WorldWideScience
1

Mechanism of simmondsin decomposition during sodium hydroxide treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jojoba seed meal shows appetite-suppressing activity due to the presence of simmondsin. This pharmacological activity disappears with treatment of the meal with sodium hydroxide. To elucidate this mechanism of inactivation, the reaction of simmondsin in 1 N NaOH at 20 degrees C was monitored as a function of time. The end products of the reaction as well as intermediates were isolated and identified. The half-life of simmondsin was approximately 60 min with d-glucose and 2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile as reaction end products. The reaction mechanism could be elucidated by the isolation of isosimmondsin and a simmondsin lactone derivative. Those compounds were isolated and purified by a combination of column chromatography and HPLC and identified mainly by HRMS and NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12590465

Van Boven, M; Laga, M; Leonard, S; Busson, R; Holser, R; Decuypere, E; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Cokelaere, M

2003-02-26

2

Sodium hydroxide poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical that is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This is for information only and not ...

3

Comparison of Alkaline Treatment of Lead Contaminated Wastewater Using Lime and Sodium Hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A lead-acid storage battery manufacturing industry in India produces several thousand liters of lead con-taminated acidic wastewater on a daily basis and uses hydrated lime to render the lead-contaminated acidic wastewater alkaline (pH = 8.0. Alkaline treatment of the acidic wastewater with lime though a cost-effective method, generates copious amount of lead-contaminated gypsum sludge. Other alkali agents such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dolomite are also used for alkali treatment of the acid wastewaters. The present paper compares the relative efficiency of hydrated lime and 0.05 M to 1 M NaOH solutions with re-spect to 1 amounts of sludge produced, 2 immobilization of the soluble lead in the acidic wastewater (AWW and 3 increase in TDS (total dissolved solids levels upon treatment of AWW with NaOH solutions and lime. The study also performs equilibrium speciation upon alkaline treatment of AWW with lime and NaOH (sodium hydroxide solutions using the Visual MINTEQ program to understand the chemical reac-tions occurring during treatment process.

Sudhakar M. Rao

2010-04-01

4

Decomposition of danburite concentrate by sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leaching process of danburite concentrate with sodium hydroxide was studied in this article. The optimal conditions of leaching process of danburite concentrate by NaOH were found. The mineralogical composition of danburite concentrate by means of chemical and X-ray analysis were defined. The element analysis of danburite concentrate is presented. The standard thermodynamic quantities, including enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy were calculated. The leaching process of initial danburite and its concentrate was studied depending on temperature, process duration and sodium hydroxide concentration. The temperature dependence was studied at temperature range 30-90 deg C. The process duration of leaching of danburite concentrate with NaOH was studied in intervals 30-120 min.

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Sodium hydroxide permethylation of heparin disaccharides  

OpenAIRE

Permethylation is a valuable and widely used tool for the mass spectrometry of carbohydrates, improving sensitivity and fragmentation and increasing the amount of information that can be obtained from tandem mass spectrometric experiments. Permethylation of most glycans is easily performed with sodium hydroxide and iodomethane in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). However, permethylation has not been widely used in the mass spectrometry of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides, partly because it h...

Heiss, Christian; Wang, Zhirui; Azadi, Parastoo

2011-01-01

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Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide

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Potential use of high-temperature and low-temperature steam treatment, sodium hydroxide and an enzyme mixture for improving the nutritional value of sugarcane pith  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The effectiveness of different treatment methods to improve the nutritional value of the sugarcane by-products (pith or bagasse) has been evaluated. The treatment methods included a high-pressure steam treatment (HPST; 19 bar, 3 min), treating the products with sodium hydroxide, sulphuric acid plus [...] an enzyme mixture, or low-temperature steam treatment (LTST) under different conditions. Gas production (GP), two-step in vitro digestibility (IVD) and in situ degradability (ISD) techniques were used to monitor the effectiveness of the treatments. HPST resulted in a significant increased in the total soluble sugar (TSS) content of unsteamed pith (USP), 20 vs. 123.75 mg/100 mL. Except for the enzyme treatment, the other treatments led to a significant improvement in the nutritional value of sugarcane by-products, as measured by the IVD method. LTST resulted in an increase in potential GP (B) at higher temperature, reaction time and amount of acid. The highest potential GP (110.92 mL/300 mg DM) was achieved under the conditions, 134 ºC, 18 g acid/kg DM, 120 min, and the lowest (72.4 mL/300 mg DM) under the conditions, 121 ºC, no acid, 40 min. In situ dry matter degradability (ISDMD) was unaffected by LTST. Dry matter digestibility results indicated that the optimal treatments for treating pith were HPST and NaOH, but that enzymes were ineffective. Furthermore, considering treatment cost (creating high-pressure are more expensive than low temperature treatments), potential environmental health problems and the relative improvement in the nutritional value of pith achieved by the LTST + acid method, compared to the HPST method (as measured using GP), these results suggested that the methods based on the use of LTST and acid (especially under harsher conditions), have the best potential to improve the nutritive value of sugarcane by-products.

M., Chaji; A.A., Naserian; R., Valizadeh; T., Mohammadabadi; Kh., Mirzadeh.

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Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

2002-09-18

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Obstructive airway disease associated with occupational sodium hydroxide inhalation.  

OpenAIRE

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is well known for its corrosive properties and its ability to generate heat on contact with water. The respiratory effects of industrial exposure to NaOH have, however, never been reported. A 63 year old man worked daily for 20 years cleaning large industrial jam containers by boiling lye (NaOH) solution without using respiratory protective equipment. Physical examination, chest x ray film, pulmonary function tests, and arterial blood gases were all compatible with sev...

Rubin, A. E.; Bentur, L.; Bentur, Y.

1992-01-01

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Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.

2002-01-01

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Reaction kinetics of crystal violet dye with sodium hydroxide  

OpenAIRE

Experimental work was carried out in March 2012, at the Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering in Maribor, at the Laboratory for Physical Chemistry, and Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry. We tried to determine the kinetics of the reaction between crystal violet dye and sodium hydroxide. The crystal violet dye (CV+) belongs to triphenylmethane dyes and is mostly used for colouring fabrics in textile industry, that also causes colouration of waste waters. Reaction of the dye with sodiu...

S?erbinek, Lea

2012-01-01

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Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct oxidation of sodium borohydride in concentrated sodium hydroxide medium has been studied by cyclic and linear voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry for silver and gold electrocatalysts, either bulk and polycrystalline or nanodispersed over high area carbon blacks. Gold and silver yield rather complete utilisation of the reducer: around 7.5 electrons are delivered on these materials, versus 4 at the most for platinum as a result of the BH4 - non-negligible hydrolysis taking place on this latter material. The kinetic parameters for the direct borohydride oxidation are better for gold than for silver. A strong influence of the ratio of sodium hydroxide versus sodium borohydride is found: whereas the theoretical stoichiometry does forecast that eight hydroxide ions are needed for each borohydride ion, our experimental results prove that a larger excess hydroxide ion is necessary in quasi-steady state conditions. When the above-mentioned ratio is unity (1 M NaOH and 1 M NaBH4), the tetrahydroborate ions direct oxidation is limited by the hydroxide concentration, and their hydrolysis is no longer negligible. The hydrolysis products are probably BH3OH- ions, for which gold displays a rather good oxidation activity. Additionally, silver, which is a weak BH4 - oxidation electrocatalyst, exhibits the best activity of all the studied materials towards the BH3OH3OH- direct oxidation. Finally, carbon-supported gold nanoparticles seem promising as anode material to be used in direct borohydride fuel cells

13

Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2?+?0.55 % lactic acid at 50°?±?2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50°?±?2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25°?±?2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities. PMID:25477655

Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

2014-12-01

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Thermodynamic and experimental study of sodium hydroxide decomposition in sodium between 430 and 5500C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decomposition of sodium hydroxide in sodium was investigated at temperatures ranging from 430 to 5500C in order to study the kinetic properties of hydroxide decomposition; the objective way to forecast how long steam generator tubes can stay in contact with the Na-NaOH solution, which is liable to induce stress corrosion cracking following a major sodium-water reaction. The experimental results obtained made it possible to draw the curves showing hydrogen pressure in equilibrium with an Na-NaOH solution for various initial NaOH contents and at different temperatures during the successive extractions of the hydrogen formed by a NaOH decomposition. (orig./IHOE)

15

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass

16

Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Mechanical Property of Non Sodium Silicate Fly Ash Based Geopolymer  

OpenAIRE

Alkali activator and materials rich in Si and Al are the requirements for the geopolymer synthesis. The common activator use is sodium hydroxide with silicate solution. There is limited literature on the mechanical property of geopolymer in the absence of silicate solution. In this study, fly ash was used as the raw material to provide Si and Al and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the only activator for the synthesis of geopolymer. This study describes the effect of varying the sodium hydroxide co...

Abdul Rahim, R. H.; Azizli, K. A.; Man, Z.; Rahmiati, T.; Nuruddin, M. F.

2014-01-01

17

Reactions of cumene hydroperoxide mixed with sodium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) was undertaken in a free radical chain reaction. The peroxyl group is very active and unstable, while the remainder of the molecule is inert. CHP reacted with various concentrations of dilute sodium hydroxide as a catalyst to cleave at ambient and decomposition temperature. The products were verified by GC/MS, and were quantitatively analyzed by chromatography. CHP cleaved heterolytic with NaOH at 250 degrees C, whose major product was dimethylphenyl carbinol (DMPC); however, the main products become acetophenone and alpha-methylstyrene by cleaved homolytic pathway. The catalytic concentrations of NaOH significantly affected the branch ratios of DMPC under decomposition. Based on the experimental results, a radical cleavage mechanism was proposed. To sum up, the reaction parameters, such as temperature, Lewis base, etc., could affect the incompatibilities and decomposition pathways for proper CHP cleavage process. In addition, exothermic onset temperatures (T0) and heat of decomposition (Delta Hd) of incompatible mixtures and CHP itself were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Comparisons of T0, Delta Hd and peak power were assessed to corroborate the severity of thermal hazards. From the decay rate of CHP concentration, the reaction order was determined to be 0.5, and the Arrhenius parameters were measured as Ea=92.1 kJ/mol and frequency factor A=2.42 x 10(10)min(-1). PMID:17889997

Hou, Hung-Yi; Shu, Chi-Min; Tsai, Tung-Lin

2008-04-15

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Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provided that the resulting total sodium concentration in feed does not compromise the overall electrolyte balance. Sodium hydroxide in solid form and in aqueous solution at concentrations > 8.0 % is corrosive. At lower concentrations it is irritant to skin and eyes (0.5 % and 0.2 %, respectively and the respiratory tract (0.5 %. Exposure via inhalation is likely to be minimal. Sodium hydroxide is not considered to be a skin sensitiser. As sodium hydroxide is used in food as an acidity regulator, and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2012-10-01

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Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions.

Ospanov, Kh.K.; Sultanbaeva, R.

1983-02-01

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Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions

21

Detection of interstellar sodium hydroxide in self-absorption toward the galactic center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A weak self-absorbed emission line, which we identify as the J = 4--3 transition of sodium hydroxide, has been detected in the direction of Sgr B2(OH). The correspondingly weak Sgr B2(OH) emission line U75406, previously reported as an unidentified spectral feature by other investigators, is consistent with the J = 3--2 transition of sodium hydroxide. This detection may represent the first evidence of a grain reaction formation mechanism for simple metal hydroxides. We also report the detection of H26delta toward Orion A

22

Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3 tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm.The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to develop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane System, model Protosep, modified IV, with transmembrane pressures of 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 kgf/cm² and temperatures of 25 and 50 °C. The membranes used were tubular ceramic (material: TiO2/alpha - Al2O3 with an average diameter of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 µm. The study was divided in two steps: in the first, the best pressure for each membrane was selected, and in the second, a pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm² was adopted and two different forms of feeding were used to define the membrane. The best operational conditions were determined in terms of permeate flow and product quality. With the results, the following operational conditions were selected: pressure of 3.5 kgf/cm², temperature of 25 °C and membrane with average pore diameter of 0.01 µm.

Eduardo Rodrigues de Lima

2008-03-01

23

40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description...

2010-07-01

24

Effects of sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and gaseous hydrogen peroxide on the natural properties of cancellous bone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Processed xenegeneic cancellous bone represents an alternative to bone autograft. In order to observe the effects of present prion inactivation treatments on the natural properties of xenogeneic cancellous bones, we treated bovine bone granules with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and gaseous hydrogen peroxide (gH2 O2 ) respectively in this study. The microstructure, composition, and mineral content of the granules were evaluated by scanning electron micrograph, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ash analysis, and micro-computed tomography. The biomechanical property was analyzed by a materials testing machine. The cytocompatibility was evaluated by using a mouse fibroblast cell line (3T3). The microstructure, organic content, and mechanical strength were dramatically altered at the surface of bone in both NaOH- and NaOCl-treated groups, but not in the gH2 O2 -treated group. Compared with the gH2 O2 -treated group, attachment and proliferation of 3T3 were reduced in either NaOH- or NaOCl-treated groups. As the consequence, gH2 O2 treatment may be a useful approach of disinfection for the preparation of natural cancellous bone with well-preserved structural, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23373516

Bi, Long; Li, De-Cheng; Huang, Zhao-Song; Yuan, Zhi

2013-07-01

25

Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

26

Investigation of rhenium sulfide interaction with sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of oxidizers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide interaction with sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is studied. The processes of rhenium sulfide interaction with hydrogen peroxide in the alkali medium proceed on the phase boundary and are limited by kinetic factors. Possible adsorption mechanism of rhenium sulfide oxidation under these conditions is shown

27

Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Mechanical Property of Non Sodium Silicate Fly Ash Based Geopolymer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkali activator and materials rich in Si and Al are the requirements for the geopolymer synthesis. The common activator use is sodium hydroxide with silicate solution. There is limited literature on the mechanical property of geopolymer in the absence of silicate solution. In this study, fly ash was used as the raw material to provide Si and Al and sodium hydroxide (NaOH as the only activator for the synthesis of geopolymer. This study describes the effect of varying the sodium hydroxide concentration with respect to curing time and temperature on mechanical properties of non-sodium silicate fly ash based geopolymer. The samples were prepared by mixing fly ash with 8, 10 and 12 M of NaOH concentration and cured in room temperature and 60°C for 1, 7 and 28 days. The highest alkali concentration of 12 M showed the fastest setting time and the highest compressive strength regardless of days of curing. The highest compressive strength obtained for curing at 60°C was 59.81 MPa and 45 min was recorded for the setting time. Meanwhile, at room temperature, the highest strength obtained was 17.71 MPa and 248 min for setting time.

R.H. Abdul Rahim

2014-01-01

28

Rhenium and VR-20 alloy electrochemical dissolving in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experimental investigation of rhenium and W-Re (VR-20) alloy electrochemical dissolving both at variable (50 Hz) and constant current in sodium hydroxide solutions are presented. A possibility is shown of complete elimination of electrode polarization at electrochemical reprocessing of wastes of tungsten-rhenium alloys using variable current. It is established that one can work in dissolved electrolytes at constant current only at low densities of current

29

Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth  

OpenAIRE

Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root c...

Chawla H; Setia S; Gupta N.; Gauba K; Goyal A

2008-01-01

30

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOE’s complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)—super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)—and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,000–50,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000–300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be roughly $150 million to $400 million for construction and $10 million to $40 million per year for operations. Depending on the level of aluminate supersaturation allowed in the storage tanks in the LAW Pretreatment Facility, these values indicate a return on investment of up to 25% to 60%.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-08-31

31

Sodium oxide/hydroxide aerosol properties and behavior in a large vessel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two large-scale aerosol behavior tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) using sodium pool fires as the aerosol source. The purpose was to characterize the properties and behavior of sodium aerosol particles formed and aged in a large containment vessel. The results will be used as baseline data for comparison with follow-on air cleaning tests. The 20-m high, 850-m3 CSTF containment vessel is approximately half scale of a commercial reactor containment building for parameters which affect agglomeration and gravitational settling. Thus, the test air cleaning systems will be challenged with an aerosol closely representative of that postulated for LMFBR accidents. The results of these tests also offer an excellent opportunity to evaluate computer models which have been developed for the purpose of predicting aerosol behavior during hypothetical accidents in sodium cooled reactor containment spaces. The two tests differed only in that steam was injected in the second test to simulate the release of water vapor from heated concrete. The aerosol in the first test was a dry mixture of sodium peroxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. In the second test it was predominantly wet sodium hydroxide. The addition of water vapor caused more rapid fallout during the aerosol release period, but lower settling rates afterward. The net results was a 25% lower potential for aerosol leakage in the wet test. Detailed analyses of computer model test. Detailed analyses of computer model comparisons have not yet been performed, but preliminary HAA-3B code predictions were in good agreement with suspended mass concentration and the ratio of mass settled to plated on walls

32

THE BACTERIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT: NORMAL SALINE 5.25% AND 0.5%, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CALCIUM HYDROXIDE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this invitro investigation was to compare the anti-bacterial effect of normal saline and sodium hypochlorite (5.25 percent and 0.5 percent with calcium hydroxide used as intra canal dressing used in different time periods. Methods: 180 single-rooted freshly extracted teeth were selected. The crowns were resected of CEJ and the canal were flared to the same length using a number one Gates-Glidden. A suspension of selected strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria was placed inside the canals and incubated in anaerobic condition for 24 hours. Then the teeth were randomly assigned to 9 groups. Results: Group 1. Negative control; group 2. Positive control; group 3. instrumented using normal saile; group 4. instrumented using 0.5 percent sodium hypochlorite; grooup 5. instrumentation using 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite; group 6. After instrumentation, 10 min. of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 7. after instrumentation 24h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 8. After instrumentation 48h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group9. After instrumentation a week of calcium hydroxide was placed. Then paper points were used to get samples in each group. The samples incubated in anaerobid condition for 48 hours. The TSB turbidity was compared to mcfarland"s scale. Discussion: The results of this study indicates: Sodium hypochlorite in both concentrations were significantly more effective than normal saline. The one week calcium hydroxide group was significantly more effective than all other groups and was comparable to negative control group. The 24h and 48h calcium hydroxide groups did not have significant differences with each other or with the sodium hypochlorite groups. The 10 min. calcium hydroxide group was only comparable to normal saline group.

A.R FARHAD

2000-09-01

33

Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber  

OpenAIRE

Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was carried out with NaOH from 2% to 10% (w/v) at temperature 500C and 700C. The performances of pretreatments were evaluated based on total carbohydrate and reducing sugar including glucose, xylose and arabinose after enzymatic hydrolysis on the pretreated biomass. It was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis had significantly improved when 6% NaOH in 700C applied in the pretreatment process. The highest total reducing sugars prod...

Nur Izzati Iberahim; Jamaliah Md. Jahim; Shuhaida Harun; Mohd Tusirin Mohd Nor; Osman Hassan

2013-01-01

34

Dehydrochlorination of 1,3-Dichloropropan-2-Ol by Calcium and Sodium Hydroxide Solutions  

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Full Text Available The results of dehydrochlorination of 88 wt% aqueous solution of 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol to epichlorohydrin are reported. The process was carried out in the reaction-stripping column system with a continuous removal of epichlorohydrin in the steam stream. Aqueous solutions of sodium and calcium hydroxides at concentrations in the range of 3-14 wt% were used for the dehydrochlorination. The infl uence of the type and concentration of dehydrochlorination agent on 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol conversion, the selectivity of transformation to epichlorohydrin and by-products, and the composition of distillate and wastewater were studied.

Krzy?anowska Anna

2014-09-01

35

The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of sulfoaluminate compounds was investigated by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tricalcium aluminate/gypsum mixtures with a molar ratio of 1:1 sulfate-to-aluminate were hydrated at constant temperatures from 30 to 90°C; in de-ionized water, in 200mM and in 500mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Hydration in de-ionized water produced ettringite and monosulfate as the dominant crystalline phases, regardless of temperature. Complex assemblages of phases formed in 200mM and 500mM sodium hydroxide including ettringite, monosulfate and U-phase, at all temperatures. Hydration of monosulfate and gypsum was also carried out at constant temperatures from 30° to 80°C using de-ionized water and 0.2M, 0.5M, and 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Ettringite was found to be the dominant crystalline phase over the entire temperature range and at all sodium hydroxide concentrations. A sodium-substituted monosulfate phase was formed as a hydration product in the 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution regardless of temperature. Sulfoaluminate compounds formed by tricalcium aluminate hydration in magnesium sulfate solution were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydration was carried out in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions and isothermally at temperatures from 30 to 80°C. Monosulfate, ettringite, gypsum and a hydrogarnet phase (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O) were all observed as hydration products. Monosulfate and hydrogarnet were the only phases observed for hydration in 0.5 and 1.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Ettringite was the dominant crystalline phase after hydration in 3.0M solution, regardless of temperature. To investigate the rate of hydration, reactions at 60°C in 3.0M magnesium sulfate solution were quenched after 26 minutes, 73 minutes, 2.5 hours and 12 hours to establish the evolution of hydrated phases. Depending on hydration times ettringite, monosulfate, gypsum, hydrogarnet and residual tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80°C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50°C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (ettringite, and monosulfate were present at intermediate times. Monosulfate was the final crystalline hydration product. Amorphous solids produced include a calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

Clark, Boyd Arthur

36

EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC). The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48...

FAREED AHMED MEMON; MUHD FADHIL NURUDDIN; SADAQATULLAH KHAN; NASIR SHAFIQ; TEHMINA AYUB

2013-01-01

37

Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was characterised using Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established by mass and absorption spectroscopy. The sulphate form of green rust is composed of brucite-like layers with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in an ordered distribution. The interlayers contain sulphate, water and sodium in an arrangement characteristic for the nikischerite group. The crystal structure is highly disordered by slacking faults. The composition, formula and crystallographic parameters are: NaFe(II)(6)Fe(III)(3)(SO4)(2)(OH)(18)center dot 12H(2)O, space group P-3, a = 9.528(6) angstrom, c = 10.968(8) angstrom and Z = 1.Green rust sodium sulphate, GR(Na,SO4) crystallizes in thin, hexagonal plates. Particles range from less than 50 nm to 2 mu m in diameter and are 40 nm thick or less. The material is redox active and reaction rates are fast. Extremely small particle size and high surface area contribute to rapid oxidation, transforming green rust to an Fe(III)-phase within minutes.

Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.

2009-01-01

38

Melting in phase-change thermal storage media. Final report. [Mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research has focused on melting caused by a tubular heat source embedded in a solid phase-change medium. Separate studies were performed with the heater positioned with its axis horizontal and with its axis vertical. The motivation for investigating both orientations is that they correspond to those of proposed bulk-type storage configurations. In addition, the direction of th gravity force relative to the heating surface is different in the two cases and this causes differences in the buoyancy forces that act on the liquid generated by the melting process. Two phase-change media were employed in the experiments: (a) the eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide--melting temperature of 244/sup 0/C (471/sup 0/F), (b) naphthalene--melting temperature of 80/sup 0/C (176/sup 0/F). The analysis was carried out on a specific fluid or a temperature level. The experimental results encompass information on both the heat transfer coefficient at the heated surface and on the size and shape of the melt zone. Since the heat transfer coefficient relates the heat flux and the temperaure difference, it is directly applicable to design. Furthermore, the knowledge of the size and shape of the melt zone enables decisions to be made about the placement of adjacent elements of a multiple heat source array. The analysis also provides surface heat transfer coefficients and melt layer size and shape. (WHK)

Sparrow, E. M.; Ramsey, J. W.

1978-01-01

39

Oxidation states of molybdenum in oxide films formed in sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the oxidation states of molybdenum in thin films formed potentiostatically, over a range of potentials, in either 1 mol dm{sup -3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or 10 mol dm{sup -3} NaOH at 20 Degree-Sign C. Mo 3d spectra suggested that MoO{sub 2} and Mo(OH){sub 2} were the main components of the films, with smaller amounts of MoO{sub 3} and possibly Mo{sub 2}O{sub 5}. O 1s spectra indicated the presence of oxygen as oxide and hydroxide species and as bound water. Ion beam analysis revealed the formation of thin films at all potentials, with significant losses of oxidized molybdenum to the electrolyte. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxides are formed on molybdenum in sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molybdenum IV and VI are identified by XPS, with MoO2 species dominating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thicknesses of films are determined by ion beam analysis for a range of potentials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films form at low efficiency due to loss of molybdenum species to electrolyte.

Okonkwo, I.A.; Doff, J.; Baron-Wiechec, A. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jones, G. [Waters Corporation, Floats Rd, Roundthorn Ind. Est., Manchester M23 9LZ (United Kingdom); Koroleva, E.V. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Skeldon, P., E-mail: p.skeldon@manchester.ac.uk [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2012-07-31

40

Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF was carried out with NaOH from 2% to 10% (w/v at temperature 500C and 700C. The performances of pretreatments were evaluated based on total carbohydrate and reducing sugar including glucose, xylose and arabinose after enzymatic hydrolysis on the pretreated biomass. It was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis had significantly improved when 6% NaOH in 700C applied in the pretreatment process. The highest total reducing sugars produced by means of commercial enzymes was achieved with the overall conversions of glucan and xylan of 87% and 60.73% respectively. The compositions of OPMF in this study are as follows (% g/g dry biomass: glucan, 28.8, xylan, 25.3, arabinan, 1.91, ethanol extractive, 6.32 and ash, 2.60.

Nur Izzati Iberahim

2013-06-01

41

Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-06-01

42

The effect of flow-accelerated corrosion with high-temperature sodium hydroxide on tube target-wastage caused in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wastage phenomena on adjacent tubes (target-wastage) arise from water/steam leak in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Target-wastage is likely to be caused by liquid droplet impingement erosion and flow-accelerated corrosion in an environment marked by high-temperature and high-alkali (reaction jet) due to sodium-water reaction. The static and flow-accelerated corrosion experiments have been carried out as a part of phenomena clarification experiments for target-wastage by using tube material under high-temperature sodium-hydroxide and sodium monoxide conditions which are mainly generated by sodium-water reaction. The authors evaluated the dependence of liquid/tube material temperature and liquid impingement velocity upon the flow-accelerated corrosion rate on the tube in this report. (author)

43

The effect of flow-accelerated corrosion with high-temperature sodium hydroxide on tube target-wastage caused in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wastage phenomena on adjacent tubes (target-wastage) arise from water/steam leak in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Target-wastage is likely to be caused by liquid droplet impingement erosion and flow-accelerated in an environment marked by high-temperature and high-alkali (reaction jet) due to sodium-water reaction. The static and flow-accelerated corrosion experiments have been carried out as a part of phenomena elucidation experiments for target-wastage by using actual tube material under high-temperature sodium-hydroxide and sodium monoxide conditions which are mainly generated by sodium-water reaction. The authors evaluated the dependence of liquid/tube material temperature and liquid velocity upon the flow-accelerated corrosion rate on the tube and derived the new correlation of flow-accelerated corrosion for target-wastage taking into account local wastage environment in this report. (author)

44

Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

2014-09-01

45

Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98 °C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed. PMID:23987353

Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

2013-10-15

46

Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn–Al layered double hydroxide morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: ? In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. ? Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. ? Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. ? Growth mechanism was discussed. ? Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

47

Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber

48

IGA of alloy 600 in high-temperature solutions of sodium hydroxide contaminated with carbonate. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alloy 600 was tested in sodium hydroxide contaminated with sodium carbonate at 3000C and 3150C to examine its resistance to intergranular attack (IGA) under controlled cathodic and anodic potentials. Specimens of alloy 600 were studied as C-rings under constant deflection, wires under constant load and wires without any applied tensile stress. The material was mainly used in its mill annealed condition, although some specimens were studied as solution annealed and solution annealed plus sensitized. Unlike the last two metallurgical states, the mill annealed alloy 600 material was rather sensitive to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in a range of anodic potentials

49

Electrochemical screening of organic and inorganic inhibitors for the corrosion of ASTM A-470 steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion of ASTM A-470 turbine disk steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (10 mol/kg) containing sodium silicate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chromate, aniline and some of its derivatives, tannic acid, L-(-)-phenylalanine (aminopropionic acid) and octadecylamine as potential inhibitors has been studied using the potentiodynamic, AC impedance, and Tafel extrapolation techniques. All tests were performed at 115 + or - 2 C. The anodic and cathodic polarization data show that aniline and its derivatives, L-(-)-phenylalanine, NaH2PO4, Na2SiO3, and Na2CrO4 inhibit the anodic process, whereas tannic acid inhibits the cathodic reaction. Octadecylamine was found to inhibit both the anodic and cathodic processes. The mechanisms of inhibition for some of these compounds have been inferred from the wide band width frequency dispersions of the interfacial impedance

50

Sodium Hydroxide (CAS No. 62-53-3 [Hidróxido de Sodio (CAS No. 62-53-3  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda, is an inorganic solid which provides an extremely important role for the manufacture of heavy chemical. This Arrhenius’ base is used for the production of textiles and paper, and participates as an input the manufacture of various products. This article presents a brief history of the production of caustic soda, describes in detail the electrolytic processes currently used for their production and, finally, shows how is the outlook for brazilian and worldwide production and consumption of this basis.

Illana Muniz Canto Brum da Silva

2012-03-01

51

Extração de amido em cavacos de bambu tratados com solução diluída de hidróxido de sódio Starch extraction from bamboo chips treated with sodium hydroxide diluted solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determinaram-se, em colmos de bambu (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. de um e cinco anos, os teores de amido, a fração fibrosa e o resíduo parenquimatoso em função da concentração de hidróxido de sódio (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75%, do tempo de tratamento (5, 10 e 15 horas e do tempo de desfibramento (30, 60 e 90 segundos. 0 delineamento experimental utilizado foi um fatorial 3³. Pelos resultados, a concentração de hidróxido de sódio e o tempo de tratamento não influíram significativamente nos teores de amido, fração fibrosa e resíduo parenquimatoso. A maior quantidade de amido (75,22 g/kg foi obtida em colmos de cinco anos no maior tempo de desfibramento (90 segundos. Com este estudo, demonstrou-se que a extração de amido é tecnicamente viável como um pré-tratamento de cavacos de Bambusa vuigaris, utilizados na produção de celulose e papel.In culms of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. (1 and 5 years old, the contents of starch fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were determined in function of sodium hydroxide solution concentration (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%, treatment time (5, 10 and 15 hours and shredding time (30, 60 and 90 seconds. The experimental trial was a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial. The results showed the contents of starch, fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were not affected by sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time. The highest starch quantity (75.22 g/kg was obtained in the highest shredding time (90 seconds from the 5 years bamboo culms. This study showed the starch extraction is feasible technically as a pre-treatment of the bamboo chips employed to produce pulp and paper.

Anisio Azzini

1996-01-01

52

Extração de amido em cavacos de bambu tratados com solução diluída de hidróxido de sódio / Starch extraction from bamboo chips treated with sodium hydroxide diluted solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Determinaram-se, em colmos de bambu (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.) de um e cinco anos, os teores de amido, a fração fibrosa e o resíduo parenquimatoso em função da concentração de hidróxido de sódio (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75%), do tempo de tratamento (5, 10 e 15 horas) e do tempo de desfibramento (30, 60 e 90 [...] segundos). 0 delineamento experimental utilizado foi um fatorial 3³. Pelos resultados, a concentração de hidróxido de sódio e o tempo de tratamento não influíram significativamente nos teores de amido, fração fibrosa e resíduo parenquimatoso. A maior quantidade de amido (75,22 g/kg) foi obtida em colmos de cinco anos no maior tempo de desfibramento (90 segundos). Com este estudo, demonstrou-se que a extração de amido é tecnicamente viável como um pré-tratamento de cavacos de Bambusa vuigaris, utilizados na produção de celulose e papel. Abstract in english In culms of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. (1 and 5 years old), the contents of starch fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were determined in function of sodium hydroxide solution concentration (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%), treatment time (5, 10 and 15 hours) and shredding time (30, 60 and 90 seconds). [...] The experimental trial was a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial. The results showed the contents of starch, fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were not affected by sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time. The highest starch quantity (75.22 g/kg) was obtained in the highest shredding time (90 seconds) from the 5 years bamboo culms. This study showed the starch extraction is feasible technically as a pre-treatment of the bamboo chips employed to produce pulp and paper.

Anisio, Azzini; Rose Marry Araújo, Gondim-Tomaz.

53

Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 ?g/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

2014-02-01

54

Simultaneous determination of ampicillin and sulbactam by liquid chromatography: post-column reaction with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite using an active hollow-fibre membrane reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ampicillin (ABPC) and sulbactam (SBT) in serum and urine. The method involves separation of ABPC and SBT from the background components of serum and urine on a C18 column, post-column reaction with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite using an active hollow-fibre membrane reactor, and detection at 270 nm. At ABPC and SBT concentrations of 10 and 5 micrograms/ml in urine and serum samples, the precisions (relative standard deviations) were 0.9-2.5% (n = 8). The detection limits were 20 and 5 ng for ABPC and SBT, respectively, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. PMID:2079542

Haginaka, J; Nishimura, Y

1990-10-26

55

Influence of ortho-substituted phenols as Corrosion Inhibitors on the Corrosion of Aluminium in Sodium Hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inhibition of corrosion of the commercial aluminium in solutions of sodium hydroxide, by o-substituted phenols(o-cresol, o-chlorophenol, o-aminophenol and o-nitrophenol), has been studied with respect to concentration of inhibitor and alkali, period of immersion and temperature the results are as follows: 1. The order of inhibitive efficiency in 0.1 M NaOH containing 0.01-0.5 wt % of inhibitor was o-nitrophenol (-15?%) o-aminophenol>o-chlorophenol>o-cresol (89.6%). 2. O-substituted phenols, except for o-aminophenol, were effective as corrosion inhibitors in sodium hydroxide lower than 0.2 M. 3. Although the weight loss due to corrosion increased with rise in temperature (from 30 .deg. C to 60 .deg. C), the inhibitive efficiency remained almost constant. 4. Depletion of inhibitor appeared in 0.1 M NaOH containing 1.0% inhibitor by the corrosion process after immersion period of 45 minutes. 5. Inhibitive efficiency of substituent groups was different from the results by weight concentration of the inhibitor and there was very little correlation between pka values of the inhibitor or its molecular weight or solubility and its efficiency

56

In-vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues, as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various doses of gamma irradiation (0,100,150,200 KGy) and different concentrations of sodium hydroxide on crude fibre (CF), Cell-wall constituents (NDF, ADF, ADL), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), gross energy (GE), in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (W.S) cotton seed shall (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (SB.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeeled seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that HaOH in the concentrations at (4 and 6%) had significant effects on the CF content of W.S and P.S, E.U.E, SB.S, C.S.S, O.C.E; respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaoH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the NDF level. Irradiation dose of 200 KGy decreased CF for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and SB.S. However, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S, P.S and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. The digestible energy values (kJ/Kg DM) increased by 1120,1 220, 2110 (W.S); 620, 830, 1000 for P.S; 240, 500, 580 for O.C.E; 500, 850, 870 for S.U.E; 550, 1060, 1200 for SB.S and 1260, 1710, 2070 for C.S.S using 100, 150, 200, KGy respectively, in comparison to unirradiated controls. Also, the IVDE values (Kj/Kg DM) increased by 560, 1050, 1590 for W.S; 310, 460, 650 for P.S; 170, 760, 1530 for C.S.S; 450, 990, 1190 for O.C.E using 2%, C.S.S; 450, 990, 1190 for O.C.E using 2%, 4%, 6% NaOH respectively, in comparison to controls. No changes in the IVDE values for S.U.E and SB.S. Combined treatment resulted in an even better increase in the digestible energy, except S.U.E and SB.S. (Author)

57

Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de soluções irrigadoras de canais radiculares contendo hidróxido de cálcio e lauril sulfato de sódio em linhagem de fibroblastos L929. Solução aquosa saturada de hidróxido de cálcio, lauril sulfato de sódio e HCT20 (lauril sulfato de sódio e hid [...] róxido de cálcio) foram diluídos em água destilada em concentrações de 50%, 20%, 10% e 5%. O grupo controle foi representado por meio de cultura de células (MEM - minimum essential medium). A citotoxicidade das soluções sobre os fibroblastos foi avaliada em 4 e 24 h de contato, pelo método do cromo radioativo. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Em todas as análises, o intervalo de confiança referente às médias entre os grupos foi estabelecido em 95%. As soluções saturadas de hidróxido de cálcio e o HCT20 apresentaram toxicidade nas concentrações de 50%. O lauril sulfato de sódio foi tóxico em todas as concentrações. As soluções de hidróxido de cálcio em concentrações menores que 50% apresentaram tolerância celular, assim como combinadas ao lauril sulfato de sódio. Tal comportamento não foi observado na solução pura de lauril sulfato de sódio em todas as concentrações. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calciu [...] m hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxicity of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution.

Sérgio Valmor, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Sodré, Barroso; Patrícia Alvarez, Ruiz.

58

Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology -- High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85 C and 60 C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100 C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85 C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

59

Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2011-02-04

60

Doping magnesium hydroxide with sodium nitrate: a new approach to tune the dehydration reactivity of heat-storage materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermochemical energy storage (TES) provides a challenging approach for improving the efficiency of various energy systems. Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, is known as a suitable material for TES at temperature T>300 °C. In this work, the thermal decomposition of Mg(OH)2 in the absence and presence of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is investigated to adapt this material for TES at T300 °C in vapor atmosphere) than a pure Mg(OH)2; (3) the morphology of the dehydration product (MgO) dramatically changes. Differential scanning calorimetry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman) are used to study the observed effects and to elucidate possible ways the NaNO3 influences the Mg(OH)2 dehydration and morphology of the dehydration product. The mechanism involving a chemical interaction between the salt and the hydroxide accompanied by nitrate embedding into brucite layers is discussed. PMID:25333760

Shkatulov, Alexandr; Krieger, Tamara; Zaikovskii, Vladimir; Chesalov, Yurii; Aristov, Yuri

2014-11-26

61

Ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide treated corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol was produced via the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of dilute sodium hydroxide treated corn stover. Saccharification was achieved by cultivating either Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Gloeophyllum trabeum on the treated stover, and fermentation was then performed by using either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli K011. Ethanol production was highest on day 3 for the combination of G. trabeum and E. coli K011 at 6.68 g/100g stover, followed by the combination of P. chrysosporium and E. coli K011 at 5.00 g/100g stover. SSF with S. cerevisiae had lower ethanol yields, ranging between 2.88 g/100g stover at day 3 (P. chrysosporium treated stover) and 3.09 g/100g stover at day 4 (G. trabeum treated stover). The results indicated that mild alkaline pretreatment coupled with fungal saccharification offers a promising bioprocess for ethanol production from corn stover without the addition of commercial enzymes. PMID:24561994

Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

2014-04-01

62

The effect of direct current, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid on pig epidermis. A light microscopic and electron microscopic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lesions in pig skin were induced by direct current, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, and the morphology of the lesions was compared in order to establish the influence of electrolysis in the electrical lesions. Both light microscopically and electron microscopically a pronounced similarity was found between cathode lesions and base-induced lesions including the presence of vesicular nuclei in both kinds of lesions. Some features were also common to anode lesions and acid induced lesions, but dissimilarities were present as well. From the results it is concluded that electrolysis in the tissue with the subsequent shift of pH, especially towards the alkaline side, is responsible for the formation of the vesicular nuclei which we repeatedly have found to be characteristic of electrical skin lesions. The shift of pH also induces the cytoplasmic feature called "white necrosis" which therefore is found more regularly in electrical lesions than in heat lesions. PMID:6613581

Thomsen, H K; Danielsen, L; Nielsen, O; Aalund, O; Nielsen, K G; Karlsmark, T; Genefke, I K; Christoffersen, P

1983-09-01

63

The Corrosion Behavior of Nickel and Inconel 600 in Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrochloric Acid Solution at 280 .deg. C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion behavior of nickel and Inconel 600 has been investigated by the weight change measurement method at pH ranges 3?13 of the solution. The specimens were exposed to aqueous solutions in a static autoclave at 280 .deg. C for 210 hours. The pH of the solutions was adjusted by hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide and the dissolved oxygen concentration was fixed as 10 ppb by using pure nitrogen gas. Weight loss of Inconel 600 was much less than that of nickel over the tested pH ranges. At pH 9.5, nickel and Inconel 600 showed the minimum weight loss phenomenon and the values of weight loss were 1.5mg/dm2 and 0.9mg/dm2, respectively. Microscopic examination showed that nickel surface was attacked uniformly, whereas Inconel 600 surface was not greatly

64

Technology Readiness Evaluation For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regenration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

65

ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

2011-01-27

66

Heat treatment of niobium hydroxide in vibration-fluidized-bed apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of heat treatment (drying and calcination) of wet niobium hydroxide, providing preparation of special purity niobium oxide, is studied. It is shown that niobium hydroxide should be dried in the material layer at temperatures higher than 300-320 deg C, since the temperature elevation leads to decomposition of the material. At the same time the process of calcination and preparation of niobium oxide must be carried out at temperatures greater than 600 deg C, when the substance transforms form the amorphous state into the crystalline one

67

Root canal treatment of pulpless immature teeth using calcium hydroxide paste. Roentgenographic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcium hydroxide paste was used as a temporary dressing and the renewal was done each three months in the root treatment of immature teeth with open apex and necrotic pulps. Clinical and radiographic controls were made to observe foraminal closure. After that, the root canals were filled, employing the conventional technique with gutta-percha cones and zinc oxide eugenol cements. The calcium hydroxide paste was applied in the apical region before the root canal filling. The follow-up was done periodically and the cases have more than two years of control. (author)

68

Solubilities of betulin and betulinic acid in sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions of varied mole fraction at temperatures from 283.2 K to 323.2 K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The solubilities of betulin and betulinic acid in varied mole fraction of sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions. • The experimental solubility data are correlated by Apelblat equation. • The dissolution enthalpy and entropy were calculated using van’t Hoff equation. -- Abstract: The solubilities of betulin and betulinic acid were measured at varied values of mole fraction of sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions at a series of temperature (283.2, 293.2, 303.2, 313.2, and 323.2) K. They increase with the increase of temperature. Furthermore, the solubility of betulinic acid has a positive correlation with the mole fraction of sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions, and so is that of the betulin. The experimental solubility resuls are well correlated by the modified Apelblat equation. The enthalpy and entropy of betulin and betulinic acid during the dissolution process in sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are calculated with the van’t Hoff equation. The results indicate that the dissolution process is endothermal reaction that is driven by entropy

69

Influence of zeolite treated with sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide on the coagulation-flocculation process of drainage. Influencia de la zeolita tratada con acido sulfurico y con hidroxido de sodio en el proceso de coagulacion floculacion en aguas superficiales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper has had as objective the treatment of natural zeolite from Tasajera with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide (residuals acid and basic from the regeneration of cationic and anionic resins of the ''Otto Parallada'' thermoelectric plant) at different times and concentrations, with a further comparison and testing of the effectiveness of the obtained zeolite in respect to the natural one as a coadyuvant of the coagulation-flocculation process in the treatment of superficial water. (Author)

Gutierrez Duque, M.; Herrera Vasconcelos, T.; Laria Piedra, N.

1994-01-01

70

Low-cycle fatigue strength of 10Kh18N9 stainless steel at 773 K in sodium containing a hydroxide impurity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When an atomic power plant runs on fast neutrons with sodium coolant, the second-loop intermediate heat exchanger, which is made of 10Kh18N9 stainless steel, operates under static and dynamic loads. In this case, the material experiences the action of two incompatible coolants: sodium and a steam-and-water medium, direct contact between which results in the formation of a highly aggressive reaction product: sodium hydroxide. This research investigated the effect of sodium containing a hydroxide impurity on the low-cycle fatigue strength of stainless steel 10Kh18N9 at 773 K. It was found that the presence of 5 wt. % hydroxide in sodium leads to a significant decrease in the cyclic strength of 10Kh18N9 steel at 773 K. This is explained by the elevated aggressivity of the medium with respect to the main components of steel under a tensile load. The corrosion products formed in this situation (complex oxides) act like a wedge in the case of a compressive load. The high stress concentration that arises at the crack tip causes further development of the crack and exposure of fresh surfaces that are subjected to corrosion

71

Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root canal filling material from the root canals and the status of overpushed material, if any, as the tooth resorbed with the passage of time. At 6 months, endodontic treatment in 2 of the 25 teeth had failed and one tooth had exfoliated; the remaining 22 teeth were without any signs or symptoms. At the end of 2 years, 14 teeth could be evaluated; out of these 12 had physiologically exfoliated. It was observed that the rate of resorption of this new root canal obturating mixture was quite similar to the rate of physiologic root resorption in primary teeth. In three cases, where there was an overpush of the mixture, a gradual partial resorption was noted.

Chawla H

2008-06-01

72

Preliminary observations of the strain-induced corrosion of alloy-800 in sodium hydroxide-saturated sodium and on its evolution in dynamic purified sodium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small scale lab-method is described to achieve same information about four point-bending strain induced intergranular corrosion of Alloy-800 (experimental heats with a metallurgical structure between the commercial grade 1 and grade 2 alloy) in sodium saturated by NaOH and hence in dynamic purified sodium. The specimens were preexposed in sodium for same thousands of hours at 5500C to obtain the metallurgical structure induced by the in-service aging, by monitoring carbon activity by tab tests. The samples were then exposed under applied strain (up to above 0.2%) in the Na-NaOH systems and then in purified liquid sodium of our corrosion test loop at both 5500C and 4500C. Some preliminary results concerning the characteristics of the intergranular attack observed and its evolution in purified sodium are reported and discussed. (orig./IHOE)

73

A basis for the development of new ammonia-water-sodium hydroxide absorption chillers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adding NaOH to ammonia/water improves the separation of ammonia in the generator and reduces both chiller driving temperature and rectification losses. In this paper the main disadvantages for the implementation of these new mixtures are addressed: a) few experimental data or reliable correlations of the fluid mixture properties exist; b) selection of an adequate system for separating the hydroxide; and c) evaluation of potential corrosion problems. Our results show that the separation of NaOH from an ammonia/water solution with a maximum approximate mass fraction of 0.05 (5% weight) is viable when reverse osmosis is used with membranes BW30 and SW30HR LE. Cycle simulation using experimental data to calculate the vapour-liquid equilibrium properties shows that the COP is approximately 20% higher than with a conventional ammonia/water chiller working under the same conditions and using a hydroxyl separation efficiency of 99% for NaOH, which is feasible according to the experimental tests. (author)

Steiu, Simona; Salavera, Daniel; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Mechanical Engineering, CREVER - Group of Applied Thermal Engineering, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

2009-06-15

74

21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

...1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2 , CAS Reg...of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient...

2010-04-01

75

Nonsurgical Treatment of Two Periapical Lesions with Calcium Hydroxide Using Two Different Vehicles  

OpenAIRE

Calcium hydroxide is used extensively as an intracanal medicament in endodontics for many years. It is used in various clinical situations such as to promote apexification, to repair perforation, to enhance healing of periapical lesions, to control root resorption, and to control exudation in teeth with persistent periapical inflammation. This paper presents a case report in which Ca(OH)2 was used as an intracanal medicament for treatment of periradicular lesions using two different vehicles ...

Dixit, Seema; Dixit, Ashutosh; Kumar, Pravin

2014-01-01

76

ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

2011-01-27

77

Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

78

Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions containing acetic acid or sodium hydroxide in the temperature range from 313 to 433 K and at total pressures up to 10 MPa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions containing acetic acid and in aqueous solutions containing sodium hydroxide was measured in the temperature range from 313 to 433 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa. The molalities of acetic acid or sodium hydroxide in the liquid phase were about 4 and 1 mol/kg, respectively. Experimental results are reported and compared to correlations and predictions.

Rumpf, B.; Xia, J.; Maurer, G. [Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik

1998-05-01

79

Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar L Modified with 1-Octanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE) was investigated for recovery of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from alkaline process solutions. PHE relies on the deprotonation of a lipophilic weak acid by hydroxide ion with concomitant transfer of sodium ion into an organic phase. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and NaOH in the aqueous phase, thus leading to a process in which NaOH equivalents are transferred from an alkaline feed solution to an aqueous stripping solution. In this work, we researched PHE using a process-friendly diluent Isopar L. The lipophilic cation exchanger 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) was used as the extractant. The Isopar L diluent was modified with 1-octanol to improve its solvation properties and the solubility of 35-DTBP so that practical Na+ concentrations could be achieved in the process solvent. The PHE mechanism at process-relevant conditions was explored by Raman and FTIR spectroscopic measurements. Electrospray mass spectroscopic results indicated extensive aggregation of the sodium phenolate at high Na+ loading. An equilibrium computer modeling suggested that the Na+ extraction behavior can be largely explained by the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 Na/35-DTBP species in the organic phase. Extraction isotherms obtained using caustic leaching simulant solutions indicate the potential utility of this approach for recycling NaOH from complex alkaline mixturesrom complex alkaline mixtures

80

Nonsurgical treatment of two periapical lesions with calcium hydroxide using two different vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium hydroxide is used extensively as an intracanal medicament in endodontics for many years. It is used in various clinical situations such as to promote apexification, to repair perforation, to enhance healing of periapical lesions, to control root resorption, and to control exudation in teeth with persistent periapical inflammation. This paper presents a case report in which Ca(OH)2 was used as an intracanal medicament for treatment of periradicular lesions using two different vehicles in two different teeth of same patient. PMID:25133000

Dixit, Seema; Dixit, Ashutosh; Kumar, Pravin

2014-01-01

81

Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs

82

A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection [...] and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE: A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS: Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. Result: In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION: Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

Caio Lamunier de Abreu, Camargo; Walter, Belda Junior; Luiz Jorge, Fagundes; Ricardo, Romiti.

2014-04-01

83

Kinetic Study of Mass Transfer by Sodium Hydroxide in Nickel Under Free-convection Conditions /by Don R. Mosher and Robert A. Lad  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was conducted using static capsules fabricated from "L" nickel tubing to determine the effect of temperature level, temperature gradient, and test duration on corrosion and mass transfer by molten sodium hydroxide under free-convection conditions. A base temperature range from 1000 degrees to 1600 degrees F with temperature differences to 500 degrees was studied. The rate of mass transfer was found to be strongly dependent on both temperature level and gradient. The rate shows little tendency to decrease for test durations up to 200 hours, although the concentration of nickel in the melt approaches a limited value after 100 hours.

Mosher, Don R; Lad, Robert A

1954-01-01

84

Treatment of rheumatoid synovitis of the knee with intraarticular injection of dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred eight knees of 93 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and persistent synovitis of the knee were treated with an intraarticular injection of 270 mCi of dysprosium 165 bound to ferric hydroxide macroaggregate. Leakage of radioactivity from the injected joint was minimal. Mean leakage to the venous blood 3 hours after injection was 0.11% of the injected dose; this corresponds to a mean whole body dose of 0.2 rads. Mean leakage to the liver 24 hours after injection was 0.64% of the injected dose; this corresponds to a mean liver dose of 3.2 rads. In 7 additional patients examined, there was negligible or near negligible activity found in the draining inguinal lymph nodes. One-year followup was possible for 74 knees (63 patients). Sixty-one percent of the knees had good results, 23% had fair results, and 16% had poor results. There was a direct correlation between the radiographic stage and response to treatment. In knees with stage I radiographic changes, 72% showed good results; 93% showed improvement. In knees with stage II changes, 59% showed good results; 81% showed improvement. These preliminary results indicate that dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregate is an effective agent for radiation synovectomy. The low leakage rates observed offer a definite advantage over agents previously used

85

Treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis with topical cromolyn sodium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight patients with superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLKC) were treated with topical cromolyn sodium. All standard modes of therapy had failed. Six patients manifested marked improvement or complete resolution of their condition. The administration of cromolyn sodium appears to be a safe and effective alternative in the treatment of SLKC. PMID:3113315

Confino, J; Brown, S I

1987-04-01

86

Endodontic treatment for necrotic immature permanent teeth using MTA and calcium hydroxide. A retrospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic treatment of young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp has been a challenge for the dentist. It is necessary to induce the formation of apical barrier (apical plug, enabling the complete root canal filling. Objective: This retrospective clinical study compared the protocols for treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation, using calcium hydroxide (CH or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Material and methods: 28 patients with incomplete root formation have undergone root canal treatments in the period from 2000 to 2009 were selected. The procedures for cleaning, shaping and intracanal medication (CH paste were performed in a standardized manner. In 13 patients, after using the CH paste (14 days, apical plugs with MTA were made. In the remaining 15 teeth monthly exchanges with CH paste were executed until it was observed radiographically the formation of the apical barrier. In all cases the canals were filled conventionally with gutta-percha and sealer. Initially, follow-ups were made on a quarterly and semiannually at the end of first year. Results: All apical lesions showed apical healing between 4 and 13 months after starting treatment. There was not noted the continuing process of root formation. Conclusion: It was concluded that the treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation and necrotic pulp with the use of MTA as apical plug has the same clinical results compared with the use of CH, with the advantage of less clinical time.

Fabio de Almeida Gomes

2013-06-01

87

3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT) on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic [...] techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr), and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp). It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

P.D. Reena, Kumari; Jagannath, Nayak; A. Nityananda, Shetty.

2011-11-01

88

Precipitation of the rare earth double sodium and rare earths from the sulfuric liquor and the conversion into rare earth hydroxides through meta ethic reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents the purification study of the rare earths through precipitation of rare earth and sodium (Na TR (SO4)2. x H2O)) double sulfate and his conversion to rare earths hydroxide TR(OH)3 by meta ethic reaction through the addition of sodium hydroxide solution to the solid double sulfate. The study used the sulfuric liquor as rare earth sample, generated in the chemical processing of the monazite with sulfuric acid by the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB, Brazil, after the thorium and uranium extraction. The work investigated the influence of the main variables involved in the precipitation of Na TR(SO4)2.xH2O and in the conversion for the TR(OH)3, as follows: type and excess of the precipitation agent, temperature and time reaction. The obtained solid composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared and chemical analysis. The double sulfate diffractogram indicated the Na TR(SO4)2 mono-hydrated. The characterization of the metatese products has shown that, for obtaining the complete conversion of NaTR(SO4)2.H2O into TR(OH)3, the reaction must be hot processed (?70 deg C) and with small excess of Na OH (? 5 percent). (author)

89

Flowsheet Modeling and Testing of Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar(regsign) L Modified with Exxal(regsign) 8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptual counter-current process flowsheet was developed for sodium hydroxide recovery from alkaline solutions via pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE). PHE relies on a simple sodium ion/proton exchange mechanism at elevated pH using a weak organic acid extractant. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. In this work, the 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) cation exchanger was used in the Isopar(regsign) L diluent modified with isooctyl alcohol Exxal(regsign) 8. Equilibrium isotherms determined for PHE from pure sodium hydroxide solutions and simulated radioactive waste leachate were used to develop a semi-empirical model that could be used for designing PHE process flowsheets. Using this model, a conceptual PHE flowsheet was developed for recovering NaOH from solutions generated by caustic leaching of radioactive tank sludges. The flowsheet consists of extraction, scrub, and strip processes, each employing four equilibrium stages. Modeling of this flowsheet indicates 97% recovery of the sodium hydroxide from the waste leachate feed solution. An experimental demonstration, performed with a simulated radioactive waste leachate using batch contacts in a co-current analog of the counter-current flowsheet, confirmed the potential for practical application of PHE technology

90

RUMINAL DEGRADATION KINETIC PARAMETERS OF COFFEE HULLS (Coffea arabica, L.) TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NAOH) PARÂMETROS CINÉTICOS DA DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica, L.) TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO (NAOH)  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this work was to evaluate dry matter ruminal degradation kinetics of coffee hulls treated with increasing sodium hydroxide quantities. Two rumen fistulated cows were used to incubate samples in nylon bags for 12. 24, 36. 48 and 72 hours. Four ruminal incubation periods were used, in a complete randomized block design. Coffee hulls were treated with 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% of sodium hydroxide (dry matter basis), ...

Luciano Fernandes Sousa; Guilherme Rocha Moreira; Fabiano Gama de Sousa; Isaque de Oliveira Lopes; Mauro Pereira Figueiredo; Pedro Gomes da Cruz; Joel Queiroga Ferreira

2008-01-01

91

The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na2O and NaH. The most important contaminant is 137Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide

92

The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na{sub 2}O and NaH. The most important contaminant is {sup 137}Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide.

Van Alsenoy, V; Rahier, A.

1996-07-01

93

Valor nutritivo da cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com hidróxido de sódio ou óxido de cálcio / Nutritional value of the hydrolyzed sugarcane with sodium hydroxide or calcium oxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se o valor nutritivo e a temperatura de estabilidade aeróbia da cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) ou óxido de cálcio (CaO). Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 2 × 4, com dois aditivos (NaOH e CaO) e quatro doses (0; 0,75; 1,5 e 2,25%, com base na matéria natural), em de [...] lineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. O material foi acrescido dos aditivos e armazenado por 24 horas em baldes plásticos com capacidade de 10L. Ambos os aditivos controlaram o aumento da temperatura da cana-de-açúcar, e o NaOH mostrou-se mais eficiente. Os teores de matéria seca e matéria mineral aumentaram linearmente, enquanto os constituintes da parede celular diminuíram com o aumento das doses dos aditivos. Tanto o NaOH quanto o CaO promoveram acréscimo nos valores de digestibilidade da matéria seca da cana-de-açúcar. O NaOH e o CaO melhoram o valor nutritivo da cana-de-açúcar, e o NaOH é mais eficiente. Abstract in english The nutritional value and the temperature of aerobic stability of the hydrolyzed sugarcane by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or calcium oxide (CaO) were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in factorial arrangment 2×4, two additives (NaOH and CaO) and four doses (0; 0.75; 1.5; and 2.25%), in a complet [...] ely randomized design with four repetitions per treatment. The material, after the addition of the additive, was stored per 24 hours in 10-L plastic pails. Both additives controlled the increase of temperature of sugarcane, but NaOH was more efficient. The dry matter and mineral matter contents lineally increased, while the cell wall contents decreased with the increase of the doses. Either NaOH or CaO promoted increment in values of sugarcane dry matter digestibility. NaOH and CaO improved the nutritional value of the sugarcane and NaOH was more efficient.

L.S.O., Ribeiro; A.J.V., Pires; B.D., Pinho; G.G.P., Carvalho; M.A.L., Freire.

1156-11-01

94

An open, nonrandomized, comparative study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum  

OpenAIRE

Background: There are numerous therapeutic modalities available for treatment of molluscum contagiosum. However, the ablative modalities are painful and not suitable for children. Aim: We aimed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of 2 of the painless modalities, viz., 5% imiquimod cream and 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution, in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Methods: Out of a total of 40 patients of molluscum contagiosum in the...

Metkar Amol; Pande Sushil; Khopkar Uday

2008-01-01

95

Treatment with coated layer double hydroxide clays decreases the toxicity of copper-contaminated water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper is a common pollutant found in watersheds that exerts toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are able to adsorb a wide range of contaminants through ion-exchange mechanisms. Coating LDH clays with various materials alters the aggregation of clay particles into the nano-size range, thus increasing relative surface area and offering great potential for contaminant remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment with coated LDH clays decreases the toxicity of copper-containing solutions to Daphnia magna. Four LDH clays with different coatings used to alter hydrophobicity were as follows: used: Na(+) montmorillonite, Zn-Al LDH-nitrate, Zn-Al LDH-stearate, and Zn-Al LDH-carbonate. It was determined that coated LDH clays decreased copper toxicity by decreasing bioavailability and that smaller aggregate sizes decreased bioavailability the most. 96 h LC50 values increased by as much as 4.2 times with the treatment of the solutions with 100 mg/L LDH clay. Copper analysis of the clay and solutions indicated that the clays work by decreasing copper bioavailability by way of a binding mechanism. Coated LDH clays hold promise as a small-scale remediation tool or as an innovative tool for toxicity identification and evaluation characterization of metals. PMID:24442186

Blake, Deanne; Nar, Mangesh; D'Souza, Nandika Anne; Glenn, J Brad; Klaine, Stephen J; Roberts, Aaron P

2014-05-01

96

Sodium balancing for drum-type boilers on all volatile treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Base loaded drum-type boilers on all volatile treatment with good makeup purity and a tight condenser normally maintain boiler water cation conductivities below 0.5 {mu}S . cm{sup -1}. Trace contamination can cause this cation conductivity to rise to 1 {mu}S . cm{sup -1} or higher. Conservative facilities use 1 {mu}S . cm{sup -1} as the maximum cation conductivity limit for all operating pressures. We prefer this approach. However, some facilities (particularly units which cycle) have sufficient baseline contamination that it is difficult to maintain cation conductivities below 1 {mu}S . cm{sup -1} in the boiler water. The higher levels of cation conductivity usually provide an indication of the mineral acid anions present in the boiler water. The amounts of these anions often exceed the equivalent amount of sodium present in the boller water. While the boiler water sample pH may be satisfactory (alkaline) when measured at room temperature, the high volatility and low dissociation constant of ammonia at operating temperatures can be insufficient to neutralize trace levels of mineral acids in the solution concentrating at tube surfaces during operation. If the concentration mechanism is sufficient, underdeposit acid corrosion and hydrogen damage can result. To avoid this corrosion, small amounts of sodium hydroxide can be easily estimated (one basically needs the boiler water sodium analyzer to read 54 {mu}g . kg{sup -1} (54 ppb) per {mu}S . cm{sup -1} of boiler water cation conductivity) and fed to ensure that the mineral acid anions at tube surfaces are neutralized. The amounts of caustic needed are noticeably lower than those used for boilers on caustic treatment. While not implemented, the basic concept was first developed and recommended to one of our clients in 2004. This paper provides background on the ''sodium balancing'' treatment approach and limitations and recommendations regarding its application. (orig.)

Bartholomew, Robert D. [Sheppart T. Power Associates, LLC, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2009-09-15

97

The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th wbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated into a 35% improvement in growth rate (40, 36 g/day versus 26, 29 g/day). Calcium hydroxide alone did not improve the feeding value of Albizia. These data highlight the danger of assuming an assayable reduction in tannin, such as that observed in the calcium hydroxide treatment, will translate into an improvement in nutritive value and subsequent animal performance. Since the performance of the goats improved maximally when PEG was added to the calcium hydroxide-treated Albizia it was clear that the tannins were still as active as in the untreated Albizia. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide does not deactivate the tannins in Albizia. (author)

98

Sodium valproate and clonazepam for treatment-resistant panic disorder.  

OpenAIRE

Sodium valproate (VA) and clonazepam (CLZ) were combined in the treatment of 4 patients with panic disorders (PD) who were resistant to several antipanic drug treatments. A significant improvement was found in the symptomatology of these patients, but relapses occurred when CLZ dosage was reduced. A potentiation of the GABAergic properties of VA and clonazepam is postulated. This combined treatment could be advantageous for some treatment-resistant PD patients but needs to be studied further.

Ontiveros, A.; Fontaine, R.

1992-01-01

99

Accidental sodium hypochlorite-induced skin injury during endodontic treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of accidental skin injury caused by leakage of sodium hypochlorite solution from the rubber dam during root canal preparation is reported. After placement of a rubber dam and initiation of root canal treatment, the patient complained of a burning sensation with sodium hypochlorite irrigation. The complaints were ignored by the practitioner, and a skin rash developed on and around the patient's chin, followed by scab formation. The patient required medical treatment with topical Hamamelis virginiana extract for 2 weeks, with full recovery. PMID:15055439

Serper, Ahmet; Ozbek, Murat; Calt, Semra

2004-03-01

100

Carboxylate-intercalated layered double hydroxides aged under microwave-hydrothermal treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carboxylate-intercalated (terephthalate, TA and oxalate, ox) layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are aged under a microwave-hydrothermal treatment. The influence of the nature of the interlayer anion during the ageing process is studied. Characterization results show that the microwave-hydrothermal method can be extended to synthesize LDHs with anions different than carbonate, like TA. LDH-TA compounds are stable under microwave irradiation for increasing periods of time and the solids show an improved order both in the layers and in the interlayer region as evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), 27Al MAS NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, cleaning of the surface through removal of some organic species adsorbed on the surface of the particles also occurs during the microwave-hydrothermal treatment. Conversely, although the expected increase in crystallinity is observed in LDH-ox samples, the side-reaction between Al3+ and ox is also enhanced under microwave irradiation, and a partial destruction of the structure takes place with an increase in the M2+/M3+ ratio and consequent modification of the cell parameters. - Graphical Abstract: The influence of the nature of the interlayer anion during the ageing process of carboxylate-intercalated (TA and ox) hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) is studied. Well crystallized for TA-containing compounds were obtained. However, the non-desired side-reaction of ox with the alumidesired side-reaction of ox with the aluminum of the layers is enhanced by the microwaves and a partial destruction of the structure takes place

101

Evaluation of a consolidation treatment in dolostones by mean of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in high relative humidity conditions  

OpenAIRE

In this article, the results of a treatment applied to dolomitic stones using an isopropyl colloidal solution based on calcium hydroxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 2.0g/l are presented. The consolidation process in the stone has been checked before and after 28 days of exposure to 75% relative humidity. Morphologic and structural studies of the consolidating product confirmed the carbonation process. X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (TEM and ESEM), and electron diffraction ca...

Fort, R.; Zornoza, A.; A?lvarez Buergo, M.; Lo?pez-arce, P.; Gomez-vilalba, L. S.

2011-01-01

102

Magnesium Hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

103

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

2003-06-01

104

Treatment of low level radioactive waste (LLW) stream with respect to alpha activity using ferric hydroxide-PMMA composite beads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low level waste is generated during concentration of condensate obtained during evaporation operation of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) at reprocessing plant as well as after removal of various radionuclides from the waste stream. The radioactive content of this stream is qualifying it for the discharge. However, to reduce the discharge level of alpha activity, treatment of this waste using ferric hydroxide precipitation was explored. The use of ferric hydroxide material in composite with Poly Methyl Methacrilate (PMMA) was also tried so that the composite material can be used in column mode of operation. This paper details the studies carried out to achieve good decontamination of the waste with respect to alpha activity. (author)

105

Crystal structure and magnetic properties of a new layered sodium nickel hydroxide phosphate, Na2Ni3(OH)2(PO4)2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixed sodium nickel hydroxide phosphate, Na2Ni3(OH)2(PO4)2, has been synthesized hydrothermally from the system NiCO3-Na4P2O7-NaCl-H2O. Its monoclinic crystal structure has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction: a = 14.259(5), b = 5.695(2), c = 4.933(1) Å, ? = 104.28(3)°, space group C2/m, Z = 2, ?c = 3.816 g cm(-3), R = 0.026. The underlying spin model has been characterized in terms of first-principles electronic structure calculations. The compound is formed by alternating layers of [NiO6] octahedra and [NaO7] polyhedra, combined in the [100] direction with tetrahedral [PO4] oxocomplexes and hydrogen bonds. The novel phase is treated as an isostructural variant of the two-dimensional potassium manganese hydroxide vanadate, K2Mn3(OH)2(VO4)2, which can be formally obtained by morphotropic substitutions of all positions in the cationic sublattice. The stripe arrangement of Ni(2+) ions (S = 1) within [NiO4(OH)2] layers of Na2Ni3(OH)2(PO4)2 is unique in the sense that its magnetic topology places it in between widely discussed honeycomb and kagomé lattices. The Na2Ni3(OH)2(PO4)2 is a low-dimensional magnet, which reaches the short-range correlation regime at Tmax = 38.4 K and orders antiferromagnetically at TN = 33.4 K. PMID:23877251

Yakubovich, Olga; Kiriukhina, Galina; Dimitrova, Olga; Volkov, Anatoly; Golovanov, Alexey; Volkova, Olga; Zvereva, Elena; Baidya, Santu; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri; Vasiliev, Alexander

2013-10-01

106

Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

Barnes, C.M.

2000-10-30

107

Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions

108

Divalproex sodium in the treatment of migraine and cluster headaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of a new class of effective migraine-abortive medications, the triptans, has sparked a new interest in the study of vascular headache. Over the past few years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved six new abortive pharmacologic therapies, with several others in various stages of clinical trials. Unfortunately, concurrent pharmacologic changes in headache prophylaxis have not kept pace with their abortive counterparts. However, divalproex sodium (Depakote), which is approved by the FDA as a migraine prophylactic agent, is the first in the anticonvulsant class of medication for migraine headache and has expanded the options in headache treatment. The objective of this retrospective multicenter study of 284 patients with migraine or cluster headaches was to examine the clinical efficacy and safety of divalproex sodium as prophylaxis in monotherapy and in polytherapy. Sixty-one percent of migraineurs and 73% of cluster patients noted a decrease in pain with divalproex sodium and continued that therapy for more than 3 months. Reported negative side effects included weight gain, nausea, somnolence, tremor, alopecia, dysequilibrium, and rash. However, only 14% of subjects discontinued therapy due to these side effects. Overall, divalproex sodium was found to be an effective and generally well-tolerated prophylactic treatment option as monotherapy or in polytherapy for migraine and cluster headache. PMID:11866398

Gallagher, R Michael; Mueller, Loretta L; Freitag, Frederick G

2002-02-01

109

Utilization of Soda Ash in Pulping and Bleaching Operation as a Substitution or Partial Replacement of Sodium Hydroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soda ash or sodium carbonate is by nature a weak baseand hence lower in alkalinity. The agro based pulp and paper millwith unconventional chemical recovery process end up withproduction of soda ash or sodium carbonate. The soda ash thusproduced is of low quality and sold to soap manufacturing units.The pulping and bleaching process requires at some stage lowalkalinity where pH is normally in the range of 9.5-11. The lowalkalinity may help in utilization of soda ash in pulping andbleaching process itself.In the present study the pulping and bleaching processes whereutilization of soda ash can be explored is described for wood(eucalyptus and agrobased (wheat straw raw materials.. Thestudies on wheat straw incorporated chemical and semi chemicalpulping of wheat straw, production of newsprint grade pulp fromeucalyptus & wheat straw and exploration of utilization of sodaash in other bleaching processes. It has been observed that causticsoda can be replaced with soda ash at different proportiondepending upon the process and type of pulp produced.

Priti Shivhare.Lal

2013-07-01

110

Laser-luminescent determination of uranium in natural waters with concentration on titanium hydroxide and using sodium polysilicate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two methods for uranium determination in samples with large content of quenchers are compared taking seawaters of the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland as an example. One of the method consists in uranium concentration on TiO2xnH2O under dynamic conditions with further laser-luminescent determination at 77 K in 0.1 mol/l of H2SO4. The second one consists in direct registration of uranium luminescence in 0.7 % solution of sodium polysilicate at room temperature. Detection limit of the second method is evaluated as 2x10-11 g/ml, detection limit of the first one is lower due to concentration application. The method is especially useful when analysing natural waters with large concentration of hydrolyzing elements. Constants of the uranyl quenching rate for a large number of ions in polysilicate medium are measured

111

Electrodeposition of Ni-Mo alloy coatings and their characterization as cathodes for hydrogen evolution in sodium hydroxide solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydrogen evolution reaction on the electrodeposited Ni-Mo alloy coatings, as well as their electrochemical properties in the NaOH solutions, have been investigated by the polarization measurements, cyclic voltammetry and EIS technique. It was shown that the Ni-Mo alloy coatings electrodeposited from the pyrophosphate-sodium bicarbonate bath possess high catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution in the NaOH solutions. Their stability in the 1 M NaOH at 25 C under the condition of the reverse polarization was shown to be very good, while in the 33% NaOH at 85 C (conditions of the industrial electrolysis) the electrodeposited Ni-Mo alloy coatings exhibited also high catalytic activity, but low stability, as a consequence of a deterioration of the alloy coatings. (author)

Krstajic, N.V. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4 (RS); Jovic, V.D.; Jovic, B.M. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, 11030 Belgrade, P.O. Box 33 (RS); Gajic-Krstajic, L. [Institute of Technical Sciences SASA, 11000 Belgrade, Knez Mihajlova 35 (RS); Antozzi, A.L.; Martelli, G.N. [De Nora Industries, Via Bistolfi 35, 20134 Milan (Italy)

2008-07-15

112

Sodium hyaluronate eyedrops in the treatment of dry eyes.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND--Several studies in the past have attempted to demonstrate the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eyes. However, results have been conflicting and a definite conclusion has not yet been reached. This study recruited a larger group of patients and has incorporated for the first time both fluorescein and rose bengal staining in the evaluation of the epithelium. METHODS--Eighteen albino rabbit corneas were used in a basic animal study to demonstrate the efficacy of...

Shimmura, S.; Ono, M.; Shinozaki, K.; Toda, I.; Takamura, E.; Mashima, Y.; Tsubota, K.

1995-01-01

113

Treatment of spinal muscular atrophy by sodium butyrate  

OpenAIRE

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, leading to muscular paralysis with muscular atrophy. No effective treatment of this disorder is presently available. Studies of the correlation between disease severity and the amount of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein have shown an inverse relationship. We report that sodium butyrate effectively increases the amount of exon 7...

Chang, Jan-gowth; Hsieh-li, Hsiu-mei; Jong, Yuh-jyh; Wang, Nancy M.; Tsai, Chang-hai; Li, Hung

2001-01-01

114

Effects of airborne-particle abrasion, sodium hydroxide anodization, and electrical discharge machining on porcelain adherence to cast commercially pure titanium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of airborne-particle abrasion (APA), sodium hydroxide anodization (SHA), and electrical discharge machining (EDM) on cast titanium surfaces and titanium-porcelain adhesion. Ninety titanium specimens were cast with pure titanium and the alpha-case layer was removed. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups. Ten specimens from each group were subjected to APA. SHA was applied to the second subgroups, and the remaining specimens were subjected to the EDM. For the control group, 10 specimens were cast using NiCr alloy and subjected to only APA. Surfaces were examined by using scanning electron microscope and a surface profilometer. Three titanium porcelains were fused on the titanium surfaces, whereas NiCr specimens were covered with conventional porcelain. Titanium-porcelain adhesion was characterized by a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed that the porcelain-metal bond strength of the control group was higher than that of the titanium-porcelain system (p titanium groups (p 0.05), except the bond strengths of Noritake Super Porcelain TI-22 groups on which APA and SHA were applied (p titanium-porcelain adhesion when compared to APA. PMID:17183560

Acar, Asli; Inan, Ozgür; Halkaci, Selçuk

2007-07-01

115

Treatment of low-level radioactive liquid waste with uranium using sodium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes a decontamination method of acid solutions containing UO2Cl2. The precipitation of uranium is obtained with NaOH addition to the radwaste solution at ambient temperature. From the experimental data obtained it was observed that in the pH about 4,0 a greater quantify of uranium was precipitated and in pH above 4,0 the precitate was partially solubilized. Nowadays, we study the influence of pH and temperature on the precitation of uranium VI in radwaste solutions with NaOH as well as the compounds obtained in the various stages. This method showed a decontamination factor of about 94,7% and, as a whole, it is viable. (Author)

116

Nonsurgical treatment of periapical lesion associated with type III dens invaginatus using calcium hydroxide: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth, probably resulting from an infolding of the papilla during tooth development. It predisposes the tooth to develop caries and periapical pathosis. Root canal therapy may present many problems because of the complex anatomy of the teeth. The purpose of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of an Oehlers type III dens invaginatus that perforated into the apical area. Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with normal saline, was used as an intracanal medicament. This eradicated the pathogenic microorganisms in the invagination and preserved the vitality of the tooth, allowing gutta-percha obturation in the invagination.

Kalaskar R

2008-10-01

117

Carbon-13 isotope fractionation and carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of perdeuterated sodium butyrate with manganate in 3M sodium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon -13 kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of single methylene 13C-2H bond of perdeuterated sodium butyrate, CD3(CD2)COONa, has been determined by measuring the isotope composition of cumulative carbon dioxide derived from carbonates and oxalates obtained at partial oxidation's od perdeuterated butyrate with manganate, MnO42-, in 3M NaOH. The experimental 13C KI E have been reproduced by applying two quantum mechanical correlations to the absolute rates of chemical reaction; the first correction caused by the difference of zero point energy of (13C-2H/12C-2H) isotopic bonds and the quantum mechanical correlation for tunneling of 12C and 13C. The reaction energy barrier was approximated by the Bell inverted parabola. The good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was achieved already in the first approximation by taking the half width of the energy barrier equal 5x10-11 m. (author)

118

Comparison of the Sodium Hydroxide Specimen Processing Method with the C18-Carboxypropylbetaine Specimen Processing Method Using Independent Specimens with Auramine Smear, the MB/BacT Liquid Culture System, and the COBAS AMPLICOR MTB Test  

OpenAIRE

A study was performed to diagnose tuberculosis by smear, culture, and nucleic acid amplification. The study was comprised of two independent arms. Each arm used a different specimen processing method; in one arm, all specimens were processed with N-acetyl-l-cysteine-sodium hydroxide, and in the other arm, all specimens were processed with C18-carboxypropylbetaine and lytic enzymes. In each arm, all processed sediments were split for analysis by auramine smear, by culture using the MB/BacT liq...

Padilla, Eduardo; Manterola, Jose? M.; Gonza?lez, Victoria; Thornton, Charles G.; Quesada, M. Dolores; Sa?nchez, M. Dolores; Pe?rez, Miguel; Ausina, Vicente

2005-01-01

119

Laser-luminescent determination of uranium in natural waters with concentration of titanium hydroxide and using sodium polysilicate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two methods for determining uranium in samples with a high content of quenching agents are compared, taking as an example the analysis of waters from the Vuoksa River, Baltic Sea and Finnish Bay. The first of these methods was developed by the authors and consists in concentrating uranium on TiO2 x nH2O under dynamic conditions, followed by laser luminescent determination at 770K in 0.1 M H2SO4. The second method consists in direct recording of the luminescence of uranium in a 0.7% solution of sodium polysilicate at room temperature. The detection limit of the second method is estimated by the authors as 2 x 10-11 g/ml, while the detection limit of the first method is lower because concentration is used. The method is especially suitable for analysis of natural waters with a high concentration of hydrolyzable elements. Quenching rate constants of uranyl were measured for a large number of ions in a polysilicate medium

120

Laser-luminescent determination of uranium in natural waters with concentration of titanium hydroxide and using sodium polysilicate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two methods for determining uranium in samples with a high content of quenching agents are compared, taking as an example the analysis of waters from the Vuoksa River, Baltic Sea and Finnish Bay. The first of these methods was developed by the authors and consists in concentrating uranium on TiO/sub 2/ x nH/sub 2/O under dynamic conditions, followed by laser luminescent determination at 77/sup 0/K in 0.1 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The second method consists in direct recording of the luminescence of uranium in a 0.7% solution of sodium polysilicate at room temperature. The detection limit of the second method is estimated by the authors as 2 x 10/sup -11/ g/ml, while the detection limit of the first method is lower because concentration is used. The method is especially suitable for analysis of natural waters with a high concentration of hydrolyzable elements. Quenching rate constants of uranyl were measured for a large number of ions in a polysilicate medium.

Nikitina, S.A.; Stepanov, A.V.

1987-05-01

121

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

2004-07-01

122

Eosinophilic cystitis: successful long-term treatment with montelukast sodium.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 6-year-old boy who presented with irritative voiding symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and a bladder mass initially visualized on ultrasonography. Cystoscopy and transurethral biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Complete resolution of his symptoms occurred within 1 week of corticosteroid use and the x-ray findings improved within 6 weeks. At 6 months of follow-up, the patient continued to require a leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast sodium) despite several attempts to discontinue its use. We propose that eosinophilic cystitis in children who present with peripheral eosinophilia will often require long-term treatment. PMID:16461108

Sterrett, S; Morton, J; Perry, D; Donovan, J

2006-02-01

123

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COBALT HYDROXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method from cobalt chloride and sodium hydroxide. Structural and compositional properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR and UV spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the preferential growth of cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles that width is 73.42nm. The SEM image shows the synthesized cobalt hydroxide show well crystallized particles with rod like morphology. The FTIR spectrum is used to study the stretching and bending frequencies of molecular functional groups in the sample. From UVspectrum, the band gap of cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles is found to be 2.7eV.

R Hepzi Pramila Devamani

2015-01-01

124

Effects of sensitization heat treatment on SCC of type 316L stainless steel in hot lithium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the effect of extended sensitization heat treatment (650 C) and applied potential on the corrosion behavior and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of low-carbon AISI 316L (UNS S31603) stainless steel (0.02%C) in a concentrated lithium hydroxide solution at 95 C. The results are compared to the behavior of solution-annealed material under the same conditions. In general, there is a fairly clear effect of prolonged heat treatment times one the material, and its susceptibility to intergranular attack (IGA) and SCC, as determined in slow strain rate tests, increases with increasing times of sensitization heat treatment. When the heat treatment extends to 100 h or more, the potential range in which IGA is observed extends to lower potentials (-300 mV SCE, open-circuit conditions) compared to the solution-annealed material. ON the other hand, SCC is observed on both materials in approximately the same potential ranges (i.e., above approximately -100 mV SCE). However, both intergranular and transgranular cracking occur with the heat-treated specimens. Moreover, transgranular SCC, not intergranular SCC, is even the predominant fracture mode when the heat treatment time is increased to 200 h, if the applied potential is sufficiently high with the solution-annealed material. A possible explanation for these different results and for the effects of sensitization treatment is provided based on the electrochemical and the surface-chemical behavior of the allo the surface-chemical behavior of the alloy

125

RUMINAL DEGRADATION KINETIC PARAMETERS OF COFFEE HULLS (Coffea arabica, L. TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NAOH PARÂMETROS CINÉTICOS DA DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica, L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO (NAOH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate dry matter ruminal degradation kinetics of coffee hulls treated with increasing sodium hydroxide quantities. Two rumen fistulated cows were used to incubate samples in nylon bags for 12. 24, 36. 48 and 72 hours. Four ruminal incubation periods were used, in a complete randomized block design. Coffee hulls were treated with 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% of sodium hydroxide (dry matter basis, corresponding to treatments T1 to t4 respectively. Experimental results were compared using Tukey test, at 5% probability level, as follows for treatments 1 to 4 respectively: soluble fraction (9.35d; 17.65c; 31.93b; 32.28a, de (34.40d; 40.50c; 43.28b; 50.35a, potential degradability (44.33d; 50.33c; 52.35b; 57.70a and lag time in hours (4.03a; 3.93a; 4.33a; 2.55a. The results indicate that increasing the levels of NaOH in the coffee hulls treatments increased significantly their ruminal solubility, as well as their effective and potential degradabilities. However that increase had no effect upon coffee hulls lag time in the rumen.KEY WORDS: by-product feedstuffs, rumen degradability, ruminant.

O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de determinar a cinética de degradação ruminal da matéria seca da casca de café, tratada com diferentes quantidades de hidróxido de sódio. Utilizaram-se duas vacas fistuladas no rúmen, incubando-se as amostras em sacolas de náilon por 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas, por quatro rodadas seqüenciais, sendo que cada uma destas representou um bloco, dentro de um delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados. Tratou-se a casca de café com 0%, 3%, 6% e 9 % de hidróxido de sódio (base seca constituindo assim os tratamentos t1  a t4. os resultados médios encontrados foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, como se segue para os tratamentos de 1 a 4, respectivamente: fração solúvel (9,35d; 17,65c; 31,93b; 32,28a, de (34,40d; 40,50c; 43,28b; 50,35a, degradabilidade potencial (44,33d; 50,33c; 52,35b; 57,70a e tempo de colonização em horas (4,03a; 3,93a; 4,33a; 2,55a. Os resultados indicam que o aumento dos níveis percentuais de NaOH utilizados nos tratamentos eleva a solubilidade ruminal, a degradabilidade potencial e efetiva da casca de café, não influenciando significativamente o tempo de colonização
PALAVRAS-CHAVES: degradabilidade ruminal, resíduos agrícolas, ruminante

Luciano Fernandes de Sousa

2008-04-01

126

Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja / Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade nutricional e as características fermentativas da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante microbiano (Lactobacillus plantarum nas doses 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 x 10(6) ufc/g MN) e hidróxido de sódio (solução 40% na base de 3% da MS) e acrescida de 10% [...] de resíduo da colheita de soja, com base no peso verde da cana. Foi utilizada a variedade RB855536, colhida em soca aos 11 e 13 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (duas idades e oito tratamentos da massa ensilada). Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de fatores. Para as variáveis de composição e cinética de degradação, foram obtidos três fatores: QN - qualidade nutritiva, incluindo MS, PB, DIVMS, FDN, FDA e LIG; MF - maturidade fisiológica, incluindo carboidratos solúveis, LIG e fração indegradável da FDN; e VDF - velocidade de degradação dos carboidratos fibrosos, contemplando o kdFDN. Às variáveis de características de fermentação atribuíram-se os fatores: PFS - perdas e fermentação secundária, incluindo perda de MS, concentração de ácido acético, ácido propiônico e etanol; PH - potencial hidrogeniônico, pH; e DP - degradação protéica, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal. O resíduo da colheita da soja na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade nutritiva e reduzir as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol das silagens. O tratamento com hidróxido de sódio diminuiu a produção de etanol, mas não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva e não reduziu as perdas de MS das silagens. A utilização de inoculante microbiano contendo L. plantarum também não melhorou a qualidade nutritiva da silagem nem reduziu as perdas de MS e a produção de etanol. Abstract in english The objective of this trial was to evaluate the nutritional quality and fermentation characteristics of sugarcane silages treated with inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6) cfu/g NM), 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis), or 10% of soybean crop residu [...] e added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment) with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments). For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1) "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2) "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3) "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1) "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2) "hydrogen potential" (pH); and 3) "protein degradation" (PD) that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

Acyr Wanderley de Paula, Freitas; José Carlos, Pereira; Fernanda Cipriano, Rocha; Edenio, Detmann; Marinaldo Divino, Ribeiro; Marcone Geraldo, Costa; Fernando de Paula, Leonel.

2006-02-01

127

Influence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide treatment on the electrical characteristics of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky barrier diode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes have been investigated by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) techniques. The barrier heights and ideality factors measured from I–V characteristics are found to be 0.70 eV and 1.32 for without TMAH treatment, and 0.78 eV and 1.14 for with TMAH treatment, respectively. Cheung method is used to measure the series resistance and barrier height of the Schottky diodes, and the barrier height consistency is checked using the Norde method. The magnitude of interface state density for the diodes without and with TMAH treatment are varied from 7.45 × 1013 eV?1 cm?2 to 6.09 × 1012 eV?1 cm?2 and 4.03 × 1013 eV?1 cm?2 to 1.79 × 1012 eV?1 cm?2 in the below the conduction band from EC-0.19 eV to EC-0.63 eV and EC-0.22 eV to EC-0.73 eV. Based on the results, the TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (GaxOy) layer, formed due to the incorporation of the residual oxygen with Ga atom at the GaN surface during the plasma etching. The decrease in interface state density at the Ni/Au/GaN interface could be the reason for the improvement in the electrical properties. - Highlights: • The effect of TMAH treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes is studied. • The magnitude of NSS for the diode with TMAH treatment is low compared to without treatment. • The TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (GaxOy) layer

128

Environment-assisted cracking of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel in fused sodium hydroxide at 623 K, 1 atm-I. Electrochemistry in relation to stress corrosion cracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemistry of fused sodium hydroxide has been reviewed, demonstrating the importance of its acid-base properties. The latter are reflected in the electrochemistry of iron which forms relatively insoluble oxide and ferrate in acidic conditions, but highly soluble ferrate in basic conditions. 21/4Cr-1Mo steel was shown to behave similarly to iron, passivating only in acidic melts. Major shifts were observed in the free-corrosion potential, brought about by changes in the water and/or oxygen concentrations in the melt, which are of likely significance to the stress corrosion behaviour of the material. (author)

129

[Sodium valproate versus propranolol in the prophylactic treatment of migraine].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the recent years sodium valproate (SV) has been proposed as a prophylactic drug in migraine. Several reports documented a positive effect of SV in migrainous patients. The authors present the results of the open study in 35 women with migraine without aura treated with the daily dose of 1000-1500 mg of SV, during 10 weeks. The results were compared with the effect of propranolol administered to the same patients, in daily dose of 120-160 mg during 10 weeks. The effects were similar: in both methods more than 50% reduction of frequency and severity of attacks was obtained. The side effects were generally mild; in no case the treatment was stopped. The authors conclude that in the future SV might be administered in migraine prophylaxis as the first choice drug. PMID:8714731

Kozubski, W; Prusi?ski, A

1995-01-01

130

Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

2004-05-01

131

Acidified sodium chlorite antimicrobial treatment of broiler carcasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

An acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) solution was investigated for its antimicrobial effects on broiler carcasses processed under conditions similar to those used in U.S. commercial poultry facilities. Of particular interest was the ability of the ASC solution to reduce natural bioburden in a prechill procedure. A number of parameters such as pretreatment washing of carcasses with water (no wash versus water wash), ASC concentration (500, 850, and 1,200 ppm), method of application (spray versus dip), and method of acid activation (phosphoric acid versus citric acid) were explored to evaluate disinfection conditions. ASC dip solutions (18.9 liters) were freshly prepared for groups of five prechill eviscerated carcasses per treatment (n = 10 carcasses). ASC treatment was shown to be an effective method for significantly reducing naturally occurring microbial contamination on carcasses. Reductions following immersion dipping were demonstrated at all disinfectant concentrations for total aerobes (82.9 to 90.7%), Escherichia coli (99.4 to 99.6%), and total coliforms (86.1 to 98.5%). Additionally, testing showed that ASC solutions maintained stable pH and minimal chlorite ion concentration deviations throughout each treatment. The results of the parameter evaluations indicated that maximal antimicrobial activity was achieved in carcasses that were prewashed and then exposed to a 5-s dip in a solution containing phosphoric acid- or citric acid-activated ASC. At 1,200 ppm ASC, a mild but transitory whitening of the skin was noted on dipped carcasses. The results support the methods currently approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for the use of ASC solutions as a prechill antimicrobial intervention in U.S. poultry processing plants. PMID:10945585

Kemp, G K; Aldrich, M L; Waldroup, A L

2000-08-01

132

Low temperature calcium hydroxide treatment enhances anaerobic methane production from (extruded) biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ca(OH)2 treatment was applied to enhance methane yield. Different alkali concentration, incubation temperature and duration were evaluated for their effect on methane production and COD conversion efficiency from (non-)extruded biomass during mesophilic anaerobic digestion at lab-scale. An optimum Ca(OH)2 pretreatment for grass is found at 7.5% lime loading at 10°C for 20h (37.3% surplus), while mild (50°C) and high temperatures perform sub-optimal. Ca(OH)2 post-treatment after fast extrusion gives an additional surplus compared to extruded material of 15.2% (grass), 11.2% (maize straw) and 8.2% (sprout stem) regarding methane production. COD conversion improves accordingly, with additional improvements of 10.3% (grass), 9.0% (maize straw) and 6.8% (sprout stem) by Ca(OH)2 post-treatment. Therefore, Ca(OH)2 pretreatment and post-treatment at low temperature generate an additional effect regarding methane production and COD conversion efficiency. Fast extrusion gives a higher energy efficiency ratio compared to slow extrusion. PMID:25461001

Khor, Way Cern; Rabaey, Korneel; Vervaeren, Han

2015-01-01

133

Long-term treatment of Nelson's syndrome with sodium valproate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven patients with Nelson's syndrome were given sodium valproate (Epilim, Sanofi). Plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were measured under carefully controlled conditions which were designed to eliminate spontaneous fluctuations in ACTH. At 6 weeks all 11 patients were reassessed while taking sodium valproate 600 mg/day; there was then a small but significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in plasma ACTH concentration. Six patients continued to take sodium valproate, and were reassessed at 1 year when five were taking 1200 mg/day and one patient was taking 600 mg/day. At 1 year for these six patients there had been an increase in mean plasma ACTH which was then not significantly different from basal values. The five patients who discontinued sodium valproate were also reassessed at 1 year, when there were no significant differences compared to basal or 6-week values. During therapy with sodium valproate, there were no significant changes in the half-life of plasma cortisol, plasma sodium and potassium concentrations, or serum liver enzymes. Weight gain on sodium valproate was the main reason for patients asking to discontinue therapy. Sodium valproate is not an effective long-term therapy for reducing plasma ACTH for patients with Nelson's syndrome. PMID:2844446

Kelly, W; Adams, J E; Laing, I; Longson, D; Davies, D

1988-02-01

134

Treatments of Can Lignite with Some Mineral Acids after Sodyum Hydroxide Washing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fossil properties can be increased via enrichment process. It is the process that removes sulfur and mineral matter without changing the organic structure. In this study, can lignite was demineralized with some mineral free acid of 5% such as HCOOH and some mineral acids of 5% such as HNO3, H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4 and HF after 5% NaOH washing. The best sulfur and mineral matter performed were obtained with NaOH plus HF treatment as approximately 44% and 45%, respectively. FTIR and X ray spectra of the samples were also drawn to determine the functional groups and mineral composition.

Jale Gulen

2011-08-01

135

Effect of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment of Eucalyptus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of Ca(OH)2 addition on optimization of hydrothermal-mechanochemical pretreatment, which combines hydrothermal and milling treatments, was examined. The highest glucose yield of 90% was achieved in the ball-milled specimen previously treated at 170°C in the presence of 20% Ca(OH)2 per substrate weight. The specific surface area of the substrate was closely correlated with glucose yield, and a larger specific surface area was obtained when treating the specimen at 170°C in the presence of Ca(OH)2 compared to treatment at 170°C without Ca(OH)2. Although the Ca(OH)2-treated specimen was relatively unaffected by delignification, the cleavage of the ester bonds between lignin and hemicellulose was confirmed by FT-IR. This suggests that Ca(OH)2 weakens the substrate structure by loosening the bonds between lignin and hemicellulose as the mechanism to increase the specific surface area regardless of the high lignin content, facilitating the fibrillation of fibers with mechanical milling. PMID:25496951

Ishiguro, Maki; Endo, Takashi

2015-02-01

136

An open, nonrandomized, comparative study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are numerous therapeutic modalities available for treatment of molluscum contagiosum. However, the ablative modalities are painful and not suitable for children. Aim: We aimed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of 2 of the painless modalities, viz., 5% imiquimod cream and 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH solution, in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Methods: Out of a total of 40 patients of molluscum contagiosum in the study, 18 patients in the imiquimod group and 19 patients in the KOH group completed the study. The given medication was applied by the patient or a parent to mollusca at night, 3 days per week. Imiquimod was continued till clinical cure; and 10% KOH, till lesions showed signs of inflammation. Assessments of response and side effects were performed at the end of week 4, week 8, and week 12. Significance was tested by Student?s t test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: The mean lesion count decreased from 22.39 to 10.75 with imiquimod and from 20.79 to 4.31 with KOH at the end of 12 weeks. We found complete clearance of lesions in 8 (44% patients with imiquimod and in 8 (42.1% patients with 10% KOH. Minor side effects were seen in 15 (78.9% patients on KOH and 10 (55.5% patients on imiquimod. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that both 5% imiquimod cream and 10% KOH solution are equally effective in molluscum contagiosum though KOH has a faster onset of action. However, KOH solution is associated with a higher incidence of side effects.

Metkar Amol

2008-01-01

137

Successful treatment by exchange transfusion of a young infant with sodium nitroprusside poisoning  

OpenAIRE

Although sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is often used in pediatric intensive care units, cyanide toxicity can occur after SNP treatment. To treat SNP-induced cyanide poisoning, antidotes such as amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, and hydroxycobalamin should be administered immediately after diagnosis. Here, we report the first case of a very young infant whose SNP-induced cyanide poisoning was successfully treated by exchange transfusion. The success of this alternative method may ...

Baek, Jong Geun; Jeong, Hoar Lim; Park, Ji Sook; Seo, Ji Hyun; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae Young; Park, Chan Hoo; Woo, Hyang Ok; Youn, Hee Shang; Yeom, Jung Sook

2010-01-01

138

Effect of hydrothermal treatment on properties of Ni-Al layered double hydroxides and related mixed oxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ni-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Ni/Al molar ratio of 2, 3, and 4 were prepared by coprecipitation and treated under hydrothermal conditions at 180 deg. C for times up to 20 h. Thermal decomposition of the prepared samples was studied using thermal analysis and high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal treatment increased significantly the crystallite size of coprecipitated samples. The characteristic LDH diffraction lines disappeared completely at ca. 350 deg. C and a gradual crystallization of NiO-like mixed oxide was observed at higher temperatures. Hydrothermal treatment improved thermal stability of the Ni2Al and Ni3Al LDHs but only a slight effect of hydrothermal treatment was observed with the Ni4Al sample. The Rietveld refinement of powder XRD patterns of calcination products obtained at 450 deg. C showed a formation of Al-containing NiO-like oxide and a presence of a considerable amount of Al-rich amorphous component. Hydrothermal aging of the LDHs resulted in decreasing content of the amorphous component and enhanced substitution of Al cations into NiO-like structure. The hydrothermally treated samples also exhibited a worse reducibility of Ni2+ components. The NiAl2O4 spinel and NiO still containing a marked part of Al in the cationic sublattice were detected in the samples calcined at 900 deg. C. The Ni2Al LDHs hydrothermally treated for various times and related mixed oxides obtained at 450 deg. C shoed mixed oxides obtained at 450 deg. C showed an increase in pore size with increasing time of hydrothermal aging. The hydrothermal treatment of LDH precursor considerably improved the catalytic activity of Ni2Al mixed oxides in N2O decomposition, which can be explained by suppressing internal diffusion effect in catalysts grains. - Graphical Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment of Ni-Al LDH precursors influenced the porous structure of related mixed oxides and considerably improved their catalytic activity in N2O decomposition; the higher catalytic activity of hydrothermally treated samples can be explained by suppressing internal diffusion effect in catalysts grains

139

Water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit of unit 3 at the rovno nuclear power station involving correction treatment of working medium with lithium hydroxide and ethanolamine  

Science.gov (United States)

The all-volatile water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit involving correction treatment of the steam generator's boiler water with lithium hydroxide and the ethanolamine water chemistry are analyzed from the viewpoint of their effect on the erosion-corrosion wear of equipment used in the secondary coolant system and damageability of heat-transfer tubes used in PGV-1000M steam generators.

Kozlov, V. Ya.; Vlasenko, N. I.; Kozlova, T. Yu.

2011-03-01

140

Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Drug Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs of Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles  

OpenAIRE

The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen) using a co-precipitation method with or withou...

Zi Gu; Aihua Wu; Li Li*; Zhi Ping (Gordon) Xu

2014-01-01

141

Thermal-radiation treatment of sodium-boron-silica glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Na2O ·19B2O3 ·30SiO2 glass was studied after 60Co ?-irradiation to the dose of 5· 104 Gy at the ambient 25oC and elevated temperatures 100-500oC with the step of 50oC. Upon each step of the treatment the optical absorption spectra were taken at the room temperature in the range of 200† 1200 nm with spectrometer Lambda-35 (Perkin Elmer). Non-irradiated samples did not have any absorption bands in the wave-length interval from 250 to 1200 nm. The spectra of the sample irradiated at 25oC contained the bands at 305 and 480 nm caused by E'(B) and =B-O* centers respectively. The irradiation temperature increase effects on the centers concentrations: at 100o C the number of E'(B) centers increases with its peak at 305 nm moving towards the short wave length side, and the number of =B-O* centers almost doesn't change, at 150oC the both centers amount decrease significantly. At 200oC the number of E'(B) centers grows much as compared with that at 150oC. At higher temperatures from 250 to 400oC the intensities of the number of both centers decreases monotonously. At 350oC a new weak absorption band appears near 600 nm, which relates to [BO4] centers, while the band at 480 nm (=B-O* centers) disappears. All the gamma-induced centers anneal at 450oC. The mechanism is suggested for the observed thermal-radiation induced transformations of optical centers in the sodium-boron silica glasses: the new [BO4] centers are formed from two =B-O* centers at 350oC. The work was done by the CST RUz grant F2.1.17

142

Sodium valproate (Epilim) in the treatment of refractory epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium valproate was given to seven children with refractory epilepsy and mental retardation. Four of the children became fit free while another was much improved. Plasma levels of sodium valproate correlated well with the dose prescribed and did not approach the theoretical top-desirable level of 200 microgram/ml despite larger than recommended doses. Side effects were minimal and it is concluded that the drug is safe and useful. PMID:347342

Lines, D R

1978-01-11

143

Creys-Malville (Superphenix) decommissioning program and sodium treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Creys-Malville or Superphenix NPP is a 3000 MWth sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor, with four secondary sodium loops and 2 x 620 MWe turbogenerators. Superphenix is a pool-type reactor, with 3,300 tons of primary sodium and 2,500 tons of secondary and auxiliary sodium. The Fast Reactor design requires the use of a non-moderator coolant, which explains why water is de facto eliminated. Most of the Fast Reactor designs worldwide, and that includes Superphenix, use sodium as coolant, based on the following criteria: - non moderator, - small neutron capture cross section, - high power density removal capacity, - easy pumping, - large operating range in the liquid state without pressurization, - good radiation behaviour, - limited piping corrosion, - limited noxiousness, - high industrial availability and low cost. Superphenix is the largest Fast Reactor in the world. It reached first criticality in September 1985 and first grid connection in January 1986. Following a French governmental decision to abandon the FBR technology, Superphenix was officially shutdown in February 1998. The decommissioning of Creys-Malville is part of the EDF industrial strategy, which aims at dismantling its 8 'first-generation' reactor units and Superphenix, over a 25-year period. To this end, EDF has established a specific unit dedicated to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, waste management and environment protection: the Engineering Center for Decommissioning and Environment (nter for Decommissioning and Environment (CIDEN, Lyon). The Creys-Malville site is part of the CIDEN organization. The aim of the Creys-Malville decommissioning project is to achieve the complete dismantling of the plant by 2026. The regulatory frame is now fully set (statutory decrees of March 2006) and allows the dismantling of the reactor and all decommissioning-related operations until the end. (author)

144

Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug products containing iron oxide and hydroxide nanoparticles (INPs) are important for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Pharmaceuticals prepared by the complexation of different kinds of INPs and carbohydrates have different physicochemical and biopharmaceutic characteristics. The increasing number of parenteral non-biological complex drugs (NBCD) containing iron requires physicochemical methods for characterization and enabling of cross comparisons. In this context the structure and the level of crystallinity of the iron phases may be connected to the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates, which etiologically determine the therapeutic and toxic effects. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and electron diffraction (ED) methods were used in order to investigate the nine different parenteral iron formulations Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)), sodium ferric gluconate sucrose (Ferrlecit(®)), iron sucrose (Venofer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (Infed(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Ironate(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Dexferrum(®)), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®)) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(®)). The iron phase in CosmoFer(®), Ferinject(®), Monofer(®), Infed(®), Ironate(®) and Dexferrum(®) was identified as Akaganéite/Akaganéite-like (?-FeOOH), with low amounts of chloride. By combining results of both methods the iron oxide in Feraheme(®) was identified as Magnetite (Fe3O4) with spinel-like structure. Ferrlecit(®) and Venofer(®) were difficult to analyze due to the low degree of crystallinity, but the iron phase seems to fit Lepidocrocite/Lepidocrocite-like (?-FeOOH) or an amorphous kind of structure. The structural information on the type of iron oxide or hydroxide together with the particle size allows predicting the stability of the different complexes including their labile iron content. The combination of ED and XRPD methods is a very helpful approach especially for structural analysis of nanoscopic or low crystalline materials. PMID:23998966

Fütterer, S; Andrusenko, I; Kolb, U; Hofmeister, W; Langguth, P

2013-12-01

145

32P-sodium phosphate treatment of metastatic malignant disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-four patients with cancer of the breast and 12 with cancer of the prostate were treated with testosterone and 32P-sodium phosphate for relief of pain from bony metastases. Thirty received chemotherapy as well, and 34 received external radiation to single ports for localized pain. Of the 46 patients, 34 had good results, 6 fair, and 6 were failures. Ten patients needed transfusion for marrow depression; no other side effect was observed

146

A double blind placebo controlled group comparative study of ophthalmic sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis.  

OpenAIRE

In a 4 week double masked comparative study, patients received 2% nedocromil sodium (48), 2% sodium cromoglycate (48), or placebo eye drops (42), four times daily, for the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Clinical examinations of eye condition and symptom severity were made before and after a 1 week baseline before starting test treatment, and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment. Patients kept daily diary card records of symptom severity and concomitant therapy. At the clinic,...

El Hennawi, M.

1994-01-01

147

Anticancer Drug-Incorporated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids and Their Enhanced Anticancer Therapeutic Efficacy in Combination Cancer Treatment  

OpenAIRE

Objective. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles have been studied as cellular delivery carriers for anionic anticancer agents. As MTX and 5-FU are clinically utilized anticancer drugs in combination therapy, we aimed to enhance the therapeutic performance with the help of LDH nanoparticles. Method. Anticancer drugs, MTX and 5-FU, and their combination, were incorporated into LDH by reconstruction method. Simply, LDHs were thermally pretreated at 400°C, and then reacted with drug solu...

Tae-Hyun Kim; Gyeong Jin Lee; Joo-Hee Kang; Hyoung-Jun Kim; Tae-il Kim; Jae-Min Oh

2014-01-01

148

32P-sodium phosphate treatment of metastatic malignant disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-four patients with cancer of the breast and 12 with cancer of the prostate were treated with testosterone and 32P-sodium phosphate for relief of pain from bony metastases. Thirty were treated with chemotherapy as well, and 34 were treated with external radiation to single ports for localized pain. Of the 46 patients treated, good results were achieved in 34, fair results in six, and no improvement in six. Subsequent marrow depression necessitated transfusion in 10 patients; no other side effect was observed

149

Another Base, Another Solvent? Desalinating Iron Finds with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solution  

OpenAIRE

The desalination processes commonly applied to improve the corrosion stability of archaeological iron artifacts are based on immersion treatments in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Faster and more efficient chloride extraction in solutions based on organic solvents with a lower surface tension can be expected. Furthermore, the danger of new corrosion forming during the subsequent washing out of residual chemicals from the desalinating solution could be minimised, if organic solvents wo...

Charlotte Friederike Kuhn; Christian Heinrich Wunderlich; Gerhard Eggert; Thomas Schleid

2011-01-01

150

The use of twice daily nedocromil sodium in the treatment of asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy and safety of nedocromil sodium inhalation aerosol (4 mg of Tilade administered by metered-dose inhaler) given twice daily was compared with placebo in 112 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma who had been receiving maintenance therapy with oral or inhaled bronchodilators or both. After a 2-week run-in period and a subsequent 2-week baseline period, patients were randomized to active treatment (n = 56) or placebo (n = 56) for 8 weeks. All maintenance bronchodilators were withdrawn before the baseline period, and patients entered the treatment period only after demonstrating a specified level of asthma symptoms. Twice daily administration of nedocromil sodium improved all asthma symptoms in these patients who had symptoms as a result of the withdrawal of their maintenance theophylline and/or oral and inhaled beta 2-agonist bronchodilators. During the primary time period (treatment weeks 5 to 8), statistically significant between-group differences favored nedocromil sodium for the asthma summary score (primary variable, p = 0.001), daytime asthma (p = 0.001), and sleep difficulty caused by asthma (p = 0.006). Furthermore, significant reductions in the use of as-needed rescue medications were reported in the nedocromil sodium group (p = 0.003) compared with the placebo group. Final overall opinions of treatment effectiveness expressed by physicians (p = 0.016) and patients (p = 0.002) strongly favored nedocromil sodium. PMID:7722163

Creticos, P; Burk, J; Smith, L; Comp, R; Norman, P; Findlay, S

1995-04-01

151

Sodium valproate in the treatment of resistant epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of 115 patients was treated with sodium valproate (Epilim) for periods ranging from 6 to 24 months and in dosages ranging from 400 mg to 2400 mg daily. All but six of these patients had intractable epilepsies and had been previously treated unsuccessfully with other anti-epileptic agents. Eighty patients had generalised seizures and 35 had partial seizures which, in 26 cases, were secondarily generalised. Reduction of seizure frequency by over 50 per cent occurred in about 70 per cent of patients with generalised seizures but in only 37 per cent of those with partial seizures. A number of patients reported increased alertness, improvement of mood, increased appetite and improved performance at school. The adverse effects encountered were gastro-intestinal symptoms, weight gain and hair loss. PMID:822682

Hassan, M N; Laljee, H C; Parsonage, M J

1976-09-01

152

The evaluation of sodium valproate in the treatment of Nelson's syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has previously been reported that sodium valproate (Epilim) lowers plasma ACTH levels in Nelson's syndrome. This report describes further experience with its use. Ten patients with Nelson's syndrome were treated with sodium valproate (600-1200 mg/day) for 5-32 weeks. Plasma ACTH was measured by cytochemical methods and RIA. Initial treatment for 5-12 weeks significantly (P less than 0.005) lowered plasma ACTH from a pretreatment mean of 2460 +/- 1870 ng/liter to 480 +/- 330 ng/liter, and the ACTH circadian rhythm was restored in two patients. On discontinuing treatment, plasma ACTH levels remained suppressed for 3 weeks and rose to pretreatment values in 5-12 weeks. Two patients' plasma ACTH levels failed to show a second response to treatment, while a third patient had a favorable second response to treatment over 32 weeks. In six patients, skin pigmentation lightened with treatment, and in one patient, a reduction in size of a pituitary microadenoma, demonstrated radiographically, occurred with treatment. gamma-Aminobutyric acid and sodium valproate were shown to be ineffective in inhibiting ACTH secretion from cultured pituitary tumor cells from a patient with Nelson's syndrome. The results show that sodium valproate is effective in some cases of Nelson's syndrome. We suggest that it reduces the hypersecretion of ACTH by enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid function in the hypothalamus, thereby inhibiting the release of corticotropin-releasing factor. PMID:6300181

Dornhorst, A; Jenkins, J S; Lamberts, S W; Abraham, R R; Wynn, V; Beckford, U; Gillham, B; Jones, M T

1983-05-01

153

Sulfanegen Sodium Treatment in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transfe...

Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

2010-01-01

154

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE  

OpenAIRE

Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF) wer...

Farhad Zeinaly; Jalal Shakhes; Mohammadreza Dehghani Firozabadi; Alireza Shakeri

2009-01-01

155

Crystal Morphology and Surface Reactivity Studies of Calcium Hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Calcium hydroxide samples, obtained as a precipitate from the mixing of solutions of sodium hydroxide with a variety of calcium salts in the optional presence of ethanol and a silylating agent, have been characterised by the techniques of nitrogen adsorption, water vapour adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy, ultra-violet spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The morphology of the samples varied from octahedral crystals to hexagonal prisms to sheets. The individual morphology depends on the conditions of precipitation, the nature and concentration of the calcium salt(s) and the nature of the precipitation medium. It has been shown that a large excess of sodium hydroxide results in octahedral forms, calcium salt(s) in approximate equimolar amount or in large excess to the sodium hydroxide results in hexagonal forms, and sheets are formed in the presence of ethanolic precipitation medium. A poisoning mechanism has been suggested in terms of the morphological properties of the samples. It has been found that the sheet forms of calcium hydroxide can be stabilised by reaction with a silylating agent, resulting in greater thermal stability and chemical stability of the surface. Silylation was found not to occur by direct contact between the precipitated calcium hydroxide samples and silylating agents. Silylation only occurred when precipitation was carried out in the presence of a solution of the silylating agent in absolute ethanol. The silylation of the surface of calcium hydroxide has been found to stabilise the material. Reaction of this with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane formed an intermediate which subsequently reacted with p-nitrobenzoyl chloride to form an inorganic-organic composite. The technique of thermogravimetric analysis has been employed to measure the thermal stability of the samples. It has been found that the samples exhibit major weight losses at around 688K for the non-silylated samples and around 918K for the silylated samples. The BET-nitrogen and the BET-H _2O surface areas of the samples range typically from ~1 to 43 m ^2g^{-1} , and from 9 to 798 m^2g ^{-1} respectively. On the basis of this evidence, taken together with the isotherm shapes it has been shown that: the samples are non-porous; non-silylated calcium hydroxide samples are more hydrophobic than the silylated samples, but upon heat-treatment in air below the decomposition temperature the silylated samples became more hydrophobic, whereas the non-silylated samples became more hydrophilic; samples heated in air at above the decomposition temperature exhibit a dramatic increase in hydrophilicity, the H_2O-BET surface areas becoming ~800 m ^2g^{-1} for non-silylated samples, compared to 368-600 m ^2g^{-1} for silylated samples, indicative of chemisorption following decomposition of the calcium hydroxide to form calcium oxide.

Gray, Adrian Charles

1990-01-01

156

Ammonium hydroxide poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless liquid chemical solution that forms when ammonia dissolves in water. This article discusses poisoning due to ammonium hydroxide. This is for information only and not ...

157

Treatment with 89SrCl and Sodium Ibandronate for pain relief of multiple bone metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the palliative effect on pain relief in patients with multiple bone metastases treated with 89SrCl2 together with Sodium Ibandronate,Sodium Ibandronate alone and 89SrCl2 alone. Methods: Eighty-four patients with bone pain secondary to bone metastases were divided into three groups. Thirty patients were treated with combined 89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate, 26 with 89SrCl2 alone and 28 with Sodium Ibandronate alone. The ?2 test was used in data analysis. Results: The overall palliative pain relief rate in the combined treatment group was 96.6 % (29/30). For the groups using Sodium Ibandronate or 89SrCl2 only, the palliative rates were 71.4% (20/28) and 73.1% (19/26), respectively. There are statistically significant differences between the combined treatment group and the other 2 groups with single treatment modalities in the overall palliative pain relief rate (?2=7.497), in terms of improvement in (1) whole body Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score (80.0% (24/30) vs 50.0% (14/28)/53.8% (14/26), ?2 =35.476) and (2) focal palliative rate (47.6% (50/105) vs 11.2% (11/98)/22.2% (20/90), ?2 =6. 564, all P89SrCl2 and Sodium Ibandronate is more effective than single treatment modalities to relieve bone pain secondary to multiple bone metastases. (authors)

158

Hourly oral sodium chloride for the rapid and predictable treatment of hyponatremia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertonic NaCl is first-line therapy for acute, severe and symptomatic hyponatremia; however, its use is often restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A 35-year-old female inpatient with an optic chiasm glioma and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus developed acute hyponatremia (sodium 122 mEq/l) perhaps coinciding with haloperidol treatment. The sum of her urinary sodium and potassium concentrations was markedly hypertonic vis-à-vis plasma; it was inferred that serum sodium concentration would continue to fall even in the complete absence of fluid intake. Intravenous (i.v.) 3% NaCl was recommended; however, a city-wide public health emergency precluded her transfer to the ICU. She was treated with hourly oral NaCl tablets in a dose calculated to deliver the equivalent of 0.5 ml/kg/h of 3% NaCl with an objective of increasing the serum sodium concentration by 6 mEq/l. She experienced a graded and predictable increase in serum sodium concentration. A slight overshoot to 129 mEq/l was rapidly corrected with 0.25 l of D5W, and she stabilized at 127 mEq/l. We conclude that hourly oral NaCl, in conjunction with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration, may provide an attractive alternative to i.v. 3% NaCl for selected patients with severe hyponatremia. PMID:23816479

Kerns, Eric; Patel, Shweta; Cohen, David M

2014-12-01

159

Formation of transparent aluminum hydroxide film with mesoscopic surface roughness by hydrothermal treatment of incompletely-nitrided sputtered aluminum film  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incompletely-nitrided Al films (Al-N film) are deposited on the glass substrate by rf sputtering with a metallic Al target and using Ar and N{sub 2} gas mixture. With increasing film thickness up to 300nm, the surface roughness increases. And the roughness is easily controlled. The size and the number density of surface protuberance are suitable to control diffusive optical properties in the visible and near infrared regions. The films become transparent with retained roughness by boiling in ultra pure water at 368K under atmospheric pressure. The films have been transformed from composite of Al and AlN to aluminum hydroxide (Boehmite). Total transmittance of the boiled specimens exceeded that of the glass substrate itself. These facts suggest that hydrothermally-treated Al-N films with the mesoscopic surface roughness have high potential to reduce the optical loss by reflection.

Hori, Toshiyuki; Qiu, Zhiyong; Ishiguro, Takashi, E-mail: ishiguro@rs.noda.tus.ac.j [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641, Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

2010-06-01

160

Formation of transparent aluminum hydroxide film with mesoscopic surface roughness by hydrothermal treatment of incompletely-nitrided sputtered aluminum film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incompletely-nitrided Al films (Al-N film) are deposited on the glass substrate by rf sputtering with a metallic Al target and using Ar and N2 gas mixture. With increasing film thickness up to 300nm, the surface roughness increases. And the roughness is easily controlled. The size and the number density of surface protuberance are suitable to control diffusive optical properties in the visible and near infrared regions. The films become transparent with retained roughness by boiling in ultra pure water at 368K under atmospheric pressure. The films have been transformed from composite of Al and AlN to aluminum hydroxide (Boehmite). Total transmittance of the boiled specimens exceeded that of the glass substrate itself. These facts suggest that hydrothermally-treated Al-N films with the mesoscopic surface roughness have high potential to reduce the optical loss by reflection.

161

Treatment of writer's cramp with sodium valproate and baclofen. A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of 27-year-old Black man with writer's cramp with a combination of sodium valproate (Epilim) and baclofen (Lioresal) resulted in dramatic improvement of symptoms and signs. The possible mechanism of action of these drugs is discussed. This combination should be tried in the initial management of this syndrome. PMID:6405489

Sandyk, R

1983-04-30

162

Pegaptanib sodium treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: clinical experience in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nikolaus Feucht, Huebner Matthias, Chris P Lohmann, Mathias MaierAugenklinik rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, GermanyBackground: The VEGF Inhibition Study In Ocular Neovascularisation (VISION reported the efficacy of intravitreal (ITV vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibition with pegaptanib sodium (Macugen® for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. This paper reports clinical experience with pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of occult or minimally classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to AMD.Material and methods: The study included 50 eyes (in 49 patients with either occult CNV or minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD who were not eligible for photodynamic therapy (PDT. Study data were analyzed retrospectively. During the 6-month study, patients were administered an average 2.74 injections of 0.3 mg ITV pegaptanib sodium. Angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT examinations were carried out and intraocular pressure (IOP and visual acuity (VA were measured at baseline, at 3 months and at 6 months. An eye examination was performed and VA was measured the 2 days following treatment and then again at weeks 4–6, and at 3 and 6 months. OCT, VA, and IOP were also assessed at 1 month.Results: ITV pegaptanib sodium was well tolerated and no treatment complications arose. Mean VA was measured as: 0.37 ± 0.24 at baseline; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 1 month; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 3 months and 0.40 ± 0.26 at 6 months. VA was stabilized in approximately 90% of eyes treated with pegaptanib sodium. OCT examination showed a minimal change in central retinal thickness (CRT during the course of the study, from 251.19 µm at baseline to 251.63 µm at 6 months. No elevation in IOP was measured during treatment at 4–6 months in patients receiving pegaptanib sodium.Conclusions: ITV therapy with pegaptanib sodium for occult and minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD offered good efficacy with a favorable adverse events profile. The majority of patients showed stabilization in all assessed parameters. In clinical practice, careful consideration should be given to the use of nonselective VEGF inhibition in patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile or in those with a history of thromboembolic events.Keywords: Intravitreal (ITV injection, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, choroidal neovascularization (CNV, anti-VEGF therapy, pegaptanib sodium

Nikolaus Feucht

2008-06-01

163

A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors  

OpenAIRE

Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims...

Asfandyar Khan Niazi; Saad Hameed Niazi

2010-01-01

164

Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returnedr routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

165

Luteal changes after treatment with sub-luteolytic doses of prostaglandin (cloprostenol sodium) in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study characterizes the physiological and morphological changes related to partial luteolysis in bovine corpus luteum (CL) after challenges with sub-doses of cloprostenol sodium on Day 6 (D6) of the estrous cycle. Cows (n=12/treatment) were treated as follows: Control (2mL, saline, i.m.); 2XPGF (two treatments i.m. 500?g of cloprostenol sodium 2h apart) and 1/6PGF (83.3?g of cloprostenol sodium, i.m., once). Plasma progesterone (P4) concentration, CL volume and blood flow were measured immediately before the treatments, then every 8h (h) for 48h. In the Control, P4 concentrations were higher at 48h than at 0h. P4 decreased 8h after 2XPGF treatment (P<0.05), and remained low until the end of the trial. P4 decreased in 1/6PGF between 8 and 16h (P<0.05), then began to rebound at 24h. Luteal volume was higher in Controls at 48h than at 0h. Under 1/6PGF, luteal volume decreased at 24h (P<0.05) and began to rebound at 32h. Luteal volume and blood flow were reduced starting at 24 and 32h, respectively, after 2XPGF treatment (P<0.05). In this study, we were able to describe the partial luteolysis phenomenon, induced by a treatment of a D6CL with cloprostenol sub-dose. PMID:25578505

Trevisol, Eduardo; Ferreira, Jair Camargo; Ackermann, Camila Louise; Destro, Flavia Caroline; Marques Filho, Wolff Camargo; Carmagos, Aline Souza; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; do Amaral, Jackson Barros; de Figueiredo Pantoja, José Carlos; Sartori, Roberto; Ferreira, João Carlos Pinheiro

2015-02-01

166

Decommissioning of the Rapsodie fast reactor: in-vessel operations and residual sodium treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Rapsodie experimental fast neutron reactor at Cadarache (France) was operated from 1962 to 1982. The initial decommissioning operations began immediately, reaching IAEA stage 2 in 1994. Since 2004 studies are in progress to re-start the decommissioning work in accordance to the new dismantling decree expected in 2011. The project is divided into three different main operations, one consist of the in-vessel residual sodium treatment. The present status of the reactor block is described, the different sodium processes are considered, in more particularly the carbonation, and the first results of the experimental program are discussed. (authors)

167

Decommissioning of the Rapsodie fast reactor: in-vessel operations and residual sodium treatments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rapsodie experimental fast neutron reactor at Cadarache (France) was operated from 1962 to 1982. The initial decommissioning operations began immediately, reaching IAEA stage 2 in 1994. Since 2004 studies are in progress to re-start the decommissioning work in accordance to the new dismantling decree expected in 2011. The project is divided into three different main operations, one consist of the in-vessel residual sodium treatment. The present status of the reactor block is described, the different sodium processes are considered, in more particularly the carbonation, and the first results of the experimental program are discussed. (authors)

Berson, X.; Goubot, J.M. [CEA Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Dir., Decontamination and Dismantling Projects Dept., 30 (France); Godlewski, J.; Verdelli, J. [CEA Cadarache, Nuclear Energy Dir., Nuclear Technology Dept., 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2008-07-01

168

Decommissioning of the Rapsodie Fast Reactor: In-Vessel operations and residual sodium treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Rapsodie experimental fast neutron reactor at Cadarache (France) was operated from 1962 to 1982. The initial decommissioning operations began immediately, reaching IAEA stage 2 in 1994. Since 2004 studies are in progress to re-start the decommissioning work in accordance to the new dismantling decree expected in 2011. The project is divided into three different main operations, one consist of the in-vessel residual sodium treatment. The present status of the reactor block is described, the different sodium processes are considered, and the first results of the experimental program are discussed. (authors)

169

A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

Asfandyar Khan Niazi

2010-12-01

170

Synthesis of high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries by morphology-tailored hydroxide co-precipitation  

Science.gov (United States)

Nickel manganese hydroxide co-precipitation inside a continuous stirred tank reactor was studied with sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as the precipitation agents. The ammonium hydroxide concentration had an effect on the primary and secondary particle evolution. The two-step precipitation mechanism proposed earlier was experimentally confirmed. In cell tests, Li- and Mn-rich composite cathode materials based on the hydroxide precursors demonstrated good electrochemical performance in terms of cycle life over a wide range of lithium content.

Wang, Dapeng; Belharouak, Ilias; Ortega, Luis H.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Dehua; Zhou, Guangwen; Amine, Khalil

2015-01-01

171

Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

Barnes, Charles Marshall

2003-09-01

172

Valor nutritivo de cana-de-açúcar tratada com hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de rolão-de-milho Nutritive value of sugarcane treated with sodium hydroxide and added of ground corn ears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o valor nutritivo de cana-de-açúcar tratada com 1,0% de hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg de rolão-de-milho/t de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi conduzido no Instituto de Zootecnia, em Nova Odessa, SP, e o delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O teste de consumo e digestibilidade foi efetuado com ovelhas em períodos de 10, 10 e 5 dias, que corresponderam, respectivamente, aos períodos de adaptação, controle do consumo e coleta de fezes e urina. O consumo de matéria seca e o coeficiente de digestibilidade da matéria seca aumentaram linearmente com a adição de rolão-de-milho. A ingestão de nutrientes digestíveis totais não foi alterada com a adição de rolão-de-milho.The objective of this work was to determine the nutritive value of sugarcane treated with 1,0% of sodium hydroxide plus 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg of ground corn ears/ton of chopped sugarcane. The experiment was carried out at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, SP, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. Intake and digestibility trials were conducted in 10, 10 and 5 day periods, corresponding respectively to adaptation, intake and feces collection of female sheep. Dry matter intake and dry matter digestibility increased linearly with the addition of ground corn ears. Total digestible nutrients was not altered with the addition of ground corn ears.

João Batista de Andrade

2001-10-01

173

Determination of the biodistribution and biokinetics of radiopharmaca like 166Ho-ferric-hydroxide or 153Sm-EDTMP used for therapeutic treatment by energy dispersive measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity distribution of beta-emitting radionuclides in the human body and the respective therapeutic dose distribution in the target and the unwanted leakage in the other organs was determined by measurement of corresponding gamma-lines. The measurement was done by scanning in a whole-body counter in the General Hospital Vienna. It is possible to localize activity and dose distribution by means of the detected activity profiles of the four detectors. Two typical treatments are reported: the treatment of synovitis using radiation of 166Ho-Ferric-Hydroxide (characteristic gamma-line: 81 keV) and radionuclide therapy focused at the palliative treatment of bone metastases with 153Sm-EDTMP, a bone seeking beta-emitting radionuclide (characteristic gamma-line: 103 keV). For the determination of the applied dose, the leakage and the quality assurance spectroscopic data of a clinical whole-body counter can be a useful tool for controlling and monitoring in health care. (authors)

174

The use of sodium hyaluronate for the treatment of radiation recall dermatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high-molecular weight polysaccharide, a glycosaminoglycan that enhances fibroblast movement and metabolism during wound healing, increasing collagen fibers forming granulation tissue. We describe a 42-year-old female, who developed radiation recall dermatitis following an allogeneic stem cell transplant from an unrelated donor (MUD-PBSCT). Her skin was treated with a topical sodium hyaluronate gel twice daily (RadiaplexRX, MPM Medical). There was marked improvement after 5 days of therapy without discontinuation of any of her therapeutic agents. At a time when the health care providers were faced with considerable treatment dilemmas, this patient demonstrated improvement in the symptoms of radiation recall dermatitis with the topical application of sodium hyaluronate and no change in her medication profile. This agent could successfully allow practitioners to treat radiation recall dermatitis without discontinuation of the recall trigger drug and thus jeopardizing the outcome of the treatment regimen. PMID:19036906

Bauer, Shannon M; Bauer, Carole

2009-06-01

175

Intra-articular treatment with sodium hyaluronate in gonarthrosis: a controlled clinical trial versus placebo.  

Science.gov (United States)

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out in 34 patients suffering from osteo-arthritis of the knee. A total of 40 joints was treated at random with 3 intra-articular injections, at 1 week intervals, of either 20 mg sodium hyaluronate or placebo. Clinical examinations, including assessments of spontaneous pain intensity, pain on touch, under load and while walking, were made before each injection and repeated 7 days after the last one and again at 60 days after the start of the trial. The results showed a significant difference between treatments for all the variables assessed. In the sodium hyaluronate group, pain relief was not only rapid but also long lasting. Local tolerance was very good for both treatments. PMID:3310017

Grecomoro, G; Martorana, U; Di Marco, C

1987-01-01

176

Sodium stibogluconate as first-line treatment for post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis  

OpenAIRE

An 18 year-old-girl, a resident of Buxar District of Bihar State, India, presented with hypopigmented rash on face of six months duration. Superficial sensations were intact. There was history of being treated for prolonged fever two years ago, for about three weeks. Based on history, clinical and microscopic examination, she was diagnosed to have post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Treatment with parenteral sodium stibogluconate was initiated, to which she responded satisfactorily. This cas...

Dhillon, K. S.; Varshney, Krati R.

2014-01-01

177

A new route to mass production of metal hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aluminum hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanofibers were self-assembled by hydration of highly activated aluminum powder using no surfactants or templates. The activation was performed by milling aluminum powder with sodium chloride as nano-miller. Transmission electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that this method leads to smaller size of aluminum particles (less than 50 nm) and increases the lattice strain. These factors provide conditions under which hydration procedure proceeds until it reaches the core of aluminum particles. The synthesized powder consists of nanofibers with thickness less then 10 nm and average length of 120 nm and specific surface area of 309 m2 g-1. The process is convenient, highly efficient and capable to be implemented in mass production. It may be extended to produce hydroxide/oxide hydroxide nanopowders of other metals, as well.

178

Comparison of Treatment Effect of Sodium Valprovate, Propranolol and Tricyclic Antidepressants in Migraine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy and treatment effect of sodium valprovate with propranolol and tricyclic antidepressive drugs. This piece is a rarandomized clinical trial conducted on 126 migraine patients admitted to brain and nerves clinic in Arak, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups then randomized to study treatments. Data were gathered using a checklist and a complete examination. They were analyzed by Chi square and exact test. In patients with normal and abnormal encephalogram the effectiveness rate of two treatments were 35, 61.9, 95.6 and 28.6%, respectively. This difference between two treatments was statistically significant (p<0.001. But didn't observe significant differences between two sex groups (p>0.05. For treatment and control of the migraine, in patients with normal encephalogram, propranolol with tricyclic antidepressive drugs advised and for abnormal encephalogram sodium valprovate can be the better treatment for management and reduction of headache attacks.

Ghasami K.

2009-01-01

179

Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

Marina Mandryk

2012-08-01

180

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in an Israeli group of patients and its treatment with sodium cromoglycate.  

OpenAIRE

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is usually considered as an allergic eye disorder of type I, and in most therapeutic trials it has been shown to yield to topical treatment with sodium cromoglycate. This has been confirmed in the present study of VKC patients from Israel. However, some of the cases seemed not to benefit from this treatment. In a survey of IgE levels in VKC patients in Israel tear IgE levels were significantly increased in 63.5%, but in 29% of the patients both tear and blood...

Baryishak, Y. R.; Zavaro, A.; Monselise, M.; Samra, Z.; Sompolinsky, D.

1982-01-01

181

Naproxen sodium, diflunisal, and placebo in the treatment of chronic back pain.  

OpenAIRE

Thirty-seven patients with chronic back pain were entered into a randomised, 3-way, double-blind, cross-over comparison of naproxen sodium 550 mg twice daily, diflunisal 500 mg twice daily, and placebo. Each treatment was given for 14 days after a preadmission wash-out week during which only paracetamol was allowed. Patients were assessed on admission and at the end of each treatment with respect to global pain, night pain, pain on movement, and pain on standing. Both visual analogue scales a...

Berry, H.; Bloom, B.; Hamilton, E. B.; Swinson, D. R.

1982-01-01

182

Another Base, Another Solvent? Desalinating Iron Finds with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The desalination processes commonly applied to improve the corrosion stability of archaeological iron artifacts are based on immersion treatments in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Faster and more efficient chloride extraction in solutions based on organic solvents with a lower surface tension can be expected. Furthermore, the danger of new corrosion forming during the subsequent washing out of residual chemicals from the desalinating solution could be minimised, if organic solvents would replace the water, commonly used for this process. Only alkali metal hydroxide (LiOH and NaOH solutions in organic solvents have been tested so far. Their comparatively low chloride extraction efficiency was ascribed to the low solubility of the alkali metal hydroxides and the corresponding chlorides in the solvents used. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH is readily soluble in alcohols and has been tested in aqueous and/or methanolic solutions as an alternative. Neither improved overall chloride extraction efficiency, nor a higher chloride extraction rate could be observed using methanolic solutions. However, aqueous TMAH showed a trend towards higher overall chloride extraction efficiency than the common alkaline treatments. These results could be explained by the different solubility of corrosion products, in particular akaganéite, ?-FeO(OH, in the tested solutions.

Charlotte Friederike Kuhn

2011-01-01

183

Fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with sodium morrhuate for the treatment of lower extremity varices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate in treating lower extremity varices. Methods: A total of 30 cases (39 diseased lower limbs) with lower extremity varices were enrolled in this study. Under fluoroscopic guidance foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate was carried out in all patients. The obstructed condition of the great saphenous vein was observed during the following three months. Results: The technical success was achieved in all 39 patients. The mean dose of foam sclerosant used for each diseased limb was 5.9 ml (3.4-8.2 ml). Disappearance of blood flow reflux in lower extremity vein immediately after the treatment was seen in 35 patients (90%). Three months after the therapy, vascular sonography showed that the great saphenous vein was obstructed, and no serious complications occurred. Conclusion: For the treatment of lower extremity varices, fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate is safe and effective with satisfactory results. This technique is a newly-developed micro-invasive therapy for lower extremity varices. (authors)

184

Nickel-iron layered double hydroxide (LDH): textural properties upon hydrothermal treatments and application on dye sorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

NiFeCO(3) hydrotalcites with Ni/Fe molar ratio of 3 were synthesized by co-precipitation method at constant pH, followed by hydrothermal treatment at various temperatures 85-180 degrees C for 3-360h. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM and TEM microscopy, TGA and BET techniques. The resulting materials were found to be similar to the hydrotalcite with a well-defined hexagonal morphology of crystallites. The hydrothermal treatment and aging time increases the platelet sizes and decreases the surface area. XRD analysis showed the formation of sharper and intense peaks, which might indicate the larger crystallites size of LDH as well as higher crystallinity. Furthermore, textural studies revealed influence of aging time and temperature on the properties of the crystalline phase. The prolonged time tends to form additional products, identified as NiFe(2)O(4) spinel and NiO nickel oxide. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on the kinetics of dye removal has been explored. It was found that the percentage color removal increases with increasing hydrothermal treatment temperature up to 140 degrees C and aging time up to 4 days. Furthermore, the color removal decreases with increasing hydrothermal treatment temperature up to 140-180 degrees C and prolonged aging time. PMID:19155131

Saiah, Fatiha Boukraa Djellal; Su, Bao-Lian; Bettahar, Nourredine

2009-06-15

185

Diminazene aceturate associated with sodium selenite and vitamin E in the treatment of Trypanosoma evansi infection in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of a standard treatment with diminazene aceturate against the infection caused by Trypanosoma evansi, associated to sodium selenite and vitamin E. In vitro tests showed trypanocidal effect related to the treatment with diminazene aceturate and sodium selenite, but vitamin E had no harmful effect on the trypanosomes. In vivo experiments utilized a total of 72 adult outbreed females rats, separated into 9 groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I), 8 animals each. Group A was the uninfected group; groups B to I were infected with 0.2mL of blood containing 10(6) trypanosomes. Parasitemia was estimated daily by microscopic examination of blood smears. Group B served as positive control; group C was treated with diminazene aceturate; group D with sodium selenite; group E with vitamin E; group F received an association of diminazene aceturate and sodium selenite; group G received an association of diminazene aceturate and vitamin E; group H received an association of diminazene aceturate, sodium selenite and vitamin E, and group I received an association of sodium selenite and vitamin E. Diminazene aceturate was administrated in a single dose on the 3rd day post infection (PI). Sodium selenite and vitamin E were administered at the 3rd and 23rd day PI. In vivo tests showed increase of longevity in groups treated with diminazene aceturate associated with sodium selenite (groups F and H). No difference was found between groups C and E, thus the vitamin E did not increase the efficacy of treatment against T. evansi when associated to diminazene aceturate. The curative efficacy of treatments was 37.5, 87.7, 37.7 and 75% to the groups C, F, G and H, respectively. Other treatments showed no efficacy. The sodium selenite when combined with chemotherapy may represent an alternative in the treatment of trypanosomosis. PMID:21420954

Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Costa, Marcio M; Otto, Mateus A; Thomé, Gustavo R; Tavares, Kaio S; Miletti, Luiz C; Leal, Marta R; Lopes, Sonia T A; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Monteiro, Silvia G; de La Rue, Mario L

2011-07-01

186

Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 ºC, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process.

Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

2008-05-01

187

Treatment of sodium spills and leakage detection at loop-type fast reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium spills are of great importance in the safety analysis for sodium cooled nuclear plants. Large leakages can lead to a depletion of the heat transfer system and cause the loss of cooling of the reactor. Further the hot sodium may attack structural materials. In areas with air atmosphere large amounts of sodium can burn and cause great damages. Therefore the control of large leakages is an indispensable task in design and construction of sodium cooled reactor systems. Because of the typical arrangement of widespread long pipe systems loop type plants are subject to a gradually greater risk of damage than pool type plants. The sodium catching devices of the SNR-300 are described and their function is illustrated as an example for the treatment of large spills. Since the equipment for the control of large amounts of leaking sodium is very expensive, great efforts are made in order to save costs and to decrease safety problems. It is aimed to minimize the probability of such events to a degree that they no longer are to be considered realistic. The advantageous operating conditions and the favourable material properties support this aim. Under the well known keyword 'leak-before-rupture' criterion this task is pursued. Crack growth measurements are made at structural materials under LMFBR conditions, and leakage detecting systems are being developed. Some test results concerning this task are described. Despite the fact that there are good chances to verify the leak-before-rupture criterion it is assumed that certain hypothetical accidents occur, which are to be considered in the design of the reactor plant. The extremely improbable Bethe-Tait-accident (HCDA) is such an event. It would lead to a super spill, that means to the complete depletion of the reactor tank. For the SNR-300 plant a system is provided that is able to catch this super spill and the core melt. This core catcher must withstand the high temperatures and remove the decay heat. The purpose of this system is to restrict the consequences of the accident to the inner containment and to guarantee the integrity and the function of the outer containment. It is reported on investigations concerning the design of the core catcher, especially on experiments which were performed to find suitable materials which are able to withstand the extreme operating conditions of the system

188

Clinical observation of the combined treatment of edaravone and ozagrel sodium in acute ischemic stroke beyond the thrombolytic time window  

OpenAIRE

The curative effect of edaravone combined with ozagrel sodium on acute ischemic stroke beyond the time window of thrombolysis was investigated. A total of 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke beyond the time window of thrombolysis were admitted in our hospital from December 2010 to December 2012. The patients were divided into combined treatment group (N = 50) and ozagrel sodium monotherapy group (control group, N = 50). After 14 days' treatment, total effective rate of the combined treatm...

Sun, Rui-xing; Yu, Qiu-jing

2013-01-01

189

Modelo experimental de estenose traqueal mediante ressecção cirúrgica submucosa de anéis traqueais combinada com instilações de hidróxido de sódio Experimental model of tracheal stenosis with submucosal resection of cartilaginous rings combined with sodium hydroxide instillations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, experimentalmente, malácia e estenose traqueal para testar novos modelos de órteses traqueais. MÉTODOS: Ressecamos três anéis cartilaginosos da traqueia cervical de cães no grupo A (n=5 e seis anéis no grupo B (n=4 para produzir malácia. Logo após, a mucosa da região com malácia recebeu aplicações de uma solução de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH a 23%, e os animais eram acompanhados com exames broncoscópicos para observar o desenvolvimento de estreitamento da luz da via aérea. Quando a estenose era de mais de 50% da luz, ou havia sinais mínimos de insuficiência ventilatória, os animais eram sacrificados. O segmento de via aérea estreitada foi então coletado para análise histológica e era calculada a área de luz residual do segmento traqueal com estenose e malácia. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica, foi constatada fibrose na submucosa e adventícia, associada a granulomas na mucosa. A luz residual média dos segmentos com estenose foi de 9% e 12% nos grupos A e B, respectivamente, (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A combinação da ressecção de anéis cartilaginosos e da aplicação de NaOH 23% na mucosa respiratória promoveu uma estenose traqueal intensa, porém esteve associada à perda de animais. Novos estudos são necessários para verificar se o emprego isolado de uma das técnicas seria mais seguro e eficaz para desenvolver estenose traqueal.OBJECTIVE: To experimentally develop tracheal stenosis and malacia to test new models of tracheal stents. METHODS: We resected three cartilaginous rings from the cervical trachea of dogs in group A (n = 5 and six rings in group B (n = 4 to produce malacia. The mucosa of the region with malacia then received applications of a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH at 23%, and the animals were accompanied with bronchoscopic examinations to observe the development of luminal narrowing of the airway. When the stenosis was of more than 50% or there were minimal signs of ventilatory failure, the animals were sacrificed. The segment of narrowed airway was then collected for histological analysis and calculation of the area of residual lumen in the tracheal segment with stenosis and malacia. RESULTS: In histological analysis, fibrosis was found in the submucosa and adventitia, associated with granulomas in the mucosa. The average residual lumen of the segments with stenosis was 9% and 12% in groups A and B, respectively (p> 0.05. CONCLUSION: The combination of resection of the cartilaginous rings and the application of 23% NaOH in the respiratory mucosa promoted severe tracheal stenosis, but was associated with loss of animals. Further studies are needed to verify that the isolated use of one of the techniques would be safer and more effective to develop tracheal stenosis.

Maurício Guidi Saueressig

2011-12-01

190

Chronic Temporomandibular Pain Treatment Using Sodium Diclofenac / Tratamiento crónico del dolor temporomandibular con diclofenaco sódico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio evaluó el dolor espontáneo antes y después de la administración de diclofenaco sódico, aislado o asociado a carisoprodol, paracetamol y cafeína, en pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares crónicos (TTM). Se seleccionaron dieciocho voluntarios, hombres y mujeres, entre 35-70 años de [...] edad (edad media 50 años). Los criterios de inclusión fueron dolor muscular masticatorio, y los criterios diagnósticos para trastornos temporomandibulares (RDC / TMD) como diagnóstico. La selección del tratamiento para cada individuo se llevó a cabo mediante una metodología de cruce triple ciego completo al azar. Por lo tanto, todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a todos los tratamientos en diferentes momentos, en una secuencia no estandarizada, evitando los resultados tendenciosos. Los tratamientos fueron: A (diclofenaco sódico + carisoprodol + acetaminofen + cafeína), B (diclofenaco sódico) y C (placebo), todos asociados a una férula oclusal. Cada período de tratamiento fue seguido por once días. No se encontraron diferencias entre los valores inicial y final de los tratamientos. Sin embargo, hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los grupos de evaluación sensorial y después del tratamiento B, y en los grupos de calificación sensorial, afectivo, y el total después de los tratamientos B y C. Dentro de las limitaciones de esta investigación, se concluye que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico aislado en pacientes con TTM musculares promueve una mayor analgesia que el tratamiento con diclofenaco sódico más asociaciones o placebo, cuando se asocia a una férula oclusal. Abstract in english This study evaluate spontaneous pain after and before administration of sodium diclofenac, isolated or associated to carisoprodol, acetaminophen and caffeine, in chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. Were selected eighteen volunteers, both men and women, between 35-70 years of age (mea [...] n age 50 years). The inclusion criteria was masticatory muscle pain, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was used on the diagnose. The selection of treatment for each individual was done by a triple-blind full-randomized crossover methodology. Thus, all patients were submitted to all treatment at different moments, in a non standardized sequence, avoiding tendentious results. The treatments were: A (sodium diclofenac + carisoprodol + acetaminophen + caffeine), B (sodium diclofenac) and C (placebo), all associated with an occlusal splint. Each treatment period was followed by an eleven-day washout. There weren't observed differences between initial and final values of treatments. However, there were statistically significant differences in evaluative and miscellaneous sensorial groups after B treatment; and in sensorial, affective, and total score groups after B and C treatments. Within the limitations of this investigation, we conclude that treatment of muscular TMD patients with sodium diclofenac isolated promoted higher analgesia than treatment with sodium diclofenac more associations or placebo, when associated to an occlusal splint.

Fernando, Kurita Varoli; Sandra, Sato; Murillo, Sucena Pita; Cássio, do Nascimento; Vinícius, Pedrazzi.

2012-08-01

191

Combined treatment with sodium butyrate and PD153035 enhances keratinocyte differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signalling is a critical determinant of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in both normal and diseased skin. Here we explore the effects of combined treatment with the differentiation-promoting agent sodium butyrate (SB) and the EGFR inhibitor (EGFRI) PD153035 on terminal differentiation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Cells treated with SB showed increased expression of the levels of mRNA and protein of the differentiation markers filaggrin and transglutaminase 1. Cotreatment with EGF significantly blunted these effects of SB. Combined treatment with SB and PD153035 alleviated these inhibitory actions of EGF, resulting in improved effects of decreased cell growth and increased terminal differentiation, relative to the individual treatments. These results indicate that the combined use of a differentiation-promoting agent and an EGFR inhibitor may offer an additional approach to the management of hyperproliferative skin diseases. PMID:24451036

Leon Carrion, Sandra; Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Sutter, Thomas R

2014-03-01

192

Novel sodium hypochlorite cleanser shows clinical response and excellent acceptability in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intermittent use of dilute sodium hypochlorite "bleach baths" has shown efficacy as adjunctive therapy for atopic dermatitis (AD). This feasibility study evaluated the clinical response and patient acceptability of treatment with a cleansing body wash containing sodium hypochlorite in children with AD. This was a 12-week open-label feasibility study of 18 children with AD conducted in a pediatric dermatology outpatient clinic between May 2011 and July 2012. Children with moderate to severe AD, defined as an Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) score of at least 3 on a 5-point scale, who were age 6 months and older and had lesional cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus at baseline were included. Patients were instructed to wash 3 days/week for 12 weeks with the sodium hypochlorite-containing cleansing body wash. During the study period, patient's individualized topical and systemic treatment regimens were continued. Clinical response to treatment was measured using an IGA score and the percentage of body surface area (BSA) affected. Parents were also administered a retrospective questionnaire evaluating acceptability of the product. There was a statistically significant reduction in IGA score at all time points, with an overall mean reduction from baseline to final measurement using the last observation carried forward in all patients of 1.0 (p = 0.001, n = 18). Similarly the mean reduction of BSA affected was 14.8% (p = 0.005, n = 18). Parents reported that the body wash was significantly easier to use than traditional bleach baths (p < 0.001). The significant reductions in clinical disease severity scores with use of this formulation are encouraging. PMID:23617366

Ryan, Caitriona; Shaw, Richard E; Cockerell, Clay J; Hand, Shari; Ghali, Fred E

2013-01-01

193

Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system

194

Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens. PMID:24926808

Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

2014-07-16

195

Treatments of free fatty acids to prevent or decrease colour fixation in cottonseed oil  

OpenAIRE

Some treatments have been investigated to prevent or remove colour fixation of cottonseed oil containing high level of free fatty acids without using excess of sodium hydroxide in the refining step. The treatments included use of sodium carbonate and ethanolamine before and after subjecting a crude cottonseed oil containing excess of free fatty acid to a colour fixation treatment.
The results revealed that the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment improved the oil colour by decreasing t...

Helmy, H. E.; Taha, F. S.; El-motaal, E. A. Abd

1994-01-01

196

Treatment of generalized epilepsies of childhood and adolescence with sodium valproate ("epilim").  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 142 patients (84 per cent aged less than 20 years) with various forms of generalized epilepsy have been treated with sodium valproate alone or in combination with other drugs. The mean duration of symptoms was six years, and half the patients had daily seizures. Nine patients had typical absences, 33 had absences with automatisms, 28 had tonic-clonic seizures with or without photosensitivity, and 72 had various forms of myoclonic epilepsy. Dosage varied from 23 to 54mg/kg and twice-daily administration was usual. Estimation of serum levels did not assist in management. Fits ceased in 63 per cent of all cases and a further 18 per cent showed improvement greater than 50 per cent. Of the 69 with 3c/sec spike-and-wave discharges, 81 per cent became free from all fits, as did 77 percent of those with myoclonic jerks. Fits ceased in eight of the 32 patients with myoclonic astatic epilepsy and there was improvement greater than 50 per cent in a further eight patients. Other anticonvulsants were often withdrawn and always reduced. 21 patients received sodium valproate alone from the start of treatment and all other drugs were withdrawn in another 38. Sodium valproate alone controlled all fits in four children with absences, in 18 with absences with automatisms, 10 with tonic-clonic seizures and 22 with myoclonic epilepsy. Side-effects were rare, mild and often temporary. Potentiation of barbiturates and benzodiazepines occurred, especially clonazepam, which should be avoided. Many patients were more alert. Sodium valproate appears to be the drug of choice for epilepsies associated with generalized spike-and-wave discharges, myoclonic epilepsies or photosensitive epilepsies, and is of especial value in children and mentally retarded patients because it lacks sedating effects and often induces liveliness. PMID:403104

Jeavons, P M; Clark, J E; Maheshwari, M C

1977-02-01

197

The effect of sodium hypochlorite and ginger extract on microorganisms and endotoxins in endodontic treatment of infected root canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This in vitro study sought to evaluate the biomechanical preparation action on microorganisms and endotoxins by using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and an intracanal medication containing Zingiber officinale, with or without calcium hydroxide. Single-rooted teeth were contaminated, and root canal instrumentation (using 2.5% NaOCl) was performed. Samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the intracanal medication employed. The root canal content was gathered 28 days after contamination (baseline), immediately after biomechanical preparation, 7 days after biomechanical preparation, 14 days after intracanal medication, and 7 days after intracanal medication was removed. The results (submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests) showed that the NaOCl eliminated 100% of root canal microorganisms and reduced 88.8% of endotoxins immediately after biomechanical preparation, and 83.2% at 7 days after biomechanical preparation. PMID:24784510

Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; Cardoso, Flavia Goulart Rosa; Oliveira, Luciane Dias de; Oliveira, Carolina Lima de; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge

2014-01-01

198

40 CFR 268.42 - Treatment standards expressed as specified technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Sulfur dioxide; (2) sodium, potassium, or alkali salts or...hydroxides, carbonates, sulfides, sulfates, chlorides...i.e., sodium and/or potassium hydroxides; (3) soda ash...carbonate); (4) sodium sulfide; (5) ferric sulfate...

2010-07-01

199

Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5...

Mohammadi, Z.; Shalavi, S.; Yazdizadeh, M.

2012-01-01

200

Structural and textural evolution during folding of layers of layered double hydroxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Layers of a layered double hydroxide, containing aluminum 4-fold coordinated, were partially folded in order to obtain a fibrous hydrotalcite-like compound. The hydrotalcite layers, in the presence of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) after hydrothermal treatment for 2 weeks, acquire a mesoporous-like arrangement. The transformation was monitored by techniques sensitive to structural and textural properties. Results suggest that brucite-like layers can be joined throughout unsaturated coordinated aluminum, that is, tetrahedral aluminum which links through hydrogen bonds to form aluminum octahedrally coordinated. The fractal dimension parameter was very sensitive to evolution from layered to fibrous hydrotalcites. PMID:18627185

Martínez-Ortiz, María de Jesús; Lima, Enrique; Lara, Víctor; Vivar, Juan Méndez

2008-08-19

201

A Comparative Assessment the Efficacy of Intravenous Infusion of Sodium Valproate and Phenytion in the Treatment of Status Epilepticus  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Status epilepticus (SE) is a type of persistent lasting seizure with high mortality and morbidity. Numerous medications are suggested for the treatment of SE, two of which are sodium valproate and phenytoin. The purpose of this study is to conduct a comparison between the efficiencies of intravenous sodium valproate and phenytoin in the treatment of this type of epilepsy. Methods: This is a clinical trial study conducted on SE-suffering patients admitted to the emergency departments of Al-Zahra and Ayatollah Kashani Medical Centers of Isfahan in 2009 and 2010. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups and taken under treatment, separately by intravenous infusion sodium valproate and phenytoin. Results: No significant difference was observed between the two groups (at P = 0.06). In terms of incidence of the clinical complications, the incidence of clinical complications in the two groups was significantly different (at P = 0.03). Conclusions: Based on the findings the efficiency of sodium valproate is larger than that of the phenytoin, and thus, the treatment by sodium valproate is preferred over the treatment by phenytoin. PMID:23776727

Chitsaz, Ahmad; Mehvari, Jafar; Salari, Mehri; Gholami, Fataneh; Najafi, Mohammad-reza

2013-01-01

202

Average formation number n-barOH of colloid-type indium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indium perchlorate in perchloric acid solution was titrated with sodium hydroxide solution to various pH values. Indium hydroxide colloid was removed by ultracentrifugation and supernatant solution was titrated with base to neutral pH. The two-stage titration data were used to calculate the formation number of indium hydroxide colloid, which was found to equal n-barOH = 2.8. (author)

203

Hydroxides of metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of crystalline hydroxides M(OH)n with hydrogen bonds between OH- ions (CsOH, Sr(OH)2, Cd(OH)2) and hydroxides containing no hydrogen bond (In(OH)3, Sc(OH)3, Y(OH)3) is considered. Hydroxides of rare earths, yttrium and americium are crystallized forming ionic structures, where every metal atom is surrounded by 9 ions OH-, and every ion OH- - by 3 ions M3+. The Cd(OH)2 structure is constructed out of coordination octahedrals, jointed into binary chains by common faces, and binary chains are jointed by common vertices into a three-dimensional skeleton. Cesium hydrosulfide is crystallized in the CsCl structural types

204

Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack

205

Evaluation of the migraine treatment sumatriptan/naproxen sodium on blood pressure following long-term administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-inflammatory and pain therapies have been associated with blood pressure (BP) destabilization. Hence, the effects on BP of sumatriptan/naproxen sodium in fixed-dose combination, sumatriptan 85 mg, and naproxen sodium 500 mg administered intermittently for the acute treatment of migraine attacks were assessed. Patients with migraine with or without aura and no history of hypertension were randomized to sumatriptan/naproxen sodium (n=135), sumatriptan (n=136), or naproxen sodium (n=136) to treat migraine attacks for 6 months in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Following a treated migraine attack, patients performed 2 consecutive days of self-measured BPs beginning ?24 hours after the last dose of study medication and transmitted them by a transtelephonic modem. The primary end point was the change from baseline in self-measured BP at 6 months. Changes in self-measured BP from baseline to 6 months for sumatriptan/naproxen sodium were -2.1/-1.5 mm Hg (95% confidence intervals, -3.4 to -0.8 for systolic and -2.6 to -0.3 for diastolic). Mean changes from baseline in self-measured BP did not differ among the 3 treatment groups. Additional categorical analyses did not show increases from baseline with sumatriptan/naproxen sodium relative to either of the monotherapy groups. Intermittent acute migraine treatment with sumatriptan/naproxen sodium for up to 6 months was associated with clinically insignificant decreases in self-measured BP that were similar to those with sumatriptan or naproxen alone in normotensive patients with migraine. PMID:22142350

White, William B; Derosier, Frederick J; Thompson, April H; Adams, Bryan E; Goodman, David K

2011-12-01

206

Thermal analysis of iron hydroxide microspheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal treatment is an important step in the preparative technology of the iron oxids microspheres with well established mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics. The first indications on the heating procedure have been obtained from the thermal analysis on iron hydroxide microspheres prepared by the support precipitation and internal gelification methods. (author)

207

Recent developments regarding voltage-gated sodium channel blockers for the treatment of inherited and acquired neuropathic pain syndromes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronic and neuropathic pain constitute significant health problems affecting millions of individuals each year. Pain sensations typically originate in sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS which relay information to the central nervous system (CNS. Pathological pain sensations can arise as result of changes in excitability of these peripheral sensory neurons. Voltage-gated sodium channels are key determinants regulating action-potential generation and propagation; thus, changes in sodium channel function can have profound effects on neuronal excitability and pain signaling. At present, most of the clinically available sodium channel blockers used to treat pain are non-selective across sodium channel isoforms and can contribute to cardio-toxicity, motor impairments and CNS side effects. Numerous strides have been made over the last decade in an effort to develop more selective and efficacious sodium channel blockers to treat pain. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of the more recent developments put forth by research universities and pharmaceutical companies alike in the pursuit of developing more targeted sodium channel therapies for the treatment of a variety of neuropathic pain conditions.

TheodoreRCummins

2011-10-01

208

Purification of mercury contaminated lithium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The object of this investigation was to determine an economical method of preparing pure lithium hydroxide from a mercury-contaminated lithium hydroxide monohydrate salt presently produced as a waste product. Pure lithium hydroxide has application for chemical removal of carbon dioxide from air and general open market sale if the mercury contamination is reduced to approximately one part per billion. Because of the uncertainty of the form of the mercury contaminant, different purification methods were explored on a laboratory scale which could be applied to the industrial waste stream. The experimental results indicate that the predominant mercury contaminant existed as mercuric oxide, which was deposited in the by-product salt when the solubility of mercuric oxide, 60 ppm, was exceeded in aqueous lithium hydroxide solution. To purify a fraction of the industrial by-product salt, a crystallization system, utilizing the difference in solubility of lithium hydroxide and mercuric oxide, is proposed. Total stream purification, using sulfide treatment, is expected to be less effective than recrystallization due to the difficulty in physical removal of the mercury contaminant, as mercuric sulfide, from solution.

Bronfin, B.R.; Jenkins, D.M.; Wright, E.E. Jr. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering Practice-Oak Ridge Station

1960-10-18

209

Clinical observation of the combined treatment of edaravone and ozagrel sodium in acute ischemic stroke beyond the thrombolytic time window  

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Full Text Available The curative effect of edaravone combined with ozagrel sodium on acute ischemic stroke beyond the time window of thrombolysis was investigated. A total of 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke beyond the time window of thrombolysis were admitted in our hospital from December 2010 to December 2012. The patients were divided into combined treatment group (N = 50 and ozagrel sodium monotherapy group (control group, N = 50. After 14 days' treatment, total effective rate of the combined treatment group (92% , 46/50 was significantly higher than that of the control group (66% , 33/50; ?2 = 10.780, P = 0.029. After treatment, the nerve function defect score was significantly improved in comparison with before treatment in both groups, but the improvement in combined treatment group (8.21 ± 3.58 was much better than that in the control group (14.60 ± 4.39; t = 7.976, P = 0.000. Therefore, treatment of edaravone combined with ozagrel sodium for patients with acute ischemic stroke beyond the thrombolytic time window can significantly raise the curative effect and improve the neurological function of these patients.

SUN Rui-xing

2013-09-01

210

Comparison of efficacy and safety of topical Ketotifen (Zaditen with Cromolyn sodium in the treatment of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis  

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Full Text Available Background: This study compared the efficacy of Ketotifen fumarate .025% (Zaditen with Cromolyn sodium 4% (Opticrom eye drops in prevention of itching, tearing, and redness in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC. Methods: This double blind randomized single center clinical trial conducted between April and August 2004 in Yazd. One hundred eligible patients with clinical diagnosis of moderate VKC were randomly prescribed Zaditen (group A: n=50 and Cromolyn sodium (group B: n=50 eye drops for a 4 weeks period. Itching, lacrimation, redness, and photophobia were scored on a 4-points severity scale. Results: After 7 days of treatment, the response rates based on subjects assessment of global efficacy was significantly greater in Ketotifen group (61.5% than in Cromolyn group(53%.A clear response to treatment occurred in 94.4 of Zaditen and 81.2% of Sodium Cromoglycate treated patients. The investigator,s assessment of response rates also showed that Ketotifen was superior to Cromolyn sodium (P=0.001. Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than Cromolyn for relief of signs and symptoms of VKC (P<0.05. Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total signs and symptoms score for each patients, in compare with day 0. Conclusion: Ketotifen had a faster onset of action and provided better symptom relief than Cromolyn. The rapid onset of action and symptom control, make Zaditen a valuable treatment for VKC. Keywords : VKC , allergic conjuctivitis , zaditen

MR Shoja

2005-03-01

211

A combination of topical antiseptics for the treatment of sore throat blocks voltage-gated neuronal sodium channels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol are ingredients of lozenges used for the treatment of sore throat. In a former in vitro study, a local anaesthetic-like effect of these substances has been described. Since amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol are co-administered in over-the-counter lozenges, the intention of this study is to evaluate the in vitro effects of the combination of these compounds on the voltage-gated sodium channel. We analysed the block of inward sodium currents induced by the combination of amylmetacresol, dichloro-benzylalcohol and the local anaesthetic lidocaine. Tonic and use-dependent block and effects on the inactivated channel state of the neuronal sodium channel were examined. Therefore, the ?-subunit of the voltage-gated NaV1.2 sodium channel was heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells in vitro. Inward sodium currents were investigated in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The combination of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol and the combination of amylmetacresol and lidocaine induced a block of resting and inactivated sodium channels both displaying a pronounced block at the inactivated channel state. In addition, the combination of all three compounds also resulted in a voltage-dependent block of inward sodium currents. While use-dependent block by co-application of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol was moderate (lidocaine and amylmetacresol induced a robust use-dependent block (up to 50 %). This study demonstrates local anaesthetic-like effects of a combination of amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol as established ingredients of lozenges. In the presence of amylmetacresol, dichloro-benzylalcohol and lidocaine, a prominent block of inward sodium currents is apparent. PMID:25012093

Foadi, Nilufar; de Oliveira, Regina Campos; Buchholz, Vanessa; Stoetzer, Carsten; Wegner, Florian; Pilawski, Igor; Haeseler, Gertrud; Leuwer, Martin; Ahrens, Jörg

2014-10-01

212

Erosion-inhibiting effect of sodium fluoride and titanium tetrafluoride treatment in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevention of dental erosion with fluoride is still largely unknown territory. It was the aim of this study to determine the erosion-inhibiting effect of topical neutral 1% sodium fluoride (NaF) application and an application of a 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) solution compared with no treatment. Ten bovine incisors were selected and three enamel samples prepared from each tooth. One sample from each tooth was assigned to one of three experimental groups. The experimental treatments were: no fluoride application (control); 4 min application of neutral 1% NaF gel; and 4 min application of 4% TiF4 solution. All of the specimens were repeatedly exposed to 50 mm citric acid solution containing 0.4 mm CaCl2, and 2.2 mm KH2PO4 at pH 3.0 over four consecutive days. The acid exposure was performed in intervals and the intensity was increased over the days of the experiment. Enamel dissolution was determined by calcium content measurement of the acid solution after exposure, using atomic absorption spectroscopy. A statistically significant erosion-inhibiting effect was found for both NaF and TiF4 treatments compared with the control group from an erosion exposure time of 3 min. The reduction of calcium loss, however, was higher for the TiF4-treated specimens than the NaF-treated. From 16 min of erosion exposure, the erosion-inhibiting effect was significantly stronger in the TiF4 than the NaF group. The relative reduction of calcium loss compared with the control group remained stable for the TiF4 group, whereas for the NaF group the relative reduction decreased with cumulative erosion time. It is concluded that topical TiF4 application provides a potential treatment option in erosion prevention. PMID:12786957

van Rijkom, Hans; Ruben, Jan; Vieira, Ana; Huysmans, Marie Charlotte; Truin, Gert-Jan; Mulder, Jan

2003-06-01

213

Safety and efficacy of intravenous sodium valproate in the treatment of acute migraine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This multicenter study investigated the safety and efficacy of intravenous valproate in acute migraine attacks and the possible impact of prophylactic valproate pre-treatment. Thirty-six patients established on migraine prophylaxis were administered 500 mg sodium valproate intravenously against acute migraine attacks. Pain development was assessed by visual analogue scale up to a 24 hours follow up interview to detect e.g. possible relapse symptoms. A subgroup analysis examined whether prophylactic treatment with valproate affected its acute anti-migraine efficacy. A meaningful headache reduction within two hours was achieved in all 12 patients with and in 20 out of 24 patients without valproate prophylaxis. Headache-associated signs and symptoms were substantially reduced. No serious side-effects were reported. The results confirm the therapeutic value of intravenous valproate in acute migraine attacks described in literature and show a beneficial effect on all investigated efficacy parameters with a trend to even better response in patients receiving valproate prophylaxis. PMID:17277725

Waberzinek, Gerhard; Marková, Jolana; Mastík, Jirí

2007-02-01

214

Association of calcium hydroxide and metronidazole in the treatment of dog's teeth with chronic periapical lesion Associação do hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol no tratamento de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I - no root canal dressing; group II - calcium hydroxide; group III - metronidazole; group IV - calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (alpha = 0.01. Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing.Um dos principais objetivos do tratamento endodôntico de dentes com polpa necrosada é a eliminação máxima possível dos microrganismos presentes no sistema de canal radicular, principalmente nos casos que apresentam lesões periapicais crônicas. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a resposta dos tecidos periapicais de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica ao tratamento endodôntico utilizando como curativo de demora o metronidazol, o hidróxido de cálcio e a associação das duas substâncias. METODOLOGIA: Foram empregados 44 canais radiculares de 2 cães adultos, portadores de lesão periapical crônica induzida experimentalmente. Após o preparo biomecânico os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo com o curativo de demora empregado: Grupo I - controle - sem curativo de demora; Grupo II - hidróxido de cálcio; Grupo III - associação de hidróxido de cálcio e metronidazol e Grupo IV - metronidazol. Após 15 dias todos os canais foram obturados com cimento Fill Canal e passados 90 dias os animais foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o hidróxido de cálcio apresentou resultado superior aos demais tratamentos, com diferença estatísticamente significante (alfa = 0.01 e o metronidazol resultado semelhante à associação do hidróxido de cálcio com o metronidazol. Os piores resultados foram obtidos pelo grupo sem curativo de demora. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de metronidazol ou da sua associação com hidróxido de cálcio, não proporcionou melhoras no reparo quando comparado ao curativo de hidróxido de cálcio.

Sônia Regina Panzarini

2006-10-01

215

Some citogenetic effects of sodium azide treatments in caraway root meristems  

OpenAIRE

Sodium azide (NaN3) still remains a popular plant mutagen. In the present investigation, its effects on the cytogenetic changes were studied in root tip cells of Carum carvi L., an important economical and medicinal crop plant. The study revealed that sodium azide decreased mitotic index, and caused increase of chromosomal aberrations. Altogether, sodium azide treated root tip cells exhibited an increased incidence of bridges, lagging and/or expulsed chromosomes and C-metaphases.

Mirela Mihaela Campeanu; Gabriela Capraru; Elena Maxim

2009-01-01

216

Some citogenetic effects of sodium azide treatments in caraway root meristems  

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Full Text Available Sodium azide (NaN3 still remains a popular plant mutagen. In the present investigation, its effects on the cytogenetic changes were studied in root tip cells of Carum carvi L., an important economical and medicinal crop plant. The study revealed that sodium azide decreased mitotic index, and caused increase of chromosomal aberrations. Altogether, sodium azide treated root tip cells exhibited an increased incidence of bridges, lagging and/or expulsed chromosomes and C-metaphases.

Mirela Mihaela Campeanu

2009-03-01

217

Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos  

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Full Text Available In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8, had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (pEm reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste trabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extraído e mantido sobre bancada para ressecamento por 60 min. Posteriormente, os dentes do grupo I foram imersos em soro fisiológico por 2 min. No grupo II, os dentes tiveram a superfície radicular friccionada com gaze embebida em soro fisiológico por 2 min e no grupo III a fricção foi feita empregando-se solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Todos os dentes tiveram então a superfície radicular tratada com ácido fosfórico a 37% seguido de imersão em solução de fluoreto de sódio fosfato acidulado a 2%, pH 5,5. Os canais foram obturados com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e os dentes foram reimplantados. Os animais foram sacrificados 60 dias depois e as peças contendo os dentes foram processadas em laboratório. Cortes transversais semi-seriados do terço médio da raiz, foram obtidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina para análise histomorfométrica. Os dados obtidos foram confrontados pela análise de variância empregando-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis, quando este indicou diferença estatisticamente significante, utilizou-se o teste de Dunn para as comparações individuais. Os resultados demonstraram que a estrutura radicular e a extensão de cemento foram mais afetadas pela reabsorção no grupo III (p<0.05. Todos os grupos foram comprometidos pela reabsorção radicular sendo que o tratamento realizado no grupo III foi o menos efetivo para o seu controle. O tratamento realizado nos grupos I e II proporcionou resultados semelhantes entre si.

André Dotto Sottovia

2006-04-01

218

Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats / Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste t [...] rabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extraído e mantido sobre bancada para ressecamento por 60 min. Posteriormente, os dentes do grupo I foram imersos em soro fisiológico por 2 min. No grupo II, os dentes tiveram a superfície radicular friccionada com gaze embebida em soro fisiológico por 2 min e no grupo III a fricção foi feita empregando-se solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Todos os dentes tiveram então a superfície radicular tratada com ácido fosfórico a 37% seguido de imersão em solução de fluoreto de sódio fosfato acidulado a 2%, pH 5,5. Os canais foram obturados com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e os dentes foram reimplantados. Os animais foram sacrificados 60 dias depois e as peças contendo os dentes foram processadas em laboratório. Cortes transversais semi-seriados do terço médio da raiz, foram obtidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina para análise histomorfométrica. Os dados obtidos foram confrontados pela análise de variância empregando-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis, quando este indicou diferença estatisticamente significante, utilizou-se o teste de Dunn para as comparações individuais. Os resultados demonstraram que a estrutura radicular e a extensão de cemento foram mais afetadas pela reabsorção no grupo III (p Abstract in english In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this s [...] tudy evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p

André Dotto, Sottovia; Celso Koogi, Sonoda; Wilson Roberto, Poi; Sônia Regina, Panzarini; José Roberto Pereira, Lauris.

2006-04-01

219

A Comparison Between the Treatment and Side Effect of Sodium Valproate and Propranolol in Preventing Migraine Headaches  

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Full Text Available One of the causes of frequent headaches in children is migraine headache. The prevention of headaches , will improve life equality in children. This study was designed to compare between treatment and side effects of sodium valproate and propranolol in preventing migraine headaches. This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial which carried out on 52 children who were reffered to out patient neurology clinic of the Ekbatan and Sina hospitals. All children with migraine who had headache during last 6 months were enrolled, and those who had received sodium valproate and propranolol previously, were excluded. The method was convenience sampling and the patients were divided into two groups with 26 patients: A and B for propranolol and sodium valproate respectively. Group A treated with propranolol and group B with sodium valproate for 8 weeks. The response to treatment was evaluated after 4 weeks. The study evaluated 52 children with migraine from 7-15 year’s old , 38.5% of cases were male and 61.5% female. Before treatment , the mean number of attacks was 5.61 months in group A and 8.73 months in group B. After treatment the number of attacks was declined in 21 cases (80.8% of group A and 19 cases (73.1% of group B. Severity of pain was improved in 18 cases (69.2% of group A and 15 cases (57.7% of group B. The incidence of vertigo was 3 cases (11.5% in group A and 2 cases (7.7% in group B. Abnormal liver enzymes test were detected in 11.5% of cases in the group B. CBC was abnormal in 7.7% of cases in the group B Sodium valproate and propranolol , both have the same therapeutic effects in prevention of migraine headeache in children. But side effects are different , and choice of either one depended on the effects consideration and contraindications of each one.

M.M. Taghdiri

2004-07-01

220

Chondroitin sulfate and sodium hialuronate in treatment of the degenerative joint disease in dogs. Clinical and radiological aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate in the knee joint of dogs with experimentally induced degenerative joint disease (DJD). Fifteen mongrel dogs, weighing 18 to 25kg were used. DJD was induced by cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) arthroscopical transection. After three weeks, CCL was repaired by an intrarticular technique, which uses fascia lata. The dogs were then divided into three groups as follows: group I received no other treatment, but the CCL reconstitution, group II received 24mg/animal of chondroitin sulfate/IM every five days, totaling six injections, and group III received 20mg/animal of sodium hyaluronate /IV every five days, totaling three injections. All dogs were examined clinically and radiographically for 90 days after the repairment surgery. The clinical evaluation was performed by assessment of lameness, weight-bearing, limb muscle atrophy and range of motion. The results demonstrated that the group treated with sodium hyaluronate had lower degree of lameness in comparison with other groups. The radiographic evaluation showed marginal osteophytes and subchondral bone sclerosis. These changes were more severe in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate. The better clinical results observed in this group, compared with the others, was probably due to the greater action of the drug in the synovium, decreasing the pain and lameness. Radiographic findings correlated poorly with the clinical signs in the group treated with sodium hyaluronate

221

Effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate treatment in a rat model of preeclampsia.  

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Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy with a significant impact on maternal and fetal health. The complexity of this multifactorial condition has precluded development of effective therapies and, although many potential pathways have been investigated, the etiology still requires clarification. Our group has investigated the scavenger lectin-like oxidized LDL (LOX-1) receptor, which may respond to factors released from the distressed placenta that contribute to the vascular pathologies observed in preeclampsia. Given the known beneficial effects of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS; a component of Salvia miltiorrhiza) on vasodilation, reduction of oxidative stress, and lipid profiles, we have investigated its role as a potential treatment strategy. We hypothesized that STS would improve vascular endothelial function and, combined with a reduction in oxidative stress, would improve pregnancy outcomes in a rat model of preeclampsia (reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure, RUPP). We further hypothesized this may occur via the action of STS on the LOX-1 and/or platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor axes. The RUPP model increased maternal blood pressure, vascular oxidative stress, and involvement of the vascular PAF receptor. Treatment with STS during pregnancy decreased both oxidative stress and involvement of the PAF receptor; however, it also increased involvement of the LOX-1 receptor, which is in line with the concept that scavenger receptors, such as LOX-1 and PAF, are upregulated in response to ligand binding and/or under pathological conditions. In this model of preeclampsia, however, the vascular actions of STS did not lead to improvements in pregnancy outcome such as fetal biometrics or maternal blood pressure. PMID:25477421

Morton, Jude S; Quon, Anita; Cheung, Po-Yin; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Davidge, Sandra T

2015-02-01

222

ROS generation and proline metabolism in calli of halophyte Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. to sodium nitroprusside treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a stress factor or a signal molecule involved in various plant physiological and developmental processes. In the present study, the generation of reactive oxygen species and the metabolism of proline due to different sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) concentrations were investigated in callus from halophyte Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. Treatment with SNP led to significant increases of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and cell viability but notable reductions in hydrogen radical level and lipid peroxidation degree, and superoxide onion (O2 (-)) content also enhanced in 100 ?M SNP-treated calli. Using a chemical inhibitor for plasma membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase diphenylene iodonium (DPI), we found low O2 (-) generation in untreated and 25 ?M SNP-treated calli, whereas in those treated with 100 ?M SNP O2 (-) level exhibited a very little alteration, comparable to the absence of DPI. These suggest a high activity of PM NADPH oxidase in untreated calli. H2O2 scavenging enzymes (catalase, peroxidase [POD] and ascorbate peroxidase) and H2O2 forming enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], cell wall-POD and diamine oxidase [DAO]) stimulated significantly in calli treated with different SNP concentrations while glutathione reductase activity decreased. In addition, a reduction in proline content was observed in SNP-treated calli. Moreover, different SNP concentrations stimulated proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and ornithine ?-aminotransferase but inhibited r-glutamyl kinase (GK). In conclusion, our results suggest that the increasing H2O2 generation was associated with the stimulation of SOD, cell wall-POD and DAO, and that the reduction of proline content might be the consequence of increased PDH activity and decreased GK activity in N. tangutorum Bobr. calli under SNP treatment. PMID:23838886

Yang, Fan; Ding, Fan; Duan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Xiaoning; Yang, Yingli

2014-01-01

223

Disinfection of herbal spa pool using combined chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in public spa pools poses a serious threat to human health. The problem is particularly acute in herbal spas, in which the herbs and microorganisms may interact and produce undesirable consequences. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effectiveness of a combined disinfectant containing chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite in improving the water quality of a public herbal spa in Taiwan. Water samples were collected from the spa pool and laboratory tests were then performed to measure the variation over time of the microorganism content (total CFU and total coliforms) and residual disinfectant content given a single disinfection mode (SDM) with disinfectant concentrations of 5.2?×?10, 6.29?×?10, 7.4?×?10, and 11.4?×?10(-5) N, respectively. Utilizing the experience gained from the laboratory tests, a further series of on-site investigations was performed using three different disinfection modes, namely SDM, 3DM (once every 3 h disinfection mode), and 2DM (once every 2 h disinfection mode). The laboratory results showed that for all four disinfectant concentrations, the CFU concentration reduced for the first 6 h following SDM treatment, but then increased. Moreover, the ANOVA results showed that the sample treated with the highest disinfectant concentration (11.4?×?10(-5) N) exhibited the lowest rate of increase in the CFU concentration. In addition, the on-site test results showed that 3DM and 2DM treatments with disinfectant concentrations in excess of 9.3?×?10 and 5.5?×?10(-5) N, respectively, provided an effective reduction in the total CFU concentration. In conclusion, the experimental results presented in this study provide a useful source of reference for spa businesses seeking to improve the water quality of their spa pools. PMID:25632897

Hsu, Ching-Shan; Huang, Da-Ji

2015-02-01

224

Reactivity and applications of layered silicates and layered double hydroxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Layered materials, such as layered sodium silicates and layered double hydroxides (LDHs), are well-known for their remarkable adsorption, intercalation and swelling properties. Their tunable interlayers offer an interesting avenue for the fabrication of pillared nanoporous materials, organic-inorganic hybrid materials and catalysts or catalyst supports. This perspective article provides a summary of the reactivity and applications of layered materials including aluminium-free layered sodium silicates (kanemite, ilerite (RUB-18 or octosilicate) and magadiite) and layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Recent developments in the use of layered sodium silicates as precursors for the preparation of various porous, functional and catalytic materials including zeolites, mesoporous materials, pillared layered silicates, organic-inorganic nanocomposites and synthesis of highly dispersed nanoparticles supported on silica are reviewed in detail. Along this perspective, we have attempted to illustrate the reactivity and transformational potential of LDHs in order to deduce the main differences and similarities between these two types of layered materials. PMID:24841986

Selvam, Thangaraj; Inayat, Alexandra; Schwieger, Wilhelm

2014-07-21

225

Analytical treatment of large leak sodium-water interaction in LMFBR steam generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytical model is developed to study the pressure transients due to large leak sodium-water reaction in the steam generator of an liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Expansion of hydrogen, generated due to sodium-water reaction, is modelled as spherical bubble during the initial periods. Columnar bubble model is used as second stage of expansion. The change in temperature of hydrogen due to work done by the bubble on sodium is taken into account in the model. This spherical bubble model compares well with the experimental results. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

226

Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

227

Determination of radiation dose rates and urinary activity of patients received Sodium Iodide-131 for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium Iodide-131 is administrated for treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Iodine-131 has multiple routs of excretion (urine, saliva, sweat, milk, feces, exhalation) from the body. Patients receiving Sodium Iodide-131 therapy exposes other persons and the environment to unwanted radiation and contamination. The major sources of radiation dose from administration of Iodine-131 is external radiation , also there is a potential for exposure via contamination.Precautions are necessary to limit the radiation dose to family members, nursing staff and members of public and waste treatment workers to less than 1mSv. Patients received Sodium Iodide-131 may come into close contact with other persons. In order to derive appropriate recommendations, dose rates were measured from the anterior mid-trunk of 29 patients in the upright position with 15 minutes post-dose administration at 3 meters and just before they left the nuclear medicine department at 0.5, 1, and 3 meters. We have also measured urinary iodide excretion in 29 patients to estimate Sodium Iodide-131 urinary excretion pattern in iranian patients. Based on results, the maximum cumulative dose to nursing staff was on third day (leaving day) still less than recommended dose bye ICRP. The cumulative dose family members will be more but regarding the time and distance in close contact it will be also less than recommended dose by ICRP.Radiation dose rate was decreased significantly on third day. The urinary e significantly on third day. The urinary excretion patterns in all patients were similar. The urinary excretion rate-time curve in all patients showed multiple peaks due to retention and redistribution of Iodine-131 or enterohepatic cycle of radioiodinated thyroid hormones, which didn't allow calculation of urinary excretion rate constant. The results also showed that 67 hours post administration of Sodium Iodide-131 about 70% of radiopharmaceutical was excreted through urine, 28% physically decayed or eliminated through other biological routes

228

Liver function in children receiving treatment with the anticonvulsant sodium valproate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels were studied in 49 children who had received the anticonvulsant sodium valproate (Epilim; R & C) for at least 6 months. No significant deviation from accepted normal was detected. PMID:6805080

Leary, P M

1982-05-22

229

Biopolymeric mucoadhesive bilayer patch of pravastatin sodium for buccal delivery and treatment of patients with atherosclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mucoadhesive bilayer buccal patch has been developed to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy along with providing sustained release of pravastatin sodium. Buccal patches comprising of varying composition of Carbopol 934P and HPMC K4M were designed and characterized for surface pH, swelling index, in vitro bioadhesion, mechanical properties, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics performance. All formulations exhibited satisfactory technological parameters and followed non-fickian drug release mechanism. Bilayer buccal patch containing Carbopol 934P and HPMC K4M in 4:6 ratio (PBP5) was considered optimum in terms of swelling, mucoadhesion, mechanical properties and in vitro release profile. Pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) Cmax (75.63 ± 6.98 ng/mL), AUC(0-8) (311.10 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h) and AUC(0-?) (909.42 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h) than pravastatin oral tablet (Cmax - 67.40 ± 9.23 ng/mL, AUC(0-8)-130.33 ± 10.25 ng/mL/h and AUC(0-?)-417.17 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h)). While, increased tmax of buccal patch indicated its sustained release property in comparison to oral tablet. Pharmacodynamic studies in rabbits showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.005) in the reduction of TG (131.10 ± 10.23 mg/dL), VLDL (26.00 ± 2.56 mg/dL) and LDL level (8.99 ± 3.01 mg/dL) as compared to oral conventional tablet. In conclusion, bioavailability from the developed buccal patch of pravastatin was 2.38 times higher than the oral dosage form, indicating its therapeutic potential in the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:22630116

Yedurkar, Pramod; Dhiman, Munish Kumar; Petkar, Kailash; Sawant, Krutika

2013-05-01

230

Electrosynthesis in hydroxide melts  

Science.gov (United States)

The utility of the electrosynthesis method in hydroxide melts is discussed as one route to preparing high valent transition and main group metal oxides in single crystal form. The synthesis of a number of highly oxidized late transition and main group metal oxides, KBiO 3, NaNiO 2, Na 0.75CoO 2, Sr 1.75Cu 3O 5.13, NaBa 2Cu 3O 5, and Sr 3NiPtO 6, are described. Some general observations and trends seen in these systems are discussed and comparisons are made between electrolysis and the flux method for crystal growth.

Nguyen, Tu N.; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

1997-02-01

231

Evaluation of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings leachates. Laboratory progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions. Highly acidic tailings solutions (pH3) reagent grade; Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] reagent grade; Magnesium oxide (MgO) reagent grade; Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) reagent grade; and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reagent grade. Evaluation of the effectiveness for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions for the selected neutralizing agents under controlled laboratory conditions was based on three criteria. The criteria are: (1) treated effluent water quality, (2) neutralized sludge handling and hydraulic properties, and (3) reagent costs and acid neutralizing efficiency. On the basis of these limited laboratory results calcium hydroxide or its dehydrated form CaO (lime) appears to be the most effective option for treatment of uranium tailings solutions

232

Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Nitrite And/Or Glutathione Treatment On Male Rats  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Using food preservatives as sodium nitrite are increased in industrial food productions. Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects have been related to using of some food preservatives. Purpose: To study the effect of sodium nitrite (food additives) and treated with glutathione (nature antitoxic) on rats. Material And Methods: Certain parameters were measured as percentage of body weight change, body temperature, heart rates, Red & white blood cells count (RBCs & WBCs), he...

Eman Helal Zahkok, S. Ghada Z. A. Soliman Al-kassas

2008-01-01

233

Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 8700C (950 to 16000F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium

234

Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji

2014-05-01

235

Influence of the chemical treatment in sodium clay on barrier property of propylene nanocomposites obtained by melt mixing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the influence of the chemical treatment in sodium clay on the barrier property of polypropylene nanocomposites was evaluated. Nanocomposites of PP/clay were obtained by melting intercalation using two different chemically treated clays and the original one was mixed to PP for comparison. The change in the clay structure caused by the chemical treatment was evaluated by X-ray diffractometry. The influence of this modification on the barrier property of the obtained PP nanocomposites was evaluated by analysis of oxygen permeability. (author)

236

WOOD PRE-TREATMENT INFLUENCE ON THE HYDRATION OF PORTLAND CEMENT IN COMBINATION WITH SOME TROPICAL WOOD SPECIES  

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Full Text Available The influence of three pre-treatment methods on the hydration characteristics of Portland cement in combination with three tropical hardwood species was investigated. The maximum hydration temperature and time to reach maximum hydration temperature were analysed for the wood-cement-water mixtures of the three species after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples by extraction with 5% Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, cold and hot water after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples. There were differences in the hydration reaction of the wood species with Portland cement using the different pre-treatment methods. The compatibility of the wood species with Portland cement improved following pre-treatment. Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment had the most significant effect followed by hot water. Terminalia ivorensis (Idigbo, and Antiaris africana (Oriro species showed considerable improvement in their compatibility with Portland cement at 5% Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment with maximum hydration temperature of 65oC where Arere had 60.5oC where both cold and hot water were unable to raise the hydration temperature beyond 55.5oC . This study shows that the wood species requires more than cold and hot water extraction to make them suitable for wood cement composite materials as extraction with sodium hydroxide (1% solution was found to be the most effective treatment for the wood species under investigation.

Nusirat Aderinsola SADIKU

2014-06-01

237

Multi-stage absorption of rendering plant odours using sodium hypochlorite and other reagents  

Science.gov (United States)

Conditions for using sodium hypochlorite solution as the main component of a multi-stage absorption system for the treatment of malodorous process emissions were studied, together with the additional reagents needed for effective odour control. In laboratory experiments, mixtures containing vpm levels in air of trimethylamine, hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulphide, n-butanal and sometimes ammonia were passed through three bubble-plate columns containing some of the following: water, dilute sulphuric acid, sodium hypochlorite solutions (varying in pH and available chlorine content) sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen sulphite. Odour removal was monitored by Chromatographic and sensory methods. Conclusions from laboratory experiments were supported by field-tests at four rendering plants in the U.K., treating both ventilation and process gases. Alkaline hypochlorite with considerable excess available chlorine removes many sulphur-compounds and aldehydes but effective odour control requires an acid pre-wash to prevent the generation of odorous chlorinated compounds from ammonia and amines. Acidic hypochlorite solution followed by sodium hydrogen sulphite (to remove aldehyde) and sodium hydroxide was a most effective combination in both laboratory and field tests. Odour generated in chlorination reactions involving acidic hypochlorite solution was analysed by GC-MS and GC-MPD-odour-port and the odour key compounds identified.

Pope, D.; Davis, B. J.; Moss, R. L.

238

Dermal scarification versus intramuscular diclofenac sodium injection for the treatment of renal colic: a prospective randomized clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study is to determine whether dermal scarification is equally effective for treating acute renal colic compared to diclofenac sodium intramuscular therapy. A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted with methodologic rigor based on CONSORT criteria. A total of 291 patients, aged ? 18 years, suffering from acute renal colic were included in this trial and randomly assigned in two groups. Patients in the first group (A) received endodermal injection (dermal scarification) of 1 ml normal saline at the area of intensity of pain. The second group (B) received 75 mg diclofenac sodium by intramuscular injection. The success of each method defined the primary end point. Pain intensity before and after treatment was assessed using a visual analog scale. The time onset and the duration of analgesia were also recorded. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding hematuria (p = 0.158), stone identification at KUB (p = 0.751) and mean pain intensity (p = 0.609) before treatment initiation. The method was successful in 75.5 % of patients in group A and 74.3 % of patients in group B (p = 0.812). Mean pain reduction was comparable, 5.65 ± 3.05 in group A and 5.34 ± 2.99 in group B (p = 0.379), with dermal scarification eliciting its effect considerably faster, whereas the duration of analgesia was longer in the diclofenac group (p diclofenac sodium. PMID:25074713

Ioannidis, Stavros; Kampantais, Spyridon; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Gkagkalidis, Konstantinos; Vakalopoulos, Ioannis; Toutziaris, Chrysovalantis; Patsialas, Christos; Laskaridis, Leonidas; Dimopoulos, Panagiotis; Dimitriadis, Georgios

2014-12-01

239

Development of Sodium Technology for LMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the experiments to investigate the characteristics of the free surface fluctuation in a vessel, the experimental correlation was modeled to describe the free surface fluctuation in the upper plenum of a liquid metal reactor within 95% reliability and 2.4% error. The correlation was used to verify the computational model. The new conceptual flowmeters were suggested to measure the sodium flow for the reliability enhancement. The electromagnetic flowmeter with permanent magnet showed a good linearity and repeatability. For reuse of the sodium contaminated component, CO2 bubbling method was developed. Sodium in 0.3mm crevice specimen was removed completely. The optimum condition for the used sodium treatment was deduced to estimate which reaction is more safe and adequate for operation condition by analyzing the reactivity alleviation condition and the reaction rate with the control of sodium hydroxide concentration A series of tests were carried out to investigate the enlargement rate of the nozzle hole itself and the sodium-water reaction temperature associated with needle-like jets of a high-pressure water/steam into the sodium side of a steam generator. The size of the nozzle hole became larger with an increased duration of the steam injection both for the 2.25Cr-1Mo and M9Cr-1Mo steels by a self-wastage phenomenon. For developing the SWR acoustic leak detection technology, the tool prepared by the LabVIEW was installed with the system, and confirmed the performance of the on-line acoustic leak detection tool using the SWR leak signal acquired in the KAERI facility

240

21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS...sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride solution in the presence of a...

2010-04-01

241

A comparison of the efficacy of naproxen sodium and a paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene combination in the treatment of soft-tissue disorders.  

OpenAIRE

Ninety-eight patients were admitted to a single-blind parallel study comparing the efficacy of naproxen sodium with a paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene combination in the treatment of soft-tissue disorders. The two study groups were well matched in all respects. After seven days of treatment patients in the naproxen sodium group had less residual symptoms and more of them were considered cured. These patients also had a significantly lower mean-pain-score, tended to have less daily symptoms and ...

Abbott, C. J.; Bouchier-hayes, T. A.; Hunt, H. A.

1980-01-01

242

The efficacy of paracetamol in the treatment of ankle sprains in comparison with diclofenac sodium.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy of paracetamol in comparison with diclofenac sodium. METHODS Between February - November 2006, a prospective, double blinded, parallel group study of 100 patients suffering from first or second degree lateral ankle sprain within 48-hours of admission in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. Patients with bilateral injury, ipsilateral knee injury, third degree sprain, previous sprain wi...

Cemil Kayali; Haluk Agus; Levent Surer; Ali Turgut

2007-01-01

243

Comparative study of diclofenac sodium and paracetamol for treatment of pain after adenotonsillectomy in children.  

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Diclofenac sodium has a significant effect on decreasing the pain associated with swallowing postoperatively and on the general condition of the patient. Improved oral intake resulted in a lower incidence of nausea and vomiting and allowed safer and earlier hospital discharge.

M. I. Tawalbeh

2001-02-01

244

Preparation of aluminum hydroxide by recycling of aluminum dross  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum dross should be recycled in consideration of characteristics of the dross and its reutilization after processing. In this study, aluminum dross generated in the domestic secondary aluminum industry was processed to use it as raw material for producing aluminum hydroxide. Sample dross was classified according to its size. The dross smaller than 850 {mu}m was leached with sodium hydroxide solution to extract the remaining aluminum from the dross into the solution, and then aluminum hydroxide precipitate was recovered from the leach liquor. Purity of the obtained aluminum hydroxide was above 98%, and size of the sample was in range of 3-39 {mu}m. Recovery of aluminum hydroxide precipitate was highest on condition that A/C ratio of the solution was 0.5 and pulp density was 14-16% at the leaching step. From the result, it was suggested that this process could be applicable to recycling of aluminum dross. (author). 8 refs., 5 tabs., 9 figs.

Park, Hyung-Kyu; Lee, Hoo-In; Kim, Joon-Soo [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Taejeon(Korea)

2001-10-31

245

Layered double hydroxides as nano additives in poly(?-caprolactone)  

OpenAIRE

Poly(e-caprolactone) MgAl - layered double hydroxides (MgAl-LDH) nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation. Two organically modified MgAl-LDH, stearic acid (stearate) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), were used. Nanocomposites morphology was studied by XRD and TEM. Thermal properties were analysed by TG and DSC. Although both systems showed presence of a mixed morphology, exfoliated and intercalated, MgAl-LDH stearate nanocomposites showed a better dispersion of inorg...

Manhique, Arao J.; Focke, Walter Wilhelm; Madivate, Carvalho

2012-01-01

246

Comparative study of diclofenac sodium and paracetamol for treatment of pain after adenotonsillectomy in children.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To compare the analgesic efficacy of diclofenac sodium and paracetamol on post adenotonsillectomy postoperative pain and oral intake. METHODS Between January 1999 and July 2000, 80 children aged 3-14 years, underwent tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy for either recurrent tonsillitis or adenotonsillar hypertrophy in Prince Zeid Ben Al-Hussein Hospital and Prince Rashid Ben Al-Hussein Hospital. Forty-one children received diclofe...

Tawalbeh, M. I.; Nawasreh, O. O.; Husban, A. M.

2001-01-01

247

Thermal treatment, grain boundary composition and intergranular attack resistance of Alloy 690  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commercial Alloy 690 PWR steam generator tubes and experimentally produced alloys with varying amounts of carbon, aluminium and titanium have been examined. After simulated mill annealing and thermal treatment, the microstructure and corrosion behaviour in corrosion tests have been investigated. Stress corrosion resistance of selected alloy 690 tubes and experimental alloys has been examined with environments based on pure water, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide + sodium sulphate solutions. Effects of aluminium content and the thermal treatments on the susceptibility to intergranular attack have been examined, although they appear not to be very significant to the amounts of IGA. Samples used in thermal treatments have been further examined with a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope to show compositional changes at grain boundaries

248

Mutagenic effects of 137Cs gamma ray and sodium azide combined treatment on rice (oryza sativa L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dry seeds of rice variety, Guanglu No.4, were treated with 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 Gy of gamma ray or 1,2,3 mmol of sodium azide (NaN3), and with their combination. The biological effects in M1 and mutation frequency of M2 were investigated. The results showed that the biological injuries of M1 increased with dose of gamma ray and concentration of NaN3. The additive effects were observed on seedling height, root length, vigorous index of seedling height, vigorous index of root length and the synergic effect on the percentage of chromosome aberration. It was found that combination treatment with gamma ray and sodium azide were more effective than single treatment of gamma ray or NaN3. The results of this study suggested that 200 Gy gamma ray + 2 mmol NaN3 was the most effective one for inducing mutation. Frequency of chlorophyll mutation, mutation on heading date and the plant height in M2 generation were 2.833%, 2.473% and 1.828% respectively. Index of interaction were 1.640, 1.329 and 1.449 respectively

249

Treatment of lung cancer with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous sodium thiosulfate rescue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty-nine patients with primary lung cancer were treated with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous injection of an antidote, sodium thiosulfate. More than 50% reduction of tumor size (PR) was observed in 8 of 9 small cell carcinomas (SCLC) and in 16 of 40 non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). In NSCLC patients PR was obtained in 71% (12/17) after repeated infusions (? 200 mg cisplatin) and in 17% (4/23) after a single infusion (? 150 mg cisplatin). There was a significant linear relationship between cisplatin dose and tumor reduction in this group. No severe adverse effects were encountered. (orig.)

250

Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke  

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Full Text Available Background Antiplatelet aggregation treatment has become a regular treatment of ischemic stroke. The affirmation of antiplatelet therapy is mainly derived from patients with clinical use, which can not provide the laboratory indexes for evaluation of a recognized accuracy. Studies have confirmed that the degree of platelet activation is associated with atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke, and recognized that both CD62p (?-platelet granule membrane glycoprotein and CD63 (lysosomal membrane glycoprotein were important indexes of platelet activation. This study aims to explore the differences of efficacy between combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium and monotherapy by aspirin in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke by investigating the expression of CD62p and CD63. Methods Flow cytometry was employed to detect CD62p and CD63 expression on circulating platelet in patients with ischemic stroke and normal control group. The positive rate of CD62p and CD63 was detected in patients with ischemic stroke who were treated with aspirin 0.15 g (single drug therapy and clopidogrel 75 mg + ozagrel sodium 80 mg (combination therapy before and after one and two weeks' treatment. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores were measured in patients with ischemic stroke at the same time in three periods respectively to evaluate the improvement of neural function. Results Platelet CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate in ischemic stroke group were higher than normal control group before treatment (P = 0.001, 0.032. CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score were measured at different times, and the differences were statistically significant (F = 56.693, P = 0.000; F = 21.544, P = 0.000; F = 216.271, P = 0.000, respectively. Compared with before treatment, CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score decreased significantly after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but the differences between aspirin group and combination group were not statistically significant (P > 0.05, for all. There was no interaction between the treatment groups and measuring time with CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate (F = 1.403, P = 0.250; F = 2.830, P = 0.063, while there was interaction between treatment groups and measuring time with NIHSS score (F = 4.518, P = 0.013. Conclusion Antiplatelet drug treatment of acute ischemic stroke is effective. The curative effect of combined treatment (clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium is not superior to aspirin alone. CD62p positive expression rate in acute stage of ischemic stroke can measure the effect of antiplatelet therapy, while the determination of CD63 needs further research.

ZHAO Zhen

2013-10-01

251

Conductivity measures coupled with treatment with ion-exchange resin for the assessment of sodium concentration in physiological fluids: analyses on artificial solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In humans, sodium is essential for the regulation of blood volume and pressure. During hemodialysis, sodium measurement is important to preserve the patient from hypo- or hyper-natremia Usually, sodium measurement is performed through laboratory equipment which is typically expensive, and requires manual intervention. We propose a new method, based on conductivity measurement after treatment of dialysate solution through ion-exchange resin. To test this method, we performed in vitro experiments. We prepared 40 ml sodium chloride (NaCl) samples at 280, 140, 70, 35, 17.5, 8.75, 4.375 mEq/l, and some mixed samples, i.e., with added potassium chloride (KCl) at different concentrations (4.375–17.5 mEq/l), to simulate the confounding factors in a conductivity-based sodium measurement. We measured the conductivity of all samples. Afterwards, each sample was treated for 1 min with 1 g of Dowex G-26 resin, and conductivity measured again. On average, the difference ? in the conductivity between mixed samples and corresponding pure NaCl samples (at the same NaCl concentration) was 20.9%. With treatment with the resin, it was 9.9%, only. We conclude that ion-exchange resin treatment coupled with conductivity measures may be a possible simple approach for continuous and automatic sodium measurement during hemodialysis

252

Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content  

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Full Text Available Long term stability is crucial to maturing any photovoltaic technology. We have studied the influence of sodium, which plays a key role in optimizing the performance of Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGSe solar cells, on the long-term stability of flexible CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil. The standardized procedure of damp heat exposure (85% relative humidity at 85 °C was used to simulate aging of the unencapsulated cells in multiple time steps while they were characterized by current-voltage analysis, capacitance-voltage profiling, as well as electroluminescence imaging. By comparing the aging process to cells that were exposed to heat only, it could be confirmed that moisture plays the key role in the degradation process. We found that cells with higher sodium content suffer from a more pronounced degradation. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate the superposition of an enhancing and a deteriorating mechanism during the aging process. We propose an explanation based on the corrosion of the planar contacts of the solar cell.

Felix Daume

2013-11-01

253

Rice mutants obtained through sodium azide (NaN3) treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The successful utilization of sodium azide to generate genetic variability in plant breeding has been reported in barley, rice, and other crops. Rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce', Brazilian upland cultivar, were treated with 5x10-3 M of sodium azide, prepared in buffer solution of pH 3,0, for 8 hours at laboratory temperature. Ten short culm mutant lines were selected in the M2, M3 and M4 generations. In the M5 generation, the mutant lines were evaluated for flowering and maturing cycles, tiller number per plant, plant height, panicle number per m2 , panicle length, fertility of panicle, weight of 1.000 grains, productivity, percentage of intact grains after milling, width and thickness of peeled and polished grains and length/width grain ratio. The experiment was conducted in the Centro Experimental of Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the period of 1993/94, utilizing randomized block design with four replications. Each experimental plot consisted of five rows of four meters in length, 50 cm between rows, with 75 seeds sown per meter. The cultivar 'IAC 201' and the original Dourado Precoce were planted as checks. All observations were made on the three central rows of each experimental plot. The data was analysed by the SANEST statistical program and the mean values were discriminated by the Tukey's test at the level 5% of probability

254

Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 deg. C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 deg. C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 deg. C had lower water absorption as 12.22%, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

255

The thermal transformation from lanthanum hydroxide to lanthanum hydroxide oxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal transformation from lanthanum hydroxide (La(OH)3) to lanthanum oxide (La2O3) results in two successive endothermic effects, caused by a loss of water. Thermal analysis (DTA/TG, DSC), and high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) were used to characterize this process. Lanthanum hydroxide oxide (LaOOH) was obtained as temporary product at ?330 deg. C. The structure of lanthanum hydroxide oxide was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction methods and subsequent Rietveld refinement. LaOOH crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/m (no. 11) with the lattice parameters a = 444.76(9) pm, b = 397.10(7) pm, c = 661.9(1) pm, and ? = 111.93(1)o. The reaction enthalpies of the dehydration process were calculated by DSC to ?87 kJ mol-1 (transformation: La(OH)3 to LaOOH), and to ?54 kJ mol-1 (transformation: LaOOH to La2O3). Further, the activation energy E A = 76 kJ mol-1 of the transformation lanthanum hydroxide to lanthanum hydroxide oxide was estimated by isothermal TG studies

256

Adsorption of phosphonate antiscalant from reverse osmosis membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adsorptive removal of antiscalants offers a promising way to improve current reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment processes and enables the reuse of the antiscalant in the RO desalination process. This work investigates the adsorption and desorption of the phosphonate antiscalant nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from RO membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), a material that consists predominantly of akaganéite. The kinetics of the adsorption of NTMP onto GFH was predicted fairly well with two models that consider either combined film-pore or combined film-surface diffusion as the main mechanism for mass transport. It is also demonstrated that NTMP is preferentially adsorbed over sulfate by GFH at pH 7.85. The presence of calcium causes a transformation in the equilibrium adsorption isotherm from a Langmuir type to a Freundlich type with much higher adsorption capacities. Furthermore, calcium also increases the rate of adsorption substantially. GFH is reusable after regeneration with sodium hydroxide solution, indicating that NTMP can be potentially recovered from the RO concentrate. This work shows that GFH is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of NTMP antiscalant from RO membrane concentrates. PMID:22873428

Boels, Luciaan; Keesman, Karel J; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

2012-09-01

257

The Sr-90 waste treatment by using sodium carbonat as a carrier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coprecipitation processes of the Sr-90 wastes, with the lime-soda treatment, that followed by the mechanism of isomorph substitution, have shown a good performance in pH 7-8. Excess of natrium carbonate in the lime-soda treatment caused the decrease of the decontamination factor. This research shows that the coprecipitation by calcite-phosphate was better than the lime-soda treatment. (author)

258

Chronic treatment with valproic acid or sodium butyrate attenuates novel object recognition deficits and hippocampal dendritic spine loss in a mouse model of autism.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently showed that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in mice causes autism-like behavioral abnormalities, including social interaction deficits, anxiety-like behavior and spatial learning disability, in male offspring. In the present study, we examined the effect of prenatal VPA on cognitive function and whether the effect is improved by chronic treatment with VPA and sodium butyrate, histone deacetylase inhibitors. In addition, we examined whether the cognitive dysfunction is associated with hippocampal dendritic morphological changes. Mice given prenatal exposure to VPA exhibited novel object recognition deficits at 9 weeks of age, and that the impairment was blocked by chronic (5-week) treatment with VPA (30 mg/kg/d, i.p.) or sodium butyrate (1.2g/kg/d, i.p.) starting at 4 weeks of age. In agreement with the behavioral findings, the mice prenatally exposed to VPA showed a decrease in dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region, and the spine loss was attenuated by chronic treatment with sodium butyrate or VPA. Furthermore, acute treatment with sodium butyrate, but not VPA, significantly increased acetylation of histone H3 in the hippocampus at 30 min, suggesting the difference in the mechanism for the effects of chronic VPA and sodium butyrate. These findings suggest that prenatal VPA-induced cognitive dysfunction is associated with changes in hippocampal dendritic spine morphology. PMID:25240644

Takuma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Yuta; Kataoka, Shunsuke; Kawanai, Takuya; Maeda, Yuko; Watanabe, Ryo; Takano, Erika; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Ago, Yukio; Matsuda, Toshio

2014-11-01

259

Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika  

Science.gov (United States)

Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (peffect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was investigated to reduce the gamma irradiation dose. In an artificial inoculation experiment of B. cinerea isolated from naturally-infected postharvest paprika, fungal symptoms were observed in the stem and exocarp of paprika after conidial inoculation. From the sensitivity of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, B. cinerea conidia were fully inactivated by 4 kGy of gamma irradiation (D10 value 0.99 kGy), and were fully inactivated by 50 ppm NaDCC treatment. The fungal symptoms were not detected by the dose-dependent gamma irradiation (>4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (p<0.05). Moreover, fungal symptoms were more significantly reduced in combined treatment groups (gamma irradiation and NaDCC) than single treatment groups (gamma irradiation or NaDCC). These results suggest that combined treatment with irradiation and NaDCC treatment can be applied to preserve quality of postharvest paprika or other fruits.

Yoon, Minchul; Jung, Koo; Lee, Kwang-Youll; Jeong, Je-Yong; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hae-Jun

2014-05-01

260

Insight of the removal of nickel and copper ions in fixed bed through acid activation and treatment with sodium of clay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The bentonitic clays show good adsorptive characteristics, being used as alternative material for removing metals. This study evaluates several treatments (calcination, acid activation and treatment with sodium) of bentonite type Bofe in the removal of nickel and copper. Analyses were performed for [...] physicochemical characterization of clay using the techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermal analysis (TG and DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) method, N2 adsorption (BET) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Among the changes induced by acid activation and sodium transformations, the treatment with sodium chloride in fixed bed showed the highest performance in the monocomponent removal of nickel and copper.

A. F. de, Almeida Neto; M. G. A., Vieira; M. G. C. da, Silva.

1047-10-01

261

Radioactive waste treatment of sodium carbonate solution from U and Th extraction process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of pH on the adsorption of uranium on activated charcoal from aqueous solutions was studied. The maximal sorption was observed at pH 4.8 of equilibrium solution. This sorption property of activated charcoal for uranium was applied to study on the reduction of the radioactive isotopes from waste of sodium carbonate waste in the monazite processing plant. The dependence of radionuclides adsorption from the radioactive waste to the amount of activated charcoal was examined under optimized pH condition. The resulted waste solution after treated with adequate activated charcoal could reach the requirement of radioactive waste disposal, i.e. gross ? <3.7 Bq/L and gross ? <37 Bq/L. A Sequential Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry and Gross ?, ? Counter were used for the analysis of elemental concentration and activities of gross ? and ?, respectively

262

The optimum methods of sodium azide treatment after gamma ray irradiation in wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dormant seeds of two varieties of winter wheat were irradiated with gamma ray (200 Gy). The optimum methods, including presoaking-time of seeds, the concentration and treating-time of NaN3, were studied. It was found that the seedling height in M1 were decreased significantly and the starting-time of seed germination were delayed after seeds were presoaked. The average seedling height and the rate of emergence were reduced with the increase of concentration of treating-time of NaN3. On the basis of half of seedling height in M1, seeds presoaked for 10-12 hours and treated for 2 hours with 2 mM sodium azide were suitable for winter wheat

263

[Treatment of chronic copper poisoning in dairy sheep with oral ammonium molybdate and sodium sulphate ].  

Science.gov (United States)

Four weeks after the introduction of a new ration, a herd of sheep in the Swiss midland area was affected by depression, anorexia, decreased milk production, anemia, hemoglobinuria and frequent recumbency. Seventeen ewes died within a few days. A diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning was based on the results of feed analysis, histopathological findings and the toxicological examination of liver tissue. The remaining sheep were treated with oral ammonium molybdate and sodium sulfate, which together provide an inexpensive alternative to the chelator D-penicillamine.This combination not only prevents further copper intake, but also supports its elimination from the hepatocellular storage compartments. Serum copper levels have been determined to monitor the mobilization of copper following this antidote therapy. PMID:15929603

Kupper, J; Bidaut, A; Waldvogel, A; Emmenegger, B; Naegeli, H

2005-05-01

264

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THORR process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. Design of the IWTU is nearing completion. The IWTU will be constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF), with planned fabrication and construction to start in early 2007 upon receipt of needed permits and completion of design and engineering. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment a and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

265

Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate and Trichostatin A (TSA treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development of post-stroke epilepsy. Unilateral carotid ligation of P12 CD1 mice was followed by treatment with valproate, TSA, or vehicle for 2 weeks, BrdU administration for measurement of neurogenesis, and perfusion at P42 or P60. Behavior testing was conducted from P38-42. No detrimental effects on behavior testing were noted with TSA treatment, but mildly impaired cognitive function was noted with valproate-treated injured animals compared to normal animals. Significant increases in DG neurogenesis with both TSA and valproate treatment were noted with later administration of BrdU. Increased mortality and impaired weight gain was noted in the valproate-treated ligated animals, but not in the TSA-treated animals. In summary, the impact of HDAC inhibition upon post-stroke SGZ neurogenesis is likely to depend on the age of the animal at the time point when neurogenesis is assessed, duration of HDAC inhibition before BrdU labeling, and/or the stage in the evolution of the injury.

AnneMarieComi

2013-08-01

266

[Effect of treatments of hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate on clay minerals of red earth sediments].  

Science.gov (United States)

As classical procedures for pretreatment of soil sediments, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment methods are very important in removing the organic matter and iron oxides acting as cementing agents in the soils. However, both of these methods have less been focused on the effect on the clay minerals when separating. Here, we report the comparable methods between H2O2 and DCB to reveal their effect on clay minerals in red earth sediments using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results suggested that mineral particles can be totally decentralized by either H2O2 or DCB method in the soils and high purity clay minerals can be obtained by separating quartz and other impurities from clay minerals effectively. However, the XRD data were distorted by the DCB treatment owning to the cation exchange between Na+ and interlayer cation. On the contrary, the authentic data can be obtained by H2O2 treatment. Therefore, the H2O2 treatment seems to be a more appropriate method to obtain authentic information of clay mineralogy when separating of clay minerals from red earth sediments. PMID:23841441

Li, Rong-Biao; Hong, Han-Lie; Yin, Ke; Wang, Chao-Wen; Gao, Wen-Peng; Han, Wen; Wu, Qing-Feng

2013-04-01

267

Risperidone Versus Risperidone Plus Sodium Valproate for Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical-Trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy with risperidone plus valproate in bipolar I disorder, manic phase. Some studies showed the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, so we examined this effectiveness in this clinical-trial study. Method: This 7-week, randomized, single-blind study included 48 bipolar I inpatients manic phase without psychotic features divided in risperidone group (n = 23 and risperidone plus sodium valproate group (n = 25. According to clinical symptoms, 3 categories: complete remission, partial remission and no remission were mentioned in weekly follow-up. Remission rate compared with survival analysis. Results: The results showed a significant difference in remission rate between risperidone monotherapy and risperidone plus sodium valproate at the 1st, 2nd and the 3rd week (p = 0.012, 0.023, 0.027 respectively, It means the remission rate in risperidone plus valproate group was higher in the first three weeks, but at the end of the seventh week, the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the development of adverse effects. Conclusions: Risperidone can be effective and well tolerated in both acute manic episodes of bipolar mood disorders.

S. Mohammad Moosavi

2014-06-01

268

Sodium Azide  

Science.gov (United States)

... Matters What's New A - Z Index Facts About Sodium Azide What sodium azide is Sodium azide is a rapidly acting, ... give people sufficient warning of the danger. Where sodium azide is found and how it is used ...

269

Development of biological treatment of high concentration sodium nitrate waste liquid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrolytic reduction, chemical reduction, and biological reduction have been picked up as a method of nitrate liquid waste treatment system exhausted from the reprocessing process. As a result of comparing them, it was shown that the biological treatment was the most excellent method in safety and the economy. (author)

270

Evaluation of a consolidation treatment in dolostones by mean of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in high relative humidity conditions; Evaluacion del tratamiento de consolidacion de dolomias mediante nanoparticulas de hidroxido de calcio en condiciones de alta humedad relativa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article, the results of a treatment applied to dolomitic stones using an isopropyl colloidal solution based on calcium hydroxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 2.0g/l are presented. The consolidation process in the stone has been checked before and after 28 days of exposure to 75% relative humidity. Morphologic and structural studies of the consolidating product confirmed the carbonation process. X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (TEM and ESEM), and electron diffraction carried out on the consolidating product have confirmed the transformation of portlandite phase to calcium carbonate polymorph, calcite, aragonite and vaterite. Petrophysical tests performed on the stone before and after the application of the product have shown the improvement in the physical and hydrical properties due to the increase in the ultrasound velocity and density of the material, and a decrease in the capillarity coefficient and open porosity without significant changes in colour and brightness. The application of the consolidating product in the proposed experimental conditions is a natural method, compatible with the petrological characteristics of the substrate, without secondary damages on the stone, being an effective method to improve the durability of carbonate stones. (Author) 26 refs.

Gomez-Villalba, L. s.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza, A.; Alvares de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

2011-07-01

271

High pressure treatments combined with sodium lactate to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and spoilage microbiota in cured beef carpaccio.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-pressure treatments (400 and 600 MPa) combined with the addition of sodium lactate (1 and 3%) were tested to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) and spoilage microbiota contamination in a manufactured cured beef carpaccio in fresh or frozen conditions. Counts of spoilage microorganisms and STEC O157 were also examined during the curing step to prepare the carpaccio. STEC O157 counts remained almost unchanged through the curing process performed at 1 ± 1 °C for 12 days, with a small decrease in samples with 3% of sodium lactate. High-pressure treatments at 600 MPa for 5 min achieved an immediate reduction of up to 2 logarithmic units of STEC O157 in frozen carpaccio, and up to 1.19 log in fresh condition. Counts of spoilage bacteria diminished below detection limits in fresh or frozen carpaccio added with sodium lactate by the application of 400 and 600 MPa. Maximum injury on STEC O157 cells was observed at 600 MPa in carpaccio in fresh condition without added sodium lactate. Lethality of high-pressure treatments on STEC O157 was enhanced in frozen carpaccio, while the addition of sodium lactate at 3% reduced the lethality on STEC O157 in frozen samples, and the degree of injury in fresh carpaccio. PMID:25475335

Masana, Marcelo Oscar; Barrio, Yanina Ximena; Palladino, Pablo Martín; Sancho, Ana Maria; Vaudagna, Sergio Ramón

2015-04-01

272

Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

2004-01-01

273

Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control

274

Radiation-electron spin resonance studies on alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses at low temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma-irradiated alkali-metal hydroxide aqueous glasses were investigated using electron spin-resonance (esr) technique at a temperature range 92-163 K. The study was also conducted on these systems using chemical additives as electron scavengers including potassium ferricyanide, potassium nitrate, and sodium selenite and selenate. Sodium, potassium and rubidium hydroxide containing SeO42- and NO3- as scavengers have been investigated in detail over a range of temperatures (92-163 K). An attempt has been made to analyse the scavenging yields and the results have been treated in terms of scavenging efficiencies. Irradiated aqeuous hydroxide glasses of sodium mixed with potassium or rubidium were studied using NO3- and SeO42- as a scavenger. The esr study of rubidium and caesium hydroxide at 163 K gave rise to a characteristic spectrum similar to the one assigned to NO32-not present in the original systems at 92 K. Interesting results were obtained when the samples containing SeO32-were photobleached with white light. Possible mechanisms for the reactions of the scavenger ion in the alkaline glass are discussed in the light of previous studies. The work with caesium hydroxide has reinforced recent ideas that electrons are trapped within the matrix of the glass on irradiation. (author)

275

Inactivation of HIV-1 in breast milk by treatment with the alkyl sulfate microbicide sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk is needed to help decrease the burden of pediatric HIV/AIDS in society. We have previously reported that alkyl sulfates (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS are microbicidal against HIV-1 at low concentrations, are biodegradable, have little/no toxicity and are inexpensive. Therefore, they may be used for treatment of HIV-1 infected breast milk. In this report, human milk was artificially infected by adding to it HIV-1 (cell-free or cell-associated and treated with ?1% SDS (?10 mg/ml. Microbicidal treatment was at 37°C or room temperature for 10 min. SDS removal was performed with a commercially available resin. Infectivity of HIV-1 and HIV-1 load in breast milk were determined after treatment. Results SDS (?0.1% was virucidal against cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 in breast milk. SDS could be substantially removed from breast milk, without recovery of viral infectivity. Viral load in artificially infected milk was reduced to undetectable levels after treatment with 0.1% SDS. SDS was virucidal against HIV-1 in human milk and could be removed from breast milk if necessary. Milk was not infectious after SDS removal. Conclusion The proposed treatment concentrations are within reported safe limits for ingestion of SDS by children of 1 g/kg/day. Therefore, use of alkyl sulfate microbicides, such as SDS, to treat HIV1-infected breast milk may be a novel alternative to help prevent/reduce transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding.

Berlin Cheston M

2005-04-01

276

Chemical destruction of HMX-based explosives with ammonium hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory explored the efficacy of ammonium hydroxide solutions in converting HMX (cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine, or Octogen) and HMX-based explosives to nonenergetic, nonhazardous materials. When 80 g of explosive was converted in a reactor operating at 85 psig pressure at 140 C, the principal gaseous products were nitrous oxide (46% to 51%), nitrogen (22% to 32%), and ammonia (17% to 28%). Formate and hexamethylene-tetramine (hexamine) account for effectively 100% of the carbon-bearing aqueous species. Nitrate, nitrite, and acetate were present in the liquid in trace amounts. The process effectively treated molding powders of the plastic-bonded explosives PBX 9501 (2.5% estane), LX-04 (15% viton), and PBX 9404 (3% nitrocellulose). Results were compared with those achieved using sodium hydroxide solutions at 150 C in a pressurized reactor.

Skidmore, C.; Dell`Orco, P.; Flesner, R.; Kramer, J.; Spontarelli, T.

1995-09-01

277

Possibly enhanced Gd-excretion in dialysate, but no clinical benefit of 3-5 months treatment with sodium thiosulfate in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3-5 months. Symptoms and patients' experiences were investigated. The dialysate Gd content was monitored. Results. We observed no major clinical improvements in any patient. In one patient, we found slightly improved joint motion. Two patients had a subjective impression of slight improvements of joint motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd seemed to increase. It is unknown whether increased Gd excretion will lead to long-term clinical improvements in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

Marckmann, P.; Nielsen, A.H.

2008-01-01

278

Pyroprocessing of Oxidized Sodium-Bonded Fast Reactor Fuel -- an Experimental Study of Treatment Options for Degraded EBR-II Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electrometallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 °C with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. The experimental study illustrated how zirconium oxide and sodium oxide present different challenges to a lithium-based electrolytic reduction system for conversion of select metal oxides to metal.

S. D. Herrmann; L. A. Wurth; N. J. Gese

2013-09-01

279

Possibly enhanced Gd excretion in dialysate, but no major clinical benefit of 3-5 months of treatment with sodium thiosulfate in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3-5 months. Symptoms and patients' experiences were investigated. The dialysate Gd content was monitored. Results. We observed no major clinical improvements in any patient. In one patient, we found slightly improved joint motion. Two patients had a subjective impression of slight improvements of joint motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd seemed to increase. It is unknown whether increased Gd excretion will lead to long-term clinical improvements in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10

Marckmann, P.; Sloth, J.J.

2008-01-01

280

Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos  

OpenAIRE

In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had thei...

André Dotto Sottovia; Celso Koogi Sonoda; Wilson Roberto Poi; Sônia Regina Panzarini; José Roberto Pereira Lauris

2006-01-01

281

Manual on early medical treatment of possible radiation injury with an appendix on sodium burns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manual covers the following topics: 1) Background information and general principles; 2) New methods in the treatment of internal contamination by alpha emitters; 3) Emergency local decontamination; 4) Precautions to be taken in the event of hospitalization; 5) Assessment of fitness to resume work after contamination of irradiation accidents; 6) Organization, planning and training. The appendixes are concerned with: A) Samples to be taken in cases of external irradiation or internal contamination; B) Techniques for local decontamination of the skin; C) Basic treatment information for the physician; D) Standard first-aid kits; E) Decontamination room supplies

282

The sodium process facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters (180,000 gallons) of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The SPF was designed to react elemental sodium to sodium carbonate through two-stages involving caustic process and carbonate process steps. The sodium is first reacted to sodium hydroxide in the caustic process step. The caustic process step involves the injection of sodium into a nickel reaction vessel filled with a 50 wt% solution of sodium hydroxide. Water is also injected, controlling the boiling point of the solution. In the carbonate process, the sodium hydroxide is reacted with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate. This dry powder, similar in consistency to baking soda, is a waste form acceptable for burial in the State of Idaho as a non-hazardous, radioactive waste. The caustic process was originally designed and built in the 1980s for reacting the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of primary sodium from the Fermi-1 Reactor to sodium hydroxide. The hydroxide was slated to be used to neutralize acid products from the PUREX process at the Hanford site. However, changes in the DOE mission precluded the need for hydroxide and the caustic process was never operated. With the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), the necessity for a facility to react sodium was identified. In order to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the sodium had to be converted into a waste form acceptable for disposal in a Sub-Title D low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Sodium hydroxide is a RCRA regulated waste. It was decided to convert the hydroxide to sodium carbonate, a substance that is not RCRA regulated. ANL-W undertook the task of upgrading the SPF, and designing and constructing the additional carbonate process. At the time of preparation of this paper, the facilities were undergoing testing and startup activities. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters (13,000 gallons) of the EBR-II secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters (87,000 gallons) of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-levels of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter (71 gallon) barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal. (author)

283

REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, (LiAl2(OH)6)+X-) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 (micro)m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of ? 5 (micro)m diameter platelets with < 1 (micro)m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

284

REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

2010-05-11

285

Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

Hille, Andrea; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Kertesz, Tereza; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F. [University Hospital, Goettingen (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Pradier, Olivier [University Hospital, Brest (France). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology

2008-12-15

286

Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

287

A novel SCN9A mutation responsible for primary erythromelalgia and is resistant to the treatment of sodium channel blockers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary erythromelalgia (PE) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by severe burning pain and erythema in the extremities upon heat stimuli or exercise. Mutations in human SCN9A gene, encoding the ?-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v)1.7, were found to be responsible for PE. Three missense mutations of SCN9A gene have recently been identified in Taiwanese patients including a familial (I136V) and two sporadic mutations (I848T, V1316A). V1316A is a novel mutation and has not been characterized yet. Topologically, I136V is located in DI/S1 segment and both I848T and V1316A are located in S4-S5 linker region of DII and DIII domains, respectively. To characterize the elelctrophysiological manifestations, the channel conductance with whole-cell patch clamp was recorded on the over-expressed Chinese hamster overy cells. As compared with wild type, the mutant channels showed a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage dependent activation and a depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation. The recovery time from channel inactivation is faster in the mutant than in the wild type channels. Since warmth can trigger and exacerbate symptoms, we then examine the influence of tempearture on the sodium channel conduction. At 35°C, I136V and V1316A mutant channels exhibit a further hyperpolarizing shift at activation as compared with wild type channel, even though wild type channel also produced a significant hyperpolarizing shift compared to that of 25°C. High temperature caused a significant depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation in all three mutant channels. These findings may confer to the hyperexcitability of sensory neurons, especially at high temperature. In order to identifying an effective treatment, we tested the IC?? values of selective sodium channel blockers, lidocaine and mexiletine. The IC?? for mexiletine is lower for I848T mutant channel as compared to that of the wild type and other two mutants which is comparable to the clinical observations. PMID:23383113

Wu, Min-Tzu; Huang, Po-Yuan; Yen, Chen-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Jen

2013-01-01

288

Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-48h found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE5048h 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE5096h found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE5015min of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

289

Steam Reforming Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. The SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates, along with many other inorganic compounds, including substantial levels of radionuclides. As part of the implementation of the THORR process at INTEC, an engineering-scale test demonstration (ESTD) was conducted using a specially designed pilot plant located at Hazen Research, Inc. in Golden Colorado. The purpose of the ESTD was to confirm and optimize operation of the THORR dual fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) process for treating the SBW. The performance of the integrated FBSR thermal and off-gas systems was demonstrated while treating waste simulants representative of the actual SBW. Simulants were utilized that consisted of highly acidic nitrate solutions, with both dissolved and undissolved solids (UDS). The SBW simulant solutions were converted into a dry, granular solid, consisting of carbonate and aluminate product compounds. The successful performance of the integrated FBSR system was verified and demonstrated. (authors)

290

Role of pegaptanib sodium in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.  

OpenAIRE

Sobha SivaprasadLaser and Retinal Research Unit, King’s College Hospital, UKAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is responsible for more than half the blind registration in the United Kingdom. Retinal manifestations of AMD can be categorized as either atrophic or neovascular. The hallmark of AMD is the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Until recently, there have been few, limited treatment modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy [PDT]) for this condition an...

Sobha Sivaprasad

2008-01-01

291

40 CFR 268.42 - Treatment standards expressed as specified technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

...3) sodium hydrosulfide; (4) ferrous salts; and/or (5) other reducing...of oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, sulfides, sulfates, chlorides, flourides...sodium carbonate); (4) sodium sulfide; (5) ferric sulfate or ferric...

2010-07-01

292

Treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with sodium diclofenac: a pilot study Tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves leve a moderada com diclofenato de sódio: um estudo piloto  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To report the use of sodium diclofenac, an antagonist of PPAR-gamma and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor in the treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with clinical activity score (CAS) 2 to 7 were treated during a period ranging from 3 to 12 months (mean 7.8 ± 3.4) with oral sodium diclofenac, 50 mg every 12 hours. RESULTS: Extra-ocular muscle restriction and CAS improved significantly, p = 0.003 and = 0.004, respectively. ...

Walter Bloise; Lidia Yuri Mimura; Janete Moura; Wilian Nicolau

2011-01-01

293

Effects of pre-treatment with sodium butyrate on the frequencies of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of sodium butyrate-mediated alterations in chromatin structure on the yields of X-ray-induced chromosomal abberrations were studied in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results show that sodium butyrate pre-treatment leads to a significant increase in the frequencies of dicentrics and rings, but not of fragments. The data from biochemical studies suggest that the numbers and rates of repair of X-ray-induced DNA-strand breaks are the same in butyrate-treated and untreated cells. The authors suggest that the observed effect is probably a consequence of butyrate-induced conformational changes in the chromatin of G0 lymphocytes. (Auth.)

294

Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant from the Parsons process in the CRU. The modular CRU is easily scalable as a standalone system for caustic recycling, or for NTTS integration or for use as an In-Tank Treatment System to process sodium bearing waste to meet LLW processing needs at the Hanford site. The standalone pilot operation of the CRU to recycle sodium from NTCR effluent places the technology demonstration at TRL level 6. Multiple operations were performed with the CRU to process up to 500 gallons of the NTCR effluent and demonstrate an efficient separation of up to 70 % of the sodium without solids precipitation while producing 10 M caustic. Batch mode operation was conducted to study the effects of chemistry variation, establish the processing rate, and optimize the process operating conditions to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent. The performance of the CRU was monitored by tracking the density parameter to control the concentration of caustic produced. Different levels of sodium were separated in tests from the effluent at a fixed operating current density and temperature. The voltage of the modules remained stable during the unit operation which demonstrated steady operation to separate sodium from the NTCR effluent. The sodium transfer current efficiency was measured in testing based on the concentration of caustic produced. Measurements showed a current efficiency of 99.8% for sodium transfer from the NTCR effluent to make sodium hydroxide. The sodium and hydroxide contents of the anolyte (NTCR feed) and catholyte (caustic product) were measured before and after each batch test. In two separate batch tests, samples were taken at different levels of sodium separation and analyzed to determine the stability of the NTCR effluent after sodium separation. The stability characteristics and changes in physical and chemical properties of the NTCR effluent chemistry after separation of sodium hydroxide as a function of storage time were evaluated. Parameters such as level of precipitated alumina, total alkalinity, analysis of Al, Na, K, Cs, Fe, OH, nitrate, nitrite, total diss

Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

2012-07-01

295

Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant from the Parsons process in the CRU. The modular CRU is easily scalable as a standalone system for caustic recycling, or for NTTS integration or for use as an In-Tank Treatment System to process sodium bearing waste to meet LLW processing needs at the Hanford site. The standalone pilot operation of the CRU to recycle sodium from NTCR effluent places the technology demonstration at TRL level 6. Multiple operations were performed with the CRU to process up to 500 gallons of the NTCR effluent and demonstrate an efficient separation of up to 70 % of the sodium without solids precipitation while producing 10 M caustic. Batch mode operation was conducted to study the effects of chemistry variation, establish the processing rate, and optimize the process operating conditions to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent. The performance of the CRU was monitored by tracking the density parameter to control the concentration of caustic produced. Different levels of sodium were separated in tests from the effluent at a fixed operating current density and temperature. The voltage of the modules remained stable during the unit operation which demonstrated steady operation to separate sodium from the NTCR effluent. The sodium transfer current efficiency was measured in testing based on the concentration of caustic produced. Measurements showed a current efficiency of 99.8% for sodium transfer from the NTCR effluent to make sodium hydroxide. The sodium and hydroxide contents of the anolyte (NTCR feed) and catholyte (caustic product) were measured before and after each batch test. In two separate batch tests, samples were taken at different levels of sodium separation and analyzed to determine the stability of the NTCR effluent after sodium separation. The stability characteristics and changes in physical and chemical properties of the NTCR effluent chemistry after separation of sodium hydroxide as a function of storage time were evaluated. Parameters such as level of precipitated alumina, total alkalinity, analysis of Al, Na, K, Cs, Fe, OH, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved and

296

The various sodium purification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified

297

Inhibition of mast cell-derived histamine secretion by cromolyn sodium treatment decreases biliary hyperplasia in cholestatic rodents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholangiopathies are characterized by dysregulation of the balance between biliary growth and loss. We have shown that histamine (HA) stimulates biliary growth via autocrine mechanisms. To evaluate the paracrine effects of mast cell (MC) stabilization on biliary proliferation, sham or BDL rats were treated by IP-implanted osmotic pumps filled with saline or cromolyn sodium (24?mg/kg BW/day (inhibits MC histamine release)) for 1 week. Serum, liver blocks and cholangiocytes were collected. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) expression was measured using real-time PCR in cholangiocytes. Intrahepatic bile duct mass (IBDM) was evaluated by IHC for CK-19. MC number was determined using toluidine blue staining and correlated to IBDM. Proliferation was evaluated by PCNA expression in liver sections and purified cholangiocytes. We assessed apoptosis using real-time PCR and IHC for BAX. Expression of MC stem factor receptor, c-kit, and the proteases chymase and tryptase were measured by real-time PCR. HA levels were measured in serum by EIA. In vitro, MCs and cholangiocytes were treated with 0.1% BSA (basal) or cromolyn (25??M) for up to 48?h prior to assessing HDC expression, HA levels and chymase and tryptase expression. Supernatants from MCs treated with or without cromolyn were added to cholangiocytes before measuring (i) proliferation by MTT assays, (ii) HDC gene expression by real-time PCR and (iii) HA release by EIA. In vivo, cromolyn treatment decreased BDL-induced: (i) IBDM, MC number, and biliary proliferation; (ii) HDC and MC marker expression; and (iii) HA levels. Cromolyn treatment increased cholangiocyte apoptosis. In vitro, cromolyn decreased HA release and chymase and tryptase expression in MCs but not in cholangiocytes. Cromolyn-treated MC supernatants decreased biliary proliferation and HA release. These studies provide evidence that MC histamine is key to biliary proliferation and may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of cholangiopathies. PMID:25365204

Kennedy, Lindsey L; Hargrove, Laura A; Graf, Allyson B; Francis, Taylor C; Hodges, Kyle M; Nguyen, Quy P; Ueno, Yoshi; Greene, John F; Meng, Fanyin; Huynh, Victoria D; Francis, Heather L

2014-12-01

298

Effect of sodium butyrate treatment on the granule morphology, histamine level and elemental content of the bone marrow-derived mast cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mast cells derived from the bone marrow of BALB/c mice (BMMC) were cultures and their growth ceased with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate treatment (1 mM, 4 days) caused maturation of the granules, and increased histamine content from approx. 1 pg/cell to 4 pg/cell. X-ray microanalysis revealed that maturation of the granules was accompanied by the increase in relative weight percent of sodium, phosphorus and sulphur, with concomitant decrease in chloride. The sulphur to potassium ratio increased three-fold in butyrate-treated mast cells. The existence of a different elemental composition during mast cell maturation may provide additional parameter for rapid discrimination of mast cell subpopulations. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs

299

Effect of sodium butyrate treatment on the granule morphology, histamine level and elemental content of the bone marrow-derived mast cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mast cells derived from the bone marrow of BALB/c mice (BMMC) were cultures and their growth ceased with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate treatment (1 mM, 4 days) caused maturation of the granules, and increased histamine content from approx. 1 pg/cell to 4 pg/cell. X-ray microanalysis revealed that maturation of the granules was accompanied by the increase in relative weight percent of sodium, phosphorus and sulphur, with concomitant decrease in chloride. The sulphur to potassium ratio increased three-fold in butyrate-treated mast cells. The existence of a different elemental composition during mast cell maturation may provide additional parameter for rapid discrimination of mast cell subpopulations. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs.

Rydzynski, K. [Inst. of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Dalen, H. [Bergen Univ. (Norway)

1994-12-31

300

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18

301

Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This i...

Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

2014-01-01

302

An observation study on the curative effect of butylphthalide sodium chloride combined with urokinase in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the therapeutic effect of butylphthalide sodium chloride injection combined with urokinase in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. A total of 60 patients with acute ischemic stroke were randomly divided into 2 groups: combined treatment group (butylphthalide sodium chloride injection + urokinase, N = 30 and control group (urokinase only, N = 30. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS and Barthel Index (BI were used to evaluate the improvement of neurological function and curative effect. Adverse reactions were also observed. As results, the markedly effective rate was 36.67% (11/30 and the total efficiency rate was 93.33% (28/30 in combined treatment group, while they were 10% (3/30 and 56.67% (17/30 in control group. There was significant difference between 2 groups ( ?2 = 13.195, P = 0.004. Besides, the neurological function of patients in 2 groups elevated to different degrees at each time point after treatment (P = 0.020. There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of adverse reactions between 2 groups (P = 0.572. The results indicated that the curative effect of butylphthalide sodium chloride injection combined with urokinase in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke is better than that of urokinase. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.09.013

Hui-yan NIU

2014-09-01

303

Inhibition of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter as a novel treatment for diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bile acids are recognized as metabolic modulators. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of a potent Asbt inhibitor (264W94), which blocks intestinal absorption of bile acids, on glucose homeostasis in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. Oral administration of 264W94 for two wk increased fecal bile acid concentrations and elevated non-fasting plasma total Glp-1. Treatment of 264W94 significantly decreased HbA1c and glucose, and prevented the drop of insulin levels typical of ZDF rats in a dose-dependent manner. An oral glucose tolerance test revealed up to two-fold increase in plasma total Glp-1 and three-fold increase in insulin in 264W94 treated ZDF rats at doses sufficient to achieve glycemic control. Tissue mRNA analysis indicated a decrease in farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) activation in small intestines and the liver but co-administration of a Fxr agonist (GW4064) did not attenuate 264W94 induced glucose lowering effects. In summary, our results demonstrate that inhibition of Asbt increases bile acids in the distal intestine, promotes Glp-1 release and may offer a new therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:21934041

Chen, Lihong; Yao, Xiaozhou; Young, Andrew; McNulty, Judi; Anderson, Don; Liu, Yaping; Nystrom, Christopher; Croom, Dallas; Ross, Sean; Collins, Jon; Rajpal, Deepak; Hamlet, Kimberly; Smith, Chari; Gedulin, Bronislava

2012-01-01

304

Antibacterial effect of triantibiotic mixture versus calcium hydroxide in combination with active agents against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to compare the antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide (CH), triantibiotic mixture (TAM), andCH in combination with chlorhexidine (CHX), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or colchicine (COL) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in surface and deep dentinal tubules. Seventy five fresh single-rooted human teeth were infected and divided into five experimental groups (n=15). The experimental groups were treated with CH+distilled water, CH+CHX, CH+NaOCl, CH+COL+distilled water and TAM+distilled water. Dentin chips obtained from surface and deep dentin of these root canals were prepared and analyzed by counting the number of colony forming units. There was significant difference between groups in the surface dentin (p0.05). CH-containing medications and TAM can be used as effective disinfectants in treatment of infected root canals. PMID:25297855

Shokraneh, Ali; Farhad, Ali Reza; Farhadi, Nastaran; Saatchi, Masoud; Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen

2014-12-01

305

Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon  

Science.gov (United States)

Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

2015-01-01

306

Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet

307

Sodium alginate microsphere combined with pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion for clinical treatment of cavernous hemangioma of the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To further reduce the adverse reactions of vascular embolization therapy for cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL) in order to find better embolizing agents. Methods: Sixty CHL patients were randomly and evenly divided into three groups: embolization therapy with sodium alginate microsphere(SAM) + pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion (PLE) (group SAM + PLE), PLE (group PLE) and SAM (group SAM). The routine postoperative symptomatic treatments were conducted, including odynolysis, liver-protection and antiinflammatory therapy. The liver function and the intraoperative or postoperative discomfort symptoms before and 7 days after operation, and the changes in tumors were examined with CT scan. Clinical symptoms 3 months after operation were respectively compared. Results: The greatest impact on liver function was seen in group PLE among the three groups. The maximum intraoperative or postoperative discomfort symptoms were seen in group SAM, but the therapeutic effectiveness of the three groups had no significant difference. Conclusion: SAM + PLE is a safe and effective embolizing agent, being user-friendly, minor in the effect on liver function and light in the intraoperative and postoperative reaction. It is recommended that SAM + PLE be widely used for cavernous hemangioma of the liver. (authors)

308

Enhancing Shelf Life of “Le Conte” Pear Fruits by Using Sodium Bicarbonate and Potassium Sorbate as a Postharvest Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out for two successive seasons 2011 and 2012 in order to evaluate the efficiency dipping of Le Conte pear fruits in sodium bicarbonate (SBC and/or potassium sorbate (KS either alone or in combination to maintain fruit quality and control postharvest diseases at cold storage or during marketing at room temperature. Pear fruits were kept at 0°C±1 with 90-95% R.H. for 90 days at cold storage and 5 days as marketing at room temperature. The reduction in linear growth and dry weight were correlated to the increase in SBC and/or KS concentrations. The SBC 2.0% +KS 2.0% treatment gave complete inhibition of the linear growth and dry weight while, gave the maximum reduction in disease infection of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea (0.0% in both seasons. Also, application of both SBC+KS showed the best results in reducing loss weight (% and decay (%, since kept chlorophyll A and carotenoids content to a long time after cold storage and 5 days during marketing. Dipping fruits, in SBC alone, was more effective to progress fruit firmness. Furthermore, dipping fruits with KS alone decreased juice acidity (% while increasing chlorophyll B, SSC (% and total sugar (% either after cold storage or through marketing.

E.E. EL-Eryan

2014-01-01

309

Effective treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours transfected with the sodium iodide symporter gene by 186Re-perrhenate in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ReO4 - has similar kinetics regarding the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) to I- and TcO4 - in NIS-expressing tissue. We investigated the therapeutic potential of 186ReO4 - in NIS-transfected neuroendocrine tumour tissue. For experiments, the stably NIS-transfected pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer cell line Bon1C was used. NIS-mediated internalization and externalization experiments in vitro and a biodistribution study in nude mice bearing Bon1C xenografts were performed. A therapy study was also conducted consecutively in nude mice xenografted with Bon1C in which the mice were injected intravenously with Na186ReO4. In vitro studies showed exponential internalization and efflux kinetics of 186ReO4 - in the cell line. The biodistribution study showed high uptake of 186ReO4 - in NIS-expressing tumours. Tumour growth inhibition was significant after injection of 186ReO4 in two groups of animals treated with activity levels below the determined maximum tolerable activity as compared to controls. These results indicate that the use of 186ReO4 - in the treatment of NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumours is feasible and support the concept of using NIS as a therapeutic target for 186ReO4 -. (orig.)sup>-. (orig.)

310

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Fit-Friendly Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Sodium and Salt Updated:Jan 12,2015 About Sodium ... Heart • Heart-Healthy Recipes • Dining Out Reduce Your Sodium Intake Receive Healthy Living news every month! First ...

311

The effects of various precipitation chemicals on the properties of alumna-based hydroxides  

OpenAIRE

Titanium dioxide pigment is surface treated with various inorganic hydroxides. The purpose of a coating is to optimise processability as well as the chemical and physical properties of the TiO2 pigments. The treatments are tailored to the requirements of the final application. The most important surface treatment compound is aluminium hydroxide. This work was based on a previous study of pure alumina precipitations carried out by Tuomo Keskisaari. In addition to aluminium, in this study silic...

Meura, Mari

2009-01-01

312

Reduction of diffusive contaminant emissions from a dissolved source in a lower permeability layer by sodium persulfate treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residual contamination contained in lower permeability zones is difficult to remediate and can, through diffusive emissions to adjacent higher permeability zones, result in long-term impacts to groundwater. This work investigated the effectiveness of oxidant delivery for reducing diffusive emissions from lower permeability zones. The experiment was conducted in a 1.2 m tall × 1.2 m wide × 6 cm thick tank containing two soil layers having 3 orders of magnitude contrast in hydraulic conductivity. The lower permeability layer initially contained dissolved methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylenes (BTEX). The treatment involved delivery of 10% w/w nonactivated sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) solution to the high permeability layer for 14 days. The subsequent diffusion into the lower permeability layer and contaminant emission response were monitored for about 240 days. The S2O8(2-) diffused about 14 cm at 1% w/w into the lower permeability layer during the 14 day delivery and continued diffusing deeper into the layer as well as back toward the higher-lower permeability interface after delivery ceased. Over 209 days, the S2O8(2-) diffused 60 cm into the lower permeability layer, the BTEX mass and emission rate were reduced by 95-99%, and the MTBE emission rate was reduced by 63%. The overall treatment efficiency was about 60-110 g-S2O8(2-)delivered/g-hydrocarbon oxidized, with a significant fraction of the oxidant delivered likely lost by back-diffusion and not involved in hydrocarbon destruction. PMID:25386986

Cavanagh, Bridget A; Johnson, Paul C; Daniels, Eric J

2014-12-16

313

Treatment of severe hyponatremia in patients with kidney failure: role of continuous venovenous hemofiltration with low-sodium replacement fluid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with hypervolemic hyponatremia and kidney failure pose a special therapeutic challenge. Hemodialysis to correct volume overload, azotemia, and abnormal electrolyte levels will result in rapid correction of serum sodium concentration and place the patient at risk for osmotic demyelination syndrome. We present a patient with acute kidney injury and severe hypervolemic hypotonic hyponatremia (serum sodium<100 mEq/L) who was treated successfully with continuous venovenous hemofiltration. This teaching case illustrates the limitations of hemodialysis and demonstrates how to regulate the sodium correction rate by single-pool sodium kinetic modeling during continuous venovenous hemofiltration. Two methods to adjust the replacement fluid to achieve the desired sodium concentration are outlined. PMID:24792353

Yessayan, Lenar; Yee, Jerry; Frinak, Stan; Szamosfalvi, Balazs

2014-08-01

314

Relative effectiveness and efficiency of single and combination treatments using gamma rays and sodium azide in inducing chlorophyll mutations in rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seeds of rice cultivars, Jaya, IET 5656 and Fujiminori, were presoaked for 24 hours, then, irradiated with 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 kR of gamma ray, treated with 0.001, 0.002, 0.004 and 0.005 molar solutions of sodium azide at pH 3 for 4 hours, or subjected to the combination of the above, to study their relative effectiveness and efficiency for inducing chlorophyll mutation in rice. In all three varieties, the azide-treated subjects showed the higher frequency of chlorophyll mutants than the gamma ray-irradiated subjects in both single and combined treatments. In the variety Jaya, the sodium azide treatment showed higher efficiency and effectiveness than the gamma ray irradiation and the combined treatment, and also in the other two varieties, this tendency was more or less similar. The indica cultivars, Jaya and IET 5656, were more sensitive than the japonica cultivar, Fujiminori, to the generation of chlorophyll mutation. Sodium azide appeared to be more efficient than gamma ray in single or combined treatment. (Kako I.)

315

Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mario Guidotti,1 Caterina Barrilà,1 Serena Leva,1 Claudio De Piazza,1 Stefano Omboni21Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, 2Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, ItalyBackground: Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study.Methods: Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine to 10 (severe migraine and use of rescue medication.Results: The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.8–5.9] than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1–6.4], P < 0.05 versus frovatriptan or no therapy (6.6 [6.2–7.0], P < 0.01 versus frovatriptan. The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5–2.3] versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0–4.2], P < 0.001 and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4–5.8], P < 0.001 and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P < 0.05 lower on frovatriptan (12.5% than on naproxen sodium (31.3% or no therapy (56.3%.Conclusion: This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine.Keywords: migraine, frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, weekend

Guidotti M

2013-01-01

316

Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT.

Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States)

2013-04-01

317

Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT

318

The Cured Immune Phenotype Achieved by Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the BALB/c Mouse with a Nonionic Surfactant Vesicular Formulation of Sodium Stibogluconate Does Not Protect against Reinfection  

OpenAIRE

Single-dose treatment with sodium stibogluconate solution (SSG) and treatment with a nonionic surfactant vesicular formulation of sodium stibogluconate (SSG-NIV) were compared for the ability to protect BALB/c mice against infection with Leishmania donovani. Prophylactic treatment with SSG-NIV protected against infection, although its effects were time and organ dependent; protection was not obtained with SSG. Protection against reinfection with L. donovani was observed only in mice cured by ...

Carter, K. C.; Baillie, A. J.; Mullen, A. B.

1999-01-01

319

Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. Tous distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

320

Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reverse osmosis membranes at many desalination plants are disinfected by periodic shock treatments with sodium metabisulphite, which have potentially toxic effects to the environment for marine life, although no empirical and experimental evidence for this is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterise for the first time, the physico-chemical modification of the marine environment and its biological effects, caused by hypersaline plumes during these membrane cleaning treatments. The case study was the Maspalomas II desalination plant, located in the south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Toxicity bioassays were performed on marine species characteristic for the infralittoral soft bottoms influenced by the brine plume (Synodus synodus and Cymodocea nodosa), and revealed a high sensitivity to short-term exposure to low sodium metabisulphite concentrations. The corrective measure of incorporating a diffusion system with Venturi Eductors reduced nearly all the areas of influence, virtually eliminating the impact of the disinfectant. PMID:24495930

Portillo, E; Ruiz de la Rosa, M; Louzara, G; Ruiz, J M; Marín-Guirao, L; Quesada, J; González, J C; Roque, F; González, N; Mendoza, H

2014-03-15

321

Induction of Apoptosis in the Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Following Sodium Arsenite Treatment with the Dose Lesser than that Used for Treatment of Malignant Patient  

OpenAIRE

Objective(s):Arsenic compounds are potent human carcinogen and produce a variety of stress responses in mammalian cells. Recently sodium arsenite has been recommended to be used as anti malignancy drug by American food and drug administration (FDA). In this study, we aimed to determine the apoptosis inducing effect of sodium arsenite on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells exposed in vitro.

Abnosi, Mohammad Husein; Solemani Mehranjani, Malek; Momeni, Hamidreza; Shojafar, Elham; Barati, Mozhgan

2012-01-01

322

Pooled safety analysis of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w) in the treatment of osteoarthritis in patients aged 75 years or older  

OpenAIRE

Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Phoenix, AZ, 2Medical Affairs, Mallinckrodt Inc, Hazelwood, MOBackground: This study aimed to determine the safety of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w) in 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) for the treatment of knee or hand osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older.Methods: A pooled analysis of safety data from seven multicenter, randomized, blinded, Phase III clinical trials (4–12 weeks' durat...

Sh, Roth; Fuller P

2012-01-01

323

Intramuscular tramadol vs. diclofenac sodium for the treatment of acute migraine attacks in emergency department: a prospective, randomised, double–blind study  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this prospective, randomised, double–blind study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramuscular (IM) tramadol 100 mg in emergency department treatment of acute migraine attack and to compare it with that of IM diclofenac sodium 75 mg. Forty patients who were admitted to our emergency department with acute migraine attack according to the International Headache Society criteria were included in the study. Patients were randomised to receive ei...

Engindeniz, Z.; Demircan, C.; Karli, N.; Armagan, E.; Bulut, M.; Aydin, T.; Zarifoglu, M.

2005-01-01

324

Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy  

OpenAIRE

Mario Guidotti,1 Caterina Barrilà,1 Serena Leva,1 Claudio De Piazza,1 Stefano Omboni21Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, 2Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, ItalyBackground: Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study.Methods: Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, inclu...

Guidotti M; Barrilà C; Leva S; De Piazza C; Omboni S

2013-01-01

325

Neutral and anionic superhalogen hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: The energy profile for the Na(OH)2- anionic hydroxide formation according to the NaOH+OH-?Na(OH)2- reaction. Display Omitted Highlights: ? The superhalogen hydroxides and their anions were studied at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level. ? All anionic superhalogen hydroxides were found to be thermodynamically stable. ? The VDE values calculated for the M(OH)k+1- anions exceed 4 eV in all cases. ? The largest VDEs were found for the Al(OH)4- (6.07 eV) and Ga(OH)4- (6.21 eV). - Abstract: The properties of superhalogen M(OH)k+1- anions and their M(OH)k+1 neutral parents (where M = Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, B, Al, Ga) were investigated at the ab initio CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,3pd)//MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. All the M(OH)k+1- anions and some of their M(OH)k+1 neutral parents (k is the maximal formal valence of M) were found to be thermodynamically stable against the fragmentations (OH, OH-, O2 or H2O loss). The vertical electron detachment energies (VDE) of the M(OH)k+1- anions were calculated with the OVGF method and using the 6-311++G(3df,3pd) basis sets. The VDE values calculated for the anions studied exceed 4 eV in all cases, whereas the largest values of the electron binding energies were found for binding energies were found for the Al(OH)4- (6.07 eV) and Ga(OH)4- anions (6.21 eV). Finally, formation of most of the species considered was predicted to be spontaneous due to the lack of kinetic barriers for these processes and their thermodynamic favorability.

326

Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate  

OpenAIRE

Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA) and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reacti...

Edson Luiz Foletto; Ederson Gratieri; Leonardo Hadlich de Oliveira; Sérgio Luiz Jahn

2006-01-01

327

Clinical effect of calcium hydroxide paste combined with triple antibiotic paste on root canal disinfection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective?To compare the efficacy in disinfection and pain control of calcium hydroxide paste and triple antibiotic paste (ornidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline used individually or jointly for root canal disinfection. Methods?Two hundred and thirty-five patients with chronic apical periodontitis (235 teeth were involved in the present study and divided into 2 groups: fistula group (n=118 and no fistula group (n=117. Each group was then randomly divided into 4 subgroups: calcium hydroxide paste group, triple antibiotic paste group, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste group, and camphor phenol group. After regular root canal preparation, root canals of patients in 4 groups were filled with tiny paper ends impregnated with fore 4 different drugs respectively. Visual analogue scales (VAS of pain were given to the patients with a guide for filling the scale. One week later, both the data of the scales and the effects of root canal disinfection were recorded and analyzed. Results?Seven days after treatment, the clinical efficacy of calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste was similar (P>0.05 either in fistula group or in no fistula group, but all better than that of camphor phenol (P<0.05. VAS score analysis showed that, at least on the first 3 days after sealing medicine in the root canal, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste achieved better result of pain control than the other three groups (P<0.05 no matter with or without fistula. Conclusions ?Calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste are effective in treatment of chronic apical periodontitis whether with or without fistula. However, the combined use of calcium hydroxide and three antibiotic pastes is better for controlling the pain after root canal preparation than other treatments, which is therefore worthy of clinical application. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.12

Chen QU

2014-03-01

328

Acidified sodium chlorite treatment for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth on the surface of cooked roast beef.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) against Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of cooked roast beef were investigated. L. monocytogenes, strain V7, serotype 1/2a, was inoculated at numbers of 6.0 log CFU/g onto 5-g cubes of cooked regular or spicy roast beef. The samples were allowed to air dry for 1 h. The cooked roast beef samples were dipped into ASC or sprayed with ASC solutions of 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 ppm, then placed in bags with or without a vacuum and refrigerated at 4 degrees C. L. monocytogenes counts were determined after 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage by spread plating roast beef samples onto Oxford agar plates that were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h. At day 28, the number of L. monocytogenes on the > or = 500 ppm ASC-treated spicy roast beef samples had count reductions that were >4.0 log CFU/g, whereas the same concentrations of ASC-treated regular roast beef samples had approximately a 2.5 log CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes counts when compared with the untreated samples. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in L. monocytogenes counts between the vacuum- or nonvacuum-packaged ASC-treated cooked roast beef samples. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) between ASC-treated and untreated roast beef. ASC can be used as a processing aid in the form of a dip or spray treatment to control L. monocytogenes on the surface of cooked roast beef. PMID:16496589

Beverly, Richelle L; Janes, Marlene E; Oliver, Grady

2006-02-01

329

Study of optimal transformation of liquid effluents resulting from the destruction of radioactive sodium by water into ultimate solid wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of sodium waste processing, it has been proposed to retain only processes that treat the sodium using water, thus generating the same by-products: hydrogen and sodium hydroxide. As the objective is to minimise radioactive liquid releases and as, moreover, the authorizations with respect to sodium salt releases are highly restrictive, several solutions have been envisaged for transforming the active sodium hydroxide coming from sodium destruction processes into ultimate solid wastes that can be stored on the surface in a storage site approved by the ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency): the Aube Storage Site (CSA). Two processes have been considered and compared: immobilisation in concrete (cementation) and immobilisation in ceramic (ceramisation). These two processes are evaluated according to several criteria: the state of advancement of the process, the quantity of sodium hydroxide (and therefore of sodium) that can be treated per package. (author)

330

Reduced concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and sodium-potassium pumps in human skeletal muscle during treatment with diuretics  

OpenAIRE

Animal studies have shown that potassium depletion induced by diuretics or potassium deficient fodder leads to a selective decrease in the concentrations of potassium and in the concentration of sodium-potassium pumps in skeletal muscle. In 25 patients who had received diuretics for 2-14 years the mean concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and sodium-potassium pumps were measured in skeletal muscle biopsy specimens and were significantly lower than in those from a group of age matched contr...

Dørup, I.; Skajaa, K.; Clausen, T.; Kjeldsen, K.

1988-01-01

331

Comparison of efficacy and safety of topical Ketotifen (Zaditen) with Cromolyn sodium in the treatment of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis  

OpenAIRE

Background: This study compared the efficacy of Ketotifen fumarate .025% (Zaditen) with Cromolyn sodium 4% (Opticrom) eye drops in prevention of itching, tearing, and redness in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Methods: This double blind randomized single center clinical trial conducted between April and August 2004 in Yazd. One hundred eligible patients with clinical diagnosis of moderate VKC were randomly prescribed Zaditen (group A: n=50) and Cromolyn sodium (group B: n=50) eye drop...

Shoja MR; MR Besharaty

2005-01-01

332

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans is one of the mouth normal flora which may cause failures in endodontics. The resistance of C. albicans to intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide could reduce success rate root canal treatments .Objectives: Due to recivening some reports regarding resistance of C. albicans to calcium hydroxide from different parts of the world, the aim of this study was to evaluate anti candidal effects of Iranian and Korean made injectable calcium hydroxide and to compare the results.Materials and Methods: In the present research, the antifungal effects of calcium hydroxide on seven clinical isolates and one standard strain of C. albicans were evaluated. For this evaluation, two methods were used including: inhibition zone and colony count. In all experiments distilled water and clotrimazole were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In order to evaluate the effects of exposure time of calcium hydroxide on C. albicans growth, 30” , 5’ , 1 and 24 hours of incubation periods were applied. In addition, to evaluate role the effect of calcium hydroxide concentration samples with saturated, 1/10, 1/100 and 1/1000 dilutions and also a saturated one were used.Results: According to inhibition zone method, the mean diameters of C. albicans for Iranian and Korean made calcium hydroxide and clotrimazole were 17, 13 and 22 mm, respectively. Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide did not show any anti candidal effects. By colony counting method, it was found that in longer exposure time, Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide have more anti candidal effects , but no significant difference was observed between the two. Saturated and all other dilutions of calcium hydroxide base material indicated a significant statistical difference in anti candidal effect after 24 hours exposure in comparison with other periods.Conclusions: The Current study, confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide on C. albicans, up to 24 hours is within low range . Higher concentrations of base calcium hydroxide, showed greater inhibition zone on C. albicans ..--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:The results of present study indicated uncomplete compatibility of susceptibility of C. albicans strains to calcium hydroxide, therefoe, it seems continious evaluation is necessary in different geographical region..Please cite this paper as:Rafiei N, Eftekhar B, Rafiei A, Pourmahdi Borujeni M, Zarrin M. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2012;5(3:470-3. DOI: 10.5812/jjm.3409.

Neda Rafiei

2012-08-01

333

Pyroprocessing of oxidized sodium-bonded fast reactor fuel - An experimental study of treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electro-metallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. In the absence of zirconium or sodium oxide, the electrolytic reduction of MnO showed nearly complete conversion to metal. The electrolytic reduction of a blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but only 8.5% of the zirconium was found in the metal phase. The electrolytic reduction of the same blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O - 6.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but zirconium reduction was even less at 2.4%. This study concluded that ZrO{sub 2} cannot be substantially reduced to metal in an electrolytic reduction system with LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees due to the perceived preferential formation of lithium zirconate. This study also identified a possible interference that sodium oxide may have on the same system by introducing a parasitic and cyclic reaction of dissolved sodium metal between oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. When applied to oxidized sodium-bonded EBR-II fuel (e.g., U-10Zr), the prescribed electrolytic reduction system would not be expected to substantially reduce zirconium oxide, and the accumulation of sodium in the electrolyte could interfere with the reduction of uranium oxide, or at least render it less efficient.

Hermann, S.D.; Gese, N.J. [Separations Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Wurth, L.A. [Zinc Air Inc., 5314-A US Hwy 2 West, Columbia Falls, MT 59912 (United States)

2013-07-01

334

Pyroprocessing of oxidized sodium-bonded fast reactor fuel - An experimental study of treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electro-metallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 C. degrees with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. In the absence of zirconium or sodium oxide, the electrolytic reduction of MnO showed nearly complete conversion to metal. The electrolytic reduction of a blend of MnO-ZrO2 in LiCl - 1 wt% Li2O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but only 8.5% of the zirconium was found in the metal phase. The electrolytic reduction of the same blend of MnO-ZrO2 in LiCl - 1 wt% Li2O - 6.2 wt% Na2O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but zirconium reduction was even less at 2.4%. This study concluded that ZrO2 cannot be substantially reduced to metal in an electrolytic reduction system with LiCl - 1 wt% Li2O at 650 C. degrees due to the perceived preferential formation of lithium zirconate. This study also identified a possible interference that sodium oxide may have on the same system by introducing a parasitic and cyclic reaction of dissolved sodium metal between oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. When applied to oxidized sodium-bonded EBR-II fuel (e.g., U-10Zr), the prescribed electrolytic reduction system would not be expected to substantially reduce zirconium oxide, and the accumulation of sodium in the electrolyte could interfere with the reduction of uranium oxide, or at least render it less efficient

335

Assessment of efficacy of quercetin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt in the treatment of acute chromium poisoning: experimental studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexavalent chromium compounds exhibit higher toxicity than its trivalent compounds since chromium ions in the +6 oxidation state easily cross biological membranes. It has recently been proposed that substances reducing chromium ions from the +6 to the less toxic +3 oxidation state can be beneficial in management of acute chromium poisoning. In vitro studies also demonstrated quercetin-5 '-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaQSA) to reduce chromium ions from the +6 to the +3 oxidation state. The aim of the study was to determine efficacy of NaQSA in treatment of acute poisoning with a hexavalent chromium compound. The experiment was carried out on male and female Wistar rats which were divided into 4 experimental (A,B,C,D) and control (K) groups. All animals received intragastrically a single CrO3 dose equal to its LD50. Thirty minutes after administration of CrO3, NaQSA was administered intragastrically at a dose of 50 mg/kg (group A) and 100 mg/kg (group B). In groups C and D, NaQSA was administered ip 2 h after administration of CrO3 and then twice a day for 4 days at doses of 50 mg/kg (group C) and 100 mg/kg (group D). Only intragastric administration of NaQSA at a dose of 100 mg/kg decreased mortality in acute poisoning with CrO3. In groups B and D, aminotransferase activity was statistically significantly dropping from day 7 of the experiment in comparison with the group K, which indicates lesser damage to the liver in animals treated with NaQSA. Bilirubin concentrations in groups B and D were also much lower than in the group K, but the difference between average bilirubin levels in these groups and the K was not statistically significant. The results of the study suggest the usefulness of NaQSA in the treatment of poisoning with hexavalent chromium compounds. PMID:14730106

Szelag, Adam; Magdalan, Jan; Kopacz, Maria; Ku?niar, Anna; Kowalski, Przemys?aw; Pie?niewska, Ma?gorzata

2003-01-01

336

Effects of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment on in vitro degradation of cellulosic substrates by mixed ruminal microorganisms and Bacteroides succinogenes S85.  

OpenAIRE

The effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) treatments on wheat straw (WS) and various cellulosic substrates were determined by measuring susceptibility to degradation by mixed ruminal organisms or Bacteroides succinogenes S85. In vitro incubations were used to measure differences in fermentation resulting from each successive step in the AHP treatment process. In vitro incubations through 48 or 108 h were conducted to measure these differences. The AHP treatme...

Lewis, S. M.; Montgomery, L.; Garleb, K. A.; Berger, L. L.; Fahey, G. C.

1988-01-01

337

Nuclear hyperfine interaction in ferrihemoglobin hydroxide: Theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expressions appropriate for the evaluation of the hyperfine splitting in ferric-hemoglobin hydroxide have been derived in the Hartree-Fock approximation using ''giant'' multielectron molecular-orbital wave functions formed as linear combinations of atomic orbitals of the constituent atoms and the molecular orbitals of the OH- complex incorporating overlap effects. Core orbitals as well as valence orbitals have been considered. The relevant multicenter matrix elements have been evaluated accurately by means of the analytical expressions which we have derived by employing a general closed-form expression developed previously for the coefficients of the expansion of a Slater orbital from one center onto the other. Various calculated electric field gradient components have been analyzed separately in terms of the valence and the core orbitals of the central ion (iron) interacting with the orbitals of the other constituent atoms and the complex OH-. One finds that the ''local'' and ''distant'' parts of the field gradient due to OH- nearly cancel one another and, consequently, produce negligible effect on the hyperfine splitting of iron. The nitrogens of the porphyrin plane contribute dominantly to the splitting. Other surrounding atoms contribute less and their influence decreases rapidly as their distance from the central ion increases. On combining various contributions, the calculated hyperfine splitting comes out to be 1.44 + 0.16 mm/seplitting comes out to be 1.44 + 0.16 mm/sec, which agrees excellently with the experimental splitting 1.57 mm/sec observed by Lang and Marshall. The results from the present calculations have been compared with those obtained by Weissbluth and Maling employing semiempirical treatment on a porphyin-hydroxide model compound. Their estimate is found to give negative sign to the splitting in contrast with our result. Sources of disagreement have been pointed out. Positive hyperfine splitting in ferric-hemoglobin compounds is predicted

338

Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn2(OH)2(ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn3(OH)4(bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4'biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two ?2-OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers are pillared by ndc to form a three-dimensional structure. In CPO-7, the zinc hydroxide layers are containing four-, five- and six coordinated zinc atoms, and the layers are built like stairways running along the [001] direction. Each step is composed of three infinite chains running in the [010] direction. Both crystal structures were solved from conventional single crystal data. Crystal data for CPO-6: Monoclinic space group P21/c (No. 14), a=11.9703(7), b=7.8154(5), c=6.2428(4) A, ?=90.816(2) deg., V=583.97(6) A3 and Z=4. Crystal data for CPO-7: Monoclinic space group C2/c (No. 15), a=35.220(4), b=6.2658(8), c=14.8888(17) A, ?=112.580(4) deg., V=3033.8(6) A3 and Z=8. The compounds were further characterized by thermogravimetric- and chemical analysis

339

Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides  

Science.gov (United States)

The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn 2(OH) 2(ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn 3(OH) 4(bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4'biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two ?2-OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers are pillared by ndc to form a three-dimensional structure. In CPO-7, the zinc hydroxide layers are containing four-, five- and six coordinated zinc atoms, and the layers are built like stairways running along the [001] direction. Each step is composed of three infinite chains running in the [010] direction. Both crystal structures were solved from conventional single crystal data. Crystal data for CPO-6: Monoclinic space group P2 1/ c (No. 14), a=11.9703(7), b=7.8154(5), c=6.2428(4) Å, ?=90.816(2)°, V=583.97(6) Å 3 and Z=4. Crystal data for CPO-7: Monoclinic space group C2/ c (No. 15), a=35.220(4), b=6.2658(8), c=14.8888(17) Å, ?=112.580(4)°, V=3033.8(6) Å 3 and Z=8. The compounds were further characterized by thermogravimetric- and chemical analysis.

Kongshaug, Kjell Ove; Fjellvåg, Helmer

2004-06-01

340

Electrochemical properties of polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium vanadate nanomaterials were synthesized at different pH-values of a sodium hydroxide solution of vanadium pentoxide. Polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials were prepared at room temperature and at 3 C by a chemical polymerization method. The crystal structure and phase purity of the samples have been examined by powder XRD. The samples were identified as HNaV6O16.4H2O and Na1.1V3O7.9. The electrochemical measurements show that polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate hydrated nanomaterials provide higher current density than the sodium vanadate nanomaterials. (orig.)

341

Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

342

Sodium Oxybate  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

343

Sodium Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... anyone at particular risk for low or high sodium levels? Yes. People who have diarrhea, profuse sweating, ...

344

Zirconium hydroxide preparation of basic sulfate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Process of interaction of basic zirconium sulfate with ammonium solutions is studied. It is established that forming hydroxide-acidocomplexes content is defined by equilibrium concentrations of hydroxyl- and sulfate-anions in the solution. It is shown that to prepare ziAconium hydroxide pure for sulfate it is necessary to wash them with alkali solutions

345

40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721.4467 ...Chemical Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical...substance identified generically as a quaternary ammonium hydroxide (PMN...

2010-07-01

346

21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250...Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended...

2010-04-01

347

[Comutagenic action of sodium selenite and caffeine on S. typhimurium TA 1535 with its subsequent treatment by N-nitrosomethylurea].  

Science.gov (United States)

The comutagenic activity of sodium selenite and caffeine was studied by the Ames test. Reproduction of S. typhimurium TA1535 for 4 h at 37 degrees C in the nutrient broth with sodium selenide (5 micrograms/ml) significantly increased sensitivity of bacterial cells to the mutagenic action of 2-3 mM N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU). When using threshold concentrations of NMU the potentiation of mutagenesis reached 625.2%. The addition of 0.19 mg/ml of caffeine to the nutrient medium also led (though the action was less pronounced) to an increase in sensitivity of bacterial cells to the NMU mutagenic action. Reproduction of S. typhimurium TA1535 in the medium containing sodium selenide and caffeine did not cause an increase in the frequency of spontaneous his+-revertant mutations. PMID:3292212

Balanski, R M

1988-01-01

348

Effects of pre-treatment with sodium butyrate on the frequencies of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of sodium butyrate-mediated alterations in chromatin structure on the yields of X-ray-induced chromosomal abberrations were studied in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results show that sodium butyrate pre-treatment leads to a significant increase in the frequencies of dicentrics and rings, but not of fragments. The data from biochemical studies suggest that the numbers and rates of repair of X-ray-induced DNA-strand breaks are the same in butyrate-treated and untreated cells. The authors suggest that the observed effect is probably a consequence of butyrate-induced conformational changes in the chromatin of G0 lymphocytes. (Auth.). 36 refs.; 1 figure; 2 tabs.

Sankaranarayanan, K.; Natarajan, A.T.; Mullenders, L.H.F.; Rijn, J.L.S. van

1985-09-01

349

Comparison of Cognitive Impairment and Seizure Parameters in Manic Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy with or without Concurrent Treatment with Sodium Valproate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Both sodium valproate and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT are ef-fective treatments for mania, but there is no clinical trial evidence for safety when they are used together. The aim of this study was the comparison of cognitive impairment and seizure parameters in manic patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy with or without concurrent treatment with sodium valproate.Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial study we recruited forty hospitalized manic patients who were to receive ECT for at least six sessions and randomly assigned them to either group C, who continued to take sodium valproate during the study, or group D, who discontinued it. Through the course of ECT sessions, Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE, applied stimulus intensity (seizure threshold, and motor seizure duration were repeatedly measured . The data was analyzed using t & ?2 statistically tests. Results: Baseline MMSE scores were nearly equal in the two groups. By the end of the sixth session, the scores decreased by 1.15 in group C and increased by 0.65 in group D (mean dif-ference between the groups =1.8 ,P=0.028. A rising trend in the applied stimulus intensity was observed in both groups. Seizure thresholds were lower in group C in most of the ses-sions, but after adjustment for sex, these differences were no longer significant. Seizures of the sixth session were 3.95 seconds shorter than of the first one in group C (P=0.045. This shortening did not occur in group D. There were 15.8% more inadequate seizures (i.e. dura-tion less than 25 seconds in group C than in group D (P=0.006. The two groups did not dif-fer in the number of applied ECT sessions. Conclusion : Continuing sodium valproate during ECT results in poorer cognitive performance and more inadequate seizures.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:5-10

H. Hafezian

2013-01-01

350

Treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with sodium diclofenac: a pilot study / Tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves leve a moderada com diclofenato de sódio: um estudo piloto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Relatar o uso do diclofenato de sódio, um antagonista do PPAR-gama e inibidor da ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) no tratamento da leve a moderada oftalmopatia de Graves. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Treze pacientes com CAS (clinical activity score) 2 a 7 foram tratados durante um período de 3 a 12 meses ( [...] média 7,6 ± 3,4) com diclofenaco de sódio por via oral na dose de 50 mg a cada 12 horas. RESULTADOS: A restrição da musculatura extraocular e o índice CAS melhoraram de modo significativo, respectivamente p = 0,003 e p = 0,004. A dor ocular e a diplopia desapareceram, com exceção de um paciente que referiu melhora desses sintomas. Não houve recidiva após a interrupção do tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento da oftalmopatia de Graves de média gravidade com diclofenaco de sódio por via oral é uma opção boa, segura e de baixo custo. Como outros novos tratamentos, ele deverá ser confirmado em um maior número de pacientes em estudos controlados. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the use of sodium diclofenac, an antagonist of PPAR-gamma and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor in the treatment of mild to moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with clinical activity score (CAS) 2 to 7 were treated during a period ranging fr [...] om 3 to 12 months (mean 7.8 ± 3.4) with oral sodium diclofenac, 50 mg every 12 hours. RESULTS: Extra-ocular muscle restriction and CAS improved significantly, p = 0.003 and = 0.004, respectively. Ocular pain and diplopia disappeared, except for one patient who reported improvement of these symptoms. No recurrence was found after interruption of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy with oral sodium diclofenac is a good, safe and less expensive therapeutic option. Like others new treatment trials, findings must be confirmed in a greater number of patients in a controlled study.

Walter, Bloise; Lidia Yuri, Mimura; Janete, Moura; Wilian, Nicolau.

2011-12-01

351

Effect of combinations of gamma irradiation, hot water, Sodium chloride, and Acetic acid treatments on potato-dry rot  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma irradiation increased the severity of dry rot in potato tubers when they were inoculated with any of 4 species of Fusarium, previously isolated either from irradiated or unirradiated tubers. Treating either irradiated or unirradiated tubers with warm water or sodium chloride solutions following inoculation with F. roseum also increased the severity of dry rot to some extent

352

The role of sodium in the body  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium is a metallic element with the symbol Na , in the same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs; is widespread in nature in the form of salts (nitrates, carbonates, chlorides, atomic number 11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft metal, reactive and with a low melting point , with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F. From the commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all the alkaline metals. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on earth, because it quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications .

Munteanu Constantin

2011-05-01

353

Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: The formation of yttrium hydroxide fluorides nanobundles can be expressed as a precipitation transformation from cubic NaYF{sub 4} to hexagonal NaYF{sub 4} and to hexagonal Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} owing to ion exchange. - Highlights: • Novel Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} nanobundles have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The branched nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles has been studied. • The growth mechanism is proposed to be ion exchange and precipitation transformation. - Abstract: This article presents the fabrication of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles via one-pot hydrothermal process, using yttrium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent. The X-ray diffraction pattern clearly reveals that the grown product is pure yttrium hydroxide fluoride, namely Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98}. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized product is testified to be nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles as observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The chemical composition was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), confirming the phase transformation of the products which was clearly consistent with the result of XRD analysis. It is proposed that the growth of yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles be attributed to ion exchange and precipitation transformation.

Tian, Li, E-mail: tianli_cl@163.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Sun, QiLiang; Zhao, RuiNi; He, HuiLin; Xue, JianRong [Department of Material Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Lin, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

2013-11-15

354

Cold Trap Dismantling and Sodium Removal at a Fast Breeder Reactor - 12327  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first German prototype Fast Breeder Nuclear Reactor (KNK) is currently being dismantled after being the only operating Fast Breeder-type reactor in Germany. As this reactor type used sodium as a coolant in its primary and secondary circuit, seven cold traps containing various amounts of partially activated sodium needed to be disposed of as part of the dismantling. The resulting combined difficulties of radioactive contamination and high chemical reactivity were handled by treating the cold traps differently depending on their size and the amount of sodium contained inside. Six small cold traps were processed onsite by cutting them up into small parts using a band saw under a protective atmosphere. The sodium was then converted to sodium hydroxide by using water. The remaining large cold trap could not be handled in the same way due to its dimensions (2.9 m x 1.1 m) and the declared amount of sodium inside (1,700 kg). It was therefore manually dismantled inside a large box filled with a protective atmosphere, while the resulting pieces were packaged for later burning in a special facility. The experiences gained by KNK during this process may be advantageous for future dismantling projects in similar sodium-cooled reactors worldwide. The dismantling of a prototype fast breeder reactor provides the challenge not only to dismantle radioactive materials but also to handle sodium-contaminated or sodium-containing components. The treatment of sodium requires additional equipment and installations to ensure a safe handling. Since it is not permitted to bring sodium into a repository, all sodium has to be neutralized either through a controlled reaction with water or by incinerating. The resulting components can be disposed of as normal radioactive waste with no further conditions. The handling of sodium needs skilled and experienced workers to minimize the inherent risks. And the example of the disposal of the large KNK cold trap shows the interaction with others and also foreign decommissioning projects can provide solutions with were unknown before. (authors)

355

Monitoring treatment of field cancerisation with 3% diclofenac sodium 2.5% hyaluronic Acid by reflectance confocal microscopy: a histologic correlation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual inspection may fail to accurately evaluate field cancerisation (subclinical actinic keratoses [AKs]). We aimed to describe field cancerisation by confocal reflectance microscopy and changes induced by the application of 3% diclofenac sodium gel in 2.5% hyaluronic acid. Fourteen male patients, >?50 years old, with AKs on the bald scalp were included. Clinical examination, confocal microscopy and histological study of clinically visible lesions and "normal appearing" adjacent skin before and after treatment was completed. Reflectance confocal microscopy showed a decrease in scaling (p?=?0.001) and atypia of the honeycomb pattern (p?=?0.001) at 2 weeks of treatment. Changes in parakeratosis, inflammation and dermal collagen remodelling were also observed. Histology correlated with confocal features in AK and subclinical AK. Reflectance confocal microscopy was useful in the evaluation of field cancerisation and monitoring of treatment response. A rapid improvement in epidermal atypia was observed. PMID:24696069

Malvehy, Josep; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Iglesias-García, Pablo; Díaz, Alba; Puig, Susana

2015-01-15

356

The effects of duration of pre-soaking treatments on the frequency and spectrum of mutations induced by sodium azide in CES 14 Mungbean variety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of mungbean variety CES 14 were treated with 10-3 sodium azide for 2 hours buffered at pH 3 after various pre-soaking treatment durations of 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 hours. The biological parameters that were significantly affected by the treatments in the M1 were germination, seedling height and survival. The chlorophyll and other morphological mutations in the M2 gradually increased with increasing pre-soaking time. The treatment that had the lowest mutation rate was the 16-hour pre-soaked seeds. No chlorophyll mutation was noted in both the water and buffer control. One variant was noted, however, in the buffer control. (author)

357

Preparation and Anti-mildew Properties of TPN-SDS-layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids  

OpenAIRE

MgAl-TPN-SDS-LDHs nanohybrids were synthesized by coprecipitation process. The anti-mildew durability of TPN were improved when nanohybrids was introduced in alkyd resin coating due to inhibition release rate of TPN. The non-ionic, poorly water-soluble chlorothalonil (TPN) was firstly incorporated into micelles derived from negatively charged surfactants-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The negatively charged micelles were then encapsulated in nanoparticles of MgAl-layered double hydroxides. The...

Li Yan-yun, Li Song-mei

2014-01-01

358

Serum Level of Homocysteine, Folate and Vitamin-B12 in Epileptic Patients Under Carbamazepine and Sodium Valproate Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Numerous studies have shown that long term treatment with anticonvulsants may be an important risk factor for the onset of atherosclerosis, or worsening of its symptoms. There are many contradictory reports regarding these effects. Objectives We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published studies in order to see whether the atherogenic outcomes could be related to any serum biochemical abnormalities. Materials and Methods Published articles indexed in PubMed, ISI web of science, Science Direct and Scopus databases from 1990 to 2011 were retrieved using a comprehensive search strategy. After omitting the unrelated articles and duplicates, articles met the eligibility criteria for critical appraisal were included in the analysis. Data were summarized in standard data abstraction forms and subjected to analysis by STATA software. Results Finally, ten published studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed that carbamazepine and sodium valproate consumption are associated with a significant elevation of the serum homocysteine levels. On the other hand, medication with carbamazepine is associated with a reduction of the level of folate in the serum and that of sodium valproate is associated with a reduction of serum level of vitamin B12. Conclusions According to the results of this study, as carbamazepine and valproate sodium consumption can result in elevated serum levels of homocysteine and decreased levels of folate and vitamin B12, and the atherogenic effect of increased serum homocysteine level is well established, the patients under these medications should be monitored for possible atherogenic effects. PMID:23984007

Gorjipour, Fazel; Asadi, Yasin; K. Osguei, Nushin; Effatkhah, Marjan; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali

2013-01-01

359

[Degumming of kenaf fibers by combining steam explosion with ultrasonic treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Kenaf has a high content of gum that is difficult to remove. Traditional chemical degumming process causes serious environmental pollution. To solve the problem, we developed a new method to degum kenaf. We pretreated the kenaf with steam explosion followed by ultrasonic treatment. We chose the single factor tests to select the ultrasonic frequency, sodium hydroxide concentration and processing time. Combined with orthogonal tests, we found that the optimum conditions were as follows: ultrasonic frequency was 28 kHz, sodium hydroxide concentration was 2%, and processing time was 60 min. Under these conditions, the residual gum of kenaf fiber was 9.72% and the fineness was 139.45 N(m). Steam explosion combined with ultrasonic method is effective in degumming of kenaf. PMID:25118397

Zhang, Xiao; Han, Guangting; Zhang, Yuanming; Wang, Qijun; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Shouwu

2014-05-01

360

Epstein-Barr virus-specific DNase activity in nonproducer Raji cells after treatment with 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and sodium butyrate.  

OpenAIRE

An Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific DNase was induced in EBV nonproducer Raji cells after treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and sodium butyrate. The increase in EBV DNase activity was related to the appearance of early antigen-positive cells. The enzyme had a sedimentation coefficient of 4S and was resistant to 300 mM KCl, and its induction did not depend on viral DNA synthesis. The EBV-specific DNase activity was specifically inhibited by sera from patients who had nasopha...

1984-01-01

361

Hydroxide complexes of lanthanides-VI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments performed previously with cerium(III), samarium and gadolinium have been extended to conditions of high pC(H) in order to discover any amphoteric character. Up to pC(H) 14.6, the solubility of gadolinium hydroxide and of cerium(III) hydroxide does not increase, so the previously reported constants hold up to this pC(H). The solubility of samarium hydroxide increases at high pC(H), and the value log ( *)beta(4) = -36.7 can be deduced. This should be added to the previously reported set, now applicable up to pC(H) 14.5. PMID:18963333

Kragten, J; Decnop-Weever, L G

1983-02-01

362

Experimental study and kinetic analysis of sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. It was reconfirmed that sodium monoxide (Na2O) generation should be considered during the sodium-water reaction in spite of variation of volume fraction (Na:NaOH). Na, NaOH and Na2O as major chemical species were identified from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the residues after the DTA experiment. (author)

363

An application of hydrothermally crystallized coal ashes for waste water treatment, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To provide an application of combustion coal ash, hydrothermal reaction of fly ash (FA) and clinker ash (CA) is performed and an investigation is carried out to determine the capability of the P type zeolite produced from these ashes to adsorb heavy metal ions. Hydrothermal reaction of FA and CA at 95 - 100 deg C is conducted with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide for various reaction times. Both types of ash are found to easily undergo crystallization to form P type zeolite (PZ) and hydroxy sodalite (HS) when treated with a sodium hydroxide solution (sodium hydroxide/coal ash = 10 v/w) for 18 hours. The FA-PZ and CA-PZ produced by the hydrothermal treatment have degrees of crystallinity in the range of 40 - 60 percent. It is seen that the degree of crystallinity gradually increases with increasing treatment time. The cristallinity of hydrothermally treated coal ash is also shown to have good correlation with the base substitution capacity and the maximum adsorption of ammonium ion. Furthermore, they are shown to effectively adsorb metal ions, in particular those of lead, cadmium and strontium. It is suggested that they may serve as an enrichment agent for low-level radioactive nuclides produced in nuclear power plants. They also seem to have the possibility of serving as a metal elution preventive for industrial wastes of some special types. (Nogami, K.)

364

Effects of combined treatment using sodium borocaptate (BSH) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) in a rat tumor model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a previous study, we reported that sodium borocaptate (BSH) uptake was enhanced in combination with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) in vitro. This report investigated the effect of the combination in vivo. In our results, the boron levels in blood and tissues were preserved highly in the BSO +BSH group, in comparison with the BSH only group. BSO has the potential to improve boron uptake in BNCT. (author)

365

Layered Metal Hydroxides Containing Calcium and Their Structural Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Layered metal hydroxides (LMHs) containing calcium were synthesized by coprecipitation in solution having two different trivalent metal ions, iron and aluminum. Two mixed metal solutions (Ca2+/Al3+ and Ca2+/Fe3+ = 2/1) were added to sodium hydroxide solution and the final pH was adjusted to ?11.5 and ?13 for CaAl-and CaFe-LMHs. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the two LMH samples showed well developed (00l) diffractions indicating 2-dimensional crystal structure of the synthesized LMHs. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern, the local structure analysis through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and thermal analysis also confirmed that the synthesized precipitates show typical structure of LMHs. The chemical formulae, Ca2.04Al1(OH)6(NO3)·5.25H2O and Ca2.01Fe1(OH)6(NO3)·4.75H2O were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Particle morphology and thermal behavior for the synthesized LMHs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry

366

Layered Metal Hydroxides Containing Calcium and Their Structural Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Layered metal hydroxides (LMHs) containing calcium were synthesized by coprecipitation in solution having two different trivalent metal ions, iron and aluminum. Two mixed metal solutions (Ca{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} = 2/1) were added to sodium hydroxide solution and the final pH was adjusted to {approx}11.5 and {approx}13 for CaAl-and CaFe-LMHs. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the two LMH samples showed well developed (00l) diffractions indicating 2-dimensional crystal structure of the synthesized LMHs. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern, the local structure analysis through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and thermal analysis also confirmed that the synthesized precipitates show typical structure of LMHs. The chemical formulae, Ca{sub 2.04}Al{sub 1}(OH){sub 6}(NO{sub 3}){center_dot}5.25H{sub 2}O and Ca{sub 2.01}Fe{sub 1}(OH){sub 6}(NO{sub 3}){center_dot}4.75H{sub 2}O were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Particle morphology and thermal behavior for the synthesized LMHs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry

Kim, Tae Hyun; Heo, Il; Lee, Sung Han; Oh, Jae Min [College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Seung Min [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chung Berm; Choi, Ae Jin [National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science of R and D Eumseong (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Jin Ho [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-06-15

367

The efficacy of sodium channel blockers to prevent phencyclidine-induced cognitive dysfunction in the rat: potential for novel treatments for schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium channel inhibition is a well precedented mechanism used to treat epilepsy and other hyperexcitability disorders. The established sodium channel blocker and broad-spectrum anticonvulsant lamotrigine is also effective in the treatment of bipolar disorder and has been evaluated in patients with schizophrenia. Double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials found that the drug has potential to reduce cognitive symptoms of the disorder. However, because of compound-related side-effects and the need for dose titration, a conclusive evaluation of the drug's efficacy in patients with schizophrenia has not been possible. (5R)-5-(4-{[(2-Fluorophenyl)methyl]oxy}phenyl)-l-prolinamide (GSK2) and (2R,5R)-2-(4-{[(2-fluorophenyl)methyl]oxy}phenyl)-7-methyl-1,7-diazaspiro[4.4]nonan-6-one (GSK3) are two new structurally diverse sodium channel blockers with potent anticonvulsant activity. In this series of studies in the rat, we compared the efficacy of the two new molecules to prevent a cognitive deficit induced by the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) in the reversal-learning paradigm in the rat. We also explored the effects of the drugs to prevent brain activation and neurochemical effects of PCP. We found that, like lamotrigine, both GSK2 and GSK3 were able to prevent the deficit in reversal learning produced by PCP, thus confirming their potential in the treatment of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, higher doses than those required for anticonvulsant efficacy of the drugs were needed for activity in the reversal-learning model, suggesting a lower therapeutic window relative to mechanism-dependent central side effects for this indication. PMID:21487071

Large, Charles H; Bison, Silvia; Sartori, Ilaria; Read, Kevin D; Gozzi, Alessandro; Quarta, Davide; Antolini, Marinella; Hollands, Emma; Gill, Catherine H; Gunthorpe, Martin J; Idris, Nagi; Neill, Jo C; Alvaro, Giuseppe S

2011-07-01

368

Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH{sub 4} electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH{sub 4} at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH{sub 4} at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H{sub 2} bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H{sub 2} bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders of magnitude bigger than the film thickness, thus minimizing its effect.

Chatenet, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marian.Chatenet@phelma.grenoble-inp.fr; Molina-Concha, M.B. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); El-Kissi, N. [Laboratoire de Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1301 rue de la piscine, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

2009-07-15

369

Nickel hydroxide precipitation from aqueous sulfate media  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrometallurgical processing of laterite ores constitutes a major industrial and R&D activity in extractive metallurgy. In some of the process flowsheets, nickel hydroxide precipitation is incorporated. For these operations, the optimization of nickel hydroxide precipitation is important to assure efficiency and product quality. The main objective of this investigation was to study and improve the precipitation characteristics of Ni(OH)2 in a sulfate system using supersaturation controlled precipitation.

Sist, Cinziana; Demopoulos, George P.

2003-08-01

370

Comparison of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur sodium for the treatment of relapse of undifferentiated fever/bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This commercial field trial compared the efficacy of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur sodium in beef cattle at high risk of developing undifferentiated fever (UF), also known as bovine respiratory disease (BRD) that received tilmicosin at feedlot arrival, were diagnosed and initially treated for UF with tilmicosin, and subsequently required a second UF treatment (first relapse). Feedlot cattle (n = 463) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups: ENRO or CEF. Second UF relapse, 3rd UF relapse, overall case fatality and BRD case fatality rates were lower in the ENRO group than in the CEF group (P < 0.05). There were no differences in average daily gain (allocation to re-implant date), chronicity, histophilosis case fatality or miscellaneous case fatality rates between the groups (P ? 0.05). A per-animal economic advantage of Can$57.08 was calculated for the ENRO group versus the CEF group. In feedlot cattle in western Canada at high risk of developing UF, it was more cost effective to administer enrofloxacin than ceftiofur sodium for treatment of UF relapse. PMID:22753964

Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Schunicht, Oliver C; Wildman, Brian K; Hannon, Sherry J; Jim, G Kee; Ward, Tracy I; Booker, Calvin W

2012-01-01

371

In vitro release kinetics of gentamycin from a sodium hyaluronate gel delivery system suitable for the treatment of peripheral vestibular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

For certain patients who experience intense vertigo arising from unilateral vestibular lesions, the primary therapy is a vestibular nerve section, an intracranial surgical procedure. One alternative to this treatment is therapeutic ablation of vestibular function on the unaffected side using an ototoxic agent. We prepared a biodegradable sustained-release gel delivery system using sodium hyaluronate that can be administered into the middle ear using only a local anesthetic. The gel contains gentamycin sulfate, the ototoxic agent of choice for treatment of unilateral vestibulopathy, and it exhibits diffusion-controlled release of the drug over a period of hours. The released gentamycin could then diffuse into the inner ear through the round membrane. This represents an important advance over previous formulations, which used only gentamycin sulfate solutions, in that it should allow more careful control of the dose, it should reduce loss of the drug from the middle ear site, and it should maintain intimate contact with the round membrane. By carefully controlling the dose, it should be possible to inhibit vestibular function while minimizing hearing loss. Herein we describe the in vitro release kinetics of gentamycin sulfate from sodium hyaluronate gels and find that the system obeys Fickian behavior. PMID:10028414

Kelly, R M; Meyer, J D; Matsuura, J E; Shefter, E; Hart, M J; Malone, D J; Manning, M C

1999-01-01

372

Discovery of a highly potent, nonabsorbable apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter inhibitor (GSK2330672) for treatment of type 2 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) transports bile salts from the lumen of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to the liver via the portal vein. Multiple pharmaceutical companies have exploited the physiological link between ASBT and hepatic cholesterol metabolism, which led to the clinical investigation of ASBT inhibitors as lipid-lowering agents. While modest lipid effects were demonstrated, the potential utility of ASBT inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes has been relatively unexplored. We initiated a lead optimization effort that focused on the identification of a potent, nonabsorbable ASBT inhibitor starting from the first-generation inhibitor 264W94 (1). Extensive SAR studies culminated in the discovery of GSK2330672 (56) as a highly potent, nonabsorbable ASBT inhibitor which lowers glucose in an animal model of type 2 diabetes and shows excellent developability properties for evaluating the potential therapeutic utility of a nonabsorbable ASBT inhibitor for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23678871

Wu, Yulin; Aquino, Christopher J; Cowan, David J; Anderson, Don L; Ambroso, Jeff L; Bishop, Michael J; Boros, Eric E; Chen, Lihong; Cunningham, Alan; Dobbins, Robert L; Feldman, Paul L; Harston, Lindsey T; Kaldor, Istvan W; Klein, Ryan; Liang, Xi; McIntyre, Maggie S; Merrill, Christine L; Patterson, Kristin M; Prescott, Judith S; Ray, John S; Roller, Shane G; Yao, Xiaozhou; Young, Andrew; Yuen, Josephine; Collins, Jon L

2013-06-27

373

Chromosomal induced aberrations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) with gamma-irradiation, sodium azide and combined treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seeds of 2 varieties of common Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) viz: USH-430 and KL-675 were treated to estimate the mutagenicity of both gamma-rays, sodium azide alone and in combination with a view to generate morphological macro-mutations and screen and ascertain the chromosomal aberrations followed by reduction of pollen fertility with increased doses. An attempt was made to know the genetic basis of the chromosomal aberrations. Such aberrations are a source of changes in the pattern of gene regulation at the time of differentiation leading to the formation of cultivars. (author)

374

A Novel SCN9A Mutation Responsible for Primary Erythromelalgia and Is Resistant to the Treatment of Sodium Channel Blockers  

OpenAIRE

Primary erythromelalgia (PE) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by severe burning pain and erythema in the extremities upon heat stimuli or exercise. Mutations in human SCN9A gene, encoding the ?–subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.7, were found to be responsible for PE. Three missense mutations of SCN9A gene have recently been identified in Taiwanese patients including a familial (I136V) and two sporadic mutations (I848T, V1316A). V1316A is a novel ...

Wu, Min-tzu; Huang, Po-yuan; Yen, Chen-tung; Chen, Chih-cheng; Lee, Ming-jen

2013-01-01

375

Hidden Sodium  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

2013-03-04

376

Method of cleaning a liquid sodium handling instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To stabilize sodium remained on the surface of instrument adhered with liquid sodium by cleaning the surface of the instrument with water, drying it and exposing the surface thus cleaned of the instrument with carbon dioxide gas atmosphere. Method: An instrument such as, for example, a steam generator adhered with metal sodium is cleaned on the surface with water. Since there are residued solid sodium and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the gaps of the instrument in this state, the instrument is dried at a temperature lower than 800C to solidify the NaOH solution. Further, the surface of the instrument is exposed with carbon dioxide gas atmosphere to convert the solid NaOH into sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) so as to stabilize sodium. Thus, the NaOH solution is not produced thereafter so as to prevent the alkaline corrosion and corrosion crack of the instrument. (Sekiya, K.)

377

Indirect pulp capping using different calcium hydroxide products: A clinical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Indirect pulp capping is a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of deep carious lesion in order to stimulate odontoblasts to produce tertiary dentin using different biomaterials based mainly on calcium hydroxide. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hard-setting (Dycal and a suspension of calcium hydroxide (Calcipulp in the treatment of deep carious lesion (caries profunda. Materials and Methods. Clinical study included 29 patients of both genders, age 16 to 40, and 45 teeth of different morphological groups with verified caries profunda using clinical and radiographic examination. After the cavity preparation, calcium hydroxide materials (Dycal or Calcipulp were applied on the pulpal wall and cavities temporarily restored (phosphate cement for the period of two months. After this period cavities were restored with composite materials and clinically observed during twelve months, with mandatory check-ups after three and six months. Results. Obtained results showed that indirect pulp capping using calcium hydroxide suspension (90.0% was more successful than hard-setting material (84.0%, but with no statistically significant difference. Conclusion. Suspension and hard-setting calcium hydroxide were equally successful in the treatment of caries profunda.

Kuzmanovi?-Radman Irena

2014-01-01

378

Thermal analysis experiment for elucidating sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. The parameters, including melting points of Na and NaOH, phase transition temperature of NaOH, Na-NaOH reaction temperature, and decomposition temperature of sodium hydride (NaH) have been identified from DTA curves. Based on the measured reaction temperature, rate constant of sodium monoxide (Na2O) generation was obtained. Thermal analysis results indicated that Na2O generation at the secondary overall reaction should be considered during the sodium-water reaction. (author)

379

Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar�driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

Todd M. Francis, Paul R. Lichty, Christopher Perkins, Melinda Tucker, Peter B. Kreider, Hans H. Funke, Allan Lewandowski, and Alan W. Weimer

2012-10-24

380

Hydroxide and proton migration in aquaporins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypothetical hydroxide and proton migration along the linear water chain in Aquaporin GlpF from Escherichia coli are studied by ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the protein stabilizes a bipolar single file of water. The single file features a contiguous set of water-water hydrogen bonds in which polarization of the water molecules vary with position along the channel axis. Deprotonation of the water chain promotes the reorientation of water molecules while the hydroxide ion rapidly migrates by sequentially accepting protons from the neighboring water molecules. The hydroxide ion is not attracted by a conserved, channel-lining arginine residue, but is immobilized at two centrally located, conserved Asparagine-Proline-Alanine motifs where fourfold coordination stabilizes the ion. Hydroxide transition from the channel vestibules into the channel lumen is strongly influenced by electrostatic coupling to two conserved oppositely aligned macrodipoles. This suggests that the macrodipole's negative poles play a role in preventing hydroxide ions from entering into the channel's inner vestibules. Water protonation within the lumen facilitates water reorientation and subsequent proton expelling occurs. In the periplasmic half-channel, expelling occurs via the Grotthuss mechanism. Protonation within the cytoplasmic half-channel implies wire-breakage at the Asn-Pro-Ala motifs. The proton is here diffusively rejected as (H(5)O(2))(+). PMID:15951380

Jensen, Morten Ø; Röthlisberger, Ursula; Rovira, Carme

2005-09-01

381

Intra-arterial cis-platinum infusion with sodium thiosulfate protection and angiotensin II induced hypertension for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (CDDP; 52-169 mg/m2) mixed with angiotensin II (1.5-10 ?g/min) was infused into the hepatic artery in 33 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Simultaneously, sodium thiosulfate (10-50 g) was administered intravenously in order to reduce the systemic toxicity of CDDP. Over 50% reduction in tumor size was obtained in 18 patients (55%). Complete response was achieved in 4 patients (12%). Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels decreased by more than 75% in 10 of 18 patients in whom the previous AFP level was more than 200 mg/ml. The one year survival rate was estimated at 61% by the Kaplan-Meier method. Alimentary symptoms (nausea, vomiting) were mild or non-existent in nearly 90 per cent of treatments. Peptic ulcer and abdominal pain were manifested in small numbers. Severe changes in the laboratory data were not observed. High dosage arterial infusion of CDDP and angiotensin II and intravenous injection of sodium thiosulfate was well tolerated and gave effective therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma. (orig.)

382

Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method.

Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki [Laboratory of Interface Microstructure Analysis (LIMSA), Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)], E-mail: himendra@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

2008-10-01

383

Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method

384

Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.

Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Y.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

1998-08-01

385

Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste

386

Thorium sorption by hydroxides of metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sorption of thorium microquantities by hydroxides of bi-, tri-, and tetravalent metals in coprecipitation conditions is investigated. It is shown that sorptive ability of of metal hydroxides relative to thorium decreases with increase of pH value of precipitation beginning, that is with decrease of acidic properties of the collectors in a row Sn(1.1)>Ti(1.1)>Zr(0.8)>Fe(2.0)>Ga(2.8)>In(3.4)>Al(4.0)>Cr(5.)>Be(6.0). It is determined that thorium sorption by metal hydroxides takes place as a result of acid-base interaction between micro- and macrocomponents through heterohydroxocomplex formation type

387

Iodine Sequestration Using Delafossites and Layered Hydroxides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this document is to report on early success for sequestering {sup 129}I. Sorption coefficients (K{sub d}) for I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured in order to compare their applicability for sequestering {sup 129}I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain area. Delafossites generally exhibited relatively poor sorption coefficients (< 10{sup 1.7} mL/g). In contrast, the composition of the layered hydroxides significantly affects their ability to sorb I. Cu/Al and Cu/Cr layered hydroxide samples exhibit K{sub d}'s greater than 10{sup 3} mL/g for both I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -}.

J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka; J.L. Krumhansl

2006-03-28

388

Iodine Sequestration Using Delafossites and Layered Hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this document is to report on early success for sequestering 129I. Sorption coefficients (Kd) for I- and IO3- onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured in order to compare their applicability for sequestering 129I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain area. Delafossites generally exhibited relatively poor sorption coefficients (1.7 mL/g). In contrast, the composition of the layered hydroxides significantly affects their ability to sorb I. Cu/Al and Cu/Cr layered hydroxide samples exhibit Kd's greater than 103 mL/g for both I- and IO3-

389

Radiological aspects on sodium clean-up and disposal of radioactive sodium in FBTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consequences of a minor sodium leak incident in the primary purification circuit of FBTR in 2002, and its subsequent retrieval, storage, treatment and ultimate disposal are comprehensively discussed. The radiological aspects of treatment and disposal of active sodium are focussed in the paper. Decontamination/cleanup operation experience of few sodium-bearing equipment in FBTR has also been reported. (author)

390

The effect of chemical treatment on reduction of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in black and white pepper during washing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of 18 different chemicals, which included acidic compounds (sulfuric acid, chloridric acid, phosphoric acid, benzoic acid, citric acid, acetic acid), alkaline compounds (ammonia, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide), salts (acetate ammonium, sodium bisulfite, sodium hydrosulfite, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate) and oxidising agents (hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite), on the reduction of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was investigated in black and white pepper. OTA and aflatoxins were determined using HPLC after immunoaffinity column clean-up. Almost all of the applied chemicals showed a significant degree of reduction on mycotoxins (p acid and 54.5% ± 2.7% using sodium hydroxide. There was no significant difference between black and white peppers (p < 0.05). PMID:21416415

Jalili, M; Jinap, S; Son, R

2011-04-01

391

Eficacia del valproato de sodio en el tratamiento profiláctico de la migraña / Efficacy of sodium valproate in the prophylactic treatment of migraine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La migraña es un síndrome doloroso recurrente crónico acompañado de características neurológicas, objetivos: evaluar la eficacia del valproato de sodio en la profilaxis de la migraña a través de cambios en intensidad, dolor y frecuencia. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, longi [...] tudinal, experimental y aleatorio en 30 pacientes que recibieron en la 1ra semana 1 tableta/dia de valproato de sodio 500 mg vía oral y 2 tabletas/dia de 500 mg por 7 semanas más. Resultados: 97% refirió disminución de la intensidad del dolor. 97% estuvieron en la categoría 3 de frecuencia de crisis de migraña al mes 0; durante el 1er mes de tratamiento, se redujo al 0% y se mantuvo durante el 2do mes. Conclusiones: El tratamiento profiláctico de la migraña con valproato de sodio produce una disminución de la frecuencia e intensidad del dolor Abstract in english Introduction: migraine is a chronic recurrent pain syndrome accompanied by neurological features. Objectives: evaluate the efficacy of sodium valproate in the migraine prophylactic, measuring pain intensity and frequency. Material and Methods: prospective, longitudinal, experiemental and randomized [...] in 30 patients, each patient received in the 1st week 1 table/day of 500 mg orally and 2 table/day of 500 mg for the next 7 weeks Results: 97% reported decreased pain intensity. 97% were in category 3 of frequency of migraine attacks per month 0. during the 1 st month of treatment, it was reduced to 0% and remained during the 2nd month. Conclusions: prophylactic treatment of migraine with sodium valproate causes a decrease in pain intensity and frequency.

Juan Fernando, Lizárraga Luyo; Pilar Milagros, Jara Pinto; Leónidas E., Unzueta Rozas.

2012-01-01

392

Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination  

OpenAIRE

Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO3)2 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium) on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox coupl...

Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia; Marcelo Rodrigues da Silva; Ricardo Curilazo

2007-01-01

393

Formation of chromia from amorphous chromium hydroxide  

OpenAIRE

Forced hydrolysis of Cr(NO3)(3) in a solution of decomposing urea was investigated. Chromium hydroxide precipitates were amorphous for the final pH values up to similar to 9 to 9.5. Heating of amorphous chromium hydroxide up to 360 degrees C produced Cr2O3 crystallites of the order of 20 nm, whereas after heating up to 825 degrees C the crystallite size of Cr2O3 increased to the order of 100 nm. Crystallization of Cr2O3 was also monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy. TGA/DTA curves, recorded in air...

Music?, Svetozar; Maljkovic?, Miroslava; Popovic?, Stanko; Trojko, Rudolf

1999-01-01

394

Critical operating parameters for microwave solidification of hydroxide sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Engineers at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed an innovative technology for the treatment of homogeneous wet or dry solids which are contaminated with hazardous and/or radioactive materials. The process uses microwave energy to heat and melt the waste into a vitreous final form that is suitable for land disposal. The advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form; volume and toxicity reduction; favorable economics; in-container treatment; favorable public acceptance; isolated equipment; and instantaneous energy control. Regulatory certification of the final form is accomplished by meeting the limitation specified in EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). This paper presents the results from a series of TCLP tests performed on a surrogate hydroxide coprecipitation sludge spiked with heavy metals at elevated concentrations. The results are very encouraging and support RFP's commitment to the use of microwave technology for treatment of various mixed waste streams

395

Critical operating parameters for microwave solidification of hydroxide sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Engineers at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed an innovative technology for the treatment of homogeneous wet or dry solids which are contaminated with hazardous and/or radioactive materials. The process uses microwave energy to heat and melt the waste into a vitreous final form that is suitable for land disposal. The advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form; volume and toxicity reduction; favorable economics; in-container treatment; good public acceptance; isolated equipment; and instantaneous energy control. Regulatory certification of the final form is accomplished by meeting the limitation specified in US EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure. This paper presents the results from a series of tests performed on a surrogate hydroxide coprecipitation sludge spiked with heavy metals at elevated concentrations. The results are very encouraging and support RFP's commitment to the use of microwave technology for treatment of various waste streams

396

The various sodium purification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs134 and Cs137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

397

Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser (?= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm2 during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

398

Efficacy of gastro-retentive forms of ecabet sodium in the treatment of gastric ulcer in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of gastric retention of ecabet sodium (ECS) on its mucoprotective effect in rat ulcer models. Mini-tablets containing 9 mg ECS were prepared using the direct compression method. The release rates of ECS mini-tablets were controlled by the amount and viscosity grade of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose incorporated. Gastric retention of ECS mini-tablets after oral administration to rats was visually confirmed using a fluorescence imaging system. Because ECS mini-tablets exhibited size-dependent gastric retention, their gastric retention time was prolonged as the release rate decreased. In the in vivo efficacy study, gastro-retentive dosage forms of ECS did not influence the mucoprotective effect in the immediate irritation model but enhanced the effect in the delayed irritation model compared with ECS suspension. This finding indicates that the duration of the mucoprotective effect of ECS can be extended by the employment of gastro-retentive dosage formulations and provides a rationale for development of ECS gastro-retentive dosage forms. PMID:24254934

Kim, Ju-Young; Bae, Hyun-Ju; Choi, Jungsub; Lim, Jong-Rae; Kim, Sang-Wook; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Park, Eun-Seok

2014-08-01

399

In vessel detection of delayed neutron emitters from clad failure in sodium cooled nuclear reactors: Information treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The formalism of hypothesis testing is applied to the detection of abnormal situations in a reactor vessel. • Clad failure monitoring in breeder reactors is taken as an example. • False alarms are addressed by a bayesian approach. • Operating several independent detectors at the same location is shown to be very effective. - Abstract: With appropriate techniques, the information brought by the in-vessel instrumentation of nuclear reactors may betray rather subtle departures from normal state indicating an abnormal situation at early stages, to improve both safety and availability. This paper takes the case of the detection of delayed neutrons released by a clad failure in sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors as an illustrative application of hypothesis testing. Two methods are discussed, seeking either for a counting excess of for a departure from stationarity, yielding similar results. The question of false alarms is addressed by a Bayesian approach that takes into account the prior probability of failure. The use of several identical sensors is shown to be effective

400

Nanoparticulate iron(III) oxo-hydroxide delivers safe iron that is well absorbed and utilised in humans  

OpenAIRE

Current oral treatment of iron deficiency anaemia is based upon soluble iron compounds, all of which have undesirable gastrointestinal effects. However, natural dietary iron (III) may be nano-formed ligand-modified iron hydroxide particles that are acquired endocytically and thus not soluble or available for adverse effects. Here, a series of five different nano Fe(III) hydroxide particles was developed: absorption in humans matched endocytic uptake by gut epithelial cells but not solubility ...

Pereira, Dora I. A.; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F. A.; Faria, Nuno; Poots, Lynsey K.; Tagmount, Mani A.; Aslam, Mohamad F.; Frazer, David M.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Powell, Jonathan J.

2014-01-01

401

Magnesium hydroxide as the neutralizing agent for radioactive hydrochloric acid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current technology at Los Alamos for removing actinides from acidic chloride waste streams is precipitation with approximately 10 M potassium hydroxide. Although successful, there are many inherent drawbacks to this precipitation technique which will be detailed in this paper. Magnesium hydroxide (Ksp = 1.3 x 10-11) has limited solubility in water and as a result of the common ion effect, cannot generate a filtrate with a pH greater than 9. At a pH of 9, calcium (Ksp = 5.5 x 10-6) will not coprecipitate as the hydroxide. This is an important factor since many acidic chloride feeds to hydroxide precipitation contain significant amounts of calcium. In addition, neutralization with Mg(OH)2 produces a more filterable precipitate because neutralization occurs as the Mg(OH)2 is dissolved by the acid rather than as a result of the much faster liquid/liquid reaction of KOH with the waste acid. This slower solid/liquid reaction allows time for crystal growth to occur and produces more easily filterable precipitates. On the other hand, neutralization of spent acid with strong KOH that yields numerous hydroxide ions in solution almost instantaneously forming a much larger volume of small crystallites that result in gelatinous, slow-filtering precipitates. Magnesium hydroxide also offers a safety advantage. Although mildly irritating, it is a weak base and safe and easy to handle. From a waste minimization perspective, Mg(OH)2 offers many advantages. First, the magnesium hydroxide is added as a solid. This step eliminates the diluent water used in KOH neutralizations. Secondly, because the particle size of the precipitate is larger, more actinides are caught on the filter paper resulting in a smaller amount of actinide being transferred to the TA-50 Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. Third, the amount of solids that must be reprocessed is significantly smaller resulting in less waste generation from the downstream processes

402

Ruminal parameters of bovines fed diets based on sugar cane with doses of calcium hydroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the administration of different doses of calcium hydroxide mixed with sugar cane fed to cows by the pH, ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids concentration in ruminal content. Four cows with fistulated rumen were distributed in a Latin square (4 × 4) i [...] n split plot. The treatments involved adding doses of 0, 8, 16 and 24 g/kg of calcium hydroxide to sugar cane in natura. Samples of rumen fluid were collected and the pH and concentration of N-NH3 was determined before (time zero) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 hours after the feeding time. The concentration of volatile fatty acids at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours was also determined. The calcium hydroxide contributed to maintain the pH of rumen fluid close to neutral. The average concentrations of N-NH3 in the ruminal fluid was 20.59, 20.49, 17.28 and 18.22 mg/100 mL for samples with calcium hydroxide at 0, 8, 16, 24 g/kg, respectively. There was an effect of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the volatile fatty acids concentration from before feeding until 12 hours after feeding time. There was an effect on doses tested for the concentration of volatile fatty acids. The calcium hydroxide added to the sugar cane influences on ruminal parameters. The dose of approximately 10 g of calcium hydroxide per kg sugar cane in natura is recommended.

Alexandre Menezes, Dias; Luís Carlos Vinhas, Ítavo; Julio Cesar, Damasceno; Geraldo Tadeu dos, Santos; Ériklis, Nogueira; Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira, Ítavo.

2012-04-01

403

Molecular dynamics in aluminum layered double hydroxides as studied by 1H T1? NMR measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Proton dynamics in pristine and organically-modified layered double hydroxide has been studied by 1H T1?. Inverse Laplace transform with spectral resolution results in a correlation of T1? and chemical shift. In LDH two contributions are resolved. They are assigned to the metal hydroxides, forming the LDH sheets (4-8 ms), and mobile interlayer water (2 ms). Apparent T1? values of OH-protons in surfactant-modified LDH are different in dodecylbenzenesulfonate- (SDBS) and sodium octasulfonate- (C8) modified LDH. This difference is explained by the presence of water in LDH-SDBS. The effects of spin diffusion have been studied by performing 2D 1H RFDR in the LDH-SDBS.

Vyalikh, Anastasia; Wang, De-Yi; Wagenknecht, Udo; Heinrich, Gert; Scheler, Ulrich

2011-06-01

404

21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).  

Science.gov (United States)

...Specifications. Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) shall conform to the...more than 1 part per million. Aluminum oxide (Al2 O3 ), not less than...restrictions. Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) may be safely...

2010-04-01

405

Thermodynamics of hydroxides of group-III-metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on thermodynamic constants have been ststematised for Group III hydroxides and oxide hydroxides. Standard heats of formation, entropies, and Gibbs free energies have been estimated by comparative calculation

406

40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600 Section 721.4600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical...

2010-07-01

407

Pilot scale treatment of chromite ore processing residue using sodium sulfide in single reduction and coupled reduction/stabilization processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single Cr(VI) reduction and coupled reduction/stabilization (R/S) processes were evaluated at pilot scale to determine their effectiveness to treat chromite ore processing residue (COPR). Sodium sulfide was used as the reducing agent and cement, gypsum and lime were tested as the stabilizing agents. The pilot experiments were performed in a helical ribbon blender mixer with batches of 250 kg of COPR and mixing time up to 30 min. Na2S/Cr(VI) mass ratios of 4.6, 5.7 and 6.8 were evaluated in the single reduction process to treat COPR with Cr(VI) concentration of ?4.2 g/