complete relief of attack was achieved within 30 minutes after diclofenac sodium in 40 patients (88%) compared to 7 patients (17.5%) of the paracetamol group (P less than 0.001). Five of the patients treated with diclofenac sodium needed a second injection for complete relief of pain during the 2-to-4 hour follow-up period. Side effects were rare and minimal. In conclusion, diclofenac sodium administered intramuscularly is a very effective drug in treating acute migraine attacks.

Karachalios GN; Fotiadou A; Chrisikos N; Karabetsos A; Kehagioglou K

1992-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Hourly oral sodium chloride for the rapid and predictable treatment of hyponatremia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypertonic NaCl is first-line therapy for acute, severe and symptomatic hyponatremia; however, its use is often restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A 35-year-old female inpatient with an optic chiasm glioma and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus developed acute hyponatremia (sodium 122 mEq/l) perhaps coinciding with haloperidol treatment. The sum of her urinary sodium and potassium concentrations was markedly hypertonic vis-à-vis plasma; it was inferred that serum sodium concentration would continue to fall even in the complete absence of fluid intake. Intravenous (i.v.) 3% NaCl was recommended; however, a city-wide public health emergency precluded her transfer to the ICU. She was treated with hourly oral NaCl tablets in a dose calculated to deliver the equivalent of 0.5 ml/kg/h of 3% NaCl with an objective of increasing the serum sodium concentration by 6 mEq/l. She experienced a graded and predictable increase in serum sodium concentration. A slight overshoot to 129 mEq/l was rapidly corrected with 0.25 l of D5W, and she stabilized at 127 mEq/l. We conclude that hourly oral NaCl, in conjunction with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration, may provide an attractive alternative to i.v. 3% NaCl for selected patients with severe hyponatremia.

Kerns E; Patel S; Cohen DM

2013-07-01

262

Electrochemical Concentration and Purification of Spent Sodium Bicarbonate Blasting Media.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility and economics of recovering the spent blast media generated in sodium bicarbonate depainting operations has been investigated. In laboratory-scale tests, a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was convened to sodium hydroxide in an electr...

R. D. Levy R. E. Hicks H. Gold

1995-01-01

263

Sodium benzoate in the treatment of acute hepatic encephalopathy: a double-blind randomized trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective randomized double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sodium benzoate in the treatment of acute portal-systemic encephalopathy. Seventy-four consecutive patients with cirrhosis or surgical portasystemic anastomosis and hepatic encephalopathy of less than 7 days duration were randomized to receive lactulose (dose adjusted for 2 or 3 semiformed stools/day) or sodium benzoate (5 gm twice daily). Assessment of response included mental status, asterixis, arterial ammonia level, electroencephalogram and number-connection test. Each was given a score between 0 and 4+. A portal-systemic encephalopathy index was calculated with these scores. Visual, auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials and a battery of psychometric tests for intelligence and memory were also performed to assess improvement. Thirty-eight patients received sodium benzoate; 36 took lactulose. Thirty patients (80%) receiving sodium benzoate and 29 (81%) receiving lactulose recovered; the remaining patients died. Improvement in portal-systemic encephalopathy parameters occurred in both treatment groups and was similar (p greater than 0.1). Electroencephalogram and evoked potentials were not as helpful as mental status in assessing of recovery. Psychometric test scores remained abnormal after recovery of mental status (21 to 42 days) and were probably too sensitive for monitoring of these patients. The incidence of side effects was similar in the two treatment groups. The cost of lactulose for one course of therapy was 30 times that of sodium benzoate. We conclude that sodium benzoate is a safe and effective alternative to lactulose in the treatment of acute portasystemic encephalopathy. PMID:1618465

Sushma, S; Dasarathy, S; Tandon, R K; Jain, S; Gupta, S; Bhist, M S

1992-07-01

264

An open, comparative study of 10% potassium hydroxide solution versus salicylic and lactic acid combination in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution and salicylic and lactic acid (SAL + LAC) combination in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum (MC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 26 patients with MC randomized into two treatment groups. 12 patients treated with 10% KOH solution and 14 patients treated with SAL + LAC combination for 6 weeks. Parents of patients were instructed to apply medication once daily only to lesions at study onset. Assessment of response of the treated lesions and side effects was performed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of the treatment. Newly acquired lesions were not included in the study. RESULTS: At the end of therapy, 83.3% (n = 10) of KOH group demonstrated complete remission and 16.7% (n = 2) of them showed partial remission; four patients (33%) developed new lesions during the study. All the patients in the SAL + LAC combination group (100%) demonstrated complete remission of study entry lesions at the end of 6 weeks with five patients (35%) acquiring new lesions during the study. Minor side effects were observed in two groups. CONCLUSIONS: 10% KOH solution and SAL + LAC combination were found to be equally effective in the treatment of MC in children.

Köse O; Özmen ?; Arca E

2013-08-01

265

Comparison of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). METHODS: A total of 102 patients with confirmed kala-azar were treated in a mission hospital in West Pokot region, Kenya, with sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days) - either as Pentostam® (PSM) or generic sodium stibogluconate (SSG); 51 patients were allocated alternately to each treatment group. FINDINGS: There were no significant differences in baseline demographic characteristics or disease severity, or in events during treatment. There were 3 deaths in the PSM group and 1 in the SSG group; 2 patients defaulted in each group. Only 1 out of 80 test-of-cure splenic aspirates was positive for Leishmania spp.; this patient was in the SSG group. Follow-up after > 6 months showed that 6 out of 58 patients had relapsed, 5 in the SSG group and 1 in the PSM group. No outcome variable was significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The availability of cheaper generic sodium stibogluconate, subject to rigid quality controls, now makes it possible for the health authorities in kala-azar endemic areas to provide treatment to many more patients in Africa.

Moore Elinore; O?Flaherty Deidre; Heuvelmans Hans; Seaman Jill; Veeken Hans; Wit Sjoukje de; Davidson Robert N.

2001-01-01

266

Actions of Ethanol on Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channels: Effects of Acute and Chronic Ethanol Treatment,  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of acute and chronic ethanol treatment on neuro-toxin-stimulated 22Na+ uptake and 3Hbatrachotoxinin A20-alpha-benzoate binding to neuronal sodium channels were studied in rat forebrain synaptosomes. Fluorescence measurements were used to asses...

E. Majchrowicz M. J. Mullin R. A. Harris T. K. Dalton W. A. Hunt

1987-01-01

267

Audiometric characteristics in patients with noise-induced hearing loss after sodium enoxaparin treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium enoxaparin treatment on patients with noise-induced hearing loss. METHODS: Sixty patients with noise-induced hearing loss were included and randomly divided into two numerically equal groups. Group A underwent therapy with sodium enoxaparin for 10 days, followed by an additional 10 days of treatment after 10 days of no treatment. Group B received placebo as a control. Before treatment, at the end of treatment, and 2 months after the end of treatment, all patients underwent evaluation by laboratory tests, pure tone audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) testing, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) testing, and auditory brain stem response testing. RESULTS: In contrast to group B, at the end of the treatment in group A pure tone audiometry showed a significant (p < 0.05) improvement of the audiometric thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz. Depending on the air and bone conduction thresholds, TEOAEs and DPOAEs, which had previously been absent, were evoked at the frequencies examined. These improvements were confirmed at last follow-up. We found no significant differences in auditory brain stem responses or laboratory results. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data encourage further studies to collect additional evidence on the effect of sodium enoxaparin in preventing the development of noise-induced hearing loss.

Mora R; Mora E; Salzano FA; Guastini L

2012-02-01

268

Another Base, Another Solvent? Desalinating Iron Finds with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The desalination processes commonly applied to improve the corrosion stability of archaeological iron artifacts are based on immersion treatments in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Faster and more efficient chloride extraction in solutions based on organic solvents with a lower surface tension can be expected. Furthermore, the danger of new corrosion forming during the subsequent washing out of residual chemicals from the desalinating solution could be minimised, if organic solvents would replace the water, commonly used for this process. Only alkali metal hydroxide (LiOH and NaOH) solutions in organic solvents have been tested so far. Their comparatively low chloride extraction efficiency was ascribed to the low solubility of the alkali metal hydroxides and the corresponding chlorides in the solvents used. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is readily soluble in alcohols and has been tested in aqueous and/or methanolic solutions as an alternative. Neither improved overall chloride extraction efficiency, nor a higher chloride extraction rate could be observed using methanolic solutions. However, aqueous TMAH showed a trend towards higher overall chloride extraction efficiency than the common alkaline treatments. These results could be explained by the different solubility of corrosion products, in particular akaganéite, ?-FeO(OH), in the tested solutions.

Charlotte Friederike Kuhn; Christian Heinrich Wunderlich; Gerhard Eggert; Thomas Schleid

2011-01-01

269

Surface treatment of a LaNi{sub 5}-type metal-hydride electrode with an alkaline solution dissolving cobalt(II) hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of KOH aqueous solution saturated with Co(OH){sub 2} on LaNi{sub 4.7}Al{sub 0.3} electrodes were studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical activity of an LaNi{sub 4.7}Al{sub 0.3} electrode was considerably improved by a treatment with Co(OH){sub 2}-KOH solution below the potential of -0.8 V (vs. Hg/HgO) after several cycles in pure KOH electrolyte. These electrodes exhibited higher metallic-nickel and lower lanthanum concentrations in the subsurface region of the alloy than those without any treatment. This metallic-nickel enrichment was concluded to be caused by oxidation of metallic lanthanum with water catalyzed by Co(OH){sup 2-}{sub 4} ions followed by a dissolution of lanthanum hydroxide. In contrast, the electrode treated with the Co(OH){sub 2}-KOH solution without regulation of potential before cycling in KOH solution exhibited lower electrochemical activity and metallic-nickel concentration than that without any treatment. In this case, Co(OH){sup 2-}{sub 4} ions were considered to act as an oxidant to the alloy. (orig.)

Kuriyama, N. [Osaka Nat. Res. Inst., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Energy and the Environ.; Sakai, T. [Osaka Nat. Res. Inst., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Energy and the Environ.; Miyamura, H. [Osaka Nat. Res. Inst., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Energy and the Environ.; Tanaka, H. [Osaka Nat. Res. Inst., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Energy and the Environ.; Uehara, I. [Osaka Nat. Res. Inst., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Energy and the Environ.; Meli, F. [University of Fribourg, Institute of Physics, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Schlapbach, L. [University of Fribourg, Institute of Physics, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

1996-05-01

270

A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

Asfandyar Khan Niazi; Saad Hameed Niazi

2010-01-01

271

Modelo experimental de estenose traqueal mediante ressecção cirúrgica submucosa de anéis traqueais combinada com instilações de hidróxido de sódio Experimental model of tracheal stenosis with submucosal resection of cartilaginous rings combined with sodium hydroxide instillations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, experimentalmente, malácia e estenose traqueal para testar novos modelos de órteses traqueais. MÉTODOS: Ressecamos três anéis cartilaginosos da traqueia cervical de cães no grupo A (n=5) e seis anéis no grupo B (n=4) para produzir malácia. Logo após, a mucosa da região com malácia recebeu aplicações de uma solução de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) a 23%, e os animais eram acompanhados com exames broncoscópicos para observar o desenvolvimento de estreitamento da luz da via aérea. Quando a estenose era de mais de 50% da luz, ou havia sinais mínimos de insuficiência ventilatória, os animais eram sacrificados. O segmento de via aérea estreitada foi então coletado para análise histológica e era calculada a área de luz residual do segmento traqueal com estenose e malácia. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica, foi constatada fibrose na submucosa e adventícia, associada a granulomas na mucosa. A luz residual média dos segmentos com estenose foi de 9% e 12% nos grupos A e B, respectivamente, (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: A combinação da ressecção de anéis cartilaginosos e da aplicação de NaOH 23% na mucosa respiratória promoveu uma estenose traqueal intensa, porém esteve associada à perda de animais. Novos estudos são necessários para verificar se o emprego isolado de uma das técnicas seria mais seguro e eficaz para desenvolver estenose traqueal.OBJECTIVE: To experimentally develop tracheal stenosis and malacia to test new models of tracheal stents. METHODS: We resected three cartilaginous rings from the cervical trachea of dogs in group A (n = 5) and six rings in group B (n = 4) to produce malacia. The mucosa of the region with malacia then received applications of a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 23%, and the animals were accompanied with bronchoscopic examinations to observe the development of luminal narrowing of the airway. When the stenosis was of more than 50% or there were minimal signs of ventilatory failure, the animals were sacrificed. The segment of narrowed airway was then collected for histological analysis and calculation of the area of residual lumen in the tracheal segment with stenosis and malacia. RESULTS: In histological analysis, fibrosis was found in the submucosa and adventitia, associated with granulomas in the mucosa. The average residual lumen of the segments with stenosis was 9% and 12% in groups A and B, respectively (p> 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of resection of the cartilaginous rings and the application of 23% NaOH in the respiratory mucosa promoted severe tracheal stenosis, but was associated with loss of animals. Further studies are needed to verify that the isolated use of one of the techniques would be safer and more effective to develop tracheal stenosis.

Maurício Guidi Saueressig; Amarilio Vieira de Macedo Neto; Julio de Oliveira Espinel; Maria Isabel Edelweiss; Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches; Rogério Gastal Xavier

2011-01-01

272

Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

Barnes, Charles Marshall

2003-09-01

273

Nickel Hydroxide Electrode Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report discusses results of work performed to develop an improved nickel hydroxide electrode for use in rechargable alkaline electrodes for aerospace applications. Voltametric cycling studies have shown that all deliberate additions of cations (cobalt...

H. A. Christopher J. L. Weininger J. G. Ruzzo R. F. Thornton P. J. Moran

1970-01-01

274

Management of isolated yew berry toxicity with sodium bicarbonate: a case report in treatment efficacy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Taxus species are known to be toxic and may result in significant dysrhythmias. Treatment of taxus induced cardiac dysrhythmias is based largely on case reports. We describe a case of a 24-year-old male with Taxus cuspidate (yew berry) toxicity initially treated with amiodarone bolus and infusion and subsequently managed with sodium bicarbonate boluses and continuous infusion. CASE REPORT: The patient was found at home by his parents with witnessed "seizure-like"activity 2 hours after reportedly chewing and swallowing 168 yew seeds. The initial prehospital rhythm strip demonstrated ventricular tachycardia (VT); the patient was hypotensive with fluctuating levels of alertness. Prehospital cardioversion was attempted without success. Staff at the local presenting emergency department (ED) consulted toxicology for management of the presumed yew berry ingestion, complicated by cardiac dysrhythmias and mental status change with seizure. Amiodarone 300-mg IV and diazepam 5-mg IV were given. Cardioversion was attempted 4 times without change in the wide complex tachycardia, presumed to be VT, at a rate of 166. An amiodarone drip at 1 mg/min was initiated. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit (ICU) at a regional toxicology center. On arrival to the toxicology center the patient was alert and verbally appropriate without complaints. Initial heart rate was 76 and regular with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). A wide complex tachycardia associated with hypotension recurred; however, normal mental status was maintained. A bolus of 100 mEq of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was given intravenously followed by sodium bicarbonate infusion at 37.5 mEq/hr. The amiodarone drip was discontinued. Subsequent electrocardiograms (EKG's) revealed a prolonged, but steadily narrowing QRS complex. Ultimately, the QRS complex closed to 92 ms, with a rate of 94, PR 154 and a QT/QTc of 390/487. CONCLUSION: This case describes successful treatment of an isolated Taxus cuspidate (yew berry) ingestion with significant toxicity initially with amiodarone bolus and infusion. Due to lack of significant change in telemetry recordings with amiodarone, treatment with sodium bicarbonate bolus and infusion was initiated. While the QRS narrowed significantly temporally related to the bicarbonate, it is difficult to determine if correction of the cardiac dysrhythmias was solely due to the sodium bicarbonate, or the synergism of sodium bicarbonate and amiodarone, or possibly spontaneous improvement due to taxine clearance. One should use caution while drawing conclusions from a single case; however, based on the clinical improvement of this patient, both with EKG recordings and vital signs, this report would suggest that isolated Taxus cuspidate ingestion from yew berry plants can be treated with sodium bicarbonate.

Pierog J; Kane B; Kane K; Donovan JW

2009-06-01

275

Falsely elevated sodium levels during thiopental treatment in the ICU: technical interference on a laboratory device with important clinical relevance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Thiopental is a cornerstone in the treatment of refractory status epilepticus and intractable intracranial hypertension. In our center we observed that thiopental might cause falsely elevated serum sodium levels. METHODS: Triggered by a recent case experience of extremely elevated serum sodium levels during thiopental treatment, we retrospectively identified 53 patients treated with thiopental in our intensive care unit between 2007 and 2011 and evaluated electrolyte changes. We differentiated the analysis before and after introduction of a new device for sodium assays (Dimension Vista, Siemens) in the central laboratory in April 2010. Standardized in vitro laboratory tests were performed to study the effect of thiopental on sodium analysis. RESULTS: Before April 2010, serum sodium levels determined in the central laboratory showed a good agreement with the bedside point-of-care (POC) device during thiopental therapy with [sodium](laboratory) - [sodium](POC) of only 1.08 mmol/L (P = .0517). After April 2010, a strong discrepancy between laboratory values and POC values was observed with [sodium](laboratory) - [sodium](POC) = 11.57 mmol/L (P < .0001). Standardized in vitro testing confirmed that thiopental induced a dose-dependent false hypernatremia (P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Thiopental treatment can result in falsely elevated serum sodium. This is a critical finding since high sodium levels preclude administrating mannitol or hypertonic saline for the treatment of elevated intracranial pressure. Moreover, a false high sodium level might lead to the inappropriate administration of hypotonic fluids potentially resulting in increased brain edema and even higher intracranial pressure. To our knowledge, this is the first paper describing this clinically relevant phenomenon.

Feyen BF; Coenen D; Jorens PG; Wouters K; Maas AI; Van Hoof V; Verbrugghe W

2013-02-01

276

X-ray diffraction studies on the thermal decomposition mechanism of nickel hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nickel hydroxide samples were prepared by using sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as precipitating agents. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the degrees of crystallinity in these samples are quite different. The thermal decomposition mechanism of these two nickel hydroxide samples has been determined using powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. We observe that the transformation of nickel hydroxide to nickel oxide in the crystalline sample is via a two-phase mixture, whereas in a poorly ordered sample, it is through a single phase. This indicates that the decomposition mechanism mainly depends on the preparative conditions and the nature of the sample. PMID:19736947

Ramesh, Thimmasandra Narayan

2009-10-01

277

X-ray diffraction studies on the thermal decomposition mechanism of nickel hydroxide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nickel hydroxide samples were prepared by using sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as precipitating agents. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the degrees of crystallinity in these samples are quite different. The thermal decomposition mechanism of these two nickel hydroxide samples has been determined using powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. We observe that the transformation of nickel hydroxide to nickel oxide in the crystalline sample is via a two-phase mixture, whereas in a poorly ordered sample, it is through a single phase. This indicates that the decomposition mechanism mainly depends on the preparative conditions and the nature of the sample.

Ramesh TN

2009-10-01

278

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF) were more for the Mg(OH)2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH)2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

Farhad Zeinaly; Jalal Shakhes; Mohammadreza Dehghani Firozabadi; Alireza Shakeri

2009-01-01

279

Sodium oxybate as a treatment for dbs-resistant, alcohol-responsive post-anoxic myoclonus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myoclonic jerks are sudden shock-like involuntary movements, either manifesting as a brief contraction of a group of muscles (positive) or cessation of muscle activity (negative), driven by aberrant activity in one of the cortex, subcortical regions, brainstem or spinal cord. Its aetiology is variable and can occur physiologically, in a primary myoclonic syndrome (myoclonus-dystonia), or as part of an epilepsy (Progressive myoclonic epilepsy) or neurodegenerative syndrome (Alzheimer's disease, multiple systems atrophy). Myoclonus can also occur secondary to hypoxic brain injury either in an acute (myoclonic status epilepticus) or a chronic form, eponymously titled Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS). LAS is characterised by a non-progressive generalised myoclonus with added seizures and ataxia. There is no curative management strategy, only symptomatic relief. A multidisciplinary approach involving medical, physiotherapy, speech and occupational therapy achieves the best holistic outcomes for patients. Case studies suggest certain antiepileptic agents may alleviate symptoms, but combinations are often required, and the most effective options have sedative side effects. A subset of cases have marked alcohol responsiveness that can lead to dependence. A number of experimental treatment options have been proposed including deep brain stimulation (DBS) and sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of gamma-Hydroxybutyrate. In what follows, a patient with an eleven year history of the LAS is presented and the experimental therapeutics explored, concluding with a recent trial of sodium oxybate. Sodium oxybate was well tolerated and produced improvements in the patient's symptoms and perceived disability. This case highlights the difficulties of managing chronic myoclonic conditions and suggests sodium oxybate may be a useful treatment option in these patients. PMID:24109002

Kahan, Joshua; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia; Gratwicke, James; Aviles-Olmos, Iciar; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Limousin, Patricia; Foltynie, Tom

2013-11-01

280

Systematic review: sodium bicarbonate treatment regimens for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Intravenous sodium bicarbonate has been proposed to reduce the risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). PURPOSE: To determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate on the risk for CIN. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1950 to December 2008; conference proceedings; and ClinicalTrials.gov, without language restriction. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized, controlled trials of intravenous sodium bicarbonate that prespecified the outcome of CIN as a 25% increase in baseline serum creatinine level or an absolute increase of 44 micromol/L (0.5 mg/dL) after radiocontrast administration. DATA EXTRACTION: Using standardized protocols, 2 reviewers serially abstracted data for each study. DATA SYNTHESIS: 23 published and unpublished trials with information on 3563 patients and 396 CIN events were included. The pooled relative risk was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.86), with evidence of significant heterogeneity across studies (I(2) = 49.1%; P = 0.004). Some heterogeneity was due to the difference in the estimates between published and unpublished studies: relative risk, 0.43 (CI, 0.25 to 0.75) versus 0.78 (CI, 0.52 to 1.17), respectively. Meta-regression showed that small, poor-quality studies that assessed outcomes soon after radiocontrast administration were more likely to suggest benefit (P < 0.05 for all). No clear effects of treatment on the risk for dialysis, heart failure, and total mortality were identified. LIMITATION: Power to assess clinical end points was limited. CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate treatment to prevent CIN in high-risk patients remains uncertain. Earlier reports probably overestimated the magnitude of any benefit, whereas larger, more recent trials have had neutral results. Large multicenter trials are required to clarify whether sodium bicarbonate has value for prevention of CIN before routine use can be recommended. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.

Zoungas S; Ninomiya T; Huxley R; Cass A; Jardine M; Gallagher M; Patel A; Vasheghani-Farahani A; Sadigh G; Perkovic V

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Inhibition of atmospheric corrosion of mild steel by sodium benzoate treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sodium benzoate as an inhibitor to slow down or prevent atmospheric corrosion/discoloration of the local mild steel during storage in the Arabian Gulf region. Test specimens were prepared from locally produced reinforcing steel products. The inhibitor solution was applied on steel specimens at a concentration of 100 mM for 1 day at room temperature. Wooden exposure racks were used to hold as-received and inhibitor-treated specimens during atmospheric exposure for different periods. Corrosion was evaluated through weight loss determination and electrochemical technique. As expected, the Arabian Gulf atmosphere was corrosive on the as-received local mild steel. On the other hand, treatment of steel with sodium benzoate lowered its corrosion rate during initial days of its exposure to atmosphere. However, atmospheric corrosion inhibition performance of sodium benzoate deteriorated with exposure time after 30 or more days of atmospheric exposure, and the corrosion rates of sodium benzoate-treated specimens reached that of the unprotected specimens at the end of 90 days of atmospheric exposure.

Kahraman, Ramazan

2002-02-01

282

Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated Thyroid carcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (Urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation) from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiati...

Beiki D; Shah Hosseini S; Dadashzadeh S; Eftekhari M; Tayebi H; Moosazadeh Rashti G

283

New world cutaneous leishmaniasis: obstacles in initiating treatment with sodium stibogluconate in 2 travelers from Texas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

New World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with nonhealing ulcers and a history of travel to high-risk areas. For patients at risk for progression to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, first-line treatment in the United States entails the use of sodium stibogluconate (SSG), which is obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) under an investigational drug protocol. We report 2 cases of New World CL in travelers to endemic areas who were diagnosed and treated with SSG. These cases demonstrate the logistics of coordinating with the CDC to definitively diagnose New World CL and initiate the necessary treatment.

Darling MD; Reichenberg JS; Gavino AC

2013-04-01

284

Modelo experimental de estenose traqueal mediante ressecção cirúrgica submucosa de anéis traqueais combinada com instilações de hidróxido de sódio/ Experimental model of tracheal stenosis with submucosal resection of cartilaginous rings combined with sodium hydroxide instillations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, experimentalmente, malácia e estenose traqueal para testar novos modelos de órteses traqueais. MÉTODOS: Ressecamos três anéis cartilaginosos da traqueia cervical de cães no grupo A (n=5) e seis anéis no grupo B (n=4) para produzir malácia. Logo após, a mucosa da região com malácia recebeu aplicações de uma solução de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) a 23%, e os animais eram acompanhados com exames broncoscópicos para observar o desenvolvi (more) mento de estreitamento da luz da via aérea. Quando a estenose era de mais de 50% da luz, ou havia sinais mínimos de insuficiência ventilatória, os animais eram sacrificados. O segmento de via aérea estreitada foi então coletado para análise histológica e era calculada a área de luz residual do segmento traqueal com estenose e malácia. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica, foi constatada fibrose na submucosa e adventícia, associada a granulomas na mucosa. A luz residual média dos segmentos com estenose foi de 9% e 12% nos grupos A e B, respectivamente, (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: A combinação da ressecção de anéis cartilaginosos e da aplicação de NaOH 23% na mucosa respiratória promoveu uma estenose traqueal intensa, porém esteve associada à perda de animais. Novos estudos são necessários para verificar se o emprego isolado de uma das técnicas seria mais seguro e eficaz para desenvolver estenose traqueal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To experimentally develop tracheal stenosis and malacia to test new models of tracheal stents. METHODS: We resected three cartilaginous rings from the cervical trachea of dogs in group A (n = 5) and six rings in group B (n = 4) to produce malacia. The mucosa of the region with malacia then received applications of a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 23%, and the animals were accompanied with bronchoscopic examinations to observe the development of luminal (more) narrowing of the airway. When the stenosis was of more than 50% or there were minimal signs of ventilatory failure, the animals were sacrificed. The segment of narrowed airway was then collected for histological analysis and calculation of the area of residual lumen in the tracheal segment with stenosis and malacia. RESULTS: In histological analysis, fibrosis was found in the submucosa and adventitia, associated with granulomas in the mucosa. The average residual lumen of the segments with stenosis was 9% and 12% in groups A and B, respectively (p> 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of resection of the cartilaginous rings and the application of 23% NaOH in the respiratory mucosa promoted severe tracheal stenosis, but was associated with loss of animals. Further studies are needed to verify that the isolated use of one of the techniques would be safer and more effective to develop tracheal stenosis.

Saueressig, Maurício Guidi; Macedo Neto, Amarilio Vieira de; Espinel, Julio de Oliveira; Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Sanches, Paulo Roberto Stefani; Xavier, Rogério Gastal

2011-12-01

285

Potential and limits of sodium hydroxide as an additive to the binary system ammonia/water in absorption heat pumps; Potenzial und Grenzen von Natriumhydroxid als Zusatz zum Stoffpaar Ammoniak/Wasser in Absorptions-Waermepumpen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several authors proposed the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an additive to the ammonia/water working fluid mixture (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O), especially in solar air conditioners. Measured vapour-liquid equilibrium data of this tertiary mixture are found in the relevant literature. Thermodynamic calculations carried out with these data show that the efficiency (COP) will be enhanced in theory while the rectification time will decrease. To verify these theoretical considerations and to gain practical experience with the tertiary mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH, a test stand was constructed at the Institut fuer Waermetechnik, and measurements were carried out on the mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, i.e. without NaOH, and with 5% NaOH. The technical feasibility of the process was established, although NaOH depositions in the refrigerating circuit caused operational disturbances, so that the mixture had to be renewed regularly and the plant had to be flushed with water. The expected efficiency improvement was not observed. Analyses using ''ASPEN Plus'' showed that this was the result of lower absorber efficiency, which may be due to the higher circulation rate and higher viscosity of the working fluid mixture. Measurements showed a moderate improvements of heat transfer in the expeller after addition of NaOH; no effects were found in the evaporator, solvent heat exchanger and rectification column. The findings suggest that fast implementation of NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP is not realistic. Considerable research and development will still be required for optimisation of the absorber for operation with NaOH. [German] Die Verwendung von Natriumhydroxid (NaOH) als Zusatz zum Arbeitsstoffgemisch Ammoniak / Wasser (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O) wurde von verschiedenen Autoren insbesondere fuer das Anwendungsgebiet der solaren Klimatisierung vorgeschlagen. In der einschlaegigen Literatur wurden gemessene Dampf-Fluessig-Gleichgewichts-Daten von diesem Dreistoffgemisch publiziert. Die mit diesen Daten durchgefuehrten thermodynamischen Rechnungen zeigen, dass die Effizienz (COP) durch die Zugabe von Natriumhydroxid in einer Ammoniak / Wasser-Absorptionswaermepumpe theoretisch erhoeht werden kann und der Rektifikationsaufwand sinkt. Um diese theoretischen Berechnungen zu ueberpruefen und praktische Erfahrungen mit dem Dreistoffgemisch NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH zu sammeln, wurde am Institut fuer Waermetechnik ein Pruefstand aufgebaut. Mit diesem Pruefstand wurden Messungen mit dem Gemisch NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, d.h. ohne NaOH, und mit 5% NaOH durchgefuehrt. Dabei konnte die technische Machbarkeit dieses Prozesses gezeigt werden. Allerdings fuehrten Ablagerungen von NaOH im Kaeltekreis zu Betriebsstoerungen bzw. dazu, dass das Arbeitsgemisch regelmaessig gewechselt und die Anlage mit Wasser gespuelt werden musste. Die erwartete Verbesserung bezueglich der Prozess-Effizienz konnte bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden. Die Analyse der Messergebnisse mit dem Softwareprogram ''ASPEN Plus'' hat gezeigt, dass dies vor allem an einer geringeren Absorber-Effizienz lag, welche wahrscheinlich auf den bei gleicher Leistung notwendigen hoeheren Loesungsumlauf und die hoehere Viskositaet des Arbeitsgemisches zurueckzufuehren ist. In Bezug auf den Einfluss von NaOH auf die anderen Komponenten, fuehrt die NaOH-Zugabe laut Messungen zu einer moderaten Verbesserung des Waermeueberganges im Austreiber. Bei der Analyse des Einflusses von NaOH auf den Verdampfer, den Loesungsmittelwaermetauscher und die Rektifikationskolonne konnten keine signifikanten Veraenderungen zwischen den Betriebspunkten mit und ohne NaOH festgestellt werden. Aus heutiger Sicht scheint die rasche technische Umsetzung einer NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP aus den oben genannten Gruenden nicht realistisch zu sein. Es besteht noch erheblicher Forschungs- und Entwicklungsbedarf in Bezug auf die Optimierung des Absorbers fuer den Betrieb mit NaOH und die oben genannten Betriebsstoerungen.

Kotenko, Oleksandr; Moser, Harald; Fenzl, Thomas; Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik

2011-07-01

286

Comparison Between Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Hydroxide Spray Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this analysis is to compare the consequences of an 8 molar NaNO2 spray leak to the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) evaluation of sprays of up to 19 molar (50%) NaOH. Four conditions were evaluated. These are: a spray during transfers from a one-inch pipe, a spray resulting from a truck tank Crack, a spray resulting from a truck tank rupture, and a spray in the 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility.

2001-01-01

287

Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 C, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process

2008-01-01

288

Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 ºC, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process.

Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

2008-05-01

289

Psyllium is superior to docusate sodium for treatment of chronic constipation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Stool softening is a physician's first step in the management of chronic constipation. AIM: To compare stool softening (stool water content) and laxative efficacy of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid vs. docusate sodium. METHODS: The multi-site, randomized, double-blind, parallel-design study of 170 subjects with chronic idiopathic constipation involved a 2-week baseline (placebo) phase followed by 2 weeks of treatment. The treatment phase compared psyllium (5.1 g b.d.) plus docusate placebo to docusate sodium (100 mg b.d.) plus psyllium placebo. Stools were collected and assessed. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, psyllium increased stool water content vs. docusate (psyllium 2.33% vs. docusate 0.01%, P = 0.007). Psyllium also increased stool water weight (psyllium 84.0 g/BM; docusate 71.4 g/BM; P = 0.04), total stool output (psyllium 359.9 g/week: docusate 271.9 g/week; P = 0.005), and O'Brien rank-type score combining objective measures of constipation (psyllium 475.1; docusate 403.9; P = 0.002). Bowel movement (BM) frequency was significantly greater for psyllium (3.5 BM/week) vs. docusate (2.9 BM/week) in treatment week 2 (P = 0.02), with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between treatment groups in treatment week 1 (3.3 vs. 3.1 BM/week). CONCLUSION: Psyllium is superior to docusate sodium for softening stools by increasing stool water content, and has greater overall laxative efficacy in subjects with chronic idiopathic constipation.

McRorie JW; Daggy BP; Morel JG; Diersing PS; Miner PB; Robinson M

1998-05-01

290

Effects of 10% carbamide peroxide treatment and sodium fluoride therapies on human enamel surface microhardness.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to evaluate the microhardness of enamel submitted to 10% carbamide peroxide treatment and different methods of remineralization involving sodium fluoride (NaF). Non-erupted third molars were used and 75 enamel blocks with standardized dimensions (4.0 x 4.0 x 2.0 mm) were obtained. Enamel blocks were randomly divided into five groups (n = 15): one control (no bleaching and no fluoride treatment), one receiving a 10% carbamide peroxide treatment, one receiving 10% carbamide peroxide plus acidulated phosphate fluoride, one receiving 10% carbamide peroxide with 0.2% NaF, and one receiving 10% carbamide peroxide and 0.05% NaF. There were no differences among four of the groups (p > 0.05); the group receiving 10% carbamide peroxide only was different from all other groups (p < 0.05). Based on these results, NaF therapies are recommended during carbamide peroxide bleaching treatments. PMID:19288836

Leandro, Guilherme Alberto Loureiro; Attia, Mariana Lerner; Cavalli, Vanessa; do Rego, Marcos Augusto; Liporoni, Priscila Christian Suzy

2008-05-01

291

Ammonium hydroxide treatment of A? produces an aggregate free solution suitable for biophysical and cell culture characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Pathologically it is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neuronal loss within the brain tissue of affected individuals. It is now widely hypothesised that fibrillar structures represent an inert structure. Biophysical and toxicity assays attempting to characterize the formation of both the fibrillar and the intermediate oligomeric structures of A? typically involves preparing samples which are largely monomeric; the most common method by which this is achieved is to use the fluorinated organic solvent 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP). Recent evidence has suggested that this method is not 100% effective in producing an aggregate free solution. We show, using dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography and small angle X-ray scattering that this is indeed the case, with HFIP pretreated A? peptide solutions displaying an increased proportion of oligomeric and aggregated material and an increased propensity to aggregate. Furthermore we show that an alternative technique, involving treatment with strong alkali results in a much more homogenous solution that is largely monomeric. These techniques for solubilising and controlling the oligomeric state of A? are valuable starting points for future biophysical and toxicity assays.

Timothy M. Ryan; Joanne Caine; Haydyn D.T. Mertens; Nigel Kirby; Julie Nigro; Kerry Breheney; Lynne J. Waddington; Victor A. Streltsov; Cyril Curtain; Colin L. Masters; Blaine R. Roberts

2013-01-01

292

Chronic Temporomandibular Pain Treatment Using Sodium Diclofenac/ Tratamiento crónico del dolor temporomandibular con diclofenaco sódico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este estudio evaluó el dolor espontáneo antes y después de la administración de diclofenaco sódico, aislado o asociado a carisoprodol, paracetamol y cafeína, en pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares crónicos (TTM). Se seleccionaron dieciocho voluntarios, hombres y mujeres, entre 35-70 años de edad (edad media 50 años). Los criterios de inclusión fueron dolor muscular masticatorio, y los criterios diagnósticos para trastornos temporomandibulares (RDC / TM (more) D) como diagnóstico. La selección del tratamiento para cada individuo se llevó a cabo mediante una metodología de cruce triple ciego completo al azar. Por lo tanto, todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a todos los tratamientos en diferentes momentos, en una secuencia no estandarizada, evitando los resultados tendenciosos. Los tratamientos fueron: A (diclofenaco sódico + carisoprodol + acetaminofen + cafeína), B (diclofenaco sódico) y C (placebo), todos asociados a una férula oclusal. Cada período de tratamiento fue seguido por once días. No se encontraron diferencias entre los valores inicial y final de los tratamientos. Sin embargo, hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los grupos de evaluación sensorial y después del tratamiento B, y en los grupos de calificación sensorial, afectivo, y el total después de los tratamientos B y C. Dentro de las limitaciones de esta investigación, se concluye que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico aislado en pacientes con TTM musculares promueve una mayor analgesia que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico más asociaciones o placebo, cuando se asocia a una férula oclusal. Abstract in english This study evaluate spontaneous pain after and before administration of sodium diclofenac, isolated or associated to carisoprodol, acetaminophen and caffeine, in chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. Were selected eighteen volunteers, both men and women, between 35-70 years of age (mean age 50 years). The inclusion criteria was masticatory muscle pain, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was used on the diagnose. Th (more) e selection of treatment for each individual was done by a triple-blind full-randomized crossover methodology. Thus, all patients were submitted to all treatment at different moments, in a non standardized sequence, avoiding tendentious results. The treatments were: A (sodium diclofenac + carisoprodol + acetaminophen + caffeine), B (sodium diclofenac) and C (placebo), all associated with an occlusal splint. Each treatment period was followed by an eleven-day washout. There weren't observed differences between initial and final values of treatments. However, there were statistically significant differences in evaluative and miscellaneous sensorial groups after B treatment; and in sensorial, affective, and total score groups after B and C treatments. Within the limitations of this investigation, we conclude that treatment of muscular TMD patients with sodium diclofenac isolated promoted higher analgesia than treatment with sodium diclofenac more associations or placebo, when associated to an occlusal splint.

Kurita Varoli, Fernando; Sato, Sandra; Sucena Pita, Murillo; do Nascimento, Cássio; Pedrazzi, Vinícius

2012-08-01

293

Pharmacokinetic evaluation of oblimersen sodium for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of leukemia in the western hemisphere. Developing new therapies remains a priority as present treatment options do not offer a cure. BCL-2 overexpression in CLL is associated with aggressive disease features and resists chemotherapy. Oblimersen sodium (G3139) is a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide antisense drug targeting the BCL-2 mRNA and is the first antisense to reach advanced clinical testing in oncology. Preclinical evaluation has demonstrated good antineoplastic effect in B-cell cancers; several clinical trials have confirmed its safety and efficacy both alone and in combination with other therapeutics. AREAS COVERED: This review focuses on the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and clinical evaluation of oblimersen in CLL. PubMed and MEDLINE searches assisted in data collection. EXPERT OPINION: Bcl-2 is an important target in CLL. Antisense therapy is a novel approach to target oncoproteins; this can be beneficial in the clinical setting. Oblimersen sodium demonstrates the clinical safety of the antisense therapeutic approach and, with chemotherapy, shows survival advantage in a subset of CLL patients. However, future approval of oblimersen sodium in CLL remains uncertain. Nevertheless, BCL-2 remains a critical target in drug development and is an area of high-priority research.

Advani PP; Paulus A; Masood A; Sher T; Chanan-Khan A

2011-06-01

294

Novel sodium hypochlorite cleanser shows clinical response and excellent acceptability in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intermittent use of dilute sodium hypochlorite "bleach baths" has shown efficacy as adjunctive therapy for atopic dermatitis (AD). This feasibility study evaluated the clinical response and patient acceptability of treatment with a cleansing body wash containing sodium hypochlorite in children with AD. This was a 12-week open-label feasibility study of 18 children with AD conducted in a pediatric dermatology outpatient clinic between May 2011 and July 2012. Children with moderate to severe AD, defined as an Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) score of at least 3 on a 5-point scale, who were age 6 months and older and had lesional cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus at baseline were included. Patients were instructed to wash 3 days/week for 12 weeks with the sodium hypochlorite-containing cleansing body wash. During the study period, patient's individualized topical and systemic treatment regimens were continued. Clinical response to treatment was measured using an IGA score and the percentage of body surface area (BSA) affected. Parents were also administered a retrospective questionnaire evaluating acceptability of the product. There was a statistically significant reduction in IGA score at all time points, with an overall mean reduction from baseline to final measurement using the last observation carried forward in all patients of 1.0 (p = 0.001, n = 18). Similarly the mean reduction of BSA affected was 14.8% (p = 0.005, n = 18). Parents reported that the body wash was significantly easier to use than traditional bleach baths (p < 0.001). The significant reductions in clinical disease severity scores with use of this formulation are encouraging.

Ryan C; Shaw RE; Cockerell CJ; Hand S; Ghali FE

2013-05-01

295

Simple Method for Simultaneous Determination of Carbonate, Sulfite and Hydroxide in Solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide in a complex matrices. The method involves salvation of the tow gases in Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by simultaneous determination of the three species (carbonate, sulfite and hydroxide) using conductometric and potentiometric titration. What set this method apart from other determination methods it`s simplicity.

Hossam I. Al-Itawi; Hamdan Al-Ebaisat; Mazen Al-Garaleh

2007-01-01

296

Agricultural oil processing using potassium hydroxide  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of processing agricultural oil in which non-toxic reagents are used, so that a waste stream is evolved suitable for use as a nutrient source and wherein the non-toxic reagents include nutrient source and wherein the non-toxic reagents include nutrient components whereby the nutrient value of the waste stream is enhanced. A variation of convention refining is detailed in which potassium hydroxide is used as refining caustic instead of conventional sodium hydroxide. The resulting process exhibits improvements in waste wash characteristics, more complete oil recovery, less oil in the soapstock, reduced interlayer formation, more soap removed from the refined oil into the soapstock stream, and a less viscous soapstock./PTEXT

DANIELS RALPH S

297

Use of inhibitors of the sodium hydrogen exchange in the manufacture of a medicament for treatment or prophylaxis of diseases of the central nervous system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Use of inhibitors of sodium-hydrogen ion exchangers for treating CNS conditions Use of an inhibitor of sodium-hydrogen exchangers in the production of medicaments for the treatment or prevention of CNS conditions is claimed.

Lang Hans Jochen Dr.; Wirth Klaus Dr.; Bingmann Dieter Prof. Dr.; Bonnet Udo Dr.; Wiemann Martin Dr.

298

Comparison of Decontamination Efficacy between the Rapid Hygrothermal Pasteurization and Sodium Hypochlorite Treatments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We developed a novel rapid hygrothermal pasteurization (RHP) method using saturated water vapor with a dew point of 100?. The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of RHP treatment versus conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatments on inactivation of natural mesophilic bacteria and quality attributes on fruits and vegetables. The RHP treatment was performed within a second by free-falling samples (cabbage, cucumber, carrot, bell pepper, pineapple and melon) through cylindrical processing chamber filled with steam. NaClO treatment was performed by washing samples with NaClO solution (100 mg/mL of free chlorine (pH 7), for 1 min). The RHP treatment showed a significantly higher inactivation effect than NaClO treatment on all tested samples. The RHP treatment had a slightly larger influence on color and vitamin C content than NaClO treatment in cabbage. Furthermore, the effects of treatment time and operated temperature were also determined using microbial model system. Elongation of treatment time did not significantly increase the microbial inactivation effect. Lowering of operated temperature by mixing air into steam tended to decrease the inactivation effect. From these results, RHP treatment could be used as an alternative method for decontaminating microorganisms on fruits and vegetables, except on leafy vegetable. In addition, it is suggested that microbial inactivation by RHP treatment was achieved through the initial condensation stage of water vapor on sample surface. By contrast, interfusion of air disturbed the effective condensation of water vapor.

Dusida Tirawat; Hiromizu Kunimoto; Seiji Noma; Noriyuki Igura; Mitsuya Shimoda

2013-01-01

299

MEDICATION FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF OPHTHALMOLOGICAL DISEASES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: medicine. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine - ophthalmology. Medication for prevention and treatment of ophthalmlogical diseases contains active substance, gel-former, sodium chloride, sorbitol, buffer, conservative, water and disodium edentate. As active substance ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate is used as gel-former - polyacrylic acid, hydroxyethylcellulose, sodium-carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcelulose or healon as buffer phosphate buffer is used, which includes sodium hydrophosphate - 0.2-2.0% and potassium dihydrophosphate 0.05-1.0%, or citrate buffer, which includes sodium hydrocytate - 0.5-2.5% and sodium hydroxide 0.05-1.5% as conservative - cetrimide. ^ EFFECT: increase of efficiency of antioxidative and antihypoxic protection. ^ 4 cl, 2 ex

GLUSHCHENKO IRINA ALEKSANDROVNA; GLUSHCHENKO ALEKSANDR VLADIMIROVICH; GLUSHCHENKO OKSANA IVANOVNA

300

Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

1975-12-16

 
 
 
 
301

Topical diclofenac sodium for treatment of postoperative inflammation in cataract surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To study the effect of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an alternative to topical steroids for postoperative control of inflammation in cataract surgery. Methods: The effect of diclofenac sodium 0.1% following cataract surgery was studied and compared to routine corticosteroid, dexamethasone phosphate 1% in a prospective, double-blind randomized study. Both groups were similar in baseline parameters. Postoperative inflammatory response, intraocular pressure and best-corrected visual acuity following standard extracapsular cataract extraction were assessed in both groups in the initial 21 days and the severity of these parameters was graded. The severity of postoperative inflammatory response to the two drugs was graded at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. Intraocular pressure and visual acuity at baseline and endpoint were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: The two groups did not differ statistically in treatment effect for any of the variables including aqueous cells, flare, ciliary congestion, Descemet?s folds, visual acuity and intraocular pressure (p< 0.001). However there seemed to be a trend towards quicker improvement with corticosteroid when cells in the anterior chamber were considered. There were no side effects from topical diclofenac, and it was well tolerated. Conclusion: Dicfofenac sodium is as effective as topical corticosteroid and can be used as an alternative in routine postoperative treatment following uncomplicated cataract surgery.

Reddy Manjoo; N Suneetha; Thomas Reji; Battu R

2000-01-01

302

Fluorescent proteins in animal cells for process development: optimization of sodium butyrate treatment as an example.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescent proteins expressed in mammalian cells can be quantified quickly and noninvasively with a standard fluorescence plate reader. We have previously exploited this quality in cell growth assessment (Hunt et al., 1999b). In this work, different CHO cell lines constitutively expressing fluorescent proteins were evaluated as model systems for process development and optimization. Our results demonstrate that the fluorescence of these cell lines quickly reveals conditions that might improve the overall productivity. Sodium butyrate, a well-known yet unpredictable enhancer of production, was chosen for this study. Due to the competing effects of sodium butyrate ("butyrate") on expression and cell number, the maximal overall productivity represents a compromise between enhancement of production and toxicity. Based on fluorescence only, it is possible to separate effects on cell number and specific production by combining microplate fluorescence measurements with data obtained by flow cytometry. This allows for rapid screening of different clones without counting cells or quantifying the recombinant protein, a highly attractive feature if the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was correlated to that of a protein of interest. For all clones tested, negative effects of butyrate on proliferation were similar, while net enhancement of expression was characteristic for each clone. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize treatment for each individual clone. This work demonstrates that, based on the fluorescence of GFP-expresssing cell lines, it is possible to examine noninvasively three critical, generic parameters of butyrate treatment: butyrate concentration, exposure time, and culture phase at the time of addition. PMID:11788951

Hunt, Lisa; Batard, Pascal; Jordan, Martin; Wurm, Florian M

2002-03-01

303

Treatment of cooking oils and fats with sodium magnesium aluminosilicate materials  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The treatment of cooking oils and fats with specific types of sodium magnesium aluminosilicate materials to prolong the useful life of such oils and fats within restaurant settings is provided. More particularly, such an invention encompasses the utilization of calcium-based aluminosilicate materials to filter such oils and/or fats or the incorporation of calcium silicate with or within previously utilized cooking oil filter materials (such as magnesium silicate) for the same purpose. Such calcium silicate-based materials and treatments therewith aid to remove greater amounts of free fatty acids after such oils and/or fats have been utilized to fry foodstuffs, as well as reduce the amount of additional oil and/or fat potentially necessary to bring the used oils and/or fats up to a level of permitted further utilization within a restaurant environment.

WITHIAM MICHAEL C

304

TREATMENT OF COOKING OILS AND FATS WITH SODIUM MAGNESIUM ALUMINOSILICATE MATERIALS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The treatment of cooking oils and fats with specific types of sodium magnesium aluminosilicate materials to prolong the useful life of such oils and fats within restaurant settings is provided. More particularly, such an invention encompasses the utilization of calcium-based aluminosilicate materials to filter such oils and/or fats or the incorporation of calcium silicate with or within previously utilized cooking oil filter materials (such as magnesium silicate) for the same purpose. Such calcium silicate-based materials and treatments therewith aid to remove greater amounts of free fatty acids after such oils and/or fats have been utilized to fry foodstuffs, as well as reduce the amount of additional oil and/or fat potentially necessary to bring the used oils and/or fats up to a level of permitted further utilization within a restaurant environment.

WITHIAM MICHAEL C

305

Voltage gated sodium and calcium channel blockers for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The inflammatory response is a natural response of the body that occurs immediately following tissue damage, which may be due to injury, infection or disease. The acute inflammatory response is an essential mechanism that promotes healing and a key aspect is the ensuing pain, which warns the subject to protect the site of injury. Thus, it is common to see a zone of primary sensitization as well as consequential central sensitization that generally, is maintained by a peripheral drive from the zone of tissue injury. Inflammation associated with chronic pain states, such as rheumatoid and osteoarthritis, cancer and migraine etc. is deleterious to health and often debilitating for the patient. Thus there is a large unmet clinical need. The mechanisms underlying both acute and chronic inflammatory pain are extensive and complex, involving a diversity of cell types, receptors and proteins. Among these the contribution of voltage gated sodium and calcium channels on peripheral nociceptors is critical for nociceptive transmission beyond the peripheral transducers and changes in their distribution, accumulation, clustering and functional activities have been linked to both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The latter has been the main area for trials and use of drugs that modulate ion channels such as carbamazepine and gabapentin, but given the large peripheral drive that follows tissue damage, there is a clear rationale for blocking voltage gated sodium and calcium channels in these pain states. It has been hypothesized that pain of inflammatory origin may evolve into a condition that resembles neuropathic pain, but mixed pains such as low back pain and cancer pain often include elements of both pain states. This review considers the therapeutic potential for sodium and calcium channel blockers for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain states.

Rahman W; Dickenson AH

2013-08-01

306

OH treatment for drum boilers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High concentrations of sodium phosphate and sodium hydroxide were used for conditioning drum boilers in the 1950`s. However, corrosion occurred in the new high pressure plant, due to hydrogen damage and caustic gouging. This led to sodium hydroxide being abandoned in the USA in favour of phosphate treatment (PT). Problems of control and corrosion with PT led to a search for alternative methods of conditioning in other countries. Limiting chloride ingress and the use of low concentrations of sodium hydroxide ({open_quotes}OH{close_quotes} treatment) was developed and now is used successfully for more than 50,000 MWe of plant. The benefits of {open_quotes}OH{close_quotes} treatment over all volatile treatment (AVT), include a higher tolerance to chloride in the boiler water and a reduced risk of acid attack. Compared with PT, it avoids phosphate hide-out and problems with monitoring and control. {open_quotes}OH{close_quotes} treatment is simpler. It is still necessary to limit the chloride in the boiler water to prevent hydrogen damage. Some sodium hydroxide needs to be present in the boiler water to achieve the full benefits of {open_quotes}OH{close_quotes} treatment, but the concentration has to be strictly limited to reduce the risk of caustic gouging in the boiler, carry-over into the steam and damage to superheaters, reheaters and turbines. This is achieved by continuous monitoring the feedwater, boiler water and steam. The chemical guidelines for {open_quotes}OH{close_quotes} treatment adopted overseas are reviewed, together with the evidence gained from operating plant, the problems that occurred and how these were overcome, EPRI guidelines are proposed for coal fired plant.

Ball, M. [Consultant, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

1995-01-01

307

Corrosion-mechanical properties of structural materials in sodium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the results of research into long-term strength, creep and low cycle fatigue properties of steam generator steels in pure sodium and with sodium hydroxide admixture at 500 and 550deg C. The highest sensitivity to alkali effect is manifested by steel 10X18H9. The presence of 5% hydroxide in sodium at 500deg C results in the 5% reduction of the long-term strength as compared to pure sodium tests, 45% rise in creep rate. The most appreciable effect of sodium hydroxide is on low-cycle fatigue strength of this steel. When testing in pure sodium and in sodium with 5% hydroxide, with the strain amplitude 0.2% the difference in the number of cycles prior to failure is 2438x102 cycles. (orig.).

1991-01-01

308

Association of calcium hydroxide and metronidazole in the treatment of dog's teeth with chronic periapical lesion Associação do hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol no tratamento de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica  

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Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I - no root canal dressing; group II - calcium hydroxide; group III - metronidazole; group IV - calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (alpha = 0.01). Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing.Um dos principais objetivos do tratamento endodôntico de dentes com polpa necrosada é a eliminação máxima possível dos microrganismos presentes no sistema de canal radicular, principalmente nos casos que apresentam lesões periapicais crônicas. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a resposta dos tecidos periapicais de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica ao tratamento endodôntico utilizando como curativo de demora o metronidazol, o hidróxido de cálcio e a associação das duas substâncias. METODOLOGIA: Foram empregados 44 canais radiculares de 2 cães adultos, portadores de lesão periapical crônica induzida experimentalmente. Após o preparo biomecânico os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo com o curativo de demora empregado: Grupo I - controle - sem curativo de demora; Grupo II - hidróxido de cálcio; Grupo III - associação de hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol e Grupo IV - metronidazol. Após 15 dias todos os canais foram obturados com cimento Fill Canal e passados 90 dias os animais foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o hidróxido de cálcio apresentou resultado superior aos demais tratamentos, com diferença estatísticamente significante (alfa = 0.01) e o metronidazol resultado semelhante à associação do hidróxido de cálcio com o metronidazol. Os piores resultados foram obtidos pelo grupo sem curativo de demora. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de metronidazol ou da sua associação com hidróxido de cálcio, não proporcionou melhoras no reparo quando comparado ao curativo de hidróxido de cálcio.

Sônia Regina Panzarini; Valdir Souza; Roberto Holland; Eloi Dezan Júnior

2006-01-01

309

Growth responses of the halophyte selicornia herbacea l. (=S. europaea) under different treatments of sodium chloride and fertilizers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth respose of the halophyte Salicornia herbacea was examined under different treatments using sodium chloride, nitrogenous and phosphorous sources and irrigation in the field. The data revealed that the growth. in terms of dry weight and shoot length, of the plants was inhanced by sodium chloride and maximum growth was obtained at 1000 mol concentration. Plant growth was retarded under other treatments. However, growth was greatly reduced in nitrogen (urea) application. The major ions constituents of shoots was Na and Cl. The levels of these ions were highly affected by the treatments.Highest levels of Na and CI was found at 1000 mol sodium chloride and lowest at irrigated plants. (authors). 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

1997-01-01

310

Mechanics of electrochemically coprecipitated cobalt hydroxide in nickel hydroxide electrodes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation into the effects of adding cobalt hydroxide to nickel hydroxide electrodes has provided some insight as to why cobalt is an effective additive. The investigative techniques emphasized in situ measurements of electrode mechanical behavior rather than electrochemical data as employed previously. It is found that electrode growth markedly reduced by the addition of cobalt and conclude that increasing the amount of cobalt hydroxide in the nickel hydroxide active material results in an active material deposit of decreased mechanical rigidity. Decreasing rigidity results in less mechanical strain of the nickel sinter and thus a reduced rate of nickel electrode capacity loss due to mechanical fatigue. 9 refs.

Fritts, D.H.

1982-01-01

311

Association between ABCB1 polymorphism and response to sodium valproate treatment in Malaysian epilepsy patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over-expression of P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, is proposed to be involved in resistance to antiepileptic drugs in about 30% of patients with epilepsy. Here, we investigated the possible association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and sodium valproate (VPA) treatment in Malaysian epilepsy patients. Genotypes were assessed in 249 drug-resistant and 256 drug-responsive Malaysian patients for C1236T, G2677T/A, and C 5T polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene. No genotypes, alleles, or haplotypes were associated with the response to VPA in either the overall group or Chinese, Indian, and Malay subgroups. Our data suggest that C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene do not contribute to the response to VPA in patients with epilepsy.

Haerian BS; Lim KS; Tan HJ; Mohamed EH; Tan CT; Raymond AA; Wong CP; Wong SW; Omar H; Roslan H; Mohamed Z

2011-03-01

312

Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack

2006-01-01

313

Combined treatment of preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro with sodium nitrite and X-rays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Man takes up nitrite in a considerable amount. Effects of nitrite on DNA have been reported; therefore, interaction between nitrite and radiation might be possible. Preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro were treated with a combination of sodium nitrite (1 mM or 2.5 mM) and X-rays (0.94 Gy) in order to obtain some information whether radiation risk is influenced by the presence of nitrite. The microscopic visible development up to 144 h post conception (h.p.c.), the number of cell nuclei, and the number of micronuclei were determined. None of the experimental results gives any indication that radiation risk is influenced by nitrite. All effects after combined treatment correspond to the sum of the single effects.

Mueller, W.U.; Streffer, C.; Fischer, C.

1982-06-01

314

Role of pegaptanib sodium in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration  

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Full Text Available Sobha SivaprasadLaser and Retinal Research Unit, King’s College Hospital, UKAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is responsible for more than half the blind registration in the United Kingdom. Retinal manifestations of AMD can be categorized as either atrophic or neovascular. The hallmark of AMD is the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Until recently, there have been few, limited treatment modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy [PDT]) for this condition and the mainstay of treatment has comprised social and lifestyle support. However, increased understanding of the molecular processes at work in neovascular AMD and CNV in recent years has led to the introduction of new antiangiogenic agents that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These agents either inhibit a selected VEGF isoform (eg, VEGF165 inhibition by pegaptanib sodium) or inhibit all forms of the VEGF isoform (eg, non-selective VEGF blockade by ranibizumab). The trial data suggest that non-selective inhibition of VEGF offers better treatment outcomes in neovascular AMD. As a result, agents that inhibit all VEGF isoforms are now widely used as first-line therapy for this condition. However, it is known that VEGF plays an important role in maintaining the intergrity of the cardiovascular system and, particularly as the age of patients with AMD places them at an elevated risk of thromboembolic events, long-term post-marketing surveillance data are essential to determining whether non-selective VEGF blockade confers any increased risk. Theoretically, selective VEGF inhibition may reduce any risk associated with pan-VEGF blockade, yet on the basis of initial trials, their use remains more limited at this time. However, clinical practice suggests that initial trials may have under-estimated the efficacy of selective-VEGF inhibition. Observational studies also indicate that better treatment outcomes may be possible by combining VEGF inhibitors sequentially with each other, or with existing therapies (eg, photodynamic therapy [PDT]). The optimum role and indications of anti-VEGF agents will come through careful consideration of the available efficacy and safety data, from the outcomes of long-term follow-up studies, and through assessment of the relative merits of the two approaches to VEGF inhibition in clinical practice. At this time, further head-to-head trials, and economic evaluations, comparing the treatment alternatives are needed.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroidal neovascularization (CNV), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cardiovascular, ranibizumab, pegaptanib sodium

Sobha Sivaprasad

2008-01-01

315

Electrokinetic studies of magnesium hydroxide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The electrophoretic mobility of magnesium hydroxide was studied as a function of the concentration of its potential-determining ions, namely, of the magnesium ions, and of the hydroxide ions or pH. The zero point of charge was located at approximately 10.8. The zeta-potential of magnesium hydroxide below this pH was positive. The addition of magnesium nitrate to magnesium hydroxide suspensions increased the positive zeta-potential and lowered the pH. The low solubility of magnesium hydroxide in water prevented the attainment of substantial concentrations of magnesium ions in solution. Increasing the hydroxide-ion concentration or the pH produced charge inversion. The largest negative zeta-potential was attained at pH 11.5. Further increases in pH produced no significant increase in the negative value of the zeta-potential.

Schott H

1981-05-01

316

Development of sodium disposal technology. Experiment of sodium compound solidification process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large amount of sodium containing radioactive waste will come up at the time of final shutdown/decommission of FBR plant. The radioactive waste is managed as solid state material in a closed can in Japan. As for the sodium, there is no established method to convert the radioactive sodium to solid waste. Further, the sodium is highly reactive. Thus, it is recommended to convert the sodium to a stable substance before the solidification process. One of the stabilizing methods is conversion of sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. These stabilization and solidification processes should be safe, economical, and efficient. In order to develop such sodium disposal technology, nonradioactive sodium was used and a basic experiment was performed. Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method was employed as the solidification process of sodium hydroxide solution. Experimental parameters were mixing ratio of the sodium hydroxide and the slag solidification material, temperature and concentration of the sodium hydroxide. The best parameters were obtained to achieve the maximum filling ratio of the sodium hydroxide under a condition of enough high compressive strength of the solidified waste. In a beaker level test, the solidified waste was kept in a long term and it was shown that there was no change of appearance, density, and also the compressive strength was kept at a target value. In a real scale test, homogeneous profiles of the density and the compressive strength were obtained. The compressive strength was higher than the target value. It was shown that the Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method can be applied to the solidification process of the sodium hydroxide solution, which was produced by the stabilization process. (author)

2007-01-01

317

EFFECT OF CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION TREATMENTS ON SILICON DIOXIDE CONTENT AND DISTRIBUTION IN ORYZA SATIVA  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, rice straw and rice plant stems were subjected to nonconventional chemical fractionation methods to investigate the treatment of effects on the silica content of the straw as well as SiO2 content and distribution in rice stem tissue. The treatments included sodium hydroxide, an acid-c...

318

Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (pEm reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste trabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extraído e mantido sobre bancada para ressecamento por 60 min. Posteriormente, os dentes do grupo I foram imersos em soro fisiológico por 2 min. No grupo II, os dentes tiveram a superfície radicular friccionada com gaze embebida em soro fisiológico por 2 min e no grupo III a fricção foi feita empregando-se solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Todos os dentes tiveram então a superfície radicular tratada com ácido fosfórico a 37% seguido de imersão em solução de fluoreto de sódio fosfato acidulado a 2%, pH 5,5. Os canais foram obturados com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e os dentes foram reimplantados. Os animais foram sacrificados 60 dias depois e as peças contendo os dentes foram processadas em laboratório. Cortes transversais semi-seriados do terço médio da raiz, foram obtidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina para análise histomorfométrica. Os dados obtidos foram confrontados pela análise de variância empregando-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis, quando este indicou diferença estatisticamente significante, utilizou-se o teste de Dunn para as comparações individuais. Os resultados demonstraram que a estrutura radicular e a extensão de cemento foram mais afetadas pela reabsorção no grupo III (p<0.05). Todos os grupos foram comprometidos pela reabsorção radicular sendo que o tratamento realizado no grupo III foi o menos efetivo para o seu controle. O tratamento realizado nos grupos I e II proporcionou resultados semelhantes entre si.

André Dotto Sottovia; Celso Koogi Sonoda; Wilson Roberto Poi; Sônia Regina Panzarini; José Roberto Pereira Lauris

2006-01-01

319

Commentary on ‘propofol versus thiopental sodium for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus—still no answer’.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a commentary on a Cochrane review, published in this issue of EBCH, first published as:Prabhakar H, Bindra A, Singh GP, Kalaivani M. Propofol versus thiopental sodium for the treatment ofrefractory status epilepticus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD009202.DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009202.pub2.

Buchhalter J; Stang A

2013-07-01

320

Comparison of efficacy and safety of topical Ketotifen (Zaditen) with Cromolyn sodium in the treatment of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis  

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Full Text Available Background: This study compared the efficacy of Ketotifen fumarate .025% (Zaditen) with Cromolyn sodium 4% (Opticrom) eye drops in prevention of itching, tearing, and redness in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Methods: This double blind randomized single center clinical trial conducted between April and August 2004 in Yazd. One hundred eligible patients with clinical diagnosis of moderate VKC were randomly prescribed Zaditen (group A: n=50) and Cromolyn sodium (group B: n=50) eye drops for a 4 weeks period. Itching, lacrimation, redness, and photophobia were scored on a 4-points severity scale. Results: After 7 days of treatment, the response rates based on subjects assessment of global efficacy was significantly greater in Ketotifen group (61.5%) than in Cromolyn group(53%).A clear response to treatment occurred in 94.4 of Zaditen and 81.2% of Sodium Cromoglycate treated patients. The investigator,s assessment of response rates also showed that Ketotifen was superior to Cromolyn sodium (P=0.001). Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than Cromolyn for relief of signs and symptoms of VKC (P<0.05). Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total signs and symptoms score for each patients, in compare with day 0. Conclusion: Ketotifen had a faster onset of action and provided better symptom relief than Cromolyn. The rapid onset of action and symptom control, make Zaditen a valuable treatment for VKC. Keywords : VKC , allergic conjuctivitis , zaditen

MR Shoja; MR Besharaty

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Divalproex Sodium for the Treatment of PTSD and Conduct Disordered Youth: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

|We examined the efficacy of divalproex sodium (DVP) for the treatment of PTSD in conduct disorder, utilizing a previous study in which 71 youth were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Twelve had PTSD. Subjects (all males, mean age 16, SD 1.0) were randomized into high and low dose conditions. Clinical Global Impression (CGI)…

Steiner, Hans; Saxena, Kirti S.; Carrion, Victor; Khanzode, Leena A.; Silverman, Melissa; Chang, Kiki

2007-01-01

322

Sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibition: therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results from randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that the risk of microvascular complications can be reduced by intensive glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, only about half of patients with diagnosed diabetes achieve recommended glycaemic goals. New therapies with complementary mechanisms of action that are independent of insulin secretion or action may provide additional therapeutic options to enable patients to achieve glycaemic control. The kidney plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, primarily by the reabsorption of filtered glucose. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), located in the proximal convoluted tubule, is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption by the kidney. SGLT2 inhibitors offer a novel approach to treat T2DM and reduce hyperglycaemia by increasing urinary excretion of glucose. Dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor recently approved in Europe for the treatment of T2DM, improves glycaemic control in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or when added to other diabetes medications, such as metformin, sulfonylureas, pioglitazone, and insulin. As a class, SGLT2 inhibitors are well tolerated and have a low propensity to cause hypoglycaemia. An increase in signs, symptoms, and other events suggestive of genital and, in some studies, urinary tract infections has been reported with SGLT2 inhibitors. Results from ongoing and future clinical trials will help define the role for this new class of investigational compounds, with its unique mechanism of action, as a treatment option for reducing hyperglycaemia in patients with T2DM.

Raskin P

2013-07-01

323

Clinical observation of the combined treatment of edaravone and ozagrel sodium in acute ischemic stroke beyond the thrombolytic time window  

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Full Text Available The curative effect of edaravone combined with ozagrel sodium on acute ischemic stroke beyond the time window of thrombolysis was investigated. A total of 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke beyond the time window of thrombolysis were admitted in our hospital from December 2010 to December 2012. The patients were divided into combined treatment group (N = 50) and ozagrel sodium monotherapy group (control group, N = 50). After 14 days' treatment, total effective rate of the combined treatment group (92% , 46/50) was significantly higher than that of the control group (66% , 33/50; ?2 = 10.780, P = 0.029). After treatment, the nerve function defect score was significantly improved in comparison with before treatment in both groups, but the improvement in combined treatment group (8.21 ± 3.58) was much better than that in the control group (14.60 ± 4.39; t = 7.976, P = 0.000). Therefore, treatment of edaravone combined with ozagrel sodium for patients with acute ischemic stroke beyond the thrombolytic time window can significantly raise the curative effect and improve the neurological function of these patients.

SUN Rui-xing; YU Qiu-jing

2013-01-01

324

Injection containing pidotimod sodium salt  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses an injection containing Pidotimod sodium. Pidotimod and sodium hydroxide in equal mol are reacted in water or alcohol or mixed liquid of the water and the alcohol to generate the Pidotimod sodium, and then the Pidotimod sodium is prepared into the injection. The chemical name of the Pidotimod sodium is (R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxy-2-pyrrolidinyl) carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-sodium carboxylate, the molecular formula is C9H11N2O4SNa, and the molecular weight is 266.28. The injection is characterized in that the active component Pidotimod in the injection exists in the form of Pidotimod sodium salt, and pH value of the solution is between 4 and 6. The injection can be prepared into transfusion solution for intravenous administration, and can be added into injection containing 5 percent glucose or 0.9 percent sodium chloride and into dissolvent crystallization subpackaged powder injection and frozen dried powder injection.

HANBIN WANG

325

Some citogenetic effects of sodium azide treatments in caraway root meristems  

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Full Text Available Sodium azide (NaN3) still remains a popular plant mutagen. In the present investigation, its effects on the cytogenetic changes were studied in root tip cells of Carum carvi L., an important economical and medicinal crop plant. The study revealed that sodium azide decreased mitotic index, and caused increase of chromosomal aberrations. Altogether, sodium azide treated root tip cells exhibited an increased incidence of bridges, lagging and/or expulsed chromosomes and C-metaphases.

Elena Maxim; Gabriela Capraru; Mirela Mihaela Campeanu

2009-01-01

326

[The use of sodium chloride baths in the treatment of diabetic patients with micro- and macroangiopathies].  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients suffering from insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with micro- and macroangiopathy took sodium chloride baths of diverse concentration (30 and 50 g/l). A control group consisted of patients who had taken "neutral" baths. The response to sodium chloride baths was registered in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, microcirculation, hemorheology, lower limbs circulation, exercise tolerance. Baths with sodium chloride concentrations 50 g/l have advantages, especially in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:9889712

Davydova, O B; Turova, E A; Grishina, E V

327

[The use of sodium chloride baths in the treatment of diabetic patients with micro- and macroangiopathies  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients suffering from insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with micro- and macroangiopathy took sodium chloride baths of diverse concentration (30 and 50 g/l). A control group consisted of patients who had taken "neutral" baths. The response to sodium chloride baths was registered in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, microcirculation, hemorheology, lower limbs circulation, exercise tolerance. Baths with sodium chloride concentrations 50 g/l have advantages, especially in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Davydova OB; Turova EA; Grishina EV

1998-09-01

328

Potassium hydroxide clay stabilization process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aqueous solution having potassium hydroxide dissolved therein is injected into a subterranean sandstone formation containing water-sensitive fine particles, including clays. Potassium hydroxide stabilizes the fine particles for a substantial period of time thereby substantially preventing formation permeability damage caused by encroachment of aqueous solutions having a distinct ionic makeup into the treated formation.

Sydansk, R.

1981-07-28

329

Intravitreal pegaptanib sodium (Macugen) for treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization: a morphologic and functional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To report the morphologic and functional outcomes resulting from the use of intravitreal pegaptanib (IVP) sodium (Macugen) in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization. METHODS: An open-label, nonrandomized, prospective clinical trial was performed. Morphologic outcome, such as foveal thickness, was assessed by optical coherence tomography, whereas functional outcomes were assessed by best-corrected visual acuity and microperimetry. Treatment protocol consisted of 3 consecutive IVP (0.3 mg/0.05 mL; baseline, 6th week, and 12th week). Follow-up checks were scheduled at the following intervals: baseline, 18, 24, 36, and 48 weeks. RESULTS: Twenty eyes from 20 patients were studied. All patients completed follow-up at 48 weeks. After IVP, a significant decrease in foveal thickness occurred (-20%), and at the end of follow-up, choroidal neovascularization closure was obtained in all eyes. An improvement of functional parameters was recorded in all patients (best-corrected visual acuity from 25.5 ± 8.09 letters to 45.5 ± 8.16 letters, P < 0.0001; microperimetry from 8.40 ± 2.14 dB to 10.8 ± 2.05 dB, P < 0.01). The mean number of IVP was 3, and none of patients met the re-treatment criterion during the entire follow-up period. Neither ocular nor systemic side effects were observed. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate that the selective inhibition of VEGF-165 isoform by IVP is an effective treatment for myopic choroidal neovascularization.

Rinaldi M; Chiosi F; Dell?Omo R; Romano MR; Parmeggiani F; Semeraro F; Menzione M; Costagliola C

2013-02-01

330

Intravitreal pegaptanib sodium (Macugen®) for treatment of diabetic macular oedema: a morphologic and functional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To study whether morphologic (foveal thickness, FT) variations of clinically significant macular oedema (CMO) in patients suffering from diabetes following intravitreal pegaptanib sodium (IVP) injection were associated with functional [macular sensitivity (MS) and colour discrimination (CD)] changes. METHODS: A longitudinal, interventional, non-randomized study was performed. FT was assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), MS by microperimetry, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) by early treatment diabetic retinopathy study charts (ETDRS) and CD by Farnswoth-Munsell test. The treatment protocol consisted of three consecutive injections (0.3?mg/0.05?ml; baseline, week 6 and week 12). Follow-up checks were scheduled at 18, 24, 36 and 48 weeks, after injections. RESULTS: Thirty eyes of 30 patients with clinically significant CMO were included for analysis. After IVP a significant decrease of FT occurred with a mean reduction from baseline of 56.9% (P= 0.0001). An improvement of functional parameters was recorded in all patients (BCVA from 18.2 ± 8.5 letters to 25.5 ± 8.4 letters, P < 0.005, MS from 8.6 ± 2.16 dB to 10.6 ± 2.61 dB, P < 0.001, colour analysis from 376.1 ± 125.6 TES to 116 ± 34.6 TES, P= 0.0001). A statistically significant correlation between FT and BCVA as well as MS and CD was also found. Neither ocular nor systemic adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal pegaptanib significantly reduced FT, with a concomitant improvement of MS and CD. This association emphasizes the efficacy of IVP in the treatment of CMO.

Rinaldi M; Chiosi F; dell'Omo R; Romano MR; Parmeggiani F; Semeraro F; Mastropasqua R; Costagliola C

2012-12-01

331

Layered double hydroxide formation in Bayer liquor and its promotional effect on oxalate precipitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer process liquor to improve the quality of alumina product remains an important objective for Bayer refining. The formation of layered double hydroxides by the reaction of alkaline earth oxides, such as lime and magnesia, with Bayer liquor gives a crystal structure which is capable of intercalating anions, both inorganic and organic, within its structure. Both lime and magnesia, with long contact times in Bayer liquor, show layered double hydroxide formation. This layered double hydroxide formation is accompanied with a decrease in the sodium oxalate content in the liquor from about 3 g/L to below 1 g/L. Short contact times lead to a destabilization of the liquor which facilitates sodium oxalate precipitation. Additional work on magnesium hydroxide shows, in comparison to lime and magnesia, much less layered double hydroxide formation with equivalent residence time in the liquor. Destabilization of the liquor also occurs, giving enhanced oxalate precipitation with less alumina being consumed in agreement with lower layered double hydroxide formation. Thermal regeneration of these structures, followed by in-situ recrystallization in Bayer liquor, also gives enhanced oxalate precipitation, suggesting that there is an opportunity for a regenerable oxalate reduction system. The implementation of these experiments and other related technology into the plant has resulted in the Purox Process for enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer liquor.

Perrotta, A.J. [Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA (United States); Williams, F. [Alcoa Operations, Pt. Comfort, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

332

Decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate, NaTPB, has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of components which influence NaTPB decomposition. Copper(II) ions, solution temperature, and solution pH (hydroxide ion concentration) have all been demonstrated to affect NaTPB stability. Their relationship with each other and the stability of NaTPB has been determined. Based upon this knowledge, a method for stabilizing NaTPB was determined. Decomposition of a NaTPB solution was delayed with the addition of sodium hydroxide. In additional work, the elimination of oxygen from the reaction environment did not prevent NaTPB decomposition in the presence of copper(II) ions but did, however, affect the course of decomposition.

Barnes, M.J.

1990-01-01

333

Decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate, NaTPB, has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of components which influence NaTPB decomposition. Copper(II) ions, solution temperature, and solution pH (hydroxide ion concentration) have all been demonstrated to affect NaTPB stability. Their relationship with each other and the stability of NaTPB has been determined. Based upon this knowledge, a method for stabilizing NaTPB was determined. Decomposition of a NaTPB solution was delayed with the addition of sodium hydroxide. In additional work, the elimination of oxygen from the reaction environment did not prevent NaTPB decomposition in the presence of copper(II) ions but did, however, affect the course of decomposition.

Barnes, M.J.

1990-12-31

334

Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 8700C (950 to 16000F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium

1981-01-01

335

Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 870/sup 0/C (950 to 1600/sup 0/F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium.

Hassberger, J.A.; Muhlestein, L.D.

1981-01-01

336

The risk of sodium toxicity from bed accumulation to key species in the vermifiltration wastewater treatment process.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to assess the toxicological risks from sodium accumulation in a vermifiltration wastewater treatment system to the key worm species, Eisenia fetida. The study found that sodium chloride (NaCl) is the more toxic of the common sodium salts found in wastewater to the worms. The research further found that the worms have an ability to detoxify NaCl although reproduction will be impaired if the worms are exposed to moderate concentrations of NaCl for a long period of time. The actual risk from NaCl toxicity in the vermifiltration process was low however. The low risk was due to the low solid-water partitioning constant of NaCl, which led to a very low predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for NaCl. PMID:19232487

Hughes, R J; Nair, J; Ho, G

2009-02-15

337

The risk of sodium toxicity from bed accumulation to key species in the vermifiltration wastewater treatment process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was undertaken to assess the toxicological risks from sodium accumulation in a vermifiltration wastewater treatment system to the key worm species, Eisenia fetida. The study found that sodium chloride (NaCl) is the more toxic of the common sodium salts found in wastewater to the worms. The research further found that the worms have an ability to detoxify NaCl although reproduction will be impaired if the worms are exposed to moderate concentrations of NaCl for a long period of time. The actual risk from NaCl toxicity in the vermifiltration process was low however. The low risk was due to the low solid-water partitioning constant of NaCl, which led to a very low predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for NaCl.

Hughes RJ; Nair J; Ho G

2009-08-01

338

Regulation of rat adrenal vasoactive intestinal peptide content: effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment and changes in dietary sodium intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is well established as a paracrine regulator of adrenal function. It is present in nerves supplying the adrenal cortex, although previous studies have found that the amount of VIP in the outer zones of the rat adrenal is not affected by ligating the splanchnic nerve supplying the adrenal gland. The present studies were designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in regulating the VIP content of the rat adrenal gland. This study examined the effects of changes in electrolyte balance and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration on the adrenal content of VIP as measured by radioimmunoassay. Rats on a low sodium diet had a significantly increased capsular/zona glomerulosa immunoreactive VIP (irVIP) level, while rats on a high sodium diet had suppressed levels relative to controls. Changes in dietary sodium did not affect inner zone/medullary VIP content. Administration of ACTH caused a decrease in irVIP levels in the capsular/zona glomerulosa portion of the adrenal gland but had no effect on the inner zone/medulla. Analysis of mRNA encoding VIP revealed a large increase in expression of VIP in the sodium-deplete group compared with the control, with no change in VIP expression in the sodium-loaded group. ACTH treatment was found to significantly decrease VIP mRNA levels in the capsular portion. Neither ACTH treatment nor changes in sodium intake affected inner zones/medullary VIP message. These data suggest that VIP in the capsule and zona glomerulosa region of the adrenal cortex is regulated in response to the physiological status of the animal, with changes in capsular/zona glomerulosa VIP correlating with changes in zona glomerulosa function. PMID:11578526

Hinson, J P; Renshaw, D; Carroll, M; Kapas, S

2001-09-01

339

Regulation of rat adrenal vasoactive intestinal peptide content: effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment and changes in dietary sodium intake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is well established as a paracrine regulator of adrenal function. It is present in nerves supplying the adrenal cortex, although previous studies have found that the amount of VIP in the outer zones of the rat adrenal is not affected by ligating the splanchnic nerve supplying the adrenal gland. The present studies were designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in regulating the VIP content of the rat adrenal gland. This study examined the effects of changes in electrolyte balance and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration on the adrenal content of VIP as measured by radioimmunoassay. Rats on a low sodium diet had a significantly increased capsular/zona glomerulosa immunoreactive VIP (irVIP) level, while rats on a high sodium diet had suppressed levels relative to controls. Changes in dietary sodium did not affect inner zone/medullary VIP content. Administration of ACTH caused a decrease in irVIP levels in the capsular/zona glomerulosa portion of the adrenal gland but had no effect on the inner zone/medulla. Analysis of mRNA encoding VIP revealed a large increase in expression of VIP in the sodium-deplete group compared with the control, with no change in VIP expression in the sodium-loaded group. ACTH treatment was found to significantly decrease VIP mRNA levels in the capsular portion. Neither ACTH treatment nor changes in sodium intake affected inner zones/medullary VIP message. These data suggest that VIP in the capsule and zona glomerulosa region of the adrenal cortex is regulated in response to the physiological status of the animal, with changes in capsular/zona glomerulosa VIP correlating with changes in zona glomerulosa function.

Hinson JP; Renshaw D; Carroll M; Kapas S

2001-09-01

340

Topiramate vs divalproex sodium in the preventive treatment of migraine: a prospective "real-world" study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Certain neuromodulators, most notably topiramate (TPM) and divalproex sodium (DVP), are effective preventive agents for migraine. Published data from head-to-head studies comparing TPM and DVP are not available. The purpose of this study was to compare TPM and DVP for the prophyaxis of migraine in a "real-world" setting. METHODS: At 2 centers and over a period of 12 months we prospectively evaluated and treated a consecutive series of migraine patients. At baseline all were experiencing less than 15 headache days/month, and we treated all patients requiring prophylactic therapy with either TPM or DVP. We evaluated adherence, headache frequency (HF) and tolerability after 3 months of treatment. TPM treatment was initiated at 25 mg daily and increased every 10 days (25 mg) to a target of 150 mg/day (2 divided doses/day). Treatment with DVP was initiated at 250 mg daily and sequentially titrated up to 500 mg twice daily. All patients were naïve to the use of TPM and DVP. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty patients (104 women and 16 men of ages 18 to 68, mean 41.2 years) were included. Topiramate selectively was prescribed to 69 patients and DVP selectively to 51. Baseline HF for both groups was similar (8 ± 4 headache days/month). By intention to treat analysis at 3 months, 40 (58%) of patients initially treated with TPM and 26 (51%) of those initially treated with DVP experienced a reduction in HF of >50% (P = NS). Ten patients (14.5%) initially treated with TPM and 8 (15.7%) initially treated with DVP did not return for follow up or were begun on alternative prophylactic therapy. The most common side effects manifested by TPM patients were weight loss (50% of those who completed the treatment period), paresthesia (48%), and cognitive disturbances (20%), whereas DVP patients who completed the treatment period reported weight gain, hair loss, and gastrointestinal symptoms (approximately 24% for each). The mean doses achieved by those completing the study were 140 mg/day for TPM and 890 mg/day for DVP. CONCLUSIONS: Although any conclusions from this investigation necessarily are limited because of our study's open-label nonrandomized design, these results suggest that TPM and DVP are reasonably effective and generally well tolerated when used to treat a "real-world" population of episodic migraineurs who require prophylaxis.

Krymchantowski AV; Jevoux CC

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Targeting voltage-gated sodium channels for treatment for chronic visceral pain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a fundamental role in controlling cellular excitability, and their abnormal activity is related to several pathological processes, including cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, spasticity and chronic pain. In particular, chronic visceral pain, the central symptom of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, is a serious clinical problem that affects a high percentage of the world population. In spite of intense research efforts and after the dedicated decade of pain control and research, there are not many options to treat chronic pain conditions. However, there is a wealth of evidence emerging to give hope that a more refined approach may be achievable. By using electronic databases, available data on structural and functional properties of VGSCs in chronic pain, particularly functional gastrointestinal hypersensitivity, were reviewed. We summarize the involvement and molecular bases of action of VGSCs in the pathophysiology of several organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders. We also describe the efficacy of VGSC blockers in the treatment of these neurological diseases, and outline future developments that may extend the therapeutic use of compounds that target VGSCs. Overall, clinical and experimental data indicate that isoform-specific blockers of these channels or targeting of their modulators may provide effective and novel approaches for visceral pain therapy.

Fei-Hu Qi; You-Lang Zhou; Guang-Yin Xu

2011-01-01

342

Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibition in Diabetes Treatment: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT2) are mainly expressed in the kidneys and are responsible for the renal handling of glucose load. SGLT2 inhibitors represent the latest oral agents for diabetes treatment. Their unique mechanism of action, which practically spares the insulin secretion or insulin utilization, differentiates the SGLT2 inhibitors from any existing antidiabetic agent. Thus, it is hypothesized that SGLT2 inhibitors can be effectively (and probably safely) combined with any existing antidiabetic agent (including insulin), either as monotherapy, or in dual or triple combinations. All these hypotheses are currently tested in many clinical trials. Currently dapagliflozin, one of the three most advanced SGLT2 inhibitors in the development (along with canagliflozin and empagliflozin), is already in the market in few European countries and canagliflozin has been approved from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in US. The evidence so far shows that SGLT2 inhibitors are equally effective to established antidiabetic agents such as metformin or sulfonylureas in their ability to lower HbA1c. On the other hand, SGLT2 inhibitors increase the possibility of genitourinary infections in type 2 diabetic individuals. Their potency in different populations and with different background therapy, but more importantly their short and long term safety remains to be seen.

Rizos EC; Elisaf MS

2013-09-01

343

A double-blind trial of carbenoxolone sodium capsules in the treatment of duodenal ulcer  

Science.gov (United States)

A controlled trial of carbenoxolone sodium positioned-release capsules (Duogastrone) was carried out on a randomized series of 100 unselected male Service personnel with symptoms of active duodenal ulceration and supporting radiological evidence. Fifty-seven patients completed the trial, 29 in the carbenoxolone group and 28 in the control group. The carbenoxolone group was given capsules containing 50 mg carbenoxolone four times a day for 12 weeks while the controls received a capsule identical in every respect except that it did not contain carbenoxolone. All patients were assessed at fortnightly intervals and had clinical and radiological reassessments three and six months after commencing treatment. Review at three months and at six months revealed a slight but clinically insignificant trend in favour of the carbenoxolone group. As a corollary to this controlled trial, those patients (38 in all) who did not have an early remission of symptoms were removed from the trial and placed on capsules known to contain carbenoxolone. Subsequently these patients did not show an advantage for carbenoxolone.

Cliff, J. M.; Milton-Thompson, G. J.

1970-01-01

344

Sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibition: therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that the risk of microvascular complications can be reduced by intensive glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, only about half of patients with diagnosed diabetes achieve recommended glycaemic goals. New therapies with complementary mechanisms of action that are independent of insulin secretion or action may provide additional therapeutic options to enable patients to achieve glycaemic control. The kidney plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, primarily by the reabsorption of filtered glucose. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), located in the proximal convoluted tubule, is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption by the kidney. SGLT2 inhibitors offer a novel approach to treat T2DM and reduce hyperglycaemia by increasing urinary excretion of glucose. Dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor recently approved in Europe for the treatment of T2DM, improves glycaemic control in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or when added to other diabetes medications, such as metformin, sulfonylureas, pioglitazone, and insulin. As a class, SGLT2 inhibitors are well tolerated and have a low propensity to cause hypoglycaemia. An increase in signs, symptoms, and other events suggestive of genital and, in some studies, urinary tract infections has been reported with SGLT2 inhibitors. Results from ongoing and future clinical trials will help define the role for this new class of investigational compounds, with its unique mechanism of action, as a treatment option for reducing hyperglycaemia in patients with T2DM. PMID:23463735

Raskin, Philip

2013-07-01

345

Acidified sodium chlorite solution as an antimicrobial treatment for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Minimizing microbial growth and maintaining overall quality are priorities for intervention strategies that extend the shelf life of fresh, aquatic foods. Four treatments included a control (fresh fillets), water, 50 ppm of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), and 1,000 ppm of ASC. Fillets were stored at 1 to 2 degrees C for 0, 8, and 15 days. A significant (P < 0.05) interaction between treatment and storage time was observed for psychrotrophic counts. The increase in psychrotrophic counts with storage time was less for fillets treated with ASC, regardless of ASC concentration. Aerobic plate counts were not affected (P > 0.05) by intervention; however, a significant increase in counts was observed during storage (P < 0.05). Fillet pH, moisture, fat, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, fatty acid composition, color, cook yield, and shear force were not affected (P > 0.05) by intervention. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances decreased (P < 0.05) during storage. Percentages of individual fatty acids were constant, with the exception of C15 and C20:2; they decreased with storage to 15 days. Percent fat, L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness) values, and cook yield increased (P < 0.05) during storage. Fillet pH, moisture, a* (redness) value, and shear force did not change (P > 0.05) with storage to 15 days. Based on these data, 50 ppm of ASC performed equally as well as 1,000 ppm of ASC. The value of ASC is as a decontaminant; however, fillets in this study had low psychrotrophic counts pretreatment (2.3 log CFU/cm2) and posttreatment (2.03 log CFU/cm2), which did not demonstrate ASC's effectiveness as a decontaminant.

Kamireddy N; Kenney PB; Jittinandana S; Slider SD

2008-05-01

346

ROS generation and proline metabolism in calli of halophyte Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. to sodium nitroprusside treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a stress factor or a signal molecule involved in various plant physiological and developmental processes. In the present study, the generation of reactive oxygen species and the metabolism of proline due to different sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) concentrations were investigated in callus from halophyte Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. Treatment with SNP led to significant increases of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and cell viability but notable reductions in hydrogen radical level and lipid peroxidation degree, and superoxide onion (O2 (-)) content also enhanced in 100 ?M SNP-treated calli. Using a chemical inhibitor for plasma membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase diphenylene iodonium (DPI), we found low O2 (-) generation in untreated and 25 ?M SNP-treated calli, whereas in those treated with 100 ?M SNP O2 (-) level exhibited a very little alteration, comparable to the absence of DPI. These suggest a high activity of PM NADPH oxidase in untreated calli. H2O2 scavenging enzymes (catalase, peroxidase [POD] and ascorbate peroxidase) and H2O2 forming enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], cell wall-POD and diamine oxidase [DAO]) stimulated significantly in calli treated with different SNP concentrations while glutathione reductase activity decreased. In addition, a reduction in proline content was observed in SNP-treated calli. Moreover, different SNP concentrations stimulated proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and ornithine ?-aminotransferase but inhibited r-glutamyl kinase (GK). In conclusion, our results suggest that the increasing H2O2 generation was associated with the stimulation of SOD, cell wall-POD and DAO, and that the reduction of proline content might be the consequence of increased PDH activity and decreased GK activity in N. tangutorum Bobr. calli under SNP treatment.

Yang F; Ding F; Duan X; Zhang J; Li X; Yang Y

2013-07-01

347

Clinical evaluation of a dentifrice containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate (novamin) for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of a dentifrice containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin) study versus a placebo and a commercially-available SrCl2 containing dentifrice for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. METHODS: This was a 6-week, randomized, parallel-arm, double-blind clinical study. 71 subjects ranging in age from 21 to 56 years old completed the study. Evaporative and thermal stimuli were used to measure pain using a VAS scale. Measurements were obtained at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 weeks. RESULTS: The placebo and the NovaMin groups showed a statistically significant decrease in sensitivity by both measures after 6 weeks (P < 0.05). The SrCl2 group showed a statistically significant decrease from baseline at the 2-week time point, but not at the 6-week time point for the evaporative stimulus. The percent reduction in sensitivity at 6 weeks for the NovaMin test group was 35% for air and 39% for cold water stimulus, versus 11% for air and 22% for cold water for the SrCl2 paste. The reductions for the placebo paste were 21% for the air stimulus and 18% for water. A cross tabulation measure of the reduction in sensitivity at each time point for all three treatments showed that the NovaMin product was more effective than either of the other products. For the air stimulus in the NovaMin group, 58% of subjects improved at each time point compared with 26% for the SrCl2 group and 20% for the placebo group. These results demonstrate that the NovaMin dentifrice was more effective at reducing sensitivity compared with a commercial dentifrice and placebo control.

Du Min Q; Bian Z; Jiang H; Greenspan DC; Burwell AK; Zhong J; Tai BJ

2008-08-01

348

SumaRT/Nap vs Naproxen Sodium in Treatment and Disease Modification of Migraine: A Pilot Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This pilot study explored the potential for 2 recognized acute migraine medications, 85?mg of sumatriptan plus 500?mg of naproxen sodium in a combination tablet (SumaRT/Nap) and 500?mg of naproxen sodium, to treat and modify the disease progression of migraine. In other words, can these medications both abort an acute attack of migraine and reduce the number of future migraine attacks? BACKGROUND: Patients suffering with moderate to severe attacks of migraine desire acute treatment. As migraine frequency increases, so does the need for more frequent relief of acute attacks. This may lead to medication overuse and potentially medication overuse headache (MOH). Ideally, acute medication would have the ability to abort an attack of migraine and reduce the likelihood of future attacks. STUDY DESIGN: The primary endpoint of this study was a reduction in migraine headache days from baseline through month 3 of the study. Subjects were randomized 1:1 to treat 14 or fewer migraines per month with SumaRT/Nap (Group A) or naproxen sodium (Group B) for 3 months. Subjects in group A utilized SumaRT/Nap were encouraged, but not required, to treat migraine headache within 1 hour of onset of headache when the pain was mild. They could re-treat if needed after 2 hours. Subjects in group B utilized the same treatment strategy with 500?mg of naproxen sodium. Tablets of study medication were identical for both groups. Subjects recorded headache days, migraine attacks, duration of attacks, treatment, and treatment results daily on paper diaries. Subjects took the Migraine Disability Assessment Test (MIDAS) at randomization and 3 months later at the end of study. RESULTS: Naproxen sodium was associated with a statistically significant reduction in migraine headache days at month 3 compared to baseline (P?=?.0002). SumaRT/Nap was also associated with a reduction of migraine headache days, but this decrease did not reach statistical significance (P?=?.2). In addition, subjects in the naproxen sodium group had a statistically significant reduction of migraine attacks in all 3 months of the study compared to baseline. A greater than 50% reduction in the number of migraine headache days at month 3 occurred in 43% (6/14) of subjects in group B compared to 17% (3/18) of subjects in group A. Consistent with large regulatory studies comparing the efficacy of SumaRT/Nap with naproxen sodium, SumaRT/Nap in this study was statistically superior to naproxen sodium at 2 hours in reducing headache severity during months 2 and 3. There was a reduction of acute medication used from baseline to month 3 and improvement in MIDAS scores for both groups. CONCLUSION: Naproxen sodium, when used as a sole acute treatment early in attacks, appears to reduce the frequency of headache days and migraine attacks for a select number of subjects over a 3-month period. SumaRT/Nap is more effective at 2-hour headache reduction than naproxen sodium alone, but has less impact on reducing attack frequency or the number of headache days. Both treatments were well tolerated, and there was no convincing evidence that either medication led to MOH.

Cady R; O'Carroll P; Dexter K; Freitag F; Shade CL

2013-09-01

349

Development of Sodium Technology for LMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the experiments to investigate the characteristics of the free surface fluctuation in a vessel, the experimental correlation was modeled to describe the free surface fluctuation in the upper plenum of a liquid metal reactor within 95% reliability and 2.4% error. The correlation was used to verify the computational model. The new conceptual flowmeters were suggested to measure the sodium flow for the reliability enhancement. The electromagnetic flowmeter with permanent magnet showed a good linearity and repeatability. For reuse of the sodium contaminated component, CO2 bubbling method was developed. Sodium in 0.3mm crevice specimen was removed completely. The optimum condition for the used sodium treatment was deduced to estimate which reaction is more safe and adequate for operation condition by analyzing the reactivity alleviation condition and the reaction rate with the control of sodium hydroxide concentration A series of tests were carried out to investigate the enlargement rate of the nozzle hole itself and the sodium-water reaction temperature associated with needle-like jets of a high-pressure water/steam into the sodium side of a steam generator. The size of the nozzle hole became larger with an increased duration of the steam injection both for the 2.25Cr-1Mo and M9Cr-1Mo steels by a self-wastage phenomenon. For developing the SWR acoustic leak detection technology, the tool prepared by the LabVIEW was installed with the system, and confirmed the performance of the on-line acoustic leak detection tool using the SWR leak signal acquired in the KAERI facility.

2007-01-01

350

Nickel Hydroxide Battery Electrode Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report terminates the work on a three-year program aimed at the development of an improved nickel hydroxide electrode for the use in rechargeable alkaline batteries for aerospace applications. The improvements sought were primarily concerned with achi...

H. H. Kroger

1972-01-01

351

Effects of postharvest sodium silicate treatment on pink rot disease and oxidative stress-antioxidative system in muskmelon fruit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sodium silicate (Si) at 100 mM was used as a postharvest treatment agent of induction resistance on muskmelon (Cucumis melon L. cv. Yindi) to investigate the mechanism of controlling pink rot disease, which caused by Trichothecium roseum. Si treatment significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the lesion diameter of melons inoculated with T. roseum during storage. Si treatment increased the content of superoxide (O 2 •? ) and could be further raised by challenged with T. roseum inoculation. The content of hydroxyl radical (·OH) in inoculated fruit was also increased. Both malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also accumulated with Si treatment and challenged inoculation. Si treatment maintained membrane integrity in non-inoculated fruit, as compared to untreated control. Si treatment and challenge inoculation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD), and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), while markedly decreased the activity of catalase (CAT) and ascorbic peroxidase (APX). Si treatment and challenge inoculation also enhanced the content of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH). These findings suggested that the effects of sodium silicate on postharvest disease in muskmelon fruit may be associated with the elicitation of antioxidant defense system in fruit.

Li W; Bi Y; Ge Y; Li Y; Wang J; Wang Y

2012-01-01

352

Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation) from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major sources of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation , also there is a potential for exposure via contamination.Precautions are necessary to limit the radiation dose to family members, nursing staff and members of public and waste treatment workers to less than 1mSv. Patients received Sodium Iodide-131 may come into close contact with other persons. In order to derive appropriate recommendations, dose rates were measured from the anterior mid-trunk of 29 patients in the upright position with 15 minutes post-dose administration at 3 meters and just before they left the nuclear medicine department at 0.5, 1, and 3 meters. We have also measured urinary iodide excretion in 29 patients to estimate Sodium Iodide-131 urinary excretion pattern in iranian patients. Based on results, the maximum cumulative dose to nursing staff was on third day (leaving day) still less than recommended dose bye ICRP. The cumulative dose family members will be more but regarding the time and distance in close contact it will be also less than recommended dose by ICRP.Radiation dose rate was decreased significantly on third day. The urinary excretion patterns in all patients were similar. The urinary excretion rate-time curve in all patients showed multiple peaks due to retention and redistribution of Iodine-131 or enterohepatic cycle of radioiodinated thyroid hormones, which didn't allow calculation of urinary excretion rate constant. The results also showed that 67 hours post administration of Sodium Iodide-131 about 70% of radiopharmaceutical was excreted through urine, 28% physically decayed or eliminated through other biological routes

2004-01-01

353

A 12-month, open-label, multicenter extension trial of orally administered sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of nightly sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy. DESIGN: A multicenter, 12-month, open-label trial. PARTICIPANTS: 118 narcolepsy patients previously enrolled in a 4-week double-blind sodium oxybate trial. Interventions: Patients were administered 6 g sodium oxybate nightly, taken in equally divided doses at bedtime and 2.5 to 4 hours later. The study protocol permitted the dose to be increased or decreased in 1.5-g increments at 2-week intervals based on efficacy response or adverse experiences but staying within the range of 3 to 9 g nightly. MEASURES: Narcolepsy symptoms and adverse events were recorded in daily diaries. Safety measures included physical and laboratory examinations repeated at 6 and 12 months. The primary efficacy measure was the change in weekly cataplexy attacks from baseline. Secondary measures included daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), inadvertent naps/sleep attacks, nighttime awakenings, and the overall change in disease severity as rated by the investigators (Clinical Global Impression of Change; CGI-c). RESULTS: Sodium oxybate, in doses of 3 to 9 g nightly, produced overall improvements in narcolepsy symptoms, which were significant at 4 weeks and maximal after 8 weeks. Reported improvements included a significant decrease in frequency of cataplexy attacks (p < 0.001); diminished daytime sleepiness (p < 0.001); and patient descriptions of nocturnal sleep quality, level of alertness, and ability to concentrate (for each p < 0.001). Adverse events were generally mild and patients showed no evidence of tolerance. CONCLUSION: Sodium oxybate is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for narcolepsy.

2003-02-01

354

Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated Thyroid carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (Urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation) from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major source of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation, also there is a potential for exposure via contamination. Precautions are necessary to limit the radiation dose to family members, nursing staff and members of public and waste treatment workers to less than 1mSv. Patients received Sodium Iodide-131 may come into close contact with other persons. In order to derive appropriate recommendations, dose rates were measured from the anterior mid-trunk of 29 patients in the upright position within 15 minutes post-dose administration at 3 meters and just before they left the nuclear medicine department at 0.5, 1 and 3 meters. We have also measured urinary iodide excretion in 29 patients to estimate Sodium Iodide-131 urinary excretion pattern in Iranian patients. Based on results, the maximum cumulative dose to nursing staff was on third day (Leaving day) still less than recommended dose by ICRP. The cumulative dose of family members will be more but regarding the time and distance in close contact it will also be less than recommended dose by ICRP. Radiation dose rate was decreased significantly on third day. The urinary excretion patterns in all patients were similar. The urinary excretion rate-time curve in all patients showed multiple peaks due to retention and redistribution of Iodine-131 or entrohepatic cycle of radioiodinated thyroid hormones, which didn’t allow calculation of urinary excretion rate constant. The results also showed that 67 hours post administration of Sodium Iodide-131 about 70% of radiopharmaceutical was excreted through urine, 28% physically decayed or eliminated through other biological routes.

Beiki D; Shah Hosseini S; Dadashzadeh S; Eftekhari M; Tayebi H; Moosazadeh Rashti G

2004-01-01

355

Canagliflozin, a new sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, in the treatment of diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The published evidence on the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of a promising investigational agent for managing type 2 diabetes is evaluated. SUMMARY: Canagliflozin belongs to a class of agents-the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-whose novel mechanism of action offers potential advantages over other antihyperglycemic agents, including a relatively low hypoglycemia risk and weight loss-promoting effects. Canagliflozin has dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, and research in laboratory animals demonstrated high oral bioavailability (85%) and rapid effects in lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) values. In four early-stage clinical trials involving a total of over 500 patients, the use of canagliflozin for varying periods was associated with significant mean reductions in HbA(1c) (absolute reductions of 0.45-0.92%) and fasting plasma glucose (decreases ranged from 16.2% to 42.4%) and weight loss ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 kg. More than a dozen Phase II or III clinical trials of canagliflozin in adults are ongoing or were recently completed, but the final results of most of those studies have not been published. Adverse effects reported in clinical trials of canagliflozin include urinary tract and genital infections, occurring in about 10% of patients. Additional and larger Phase III clinical trials to delineate the potential role of canagliflozin and other SGLT2 inhibitors in the management of diabetes (including studies involving the elderly, children, and patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction) are planned or currently underway. CONCLUSION: Canagliflozin and other investigational SGLT2 inhibitors have a novel mechanism of action that may offer a future alternative treatment pathway for managing type 2 diabetes.

Nisly SA; Kolanczyk DM; Walton AM

2013-02-01

356

Effects of glycerol on human skin damaged by acute sodium lauryl sulphate treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glycerol, widely used as humectant, is known to protect against irritants and to accelerate recovery of irritated skin. However, most studies were done with topical formulations (i.e. emulsions) containing glycerol in relatively high amounts, preventing drawing conclusions from direct effects. In this study, acute chemical irritations were performed on the forearm with application of a 10% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) aqueous solution under occlusion for 3 h. Then, glycerol aqueous solutions from 1 to 10% were applied under occlusion for 3 h. After elimination of moist excess consecutive to occlusive condition, in ambient air for 15 and 30 min, skin barrier function was investigated by dual measurement of skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Treatments with SLS solution under occlusion significantly increased TEWL and decreased skin hydration as assessed by capacitance measurements. The SLS irritant property was raised by the occlusion and the water barrier function as well as water content appeared impaired. Recovery with glycerol at low doses was remarkable through a mechanism that implies its hygroscopic properties and which is saturable. This precocious effect acts through skin rehydration by enhancing water-holding capacity of stratum corneum that would facilitate the late physiological repair of impaired skin barrier. Thus, glycerol appears to substitute for natural moisturizing factors that have been washed out by the detergent action of SLS, enhancing skin hydration but without restoring skin barrier function as depicted by TEWL values that remained high. Thus, irritant contact dermatitis treated with glycerol application compensate for skin dehydration, favouring physiological process to restore water barrier function of the impaired skin. Empirical use of glycerol added topical formulations onto detergent altered skin was substantiated in the present physicochemical approach.

Atrux-Tallau N; Romagny C; Padois K; Denis A; Haftek M; Falson F; Pirot F; Maibach HI

2010-08-01

357

Antimicrobial evaluation of gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide paste in infected root canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Microbial irritation is the major etiologic cause of pulp and periapical lesions. Therefore the main goal of endodontic treatment is complete elimination or inimizing acteria with chemo-mechanical preparation. Calcium hydroxide is one of the chemical substances, which are used, in endodontic treatment and its antimicrobial effect on various bacteria has extensively has been studied and researched. Recently Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide has been offered to dentistry.The purpose this study was to examine the antimicrobial effects of this substance in infected root canals. Material and Methods: In this study ninty extracted human maxillary central incisors, which had been extracted to various reasons, were selected. After canal preparation and root sterilization, all the samples (excluding 10 negative control samples) were contaminated by bacillus subtillis. Then these eighty roots were randomly divided into 3 groups , which were 10 roots as positive control group ( non medicated ), 35 roots medicated with Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide as group A, 35 roots medicated with calcium hydroxide as group B. after 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days in these three groups , antimicrobial effect was assessed. Result: The result showed no significant difference (p=0.35) between antimicrobial effect of Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide past.Conclusion: Since there is no significant difference between antimicrobial effect of Gutta-percha point containing calcium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide past, it seems that the usage of this product as an intracanal medication should be more investigated

Eshagh A Saberi; Narges Farhad-Molashahi; Mehdi Mohammadi

2010-01-01

358

Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Nitrite And/Or Glutathione Treatment On Male Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Using food preservatives as sodium nitrite are increased in industrial food productions. Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects have been related to using of some food preservatives. Purpose: To study the effect of sodium nitrite (food additives) and treated with glutathione (nature antitoxic) on rats. Material And Methods: Certain parameters were measured as percentage of body weight change, body temperature, heart rates, Red & white blood cells count (RBCs & WBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) level, hematocrite (Hct) value, serum total lipids, serum cholesterol, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum glucose, serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase (ALT & AST) activity and serum total cholinesterase. The organs, body weight were detected. Organs were prepared for biochemical analysis. Results: Body weight, respiration rate, hepatosomatic index, RBCs & WBCs count, Hb, Hct, serum total lipids, protein, albumin, A/G ratio, liver and muscle total lipids and cholesterol were significantly reduced while serum cholesterol, kidney total lipids and cholesterol, serum ALT & AST was significantly increased. Supplementation of sodium nitrite to rats had no effect on serum glucose level or cholinesterase activity Conclusion: Due to the hazardous effect of food additives as sodium nitrite, it is recommended that the use of sodium nitrite as food additives must be limited and gluathione has the ability to prevent its toxic effect

Eman Helal; *Zahkok, S; **Ghada Z A Soliman; * Al-Kassas, M;

2008-01-01

359

Proton intercalation hysteresis in charging and discharging nickel hydroxide electrodes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A reproducible hysteresis in charge-discharge cycling of thin-film (10--40 nm thickness) electroprecipitated nickel hydroxide electrodes was quantified. Thin-film electrodes were prepared both with and without coprecipitated cobalt hydroxide, a common additive to nickel hydroxide electrodes. The ascending and descending branches of the hysteretic loop were determined. Experimental data were gathered using commonly employed techniques to capture electrode behavior on short- and long-time scales. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge experiments were performed, and a macroscopic model of the nickel hydroxide solid material was constructed and used to interpret the simultaneous mass-transfer, kinetic, and thermodynamic phenomena occurring at the nickel hydroxide intercalation electrode. The persistent hysteresis exhibited by these thin-film electrodes cannot be due only to solid-state mass-transfer limitations. Agreement between calculated and experimental results is achieved with treatment of the hysteresis effect as a permanent, thermodynamic quantity. The numerical model may be applied to most rechargeable cells and is especially suited for systems which exhibit a permanent hysteretic loop or in which side reactions are prevalent. Model results agree with current and potential waveforms gathered from experiments performed with nickel hydroxide thin-film electrodes.

Ta, K.P.; Newman, J.

1999-08-01

360

Influence of the chemical treatment in sodium clay on barrier property of propylene nanocomposites obtained by melt mixing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the influence of the chemical treatment in sodium clay on the barrier property of polypropylene nanocomposites was evaluated. Nanocomposites of PP/clay were obtained by melting intercalation using two different chemically treated clays and the original one was mixed to PP for comparison. The change in the clay structure caused by the chemical treatment was evaluated by X-ray diffractometry. The influence of this modification on the barrier property of the obtained PP nanocomposites was evaluated by analysis of oxygen permeability. (author)

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Treatment of Chronic Migraine: A 3-Month Comparator Study of Naproxen Sodium vs SumaRT/Nap.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of a combination of 85?mg sumatriptan plus 500?mg naproxen sodium in a combination tablet with 500?mg naproxen sodium in an identically appearing tablet when used as a daily preventative and acute treatment for 1 month and episodic acute treatment for an additional 2 months in patients with chronic migraine. BACKGROUND: To date, there has been minimal study of acute medications for patients with chronic migraine. Consequently, there is a paucity of study methodology or evidence-based guidance on the use of acute treatment medications in patients with chronic migraine. METHODS: This two-center, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, comparator pilot trial of 28 subjects, 18 to 65 years of age, with ICHD-II defined chronic migraine, was designed to generate hypotheses about the efficacy of 2 established acute migraine medications used both as a daily preventive treatment (month 1) and episodic acute treatment (months 1, 2, and 3). Subjects were randomized 1:1 to treat daily with SumaRT/Nap (85?mg sumatriptan + 500?mg naproxen sodium) (group A) or naproxen sodium (500?mg) (group B) in a prophylactic strategy for 1 month followed by 2 months of the same medications used for episodic acute treatment. RESULTS: The combination of SumaRT/Nap used over a 3-month period did not appear to significantly reduce the number of migraine headache days. In the subset of subjects using naproxen sodium and completing the study per protocol, there was a marked reduction in migraine headache days (P?treatment to pain free decreased in both groups, but was more robust in group B from baseline to month 3. Subjects in group B completing the study per protocol reported a 56% reduction in headache days vs 8% for group A. Subjects in group A and group B completing the study per protocol had considerably better 2-hour headache relief than subjects withdrawing early from the study. More subjects in group B prematurely withdrew from the study because of lack of efficacy (5 vs 1, respectively). Despite using significant quantities of acute medication during month 1, there was a reduction of acute medication in month 2 and 3 vs baseline vs month 1, particularly in the naproxen group. CONCLUSION: A combination of SumaRT/Nap (group A) did not appear to reduce migraine headache frequency over a 3-month period. Subjects using naproxen sodium (group B) alone and completing the study per protocol had a marked statistically significant reduction in migraine headache days. Both groups completing the study per protocol had experienced clinically meaningful 2-hour headache relief. This suggests there may be a subset of patients with chronic migraine that are responsive to high doses of naproxen as an acute intervention with a significant prophylactic benefit. Subjects randomized to SumaRT/Nap experience benefit, primarily as an acute intervention. This hypothesis may warrant future larger scale clinical trials. Frequent dosing of SumaRT/Nap or naproxen sodium was well tolerated in this study.

Cady R; Nett R; Dexter K; Freitag F; Beach ME; Manley HR

2013-09-01

362

Phosphate Adsorption onto Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH) for Wastewater Reuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adsorption onto Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH), a commercially available, synthetic adsorbent is studied as treatment process for phosphorus removal from wastewater. The objective is to evaluate the suitability of this process alternative for advanced wastewater treatment and reuse. Within this sco...

Sperlich, Alexander

363

Process for making a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct by the electrochemical formation of sodium ferrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described is a process for making a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct with sodium ferrate in a divided-type electrolysis cell. The anolyte chamber of the cell is charged with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and a sodium ferrate-stabilizing proportion of at least one sodium halide salt. The anolyte chamber additionally contains ferric ions (Fe(III)). The catholyte chamber contains an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution during operation. The source of ferric ion in the anolyte may be either an iron-containing anode or at least one iron-containing compound present in the anolyte solution or both. The preferred material separating the anolyte chamber from the catholyte chamber is comprised of a gas- and hydraulic-impermeable, ionically-conductive, chemically-stable ionomeric film (e.g., a cation-exchange membrane with carboxylic, sulfonic or other inorganic exchange sites). Sodium ferrate is prepared in the anolyte chamber by passing an electric current and impressing a voltage between the anode and cathode of the cell. During electrolysis, sodium ferrate forms in the aqueous sodium hydroxide anolyte. This anolyte is reacted with a calcium compound to produce a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct. Alternatively the sodium ferrate may be first recovered in a solid form and then reacted with a calcium compound to produce said adduct.

Deininger, J.P.; Dotson, R.L.

1984-05-29

364

Tratamento da distrofia muscular progressiva com lactato de sódio Treatment of progressive muscular dystrophy with sodium lactate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com base em trabalhos anteriores, 13 casos de distrofia muscular progressiva foram tratados com lactato de sódio 1/6 molar associado a ATP e complexo B. O exame da força muscular, realizado antes e após o tratamento — salvo em dois casos nos quais ocorreram melhoras muito discretas — não mostrou qualquer efeito favorável da medicação. Os autores sugerem a verificação de possíveis alterações enzimáticas provocadas pelo lactato de sódio, o que serviria para melhor avaliação do efeito terapêutico.Thirteen cases of progressive muscular dystrophy were treated with 1/6 M. sodium lactate plus ATP and B complex. Examinations of muscle strength, before and after the treatment, did not show any favourable effects, except in two of the cases which showed slight improvement. The authors suggest that possible enzimatic alterations caused by the sodium lactate be checked up on, since this checking could be employed in the evaluation of the therapeutic effects.

José Antonio Levy; Almir Ferreira de Andrade

1969-01-01

365

Technique of alkaline process for producing sodium methoxide/sodium ethylate  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for preparing sodium methoxde (or ethoxide) by alkali method includes reaction between excess methanol (or ethanol) and sodium hydroxide to obtain product, dewatering the vapour of methanol (or ethanol) by parallel two molecular sieves for alternative adsorption and desorption, and rectifying the solution of methanol (or ethanol) for reuse. Its advantage is no pollution.

YU ZHIBO

366

Acetazolamide and Sodium Bicarbonate in Treatment of Salicylate Poisoning in Adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten adults suffering from salicylate overdosage were treated successfully with a combination of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide to exploit the increase in salicylate clearance which is known to occur in very alkaline urine. The advantages of the method include the absence of important complicat...

Morgan, A. G.; Polak, A.

367

Effect of chronic oral administration of a low dose of captopril on sodium appetite of hypothyroid rats: Influence of aldosterone treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with methimazole develop an exaggerated sodium appetite. We investigated here the capacity of hypothyroid rats (N = 12 for each group) to respond to a low dose of captopril added to the ration, a paradigm which induces an increase in angiotensin II synthesis in cerebral areas that regulate sodium appetite by increasing the availability of circulating angiotensin I. In addition, we determined the influence of aldosterone in hypothyroi (more) d rats during the expression of spontaneous sodium appetite and after captopril treatment. Captopril significantly increased (P

Ventura, R.R.; Olivares, E.L.; Passos Junior, D.B.; Ramalho, M.J.; Antunes-Rodrigues, J.; Reis, L.C.

2001-03-01

368

Adsorption of phosphonate antiscalant from reverse osmosis membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adsorptive removal of antiscalants offers a promising way to improve current reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment processes and enables the reuse of the antiscalant in the RO desalination process. This work investigates the adsorption and desorption of the phosphonate antiscalant nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from RO membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), a material that consists predominantly of akaganéite. The kinetics of the adsorption of NTMP onto GFH was predicted fairly well with two models that consider either combined film-pore or combined film-surface diffusion as the main mechanism for mass transport. It is also demonstrated that NTMP is preferentially adsorbed over sulfate by GFH at pH 7.85. The presence of calcium causes a transformation in the equilibrium adsorption isotherm from a Langmuir type to a Freundlich type with much higher adsorption capacities. Furthermore, calcium also increases the rate of adsorption substantially. GFH is reusable after regeneration with sodium hydroxide solution, indicating that NTMP can be potentially recovered from the RO concentrate. This work shows that GFH is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of NTMP antiscalant from RO membrane concentrates.

Boels L; Keesman KJ; Witkamp GJ

2012-09-01

369

Degradation of L-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C-12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces and catalytically active Mg site centers are causative factors for PLA degradation. Interestingly, the release of water under the processing conditions was found to have a rather small effect on the PLA degradation. Low loadings of sodium laurate also caused PLA degradation indicating that carboxylate chain ends may be active degrading agents. Phosphate treatment of laurate-modified LDH was investigated and this may be a promising way of reducing PLA degradation, thereby making such processes more practically realistic. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gerds, Nathalie Christiane; Katiyar, Vimal

2012-01-01

370

Degradation of l-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesium–aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces and catalytically active Mg site centers are causative factors for PLA degradation. Interestingly, the release of water under the processing conditions was found to have a rather small effect on the PLA degradation. Low loadings of sodium laurate also caused PLA degradation indicating that carboxylate chain ends may be active degrading agents. Phosphate treatment of laurate-modified LDH was investigated and this may be a promising way of reducing PLA degradation, thereby making such processes more practically realistic.

Gerds, Nathalie; Katiyar, Vimal

2012-01-01

371

Effect of calcium hydroxide pastes on uninstrumented canal wall studied with scanning electron microscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Calcium hydroxide (Calpha(OH)2) paste has been used as a root canal dressing for long time and promotes healing of vital pulp and periapical tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dissolving effect of calcium hydroxide paste mixed with different vehicles on uninstrumented canal walls using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty one recently extracted single-root teeth were used. The crowns were removed and the root sections were divided longitudinally into two halves. The pulp tissue was removed and the specimens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The control group was immediately fixed without any treatment. The canals in the other groups were filled with the different calcium hydroxide pastes: group 1 (n = 6), with saline solution; group 2 (n = 6) with propylene glycol; group 3 (n = 6) with propylene glycol and camphorated p-monochlorophenol; group 4 (n = 6) with sodium hypochlorite; group 5 (n = 6) with chorhexidine 1%, group 6 (n = 6) with iodine potassium iodide 0.1/0.2%. The specimens were kept in an incubator at 100% humidity and 37 degrees C, removed after 14 days, and washed ultrasonically for 10 min. Then they were fixed with glutaraldehyde and examined with scanning electron microscopy The percentage of organic remains and paste were evaluated and scored. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal- Wallis test. In groups 1, 5 and 2 there were more cavities without organic remains than in the other groups (p < 0.05). However, there was no difference among them (p > 0.05). The paste in group 3 cleaned only 5%. In groups 4, 6 and 7 (control) the canals walls were wholly covered with fiber, cells, and residual paste, the percentage cleaned was 0. This study shows that Calpha(OH)2 pastes with saline solution, with chlorhexidine and with propylene glycol have a greater dissolving effect on the canal walls than the other pastes evaluated.

de la Casa ML; Sáez Mdel M; López G; López ME

2011-01-01

372

Preparation of pidotimod sodium and medicinal use thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses preparation of pidotimod sodium and medicinal application thereof. The pidotimod sodium is used for treating: (1) recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections (pharyngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis and tonsillitis) (2) repeated infections of E.N.T.department (rhinitis, nasosinusitis and otitis) (3) urinary system infections (4) gynae infections (5) clinical patients with cellular immune hypofunction after chemo-treatment and (6) specific and non specific immunity deficiency diseases, such as cancer. The pidotimod sodium is used for reducing the times of acute attacks, shortening course of disease, relieving degree of attack, and can also be used as adjuvant therapy of antibiotic during acute infections. The pidotimod sodium is obtained through concentrating and drying, or adding insoluble organic solvent for crystallization, or freezing and drying after pidotimod reacts with sodium hydroxide in water or ethanol (but not limited to the solvents). The pidotimod sodium and various pharmaceutically accepted excipients to prepare various pharmaceutically accepted preparation formulations, including but not limited to tablets, capsules, injections and the like, in particular to infusion solution which is used for intravenously administration and is prepared from the pidotimod sodium, and injection, menstruum crystal split powder injection and freeze-drying powder injection which can be added to injection of 5 percent glucose or injection of 0.9 percent sodium chloride. The pidotimod sodium prepared by the method has large solubility in water, and improves the stability of the pidotimod. When the pidotimod is prepared into injection, pH value of the injection is more approximate to pH value of human body.

HANBIN WANG

373

Repository performance assessment of waste forms from the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ceramic and metal waste forms produced by electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel are undergoing evaluation as to how they will perform within the geologic repository which is proposed to be built at Yucca Mountain. An initial assessment, making use of preliminary degradation models for the waste forms, is described. The analyses are performed with a simplified version of the Total System Performance Assessment--Viability Assessment repository model. Results indicate that the ability of the ceramic and metal waste forms to retain radionuclides is similar to and sometimes better than defense high-level waste glass.

2000-01-01

374

Compare the efficacy of lithium carbonate & sodium valproate in treatment of bipolar children and adolescents in acute phase (mixed &mania) treatment at Roozbeh hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available * ** (Received: 9 Mar , 2008 ; Accepted:10 Sep, 2008) Abstract Background and Purpose: To compar the efficacy of lithium carbonate &sodium valproate in treatment of bipolar children and adolescents in acute phase (mixed &mania) in 6 week treatment at Roozbeh hospital .Materials and methods: A double-blind & randomized controlled clinical trial in 30 patient (8-18 years) for a 6 week trial .patients were diagnosed based on DSM_IV criteria through clinical interview & K_SADS .MRS & CGAS were used to measure the severity of symptoms and the level of functional impairment .patients categorized into 2 groups randomly. Results:In both groups means of MRS decreased (at the end of 3rd&6th weeks) and there was no significant difference between two groups. Means of CGAS had significant difference between two groups at 3rd week (psodium valproate had more improvement in function, but it was not at end of 6th week.Conclusion: The study demonstrated the same amount of decrease in sign and severity of symptoms and the same improvement in global functioning in tow groups.It seems that the efficacy of lithium carbonate &sodium valproate in acute phase of bipolar disorder is the same.greater improvement of functioning at the end of the 3rd week in valproate group comparing to the lithium group suggests that sodium valproate may act faster than lithium carbonate. This replicate in future research. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(66):26-34(Persian)

Arefeh Shafaat; Zahra Shahrivar; Javad Alaghband rad; Hossein Kaviani

2008-01-01

375

Chemical destruction of HMX-based explosives with ammonium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory explored the efficacy of ammonium hydroxide solutions in converting HMX (cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine, or Octogen) and HMX-based explosives to nonenergetic, nonhazardous materials. When 80 g of explosive was converted in a reactor operating at 85 psig pressure at 140 C, the principal gaseous products were nitrous oxide (46% to 51%), nitrogen (22% to 32%), and ammonia (17% to 28%). Formate and hexamethylene-tetramine (hexamine) account for effectively 100% of the carbon-bearing aqueous species. Nitrate, nitrite, and acetate were present in the liquid in trace amounts. The process effectively treated molding powders of the plastic-bonded explosives PBX 9501 (2.5% estane), LX-04 (15% viton), and PBX 9404 (3% nitrocellulose). Results were compared with those achieved using sodium hydroxide solutions at 150 C in a pressurized reactor.

Skidmore, C.; Dell`Orco, P.; Flesner, R.; Kramer, J.; Spontarelli, T.

1995-09-01

376

Technology of mine water treatment in uranium ore mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most commonly used method of radioactive water treatment is the sedimentation method based on the adsorption mechanism. Iron, aluminium and calcium hydroxides are used for removal of uranium. Thorium, polonium and lead 210 are removed using the said hydroxides and also barium chloride and sodium phosphate. The mining solutions are mixed with chemicals and cleaning proceses take place including sedimentation, decantation and filtration. The t